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Sample records for dehydrogenase mcad deficiency

  1. Three RFLPs defining a haplotype associated with the common mutation in a human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency occur in Alu repeats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhifang Zhang; Yeqing Zhou; Kelly, D.P.; Strauss, A.W. St. Louis Children's Hospital, MO ); Kolvraa, S.; Gregersen, N. )

    1993-06-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a common inborn error of fatty-acid oxidation and may cause sudden infant death. Previous studies revealed that (i) homozygosity for an A-to-G mutation at nucleotide 985 of the mRNA coding region (A985G) is an extremely common cause of MCAD deficiency and (ii) MCAD deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype for RFLPs for BanII, PstI, and TaqI. TaqI allele 2 is always associated with the A985G mutation in human MCAD deficiency. In this study, the authors have delineated the molecular basis of the RFLPs for PstI, BamHI, and TaqI in the human MCAD gene. Their results prove that the three RFLPs are caused by point mutations in the 8 kb of DNA encompassing exons 8--10 of the human MCAD gene. The TaqI polymorphism is caused by a C-to-A substitution 392 bp upstream of the exon 8, and the PstI and BamHI polymorphisms are due to T-to-C and G-to-A substitutions, respectively, which are 727 and 931 bp downstream of exon 10, respectively. All three RFLPs lie within Alu repetitive sequences. Comparison of intronic sequences immediately following exon 10 from two normal individuals with different haplotypes showed that this region contains densely packed Alu repeats and is highly polymorphic. The results are consistent both with a founder effect as the cause of the high prevalence of a single (A985G) mutation in MCAD deficiency and with its association with a particular haplotype for these intragenic RFLPs. 27 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. cDNA cloning of rat and human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Matsubara, Y.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-05-01

    MCAD is one of three mitochondrial flavoenzymes which catalyze the first step in the ..beta..-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. It is a tetramer with a subunit Mr of 45 kDa. MCAD is synthesized in the cytosol as a 49 kDa precursor polypeptide (pMCAD), imported into mitochondria, and cleaved to the mature form. Genetic deficiency of MCAD causes recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma accompanied by medium chain dicarboxylic aciduria. Employing a novel approach, the authors now report isolation of partial rat and human cDNA clones encoding pMCAD. mRNA encoding pMCAD was purified to near homogeneity by polysome immunoadsorption using polyclonal monospecific antibody. Single-stranded (/sup 32/P)labeled cDNA probe was synthesized using the enriched mRNA as template, and was used to screen directly 16,000 colonies from a total rat liver cDNA library constructed in pBR322. One clone (600 bp) was detected by in situ hybridization. Hybrid-selected translation with this cDNA yielded a 49 kDa polypeptide indistinguishable in size from rat pMCAD and immunoprecipitable with anti-MCAD antibody. Using the rat cDNA as probe, 43,000 colonies from a human liver cDNA library were screened. Four identical positive clones (400 bp) were isolated and positively identified by hybrid-selected translation and immunoprecipitation. The sizes of rat and human mRNAs encoding pMCAD were 2.2 kb and 2.4 kb, respectively, as determined by Northern blotting.

  3. cis-4-Decenoic and decanoic acids impair mitochondrial energy, redox and Ca(2+) homeostasis and induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat brain and liver: Possible implications for the pathogenesis of MCAD deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Wajner, Alessandro; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of octanoic (OA), decanoic (DA) and cis-4-decenoic (cDA) acids, as well as by their carnitine by-products. Untreated patients present episodic encephalopathic crises and biochemical liver alterations, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. We investigated the effects of OA, DA, cDA, octanoylcarnitine (OC) and decanoylcarnitine (DC) on critical mitochondrial functions in rat brain and liver. DA and cDA increased resting respiration and diminished ADP- and CCCP-stimulated respiration and complexes II-III and IV activities in both tissues. The data indicate that these compounds behave as uncouplers and metabolic inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Noteworthy, metabolic inhibition was more evident in brain as compared to liver. DA and cDA also markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded brain and liver mitochondria. The reduction of Ca(2+) retention capacity was more pronounced in liver and totally prevented by cyclosporine A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, demonstrating the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and Ca(2+). Furthermore, cDA induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver mitochondria and increased hydrogen peroxide formation in brain, suggesting the participation of oxidative damage in cDA-induced alterations. Interestingly, OA, OC and DC did not alter the evaluated parameters, implying lower toxicity for these compounds. Our results suggest that DA and cDA, in contrast to OA and medium-chain acylcarnitines, disturb important mitochondrial functions in brain and liver by multiple mechanisms that are possibly involved in the neuropathology and liver alterations observed in MCAD deficiency.

  4. cis-4-Decenoic and decanoic acids impair mitochondrial energy, redox and Ca(2+) homeostasis and induce mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening in rat brain and liver: Possible implications for the pathogenesis of MCAD deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Cecatto, Cristiane; da Silva, Janaína Camacho; Wajner, Alessandro; Godoy, Kálita Dos Santos; Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-09-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of octanoic (OA), decanoic (DA) and cis-4-decenoic (cDA) acids, as well as by their carnitine by-products. Untreated patients present episodic encephalopathic crises and biochemical liver alterations, whose pathophysiology is poorly known. We investigated the effects of OA, DA, cDA, octanoylcarnitine (OC) and decanoylcarnitine (DC) on critical mitochondrial functions in rat brain and liver. DA and cDA increased resting respiration and diminished ADP- and CCCP-stimulated respiration and complexes II-III and IV activities in both tissues. The data indicate that these compounds behave as uncouplers and metabolic inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation. Noteworthy, metabolic inhibition was more evident in brain as compared to liver. DA and cDA also markedly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, NAD(P)H content and Ca(2+) retention capacity in Ca(2+)-loaded brain and liver mitochondria. The reduction of Ca(2+) retention capacity was more pronounced in liver and totally prevented by cyclosporine A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, demonstrating the involvement of mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) and Ca(2+). Furthermore, cDA induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver mitochondria and increased hydrogen peroxide formation in brain, suggesting the participation of oxidative damage in cDA-induced alterations. Interestingly, OA, OC and DC did not alter the evaluated parameters, implying lower toxicity for these compounds. Our results suggest that DA and cDA, in contrast to OA and medium-chain acylcarnitines, disturb important mitochondrial functions in brain and liver by multiple mechanisms that are possibly involved in the neuropathology and liver alterations observed in MCAD deficiency. PMID:27240720

  5. Efficacy of MCAD screening in SIDS patients in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.A. III; Vnencak-Jones, C.L.; Ulm, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA deficiency (MCAD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. While several mutations have been identified in the MCAD gene, an A to G point mutation affecting codon 329 (K329E) represents >90% of those reported. Unfortunately, the reported carrier frequency of this mutation varies greatly between populations which reduces the efficiency of neonatal screening. Mounting evidence suggests a correlation between MCAD deficiency and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). To determine the utility of MCAD screening in SIDS patients, we screened for the K329E mutation in DNA extracted from paraffin blocks retrieved from 75 consecutive SIDS patients. Two of 75 (2.7%) had DNA findings consistent with MCAD. One patient (A) was homozygous for K329E while a second patient (B) was heterozygous for K329E. Although the second abnormal MCAD allele has not yet been identified in this patient, in a clinical setting of SIDS, this patient may well represent a compound heterozygote. Subsequent to the analysis, the family of A was contacted and a newborn sib was found to be homozygous for K329E. Carnitine supplementation and frequent feedings were started and the child is doing well. Evaluation of family B is planned. Our finding of 2/75 SIDS patients with DNA findings suggestive of MCAD demonstrates the efficacy of MCAD screening in this population in contrast to that of newborn screening in TN where the estimated K329E carrier frequency is 1/249 and the calculated incidence of MCAD disease is approximately 1/248,000. Our study (1) confirms the finding of MCAD in 2 to 3% of consecutive SIDS patients, (2) utility of DNA testing in presymtomatic sibs of SIDS patients attributable to MCAD and (3) provides accurate recurrent risks and enables prenatal testing for SIDS families where the diagnosis of MCAD has been established.

  6. Evidence for involvement of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the metabolism of phenylbutyrate

    PubMed Central

    Kormanik, Kaitlyn; Kang, Heejung; Cuebas, Dean; Vockley, Jerry; Mohsen, Al-Walid

    2012-01-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate is used for treating urea cycle disorders, providing an alternative for ammonia excretion. Following conversion to its CoA ester, phenylbutyryl-CoA is postulated to undergo one round of β-oxidation to phenylacetyl-CoA, the active metabolite. Molecular modeling suggests that medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3), a key enzyme in straight chain fatty acid β-oxidation, could utilize phenylbutyryl-CoA as substrate. Moreover, phenylpropionyl-CoA has been shown to be a substrate for MCAD and its intermediates accumulate in patients with MCAD deficiency. We have examined the involvement of MCAD and other acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) in the metabolism of phenylbutyryl-CoA. Anaerobic titration of purified recombinant human MCAD with phenylbutyryl-CoA caused changes in the MCAD spectrum that are similar to those induced by octanoyl-CoA, its bona fide substrate, and unique to the development of the charge transfer ternary complex. The calculated apparent dissociation constant (KD app) for these substrates was 2.16 μM and 0.12 μM, respectively. The MCAD reductive and oxidative half reactions were monitored using the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) fluorescence reduction assay. The catalytic efficiency and the Km for phenylbutyryl-CoA were 0.2 mM−1· sec−1 and 5.3 μM compared to 4.0 mM−1· sec−1 and 2.8 μM for octanoyl-CoA. Extracts of wild type and MCAD-deficient lymphoblast cells were tested for the ability to reduce ETF using phenylbutyryl-CoA as substrate. While ETF reduction activity was detected in extracts of wild type cells, it was undetectable in extracts of cells deficient in MCAD. The results are consistent with MCAD playing a key role in phenylbutyrate metabolism. PMID:23141465

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz TG, Hamilton GC. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cell disorders. In: Marx ...

  8. Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya-Mei; Gu, Meng-Li; Ji, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. However, there are still 10%-15% of GISTs lacking KIT and PDGFRA mutations, called wild-type GISTs (WT GISTs). Among these so-called WT GISTs, a small subset is associated with succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) deficiency, known as SDH-deficient GISTs. In addition, GISTs that occur in Carney triad and Carney-Stratakis syndrome represent specific examples of SDH-deficient GISTs. SDH-deficient GISTs locate exclusively in the stomach, showing predilection for children and young adults with female preponderance. The tumor generally pursues an indolent course and exhibits primary resistance to imatinib therapy in most cases. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B expression and overexpression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) are common features of SDH-deficient GISTs. In WT GISTs without succinate dehydrogenase activity, upregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α may lead to increased growth signaling through IGF1R and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). As a result, IGF1R and VEGFR are promising to be the novel therapeutic targets of GISTs. This review will update the current knowledge on characteristics of SDH-deficient GISTs and further discuss the possible mechanisms of tumorigenesis and clinical management of SDH-deficient GISTs. PMID:25741136

  9. Prenatal presentation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Niranjana; Tully, Hannah M; Chapman, Teresa

    2016-08-01

    We present the case of a female infant referred for prenatal MR evaluation of ventriculomegaly, which had been attributed by the referring obstetrician to aqueductal stenosis. Fetal MR confirmed ventriculomegaly but also demonstrated cerebral volume loss and white matter abnormalities. After birth, the infant developed persistent lactic acidosis. A diagnosis of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency was made on the basis of metabolic and molecular genetic studies. Ventriculomegaly is a common referral reason for fetal MR, yet there are few published reports of the radiographic findings that accompany inborn errors of metabolism, one potentially under-recognized cause of enlarged ventricles. This case contributes to this small body of literature on the imaging features of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency by describing pre- and postnatal MR findings and key clinical details. Our report emphasizes the necessity of considering pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and other metabolic disorders as potential etiologies for fetal ventriculomegaly since prompt diagnosis may allow for early initiation of treatment and improve outcome. PMID:27026023

  10. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... control the activity of the complex: pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase turns on (activates) the complex, while pyruvate dehydrogenase ... binding protein (the PDHX gene), and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (the PDP1 gene) have been identified in people ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... not by hormone test. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2003 Mar;58(3):323-31. Citation on PubMed Pang S, ... dehydrogenase deficiency. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2001 Mar;30(1):81-99, vi-vii. Review. Citation ...

  13. Rapid detection of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene mutations by non-radioactive, single strand conformation polymorphism minigels.

    PubMed Central

    Iolascon, A; Parrella, T; Perrotta, S; Guardamagna, O; Coates, P M; Sartore, M; Surrey, S; Fortina, P

    1994-01-01

    Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a common inherited metabolic disorder affecting fatty acid beta oxidation. Identification of carriers is important since the disease can be fatal and is readily treatable once diagnosed. Twelve molecular defects have been identified in the MCAD gene; however, a single highly prevalent mutation, A985G, accounts for > 90% of mutant alleles in the white population. In order to facilitate the molecular diagnosis of MCAD deficiency, oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify the exon regions encompassing the 12 mutations enzymatically, and PCR products were then screened with a single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based method. Minigels were used allowing much faster run times, and silver staining was used after gel electrophoresis to eliminate the need for radioisotopic labelling strategies. Our non-radioactive, minigel SSCP approach showed that normals can be readily distinguished from heterozygotes and homozygotes for all three of the 12 known MCAD mutations which were detected in our sampling of 48 persons. In addition, each band pattern is characteristic for a specific mutation, including those mapping in the same PCR product like A985G and T1124C. When necessary, the molecular defect was confirmed using either restriction enzyme digestion of PCR products or by direct DNA sequence analysis or both. This rapid, non-radioactive approach can become routine for molecular diagnosis of MCAD deficiency and other genetic disorders. Images PMID:7966191

  14. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Mat-Jan, F.; Alam, K.Y.; Clark, D.P. )

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion.

  15. [Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-deficient renal cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Agaimy, A

    2016-03-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) represents a type II mitochondrial complex related to the respiratory chain and Krebs cycle. The complex is composed of four major subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC and SDHD. The oncogenic role of this enzyme complex has only recently been recognized and the complex is currently considered an important oncogenic signaling pathway with tumor suppressor properties. In addition to the familial paraganglioma syndromes (types 1-5) as prototypical SDH-related diseases, many other tumors have been defined as SDH-deficient, in particular a subset of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare hypophyseal adenomas, a subset of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (recently added) and a variety of other tumor entities, the latter mainly described as rare case reports. As a central core subunit responsible for the integrity of the SDH complex, the expression of SDHB is lost in all SDH-deficient neoplasms irrespective of the specific SDH subunit affected by a genetic mutation in addition to concurrent loss of the subunit specifically affected by genetic alteration. Accordingly, all SDH-deficient neoplasms are by definition SDHB-deficient. The SDH-deficient renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has only recently been well-characterized and it is included as a specific subtype of RCC in the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification published in 2016. In this review, the major clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and genetic features of this rare disease entity are presented and discussed in the context of the broad differential diagnosis. PMID:26979428

  16. AB104. Glucose-6 phospate dehydrogenase deficiency among mongolian neonates

    PubMed Central

    Batjargal, Khishigjargal; Nansal, Gerelmaa; Zagd, Gerelmaa; Ganbaatar, Erdenetuya

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency in humans, affecting 400 million people worldwide and a high prevalence in persons of African, Middle Asian countries. The most common clinical manifestations are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia, which is caused by the impairment of erythrocyte’s ability to remove harmful oxidative stress triggered by exogenous agents such as drugs, infection, or fava bean ingestion. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia caused by G6PD is strongly associated with mortality and long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. The study aims to determine a level of G6PD in healthy neonates. Methods We obtained blood spot samples from 268 infants around 24-72 hours in their age who has unsuspected intranatal and neonatal disorders. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase “Perkin Elmer, Finland” level is determined by Victor 2D Fluorometer assay, developing of neonatal jaundice is examined by recall. Results The76.5% of all participants (n=205) was assessed 4.36±1.15 Ug/Hb in normal reference range of G6PD, other 23.5% (n=63) was 0.96±0.51 Ug/Hb with G6PD deficiency. In the both sex, 51.5% of male 0.88±0.46 Ug/Hb (n=33) and 47.6% of female (n=30) 0.97±0.55 Ug/Hb was assessed with G6PD deficiency. Developing Jaundice period in number of 63 neonates with G6PD deficiency, 86% of neonates (n=54) was in 1-4 days, 4% of neonates (n=3) was in 5-7 days and there is no sign of jaundice in 9% (n=6). Therefore neonates with G6PD deficiency, 53.9% (n=34) continued jaundice more than two weeks. Conclusions G6PD deficiency was determined in male neonates (51.5%) more than female (47.6%). The 76.5% of all participants (n=205) was assessed 4.36±1.15 Ug/Hb in normal reference range of G6PDH other 23.5% (n=63) of all participants was 0.96±0.51 Ug/Hb with G6PD deficiency. It shows that G6PD might be one potential risk of neonatal jaundice and hyperbilirubinemia in neonates in Mongolia.

  17. Phenotypic and Neuropathological Characterization of Fetal Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pirot, Nathalie; Crahes, Marie; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Soares, Anais; Bucourt, Martine; Boutron, Audrey; Carbillon, Lionel; Mignot, Cyril; Trestard, Laetitia; Bekri, Soumeya; Laquerrière, Annie

    2016-03-01

    To distinguish pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (PDH) from other antenatal neurometabolic disorders thereby improving prenatal diagnosis, we describe imaging findings, clinical phenotype, and brain lesions in fetuses from 3 families with molecular characterization of this condition. Neuropathological analysis was performed in 4 autopsy cases from 3 unrelated families with subsequent biochemical and molecular confirmation of PDH complex deficiency. In 2 families there were mutations in the PDHA1 gene; in the third family there was a mutation in the PDHB gene. All fetuses displayed characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism of varying severity, absence of visceral lesions, and associated encephaloclastic and developmental supra- and infratentorial lesions. Neurodevelopmental abnormalities included microcephaly, migration abnormalities (pachygyria, polymicrogyria, periventricular nodular heterotopias), and cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia with hypoplastic dentate nuclei and pyramidal tracts. Associated clastic lesions included asymmetric leukomalacia, reactive gliosis, large pseudocysts of germinolysis, and basal ganglia calcifications. The diagnosis of PDH deficiency should be suspected antenatally with the presence of clastic and neurodevelopmental lesions and a relatively characteristic craniofacial dysmorphism. Postmortem examination is essential for excluding other closely related entities, thereby allowing for biochemical and molecular confirmation. PMID:26865159

  18. Dysfunctional TCA-Cycle Metabolism in Glutamate Dehydrogenase Deficient Astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jakob D; Pajęcka, Kamilla; Stridh, Malin H; Skytt, Dorte M; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes take up glutamate in the synaptic area subsequent to glutamatergic transmission by the aid of high affinity glutamate transporters. Glutamate is converted to glutamine or metabolized to support intermediary metabolism and energy production. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AAT) catalyze the reversible reaction between glutamate and α-ketoglutarate, which is the initial step for glutamate to enter TCA cycle metabolism. In contrast to GDH, AAT requires a concomitant interconversion of oxaloacetate and aspartate. We have investigated the role of GDH in astrocyte glutamate and glucose metabolism employing siRNA mediated knock down (KD) of GDH in cultured astrocytes using stable and radioactive isotopes for metabolic mapping. An increased level of aspartate was observed upon exposure to [U-(13) C]glutamate in astrocytes exhibiting reduced GDH activity. (13) C Labeling of aspartate and TCA cycle intermediates confirmed that the increased amount of aspartate is associated with elevated TCA cycle flux from α-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate, i.e. truncated TCA cycle. (13) C Glucose metabolism was elevated in GDH deficient astrocytes as observed by increased de novo synthesis of aspartate via pyruvate carboxylation. In the absence of glucose, lactate production from glutamate via malic enzyme was lower in GDH deficient astrocytes. In conclusions, our studies reveal that metabolism via GDH serves an important anaplerotic role by adding net carbon to the TCA cycle. A reduction in GDH activity seems to cause the astrocytes to up-regulate activity in pathways involved in maintaining the amount of TCA cycle intermediates such as pyruvate carboxylation as well as utilization of alternate substrates such as branched chain amino acids.

  19. An animal model of human aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Mann, J.; Yoshida, A.

    1994-09-01

    The genetic deficiency of ALDH2, a major mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, is intimately related to alcohol sensitivity and the degree of predisposition to alcoholic diseases in humans. The ultimate biological role of ALDH2 can be exposed by knocking out the ALDH2 gene in an animal model. As the first step for this line of studies, we cloned and characterized the ALDH2 gene from mouse C57/6J strain which is associated with a high alcohol preference. The gene spans 26 kbp and is composed of 13 exons. Embryonic stem cells were transfected with a replacement vector which contains a partially deleted exon3, a positive selection cassette (pPgk Neo), exon 4 with an artificial stop codon, exons 5, 6, 7, and a negative selection cassette (pMCI-Tk). Genomic DNAs prepared from drug resistant clones were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and by Southern blot analysis to distinguish random integration from homologous recombination. Out of 132 clones examined, 8 had undergone homologous recombination at one of the ALDH2 alleles. The cloned transformed embryonic stem cells with a disrupted ALDH2 allele were injected into blastocysts. Transplantation of the blastocysts into surrogate mother mice yielded chimeric mice. The role of ALDH2 in alcohol preference, alcohol sensitivity and other biological and behavioral characteristics can be elucidated by examining the heterozygous and homozygous mutant strains produced by breeding of chimeric mice.

  20. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection.

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: the added value of cytology.

    PubMed

    Roelens, Marie; Dossier, Claire; Fenneteau, Odile; Couque, Nathalie; Da Costa, Lydie

    2016-06-01

    We report the case of a 2 year-old boy hospitalized into the emergency room for influenza pneumonia infection. The evolution was marked by a respiratory distress syndrome, a severe hemolytic anemia, associated with thrombocytopenia and kidney failure. First, a diagnosis of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) has been judiciously suggested due to the classical triad: kidney failure, hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. But, strikingly, blood smears do not exhibit schizocytes, but instead ghosts and hemighosts, some characteristic features of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Our hypothesis has been confirmed by enzymatic dosage and molecular biology. The unusual initial aplastic feature of this anemia could be the result of a transient erythroblastopenia due to the viral agent, at the origin of the G6PD crisis on a background of a major erythrocyte anti-oxydant enzyme defect. This case of G6PD defect points out the continuously importance of the cytology, which was able to redirect the diagnosis by the hemighost and ghost detection. PMID:27101632

  2. Acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency and marked selenium deficiency causing severe rhabdomyolysis in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Diego E.; Valberg, Stephanie J.; Magdesian, K. Gary; Hanna, Paul E.; Lofstedt, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    This report describes a case of severe rhabdomyolysis in a pregnant mare associated with histopathologic and biochemical features of both selenium deficiency and acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) due to seasonal pasture myopathy (SPM). This case highlights the importance of assessing plasma selenium levels in horses with clinical signs of pasture myopathy as this deficiency may be a contributing or exacerbating factor. PMID:26538673

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and sulfadimidin acetylation phenotypes in Egyptian oases.

    PubMed

    Hussein, L; Yamamah, G; Saleh, A

    1992-04-01

    Screening of 1315 males from two Egyptian oases for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G-6PD) found an incidence of 5.9%. The rate of acetylation of sulfadimidin was also studied, and a bimodal distribution was found with 73% rapid acetylators. There is a correlation between high frequency of G-6PD deficiency and high frequency of slow acetylation rate.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is a condition that prevents the body from converting certain fats into energy, especially during periods without food (fasting). Signs and symptoms of SCAD deficiency may ...

  5. G6PD Deficiency (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are high-risk areas for the infectious disease malaria . Researchers have found evidence that the parasite that ... deficiency may have developed as a protection against malaria. continue G6PD Deficiency Symptom Triggers Kids with G6PD ...

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Merdin, Alparslan; Avci, Fatma; Guzelay, Nihal

    2014-01-29

    Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered.

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presented with convulsion: a rare case.

    PubMed

    Merdin, Alparslan; Avci, Fatma; Guzelay, Nihal

    2014-01-29

    Red blood cells carry oxygen in the body and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase protects these cells from oxidative chemicals. If there is a lack of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, red blood cells can go acute hemolysis. Convulsion is a rare presentation for acute hemolysis due to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. Herein, we report a case report of a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency diagnosed patient after presentation with convulsion. A 70 year-old woman patient had been hospitalized because of convulsion and fatigue. She has not had similar symptoms before. She had ingested fava beans in the last two days. Her hypophyseal and brain magnetic resonance imaging were normal. Blood transfusion was performed and the patient recovered. PMID:24711919

  8. Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

  9. Genetics Home Reference: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... step that metabolizes groups of fats called medium-chain fatty acids and short-chain fatty acids. Mutations in the HADH gene lead ... a shortage of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids cannot be metabolized ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from food are broken down into parts called amino acids . Amino acids can be further processed to provide energy for ... an enzyme that helps break down a particular amino acid called valine. Most people with IBD deficiency are ...

  11. Methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency: demonstration of defective valine and beta-alanine metabolism and reduced malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity in cultured fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R.G.; Pollitt, R.J.; Webley, J.

    1987-08-01

    Intact cultured fibroblasts from a child with a new metabolic disorder, thought to be due to a deficiency of methylmalonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, produced labeled CO/sub 2/ normally from (1-/sup 14/C)valine but not from (2-/sup 14/C)valine. CO/sub 2/ production from labeled beta-alanine was also much reduced, confirming the suspicion that malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is also deficient in this condition. An assay for malonic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in cell homogenates showed low activity but it was impossible to assess the degree of reduction.

  12. [Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient tumors--a novel mechanism of tumor formation].

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Markku

    2015-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric enzyme complex participating in the Krebs cycle and electron transfer of oxidative phosphorylation. These tumors, discovered during the past 15 years, often occur in young patients and include 15% of paragangliomas, 7% of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), and <1% of renal cell carcinomas and pituitary adenomas. SDH-deficient tumors have lost SDH complex activity via bi-allelic genomic losses or epigenetic silencing. This deficiency is oncogenic, activating pseudohypoxia signaling. SDH deficiency has to be suspected in the above-cited tumor types presenting at a young age. Immunohistochemical testing of tumor tissue for SDHB loss is diagnostic. PMID:26749909

  13. Strategies for Correcting Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Tenopoulou, Margarita; Chen, Jie; Bastin, Jean; Bennett, Michael J.; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Doulias, Paschalis-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Very long acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is a genetic pediatric disorder presenting with a spectrum of phenotypes that remains for the most part untreatable. Here, we present a novel strategy for the correction of VLCAD deficiency by increasing mutant VLCAD enzymatic activity. Treatment of VLCAD-deficient fibroblasts, which express distinct mutant VLCAD protein and exhibit deficient fatty acid β-oxidation, with S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine induced site-specific S-nitrosylation of VLCAD mutants at cysteine residue 237. Cysteine 237 S-nitrosylation was associated with an 8–17-fold increase in VLCAD-specific activity and concomitant correction of acylcarnitine profile and β-oxidation capacity, two hallmarks of the disorder. Overall, this study provides biochemical evidence for a potential therapeutic modality to correct β-oxidation deficiencies. PMID:25737446

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency among Male Blood Donors in Sana’a City, Yemen

    PubMed Central

    Al-Nood, Hafiz A.; Bazara, Fakiha A.; Al-Absi, Rashad; Habori, Molham AL

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency among Yemeni people from different regions of the country living in the capital city, Sana’a, giving an indication of its overall prevalence in Yemen. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among Yemeni male blood donors attending the Department of Blood Bank at the National Centre of the Public Health Laboratories in the capital city, Sana’a, Yemen. Fluorescent spot method was used for screening, spectrophotometeric estimation of G-6-PD activity and separation by electrophoresis was done to determine the G-6-PD phenotype. Results Of the total 508 male blood donors recruited into the study, 36 were G-6-PD deficient, giving a likely G-6-PD deficiency prevalence of 7.1%. None of these deficient donors had history of anemia or jaundice. Thirty-five of these deficient cases (97.2%) showed severe G-6-PD deficiency class II (<10% of normal activity), and their phenotyping presumptively revealed a G-6-PD-Mediterranean variant. Conclusion The results showed a significant presence of G-6-PD deficiency with predominance of a severe G-6-PD deficiency type in these blood donors in Sana’a City, which could represent an important health problem through occurrence of hemolytic anemia under oxidative stress. A larger sample size is needed to determine the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency, and should be extended to include DNA analysis to identify its variants in Yemen. PMID:22359725

  15. Diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency by stable isotope dilution analysis of urinary acylglycines: Retrospective and prospective studies, and comparison of its accuracy to acylcarnitine identification by FAB/mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo, P.; O'Shea, J.J.; Welch, R.D.; Tanaka, K. )

    1990-01-01

    In summary, we have demonstrated that the accurate quantitation of urinary HG and PPG by stable isotope dilution analysis is currently the most reliable method for the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency. This method is particularly useful for testing random samples from asymptomatic patients without any provocative test, and it is suitable to widely survey a fairly large population, such as patients with episodic manifestations and families with a history of SIDS.

  16. Reconciling diabetes management and the ketogenic diet in a child with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Henwood, Maria J; Thornton, Paul S; Preis, Christina M; Chee, Clare; Grimberg, Adda

    2006-05-01

    A 4-year-old girl with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, static encephalopathy, and seizure disorder treated with the ketogenic diet presented in severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is a rare genetic defect of mitochondrial energy metabolism that leads to inefficient glucose use and lactic acidosis. The ketogenic diet provides the brain with an alternate fuel source, but its implementation opposes traditional diabetes management. Faced with this therapeutic dilemma, we aimed to maintain ketosis without compromising safety to optimize neurologic function and quality of life. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of a child simultaneously treated with the ketogenic diet and exogenous insulin. A 28-month follow-up revealed excellent glycemic control, improved activity level, significant developmental achievements, and, perhaps most striking, catch-up linear growth from < 5th percentile to the 50th percentile. Her progress to date indicates that diabetes does not preclude use of the ketogenic diet.

  17. Stenotrophomonas Infection in a Patient with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Harthan, Aaron A.; Heger, Margaret L

    2013-01-01

    The drug of choice for treatment of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and second-line therapy usually consists of a fluoroquinolone. However, in patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, neither sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim nor a fluoroquinolone is a preferred option as it may result in hemolysis. Currently, there is a paucity of data regarding treatment of S maltophilia infection in these patients. This case report presents a patient who was successfully treated with doxycycline and inhaled colistimethate. PMID:23798908

  18. 3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: description of two new cases in Tunisia and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kraoua, Ichraf; Wiame, Elsa; Kraoua, Lilia; Nasrallah, Fehmi; Benrhouma, Hanen; Rouissi, Aida; Turki, Ilhem; Chaabouni, Habiba; Briand, Gilbert; Kaabachi, Naziha; Van Schaftingen, Emile; Gouider-Khouja, Neziha

    2013-10-01

    3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of serine biosynthesis. It is typically characterized by congenital microcephaly, intractable seizures of infantile onset, and severe psychomotor retardation. Diagnosis is suspected on decreased l-serine levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and confirmed by genetic study. Early diagnosis in index cases allows supplementation in serine and prevention of fixed lesions. Prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling allows prevention of secondary cases. We report on the two first unrelated Tunisian families with 3-PGDH deficiency confirmed by biochemical and genetic study. We discuss clinical, biochemical, imaging, electroencephalographic, and therapeutic aspects and review the literature. PMID:23564319

  19. 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency: a case report of a treatable cause of seizures.

    PubMed

    Coşkun, Turgay; Aydin, Halil Ibrahim; Kiliç, Mustafa; Dursun, Ali; Haliloğlu, Göknur; Topaloğlu, Haluk; Karli-Oğuz, Kader; de Koning, Tom J

    2009-01-01

    Serine deficiency disorders are a new group of neurometabolic diseases resulting from a deficiency in one of the three enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of L-serine. Deficiency of the enzyme 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH), which catalyzes the first step in the biosynthetic pathway, leads to congenital microcephaly, severe psychomotor retardation, and intractable seizures. We report a 4 1/2-year-old boy who presented with congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, hypertonia, strabismus, and drug-resistant seizures due to 3-PGDH deficiency. His seizures responded to L-serine and glycine supplementation only. This potentially treatable disease should be borne in mind in patients with congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation and seizures. A timely diagnosis based on the detection of low cerebrospinal fluid levels of L-serine and glycine is expected to further increase the success of L-serine and glycine supplementation in these patients. PMID:20196394

  20. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficiency in Transfusion Medicine: The Unknown Risks

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Richard O.; Jhang, Jeffrey S.; Pham, Huy P.; Hod, Eldad A.; Zimring, James C.; Spitalnik, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is red blood cell (RBC) destruction in response to oxidative stress. Patients requiring RBC transfusions may simultaneously receive oxidative medications or have concurrent infections, both of which can induce hemolysis in G6PD-deficient RBCs. Although it is not routine practice to screen healthy blood donors for G6PD deficiency, case reports identified transfusion of G6PD-deficient RBCs as causing hemolysis and other adverse events. In addition, some patient populations may be more at risk for complications associated with transfusions of G6PD-deficient RBCs because they receive RBCs from donors who are more likely to have G6PD deficiency. This review discusses G6PD deficiency, its importance in transfusion medicine, changes in the RBC antioxidant system (of which G6PD is essential) during refrigerated storage, and mechanisms of hemolysis. In addition, as yet unanswered questions that could be addressed by translational and clinical studies are identified and discussed. PMID:23815264

  1. Mechanism of hyperinsulinism in short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency involves activation of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Changhong; Chen, Pan; Palladino, Andrew; Narayan, Srinivas; Russell, Laurie K; Sayed, Samir; Xiong, Guoxiang; Chen, Jie; Stokes, David; Butt, Yasmeen M; Jones, Patricia M; Collins, Heather W; Cohen, Noam A; Cohen, Akiva S; Nissim, Itzhak; Smith, Thomas J; Strauss, Arnold W; Matschinsky, Franz M; Bennett, Michael J; Stanley, Charles A

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD deficiency. hadh(-/-) mice were hypersensitive to oral amino acid with decrease of glucose level and elevation of insulin. Hypersensitivity to oral amino acid in hadh(-/-) mice can be explained by abnormal insulin responses to a physiological mixture of amino acids and increased sensitivity to leucine stimulation in isolated perifused islets. Measurement of cytosolic calcium showed normal basal levels and abnormal responses to amino acids in hadh(-/-) islets. Leucine, glutamine, and alanine are responsible for amino acid hypersensitivity in islets. hadh(-/-) islets have lower intracellular glutamate and aspartate levels, and this decrease can be prevented by high glucose. hadh(-/-) islets also have increased [U-(14)C]glutamine oxidation. In contrast, hadh(-/-) mice have similar glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity compared with controls. Perifused hadh(-/-) islets showed no differences from controls in response to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, even with addition of either a medium-chain fatty acid (octanoate) or a long-chain fatty acid (palmitate). Pull-down experiments with SCHAD, anti-SCHAD, or anti-GDH antibodies showed protein-protein interactions between SCHAD and GDH. GDH enzyme kinetics of hadh(-/-) islets showed an increase in GDH affinity for its substrate, α-ketoglutarate. These studies indicate that SCHAD deficiency causes hyperinsulinism by activation of GDH via loss of inhibitory regulation of GDH by SCHAD.

  2. Perioperative management of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient patient: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Elyassi, Ali R; Rowshan, Henry H

    2009-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of red blood cells in humans. It is estimated that about 400 million people are affected by this deficiency. The G6PD enzyme catalyzes the first step in the pentose phosphate pathway, leading to antioxidants that protect cells against oxidative damage. A G6PD-deficient patient, therefore, lacks the ability to protect red blood cells against oxidative stresses from certain drugs, metabolic conditions, infections, and ingestion of fava beans. The following is a literature review, including disease background, pathophysiology, and clinical implications, to help guide the clinician in management of the G6PD-deficient patient. A literature search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OMIM, and Google; this was supplemented by a search for selected authors. Keywords used were glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, anesthesia, analgesia, anxiolysis, management, favism, hemolytic anemia, benzodiazepines, codeine, codeine derivatives, ketamine, barbiturates, propofol, opioids, fentanyl, and inhalation anesthetics. Based on titles and abstracts, 23 papers and 1 website were identified. The highest prevalence of G6PD is reported in Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and the central and southern Pacific islands; however, G6PD deficiency has now migrated to become a worldwide disease. Numerous drugs, infections, and metabolic conditions have been shown to cause acute hemolysis of red blood cells in the G6PD-deficient patient, with the rare need for blood transfusion. Benzodiazepines, codeine/codeine derivatives, propofol, fentanyl, and ketamine were not found to cause hemolytic crises in the G6PD-deficient patient. The most effective management strategy is to prevent hemolysis by avoiding oxidative stressors. Thus, management for pain and anxiety should include medications that are safe and have not been

  3. Very long-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency which was accepted as infanticide.

    PubMed

    Eminoglu, Tuba F; Tumer, Leyla; Okur, Ilyas; Ezgu, Fatih S; Biberoglu, Gursel; Hasanoglu, Alev

    2011-07-15

    Very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) (OMIM #201475) is an autosomal recessive disorder of fatty acid oxidation. Major phenotypic expressions are hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, elevated creatinine kinase, and lipid infiltration of liver and muscle. At the same time, it is a rare cause of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) or unexplained death in the neonatal period [1-4]. We report a patient with VLCADD whose parents were investigated for infanticide because her three previous siblings had suddenly died after normal deliveries.

  4. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase caused by novel and known mutations in the E1alpha subunit.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jessie M; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Mackay, Neviana; Tein, Ingrid; Robinson, Brian H

    2004-11-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)-complex deficiency (OMIM 312170) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder, with phenotypes ranging from fatal lactic acidosis (LA) in the newborn to chronic neurological dysfunction. To date, over 80 different mutations have been identified in the PDHA1 gene in patients with PDH complex deficiency, which are thus thought to contribute to the PDH deficient phenotype. We have identified 14 additional patients with total PDH complex deficiency, all of whom were found to contain mutations within the PDHA1 gene (E(1)alpha subunit). The mutations include both missense mutations and duplications. Eight of these patients had novel mutations, and the remaining had mutations that have been identified previously in PDH complex deficient patients, with residual fibroblast activity ranging from 2.4 to 69% of control values. The nature of these mutations illustrates the variability in phenotype for a given gene defect, with intermittent ataxia being the mildest presentation, Leigh syndrome being the most common and severe neonatal LA the most severe.

  5. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency and its relationship with epilepsy frequency--An overview.

    PubMed

    Bhandary, Suman; Aguan, Kripamoy

    2015-10-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHc) is a member of a family of multienzyme complexes that provides the link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle by catalyzing the physiologically irreversible decarboxylation of various 2-oxoacid substrates to their corresponding acyl-CoA derivatives, NADH and CO2. PDHc deficiency is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with lactic acidosis, progressive neurological and neuromuscular degeneration that vary with age and gender. In this review, we aim to discuss the relationship between occurrence of epilepsy and PDHc deficiency associated with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (E1α subunit (PDHA1) and E1β subunit (PDHB)) and PDH phosphatase (PDP) deficiency. PDHc plays a crucial role in the aerobic carbohydrate metabolism and regulates the use of carbohydrate as the source of oxidative energy. In severe PDHc deficiency, the energy deficit impairs brain development in utero resulting in physiological and structural changes in the brain that contributes to the subsequent onset of epileptogenesis. Epileptogenesis in PDHc deficiency is linked to energy failure and abnormal neurotransmitter metabolism that progressively alters neuronal excitability. This metabolic blockage might be restricted via inclusion of ketogenic diet that is broken up by β-oxidation and directly converting it to acetyl-CoA, and thereby improving the patient's health condition. Genetic counseling is essential as PDHA1 deficiency is X-linked. The demonstration of the X-chromosome localization of PDHA1 resolved a number of questions concerning the variable phenotype displayed by patients with E1 deficiency. Most patients show a broad range of neurological abnormalities, with the severity showing some dependence on the nature of the mutation in the Elα gene, while PDHB and PDH phosphatase (PDP) deficiencies are of autosomal recessive inheritance. However, in females, the disorder is further complicated by the pattern of X

  6. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances human coronavirus 229E infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Tseng, Ching-Ping; Cheng, Mei-Ling; Ho, Hung-Yao; Shih, Shin-Ru; Chiu, Daniel Tsun-Yee

    2008-03-15

    The host cellular environment is a key determinant of pathogen infectivity. Viral gene expression and viral particle production of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient and G6PD-knockdown cells were much higher than their counterparts when human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E was applied at 0.1 multiplicity of infection. These phenomena were correlated with increased oxidant production. Accordingly, ectopic expression of G6PD in G6PD-deficient cells or addition of antioxidant (such as alpha-lipoic acid) to G6PD-knockdown cells attenuated the increased susceptibility to HCoV 229E infection. All experimental data indicated that oxidative stress in host cells is an important factor in HCoV 229E infectivity. PMID:18269318

  7. Bilateral pulmonary edema after endoscopic sympathectomy in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lan, C J; Luk, H N; Wu, C T; Chang, W K; Tsou, M Y; Lui, P W; Lee, T Y

    2001-01-01

    Transaxillary endoscopic sympathectomy of thoracic ganglia (T2-T3) has recently gained wider acceptance as the treatment of choice for palmar hyperhidrosis. It requires one-lung ventilation to facilitate the surgery. One-lung ventilation, however, is not without complications, among which acute pulmonary edema has been reported. In this case report, we present a patient with palmar hyperhidrosis complicated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency, who received bilateral endoscopic sympathectomy under alternate one-lung anesthesia, and developed acute pulmonary edema immediately after recruitment of the successive collapsed lung. The effects of hypoxemia, G-6-PD deficiency and sympathectomy might all add to the development of acute pulmonary edema secondary to reexpansion of each individual lung after alternate one-lung ventilation. The possibilities of the inferred causes are herein discussed. PMID:11152024

  8. Eye Findings on Vigabatrin and Taurine Treatment in Two Patients with Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Gabriella-Ana; Hukin, Juliette; Stockler-Ipsiroglu, Sylvia G; Aroichane, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    We describe for the first time two patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, who were found to have abnormal electroretinogram (ERG) examinations at baseline, or 6 months after vigabatrin treatment was started. This was somewhat reversible with L-taurine treatment, or minimally progressive. The mechanism of injury to the retina may be induced by elevations of γ-aminobutyric acid causing peripheral photoreceptor and ganglion cell damage, and this can be exacerbated by the use of vigabatrin. The use of taurine supplementation in tandem with vigabatrin may allow reversal of retinopathy and mitigate or slow down further deterioration. Further prospective clinical trials are required to evaluate this further. We recommend starting L-taurine therapy together with vigabatrin if a trial of vigabatrin is commenced in a patient with SSADH deficiency. Close monitoring of visual fields or ERG is also recommended at baseline and during vigabatrin therapy. PMID:27104484

  9. Novel mutations in dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency in two cousins with borderline-normal PDH complex activity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jessie M; Levandovskiy, Valeriy; Mackay, Neviana; Raiman, Julian; Renaud, Deborah L; Clarke, Joe T R; Feigenbaum, Annette; Elpeleg, Orly; Robinson, Brian H

    2006-07-15

    We have diagnosed dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) deficiency in two male second cousins, who presented with markedly different clinical phenotypes. Patient 1 had a recurrent encephalopathy, and patient 2 had microcephaly and lactic acidosis. Their presentation is unusual, in that the DLD subunit deficiency had little effect on pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity, but caused a severe reduction in the activities of other enzymes that utilize this subunit. We have identified two mutations in the DLD gene in each patient. The second cousins have one novel mutation in common resulting in a substitution of isoleucine for threonine (I47T), which has not been previously reported in the literature. Patient 1 has a second mutation that has been reported to be common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, G229C. Patient 2 has a second mutation, E375K, which has also been previously reported in the literature. Enzyme kinetic measurements on patient fibroblasts show that under certain conditions, one heteroallelic mutation may have a higher K(m). This may account for the differing clinical phenotypes. These findings have important repercussions for other patients with similar clinical phenotypes, as DLD activity is not normally measured in cases with normal PDHc activity.

  10. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Gergely; Konrad, Csaba; Doczi, Judit; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Kawamata, Hibiki; Manfredi, Giovanni; Zhang, Steven F.; Gibson, Gary E.; Beal, M. Flint; Adam-Vizi, Vera; Chinopoulos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    A decline in α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC) activity has been associated with neurodegeneration. Provision of succinyl-CoA by KGDHC is essential for generation of matrix ATP (or GTP) by substrate-level phosphorylation catalyzed by succinyl-CoA ligase. Here, we demonstrate ATP consumption in respiration-impaired isolated and in situ neuronal somal mitochondria from transgenic mice with a deficiency of either dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) or dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD) that exhibit a 20–48% decrease in KGDHC activity. Import of ATP into the mitochondrial matrix of transgenic mice was attributed to a shift in the reversal potential of the adenine nucleotide translocase toward more negative values due to diminished matrix substrate-level phosphorylation, which causes the translocase to reverse prematurely. Immunoreactivity of all three subunits of succinyl-CoA ligase and maximal enzymatic activity were unaffected in transgenic mice as compared to wild-type littermates. Therefore, decreased matrix substrate-level phosphorylation was due to diminished provision of succinyl-CoA. These results were corroborated further by the finding that mitochondria from wild-type mice respiring on substrates supporting substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited ∼30% higher ADP-ATP exchange rates compared to those obtained from DLST+/− or DLD+/− littermates. We propose that KGDHC-associated pathologies are a consequence of the inability of respiration-impaired mitochondria to rely on “in-house” mitochondrial ATP reserves.—Kiss, G., Konrad, C., Doczi, J., Starkov, A. A., Kawamata, H., Manfredi, G., Zhang, S. F., Gibson, G. E., Beal, M. F., Adam-Vizi, V., Chinopoulos, C. The negative impact of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on matrix substrate-level phosphorylation. PMID:23475850

  11. Molecular characterization of a German variant of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD Aachen).

    PubMed

    Efferth, T; Osieka, R; Beutler, E

    2000-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-chromosome-linked hereditary disorder. Clinically, patients with G6PD deficiency often present with drug- or food-induced hemolytic crises or neonatal jaundice. G6PD is involved in the generation of NADPH and reduced glutathione. In contrast to American, Mediterranean, and African ancestries, only few variants are known from Middle and Northern Europe. We describe the molecular characterization of a distinct variant from the northwestern area of Germany, G6PD Aachen. The sequence of the G6PD gene from three afflicted males was found to be hemizygous at cDNA residue 1089 for a C-->G mutation with a predicted amino acid change of Asn363Lys. The 1089 C-->G point mutation is unique, but produces the identical amino acid change found in a Mexican variant of G6PD deficiency, G6PD Loma Linda. This G6PD-deficient variant is caused by a 1089 C-->A mutation. The 363-amino-acid replacement is located outside a known mutation cluster region between amino acid residues 380 and 450, but may disrupt or weaken dimer interactions of G6PD enzyme subunits.

  12. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency--a cause of anaemia in pregnant women].

    PubMed

    Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, Małgorzata; Zimny, Anna

    2003-11-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is one of the most important cytoprotective enzymes for oxidative stress. The WHO classification of G6PD deficiency, based on enzyme activity and clinical significance, distinguishes five variants. Chronic haemolytic process is rare and the main factors causing haemolysis are: infections, substances derived from plants, drugs with high oxidation-reduction potential, stress, ketoacidosis in diabetes and surgery operations. We report two cases of women belonging to the class 3 of the WHO classification in whom haemolysis occured during pregnancy. One of the patients developed two incidents of haemolytic anaemia. The cause of the first episode, nine months before pregnancy, was probably infection of the urinary tract caused by Escherichia coli, but the influence of the drugs also cannot be excluded. Because of the genetic background of this enzymopathy we also examined members of the patients, families but did not find any evidence of G6PD deficiency among them. The reported cases indicate that haemolytic anaemia caused by G6PD deficiency may occur during pregnancy what can lead to many not only haematological but also serious obstetrical complications such as infertility, fetus malformations and even its death. We also draw attention to several difficulties in diagnosing G6PD deficiency especially during haemolysis. PMID:16737003

  13. Point-of-Care Quantitative Measure of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Enzyme Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Michael; Glader, Bertil; Cotten, Michael; Kleinert, Jairus; Pamula, Vamsee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Widespread newborn screening on a point-of-care basis could prevent bilirubin neurotoxicity in newborns with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We evaluated a quantitative G6PD assay on a digital microfluidic platform by comparing its performance with standard clinical methods. METHODS: G6PD activity was measured quantitatively by using digital microfluidic fluorescence and the gold standard fluorescence biochemical test on a convenience sample of 98 discarded blood samples. Twenty-four samples were designated as G6PD deficient. RESULTS: Mean ± SD G6PD activity for normal samples using the digital microfluidic method and the standard method, respectively, was 9.7 ± 2.8 and 11.1 ± 3.0 U/g hemoglobin (Hb), respectively; for G6PD-deficient samples, it was 0.8 ± 0.7 and 1.4 ± 0.9 U/g Hb. Bland-Altman analysis determined a mean difference of –0.96 ± 1.8 U/g Hb between the digital microfluidic fluorescence results and the standard biochemical test results. The lower and upper limits for the digital microfluidic platform were 4.5 to 19.5 U/g Hb for normal samples and 0.2 to 3.7 U/g Hb for G6PD-deficient samples. The lower and upper limits for the Stanford method were 5.5 to 20.7 U/g Hb for normal samples and 0.1 to 2.8 U/g Hb for G6PD-deficient samples. The measured activity discriminated between G6PD-deficient samples and normal samples with no overlap. CONCLUSIONS: Pending further validation, a digital microfluidics platform could be an accurate point-of-care screening tool for rapid newborn G6PD screening. PMID:26459646

  14. Effect of red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Tanphaichitr, Voravarn S; Chonlasin, Rachaneekorn; Suwantol, Lerlugsn; Pung-Amritt, Parichat; Tachavanich, Kalaya; Yogsan, Suthee; Viprakasit, Vip

    2002-08-01

    Eighty nine males aged 1-13 years diagnosed with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and admitted to the Department of Pediatrics Siriraj Hospital from March 1998 to April 2000 were included in this study. 17 cases (19.1%) had red blood cell glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency and 72 cases (80.9%) had normal G-6-PD enzyme activities. Most of the patients were classified as DHF grade II in severity. 3 of 17 G-6-PD deficient cases had serious complications and all of them had acute intravascular hemolysis requiring blood transfusions. One of these also had hematemesis, one had azothemia and the other one had renal failure and severe liver failure with hepatic encephalopathy. In the cases without obvious hemolytic or hepatic complications, G-6-PD deficient cases had mildly but significantly higher total birirubin and indirect bilirubin, as well as a lower hematocrit than those who had normal G-6-PD. Reticulocyte count was low during the acute phase, however, during recovery, the levels were significantly increased in both groups. In the non G-6-PD deficient group, G-6-PD enzyme levels were significantly decreased during the acute phase compared to the normal controls but rose significantly to normal levels during the recovery phase. There were no statistically significant differences in other laboratory data. All patients recovered fully from DHF. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency in male patients who had DHF in this study was 19.1 per cent which was higher than the prevalence in a previous study of 12 per cent in Bangkok. This may imply that G-6-PD deficient males suffer more from DHF compared to normal G-6-PD subjects.

  15. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II deficiency on newborn screening test.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Vitor Guilherme Brito de; Oliveira, Renata Santarem de; Gameleira, Kallianna Paula Duarte; Cruz, Cátia Barbosa; Lofrano-Porto, Adriana

    2014-08-01

    3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase II (3β-HSD) deficiency represents a rare CAH variant. Newborns affected with its classic form have salt wasting in early infancy and genital ambiguity in both sexes. High levels of 17-hydroxypregnenolone (Δ517OHP) are characteristic, but extra-adrenal conversion to 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17OHP) may lead to positive results on newborn screening tests. Filter paper 17OHP on newborn screening test was performed by immunofluorometric assay, and serum determinations of 17OHP and Δ517OHP, by radioimmunoassay. A 46,XY infant with genital ambiguity and adrenal crisis at three months of age presented a positive result on newborn screening for CAH. Serum determinations of 17OHP and Δ517OHP were elevated, and a high Δ517OHP/cortisol relation was compatible with the diagnosis of 3β-HSD deficiency. Molecular analysis of the HSD3B2 gene from the affected case revealed the presence of the homozygous p.P222Q mutation, whereas his parents were heterozygous for it. We present the first report of 3β-HSD type II deficiency genotype-proven detected at the Newborn Screening Program in Brazil. The case described herein corroborates the strong genotype-phenotype correlation associated with the HSD3B2 p.P222Q mutation, which leads to a classic salt-wasting 3β-HSD deficiency. Further evaluation of 17OHP assays used in newborn screening tests would aid in determining their reproducibility, as well as the potential significance of moderately elevated 17OHP levels as an early indicator to the diagnosis of other forms of classic CAH, beyond 21-hydroxylase deficiency.

  16. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency enhances germ cell apoptosis and causes defective embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yang, H-C; Chen, T-L; Wu, Y-H; Cheng, K-P; Lin, Y-H; Cheng, M-L; Ho, H-Y; Lo, S J; Chiu, D T-Y

    2013-01-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, known as favism, is classically manifested by hemolytic anemia in human. More recently, it has been shown that mild G6PD deficiency moderately affects cardiac function, whereas severe G6PD deficiency leads to embryonic lethality in mice. How G6PD deficiency affects organisms has not been fully elucidated due to the lack of a suitable animal model. In this study, G6PD-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans was established by RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown to delineate the role of G6PD in animal physiology. Upon G6PD RNAi knockdown, G6PD activity was significantly hampered in C. elegans in parallel with increased oxidative stress and DNA oxidative damage. Phenotypically, G6PD-knockdown enhanced germ cell apoptosis (2-fold increase), reduced egg production (65% of mock), and hatching (10% of mock). To determine whether oxidative stress is associated with G6PD knockdown-induced reproduction defects, C. elegans was challenged with a short-term hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The early phase egg production of both mock and G6PD-knockdown C. elegans were significantly affected by H2O2. However, H2O2-induced germ cell apoptosis was more dramatic in mock than that in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. To investigate the signaling pathways involved in defective oogenesis and embryogenesis caused by G6PD knockdown, mutants of p53 and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways were examined. Despite the upregulation of CEP-1 (p53), cep-1 mutation did not affect egg production and hatching in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Neither pmk-1 nor mek-1 mutation significantly affected egg production, whereas sek-1 mutation further decreased egg production in G6PD-deficient C. elegans. Intriguingly, loss of function of sek-1 or mek-1 dramatically rescued defective hatching (8.3- and 9.6-fold increase, respectively) induced by G6PD knockdown. Taken together, these findings show that G6PD knockdown reduces egg production and hatching in C. elegans

  17. Detection of Occult Acute Kidney Injury in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Hakeem, Gehan Lotfy; Abdel Naeem, Emad Allam; Swelam, Salwa Hussein; El Morsi Aboul Fotoh, Laila; El Mazary, Abdel Azeem Mohamed; Abdel Fadil, Ashraf Mohamed; Abdel Hafez, Asmaa Hosny

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency anemia is associated with intravascular hemolysis. The freely filtered hemoglobin can damage the kidney. We aimed to assess any subclinical renal injury in G6PD children. Methods Sixty children were included. Thirty G6PD deficiency anemia children were enrolled during the acute hemolytic crisis and after the hemolytic episode had elapsed. Another thirty healthy children were included as controls. Serum cystatin C, creatinine levels, and urinary albumin/creatinine (A/C) ratio were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated. Results Significantly higher urinary A/C ratio (p=0.001,0.002 respectively) and lower GFR (p=0.001 for both) were found during hemolysis and after the hemolytic episode compared to the controls. Also, significant higher serum cystatin C (p=0.001), creatinine (p=0.05) and A/C (p= 0.001) ratio and insignificant lower GFR (p=0.3) during acute hemolytic crisis compared to the same children after the hemolytic episode subsided. Conclusions G6PD deficiency anemia is associated with a variable degree of acute renal injury during acute hemolytic episodes which may persist after elapsing of the hemolytic crises. PMID:27648201

  18. Detection of Occult Acute Kidney Injury in Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Hakeem, Gehan Lotfy; Abdel Naeem, Emad Allam; Swelam, Salwa Hussein; El Morsi Aboul Fotoh, Laila; El Mazary, Abdel Azeem Mohamed; Abdel Fadil, Ashraf Mohamed; Abdel Hafez, Asmaa Hosny

    2016-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency anemia is associated with intravascular hemolysis. The freely filtered hemoglobin can damage the kidney. We aimed to assess any subclinical renal injury in G6PD children. Methods Sixty children were included. Thirty G6PD deficiency anemia children were enrolled during the acute hemolytic crisis and after the hemolytic episode had elapsed. Another thirty healthy children were included as controls. Serum cystatin C, creatinine levels, and urinary albumin/creatinine (A/C) ratio were measured, and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated. Results Significantly higher urinary A/C ratio (p=0.001,0.002 respectively) and lower GFR (p=0.001 for both) were found during hemolysis and after the hemolytic episode compared to the controls. Also, significant higher serum cystatin C (p=0.001), creatinine (p=0.05) and A/C (p= 0.001) ratio and insignificant lower GFR (p=0.3) during acute hemolytic crisis compared to the same children after the hemolytic episode subsided. Conclusions G6PD deficiency anemia is associated with a variable degree of acute renal injury during acute hemolytic episodes which may persist after elapsing of the hemolytic crises.

  19. Complete Deficiency of Leukocyte Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase with Defective Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, M. Robert; DeChatelet, Lawrence R.; McCall, Charles E.; La Via, Mariano F.; Spurr, Charles L.; Baehner, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    A 52 yr old Caucasian female (F. E.) had hemolytic anemia, a leukemoid reaction, and fatal sepsis due to Escherichia coli. Her leukocytes ingested bacteria normally but did not kill catalase positive Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Serratia marcescens. An H2O2-producing bacterium, Streptococcus faecalis, was killed normally. Granule myeloperoxidase, acid and alkaline phosphatase, and beta glucuronidase activities were normal, and these enzymes shifted normally to the phagocyte vacuole (light and electron microscopy). Intravacuolar reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium did not occur. Moreover, only minimal quantities of H2O2 were generated, and the hexose monophosphate shunt (HMPS) was not stimulated during phagocytosis. These observations suggested the diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease. However, in contrast to control and chronic granulomatous disease leukocytes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was completely absent in F. E. leukocytes whereas NADH oxidase and NADPH oxidase activities were both normal. Unlike chronic granulomatous disease, methylene blue did not stimulate the hexose monophosphate shunt in F. E. cells. Thus, F. E. and chronic granulomatous disease leukocytes appear to share certain metabolic and bactericidal defects, but the metabolic basis of the abnormality differs. Chronic granulomatous disease cells lack oxidase activity which produces H2O2; F. E. cells had normal levels of oxidase activity but failed to produce NADPH due to complete glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. These data indicate that a complete absence of leukocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with defective hexose monophosphate shunt activity is associated with low H2O2 production and inadequate bactericidal activity, and further suggest an important role for NADPH in the production of H2O2 in human granulocytes. Images PMID:4401271

  20. Metabolic characterization of Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase using in vivo 13C-NMR.

    PubMed

    Neves, A R; Ramos, A; Shearman, C; Gasson, M J; Almeida, J S; Santos, H

    2000-06-01

    The metabolism of glucose by nongrowing cells of Lactococcus lactis strain FI7851, constructed from the wild-type L. lactis strain MG1363 by disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) gene [Gasson, M.J., Benson, K., Swindel, S. & Griffin, H. (1996) Lait 76, 33-40] was studied in a noninvasive manner by 13C-NMR. The kinetics of the build-up and consumption of the pools of intracellular intermediates mannitol 1-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and phosphoenolpyruvate as well as the utilization of [1-13C]glucose and formation of products (lactate, acetate, mannitol, ethanol, acetoin, 2,3-butanediol) were monitored in vivo with a time resolution of 30 s. The metabolism of glucose by the parental wild-type strain was also examined for comparison. A clear shift from typical homolactic fermentation (parental strain) to a mixed acid fermentation (lactate dehdydrogenase deficient; LDHd strain) was observed. Furthermore, high levels of mannitol were transiently produced and metabolized once glucose was depleted. Mannitol 1-phosphate accumulated intracellularly up to 76 mM concentration. Mannitol was formed from fructose 6-phosphate by the combined action of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphatase. The results show that the formation of mannitol 1-phosphate by the LDHd strain during glucose catabolism is a consequence of impairment in NADH oxidation caused by a highly reduced LDH activity, the transient production of mannitol 1-phosphate serving as a regeneration pathway for NAD+ regeneration. Oxygen availability caused a drastic change in the pattern of intermediates and end-products, reinforcing the key-role of the fulfilment of the redox balance. The flux control coefficients for the step catalysed by mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase were calculated and the implications in the design of metabolic engineering strategies are discussed.

  1. Expanding the molecular diversity and phenotypic spectrum of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Shteyer, Eyal; Niceta, Marcello; Rizzo, Cristiano; Pode-Shakked, Ben; Chillemi, Giovanni; Bruselles, Alessandro; Semeraro, Michela; Barel, Ortal; Eyal, Eran; Kol, Nitzan; Haberman, Yael; Lahad, Avishai; Diomedi-Camassei, Francesca; Marek-Yagel, Dina; Rechavi, Gideon; Tartaglia, Marco; Anikster, Yair

    2016-09-01

    Transient infantile hypertriglyceridemia (HTGT1; OMIM #614480) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which manifests in early infancy with transient hypertriglyceridemia, hepatomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, persistent fatty liver and hepatic fibrosis. This rare clinical entity is caused by inactivating mutations in the GPD1 gene, which encodes the cytosolic isoform of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Here we report on four patients from three unrelated families of diverse ethnic origins, who presented with hepatomegaly, liver steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, with or without fasting ketotic hypoglycemia. Whole exome sequencing revealed the affected individuals to harbor deleterious biallelic mutations in the GPD1 gene, including the previously undescribed c.806G > A (p.Arg269Gln) and c.640T > C (p.Cys214Arg) mutations. The clinical features in three of our patients showed several differences compared to the original reports. One subject presented with recurrent episodes of fasting hypoglycemia along with hepatomegaly, hypetriglyceridemia, and elevated liver enzymes; the second showed a severe liver disease, with intrahepatic cholestasis associated with kidney involvement; finally, the third presented persistent hypertriglyceridemia at the age of 30 years. These findings expand the current knowledge of this rare disorder, both with regard to the phenotype and molecular basis. The enlarged phenotypic spectrum of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 deficiency can mimic other inborn errors of metabolism with liver involvement and should alert clinicians to recognize this entity by considering GPD1 mutations in appropriate clinical settings. PMID:27368975

  2. Fermentation and alternative respiration compensate for NADH dehydrogenase deficiency in a prokaryotic model of DJ-1-associated Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Messaoudi, Nadia; Gautier, Valérie; Dairou, Julien; Mihoub, Mouhad; Lelandais, Gaëlle; Bouloc, Philippe; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Richarme, Gilbert

    2015-11-01

    YajL is the closest prokaryotic homologue of Parkinson's disease-associated DJ-1, a protein of undefined function involved in the oxidative stress response. We reported recently that YajL and DJ-1 protect cells against oxidative stress-induced protein aggregation by acting as covalent chaperones for the thiol proteome, including the NuoG subunit of NADH dehydrogenase 1, and that NADH dehydrogenase 1 activity is negligible in the yajL mutant. We report here that this mutant compensates for low NADH dehydrogenase activity by utilizing NADH-independent alternative dehydrogenases, including pyruvate oxidase PoxB and d-amino acid dehydrogenase DadA, and mixed acid aerobic fermentations characterized by acetate, lactate, succinate and ethanol excretion. The yajL mutant has a low adenylate energy charge favouring glycolytic flux, and a high NADH/NAD ratio favouring fermentations over pyruvate dehydrogenase and the Krebs cycle. DNA array analysis showed upregulation of genes involved in glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways and alternative respiratory pathways. Moreover, the yajL mutant preferentially catabolized pyruvate-forming amino acids over Krebs cycle-related amino acids, and thus the yajL mutant utilizes pyruvate-centred respiro-fermentative metabolism to compensate for the NADH dehydrogenase 1 defect and constitutes an interesting model for studying eukaryotic respiratory complex I deficiencies, especially those associated with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  3. A hemolysis trigger in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. Vicia sativa (Vetch).

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2009-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme, playing an important role in the redox metabolism of all aerobic cells. It was reported that certain medications, fava beans, and infections can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency. An 8-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with blood in the urine, headache, dizziness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice in the eyes, 24 hours after eating large amounts of fresh, vetch grains. Laboratory investigation revealed hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and G6PD deficiency. Approximately 0.5% of fava bean seeds have 2 pyrimidine beta-glycosides called, vicine and convicine. Vetch has 0.731% vicine, 0.081% convicine, and 0.530% beta cyanoalanine glycosides. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the importance of vetch seeds as a cause for hemolytic crisis in our country, where approximately one million tons of vetch is produced per year, especially in the agricultural regions.

  4. Efficacy of vigabatrin intervention in a mild phenotypic expression of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Casarano, M; Alessandrì, M G; Salomons, G S; Moretti, E; Jakobs, C; Gibson, K M; Cioni, G; Battini, R

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency who presented a mild phenotype including developmental language delay, in association with the typical elevations of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biological fluids and MRI alterations. Two pathogenic mutations were identified one transversion (c.278 G>T) in exon 1 and another (c.1557 T>G) in exon 10. Both parents are carriers of one of the mutations, confirming compound-heterozygosity in their affected child. To reduce the GHB levels in body fluids, a treatment with vigabatrin at low dose (25 mg/kg per day) was started, monitoring its efficacy by clinical and neurochemical follow-up. After 9 months of therapy with vigabatrin, a significant reduction of GHB concentrations in urine and CSF was observed; after 36 months, a significant improvement of communicative skills, not previously reported, was referred. These results support the hypothesis that the clinical improvement is correlated to the reduction in the GHB levels and the importance of considering the SSADH deficiency in the differential diagnosis of patients with mental retardation and language delay. PMID:23430864

  5. A hemolysis trigger in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme deficiency. Vicia sativa (Vetch).

    PubMed

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2009-02-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is an enzyme, playing an important role in the redox metabolism of all aerobic cells. It was reported that certain medications, fava beans, and infections can trigger acute hemolytic anemia in patients with G6PD deficiency. An 8-year-old male patient was admitted to the hospital with blood in the urine, headache, dizziness, fatigue, loss of appetite, and jaundice in the eyes, 24 hours after eating large amounts of fresh, vetch grains. Laboratory investigation revealed hemolytic anemia, hyperbilirubinemia, and G6PD deficiency. Approximately 0.5% of fava bean seeds have 2 pyrimidine beta-glycosides called, vicine and convicine. Vetch has 0.731% vicine, 0.081% convicine, and 0.530% beta cyanoalanine glycosides. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the importance of vetch seeds as a cause for hemolytic crisis in our country, where approximately one million tons of vetch is produced per year, especially in the agricultural regions. PMID:19198723

  6. Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice with Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (LCAD) or Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase (VLCAD) Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Keith B.; Liu, Jian; Tian, Liqun; Barnes, Stephen; Yang, Qinglin; Wood, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a common finding in human patients with inborn errors of long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Mice with either very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD−/−) or long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD−/−) develop cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy, initially measured using heart/body weight ratios, was manifested most severely in LCAD−/− male mice. VLCAD−/− mice, as a group, showed a mild increase in normalized cardiac mass (8.8% hypertrophy compared to all wild-type [WT] mice). In contrast, LCAD−/− mice as a group showed more severe cardiac hypertrophy (32.2% increase compared to all WT mice). Based on a clear male predilection, we investigated the role of dietary plant estrogenic compounds commonly found in mouse diets due to soy or alfalfa components providing natural phytoestrogens or isoflavones in cardioprotection of LCAD−/− mice. Male LCAD−/− mice fed an isoflavone-free test diet had more severe cardiac hypertrophy (58.1% hypertrophy compared to WT mice fed the same diet. There were no significant differences in the female groups fed any of the diets. Echocardiography measurement performed on male LCAD deficient mice fed a standard diet at ~3 months of age confirmed the substantial cardiac hypertrophy in these mice compared with WT controls. Left ventricular wall thickness of interventricular septum and posterior wall was remarkably increased in LCAD−/− mice compared with that of WT controls. Accordingly, the calculated LV mass after normalization to body weight was increased about 40% in the LCAD−/− mice compared with WT mice. In summary, we found that metabolic cardiomyopathy, expressed as hypertrophy, developed in mice due to either VLCAD deficiency or LCAD deficiency; however, LCAD deficiency was the most profound and appeared to be attenuated either by endogenous estrogen in females or phytoestrogens in the diet as isoflavones in males. PMID:19736549

  7. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  8. Genetic heterogeneity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in south-east Sicily.

    PubMed

    Cittadella, R; Civitelli, D; Manna, I; Azzia, N; Di Cataldo, A; Schilirò, G; Brancati, C

    1997-05-01

    In order to explore the nature of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in south-east Sicily, we have analysed the G6PD gene in 25 unrelated males with abnormal G6PD activity and/or electrophoretic mobility, by using the analysis of the appropriate PCR-amplified fragment of DNA and subsequent digestion by appropriate restriction-enzymes, looking for the presence of certain known G6PD mutations. We amplified the entire G6PD coding sequence into eight fragments, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of those individual fragments that were found to be abnormal by SSCP. Through these methods we found a total of twelve G6PD Mediterranean variants with the association of a silent mutation 1311 (also known as polymorphic site Bcl I), one G6PD Mediterranean without this association, four G6PD A-Val 68 and two G6PD Santamaria and five G6PD Chatham. In a subject with normal activity a mutation was found in exon 5, designated as G6PD Sao Borja. This is the first report on the molecular analysis of G6PD mutations in Sicily and we have obtained evidence for four distinct classes of variants.

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency A- variant in febrile patients in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tamar E; Maloy, Halley; von Fricken, Michael; St Victor, Yves; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A; Mulligan, Connie J

    2014-08-01

    Haiti is one of two remaining malaria-endemic countries in the Caribbean. To decrease malaria transmission in Haiti, primaquine was recently added to the malaria treatment public health policy. One limitation of primaquine is that, at certain doses, primaquine can cause hemolytic anemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd). In this study, we genotyped two mutations (A376G and G202A), which confer the most common G6PDd variant in West African populations, G6PDd A-. We estimated the frequency of G6PDd A- in a sample of febrile patients enrolled in an on-going malaria study who represent a potential target population for a primaquine mass drug administration. We found that 33 of 168 individuals carried the G6PDd A- allele (includes A- hemizygous males, A- homozygous or heterozygous females) and could experience toxicity if treated with primaquine. These data inform discussions on safe and effective primaquine dosing and future malaria elimination strategies for Haiti.

  10. Dental Considerations in Children with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Favism): A Review of the Literature and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Daniela; Butrón-Téllez Girón, Claudia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an uncommon inherited enzyme deficiency characterized by hemolytic anemia, caused by the inability of erythrocytes to detoxify oxidizing agents such as drugs, infectious diseases, or fava bean ingestion. In this later case, the disorder is known as favism. The aim of the present report was to present a review of the literature in this disease, to describe a case report concerning an affected 9-year-old male, and to review the main implications and precautions in pediatric dental management.

  11. Dental Considerations in Children with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Favism): A Review of the Literature and Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Daniela; Butrón-Téllez Girón, Claudia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an uncommon inherited enzyme deficiency characterized by hemolytic anemia, caused by the inability of erythrocytes to detoxify oxidizing agents such as drugs, infectious diseases, or fava bean ingestion. In this later case, the disorder is known as favism. The aim of the present report was to present a review of the literature in this disease, to describe a case report concerning an affected 9-year-old male, and to review the main implications and precautions in pediatric dental management. PMID:26435857

  12. Dental Considerations in Children with Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Favism): A Review of the Literature and Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pérez, Daniela; Butrón-Téllez Girón, Claudia; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro; Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Pozos-Guillén, Amaury

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an uncommon inherited enzyme deficiency characterized by hemolytic anemia, caused by the inability of erythrocytes to detoxify oxidizing agents such as drugs, infectious diseases, or fava bean ingestion. In this later case, the disorder is known as favism. The aim of the present report was to present a review of the literature in this disease, to describe a case report concerning an affected 9-year-old male, and to review the main implications and precautions in pediatric dental management. PMID:26435857

  13. Mutations in the genes encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase interact to cause cortisone reductase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Draper, Nicole; Walker, Elizabeth A; Bujalska, Iwona J; Tomlinson, Jeremy W; Chalder, Susan M; Arlt, Wiebke; Lavery, Gareth G; Bedendo, Oliver; Ray, David W; Laing, Ian; Malunowicz, Ewa; White, Perrin C; Hewison, Martin; Mason, Philip J; Connell, John M; Shackleton, Cedric H L; Stewart, Paul M

    2003-08-01

    In cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD), activation of cortisone to cortisol does not occur, resulting in adrenocorticotropin-mediated androgen excess and a phenotype resembling polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; refs. 1,2). This suggests a defect in the gene HSD11B1 encoding 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), a primary regulator of tissue-specific glucocorticoid bioavailability. We identified intronic mutations in HSD11B1 that resulted in reduced gene transcription in three individuals with CRD. In vivo, 11beta-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol whereas purified enzyme acts as a dehydrogenase converting cortisol to cortisone. Oxo-reductase activity can be regained using a NADPH-regeneration system and the cytosolic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. But the catalytic domain of 11beta-HSD1 faces into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER; ref. 6). We hypothesized that endolumenal hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) regenerates NADPH in the ER, thereby influencing directionality of 11beta-HSD1 activity. Mutations in exon 5 of H6PD in individuals with CRD attenuated or abolished H6PDH activity. These individuals have mutations in both HSD11B1 and H6PD in a triallelic digenic model of inheritance, resulting in low 11beta-HSD1 expression and ER NADPH generation with loss of 11beta-HSD1 oxo-reductase activity. CRD defines a new ER-specific redox potential and establishes H6PDH as a potential factor in the pathogenesis of PCOS. PMID:12858176

  14. Newborn screening for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: regional experience and high incidence of carnitine deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is the most common inherited defect in the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathway, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in undiagnosed patients. Newborn screening (NBS) has considerably improved MCADD outcome, but the risk of complication remains in some patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between genotype, biochemical parameters and clinical data at diagnosis and during follow-up, in order to optimize monitoring of these patients. Methods We carried out a multicenter study in southwest Europe, of MCADD patients detected by NBS. Evaluated NBS data included free carnitine (C0) and the acylcarnitines C8, C10, C10:1 together with C8/C2 and C8/C10 ratios, clinical presentation parameters and genotype, in 45 patients. Follow-up data included C0 levels, duration of carnitine supplementation and occurrence of metabolic crises. Results C8/C2 ratio and C8 were the most accurate biomarkers of MCADD in NBS. We found a high number of patients homozygous for the prevalent c.985A > G mutation (75%). Moreover, in these patients C8, C8/C10 and C8/C2 were higher than in patients with other genotypes, while median value of C0 was significantly lower (23 μmol/L vs 36 μmol/L). The average follow-up period was 43 months. To keep carnitine levels within the normal range, carnitine supplementation was required in 82% of patients, and for a longer period in patients homozygotes for the c.985A>G mutation than in patients with other genotypes (average 31 vs 18 months). Even with treatment, median C0 levels remained lower in homozygous patients than in those with other genotypes (14 μmol/L vs 22 μmol/L). Two patients died and another three suffered a metabolic crisis, all of whom were homozygous for the c.985 A>G mutation. Conclusions Our data show a direct association between homozygosity for c.985A>G and lower carnitine values at diagnosis, and a higher dose of carnitine

  15. Equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in 14 horses associated with ingestion of Maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum).

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Kranenburg, L C; Duran, M; Dijkstra, J A; van der Lugt, J J; Wanders, R J A; Gruys, E

    2010-01-01

    This case-series describes fourteen horses suspected of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) also known as atypical myopathy of which seven cases were confirmed biochemically with all horses having had access to leaves of the Maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum). Assessment of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines in urine was regarded as gold standard in the biochemical diagnosis of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  16. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 Deficiency Aggravates Cardiac Dysfunction Elicited by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Induction

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Jianquan; Sun, Aijun; Xie, Yeqing; Isse, Toyoshi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) has been characterized as an important mediator of endogenous cytoprotection in the heart. This study was designed to examine the role of ALDH2 knockout (KO) in the regulation of cardiac function after endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Wild-type (WT) and ALDH2 KO mice were subjected to a tunicamycin challenge, and the echocardiographic property was examined. Protein levels of six items—78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit α (p-eIF2α), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), phosphorylation of Akt, p47phox nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and 4-hydroxynonenal—were determined by using Western blot analysis. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis were estimated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and caspase-3 activity, respectively. ALDH2 deficiency exacerbated cardiac contractile dysfunction and promoted ER stress after ER stress induction, manifested by the changes of ejection fraction and fractional shortening. In vitro study revealed that tunicamycin significantly upregulated the levels of GRP78, p-eIF2α, CHOP, p47phox NADPH oxidase and 4-hydroxynonenal, which was exacerbated by ALDH2 knockdown and abolished by ALDH2 overexpression, respectively. Overexpression of ALDH2 abrogated tunicamycin-induced dephosphorylation Akt. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase using LY294002 did not affect ALDH2-conferred protection against ER stress, although LY294002 reversed the antiapoptotic action of ALDH2 associated with p47phox NADPH oxidase. These results suggest a pivotal role of ALDH2 in the regulation of ER stress and ER stress–induced apoptosis. The protective role of ALDH2 against ER stress–induced cell death was probably mediated by Akt via a p47phox NADPH oxidase-dependent manner. These findings indicate the critical role of ALDH2 in the pathogenesis of ER stress

  17. Molecular basis of dimethylglycine dehydrogenase deficiency associated with pathogenic variant H109R

    PubMed Central

    McAndrew, R. P.; Vockley, J.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase (DMGDH) is a mitochondrial matrix flavoprotein that catalyses the demethylation of dimethylglycine to form sarcosine, accompanied by the reduction of the covalently bound FAD cofactor. Electron-transfer flavoprotein reoxidizes the reduced flavin and transfers reducing equivalents to the main mitochondrial respiratory chain through the enzyme ETF-ubiquinone oxidoreductase. DMGDH plays a prominent role in choline and 1-carbon metabolism. We have expressed the mature form of human DMGDH and the H109R variant identified in a DMGDH-deficient patient as N-terminally His6-tagged proteins in E. coli. The enzymes were purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity and anion exchange chromatography. The presence of FAD in the wild-type enzyme was confirmed by spectrophotometric analysis. The H109R variant, however, had only 47% of the wild-type level of bound flavin as expressed in E. coli, indicating its reduced affinity for FAD As previously described for rat enzyme studies, the wild-type human enzyme exhibited two Km values for N,N-dimethylglycine (Km1 = 0.039 ± 0.010 mmol/L and Km2 = 15.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L). The addition of 4 μmol/L tetrahydrofolate resulted in a slight decrease in specific activity and a substantial decrease in Km2 (1.10 ± 0.55 mmol/L). The flavinated H109R variant protein exhibited a 27-fold decrease in specific activity and a 65-fold increase in Km, explaining its pathogenicity. Additionally, the current expression system represents a significant improvement over a previously described rat DMGDH expression system and will enhance our ability to further study this important metabolic enzyme. PMID:18937046

  18. Nutritional marginal zinc deficiency disrupts placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 modulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Supasai, S; Kucera, H; Gaikwad, N W; Adamo, A M; Mathieu, P; Oteiza, P I

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigated if marginal zinc nutrition during gestation could affect fetal exposure to glucocorticoids as a consequence of a deregulation of placental 11βHSD2 expression. Placenta 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) plays a central role as a barrier protecting the fetus from the deleterious effects of excess maternal glucocorticoids. Rats were fed control (25 μg zinc per g diet) or marginal (10 μg zinc per g diet, MZD) zinc diets from day 0 through day 19 (GD19) of gestation. At GD19, corticosterone concentration in plasma, placenta, and amniotic fluid was similar in both groups. However, protein and mRNA levels of placenta 11βHSD2 were significantly higher (25% and 58%, respectively) in MZD dams than in controls. The main signaling cascades modulating 11βHSD2 expression were assessed. In MZD placentas the activation of ERK1/2 and of the downstream transcription factor Egr-1 was low, while p38 phosphorylation and SP-1-DNA binding were low compared to the controls. These results point to a central role of ERK1/Egr-1 in the regulation of 11βHSD2 expression under the conditions of limited zinc availability. In summary, results show that an increase in placenta 11βHSD2 expression occurs as a consequence of gestational marginal zinc nutrition. This seems to be due to a low tissue zinc-associated deregulation of ERK1/2 rather than to exposure to high maternal glucocorticoid exposure. The deleterious effects on brain development caused by diet-induced marginal zinc deficiency in rats do not seem to be due to fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids.

  19. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Improves Insulin Resistance With Reduced Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Ham, Mira; Choe, Sung Sik; Shin, Kyung Cheul; Choi, Goun; Kim, Ji-Won; Noh, Jung-Ran; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Ryu, Je-Won; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jae Bum

    2016-09-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway, plays important roles in redox regulation and de novo lipogenesis. It was recently demonstrated that aberrant upregulation of G6PD in obese adipose tissue mediates insulin resistance as a result of imbalanced energy metabolism and oxidative stress. It remains elusive, however, whether inhibition of G6PD in vivo may relieve obesity-induced insulin resistance. In this study we showed that a hematopoietic G6PD defect alleviates insulin resistance in obesity, accompanied by reduced adipose tissue inflammation. Compared with wild-type littermates, G6PD-deficient mutant (G6PD(mut)) mice were glucose tolerant upon high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding. Intriguingly, the expression of NADPH oxidase genes to produce reactive oxygen species was alleviated, whereas that of antioxidant genes was enhanced in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed G6PD(mut) mice. In diet-induced obesity (DIO), the adipose tissue of G6PD(mut) mice decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by downregulated proinflammatory macrophages. Accordingly, macrophages from G6PD(mut) mice greatly suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory signaling cascades, leading to enhanced insulin sensitivity in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of G6PD(mut) bone marrow to wild-type mice attenuated adipose tissue inflammation and improved glucose tolerance in DIO. Collectively, these data suggest that inhibition of macrophage G6PD would ameliorate insulin resistance in obesity through suppression of proinflammatory responses. PMID:27284106

  20. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 deficiency ameliorates alcoholic fatty liver but worsens liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyo-Jung; Won, Young-Suk; Park, Ogyi; Chang, Binxia; Duryee, Michael J.; Thiele, Geoffrey E.; Matsumoto, Akiko; Singh, Surendra; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Song, Byoung-Joon; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Gao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde produced from alcohol metabolism. Approximately 40~50% of East Asians carry an inactive ALDH2 gene and exhibit acetaldehyde accumulation after alcohol consumption. However, the role of ALDH2 deficiency in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury remains obscure. In the present study, wild-type and ALDH2−/− mice were subjected to ethanol feeding and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) treatment, and liver injury was assessed. Compared with wild-type mice, ethanol-fed ALDH2−/− mice had higher levels of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA) adduct and greater hepatic inflammation, with higher hepatic IL-6 expression but surprisingly lower levels of steatosis and serum ALT. Higher IL-6 levels were also detected in ethanol-treated precision-cut-liver-slices from ALDH2−/− mice and in Kupffer cells isolated from ethanol-fed ALDH2−/− mice than those levels in wild-type mice. In vitro incubation with MAA enhanced the LPS-mediated stimulation of IL-6 production in Kupffer cells. In agreement with these findings, hepatic activation of the major IL-6 downstream signaling molecule signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was higher in ethanol-fed ALDH2−/− mice than in wild-type mice. An additional deletion of hepatic STAT3 increased steatosis and hepatocellular damage in ALDH2−/− mice. Finally, ethanol-fed ALDH2−/− mice were more prone to CCl4-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis than ethanol-fed wild-type mice. Conclusions: ALDH2−/− mice are resistant to ethanol-induced steatosis but prone to inflammation and fibrosis via MAA-mediated paracrine activation of IL-6 in Kupffer cells. These findings suggest that alcohol, via acetaldehyde and its associated adducts, stimulates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis independent from causing hepatocyte death, and that ALDH2-deficient individuals may be resistant to steatosis and blood ALT elevation, but are

  1. Red cell glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the northern region of Turkey: is G6PD deficiency exclusively a male disease?

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut

    2015-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked recessive genetic defect that can cause hemolytic crisis. However, this disease affects both males and females. In Turkey, the frequency of this enzyme deficiency was reported to vary, from 0.25 to 18%, by the geographical area. Its prevalence in the northern Black Sea region of Turkey is unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in the northern region Turkey in children and adults with hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic anemia. This report included a total of 976 G6PD enzyme results that were analyzed between May 2005 and January 2014. G6PD deficiency was detected in 5.0% of all patients. G6PD deficiency was significantly less frequent in females (1.9%, 6/323) than in males (6.6%, 43/653). G6PD deficiency was detected in 3.7% of infants with hyperbilirubinemia, 9.2% of children, and 4.5% of adults with hemolytic anemia. In both the newborn group and the group of children, G6PD deficiency was significantly more frequent in males. In the combined group of children (groups I and II), the proportion of males was 74% and 67% in all groups (P = .0008). In conclusion, in northern region of Turkey, G6PD deficiency is an important cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and hemolytic crisis in children and adults. This study suggests that most pediatricians thought that G6PD deficiency is exclusively a male disease. For this reason, some female patients may have been undiagnosed.

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among children attending the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, IZ; Mainasara, AS; Erhabor, Osaro; Omojuyigbe, ST; Dallatu, MK; Bilbis, LS; Adias, TC

    2013-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human enzyme deficiencies in the world. It is particularly common in populations living in malaria-endemic areas, affecting more than 400 million people worldwide. This present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children visiting the Emergency Paediatric Unit of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital for pediatric-related care. The study included 118 children, made up of 77 (65.3%) males and 41 (34.7%) females aged ≤5 years with mean age of 3.26 ± 1.90 years. Randox G6PD quantitative in vitro test screening was used for the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency. Of the 118 children tested, 17 (14.4%) were G6PD-deficient. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency was concentrated predominantly among male children (22.1%). Male sex was significantly correlated with G6PD deficiency among the children studied (r = 7.85, P = 0.01). The highest prevalence occurred among children in the 2- to 5-year age-group. Of the 17 G6PD-deficient children, twelve (70.2%) were moderately deficient, while five (29.4%) were severely deficient. Blood film from G6PD-deficient children indicated the following morphological changes; Heinz bodies, schistocytes, target cells, nucleated red cells, spherocytes, and polychromasia. This present study has shown a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among children residing in Sokoto in the northwestern geopolitical zone of Nigeria. The study indicated a male sex bias in the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the children studied. There is a need for the routine screening of children for G6PD deficiency in our environment, to allow for evidence-based management of these children and to ensure the avoidance of food, drugs, and infective agents that can potentially predispose these children to oxidative stress as well as diseases that deplete micronutrients that protect against oxidative stress. There is need to build capacity in our

  3. Cryopreservation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity inside red blood cells: developing a specimen repository in support of development and evaluation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a common human enzyme deficiency. It is characterized by abnormally low levels of G6PD activity. Individuals with G6PD deficiency are at risk of undergoing acute haemolysis when exposed to 8‒aminoquinoline-based drugs, such as primaquine. For this reason it is imperative to identify individuals with G6PD deficiency prior to administering these anti-malarial drugs. There is a need for the development and evaluation of point-of-care G6PD deficiency screening tests suitable for areas of the developing world where malarial treatments are frequently administered. The development and evaluation of new G6PD tests will be greatly assisted with the availability of specimen repositories. Methods Cryopreservation of erythrocytes was evaluated as a means to preserve G6PD activity. Blood specimens from 31 patients including ten specimens with normal G6PD activity, three with intermediate activity, and 18 with deficient activity were cryopreserved for up to six months. Results Good correlation in G6PD activity between fresh and cryopreserved specimens (R2 = 0.95). The cryopreserved specimens show an overall small drop in mean G6PD activity of 0.23 U/g Hb (P=0.23). Cytochemical staining showed that intracellular G6PD activity distribution within the red blood cell populations is preserved during cryopreservation. Furthermore, the mosaic composition of red blood cells in heterozygous women is also preserved for six months or more. The fluorescent spot and the BinaxNOW qualitative tests for G6PD deficiency also showed high concordance in G6PD status determination between cryopreserved specimens and fresh specimens. Conclusions A methodology for establishing a specimen panel for evaluation of G6PD tests is described. The approach is similar to that used in several malaria research facilities for the cryopreservation of parasites in clinical specimens and axenic cultures. Specimens stored in this manner will aid

  4. Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia in a Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD)-Deficient Geriatric Trauma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Födinger, Agnes M.; Kammerlander, Christian; Luger, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a genetic enzymatic disorder causing hemolytic anemia. Exposure to drugs is considered to be the most common cause of acute hemolysis in patients with G6PD deficiency. Experience with regional anesthesia, in particular peripheral nerve blocks, is rarely described in patients with G6PD deficiency, but is of great clinical interest. For this reason, we now report on the successful management of ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block in a patient with geriatric G6PD deficiency. Case report: A female, 75-year-old geriatric trauma patient with G6PD deficiency and a fracture of the left forearm, was scheduled for osteosynthesis of the left forearm. For surgery regional anesthesia with ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with 30 mL bupivacaine 0.5% was established. Surgical operation und postoperative course were uneventful and with no signs of hemolysis. Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block with bupivacaine was a safe and effective technique in this patient with G6PD deficiency. Peripheral nerve block is a major analgesic approach and of great value for anesthesiologists and surgeons, especially in our aging and multimorbid society. PMID:23569708

  5. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the Ouest and Sud-Est departments of Haiti.

    PubMed

    von Fricken, Michael E; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Eaton, Will T; Alam, Meer T; Carter, Tamar E; Schick, Laura; Masse, Roseline; Romain, Jean R; Okech, Bernard A

    2014-07-01

    Malaria remains a significant public health issue in Haiti, with chloroquine (CQ) used almost exclusively for the treatment of uncomplicated infections. Recently, single dose primaquine (PQ) was added to the Haitian national malaria treatment policy, despite a lack of information on the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency within the population. G6PD deficient individuals who take PQ are at risk of developing drug induced hemolysis (DIH). In this first study to examine G6PD deficiency rates in Haiti, 22.8% (range 14.9%-24.7%) of participants were found to be G6PD deficient (class I, II, or III) with 2.0% (16/800) of participants having severe deficiency (class I and II). Differences in deficiency were observed by gender, with males having a much higher prevalence of severe deficiency (4.3% vs. 0.4%) compared to females. Male participants were 1.6 times more likely to be classified as deficient and 10.6 times more likely to be classified as severely deficient compared to females, as expected. Finally, 10.6% (85/800) of the participants were considered to be at risk for DIH. Males also had much higher rates than females (19.3% vs. 4.6%) with 4.9 times greater likelihood (p value 0.000) of having an activity level that could lead to DIH. These findings provide useful information to policymakers and clinicians who are responsible for the implementation of PQ to control and manage malaria in Haiti.

  6. Citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice recapitulate features of human citrin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Saheki, Takeyori; Iijima, Mikio; Li, Meng Xian; Kobayashi, Keiko; Horiuchi, Masahisa; Ushikai, Miharu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Meng, Xiao Jian; Inoue, Ituro; Tajima, Atsushi; Moriyama, Mitsuaki; Eto, Kazuhiro; Kadowaki, Takashi; Sinasac, David S; Tsui, Lap-Chee; Tsuji, Mihoko; Okano, Akira; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi

    2007-08-24

    Citrin is the liver-type mitochondrial aspartate-glutamate carrier that participates in urea, protein, and nucleotide biosynthetic pathways by supplying aspartate from mitochondria to the cytosol. Citrin also plays a role in transporting cytosolic NADH reducing equivalents into mitochondria as a component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In humans, loss-of-function mutations in the SLC25A13 gene encoding citrin cause both adult-onset type II citrullinemia and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis, collectively referred to as human citrin deficiency. Citrin knock-out mice fail to display features of human citrin deficiency. Based on the hypothesis that an enhanced glycerol phosphate shuttle activity may be compensating for the loss of citrin function in the mouse, we have generated mice with a combined disruption of the genes for citrin and mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The resulting double knock-out mice demonstrated citrullinemia, hyperammonemia that was further elevated by oral sucrose administration, hypoglycemia, and a fatty liver, all features of human citrin deficiency. An increased hepatic lactate/pyruvate ratio in the double knock-out mice compared with controls was also further elevated by the oral sucrose administration, suggesting that an altered cytosolic NADH/NAD(+) ratio is closely associated with the hyperammonemia observed. Microarray analyses identified over 100 genes that were differentially expressed in the double knock-out mice compared with wild-type controls, revealing genes potentially involved in compensatory or downstream effects of the combined mutations. Together, our data indicate that the more severe phenotype present in the citrin/mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase double knock-out mice represents a more accurate model of human citrin deficiency than citrin knock-out mice.

  7. Prevalence of thalassaemia, iron-deficiency anaemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among Arab migrating nomad children, southern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Pasalar, M; Mehrabani, D; Afrasiabi, A; Mehravar, Z; Reyhani, I; Hamidi, R; Karimi, M

    2014-12-17

    This study investigated the prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia trait among Arab migrating nomad children in southern Islamic Republic of Iran. Blood samples were analysed from 134 schoolchildren aged < 18 years (51 males, 83 females). Low serum ferritin (< 12 ng/dL) was present in 17.9% of children (21.7% in females and 11.8% in males). Low haemoglobin (Hb) correlated significantly with a low serum ferritin. Only 1 child had G6PD deficiency. A total of 9.7% of children had HbA2 ≥ 3.5 g/dL, indicating β-thalassaemia trait (10.8% in females and 7.8% in males). Mean serum iron, serum ferritin and total iron binding capacity were similar in males and females. Serum ferritin index was as accurate as Hb index in the diagnosis of iron-deficiency anaemia. A high prevalence of β-thalassaemia trait was the major potential risk factor in this population.

  8. Canine malignant hyperthermia susceptibility: erythrocytic defects--osmotic fragility, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, P J; Forsyth, G W; Olexson, D W; Thatte, H S; Addis, P B

    1984-01-01

    Two dogs were diagnosed as malignant hyperthermia susceptible based on increased susceptibility (P less than 0.001) of biopsied muscle to caffeine-induced contracture. Erythrocytes from malignant hyperthermia and normal dogs were then examined for an antioxidant system deficiency. Values for serum muscle enzymes, reticulocytes and corpuscular hemoglobin were mildly elevated. Osmotic fragility was increased: hemolysis occurred at a NaCl concentration 10 mM higher than for normal dogs (P less than 0.001). A 35% glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (P less than 0.001) with a 40% compensatory increase (P less than 0.01) in 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase activity was found. The membrane Ca2+-activated ATPase activity was abnormal: 100% increased with a 40% decreased Arrhenius activation energy (P less than 0.005) and increased thermostability. A 40% increased intracellular accumulation of total Ca2+ occurred in response to in vitro energy depletion in erythrocytes from one malignant hyperthermia dog (P less than 0.01). The multifactorial pattern of inheritance and the broad spectrum of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility are proposed to result from an antioxidant system deficit unmasking or aggravating an intrinsic muscle membrane anomaly. An individual from a family with a history of malignant hyperthermia or unexplained anesthetic death should be considered malignant hyperthermia susceptible if erythrocyte osmotic fragility is abnormal and there is a mild, unexplained elevation in serum creatine kinase. PMID:6150753

  9. Characterization of Arabidopsis lines deficient in GAPC-1, a cytosolic NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Rius, Sebastián P; Casati, Paula; Iglesias, Alberto A; Gomez-Casati, Diego F

    2008-11-01

    Phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-P dehydrogenase (GAPC-1) is a highly conserved cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of glyceraldehyde-3-P to 1,3-bis-phosphoglycerate; besides its participation in glycolysis, it is thought to be involved in additional cellular functions. To reach an integrative view on the many roles played by this enzyme, we characterized a homozygous gapc-1 null mutant and an as-GAPC1 line of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Both mutant plant lines show a delay in growth, morphological alterations in siliques, and low seed number. Embryo development was altered, showing abortions and empty embryonic sacs in basal and apical siliques, respectively. The gapc-1 line shows a decrease in ATP levels and reduced respiratory rate. Furthermore, both lines exhibit a decrease in the expression and activity of aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase and reduced levels of pyruvate and several Krebs cycle intermediates, as well as increased reactive oxygen species levels. Transcriptome analysis of the gapc-1 mutants unveils a differential accumulation of transcripts encoding for enzymes involved in carbon partitioning. According to these studies, some enzymes involved in carbon flux decreased (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, NAD-malic enzyme, glucose-6-P dehydrogenase) or increased (NAD-malate dehydrogenase) their activities compared to the wild-type line. Taken together, our data indicate that a deficiency in the cytosolic GAPC activity results in modifications of carbon flux and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to an alteration of plant and embryo development with decreased number of seeds, indicating that GAPC-1 is essential for normal fertility in Arabidopsis plants. PMID:18820081

  10. Nuclear enrichment of folate cofactors and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) protect de novo thymidylate biosynthesis during folate deficiency.

    PubMed

    Field, Martha S; Kamynina, Elena; Agunloye, Olufunmilayo C; Liebenthal, Rebecca P; Lamarre, Simon G; Brosnan, Margaret E; Brosnan, John T; Stover, Patrick J

    2014-10-24

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is a metabolic network of interconnected pathways that is required for the de novo synthesis of three of the four DNA bases and the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Previous studies have indicated that the thymidylate synthesis and homocysteine remethylation pathways compete for a limiting pool of methylenetetrahydrofolate cofactors and that thymidylate biosynthesis is preserved in folate deficiency at the expense of homocysteine remethylation, but the mechanisms are unknown. Recently, it was shown that thymidylate synthesis occurs in the nucleus, whereas homocysteine remethylation occurs in the cytosol. In this study we demonstrate that methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), an enzyme that generates methylenetetrahydrofolate from formate, ATP, and NADPH, functions in the nucleus to support de novo thymidylate biosynthesis. MTHFD1 translocates to the nucleus in S-phase MCF-7 and HeLa cells. During folate deficiency mouse liver MTHFD1 levels are enriched in the nucleus >2-fold at the expense of levels in the cytosol. Furthermore, nuclear folate levels are resistant to folate depletion when total cellular folate levels are reduced by >50% in mouse liver. The enrichment of folate cofactors and MTHFD1 protein in the nucleus during folate deficiency in mouse liver and human cell lines accounts for previous metabolic studies that indicated 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate is preferentially directed toward de novo thymidylate biosynthesis at the expense of homocysteine remethylation during folate deficiency.

  11. Influence of the Inherited Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency on the Appearance of Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia in Southern Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Cherepnalkovski, Anet Papazovska; Marusic, Eugenija; Piperkova, Katica; Lozic, Bernarda; Skelin, Ana; Gruev, Todor; Krzelj, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical manifestation of the inherited glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the inherited G6PD deficiency on the appearance of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in southern Croatia. Methods: The fluorescent spot test (FST) was used in a retrospective study to screen blood samples of 513 male children who had neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, of unknown cause, higher than 240 μmol/L. Fluorescence readings were performed at the beginning and at the fifth and tenth minute of incubation and were classified into three groups bright fluorescence (BF), weak fluorescence (WF) and no fluorescence (NF). Normal samples show bright fluorescence. All NF and WF samples at the fifth minute were quantitatively measured using the spectrophotometric method. Results: Bright fluorescence was present in 461 patients (89.9%) at the fifth minute. The remaining 52 (10.1%) were quantitatively estimated using the spectrophotometric method. G6PD deficiency was observed in 38 patients (7.4%). Conclusions: Prevalence rate of G6PD deficiency among male newborns with hyperbilirubinemia in southern Croatia is significantly higher (p < 0.01) compared with the previously reported prevalence rate among male in general population of southern Croatia (0.75%). We recommend FST to be performed in hyperbilirubinemic newborns in southern Croatia. PMID:26635431

  12. Nuclear Enrichment of Folate Cofactors and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) Protect de Novo Thymidylate Biosynthesis during Folate Deficiency*

    PubMed Central

    Field, Martha S.; Kamynina, Elena; Agunloye, Olufunmilayo C.; Liebenthal, Rebecca P.; Lamarre, Simon G.; Brosnan, Margaret E.; Brosnan, John T.; Stover, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is a metabolic network of interconnected pathways that is required for the de novo synthesis of three of the four DNA bases and the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Previous studies have indicated that the thymidylate synthesis and homocysteine remethylation pathways compete for a limiting pool of methylenetetrahydrofolate cofactors and that thymidylate biosynthesis is preserved in folate deficiency at the expense of homocysteine remethylation, but the mechanisms are unknown. Recently, it was shown that thymidylate synthesis occurs in the nucleus, whereas homocysteine remethylation occurs in the cytosol. In this study we demonstrate that methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1), an enzyme that generates methylenetetrahydrofolate from formate, ATP, and NADPH, functions in the nucleus to support de novo thymidylate biosynthesis. MTHFD1 translocates to the nucleus in S-phase MCF-7 and HeLa cells. During folate deficiency mouse liver MTHFD1 levels are enriched in the nucleus >2-fold at the expense of levels in the cytosol. Furthermore, nuclear folate levels are resistant to folate depletion when total cellular folate levels are reduced by >50% in mouse liver. The enrichment of folate cofactors and MTHFD1 protein in the nucleus during folate deficiency in mouse liver and human cell lines accounts for previous metabolic studies that indicated 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate is preferentially directed toward de novo thymidylate biosynthesis at the expense of homocysteine remethylation during folate deficiency. PMID:25213861

  13. Molecular Characterization of Glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Families from the Republic of Macedonia and Genotype-phenotype Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Cherepnalkovski, Anet Papazovska; Zemunik, Tatijana; Glamocanin, Sofijanka; Piperkova, Katica; Gunjaca, Ivana; Kocheva, Svetlana; Jovanova, Biljana Coneska; Krzelj, Vjekoslav

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Glucose-6-phospahte dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is one of the most common inherited disorders affecting around 400 million people worldwide. Molecular analysis of the G6PD gene identified more than 140 distinct mutations, the majority being single base missense mutations. G6PD Mediterranean is the most common variant found in populations of the Mediterranean area. Aim: The aim of our study was to perform molecular characterization of G6PD deficiency in families from the Republic of Macedonia and correlate the findings to disease phenotype. Patients and methods: Six patients and seven other family members were selected for genetic characterization, the selection procedure involved clinical evaluation and G6PD quantitative testing. All patients were first screened for the Mediterranean mutation, and subsequently for the Seattle mutation. Mutations were detected using PCR amplification and appropriate restriction endonuclease cleavage. Results: Four hemizygote and 3 heterozygous carriers for G6PD Mediterranean were detected. All G6PD deficient patients from this group showed clinical picture of hemolysis, and in 66.6% neonatal jaundice was confirmed based on history data. To our knowledge, this is the first study concerned with molecular aspects of the G6PD deficiency in R. Macedonia. Conclusion: This study represents a step towards a more comprehensive genetic evaluation in our population and better understanding of the health issues involved. PMID:26622077

  14. Development and pathomechanisms of cardiomyopathy in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Hermann, Sven; Sturm, Marga; Schäfers, Michael; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a typical manifestation of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), the most common long-chain β-oxidation defects in humans; however in some patients cardiac function is fully compensated. Cardiomyopathy may also be reversed by supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). We here characterize cardiac function of VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice over one year. Furthermore, we investigate the long-term effect of a continuous MCT diet on the cardiac phenotype. We assessed cardiac morphology and function in VLCAD(-/-) mice by in vivo MRI. Cardiac energetics were measured by (31)P-MRS and myocardial glucose uptake was quantified by positron-emission-tomography (PET). Metabolic adaptations were identified by the expression of genes regulating glucose and lipid metabolism using real-time-PCR. VLCAD(-/-) mice showed a progressive decrease in heart function over 12 months accompanied by a reduced phosphocreatine-to-ATP-ratio indicative of chronic energy deficiency. Long-term MCT supplementation aggravated the cardiac phenotype into dilated cardiomyopathy with features similar to diabetic heart disease. Cardiac energy production and function in mice with a β-oxidation defect cannot be maintained with age. Compensatory mechanisms are insufficient to preserve the cardiac energy state over time. However, energy deficiency by impaired β-oxidation and long-term MCT induce cardiomyopathy by different mechanisms. Cardiac MRI and MRS may be excellent tools to assess minor changes in cardiac function and energetics in patients with β-oxidation defects for preventive therapy.

  15. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficient variants among the Kurdish population of Northern Iraq

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a key enzyme of the pentose monophosphate pathway, and its deficiency is the most common inherited enzymopathy worldwide. G6PD deficiency is common among Iraqis, including those of the Kurdish ethnic group, however no study of significance has ever addressed the molecular basis of this disorder in this population. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this enzymopathy and its molecular basis among Iraqi Kurds. Methods A total of 580 healthy male Kurdish Iraqis randomly selected from a main regional premarital screening center in Northern Iraq were screened for G6PD deficiency using methemoglobin reduction test. The results were confirmed by quantitative enzyme assay for the cases that showed G6PD deficiency. DNA analysis was performed on 115 G6PD deficient subjects, 50 from the premarital screening group and 65 unrelated Kurdish male patients with documented acute hemolytic episodes due to G6PD deficiency. Analysis was performed using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism for five deficient molecular variants, namely G6PD Mediterranean (563 C→T), G6PD Chatham (1003 G→A), G6PD A- (202 G→A), G6PD Aures (143 T→C) and G6PD Cosenza (1376 G→C), as well as the silent 1311 (C→T) mutation. Results Among 580 random Iraqi male Kurds, 63 (10.9%) had documented G6PD deficiency. Molecular studies performed on a total of 115 G6PD deficient males revealed that 101 (87.8%) had the G6PD Mediterranean variant and 10 (8.7%) had the G6PD Chatham variant. No cases of G6PD A-, G6PD Aures or G6PD Cosenza were identified, leaving 4 cases (3.5%) uncharacterized. Further molecular screening revealed that the silent mutation 1311 was present in 93/95 of the Mediterranean and 1/10 of the Chatham cases. Conclusions The current study revealed a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Iraqi Kurdish population of Northern Iraq with most cases being due to the G6PD Mediterranean and

  16. Complex changes in the liver mitochondrial proteome of short chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Mohsen, Al-Walid; Uechi, Guy; Schreiber, Emanuel; Balasubramani, Manimalha; Day, Billy; Michael Barmada, M; Vockley, Jerry

    2014-05-01

    Short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism that leads to the impaired mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation of short chain fatty acids. It is heterogeneous in clinical presentation including asymptomatic in most patients identified by newborn screening. Multiple mutations have been identified in patients; however, neither clear genotype-phenotype relationships nor a good correlation between genotype and current biochemical markers for diagnosis has been identified. The definition and pathophysiology of this deficiency remain unclear. To better understand this disorder at a global level, quantitative alterations in the mitochondrial proteome in SCAD deficient mice were examined using a combined proteomics approach: two-dimensional gel difference electrophoresis (2DIGE) followed by protein identification with MALDI-TOF/TOF and iTRAQ labeling followed by nano-LC/MALDI-TOF/TOF. We found broad mitochondrial dysfunction in SCAD deficiency. Changes in the levels of multiple energy metabolism related proteins were identified indicating that a more complex mechanism for development of symptoms may exist. Affected pathways converge on disorders with neurologic symptoms, suggesting that even asymptomatic individuals with SCAD deficiency may be at risk to develop more severe disease. Our results also identified a pattern associated with hepatotoxicity implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, fatty acid metabolism, decrease of depolarization of mitochondria and mitochondrial membranes, and swelling of mitochondria, demonstrating that SCAD deficiency relates more directly to mitochondrial dysfunction and alteration of fatty acid metabolism. We propose several candidate molecules that may serve as markers for recognition of clinical risk associated with this disorder.

  17. Increased and early lipolysis in children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency during fast.

    PubMed

    Haglind, C Bieneck; Nordenström, A; Ask, S; von Döbeln, U; Gustafsson, J; Stenlid, M Halldin

    2015-03-01

    Children with long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD) have a defect in the degradation of long-chain fatty acids and are at risk of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and insufficient energy production as well as accumulation of toxic fatty acid intermediates. Knowledge on substrate metabolism in children with LCHAD deficiency during fasting is limited. Treatment guidelines differ between centers, both as far as length of fasting periods and need for night feeds are concerned. To increase the understanding of fasting intolerance and improve treatment recommendations, children with LCHAD deficiency were investigated with stable isotope technique, microdialysis, and indirect calometry, in order to assess lipolysis and glucose production during 6 h of fasting. We found an early and increased lipolysis and accumulation of long chain acylcarnitines after 4 h of fasting, albeit no patients developed hypoglycemia. The rate of glycerol production, reflecting lipolysis, averaged 7.7 ± 1.6 µmol/kg/min, which is higher compared to that of peers. The rate of glucose production was normal for age; 19.6 ± 3.4 µmol/kg/min (3.5 ± 0.6 mg/kg/min). Resting energy expenditure was also normal, even though the respiratory quotient was increased indicating mainly glucose oxidation. The results show that lipolysis and accumulation of long chain acylcarnitines occurs before hypoglycemia in fasting children with LCHAD, which may indicate more limited fasting tolerance than previously suggested.

  18. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 and 4 gene deficiency attenuates nociceptive behaviors in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Rahman, Md Habibur; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinases (PDKs) 1-4, expressed in peripheral and central tissues, regulate the activity of the PDH complex (PDC). The PDC is an important mitochondrial gatekeeping enzyme that controls cellular metabolism. The role of PDKs in diverse neurological disorders, including neurometabolic aberrations and neurodegeneration, has been described. Implications for a role of PDKs in inflammation and neurometabolic coupling led us to investigate the effect of genetic ablation of PDK2/4 on nociception in a mouse model of acute inflammatory pain. Deficiency in Pdk2 and/or Pdk4 in mice led to attenuation of formalin-induced nociceptive behaviors (flinching, licking, biting, or lifting of the injected paw). Likewise, the pharmacological inhibition of PDKs substantially diminished the nociceptive responses in the second phase of the formalin test. Furthermore, formalin-provoked paw edema formation and mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities were significantly reduced in Pdk2/4-deficient mice. Formalin-driven neutrophil recruitment at the site of inflammation, spinal glial activation, and neuronal sensitization were substantially lessened in the second or late phase of the formalin test in Pdk2/4-deficient animals. Overall, our results suggest that PDK2/4 can be a potential target for the development of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of acute inflammatory pain. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26931482

  19. Fatty Acid Oxidation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... primary carnitine deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency. Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (also called LCHAD) . About ... generally have symptoms by about age 1. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (also called MCAD) . More ...

  20. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  1. Genetics Home Reference: 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... involved in breaking down the protein building block ( amino acid ) isoleucine and a group of fats called branched- ... system. Mutations that cause HSD10 deficiency change single amino acids in HSD10, which reduces or eliminates the activity ...

  2. Specific combination of compound heterozygous mutations in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4) defines a new subtype of D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background D-bifunctional protein (DBP) deficiency is typically apparent within the first month of life with most infants demonstrating hypotonia, psychomotor delay and seizures. Few children survive beyond two years of age. Among patients with prolonged survival all demonstrate severe gross motor delay, absent language development, and severe hearing and visual impairment. DBP contains three catalytically active domains; an N-terminal dehydrogenase, a central hydratase and a C-terminal sterol carrier protein-2-like domain. Three subtypes of the disease are identified based upon the domain affected; DBP type I results from a combined deficiency of dehydrogenase and hydratase activity; DBP type II from isolated hydratase deficiency and DBP type III from isolated dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we report two brothers (16½ and 14 years old) with DBP deficiency characterized by normal early childhood followed by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cerebellar and sensory ataxia and subclinical retinitis pigmentosa. Methods and results Biochemical analysis revealed normal levels of plasma VLCFA, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, and normal bile acids in urine; based on these results no diagnosis was made. Exome analysis was performed using the Agilent SureSelect 50Mb All Exon Kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 next-generation-sequencing (NGS) platform. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified by exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing within the dehydrogenase domain (c.101C>T; p.Ala34Val) and hydratase domain (c.1547T>C; p.Ile516Thr) of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 gene (HSD17B4). These mutations have been previously reported in patients with severe-forms of DBP deficiency, however each mutation was reported in combination with another mutation affecting the same domain. Subsequent studies in fibroblasts revealed normal VLCFA levels, normal C26:0 but reduced pristanic acid beta-oxidation activity. Both DBP hydratase and dehydrogenase

  3. Acute viral hepatitis E presenting with haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P

    2015-10-01

    The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management. PMID:25500531

  4. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD): Pathophysiological complexity and multifactorial trait associations in a rare monogenic disorder of GABA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, P; Roullet, J-B; Pearl, P L; Ainslie, G R; Vogel, K R; Gibson, K M

    2016-10-01

    Discovered some 35 years ago, succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD) represents a rare, autosomal recessively-inherited defect in the second step of the GABA degradative pathway. Some 200 patients have been reported, with broad phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity. SSADHD represents an unusual neurometabolic disorder in which two neuromodulatory agents, GABA (and the GABA analogue, 4-hydroxybutyrate), accumulate to supraphysiological levels. The unexpected occurrence of epilepsy in several patients is counterintuitive in view of the hyperGABAergic state, in which sedation might be expected. However, the epileptic status of some patients is most likely represented by broader imbalances of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. Cumulative research encompassing decades of basic and clinical study of SSADHD reveal a monogenic disease with broad pathophysiological and clinical phenotypes. Numerous metabolic perturbations unmasked in SSADHD include alterations in oxidative stress parameters, dysregulation of autophagy and mitophagy, dysregulation of both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters and gene expression, and unique subsets of SNP alterations of the SSADH gene (so-called ALDH5A1, or aldehyde dehydrogenase 5A1 gene) on the 6p22 chromosomal arm. While seemingly difficult to collate and interpret, these anomalies have continued to open novel pathways for pharmacotherapeutic considerations. Here, we present an update on selected aspects of SSADHD, the ALDH5A1 gene, and future avenues for research on this rare disorder of GABA metabolism. PMID:27311541

  5. Development and pathomechanisms of cardiomyopathy in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Hermann, Sven; Sturm, Marga; Schäfers, Michael; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2014-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is a typical manifestation of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD), the most common long-chain β-oxidation defects in humans; however in some patients cardiac function is fully compensated. Cardiomyopathy may also be reversed by supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). We here characterize cardiac function of VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-)) mice over one year. Furthermore, we investigate the long-term effect of a continuous MCT diet on the cardiac phenotype. We assessed cardiac morphology and function in VLCAD(-/-) mice by in vivo MRI. Cardiac energetics were measured by (31)P-MRS and myocardial glucose uptake was quantified by positron-emission-tomography (PET). Metabolic adaptations were identified by the expression of genes regulating glucose and lipid metabolism using real-time-PCR. VLCAD(-/-) mice showed a progressive decrease in heart function over 12 months accompanied by a reduced phosphocreatine-to-ATP-ratio indicative of chronic energy deficiency. Long-term MCT supplementation aggravated the cardiac phenotype into dilated cardiomyopathy with features similar to diabetic heart disease. Cardiac energy production and function in mice with a β-oxidation defect cannot be maintained with age. Compensatory mechanisms are insufficient to preserve the cardiac energy state over time. However, energy deficiency by impaired β-oxidation and long-term MCT induce cardiomyopathy by different mechanisms. Cardiac MRI and MRS may be excellent tools to assess minor changes in cardiac function and energetics in patients with β-oxidation defects for preventive therapy. PMID:24530811

  6. GD (--) Aachen, a new variant of deficient glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Clinical, genetic, biochemical aspects.

    PubMed

    Kahn, A; Esters, A; Habedank, M

    1976-05-19

    A deficient G-6PD variant was discovered in 4 males of one family from northwestern Germany. Five generations of this family could be studied. The deficient G-6PD was a new variant, called "Gd (--) Aachen". Its main characteristics are the following: severe enzyme deficiency in erythrocytes (3% of normal), contrasting with an almost normal activity in leukocytes; normal molecular specific activity (i.e., normal ratio enzyme activity/cross-reacting material); slow mobility in starch gel electrophoresis (92-94% of normal); increased Michaelis constant for glucoes-6-phosphate (60-70 muM) and NADP+ (20-25 muM); decreased inhibition constant by NADPH with respect to NADP+ (7 muM); increased inhibition by ATP; normal utilization of the substrate analogues; slightly biphasic pH curve; thermal instability, and normal activation energy of the enzymatic reaction. The relationships between the hematologic disorders (severe and frequent hemolytic crises) and the unfavorable kinetic modifications are discussed.

  7. Molecular genetics and pathophysiology of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Andersson, S; Geissler, W M; Wu, L; Davis, D L; Grumbach, M M; New, M I; Schwarz, H P; Blethen, S L; Mendonca, B B; Bloise, W; Witchel, S F; Cutler, G B; Griffin, J E; Wilson, J D; Russel, D W

    1996-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in the 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 gene impair the formation of testosterone in the fetal testis and give rise to genetic males with female external genitalia. Such individuals are usually raised as females, but virilize at the time of expected puberty as the result of increases in serum testosterone. Here we describe mutations in 12 additional subjects/families with this disorder. The 14 mutations characterized to date include 10 missense mutations, 3 splice junction abnormalities, and 1 small deletion that results in a frame shift. Three of these mutations have occurred in more than 1 family. Complementary DNAs incorporating 9 of the 10 missense mutations have been constructed and expressed in reporter cells; 8 of the 9 missense mutations cause almost complete loss of enzymatic activity. In 2 subjects with loss of function, missense mutations testosterone levels in testicular venous blood were very low. Considered together, these findings strongly suggest that the common mechanism for testosterone formation in postpubertal subjects with this disorder is the conversion of circulating androstenedione to testosterone by one or more of the unaffected 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

  8. [Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (A-376/202) in three Malian ethnic groups].

    PubMed

    Dolo, A; Maiga, B; Guindo, A; Diakité, S A S; Diakite, M; Tapily, A; Traoré, M; Sangaré, B; Arama, C; Daou, M; Doumbo, O

    2014-08-01

    Erythrocyte G6PD deficiency is the most common worldwide enzymopathy. The aim of this study was to determine erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in 3 ethnic groups of Mali and to investigate whether erythrocyte G6PD deficiency was associated to the observed protection against malaria seen in Fulani ethnic group. The study was conducted in two different areas of Mali: in the Sahel region of Mopti where Fulani and Dogon live as sympatric ethnic groups and in the Sudanese savannah area where lives mostly the Malinke ethnic group. The study was conducted in 2007 in Koro and in 2008 in Naguilabougou. It included a total 90 Dogon, 42 Fulani and 80 Malinke ethnic groups. Malaria was diagnosed using microscopic examination after Giemsa-staining of thick and thin blood smear. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) samples were identified using RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) assay and analysis of PCR-amplified DNA amplicon. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) rate was 11.1%, 2.4%, and 13.3% in Dogon, Fulani, and Malinke ethnic group respectively. Heterozygous state for G6PD (A-(376/202)) was found in 7.8% in Dogon; 2.4% in Fulani and 9.3% in Malinke ethnic groups while hemizygous state was found at the frequency of 2.2% in Dogon and 4% in Malinke. No homozygous state was found in our study population.We conclude that G6PD deficiency is not differing significantly between the three ethnic groups, Fulani, Dogon and Malinke.

  9. Comparative 13C metabolic flux analysis of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient, L-valine-producing Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Bartek, Tobias; Blombach, Bastian; Lang, Siegmund; Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Wiechert, Wolfgang; Oldiges, Marco; Nöh, Katharina; Noack, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    L-Valine can be formed successfully using C. glutamicum strains missing an active pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme complex (PDHC). Wild-type C. glutamicum and four PDHC-deficient strains were compared by (13)C metabolic flux analysis, especially focusing on the split ratio between glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Compared to the wild type, showing a carbon flux of 69% ± 14% through the PPP, a strong increase in the PPP flux was observed in PDHC-deficient strains with a maximum of 113% ± 22%. The shift in the split ratio can be explained by an increased demand of NADPH for l-valine formation. In accordance, the introduction of the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase PntAB, catalyzing the reversible conversion of NADH to NADPH, into an L-valine-producing C. glutamicum strain caused the PPP flux to decrease to 57% ± 6%, which is below the wild-type split ratio. Hence, transhydrogenase activity offers an alternative perspective for sufficient NADPH supply, which is relevant for most amino acid production systems. Moreover, as demonstrated for L-valine, this bypass leads to a significant increase of product yield due to a concurrent reduction in carbon dioxide formation via the PPP.

  10. Genetic heterogeneity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency revealed by single-strand conformation and sequence analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Calabro, V.; Mason, P.J.; Luzzatto, L. ); Filosa, S.; Martini, G. ); Civitelli, D.; Cittadella, R.; Brancati, C. )

    1993-03-01

    The authors have carried out a systematic study of the molecular basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency on a sample of 53 male subjects from Calabria, in southern Italy. Their sequential approach consisted of the following steps: (1) Partial biochemical characterization was used to pinpoint candidate known variants. The identity of these was then varified by restriction-enzyme or allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization analysis of the appropriate PCR-amplified fragment. (2) On samples for which there was no obvious candidate mutation, they proceeded to amplify the entire coding region in eight fragments, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of each fragment. (3) The next step was M13 phage cloning and sequencing of those individual fragments that were found to be abnormal by SSCP. Through this approach they have identified the molecular lesion in 51 of the 53 samples. In these they found a total of nine different G6PD-deficient variants, five of which (G6PD Mediterranean, G6PD A[sup [minus

  11. Deficient expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 is consistent with increased sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome patients to radiation carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Aaron T.; Magnaldo, Thierry; Sontag, Ryan L.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Gache, Yannick; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-11-27

    Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of relevant pathways/networks. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol-reactive probes with a flexible click chemistry functional group to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. We observe qualitative differences in protein thiol profiles by SDS-PAGE analysis when detection by iodoacetamide vs maleimide probe chemistries are compared, and pretreatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide eliminates detection of the majority of SDS-PAGE bands. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent donors, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and this deficiency was confirmed by Western blot. Redox probes revealed additional protein thiol differences between GDFs and NHDFs, including radiation responsive annexin family members. Our results indicate a multifactorial basis for the unusual sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome to radiation carcinogenesis, and the pathways identified have plausible implications for radiation health effects.

  12. Sickle cell disease in Bahrain: coexistence and interaction with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, A M; Ardatl, K O; Bajakian, K M

    1998-04-01

    The object was to determine the frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in Bahraini individuals with HbS as compared to those without HbS. Haemolysates of erythrocytes from 310 Bahraini individuals attending Health Centres were obtained, electrophoresed on cellulose acetate at PH 8.2-8.6, and stained for G6PD. HbS was present in 125 individuals (study group) and in 185 only HbA was present (control group). G6PD deficiency (very low to undetectable) was identified in 59 samples (47 per cent) of the study group and 35 (19 per cent) of the control group. A positive correlation between G6PD deficiency and HbS is present in Bahraini individuals tested. This is similar to the situation in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. We speculate that the observation could be explained on the basis of historic endemicity of Falciparum malaria in both regions on the East coast of the Saudi Peninsula.

  13. Deficient expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 is consistent with increased sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome patients to radiation carcinogenesis

    DOE PAGES

    Wright, Aaron T.; Magnaldo, Thierry; Sontag, Ryan L.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Gache, Yannick; Weber, Thomas J.

    2013-11-27

    Human phenotypes that are highly susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis have been identified. Sensitive phenotypes often display robust regulation of molecular features that modify biological response, which can facilitate identification of relevant pathways/networks. Here we interrogate primary dermal fibroblasts isolated from Gorlin syndrome patients (GDFs), who display a pronounced tumorigenic response to radiation, in comparison to normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Our approach exploits newly developed thiol-reactive probes with a flexible click chemistry functional group to define changes in protein thiol profiles in live cell studies, which minimizes artifacts associated with cell lysis. We observe qualitative differences in protein thiol profilesmore » by SDS-PAGE analysis when detection by iodoacetamide vs maleimide probe chemistries are compared, and pretreatment of cells with hydrogen peroxide eliminates detection of the majority of SDS-PAGE bands. Redox probes revealed deficient expression of an apparent 55 kDa protein thiol in GDFs from independent donors, compared with NHDFs. Proteomics tentatively identified this protein as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1), a key enzyme regulating retinoic acid synthesis, and this deficiency was confirmed by Western blot. Redox probes revealed additional protein thiol differences between GDFs and NHDFs, including radiation responsive annexin family members. Our results indicate a multifactorial basis for the unusual sensitivity of Gorlin syndrome to radiation carcinogenesis, and the pathways identified have plausible implications for radiation health effects.« less

  14. Genetic heterogeneity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency revealed by single-strand conformation and sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrò, V; Mason, P J; Filosa, S; Civitelli, D; Cittadella, R; Tagarelli, A; Martini, G; Brancati, C; Luzzatto, L

    1993-01-01

    We have carried out a systematic study of the molecular basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency on a sample of 53 male subjects from Calabria, in southern Italy. Our sequential approach consisted of the following steps: (1) Partial biochemical characterization was used to pinpoint candidate known variants. The identity of these was then verified by restriction-enzyme or allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization analysis of the appropriate PCR-amplified fragment. (2) On samples for which there was no obvious candidate mutation, we proceeded to amplify the entire coding region in eight fragments, followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of each fragment. (3) The next step was M13 phage cloning and sequencing of those individual fragments that were found to be abnormal by SSCP. Through this approach we have identified the molecular lesion in 51 of the 53 samples. In these we found a total of nine different G6PD-deficient variants, five of which (G6PD Mediterranean, G6PD A-, G6PD Coimbra, G6PD Seattle, and G6PD Montalbano) were already known, whereas four are new (G6PD Cassano, G6PD Cosenza, G6PD Sibari, and G6PD Maewo). G6PD Mediterranean is the commonest variant, followed by G6PD Seattle. At least seven of the variants are present, at polymorphic frequencies, in the Calabria region, and some have a nonrandom distribution within the region. This study shows that the genetic heterogeneity of G6PD deficiency in Calabria, when analyzed at the DNA level, is even greater than had been anticipated from biochemical characterization. The sequential approach that we have followed is fast and efficient and could be applied to other populations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8447319

  15. Nonsalt-losing congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency with normal glomerulosa function.

    PubMed

    Pang, S; Levine, L S; Stoner, E; Opitz, J M; Pollack, M S; Dupont, B; New, M I

    1983-04-01

    In studies of a 6-yr-old boy and his non-HLA identical 8-yr-old sister, we demonstrated 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta-HSD) deficiency in the biosynthetic pathways of glucocorticoids and androgens, but not mineralocorticoids. The sister did not manifest abnormal genital development at birth, but developed premature adrenarche at the age of 4 yr, with clitoromegaly and advanced bone age. The brother had perineal hypospadias at birth and developed premature adrenarche at the age of 6 yr. In both siblings, baseline and ACTH-stimulated delta 5 steroids were markedly elevated. The baseline and ACTH-stimulated ratios of delta 5 to delta 4 steroids remained extremely high, and all steroids promptly suppressed with dexamethasone (DEX). Normal baseline PRA and serum and urinary aldosterone (Aldo) levels increased after stimulation with a low Na+ diet. Renal Na+ conservation was normal after dietary Na+ deprivation with and without DEX administration. The PRA to pH 1 Aldo ratio remained normal with normal and low Na+ diets, regardless of DEX administration, indicating normal glomerulosa function with renin stimulation. In both siblings, ACTH increased PRA and Aldo levels, maintaining the PRA to pH 1 Aldo ratio unchanged from the baseline value. In contrast, in control children, PRA was suppressed, while Aldo increased, resulting in a fall of the PRA to pH 1 Aldo ratio. The increase in PRA with exogenous ACTH in these siblings suggests there may be an ACTH-stimulable mineralocorticoid antagonist. During prolonged DEX administration, hCG administration caused a slight increase in 17-hydroxypregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone in both the siblings, while testosterone (T) rose poorly in the brother, and estradiol did not rise at all in the sister. These results suggest the possibility of a deficiency of 3 beta-HSD in the gonads as well as the adrenals. After [3H]dehydroepiandrosterone iv infusion, there was normal conversion to [3H]-conjugated testosterone

  16. Metabolic evolution and (13) C flux analysis of a succinate dehydrogenase deficient strain of Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Yuzbashev, Tigran V; Bondarenko, Pavel Yu; Sobolevskaya, Tatiana I; Yuzbasheva, Evgeniya Yu; Laptev, Ivan A; Kachala, Vadim V; Fedorov, Alexander S; Vybornaya, Tatiana V; Larina, Anna S; Sineoky, Sergey P

    2016-11-01

    Bio-based succinic acid production can redirect industrial chemistry processes from using limited hydrocarbons to renewable carbohydrates. A fermentation process that does not require pH-titrating agents will be advantageous to the industry. Previously, a Yarrowia lipolytica strain that was defective for succinate dehydrogenase was constructed and was found to accumulate up to 17.5 g L(-1) of succinic acid when grown on glycerol without buffering. Here, a derivative mutant was isolated that produced 40.5 g L(-1) of succinic acid in 36 h with a yield of 0.32 g g(-1) glycerol. A combination approach of induced mutagenesis and metabolic evolution allowed isolation of another derivative that could utilize glucose efficiently and accumulated 50.2 g L(-1) succinic acid in 54 h with a yield of 0.43 g g(-1) . The parent strain of these isolated mutants was used for [1,6-(13) C2 ]glucose assimilation analysis. At least 35% glucose was estimated to be utilized through the pentose phosphate pathway, while ≥84% succinic acid was formed through the oxidative branch of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2425-2432. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27182846

  17. Establishment of permanent chimerism in a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mouse mutant with hemolytic anemia

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, T.; Doermer, P.

    1987-12-01

    Pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell function was investigated in the homozygous muscle type lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-A) mutant mouse using bone marrow transplantation experiments. Hemopoietic tissues of LDH-A mutants showed a marked decreased in enzyme activity that was associated with severe hemolytic anemia. This condition proved to be transplantable into wild type mice (+/+) through total body irradiation (TBI) at a lethal dose of 8.0 Gy followed by engraftment of mutant bone marrow cells. Since the mutants are extremely radiosensitive (lethal dose50/30 4.4 Gy vs 7.3 Gy in +/+ mice), 8.0-Gy TBI followed by injection of even high numbers of normal bone marrow cells did not prevent death within 5-6 days. After a nonlethal dose of 4.0 Gy and grafting of normal bone marrow cells, a transient chimerism showing peripheral blood characteristics of the wild type was produced that returned to the mutant condition within 12 weeks. The transfusion of wild type red blood cells prior to and following 8.0-Gy TBI and reconstitution with wild type bone marrow cells prevented the early death of the mutants and permanent chimerism was achieved. The chimeras showed all hematological parameters of wild type mice, and radiosensitivity returned to normal. It is concluded that the mutant pluripotent stem cells are functionally comparable to normal stem cells, emphasizing the significance of this mouse model for studies of stem cell regulation.

  18. Redox stress is not essential for the pseudo-hypoxic phenotype of succinate dehydrogenase deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Selak, Mary A; Durán, Raul V; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2006-01-01

    HIFalpha prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) are a family of enzymes that regulate protein levels of the alpha subunit of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) under different oxygen levels. PHDs catalyse the conversion of a prolyl residue, molecular oxygen and alpha-ketoglutarate to hydroxy-prolyl, carbon dioxide and succinate in a reaction dependent on ferrous iron and ascorbate as cofactors. Recently it was shown that pseudo-hypoxia, HIF induction under normoxic conditions, is an important feature of tumours generated as a consequence of inactivation of the mitochondrial tumour suppressor 'succinate dehydrogenase' (SDH). Two models have been proposed to describe the link between SDH inhibition and HIF activation. Both models suggest that a mitochondrial-generated signal leads to the inhibition of PHDs in the cytosol, however, the models differ in the nature of the proposed messenger. The first model postulates that mitochondrial-generated hydrogen peroxide mediates signal transduction while the second model implicates succinate as the molecular messenger which leaves the mitochondrion and inhibits PHDs in the cytosol. Here we show that pseudo-hypoxia can be observed in SDH-suppressed cells in the absence of oxidative stress and in the presence of effective antioxidant treatment.

  19. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and diagnostic challenges in 1500 immigrants in Denmark examined for haemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Warny, Marie; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Petersen, Jesper; Birgens, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Similar to the thalassaemia syndromes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is highly prevalent in areas historically exposed to malaria. In the present study, we used quantitative and molecular methods to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in a population of 1508 immigrants in Denmark. We found the allele frequency to be between 2.4 and 2.9% in the female immigrants. Furthermore, the mutation pattern in the studied population showed a high prevalence of the G6PD A-(202A) variant in African and African-American immigrants, a high prevalence of the G6PD Mediterranean variant in Mediterranean European and Western Asian immigrants, and substantial heterogeneity in the variants found in the Eastern Asian/Pacific immigrants. Inasmuch as many of the patients included in this investigation had various thalassaemic syndromes, we were able to evaluate the effects of the interaction between a low mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) value and G6PD activity, particularly in heterozygous females. The activity level was markedly influenced by the MCH value in females with normal G6PD activity, but not in heterozygous and homozygous females. Comparison of patients with normal G6PD activity and heterozygous females indicated considerable overlap in activity levels. To help separating heterozygous females from females with wild-type genes, a DNA analysis is necessary when the female activity level is between 4.0 and 4.9 U/g hgb corresponding to 50-60% of the median activity of unaffected males.

  20. Disruption of brain redox homeostasis in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient mice treated with high dietary lysine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Seminotti, Bianca; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; da Rosa, Mateus Struecker; Fernandes, Carolina Gonçalves; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Olivera-Bravo, Silvia; Barbeito, Luis; Ribeiro, César Augusto J; de Souza, Diogo Onofre Gomes; Woontner, Michael; Goodman, Stephen I; Koeller, David M; Wajner, Moacir

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH) activity or glutaric aciduria type I (GA I) is an inherited neurometabolic disorder biochemically characterized by predominant accumulation of glutaric acid and 3-hydroxyglutaric acid in the brain and other tissues. Affected patients usually present acute striatum necrosis during encephalopathic crises triggered by metabolic stress situations, as well as chronic leukodystrophy and delayed myelination. Considering that the mechanisms underlying the brain injury in this disease are not yet fully established, in the present study we investigated important parameters of oxidative stress in the brain (cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus), liver and heart of 30-day-old GCDH deficient knockout (Gcdh(-/-)) and wild type (WT) mice submitted to a normal lysine (Lys) (0.9% Lys), or high Lys diets (2.8% or 4.7% Lys) for 60 h. It was observed that the dietary supplementation of 2.8% and 4.7% Lys elicited noticeable oxidative stress, as verified by an increase of malondialdehyde concentrations (lipid oxidative damage) and 2-7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation (free radical production), as well as a decrease of reduced glutathione levels and alteration of various antioxidant enzyme activities (antioxidant defenses) in the cerebral cortex and the striatum, but not in the hippocampus, the liver and the heart of Gcdh(-/-) mice, as compared to WT mice receiving the same diets. Furthermore, alterations of oxidative stress parameters in the cerebral cortex and striatum were more accentuated in symptomatic, as compared to asymptomatic Gcdh(-/-) mice exposed to 4.7% Lys overload. Histopathological studies performed in the cerebral cortex and striatum of these animals exposed to high dietary Lys revealed increased expression of oxidative stress markers despite the absence of significant structural damage. The results indicate that a disruption of redox homeostasis in the cerebral cortex and striatum of young Gcdh(-/-) mice

  1. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Diekman, E F; Visser, G; Schmitz, J P J; Nievelstein, R A J; de Sain-van der Velden, M; Wardrop, M; Van der Pol, W L; Houten, S M; van Riel, N A W; Takken, T; Jeneson, J A L

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with threefold bigger changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in quadriceps muscle and twofold lower changes in plasma acetyl-carnitine levels than in healthy subjects. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that muscle ATP homeostasis during exercise is compromised in VLCADD. However, the measured rates of PCr and Pi recovery post-exercise showed that the mitochondrial capacity for ATP synthesis in VLCADD muscle was normal. Mathematical modeling of oxidative ATP metabolism in muscle composed of three different fiber types indicated that the observed altered energy balance during submaximal exercise in VLCADD patients may be explained by a slow-to-fast shift in quadriceps fiber-type composition corresponding to 30% of the slow-twitch fiber-type pool in healthy quadriceps muscle. This study demonstrates for the first time that quadriceps energy balance during exercise in VLCADD patients is altered but not because of failing mitochondrial function. Our findings provide new clues to understanding the risk of rhabdomyolysis following exercise in human VLCADD. PMID:26881790

  2. Altered Energetics of Exercise Explain Risk of Rhabdomyolysis in Very Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Diekman, E. F.; Visser, G.; Schmitz, J. P. J.; Nievelstein, R. A. J.; de Sain-van der Velden, M.; Wardrop, M.; Van der Pol, W. L.; Houten, S. M.; van Riel, N. A. W.; Takken, T.; Jeneson, J. A. L.

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is common in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) and other metabolic myopathies, but its pathogenic basis is poorly understood. Here, we show that prolonged bicycling exercise against a standardized moderate workload in VLCADD patients is associated with threefold bigger changes in phosphocreatine (PCr) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations in quadriceps muscle and twofold lower changes in plasma acetyl-carnitine levels than in healthy subjects. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that muscle ATP homeostasis during exercise is compromised in VLCADD. However, the measured rates of PCr and Pi recovery post-exercise showed that the mitochondrial capacity for ATP synthesis in VLCADD muscle was normal. Mathematical modeling of oxidative ATP metabolism in muscle composed of three different fiber types indicated that the observed altered energy balance during submaximal exercise in VLCADD patients may be explained by a slow-to-fast shift in quadriceps fiber-type composition corresponding to 30% of the slow-twitch fiber-type pool in healthy quadriceps muscle. This study demonstrates for the first time that quadriceps energy balance during exercise in VLCADD patients is altered but not because of failing mitochondrial function. Our findings provide new clues to understanding the risk of rhabdomyolysis following exercise in human VLCADD. PMID:26881790

  3. Adult-onset multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenation deficiency associated with an abnormal isoenzyme pattern of serum lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Fuminobu; Baba, Kousuke; Toyooka, Keiko; Liang, Wen-Chen; Nishino, Ichizo; Yamadera, Misaki; Sumi, Hisae; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Nishikawa, Yoshiro

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of a 37 year-old male with multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD). The patient had suffered from exercise intolerance in his hip and thigh muscles for one year. Then, restriction of carbohydrates for a diet made his symptoms rapidly deteriorate. Blood test revealed compound heterozygosity for two novel missense mutations in the electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase gene (ETFDH), and an abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern: LDH-1 (60.0%) and LDH-2 (26.0%) predominated with abnormally elevated LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (2.3), compared with muscle-derived LDH-5 (4.0%). Oral riboflavin treatment significantly improved his exercise intolerance and the LDH profile: LDH-1 (34.4%), LDH-2 (34.9%), LDH-5 (6.9%) and LDH-1/LDH-2 ratio (1.0). The abnormal LDH isoenzyme pattern may be one feature of adult-onset MADD selectively affecting type I muscle fibers with relatively high LDH-1 content. PMID:21907580

  4. Data on how several physiological parameters of stored red blood cells are similar in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and sufficient donors.

    PubMed

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini E; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Papassideri, Issidora S; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-09-01

    This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs) donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD(+)) cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in "Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells" [1]. PMID:27437434

  5. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis.

  6. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis. PMID:21479984

  7. High Frequency of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Marli S.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Costa, Mônica R. F.; Sampaio, Vanderson S.; Brito, Marcelo A. M.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Alecrim, Maria G. C.

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most common human genetic abnormalities, and it has a significant prevalence in the male population (X chromosome linked). The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes among G6PD-deficient persons in Manaus, Brazil, an area in the Western Brazilian Amazon to which malaria is endemic. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase–deficient males had more impaired fasting glucose and diabetes. This feature could be used as a screening tool for G6PD-deficient persons who are unable to use primaquine for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax malaria. PMID:24865682

  8. DNA damage and apoptosis in mononuclear cells from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient patients (G6PD Aachen variant) after UV irradiation.

    PubMed

    Efferth, T; Fabry, U; Osieka, R

    2001-03-01

    Patients affected with X chromosome-linked, hereditary glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency suffer from life-threatening hemolytic crises after intake of certain drugs or foods. G6PD deficiency is associated with low levels of reduced glutathione. We analyzed mononuclear white blood cells (MNC) of three males suffering from the German G6PD Aachen variant, four heterozygote females of this family, one G6PD-deficient male from another family coming from Iran, and six healthy male volunteers with respect to their DNA damage in two different genes (G6PD and T-cell receptor-delta) and their propensity to enter apoptosis after UV illumination (0.08-5.28 J/cm2). As determined by PCR stop assays, there was more UV-induced DNA damage in MNC of G6PD-deficient male patients than in those of healthy subjects. MNC of G6PD-deficient patients showed a higher rate of apoptosis after UV irradiation than MNC of healthy donors. MNC of heterozygote females showed intermediate rates of DNA damage and apoptosis. It is concluded that increased DNA damage may be a result of deficient detoxification of reactive oxygen species by glutathione and may ultimately account for the higher rate of apoptosis in G6PD-deficient MNC.

  9. Dengue Virus Type 2 (DENV2)-Induced Oxidative Responses in Monocytes from Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD)-Deficient and G6PD Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Al-alimi, Abdullah Ahmed; Ali, Syed A.; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Idris, Fauziah Mohd; Teow, Sin-Yeang; Mohd Yusoff, Narazah

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue virus is endemic in peninsular Malaysia. The clinical manifestations vary depending on the incubation period of the virus as well as the immunity of the patients. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is prevalent in Malaysia where the incidence is 3.2%. It has been noted that some G6PD-deficient individuals suffer from more severe clinical presentation of dengue infection. In this study, we aim to investigate the oxidative responses of DENV2-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals. Methodology Monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals were infected with DENV2 and infection rate, levels of oxidative species, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anions (O2−), and oxidative stress were determined and compared with normal controls. Principal Findings Monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals exhibited significantly higher infection rates compared to normal controls. In an effort to explain the reason for this enhanced susceptibility, we investigated the production of NO and O2− in the monocytes of individuals with G6PD deficiency compared with normal controls. We found that levels of NO and O2− were significantly lower in the DENV-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals compared with normal controls. Furthermore, the overall oxidative stress in DENV-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals was significantly higher when compared to normal controls. Correlation studies between DENV-infected cells and oxidative state of monocytes further confirmed these findings. Conclusions/Significance Altered redox state of DENV-infected monocytes from G6PD-deficient individuals appears to augment viral replication in these cells. DENV-infected G6PD-deficient individuals may contain higher viral titers, which may be significant in enhanced virus transmission. Furthermore, granulocyte dysfunction and higher viral loads in G6PD-deificient individuals may result in severe form of dengue infection. PMID:24625456

  10. N-acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol augment selenium-glutathione peroxidase activity in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Alicigüzel, Y; Aslan, M

    2004-09-01

    In glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient erythrocytes, failure to maintain normal levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) due to decreased NADPH regeneration in the hexose monophosphate pathway results in acute hemolytic anemia following exposure to oxidative insults, such as ingestion of Vicia fava beans or use of certain drugs. GSH is a source of protection against oxidative attack, used by the selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (Se-GSH-Px)/reductase (GR) system to detoxify hydrogen peroxide and organic peroxides, provided that sufficient GSH is made available. In this study, Se-GSH-Px activity was analyzed in G6PD-deficient patients in the presence of reducing agents such as N-Acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol. Se-GSH-Px activity was decreased in G6PD-deficient red blood cells (RBCs). N-Acetyl cysteine, L-cysteine, and beta-mercaptoethanol increased Se-GSH-Px activity in G6PD-deficient human erythrocytes, indicating that other reducing agents can be utilized to complement Se-GSH-Px activity in G6PD deficiency. Based on the increased susceptibility of G6PD-deficient patients to oxidative stress, the reported increase in Se-GSH-Px activity can facilitate the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. PMID:15598086

  11. Riboflavin responsive mitochondrial myopathy is a new phenotype of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency. The chaperon-like effect of vitamin B2.

    PubMed

    Carrozzo, Rosalba; Torraco, Alessandra; Fiermonte, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Diego; Di Nottia, Michela; Rizza, Teresa; Vozza, Angelo; Verrigni, Daniela; Diodato, Daria; Parisi, Giovanni; Maiorana, Arianna; Rizzo, Cristiano; Pierri, Ciro Leonardo; Zucano, Stefania; Piemonte, Fiorella; Bertini, Enrico; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD, E3) is a flavoprotein common to pyruvate, α-ketoglutarate and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenases. We found two novel DLD mutations (p.I40Lfs*4; p.G461E) in a 19 year-old patient with lactic acidosis and a complex amino- and organic aciduria consistent with DLD deficiency, manifesting progressive exertional fatigue. Muscle biopsy showed mitochondrial proliferation and lack of DLD cross-reacting material. Riboflavin supplementation determined the complete resolution of exercise intolerance with the partial restoration of the DLD protein and disappearance of mitochondrial proliferation in the muscle. Morphological and functional studies support the riboflavin chaperon-like role in stabilizing DLD protein with rescue of its expression in the muscle. PMID:25251739

  12. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity < 30% of normal control was 20.3% and a prevalence of severe deficiency that would predispose to primaquine-induced hemolysis (WHO Class I-II) of 6.9%. Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration. PMID:20684792

  13. Developmental Defects of Caenorhabditis elegans Lacking Branched-chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Are Mainly Caused by Monomethyl Branched-chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fan; Cui, Mingxue; Than, Minh T; Han, Min

    2016-02-01

    Branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) catalyzes the critical step in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway and has been the focus of extensive studies. Mutations in the complex disrupt many fundamental metabolic pathways and cause multiple human diseases including maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), autism, and other related neurological disorders. BCKDH may also be required for the synthesis of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) from BCAAs. The pathology of MSUD has been attributed mainly to BCAA accumulation, but the role of mmBCFA has not been evaluated. Here we show that disrupting BCKDH in Caenorhabditis elegans causes mmBCFA deficiency, in addition to BCAA accumulation. Worms with deficiency in BCKDH function manifest larval arrest and embryonic lethal phenotypes, and mmBCFA supplementation suppressed both without correcting BCAA levels. The majority of developmental defects caused by BCKDH deficiency may thus be attributed to lacking mmBCFAs in worms. Tissue-specific analysis shows that restoration of BCKDH function in multiple tissues can rescue the defects, but is especially effective in neurons. Taken together, we conclude that mmBCFA deficiency is largely responsible for the developmental defects in the worm and conceivably might also be a critical contributor to the pathology of human MSUD.

  14. Developmental Defects of Caenorhabditis elegans Lacking Branched-chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Are Mainly Caused by Monomethyl Branched-chain Fatty Acid Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fan; Cui, Mingxue; Than, Minh T; Han, Min

    2016-02-01

    Branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) catalyzes the critical step in the branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolic pathway and has been the focus of extensive studies. Mutations in the complex disrupt many fundamental metabolic pathways and cause multiple human diseases including maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), autism, and other related neurological disorders. BCKDH may also be required for the synthesis of monomethyl branched-chain fatty acids (mmBCFAs) from BCAAs. The pathology of MSUD has been attributed mainly to BCAA accumulation, but the role of mmBCFA has not been evaluated. Here we show that disrupting BCKDH in Caenorhabditis elegans causes mmBCFA deficiency, in addition to BCAA accumulation. Worms with deficiency in BCKDH function manifest larval arrest and embryonic lethal phenotypes, and mmBCFA supplementation suppressed both without correcting BCAA levels. The majority of developmental defects caused by BCKDH deficiency may thus be attributed to lacking mmBCFAs in worms. Tissue-specific analysis shows that restoration of BCKDH function in multiple tissues can rescue the defects, but is especially effective in neurons. Taken together, we conclude that mmBCFA deficiency is largely responsible for the developmental defects in the worm and conceivably might also be a critical contributor to the pathology of human MSUD. PMID:26683372

  15. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report.

    PubMed

    von Seidlein, Lorenz; Auburn, Sarah; Espino, Fe; Shanks, Dennis; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James; Baird, Kevin; Moyes, Catherine; Howes, Rosalind; Ménard, Didier; Bancone, Germana; Winasti-Satyahraha, Ari; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Green, Justin; Domingo, Gonzalo; Yeung, Shunmay; Price, Ric

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here.

  16. Review of key knowledge gaps in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency detection with regard to the safe clinical deployment of 8-aminoquinoline treatment regimens: a workshop report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a crucial aspect in the current phases of malaria control and elimination, which will require the wider use of 8-aminoquinolines for both reducing Plasmodium falciparum transmission and achieving the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax. 8-aminoquinolines, such as primaquine, can induce severe haemolysis in G6PD-deficient individuals, potentially creating significant morbidity and undermining confidence in 8-aminoquinoline prescription. On the other hand, erring on the side of safety and excluding large numbers of people with unconfirmed G6PD deficiency from treatment with 8-aminoquinolines will diminish the impact of these drugs. Estimating the remaining G6PD enzyme activity is the most direct, accessible, and reliable assessment of the phenotype and remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of patients who could be harmed by the administration of primaquine. Genotyping seems an unambiguous technique, but its use is limited by cost and the large range of recognized G6PD genotypes. A number of enzyme activity assays diagnose G6PD deficiency, but they require a cold chain, specialized equipment, and laboratory skills. These assays are impractical for care delivery where most patients with malaria live. Improvements to the diagnosis of G6PD deficiency are required for the broader and safer use of 8-aminoquinolines to kill hypnozoites, while lower doses of primaquine may be safely used to kill gametocytes without testing. The discussions and conclusions of a workshop conducted in Incheon, Korea in May 2012 to review key knowledge gaps in G6PD deficiency are reported here. PMID:23537118

  17. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Thalassemia in Uygur and Kazak Ethnic Groups in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Luhao; Su, Hai; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Weiying; Chen, Suqin

    2016-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and thalassemia occur frequently in tropical and subtropical regions, while the prevalence of relationship between the two diseases in Xinjiang has not been reported. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these diseases and clarify the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes of the two diseases in the Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang. We measured G6PD activity by G6PD:6PGD (glucose acid-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratio, identified the gene variants of G6PD and α- and β-globin genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DNA sequencing and gap-PCR and compared these variants in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang with those adjacent to it. Of the 149 subjects with molecular analysis of G6PD deficiency conducted, a higher prevalence of the combined mutations c.1311C > T/IVSXI + 93T > C and IVSXI + 93T > C, both with normal enzymatic activities, were observed in the Uygur and Kazak subjects. A case of rare mutation HBB: c.135delC [codon 44 (-C) in the heterozygous state], a heterozygous case of HBB: c.68A > G [Hb G-Taipei or β22(B4)Glu→Gly] and several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found on the β-globin gene. In conclusion, G6PD deficiency with pathogenic mutations and three common α-thalassemia (α-thal) [- -(SEA), -α(3.7) (rightward), -α(4.2) (leftward)] deletions and point mutations of the α-globin gene were not detected in the present study. The average incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) in Uygurs was 1.45% (2/138) in Xinjiang. The polymorphisms of G6PD and β-globin genes might be useful genetic markers to trace the origin and migration of the Uygur and Kazak in Xinjiang. PMID:26950205

  18. Increased red cell calcium, decreased calcium adenosine triphosphatase, and altered membrane proteins during fava bean hemolysis in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient (Mediterranean variant) individuals.

    PubMed

    Turrini, F; Naitana, A; Mannuzzu, L; Pescarmona, G; Arese, P

    1985-08-01

    RBCs from four glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient (Mediterranean variant) subjects were studied during fava bean hemolysis. In the density-fractionated RBC calcium level, Ca2+-ATPase activity, reduced glutathione level, and ghost protein pattern were studied. In the bottom fraction, containing most heavily damaged RBCs, calcium level ranged from 143 to 244 mumol/L RBCs (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 17 +/- 5 mumol/L RBCs). The Ca2+-ATPase activity ranged from 0.87 to 1.84 mumol ATP consumed/g Hb/min (healthy G6PD-deficient controls: 2.27 +/- 0.4). Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of ghosts showed: (1) the presence of high mol wt aggregates (in three cases they were reduced by dithioerythritol; in one case, only partial reduction was possible); (2) the presence of multiple, scattered new bands; and (3) the reduction of band 3. Oxidant-mediated damage to active calcium extrusion, hypothetically associated with increased calcium permeability, may explain the large increase in calcium levels. They, in turn, could activate calcium-dependent protease activity, giving rise to the profound changes in the ghost protein pattern.

  19. Inactivation of the 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene in mice: changes in gene expression and associated regulatory networks resulting from serine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Shigeki; Yoshida, Kazuyuki; Kawakami, Yuriko; Yang, Jyung Hoon; Sayano, Tomoko; Azuma, Norihiro; Tanaka, Hideyuki; Kuhara, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Yoshio

    2008-08-01

    D-3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh) is a necessary enzyme for de novo L-serine biosynthesis. Mutations in the human PHGDH cause serine deficiency disorders characterized by severe neurological symptoms including congenital microcephaly and psychomotor retardation. We showed previously that targeted disruption of Phgdh in mice causes overall growth retardation with severe brain microcephaly and leads to embryonic lethality. Here, amino acid analysis of Phgdh knockout (KO) mouse embryos demonstrates that free serine and glycine concentrations are decreased markedly in head samples, reflecting the metabolic changes of serine deficiency found in human patients. To understand the pathogenesis of serine deficiency disorders at the molecular level, we have exploited this animal model to identify altered gene expression patterns using a microarray technology. Comparative microarray analysis of the Phgdh KO and wild-type head at gestational day 13.5 revealed an upregulation of genes involved in transfer RNA aminoacylation, amino acid metabolism, amino acid transport, transcriptional regulation, and translation, and a downregulation of genes involved in transcription in neuronal progenitors and muscle and cartilage development. A computational network analysis software was used to construct transcriptional regulatory networks operative in the Phgdh KO embryos in vivo. These observations suggest that Phgdh inactivation alters transcriptional programs in several regulatory networks. PMID:18228065

  20. [NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity in the liver of rats with acetaminophen-induced toxic hepatitis on the background of alimentary protein deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kopylchuk, G P; Voloshchuk, O M

    2015-01-01

    The ratio between the redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes and key enzymatic activity of the I and II respiratory chain complexes in the liver cells mitochondria of rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein was studied. It was estimated, that under the conditions of acute acetaminophen-induced hepatitis of rats kept on a low-protein diet during 4 weeks a significant decrease of the NADH:ubiquinone reductase and succinate dehydrogenase activity with simultaneous increase of the ratio between redox forms of the nicotinamide coenzymes (NAD+/NADH) is observed compared to the same indices in the liver cells of animals with experimental hepatitis kept on the ration balanced by all nutrients. Results of research may become basic ones for the biochemical rationale for the approaches directed to the correction and elimination of the consequences of energy exchange in the toxic hepatitis, induced on the background of protein deficiency. PMID:26036138

  1. Glutaric acid and its metabolites cause apoptosis in immature oligodendrocytes: a novel mechanism of white matter degeneration in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gerstner, Bettina; Gratopp, Alexander; Marcinkowski, Monika; Sifringer, Marco; Obladen, Michael; Bührer, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by elevated concentrations of glutaric acid (GA) and its metabolites glutaconic acid (GC) and 3-hydroxy-glutaric acid (3-OH-GA). Its hallmarks are striatal and cortical degeneration, which have been linked to excitotoxic neuronal cell death. However, magnetic resonance imaging studies have also revealed widespread white matter disease. Correspondingly, we decided to investigate the effects of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA on the rat immature oligodendroglia cell line, OLN-93. For comparison, we also exposed the neuroblastoma line SH-SY5Y and the microglia line BV-2 to GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA. Cell viability was measured by metabolism of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium. Flow cytometry was used to assess apoptosis via annexin-V, anti-active caspase-3 antibody, and propidium iodide staining. GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA reduced OLN-93 oligodendroglia cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Toxicity of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA was abrogated by preincubation with the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Apoptosis but not necrosis was detected at various stages (early: annexin-V; effector: caspase-3) after 24-48 h of incubation with GA, GC, or 3-OH-GA in OLN-93 but not in neuroblastoma or microglia cells. OLN-93 lacked expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors, making classical glutamatergic excitotoxicity an unlikely explanation for the selective toxicity of GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA for OLN-93 cells. GA, GC, and 3-OH-GA directly initiate the apoptotic cascade in oligodendroglia cells. This mechanism may contribute to the white matter damage observed in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  2. Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Reinout; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Nadal, Inmaculada; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-02-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of the ldh1 gene, encoding the main L-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a resting cell system with glucose, the new strain, named BL251, accumulated sorbitol in the medium that was rapidly metabolized after glucose exhaustion. Reutilization of produced sorbitol was prevented by deleting the gutB gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)) in BL251. These results showed that the PTS(Gut) did not mediate sorbitol excretion from the cells, but it was responsible for uptake and reutilization of the synthesized sorbitol. A further improvement in sorbitol production was achieved by inactivation of the mtlD gene, encoding a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The new strain BL300 (lac::gutF Deltaldh1 DeltagutB mtlD) showed an increase in sorbitol production whereas no mannitol synthesis was detected, avoiding thus a polyol mixture. This strain was able to convert lactose, the main sugar from milk, into sorbitol, either using a resting cell system or in growing cells under pH control. A conversion rate of 9.4% of lactose into sorbitol was obtained using an optimized fed-batch system and whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, as substrate.

  3. Sorbitol production from lactose by engineered Lactobacillus casei deficient in sorbitol transport system and mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Reinout; Sarmiento-Rubiano, Luz Adriana; Nadal, Inmaculada; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Yebra, María J

    2010-02-01

    Sorbitol is a sugar alcohol largely used in the food industry as a low-calorie sweetener. We have previously described a sorbitol-producing Lactobacillus casei (strain BL232) in which the gutF gene, encoding a sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, was expressed from the lactose operon. Here, a complete deletion of the ldh1 gene, encoding the main L-lactate dehydrogenase, was performed in strain BL232. In a resting cell system with glucose, the new strain, named BL251, accumulated sorbitol in the medium that was rapidly metabolized after glucose exhaustion. Reutilization of produced sorbitol was prevented by deleting the gutB gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate: sorbitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Gut)) in BL251. These results showed that the PTS(Gut) did not mediate sorbitol excretion from the cells, but it was responsible for uptake and reutilization of the synthesized sorbitol. A further improvement in sorbitol production was achieved by inactivation of the mtlD gene, encoding a mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase. The new strain BL300 (lac::gutF Deltaldh1 DeltagutB mtlD) showed an increase in sorbitol production whereas no mannitol synthesis was detected, avoiding thus a polyol mixture. This strain was able to convert lactose, the main sugar from milk, into sorbitol, either using a resting cell system or in growing cells under pH control. A conversion rate of 9.4% of lactose into sorbitol was obtained using an optimized fed-batch system and whey permeate, a waste product of the dairy industry, as substrate. PMID:19784641

  4. Homo-D-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose by redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-08-01

    Optically pure d-lactic acid fermentation from arabinose was achieved by using the Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase gene was substituted with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 27 h of fermentation, 38.6 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of arabinose.

  5. Defects in the HSD11 gene encoding 11[beta]-hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase are not found in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess or 11-oxoreductase deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Nikkila, H.; White, P.C. ); Tannin, G.M. ); New, M.I.; Taylor, N.F. ); Kalaitzoglou, G.; Monder, C. )

    1993-09-01

    The syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) is a form of low renin hypertension that is thought to be caused by congenital deficiency of 11[beta]-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD) activity. This enzyme converts cortisol to cortisone and apparently prevents cortisol from acting as a ligand for the mineralocorticoid (type I) receptor. It also catalyzes the reverse oxoreductase (cortisone to cortisol) reaction. Four patients with AME and the parents of the first patient described (now deceased) were analyzed for mutations in the cloned HSD11 gene encoding an 11HSD enzyme. A patient with suspected cortisone reductase deficiency was also studied. No gross deletions or rearrangements in the HSD11 gene were apparent on hybridizations of blot of genomic DNA. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments corresponding to the coding sequences, intronexon junctions, and proximal untranslated regions of this gene revealed no mutations. AME may involve mutations in a gene for another enzyme with 11HSD activity or perhaps another cortisol metabolizing enzyme. 48 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Additive effects of clofibric acid and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDK4) deficiency on hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-saturated fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byounghoon; Wu, Pengfei; Harris, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Although improving glucose metabolism by inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) might prove beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes or diet-induced obesity, it might induce detrimental effects by inhibiting fatty acid oxidation. PPARα agonists are often used to treat dyslipidemia in patients, especially in type 2 diabetes. Combinational treatment with a PDK4 inhibitor and PPARα agonists may prove beneficial. However, PPARα agonists may be less effective in the presence of a PDK4 inhibitor because PPARα agonists induce PDK4 expression. In the present study, the effects of clofibric acid, a PPARα agonist, on blood and liver lipids were determined in wild type and PDK4 knockout mice fed a high fat diet. As expected, treatment of wild type mice with clofibric acid resulted in less body weight gain, smaller epididymal fat pads, greater insulin sensitivity, and lower levels of serum and liver triacylglycerol. Surprisingly, rather than decreasing the effectiveness of clofibric acid, PDK4 deficiency enhanced the beneficial effects of clofibric acid on hepatic steatosis, lowered blood glucose levels, and did not prevent the positive effects of clofibric acid on serum triacylglycerols and free fatty acids. The metabolic effects of clofibric acid are therefore independent of the induction of PDK4 expression. The additive beneficial effects on hepatic steatosis may be due to induction of increased capacity for fatty acid oxidation and partial uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation by clofibric acid and a reduction in the capacity for fatty acid synthesis by PDK4 deficiency. PMID:22429297

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and the risk of malaria and other diseases in children in Kenya: a case-control and a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Uyoga, Sophie; Ndila, Carolyne M; Macharia, Alex W; Nyutu, Gideon; Shah, Shivang; Peshu, Norbert; Clarke, Geraldine M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P; Rockett, Kirk A; Williams, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The global prevalence of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is thought to be a result of selection by malaria, but epidemiological studies have yielded confusing results. We investigated the relationships between G6PD deficiency and both malaria and non-malarial illnesses among children in Kenya. Methods We did this study in Kilifi County, Kenya, where the G6PD c.202T allele is the only significant cause of G6PD deficiency. We tested the associations between G6PD deficiency and severe and complicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria through a case-control study of 2220 case and 3940 control children. Cases were children aged younger than 14 years, who visited the high dependency ward of Kilifi County Hospital with severe malaria between March 1, 1998, and Feb 28, 2010. Controls were children aged between 3–12 months who were born within the same study area between August 2006, and September 2010. We assessed the association between G6PD deficiency and both uncomplicated malaria and other common diseases of childhood in a cohort study of 752 children aged younger than 10 years. Participants of this study were recruited from a representative sample of households within the Ngerenya and Chonyi areas of Kilifi County between Aug 1, 1998, and July 31, 2001. The primary outcome measure for the case-control study was the odds ratio for hospital admission with severe malaria (computed by logistic regression) while for the cohort study it was the incidence rate ratio for uncomplicated malaria and non-malaria illnesses (computed by Poisson regression), by G6PD deficiency category. Findings 2863 (73%) children in the control group versus 1643 (74%) in the case group had the G6PD normal genotype, 639 (16%) versus 306 (14%) were girls heterozygous for G6PD c.202T, and 438 (11%) versus 271 (12%) children were either homozygous girls or hemizygous boys. Compared with boys and girls without G6PD deficiency, we found significant

  8. The Deletion of the Succinate Dehydrogenase Gene KlSDH1 in Kluyveromyces lactis Does Not Lead to Respiratory Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Saliola, Michele; Bartoccioni, Paola Chiara; De Maria, Ilaria; Lodi, Tiziana; Falcone, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    We have isolated a Kluyveromyces lactis mutant unable to grow on all respiratory carbon sources with the exception of lactate. Functional complementation of this mutant led to the isolation of KlSDH1, the gene encoding the flavoprotein subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, which is essential for the aerobic utilization of carbon sources. Despite the high sequence conservation of the SDH genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K. lactis, they do not have the same relevance in the metabolism of the two yeasts. In fact, unlike SDH1, KlSDH1 was highly expressed under both fermentative and nonfermentative conditions. In addition to this, but in contrast with S. cerevisiae, K. lactis strains lacking KlSDH1 were still able to grow in the presence of lactate. In these mutants, oxygen consumption was one-eighth that of the wild type in the presence of lactate and was normal with glucose and ethanol, indicating that the respiratory chain was fully functional. Northern analysis suggested that alternative pathway(s), which involves pyruvate decarboxylase and the glyoxylate cycle, could overcome the absence of SDH and allow (i) lactate utilization and (ii) the accumulation of succinate instead of ethanol during growth on glucose. PMID:15189981

  9. Single-Dose Primaquine in a Preclinical Model of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Implications for Use in Malaria Transmission-Blocking Programs.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Kristina S; Baresel, Paul C; Marcsisin, Sean R; Sousa, Jason; Vuong, Chau T; Reichard, Gregory A; Campo, Brice; Tekwani, Babu L; Walker, Larry A; Rochford, Rosemary

    2016-10-01

    Individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (G6PDd) are at risk for developing hemolytic anemia when given the antimalarial drug primaquine (PQ). The WHO Evidence Review Group released a report suggesting that mass administration of a single dose of PQ at 0.25 mg of base/kg of body weight (mpk) (mouse equivalent of 3.125 mpk) could potentially reduce malaria transmission based on its gametocytocidal activity and could be safely administered to G6PD-deficient individuals, but there are limited safety data available confirming the optimum single dose of PQ. A single-dose administration of PQ was therefore assessed in our huRBC-SCID mouse model used to predict hemolytic toxicity with respect to G6PD deficiency. In this model, nonobese diabetic (NOD)/SCID mice are engrafted with human red blood cells (huRBC) from donors with the African or Mediterranean variant of G6PDd (A-G6PDd or Med-G6PDd, respectively) and demonstrate dose-dependent sensitivity to PQ. In mice engrafted with A-G6PD-deficient huRBC, single-dose PQ at 3.125, 6.25, or 12.5 mpk had no significant loss of huRBC compared to the vehicle control group. In contrast, in mice engrafted with Med-G6PDd huRBC, a single dose of PQ at 3.125, 6.25, or 12.5 mpk resulted in a significant, dose-dependent loss of huRBC compared to the value for the vehicle control group. Our data suggest that administration of a single low dose of 0.25 mpk of PQ could induce hemolytic anemia in Med-G6PDd individuals but that use of single-dose PQ at 0.25 mpk as a gametocytocidal drug to block transmission would be safe in areas where A-G6PDd predominates. PMID:27458212

  10. Riboflavin-Responsive and -Non-responsive Mutations in FAD Synthase Cause Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase and Combined Respiratory-Chain Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Rikke K J; Koňaříková, Eliška; Giancaspero, Teresa A; Mosegaard, Signe; Boczonadi, Veronika; Mataković, Lavinija; Veauville-Merllié, Alice; Terrile, Caterina; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Haack, Tobias B; Auranen, Mari; Leone, Piero; Galluccio, Michele; Imbard, Apolline; Gutierrez-Rios, Purificacion; Palmfeldt, Johan; Graf, Elisabeth; Vianey-Saban, Christine; Oppenheim, Marcus; Schiff, Manuel; Pichard, Samia; Rigal, Odile; Pyle, Angela; Chinnery, Patrick F; Konstantopoulou, Vassiliki; Möslinger, Dorothea; Feichtinger, René G; Talim, Beril; Topaloglu, Haluk; Coskun, Turgay; Gucer, Safak; Botta, Annalisa; Pegoraro, Elena; Malena, Adriana; Vergani, Lodovica; Mazzà, Daniela; Zollino, Marcella; Ghezzi, Daniele; Acquaviva, Cecile; Tyni, Tiina; Boneh, Avihu; Meitinger, Thomas; Strom, Tim M; Gregersen, Niels; Mayr, Johannes A; Horvath, Rita; Barile, Maria; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-06-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies (MADDs) are a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders with combined respiratory-chain deficiency and a neuromuscular phenotype. Despite recent advances in understanding the genetic basis of MADD, a number of cases remain unexplained. Here, we report clinically relevant variants in FLAD1, which encodes FAD synthase (FADS), as the cause of MADD and respiratory-chain dysfunction in nine individuals recruited from metabolic centers in six countries. In most individuals, we identified biallelic frameshift variants in the molybdopterin binding (MPTb) domain, located upstream of the FADS domain. Inasmuch as FADS is essential for cellular supply of FAD cofactors, the finding of biallelic frameshift variants was unexpected. Using RNA sequencing analysis combined with protein mass spectrometry, we discovered FLAD1 isoforms, which only encode the FADS domain. The existence of these isoforms might explain why affected individuals with biallelic FLAD1 frameshift variants still harbor substantial FADS activity. Another group of individuals with a milder phenotype responsive to riboflavin were shown to have single amino acid changes in the FADS domain. When produced in E. coli, these mutant FADS proteins resulted in impaired but detectable FADS activity; for one of the variant proteins, the addition of FAD significantly improved protein stability, arguing for a chaperone-like action similar to what has been reported in other riboflavin-responsive inborn errors of metabolism. In conclusion, our studies identify FLAD1 variants as a cause of potentially treatable inborn errors of metabolism manifesting with MADD and shed light on the mechanisms by which FADS ensures cellular FAD homeostasis. PMID:27259049

  11. Multi-organ abnormalities and mTORC1 activation in zebrafish model of multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Scott, Sarah A; Bennett, Michael J; Carson, Robert P; Fessel, Joshua; Brown, H Alex; Ess, Kevin C

    2013-06-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxa(vu463) ) that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxa(vu463) recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxa(vu463) zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxa(vu463) zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity.

  12. Multi-organ Abnormalities and mTORC1 Activation in Zebrafish Model of Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Hyung; Scott, Sarah A.; Bennett, Michael J.; Carson, Robert P.; Fessel, Joshua; Brown, H. Alex; Ess, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (MADD) is a severe mitochondrial disorder featuring multi-organ dysfunction. Mutations in either the ETFA, ETFB, and ETFDH genes can cause MADD but very little is known about disease specific mechanisms due to a paucity of animal models. We report a novel zebrafish mutant dark xavier (dxavu463) that has an inactivating mutation in the etfa gene. dxavu463 recapitulates numerous pathological and biochemical features seen in patients with MADD including brain, liver, and kidney disease. Similar to children with MADD, homozygote mutant dxavu463 zebrafish have a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from moderate to severe. Interestingly, excessive maternal feeding significantly exacerbated the phenotype. Homozygous mutant dxavu463 zebrafish have swollen and hyperplastic neural progenitor cells, hepatocytes and kidney tubule cells as well as elevations in triacylglycerol, cerebroside sulfate and cholesterol levels. Their mitochondria were also greatly enlarged, lacked normal cristae, and were dysfunctional. We also found increased signaling of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) with enlarged cell size and proliferation. Treatment with rapamycin partially reversed these abnormalities. Our results indicate that etfa gene function is remarkably conserved in zebrafish as compared to humans with highly similar pathological, biochemical abnormalities to those reported in children with MADD. Altered mTORC1 signaling and maternal nutritional status may play critical roles in MADD disease progression and suggest novel treatment approaches that may ameliorate disease severity. PMID:23785301

  13. Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenation Deficiency (Glutaric Aciduria Type II) with a Novel Mutation of Electron Transfer Flavoprotein-Dehydrogenase in a Cat.

    PubMed

    Wakitani, Shoichi; Torisu, Shidow; Yoshino, Taiki; Hattanda, Kazuhisa; Yamato, Osamu; Tasaki, Ryuji; Fujita, Haruo; Nishino, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD; also known as glutaric aciduria type II) is a human autosomal recessive disease classified as one of the mitochondrial fatty-acid oxidation disorders. MADD is caused by a defect in the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) or ETF dehydrogenase (ETFDH) molecule, but as yet, inherited MADD has not been reported in animals. Here we present the first report of MADD in a cat. The affected animal presented with symptoms characteristic of MADD including hypoglycemia, hyperammonemia, vomiting, diagnostic organic aciduria, and accumulation of medium- and long-chain fatty acids in plasma. Treatment with riboflavin and L-carnitine ameliorated the symptoms. To detect the gene mutation responsible for MADD in this case, we determined the complete cDNA sequences of feline ETFα, ETFβ, and ETFDH. Finally, we identified the feline patient-specific mutation, c.692T>G (p.F231C) in ETFDH. The affected animal only carries mutant alleles of ETFDH. p.F231 in feline ETFDH is completely conserved in eukaryotes, and is located on the apical surface of ETFDH, receiving electrons from ETF. This study thus identified the mutation strongly suspected to have been the cause of MADD in this cat. PMID:24142280

  14. Resistance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency to malaria: effects of fava bean hydroxypyrimidine glucosides on Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture and on the phagocytosis of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, H; Atamna, H; Shalmiev, G; Kanaani, J; Krugliak, M

    1996-07-01

    The balanced polymorphism of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD-) is believed to have evolved through the selective pressure of malarial combined with consumption of fava beans. The implicated fava bean constituents are the hydroxypyrimidine glucosides vicine and convicine, which upon hydrolysis of their beta-O-glucosidic bond, became protein pro-oxidants. In this work we show that the glucosides inhibit the growth of Plasmodium falciparum, increase the hexose-monophosphate shunt activity and the phagocytosis of malaria-infected erythrocytes. These activities are exacerbated in the presence of beta-glucosidase, implicating their pro-oxidant aglycones in the toxic effect, and are more pronounced in infected G6PD- erythrocytes. These results suggest that G6PD- infected erythrocytes are more susceptible to phagocytic cells, and that fava bean pro-oxidants are more efficiently suppressing parasite propagation in G6PD- erythrocytes, either by directly affecting parasite growth, or by means of enhanced phagocytic elimination of infected cells. The present findings could account for the relative resistance of G6PD- bearers to falciparum malaria, and establish a link between dietary habits and malaria in the selection of the G6PD- genotype.

  15. Resistance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency to malaria: effects of fava bean hydroxypyrimidine glucosides on Plasmodium falciparum growth in culture and on the phagocytosis of infected cells.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, H; Atamna, H; Shalmiev, G; Kanaani, J; Krugliak, M

    1996-07-01

    The balanced polymorphism of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD-) is believed to have evolved through the selective pressure of malarial combined with consumption of fava beans. The implicated fava bean constituents are the hydroxypyrimidine glucosides vicine and convicine, which upon hydrolysis of their beta-O-glucosidic bond, became protein pro-oxidants. In this work we show that the glucosides inhibit the growth of Plasmodium falciparum, increase the hexose-monophosphate shunt activity and the phagocytosis of malaria-infected erythrocytes. These activities are exacerbated in the presence of beta-glucosidase, implicating their pro-oxidant aglycones in the toxic effect, and are more pronounced in infected G6PD- erythrocytes. These results suggest that G6PD- infected erythrocytes are more susceptible to phagocytic cells, and that fava bean pro-oxidants are more efficiently suppressing parasite propagation in G6PD- erythrocytes, either by directly affecting parasite growth, or by means of enhanced phagocytic elimination of infected cells. The present findings could account for the relative resistance of G6PD- bearers to falciparum malaria, and establish a link between dietary habits and malaria in the selection of the G6PD- genotype. PMID:8710417

  16. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-07-16

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition.

  17. The mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 1 gene GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-An; Li, Qing; Ge, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Lin; Luo, Xiao-Li; Zhang, An-Hong; Xiao, Juan-Li; Tian, Ying-Chuan; Xia, Gui-Xian; Chen, Xiao-Ying; Li, Fu-Guang; Wu, Jia-He

    2015-01-01

    Cotton, an important commercial crop, is cultivated for its natural fibers, and requires an adequate supply of soil nutrients, including phosphorus, for its growth. Soil phosporus exists primarily in insoluble forms. We isolated a mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, designated as GhmMDH1, from Gossypium hirsutum L. to assess its effect in enhancing P availability and absorption. An enzyme kinetic assay showed that the recombinant GhmMDH1 possesses the capacity to catalyze the interconversion of oxaloacetate and malate. The malate contents in the roots, leaves and root exudates was significantly higher in GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants and lower in knockdown plants compared with the wild-type control. Knockdown of GhmMDH1 gene resulted in increased respiration rate and reduced biomass whilst overexpression of GhmMDH1 gave rise to decreased respiration rate and higher biomass in the transgenic plants. When cultured in medium containing only insoluble phosphorus, Al-phosphorus, Fe-phosphorus, or Ca-phosphorus, GhmMDH1-overexpressing plants produced significantly longer roots and had a higher biomass and P content than WT plants, however, knockdown plants showed the opposite results for these traits. Collectively, our results show that GhmMDH1 is involved in plant and root growth under phosphorus deficiency conditions in cotton, owing to its functions in leaf respiration and P acquisition. PMID:26179843

  18. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2016-01-01

    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage.

  19. [Activity of liver mitochondrial NAD+-dependent dehydrogenases of the krebs cycle in rats with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis developed under conditions of alimentary protein deficiency].

    PubMed

    Voloshchuk, O N; Kopylchuk, G P

    2016-01-01

    Activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, and the NAD(+)/NADН ratio were studied in the liver mitochondrial fraction of rats with toxic hepatitis induced by acetaminophen under conditions of alimentary protein deprivation. Acetaminophen-induced hepatitis was characterized by a decrease of isocitrate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities, while the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio remained at the control level. Modeling of acetaminophen-induced hepatitis in rats with alimentary protein caused a more pronounced decrease in the activity of NAD(+)-dependent dehydrogenases studied and a 2.2-fold increase of the mitochondrial NAD(+)/NADН ratio. This suggests that alimentary protein deprivation potentiated drug-induced liver damage. PMID:27143375

  20. Anesthetic agents in patients with very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Redshaw, Charlotte; Stewart, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Very long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrongenase deficiency (VLCADD) is a rare disorder of fatty acid metabolism that renders sufferers susceptible to hypoglycemia, liver failure, cardiomyopathy, and rhabdomyolysis. The literature about the management of these patients is hugely conflicting, suggesting that both propofol and volatile anesthesia should be avoided. We have reviewed the literature and have concluded that the source papers do not support the statements that volatile anesthetic agents are unsafe. The reports on rhabdomyolysis secondary to anesthesia appear to be due to inadequate supply of carbohydrate not volatile agents. Catabolism must be avoided with minimal fasting, glucose infusions based on age and weight, and attenuation of emotional and physical stress. General anesthesia appears to be protective of stress-induced catabolism and may offer benefits in children and anxious patients over regional anesthesia. Propofol has not been demonstrated to be harmful in VLCADD but is presented in an emulsion containing very long-chain fatty acids which can cause organ lipidosis and itself can inhibit mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism. It is therefore not recommended. Suxamethonium-induced myalgia may mimic symptoms of rhabdomyolysis and cause raised CK therefore should be avoided. Opioids, NSAIDS, regional anesthesia, and local anesthetic techniques have all been used without complication. PMID:25069536

  1. Sensory integration intervention: historical concepts, treatment strategies and clinical experiences in three patients with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency.

    PubMed

    Kratz, S V

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a review of clinical experiences providing developmental therapy services for three boys diagnosed with paediatric neurotransmitter disease. The clinical presentation of paediatric neurotransmitter diseases might parallel other diagnostic characteristics seen in a typical paediatric therapy clinic (i.e. hypotonia, motor and cognitive delays, coordination, expressive speech, and ocular motor difficulties.) From the clinical perspective of the author, sensory integrative function is but one aspect of a thorough evaluation and treatment plan for all patients. The manifestations of sensory integration dysfunction (SID), also known as sensory processing dysfunction (SPD), can occur alone or be concurrent with a variety of known medical, behavioural and neurological diagnoses. These manifestations of SPD can include, but are not limited to: hypotonia, hyperactivity, irritability, distractibility, attention difficulties, learning difficulties, clumsiness and incoordination, instability, poor motor skills, social-emotional difficulties, and behavioural problems. This paper summarizes the theory and practice applications of sensory integration. The author discusses clinical experiences providing occupational therapy services utilizing sensory integration methods and strategies with clients who were eventually diagnosed with SSADH deficiency.

  2. Improved production of homo-D-lactic acid via xylose fermentation by introduction of xylose assimilation genes and redirection of the phosphoketolase pathway to the pentose phosphate pathway in L-Lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Yoshida, Shogo; Yamada, Ryosuke; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-12-01

    The production of optically pure d-lactic acid via xylose fermentation was achieved by using a Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB 8826 strain whose l-lactate dehydrogenase gene was deficient and whose phosphoketolase genes were replaced with a heterologous transketolase gene. After 60 h of fermentation, 41.2 g/liter of d-lactic acid was produced from 50 g/liter of xylose.

  3. Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in malaria patients from six African countries enrolled in two randomized anti-malarial clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is common in populations living in malaria endemic areas. G6PD genotype and phenotype were determined for malaria patients enrolled in the chlorproguanil-dapsone-artesunate (CDA) phase III clinical trial programme. Methods Study participants, aged > 1 year, with microscopically confirmed uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and haemoglobin ≥ 70 g/L or haematocrit ≥ 25%, were recruited into two clinical trials conducted in six African countries (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Mali). G6PD genotype of the three most common African forms, G6PD*B, G6PD*A (A376G), and G6PD*A- (G202A, A542T, G680T and T968C), were determined and used for frequency estimation. G6PD phenotype was assessed qualitatively using the NADPH fluorescence test. Exploratory analyses investigated the effect of G6PD status on baseline haemoglobin concentration, temperature, asexual parasitaemia and anti-malarial efficacy after treatment with CDA 2/2.5/4 mg/kg or chlorproguanil-dapsone 2/2.5 mg/kg (both given once daily for three days) or six-dose artemether-lumefantrine. Results Of 2264 malaria patients enrolled, 2045 had G6PD genotype available and comprised the primary analysis population (1018 males, 1027 females). G6PD deficiency prevalence was 9.0% (184/2045; 7.2% [N = 147] male hemizygous plus 1.8% [N = 37] female homozygous), 13.3% (273/2045) of patients were heterozygous females, 77.7% (1588/2045) were G6PD normal. All deficient G6PD*A- genotypes were A376G/G202A. G6PD phenotype was available for 64.5% (1319/2045) of patients: 10.2% (134/1319) were G6PD deficient, 9.6% (127/1319) intermediate, and 80.2% (1058/1319) normal. Phenotype test specificity in detecting hemizygous males was 70.7% (70/99) and 48.0% (12/25) for homozygous females. Logistic regression found no significant effect of G6PD genotype on adjusted mean baseline haemoglobin (p = 0.154), adjusted mean baseline temperature (p = 0.9617), or

  4. Prevalence and mutation analysis of short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) detected on newborn screening in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Van Calcar, Sandra C; Baker, Mei W; Williams, Phillip; Jones, Susan A; Xiong, Blia; Thao, Mai Choua; Lee, Sheng; Yang, Mai Khou; Rice, Greg M; Rhead, William; Vockley, Jerry; Hoffman, Gary; Durkin, Maureen S

    2013-01-01

    Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD), also called 2-methylbutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (2-MBCDD), is a disorder of l-isoleucine metabolism of uncertain clinical significance. SBCADD is inadvertently detected on expanded newborn screening by elevated 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine (C5), which has the same mass to charge (m/s) on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as isovalerylcarnitine (C5), an analyte that is elevated in isovaleric acidemia (IVA), a disorder in leucine metabolism. SBCADD cases identified in the Hmong-American population have been found in association with the c.1165 A>G mutation in the ACADSB gene. The purposes of this study were to: (a) estimate the prevalence of SBCADD and carrier frequency of the c.1165 A>G mutation in the Hmong ethnic group; (b) determine whether the c.1165 A>G mutation is common to all Hmong newborns screening positive for SBCADD; and (c) evaluate C5 acylcarnitine cut-off values to detect and distinguish between SBCADD and IVA diagnoses. During the first 10years of expanded newborn screening using MS/MS in Wisconsin (2001-2011), 97 infants had elevated C5 values (≥0.44μmol/L), of whom five were Caucasian infants confirmed to have IVA. Of the remaining 92 confirmed SBCADD cases, 90 were of Hmong descent. Mutation analysis was completed on an anonymous, random sample of newborn screening cards (n=1139) from Hmong infants. Fifteen infants, including nine who had screened positive for SBCADD based on a C5 acylcarnitine concentration ≥0.44μmol/L, were homozygous for the c.1165 A>G mutation. This corresponds to a prevalence in this ethnic group of being homozygous for the mutation of 1.3% (95% confidence interval 0.8-2.2%) and of being heterozygous for the mutation of 21.8% (95% confidence interval 19.4-24.3%), which is consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Detection of homozygous individuals who were not identified on newborn screening suggests that the C5 screening cut-off would need to

  5. Prevalence and mutation analysis of short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD) detected on newborn screening in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Van Calcar, Sandra C.; Baker, Mei W.; Williams, Phillip; Jones, Susan A.; Xiong, Blia; Thao, Mai Choua; Lee, Sheng; Yang, Mai Khou; Rice, Greg M.; Rhead, William; Vockley, Jerry; Hoffman, Gary; Durkin, Maureen S.

    2015-01-01

    Short/branched chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SBCADD), also called 2-methylbutyryl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (2-MBCDD), is a disorder of L-isoleucine metabolism of uncertain clinical significance. SBCADD is inadvertently detected on expanded newborn screening by elevated 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine (C5), which has the same mass to charge (m/s) on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as isovalerylcarnitine (C5), an analyte that is elevated in isovaleric acidemia (IVA), a disorder in leucine metabolism. SBCADD cases identified in the Hmong-American population have been found in association with the c.1165 A>G mutation in the ACADSB gene. The purposes of this study were to: (a) estimate the prevalence of SBCADD and carrier frequency of the c.1165 A>G mutation in the Hmong ethnic group; (b) determine whether the c.1 165 A>G mutation is common to all Hmong newborns screening positive for SBCADD; and (c) evaluate C5 acylcarnitine cut-off values to detect and distinguish between SBCADD and IVA diagnoses. During the first 10 years of expanded newborn screening using MS/MS in Wisconsin (2001–2011), 97 infants had elevated C5 values (≥0.44 μmol/L), of whom five were Caucasian infants confirmed to have IVA Of the remaining 92 confirmed SBCADD cases, 90 were of Hmong descent. Mutation analysis was completed on an anonymous, random sample of newborn screening cards (n = 1139) from Hmong infants. Fifteen infants, including nine who had screened positive for SBCADD based on a C5 acylcarnitine concentrations ≥0.44 μmol/L, were homozygous for the c.1165 A>G mutation. This corresponds to a prevalence in this ethnic group of being homozygous for the mutation of 1.3% (95% confidence interval 0.8–2.2%) and of being heterozygous for the mutation of 21.8% (95% confidence interval 19.4–24.3%), which is consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Detection of homozygous individuals who were not identified on newborn screening suggests that the C5 screening cut

  6. Application of a genetically encoded biosensor for live cell imaging of L-valine production in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient Corynebacterium glutamicum strains.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Nurije; Grünberger, Alexander; Mahr, Regina; Helfrich, Stefan; Nöh, Katharina; Blombach, Bastian; Kohlheyer, Dietrich; Frunzke, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The majority of biotechnologically relevant metabolites do not impart a conspicuous phenotype to the producing cell. Consequently, the analysis of microbial metabolite production is still dominated by bulk techniques, which may obscure significant variation at the single-cell level. In this study, we have applied the recently developed Lrp-biosensor for monitoring of amino acid production in single cells of gradually engineered L-valine producing Corynebacterium glutamicum strains based on the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex-deficient (PDHC) strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Online monitoring of the sensor output (eYFP fluorescence) during batch cultivation proved the sensor's suitability for visualizing different production levels. In the following, we conducted live cell imaging studies on C. glutamicum sensor strains using microfluidic chip devices. As expected, the sensor output was higher in microcolonies of high-yield producers in comparison to the basic strain C. glutamicum ΔaceE. Microfluidic cultivation in minimal medium revealed a typical Gaussian distribution of single cell fluorescence during the production phase. Remarkably, low amounts of complex nutrients completely changed the observed phenotypic pattern of all strains, resulting in a phenotypic split of the population. Whereas some cells stopped growing and initiated L-valine production, others continued to grow or showed a delayed transition to production. Depending on the cultivation conditions, a considerable fraction of non-fluorescent cells was observed, suggesting a loss of metabolic activity. These studies demonstrate that genetically encoded biosensors are a valuable tool for monitoring single cell productivity and to study the phenotypic pattern of microbial production strains.

  7. Sexual dimorphism of lipid metabolism in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD-/-) mice in response to medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-07-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are widely applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. Previously it was shown that long-term MCT supplementation strongly affects lipid metabolism in mice. We here investigate sex-specific effects in mice with very-long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency in response to a long-term MCT modified diet. We quantified blood lipids, acylcarnitines, glucose, insulin and free fatty acids, as well as tissue triglycerides in the liver and skeletal muscle under a control and an MCT diet over 1 year. In addition, visceral and hepatic fat content and muscular intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were assessed by in vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques. The long-term application of an MCT diet induced a marked alteration of glucose homeostasis. However, only VLCAD-/- female mice developed a severe metabolic syndrome characterized by marked insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, severe hepatic and visceral steatosis, whereas VLCAD-/- males seemed to be protected and only presented with milder insulin resistance. Moreover, the highly saturated MCT diet is associated with a decreased hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity in females aggravating the harmful effects of a saturated MCT diet. Long-term MCT supplementation deeply affects lipid metabolism in a sexual dimorphic manner resulting in a severe metabolic syndrome only in female mice. These findings are striking since the first signs of insulin resistance already occur in female VLCAD-/- mice during their reproductive period. How these metabolic adaptations are finally regulated needs to be determined. More important, the relevance of these findings for humans under these dietary modifications needs to be investigated. PMID:25887160

  8. An animal model of PDH deficiency using AAV8-siRNA vector-mediated knockdown of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α

    PubMed Central

    Ojano-Dirain, Carolyn; Glushakova, Lyudmyla G.; Zhong, Li; Zolotukhin, Sergei; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Srivastava, Arun; Stacpoole, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of self-complementary adeno-associated virus (scAAV) vector-mediated knockdown of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex using small interfering RNAs directed against the E1α subunit gene (PDHA1). AAV serotype 8 was used to stereotaxically deliver scAAV8-si3-PDHA1-Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (knockdown) or scAAV8-EGFP (control) vectors into the right striatum and substantia nigra of rats. Rotational asymmetry was employed to quantify abnormal rotation following neurodegeneration in the nigrostriatal system. By 20 weeks after surgery, the siRNA-injected rats exhibited higher contralateral rotation during the first 10 min following amphetamine administration and lower 90-min total rotations (p≤0.05). Expression of PDC E1α, E1β and E2 subunits in striatum was decreased (p≤0.05) in the siRNA-injected striatum after 14 weeks. By week 25, both PDC activity and expression of E1α were lower (p≤0.05) in siRNA-injected striata compared to controls. E1α expression was associated with PDC activity (R2=0.48; p=0.006) and modestly associated with counterclockwise rotation (R2=0.51;p=0.07). The use of tyrosine-mutant scAAV8 vectors resulted in ~17-fold increase in transduction efficiency of rat striatal neurons in vivo. We conclude that scAAV8-siRNA vector-mediated knockdown of PDC E1α in brain regions typically affected in humans with PDC deficiency results in a reproducible biochemical and clinical phenotype in rats that may be further enhanced with the use of tyrosine-mutant vectors. PMID:20685142

  9. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Ju, Hyunsu; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to <0.2% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 were observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. PMID:24625836

  10. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding.

    PubMed

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Calhoun, William J

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to <1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease.

  11. Sexual dimorphism of lipid metabolism in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficient (VLCAD-/-) mice in response to medium-chain triglycerides (MCT).

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-07-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are widely applied in the treatment of long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders. Previously it was shown that long-term MCT supplementation strongly affects lipid metabolism in mice. We here investigate sex-specific effects in mice with very-long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency in response to a long-term MCT modified diet. We quantified blood lipids, acylcarnitines, glucose, insulin and free fatty acids, as well as tissue triglycerides in the liver and skeletal muscle under a control and an MCT diet over 1 year. In addition, visceral and hepatic fat content and muscular intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were assessed by in vivo(1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) techniques. The long-term application of an MCT diet induced a marked alteration of glucose homeostasis. However, only VLCAD-/- female mice developed a severe metabolic syndrome characterized by marked insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, severe hepatic and visceral steatosis, whereas VLCAD-/- males seemed to be protected and only presented with milder insulin resistance. Moreover, the highly saturated MCT diet is associated with a decreased hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity in females aggravating the harmful effects of a saturated MCT diet. Long-term MCT supplementation deeply affects lipid metabolism in a sexual dimorphic manner resulting in a severe metabolic syndrome only in female mice. These findings are striking since the first signs of insulin resistance already occur in female VLCAD-/- mice during their reproductive period. How these metabolic adaptations are finally regulated needs to be determined. More important, the relevance of these findings for humans under these dietary modifications needs to be investigated.

  12. A Historical Cohort Study on the Efficacy of Glucocorticoids and Riboflavin Among Patients with Late-onset Multiple Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Yi; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Dan-Ni; Lin, Min-Ting; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late-onset multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) is the most common type of lipid storage myopathies in China. Most patients with late-onset MADD are well responsive to riboflavin. Up to now, these patients are often treated with glucocorticoids as the first-line drug because they are misdiagnosed as polymyositis without muscle biopsy or gene analysis. Although glucocorticoids seem to improve the fatty acid metabolism of late-onset MADD, the objective evaluation of their rationalization on this disorder and comparison with riboflavin treatment are unknown. Methods: We performed a historical cohort study on the efficacy of the two drugs among 45 patients with late-onset MADD, who were divided into glucocorticoids group and riboflavin group. Detailed clinical information of baseline and 1-month follow-up were collected. Results: After 1-month treatment, a dramatic improvement of muscle strength was found in riboflavin group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in muscle enzymes between the two groups. Significantly, the number of patients with full recovery in glucocorticoids group was less than the number in riboflavin group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, almost half of the patients in riboflavin group still presented high-level muscle enzymes and weak muscle strength after 1-month riboflavin treatment, meaning that 1-month treatment duration maybe insufficient and patients should keep on riboflavin supplement for a longer time. Conclusions: Our results provide credible evidences that the overall efficacy of riboflavin is superior to glucocorticoids, and a longer duration of riboflavin treatment is necessary for patients with late-onset MADD. PMID:26830983

  13. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in pubertal male and female siblings with glucocorticoid-treated nonsalt-wasting 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y T; Kulin, H E; Garibaldi, L; Suriano, M J; Bracki, K; Pang, S

    1993-11-01

    We report pubertal maturation and dynamic studies of gonadotropin and gonadal hormone secretion in long term glucocorticoid-treated siblings with nonsalt-wasting classic adrenal and gonadal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta HSD) deficiency. The 18-yr-old female siblings spontaneously developed thelarche and menarche at 10 and 12 yr, respectively, and manifested irregular menses, hirsutism, and polycystic ovaries at 17 yr. The 16-yr-old male sibling spontaneously developed secondary sex characteristics at age 11 yr and exhibited Tanner IV-V pubic hair, a 6.5 x 3.0-cm surgically repaired penis, and enlarged nonnodular testes. Overnight (2200-0700 h) plasma gonadotropin (every 20 min) and gonadal steroid levels (every 2 h) under ACTH adrenal suppression revealed the following. In the male sibling, there were overall normal Tanner V male LH (3-21 mIU/mL) and FSH (1.2-13 mIU/mL) levels, normal peak frequency and amplitude of LH (70 +/- 62 min and 15 +/- 3 mIU/mL, respectively) and FSH (65 +/- 28 min and 13 +/- 3 mIU/mL), and low normal Tanner V testosterone (T) levels (11.4-17.9 nmol/L). In the female sibling, there were normal follicular phase range LH (10-28 mIU/mL) and FSH (5.1-17.2 mIU/mL) levels, normal peak frequency and amplitude of LH (96 +/- 17 min and 22 +/- 4.5 mIU/mL, respectively) and FSH (62 +/- 27 min, 13 +/- 4 mIU/mL), and early follicular phase estradiol (E2) levels (100-170 pmol/L). The LH-releasing hormone-stimulated LH response was in the normal adult range in the male and normal for the early follicular phase in the female. In contrast, ACTH and adrenal delta 5-steroid responses to CRH administration were elevated in each sibling. Gonadal suppression via Norlutin administration (30 mg/day for 3 days) after prolonged adrenal suppression by dexamethasone resulted in suppression of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and E2 in the female and DHEA and T in the male. Gonadal stimulation via hCG administration (5000 IU/day for 3 days, im) during

  14. Isolation of a Histoplasma capsulatum cDNA that complements a mitochondrial NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase subunit I-deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C H; McEwen, J E

    1999-06-30

    A cDNA library was prepared from Histoplasma capsulatum strain G-217B yeast cells and an apparently full-length cDNA for a subunit of the citric acid cycle enzyme NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase was identified by sequence analysis. Its predicted amino acid sequence is more similar to the IDH1 regulatory subunit of S. cerevisiae NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase than to the IDH2 catalytic subunit. After expression in S. cerevisiae from an S. cerevisiae promoter, it was shown to functionally complement an S. cerevisiae idh1 mutant, but not an idh2 mutant, for growth on acetate as a carbon source and for production of NAD(+)-isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. These results confirm that the H. capsulatum cDNA encodes a homologue of subunit I of the S. cerevisiae mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase isozyme that functions in the citric acid cycle.

  15. Safety, efficacy and physiological actions of a lysine-free, arginine-rich formula to treat glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: focus on cerebral amino acid influx.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Brumbaugh, Joan; Duffy, Alana; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Tortorelli, Silvia; Moser, Ann B; Puffenberger, Erik G; Rider, Nicholas L; Morton, D Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Striatal degeneration from glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (glutaric aciduria type 1, GA1) is associated with cerebral formation and entrapment of glutaryl-CoA and its derivatives that depend on cerebral lysine influx. In 2006 we designed a lysine-free study formula enriched with arginine to selectively block lysine transport across cerebral endothelia and thereby limit glutaryl-CoA production by brain. Between 2006 and present, we treated twelve consecutive children with study formula (LYSx group) while holding all other treatment practices constant. Clinical and biochemical outcomes were compared to 25 GA1 patients (PROx group) treated between 1995 and 2005 with natural protein restriction (dietary lysine/arginine ratio of 1.7±0.3 mg:mg). We used published kinetic parameters of the y+and LAT1 blood-brain barrier transporters to model the influx of amino acids into the brain. Arginine fortification to achieve a mean dietary lysine/arginine ratio of 0.7±0.2 mg:mg was neuroprotective. All 12 LYSx patients are physically and neurologically healthy after 28 aggregate patient-years of follow up (current ages 28±21 months) and there were no adverse events related to formula use. This represents a 36% reduction of neurological risk (95% confidence interval 14-52%, p=0.018) that we can directly attribute to altered amino acid intake. During the first year of life, 20% lower lysine intake and two-fold higher arginine intake by LYSx patients were associated with 50% lower plasma lysine, 3-fold lower plasma lysine/arginine concentration ratio, 42% lower mean calculated cerebral lysine influx, 54% higher calculated cerebral arginine influx, 15-26% higher calculated cerebral influx of several anaplerotic precursors (isoleucine, threonine, methionine, and leucine), 50% less 3-hydroxyglutarate excretion, and a 3-fold lower hospitalization rate (0.8 versus 2.3 hospitalizations per patient per year). The relationship between arginine fortification and plasma lysine

  16. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  17. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Inhibitory effect of a fava bean component on the in vitro development of Plasmodium falciparum in normal and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Golenser, J; Miller, J; Spira, D T; Navok, T; Chevion, M

    1983-03-01

    We examined the hypothesis that G-6-PD deficiency associated with fava bean ingestion confers resistance to malaria by studying the in vitro interactions between malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum), human erythrocytes with varying degrees of G-6-PD deficiency, and isouramil (IU), a fava bean extract that is known to cause oxidant stress and hemolysis of G-6-PD-deficient erythrocytes. Untreated G-6-PD-deficient and normal erythrocytes supported the in vitro growth of P. falciparum equally well. However, after pretreatment with IU, G-6-PD-deficient erythrocytes did not support parasite growth in vitro, whereas growth remained high in normal erythrocytes. Parasite growth was proportional to the G-6-PD activity of the IU-treated erythrocytes. In contrast, when parasitized erythrocytes were exposed to IU, parasites even in normal erythrocytes were destroyed. Ring forms were much less sensitive than late trophozoites and schizonts. The results suggest that there are two modes by which IU affects the development of P. falciparum and demonstrate in vitro that G-6-PD deficiency confers resistance against malaria under conditions of fava-bean-associated oxidant stress.

  19. Molecular Heterogeneity of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Burkina Faso: G-6-PD Betica Selma and Santamaria in People with Symptomatic Malaria in Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Yameogo, Pouiré; Diarra, Birama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Yonli, Albert; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Djigma, Florencia Wenkuuni; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The G-6-PD deficiency has an important polymorphism with genotypic variants such as 202A/376G, 376G/542T and 376G/968T known in West African populations. It would confer protection against severe forms of malaria although there are differences between the various associations in different studies. In this study we genotyped six (06) variants of the G-6-PD gene in people with symptomatic malaria in urban areas in Burkina Faso. One hundred and eighty-two (182) patients who tested positive using rapid detection test and microscopy were included in this study. A regular PCR with the GENESPARK G6PD African kit was run followed by electrophoresis, allowing initially to genotype six SNPs (G202A, A376G, A542T, G680T, C563T and T968C). Women carrying the mutations 202A and/or 376G were further typed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes rs1050828 and rs1050829. In the study population the G-6-PD deficiency prevalence was 9.9%. In addition of G-6-PD A- (202A/376G) variant, 376G/542T and 376G/968T variants were also detected. Hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed that 22.5% (41/182) of the individuals had HbAC compared with2.2% with HbAS and one individual had double heterozygous HbSC. There was no correlation between the G-6-PD deficiency or haemoglobinopathies and symptomatic malaria infections in this study. Our study confirms that the G-6-PD deficiency does not confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum infections. As opposed to previous genotyping studies carried out in Burkina Faso, this study shows for the first time the presence of the variant A- (376G/968C) and warrants further investigation at the national level and in specific ethnic groups. PMID:27413522

  20. Molecular Heterogeneity of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Burkina Faso: G-6-PD Betica Selma and Santamaria in People with Symptomatic Malaria in Ouagadougou.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Abdoul Karim; Yameogo, Pouiré; Diarra, Birama; Obiri-Yeboah, Dorcas; Yonli, Albert; Compaore, Tegwindé Rebeca; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Djigma, Florencia Wenkuuni; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The G-6-PD deficiency has an important polymorphism with genotypic variants such as 202A/376G, 376G/542T and 376G/968T known in West African populations. It would confer protection against severe forms of malaria although there are differences between the various associations in different studies. In this study we genotyped six (06) variants of the G-6-PD gene in people with symptomatic malaria in urban areas in Burkina Faso. One hundred and eighty-two (182) patients who tested positive using rapid detection test and microscopy were included in this study. A regular PCR with the GENESPARK G6PD African kit was run followed by electrophoresis, allowing initially to genotype six SNPs (G202A, A376G, A542T, G680T, C563T and T968C). Women carrying the mutations 202A and/or 376G were further typed by real-time PCR using TaqMan probes rs1050828 and rs1050829. In the study population the G-6-PD deficiency prevalence was 9.9%. In addition of G-6-PD A- (202A/376G) variant, 376G/542T and 376G/968T variants were also detected. Hemoglobin electrophoresis revealed that 22.5% (41/182) of the individuals had HbAC compared with2.2% with HbAS and one individual had double heterozygous HbSC. There was no correlation between the G-6-PD deficiency or haemoglobinopathies and symptomatic malaria infections in this study. Our study confirms that the G-6-PD deficiency does not confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum infections. As opposed to previous genotyping studies carried out in Burkina Faso, this study shows for the first time the presence of the variant A- (376G/968C) and warrants further investigation at the national level and in specific ethnic groups. PMID:27413522

  1. Impact of chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption on blood lipid and heart energy profile in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Cao, Quan; Wang, Cong; Ma, Xin; Shen, Cheng; Liu, Xiang-wei; Bu, Li-ping; Zou, Yun-zeng; Hu, Kai; Sun, Ai-jun; Ge, Jun-bo

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the roles of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), the key enzyme of ethanol metabolism, in chronic low to moderate alcohol consumption-induced heart protective effects in mice. Methods: Twenty-one male wild-type (WT) or ALDH2-knockout (KO) mice were used in this study. In each genotype, 14 animals received alcohol (2.5%, 5% and 10% in week 1–3, respectively, and 18% in week 4–7), and 7 received water for 7 weeks. After the treatments, survival rate and general characteristics of the animals were evaluated. Serum ethanol and acetaldehyde levels and blood lipids were measured. Metabolomics was used to characterize the heart and serum metabolism profiles. Results: Chronic alcohol intake decreased the survival rate of KO mice by 50%, and significantly decreased their body weight, but did not affect those of WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum ethanol levels in both WT and KO mice, but KO mice had significantly higher serum acetaldehyde levels than WT mice. Chronic alcohol intake significantly increased the serum HDL cholesterol levels in WT mice, and did not change the serum HDL cholesterol levels in KO mice. After chronic alcohol intake, WT and KO mice showed differential heart and serum metabolism profiles, including the 3 main energy substrate types (lipids, glucose and amino acids) and three carboxylic acid cycles. Conclusion: Low to moderate alcohol consumption increases HDL cholesterol levels and improves heart energy metabolism profile in WT mice but not in ALDH2-KO mice. Thus, preserved ALDH2 function is essential for the protective effect of low to moderate alcohol on the cardiovascular system. PMID:24998256

  2. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing.

  3. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. PMID:26284828

  4. Sustained photoevolution of molecular hydrogen in a mutant of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 deficient in the type I NADPH-dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Cournac, Laurent; Guedeney, Geneviève; Peltier, Gilles; Vignais, Paulette M

    2004-03-01

    The interaction between hydrogen metabolism, respiration, and photosynthesis was studied in vivo in whole cells of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 by continuously monitoring the changes in gas concentrations (H2, CO2, and O2) with an online mass spectrometer. The in vivo activity of the bidirectional [NiFe]hydrogenase [H2:NAD(P) oxidoreductase], encoded by the hoxEFUYH genes, was also measured independently by the proton-deuterium (H-D) exchange reaction in the presence of D2. This technique allowed us to demonstrate that the hydrogenase was insensitive to light, was reversibly inactivated by O2, and could be quickly reactivated by NADH or NADPH (+H2). H2 was evolved by cells incubated anaerobically in the dark, after an adaptation period. This dark H2 evolution was enhanced by exogenously added glucose and resulted from the oxidation of NAD(P)H produced by fermentation reactions. Upon illumination, a short (less than 30-s) burst of H2 output was observed, followed by rapid H2 uptake and a concomitant decrease in CO2 concentration in the cyanobacterial cell suspension. Uptake of both H2 and CO2 was linked to photosynthetic electron transport in the thylakoids. In the ndhB mutant M55, which is defective in the type I NADPH-dehydrogenase complex (NDH-1) and produces only low amounts of O2 in the light, H2 uptake was negligible during dark-to-light transitions, allowing several minutes of continuous H2 production. A sustained rate of photoevolution of H2 corresponding to 6 micro mol of H2 mg of chlorophyll(-1) h(-1) or 2 ml of H2 liter(-1) h(-1) was observed over a longer time period in the presence of glucose and was slightly enhanced by the addition of the O2 scavenger glucose oxidase. By the use of the inhibitors DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] and DBMIB (2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone), it was shown that two pathways of electron supply for H2 production operate in M55, namely photolysis of water at the level of photosystem II and

  5. Efficient production of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch by using a genetically modified L-lactate dehydrogenase gene-deficient and alpha-amylase-secreting Lactobacillus plantarum strain.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kenji; Zhang, Qiao; Shinkawa, Satoru; Yoshida, Shogo; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to achieve direct and efficient fermentation of optically pure D-lactic acid from raw corn starch, we constructed L-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL1)-deficient Lactobacillus plantarum and introduced a plasmid encoding Streptococcus bovis 148 alpha-amylase (AmyA). The resulting strain produced only D-lactic acid from glucose and successfully expressed amyA. With the aid of secreting AmyA, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished. After 48 h of fermentation, 73.2 g/liter of lactic acid was produced with a high yield (0.85 g per g of consumed sugar) and an optical purity of 99.6%. Moreover, a strain replacing the ldhL1 gene with an amyA-secreting expression cassette was constructed. Using this strain, direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw corn starch was accomplished in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics. This is the first report of direct D-lactic acid fermentation from raw starch.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the production of the protein building block ( amino acid ) serine. Specifically, the enzyme converts a substance called ... Resources MedlinePlus (5 links) Encyclopedia: Microcephaly Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Developmental Disabilities Health Topic: ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the breakdown of three protein building blocks (amino acids) commonly found in protein-rich foods: leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Breakdown of these amino acids produces molecules that can be used for energy. ...

  8. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. Orphanet is a European reference ... Support for Patients and Families Help with Travel Costs How to Get Involved in Research FAQs About ...

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  10. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the 72-kilodalton dehydrogenase subunit of alcohol dehydrogenase from Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Sunagawa, M; Mori, A; Imai, C; Fukuda, M; Takagi, M; Yano, K

    1989-06-01

    A genomic library of Acetobacter aceti DNA was constructed by using a broad-host-range cosmid vector. Complementation of a spontaneous alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient mutant resulted in the isolation of a plasmid designated pAA701. Subcloning and deletion analysis of pAA701 limited the region that complemented the deficiency in alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant. The nucleotide sequence of this region was determined and showed that this region contained the full structural gene for the 72-kilodalton dehydrogenase subunit of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme complex. The predicted amino acid sequence of the gene showed homology with sequences of methanol dehydrogenase structural genes of Paracoccus denitrificans and Methylobacterium organophilum.

  11. Molybdopterin cofactor from Methanobacterium formicicum formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    May, H D; Schauer, N L; Ferry, J G

    1986-01-01

    The molybdopterin cofactor from the formate dehydrogenase of Methanobacterium formicicum was studied. The cofactor was released by guanidine denaturation of homogeneous enzyme, which also released greater than 80% of the molybdenum present in the enzyme. The anoxically isolated cofactor was nonfluorescent, but after exposure to air it fluoresced with spectra similar to those of described molybdopterin cofactors. Aerobic release from acid-denatured formate dehydrogenase in the presence of I2 and potassium iodide produced a mixture of fluorescent products. Alkaline permanganate oxidation of the mixture yielded pterin-6-carboxylic acid as the only detectable fluorescent product. The results showed that the cofactor from formate dehydrogenase contained a pterin nucleus with a 6-alkyl side chain of unknown structure. Covalently bound phosphate was also present. The isolated cofactor was unable to complement the cofactor-deficient nitrate reductase of the Neurospora crassa nit-1 mutant. PMID:3700335

  12. Deregulation of mitochondrial functions provoked by long-chain fatty acid accumulating in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and mitochondrial permeability transition deficiencies in rat heart--mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening as a potential contributing pathomechanism of cardiac alterations in these disorders.

    PubMed

    Cecatto, Cristiane; Hickmann, Fernanda H; Rodrigues, Marília D N; Amaral, Alexandre U; Wajner, Moacir

    2015-12-01

    Mitochondrial trifunctional protein and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies are fatty acid oxidation disorders biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of long-chain fatty acids and derivatives, including the monocarboxylic long-chain 3-hydroxy fatty acids (LCHFAs) 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid (3HTA) and 3-hydroxypalmitic acid (3HPA). Patients commonly present severe cardiomyopathy for which the pathogenesis is still poorly established. We investigated the effects of 3HTA and 3HPA, the major metabolites accumulating in these disorders, on important parameters of mitochondrial homeostasis in Ca(2+) -loaded heart mitochondria. 3HTA and 3HPA significantly decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix NAD(P)H pool and Ca(2+) retention capacity, and also induced mitochondrial swelling. These fatty acids also provoked a marked decrease of ATP production reflecting severe energy dysfunction. Furthermore, 3HTA-induced mitochondrial alterations were completely prevented by the classical mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) inhibitors cyclosporin A and ADP, as well as by ruthenium red, a Ca(2+) uptake blocker, indicating that LCHFAs induced Ca(2+)-dependent mPT pore opening. Milder effects only achieved at higher doses of LCHFAs were observed in brain mitochondria, implying a higher vulnerability of heart to these fatty acids. By contrast, 3HTA and docosanoic acids did not change mitochondrial homeostasis, indicating selective effects for monocarboxylic LCHFAs. The present data indicate that the major LCHFAs accumulating in mitochondrial trifunctional protein and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiencies induce mPT pore opening, compromising Ca(2+) homeostasis and oxidative phosphorylation more intensely in the heart. It is proposed that these pathomechanisms may contribute at least in part to the severe cardiac alterations characteristic of patients affected by these diseases.

  13. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  14. Proteomics and gene expression analyses of mitochondria from squalene-treated apoE-deficient mice identify short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase changes associated with fatty liver amelioration.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Torres, Adela; Barceló-Batllori, Sílvia; Fernández-Vizarra, Erika; Navarro, María A; Arnal, Carmen; Guillén, Natalia; Acín, Sergio; Osada, Jesús

    2012-05-17

    Squalene, a hydrocarbon involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, is an abundant component in virgin olive oil. Previous studies showed that its administration decreased atherosclerosis and steatosis in male apoE knock-out mice. To study the effect of squalene on mitochondrial proteins in fatty liver, 1 g/kg/day of this isoprenoid was administered to those mice. After 10 weeks, hepatic fat was assessed and protein extracts from mitochondria enriched fractions from control and squalene-treated animals were analyzed by 2D-DIGE. Spots exhibiting significant differences were identified by MS analysis. Squalene administration modified the expression of eighteen proteins involved in different metabolic processes, 12 associated with hepatic fat content. Methionine adenosyltransferase I alpha (Mat1a) and short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (Acads) showed significant increased and decreased transcripts, respectively, consistent with their protein changes. These mRNAs were also studied in wild-type mice receiving squalene, where Mat1a was found increased and Acads decreased. However, this mRNA was significantly increased in the absence of apolipoprotein E. These results suggest that squalene action may be executed through a complex regulation of mitochondrial protein expression, including changes in Mat1a and Acads levels. Indeed, Mat1a is a target of squalene administration while Acads reflects the anti-steatotic properties of squalene.

  15. Heterozygosity for an in-frame deletion causes glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient detected by newborn screening: investigation of the effect of the mutant allele.

    PubMed

    Bross, Peter; Frederiksen, Jane B; Bie, Anne S; Hansen, Jakob; Palmfeldt, Johan; Nielsen, Marit N; Duno, Morten; Lund, Allan M; Christensen, Ernst

    2012-09-01

    A patient with suspected glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) was detected by newborn screening. GA-1 is known as an autosomal recessively inherited disease due to defects in the gene coding for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the catabolism of the amino acids hydroxylysine, lysine and tryptophan. DNA and cDNA sequencing revealed a 18 bp deletion (c.553_570del18) resulting in deletion of six amino acids (p.Gly185_Ser190del) in one allele and no sequence changes in the other allele. Confirmatory biochemical analysis of blood, urine and cultured fibroblasts from the proband were consistent with a mild biochemical GA-1 phenotype. Recombinant expression of the mutant variant in E. coli showed that the GCDH-(p.Gly185_Ser190del) protein displayed severely decreased assembly into tetramers and enzyme activity. To discover a potential dominant negative effect of the mutant protein, we engineered a prokaryotic expression system in which expression of a wild type and a mutant GCDH allele is controlled by separately inducible promoters. These cells displayed decreased levels of GCDH tetramer and enzyme activity when expressing both the wild type and the mutant GCDH variant protein compared to the situation when only the wild type allele was expressed. Further experiments suggest that the major impact of the GCDH-(p.Gly185_Ser190del) protein in heterozygous cells consists of hampering the assembly of wild type GCDH into tetramers. Our experimental data are consistent with the hypothesis that heterozygosity for this mutation confers a dominant negative effect resulting in a GCDH enzyme activity that is significantly lower than the expected 50%.

  16. Metabolism of leucine in fibroblasts from patients with deficiencies in each of the major catabolic enzymes: branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, isovaleryl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, I; Søvik, O; Sweetman, L; Nyhan, W L

    1985-12-01

    The metabolism of leucine was studied in cultured human fibroblasts derived from patients with defects in each of the major steps in the catabolism of the amino acid. Intact fibroblasts were incubated with [U-14C]leucine and the organic acid products were isolated by liquid partition chromatography. In control fibroblasts the major product of leucine was 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid. This was also the case for fibroblasts with deficiency of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase and 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase. There was little or no accumulation of the compound with fibroblasts from patients with maple syrup urine disease and isovaleric acidemia.

  17. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury Muscle weakness and loss of muscle tissue ( muscular dystrophy ) New abnormal tissue formation (usually cancer) Pancreatitis Stroke ... test LDH isoenzyme blood test Liver disease Mononucleosis Muscular dystrophy Pernicious anemia Stroke Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia Update ...

  18. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Scaglia, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (MoCD) is a severe autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism first described in 1978. It is characterized by a neonatal presentation of intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, severe developmental delay, microcephaly with brain atrophy and coarse facial features. MoCD results in deficiency of the molybdenum cofactor dependent enzymes sulfite oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase and mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component. The resultant accumulation of sulfite, taurine, S-sulfocysteine and thiosulfate contributes to the severe neurological impairment. Recently, initial evidence has demonstrated early treatment with cyclic PMP can turn MoCD type A from a previously neonatal lethal condition with only palliative options, to near normal neurological outcomes in affected patients. We review MoCD and focus on describing the currently published evidence of this exciting new therapeutic option for MoCD type A caused by pathogenic variants in MOCD1.

  19. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: 2-methylbutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down proteins from food into smaller parts called amino acids . Amino acids can be further processed to provide energy for ... of an enzyme that helps process a particular amino acid called isoleucine. Health problems related to 2-methylbutyryl- ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: 17-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys, some affected males may also experience breast enlargement (gynecomastia). Men with this disorder are generally unable ... of estrogen may be produced, leading to breast enlargement in some affected individuals. Learn more about the ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... as some antibiotics and medications used to treat malaria). Hemolytic anemia can also occur after eating fava ... a G6PD mutation may be partially protected against malaria, an infectious disease carried by a certain type ...

  3. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  4. Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Rdhe2 Is a Novel Retinol Dehydrogenase Essential for Frog Embryonic Development*

    PubMed Central

    Belyaeva, Olga V.; Lee, Seung-Ah; Adams, Mark K.; Chang, Chenbei; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2012-01-01

    The enzymes responsible for the rate-limiting step in retinoic acid biosynthesis, the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde, during embryogenesis and in adulthood have not been fully defined. Here, we report that a novel member of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, frog sdr16c5, acts as a highly active retinol dehydrogenase (rdhe2) that promotes retinoic acid biosynthesis when expressed in mammalian cells. In vivo assays of rdhe2 function show that overexpression of rdhe2 in frog embryos leads to posteriorization and induction of defects resembling those caused by retinoic acid toxicity. Conversely, antisense morpholino-mediated knockdown of endogenous rdhe2 results in phenotypes consistent with retinoic acid deficiency, such as defects in anterior neural tube closure, microcephaly with small eye formation, disruption of somitogenesis, and curved body axis with bent tail. Higher doses of morpholino induce embryonic lethality. Analyses of retinoic acid levels using either endogenous retinoic acid-sensitive gene hoxd4 or retinoic acid reporter cell line both show that the levels of retinoic acid are significantly decreased in rdhe2 morphants. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that Xenopus rdhe2 functions as a retinol dehydrogenase essential for frog embryonic development in vivo. Importantly, the retinol oxidizing activity of frog rdhe2 is conserved in its mouse homologs, suggesting that rdhe2-related enzymes may represent the previously unrecognized physiologically relevant retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to retinoic acid biosynthesis in higher vertebrates. PMID:22291023

  5. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265

  6. Urinary AASA excretion is elevated in patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency and isolated sulphite oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mills, Philippa B; Footitt, Emma J; Ceyhan, Serkan; Waters, Paula J; Jakobs, Cornelis; Clayton, Peter T; Struys, Eduard A

    2012-11-01

    Analysis of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde is an important tool in the diagnosis of antiquitin deficiency (pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy). However continuing use of this test has revealed that elevated urinary excretion of α-aminoadipic semialdehyde is not only found in patients with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy but is also seen in patients with molybdenum cofactor deficiency and isolated sulphite oxidase deficiency. This should be taken into account when interpreting the laboratory data. Sulphite was shown to inhibit α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in vitro.

  7. Human mutations in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase reflect evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Notaro, R; Afolayan, A; Luzzatto, L

    2000-03-01

    Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a cytosolic enzyme encoded by a housekeeping X-linked gene whose main function is to produce NADPH, a key electron donor in the defense against oxidizing agents and in reductive biosynthetic reactions. Inherited G6PD deficiency is associated with either episodic hemolytic anemia (triggered by fava beans or other agents) or life-long hemolytic anemia. We show here that an evolutionary analysis is a key to understanding the biology of a housekeeping gene. From the alignment of the amino acid (aa) sequence of 52 glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) species from 42 different organisms, we found a striking correlation between the aa replacements that cause G6PD deficiency in humans and the sequence conservation of G6PD: two-thirds of such replacements are in highly and moderately conserved (50-99%) aa; relatively few are in fully conserved aa (where they might be lethal) or in poorly conserved aa, where presumably they simply would not cause G6PD deficiency. This is consistent with the notion that all human mutants have residual enzyme activity and that null mutations are lethal at some stage of development. Comparing the distribution of mutations in a human housekeeping gene with evolutionary conservation is a useful tool for pinpointing amino acid residues important for the stability or the function of the corresponding protein. In view of the current explosive increase in full genome sequencing projects, this tool will become rapidly available for numerous other genes.

  8. Iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, N S

    1991-10-01

    The world's leading nutritional problem is iron deficiency. 66% of children and women aged 15-44 years in developing countries have it. Further, 10-20% of women of childbearing age in developed countries are anemic. Iron deficiency is identified with often irreversible impairment of a child's learning ability. It is also associated with low capacity for adults to work which reduces productivity. In addition, it impairs the immune system which reduces the body's ability to fight infection. Iron deficiency also lowers the metabolic rate and the body temperature when exposed to cold. Hemoglobin contains nearly 73% of the body's iron. This iron is always being recycled as more red blood cells are made. The rest of the needed iron does important tasks for the body, such as binds to molecules that are reservoirs of oxygen for muscle cells. This iron comes from our diet, especially meat. Even though some plants, such as spinach, are high in iron, the body can only absorb 1.4-7% of the iron in plants whereas it can absorb 20% of the iron in red meat. In many developing countries, the common vegetarian diets contribute to high rates of iron deficiency. Parasitic diseases and abnormal uterine bleeding also promote iron deficiency. Iron therapy in anemic children can often, but not always, improve behavior and cognitive performance. Iron deficiency during pregnancy often contributes to maternal and perinatal mortality. Yet treatment, if given to a child in time, can lead to normal growth and hinder infections. However, excess iron can be damaging. Too much supplemental iron in a malnourished child promotes fatal infections since the excess iron is available for the pathogens use. Many countries do not have an effective system for diagnosing, treating, and preventing iron deficiency. Therefore a concerted international effort is needed to eliminate iron deficiency in the world.

  9. Convergent evolution of Trichomonas vaginalis lactate dehydrogenase from malate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Fiser, András; ter Kuile, Benno; Šali, Andrej; Müller, Miklós

    1999-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is present in the amitochondriate parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis and some but not all other trichomonad species. The derived amino acid sequence of T. vaginalis LDH (TvLDH) was found to be more closely related to the cytosolic malate dehydrogenase (MDH) of the same species than to any other LDH. A key difference between the two T. vaginalis sequences was that Arg91 of MDH, known to be important in coordinating the C-4 carboxyl of oxalacetate/malate, was replaced by Leu91 in LDH. The change Leu91Arg by site-directed mutagenesis converted TvLDH into an MDH. The reverse single amino acid change Arg91Leu in TvMDH, however, gave a product with no measurable LDH activity. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that TvLDH arose from an MDH relatively recently. PMID:10339579

  10. Sorbitol dehydrogenase is a zinc enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jeffery, J; Chesters, J; Mills, C; Sadler, P J; Jörnvall, H

    1984-01-01

    Evidence is given that tetrameric sorbitol dehydrogenase from sheep liver contains one zinc atom per subunit, most probably located at the active site, and no other specifically bound zinc or iron atom. In alcohol dehydrogenases that are structurally related to sorbitol dehydrogenase, more than one zinc atom per subunit can complicate investigations of zinc atom function. Therefore, sorbitol dehydrogenase will be particularly valuable for defining the precise roles of zinc in alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases, and for establishing correlations of structure and function with other important zinc-containing proteins. PMID:6370679

  11. An update on serine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    van der Crabben, S N; Verhoeven-Duif, N M; Brilstra, E H; Van Maldergem, L; Coskun, T; Rubio-Gozalbo, E; Berger, R; de Koning, T J

    2013-07-01

    Serine deficiency disorders are caused by a defect in one of the three synthesising enzymes of the L-serine biosynthesis pathway. Serine deficiency disorders give rise to a neurological phenotype with psychomotor retardation, microcephaly and seizures in newborns and children or progressive polyneuropathy in adult patients. There are three defects that cause serine deficiency of which 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency, the defect affecting the first step in the pathway, has been reported most frequently. The other two disorders in L-serine biosynthesis phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT) deficiency and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP) deficiency have been reported only in a limited number of patients. The biochemical hallmarks of all three disorders are low concentrations of serine in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma. Prompt recognition of affected patients is important, since serine deficiency disorders are treatable causes of neurometabolic disorders. The use of age-related reference values for serine in CSF and plasma can be of great help in establishing a correct diagnosis of serine deficiency, in particular in newborns and young children. PMID:23463425

  12. Molecular analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in the Solomon Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hirono, A.; Ishii, A.; Hirono, K.; Miwa, S.; Kere, N.; Fujii, H.

    1995-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders, and >100 million people are considered to have mutant genes. G6PD deficiency is frequent in the area where plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic, probably because the G6PD-deficient subjects are resistant to the parasite. Falciparum and vivax malarias have been highly endemic in the Solomon Islands, and a high frequency of G6PD deficiency has also been expected. A recent investigation showed that the frequency of G6PD deficiency in the Solomon Islands was 8.4%-14.4%. Although >80 G6PD variants from various populations have been molecularly analyzed, little is known about those in Melanesians. G6PD Maewo, which was originally found in Vanuatu, has so far been the only Melanesian variant whose structural abnormality was determined. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  14. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Chen, W W; Harris, C J; Hoefler, G; Hoefler, S; Blake, D C; Balfe, A; Kelley, R I; Moser, A B; Beard, M E

    1989-01-01

    Peroxisomal function was evaluated in a male infant with clinical features of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Very long chain fatty acid levels were elevated in both plasma and fibroblasts, and beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in cultured fibroblasts was significantly impaired. Although the level of the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanoic acid was slightly elevated in plasma, phytanic acid and L-pipecolic acid levels were normal, as was plasmalogen synthesis in cultured fibroblasts. The latter three parameters distinguish this case from classical neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In addition, electron microscopy and catalase subcellular distribution studies revealed that, in contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, peroxisomes were present in the patient's tissues. Immunoblot studies of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes revealed that the bifunctional enzyme (enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was deficient in postmortem liver samples, whereas acyl-CoA oxidase and the mature form of beta-ketothiolase were present. Density gradient centrifugation of fibroblast homogenates confirmed that intact peroxisomes were present. Immunoblots of fibroblasts peroxisomal fractions showed that they contained acyl-CoA oxidase and beta-ketothiolase, but bifunctional enzyme was not detected. Northern analysis, however, revealed that mRNA coding for the bifunctional enzyme was present in the patient's fibroblasts. These results indicate that the primary biochemical defect in this patient is a deficiency of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. It is of interest that the phenotype of this patient resembled neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and would not have been distinguished from this disorder by clinical study alone. Images PMID:2921319

  15. Elevation deficiency in children with recessive RDH12-related retinopathy.

    PubMed

    AlBakri, Amani; Alkuraya, Fowzan S; Khan, Arif O

    2015-12-01

    Children with retinal dystrophies often have nonspecific strabismus, but vertical incomitant deviations are uncommon. We report 4 children from 3 consanguineous families with bilateral elevation deficiency in the context of retinal dystrophy. All were found to harbor recessive mutations in retinal dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12). PMID:26691045

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations and haplotypes in Mexican Mestizos.

    PubMed

    Arámbula, E; Aguilar L, J C; Vaca, G

    2000-08-01

    In a screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in 1985 unrelated male subjects from the general population (Groups A and B) belonging to four states of the Pacific coast, 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects were detected. Screening for mutations at the G-6-PD gene by PCR-restriction enzyme in these 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects as well as in 14 G-6-PD-deficient patients with hemolytic anemia belonging to several states of Mexico showed two common G-6-PD variants: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (19 cases) and G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (9 cases). In 7 individuals the mutations responsible for the enzyme deficiency remain to be determined. Furthermore, four silent polymorphic sites at the G-6-PD gene (PvuII, PstI, 1311, and NlaIII) were investigated in the 28 individuals with G-6-PD A- variants and in 137 G-6-PD normal subjects. As expected, only 10 different haplotypes were observed. To date, in our project aiming to determine the molecular basis of G-6-PD deficiency in Mexico, 60 unrelated G-6-PD-deficient Mexican males-25 in previous studies and 35 in the present work-have been studied. More than 75% of these individuals are from states of the Pacific coast (Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas). The results show that although G-6-PD deficiency is heterogeneous at the DNA level in Mexico, only three polymorphic variants have been observed: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (36 cases), G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (13 cases), and G-6-PD Seattle(844C) (2 cases). G-6-PD A- variants are relatively distributed homogeneously and both variants explain 82% of the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency. The variant G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) represents 73% of the G-6-PD A- alleles. Our data also show that the variant G-6-PD A-(376G/968C)-which has been observed in Mexico in the context of two different haplotypes-is more common than previously supposed. The three polymorphic variants that we observed in Mexico are on the same haplotypes as found in subjects from

  17. PGK deficiency.

    PubMed

    Beutler, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) deficiency is one of the relatively uncommon causes of hereditary non-spherocytic haemolytic anaemia (HNSHA). The gene encoding the erythrocyte enzyme PGK1, is X-linked. Mutations of this gene may cause chronic haemolysis with or without mental retardation and they may cause myopathies, often with episodes of myoglobinuria, or a combination of these clinical manifestations. Twenty-six families have been described and in 20 of these the mutations are known. The reason for different clinical manifestations of mutations of the same gene remains unknown. PMID:17222195

  18. Isocitrate dehydrogenases and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase activities of baker's yeast grown in a variety of hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Machado, A; Nuñez de Castro, I; Mayor, F

    1975-02-28

    The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD), isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP) and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase have been investigated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a variety of aerobic and hypoxic conditions, the latter including oxygen deprivation, high glucose concentration, addition of inhibitors of mitochondrial protein synthesis, respiratory inhibition by azide, and impaired respiration mutants. All hypoxic conditions led to a marked decrease of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase and significant decreases of the two isocitrate dehydrogenases. According to its kinetic properties, the NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase will not be operative in hypoxia "in vivo". From these and other related facts it is concluded that hypoxic conditions in yeast generally lead to a splitting of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and that glutamate synthesis in these conditions takes place through the coupling of the NADP-linked isocitrate and glutamate dehydrogenases.

  19. [The PQQ-dehydrogenases. A novel example of bacterial quinoproteins].

    PubMed

    Flores-Encarnación, Marcos; Sánchez-Cuevas, Mariano; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    The word "quinoprotein" describes four groups of different enzymes which have cofactors containing o-quinones. Pyrrolo-quinoline quinone (PQQ) is not covalently attached. PQQ is the cofactor of several quinoprotein bacterial dehydrogenases including glucose dehydrogenase (G-DH), alcohol dehydrogenase (A-DH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AL-DH). These dehydrogenases are located in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. This report summarises the structural properties of quinoprotein dehydrogenases, such as the biological functions and biotechnological aspects more important.

  20. Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on lipoamide dehydrogenase, a member of three multi-enzyme complexes

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Aditya; Bryk, Ruslana; Shi, Shuangping; Rhee, Kyu; Rath, Poonam; Schnappinger, Dirk; Ehrt, Sabine; Nathan, Carl

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adapts to persist in a nutritionally limited macrophage compartment. Lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), the third enzyme (E3) in Mtb’s pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), also serves as E1 of peroxynitrite reductase/peroxidase (PNR/P), which helps Mtb resist host reactive nitrogen intermediates. In contrast to Mtb lacking dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), the E2 of PDH and PNR/P, Lpd-deficient Mtb is severely attenuated in wild type and immunodeficient mice. This suggests that Lpd has a function that DlaT does not share. When DlaT is absent, Mtb upregulates an Lpd-dependent branched chain keto-acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH) encoded by pdhA, pdhB, pdhC and lpdC. Without Lpd, Mtb cannot metabolize branched chain amino acids and potentially toxic branched chain intermediates accumulate. Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb. PMID:21238944

  1. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  6. Formate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas oxalaticus.

    PubMed

    Müller, U; Willnow, P; Ruschig, U; Höpner, T

    1978-02-01

    Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) from Pseudomonas oxalaticus has been isolated and characterized. The enzyme (molecular weight 315000) is a complex flavoprotein containing 2 FMN, 18--25 non-heme iron atoms and 15--20 acid-labile sulphides. In the last step of the purification, a sucrose gradient centrifugation, a second catalytically active species has been found apparently originating from a dissociation of the enzyme into two equal subunits. The enzyme is specific toward its natural substrate formate. It transfers electrons to NAD+, oxygen, ferricyanide, and a lot of nonphysiological acceptors (dyes). In addition electrons are transferred from NADH to these acceptors. The (reversible) removal of FMN requires a reduction step. Reincorporation has been followed by the reappearance of the reactivity against formate and by fluorescence titration. The deflavo enzyme also binds FAD and riboflavin. The resulting enzyme species show characteristic catalytic abilities. Activity against formate is peculiar to the FMN species. PMID:631130

  7. Opine dehydrogenases in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Harcet, Matija; Perina, Drago; Pleše, Bruna

    2013-10-01

    It is well known today that opine production anaerobic pathways are analogs to the classical glycolytic pathway (lactate production pathway). These pathways, catalyzed by a group of enzymes called opine dehydrogenases (OpDHs), ensure continuous flux of glycolysis and a constant supply of ATP by maintaining the NADH/NAD(+) ratio during exercise and hypoxia, thus regulating the cytosolic redox balance in glycolysis under anoxia. OpDHs are distributed in a wide range of marine invertebrate phyla, including sponges (Porifera). Phylogenetic analyses supported with enzymatic assays strongly indicate that sponge OpDHs constitute an enzyme class unrelated to other OpDHs. Therefore, OpDHs in marine invertebrates are divided into two groups, a mollusk/annelid type and a sponge type, which belongs to the OCD/mu-crystallin family.

  8. Xanthine Dehydrogenase Is Transported to the Drosophila Eye

    PubMed Central

    Reaume, A. G.; Clark, S. H.; Chovnick, A.

    1989-01-01

    The rosy (ry) locus in Drosophila melanogaster codes for the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase. Mutants that have no enzyme activity are characterized by a brownish eye color phenotype reflecting a deficiency in the red eye pigment. This report demonstrates that enzyme which is synthesized in some tissue other than the eye is transported and sequestered at the eye. Previous studies find that no leader sequence is associated with this molecule but a peroxisomal targeting sequence has been noted, and the enzyme has been localized to peroxisomes. This represents a rare example of an enzyme involved in intermediary metabolism being transported from one tissue to another and may also be the first example of a peroxisomal protein being secreted from a cell. PMID:2513252

  9. Cardiac arrest in infancy: don't forget glucose!

    PubMed

    Salter, Nigel; Quin, Gareth; Tracy, Eileen

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old girl was brought to the Emergency Department having collapsed at home. She was unconscious and apnoeic with a sinus bradycardia of 50 beats/min. Cardiopulonary resuscitation (CPR) was commenced and her airway was secured. Epinephrine and atropine were administered. The blood glucose was found to be <0.5 mmol/l. There were minimal ketones found in both urine and serum. A bolus of 5 ml/kg of 10% dextrose was administered. Following a third cycle of CPR, a strong pulse was palpated with a sinus tachycardia. Subsequent metabolic screening tests confirmed a diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. Despite the higher prevalence of hypoglycaemia in children requiring non-trauma-related resuscitation care, there is significant variability in time to checking blood glucose. In any clinical situation necessitating fatty acid oxidation, such as periods of fasting or metabolic stress due to intercurrent illness or infection, patients with MCAD deficiency will have continued glucose consumption with reduced or absent formation of ketones. The result of this is severe hypoglycaemia and hypoketonuria. 18% of patients with MCAD deficiency present with sudden death, and total mortality rate before diagnosis is estimated at 24%. Without diagnosis, preventative interventions to avoid further metabolic decompensation and possible neurological involvement could not be made.

  10. Molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Robertson, A G; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of xylB and xylC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, were determined. The complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II is a 51654 Da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase has a subunit Mr of 38923 consisting of 370 amino acids, it stereospecifically transfers the proR hydride of NADH, and it is a member of the family of zinc-dependent long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme appears to be more similar to animal and higher-plant alcohol dehydrogenases than it is to most other microbial alcohol dehydrogenases. Residue His-51 of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases is thought to be necessary as a general base for catalysis in this category of alcohol dehydrogenases. However, this residue was found to be replaced in benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus by an isoleucine, and the introduction of a histidine residue in this position did not alter the kinetic coefficients, pH optimum or substrate specificity of the enzyme. Other workers have shown that His-51 is also absent from the TOL-plasmid-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas putida and so these two closely related enzymes presumably have a catalytic mechanism that differs from that of the archetypal zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:9494109

  11. Shikimate dehydrogenase from Pinu sylvestris L. needles

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-07-10

    Shikimate dehydrogenase was isolated by extraction from pine needles and partially purified by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. In conifers, in contrast to other plants, all three isoenzymes of shikimate dehydrogenase exhibit activity not only with NADP/sup +/, but also with NAD/sup +/. The values of K/sub m/ for shikimate, when NADP/sup +/ and NAD/sup +/ are used as cofactors, are 0.22 and 1.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme is maximally active at pH 10 with both cofactors. It is suggested that NAD-dependent shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial reaction of the alternative pathway of the conversion of shikimic acid to hydroxybenzoic acid. The peculiarities of the organization and regulation of the initial reactions of the shikimate pathway in conifers and in plants with shikimate dehydrogenase absolutely specific for NADP are discussed.

  12. An amino acid substitution in the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} gene, affecting mitochondrial import of the precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Takakubo, F.; Thorburn, D.R.; Dahl, H.H.M.

    1995-10-01

    A mutation in the mitochondrial targeting sequence was characterized in a male patient with X chromosome-linked pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} deficiency. The mutation was a base substitution of G by C at nucleotide 134 in the mitochondrial targeting sequence of the PDHA1 gene, resulting in an arginine-to-proline substitution at codon 10 (R10P). Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in cultured skin fibroblasts was 28% of the control value, and immunoblot analysis revealed a decreased level of pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha}immunoreactivity. Chimeric constructs in which the normal and mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} targeting sequences were attached to the mitochondrial matrix protein ornithine transcarbamylase were synthesized in a cell free translation system, and mitochondrial import of normal and mutant proteins was compared in vitro. The results show that ornithine transcarbamylase targeted by the mutant pyruvate dehydrogenase E1{alpha} sequence was translocated into the mitochondrial matrix at a reduced rate, suggesting that defective import is responsible for the reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase level in mitochondria. The mutation was also present in an affected brother and the mildly affected mother. The clinical presentations of this X chromosome-linked disorder in affected family members are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an amino acid substitution in a mitochondrial targeting sequence resulting in a human genetic disease. 58 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the /sup 32/P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation.

  14. Fatal cerebral edema associated with serine deficiency in CSF.

    PubMed

    Keularts, Irene M L W; Leroy, Piet L J M; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela M; Spaapen, Leo J M; Weber, Biene; Dorland, Bert; de Koning, Tom J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M

    2010-12-01

    Two young girls without a notable medical history except for asthma presented with an acute toxic encephalopathy with very low serine concentrations both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comparable to patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency. Clinical symptoms and enzyme measurement (in one patient) excluded 3-PGDH deficiency. Deficiencies in other serine biosynthesis enzymes were highly unlikely on clinical grounds. On basis of the fasting state, ketone bodies and lactate in plasma, urine and CSF, we speculate that reduced serine levels were due to its use as gluconeogenic substrate, conversion to pyruvate by brain serine racemase or decreased L-serine production because of a lack of glucose. These are the first strikingly similar cases of patients with a clear secondary serine deficiency associated with a toxic encephalopathy.

  15. Fatal cerebral edema associated with serine deficiency in CSF.

    PubMed

    Keularts, Irene M L W; Leroy, Piet L J M; Rubio-Gozalbo, Estela M; Spaapen, Leo J M; Weber, Biene; Dorland, Bert; de Koning, Tom J; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M

    2010-12-01

    Two young girls without a notable medical history except for asthma presented with an acute toxic encephalopathy with very low serine concentrations both in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) comparable to patients with 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH) deficiency. Clinical symptoms and enzyme measurement (in one patient) excluded 3-PGDH deficiency. Deficiencies in other serine biosynthesis enzymes were highly unlikely on clinical grounds. On basis of the fasting state, ketone bodies and lactate in plasma, urine and CSF, we speculate that reduced serine levels were due to its use as gluconeogenic substrate, conversion to pyruvate by brain serine racemase or decreased L-serine production because of a lack of glucose. These are the first strikingly similar cases of patients with a clear secondary serine deficiency associated with a toxic encephalopathy. PMID:20300853

  16. Alteration of substrate specificity of alanine dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Puja; Aldeborgh, Hannah; Carlucci, Lauren; Walsh, Lauren; Wasserman, Jordan; Zhou, Edward; Lefurgy, Scott T.; Mundorff, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    The l-alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) has a natural history that suggests it would not be a promising candidate for expansion of substrate specificity by protein engineering: it is the only amino acid dehydrogenase in its fold family, it has no sequence or structural similarity to any known amino acid dehydrogenase, and it has a strong preference for l-alanine over all other substrates. By contrast, engineering of the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily members has produced catalysts with expanded substrate specificity; yet, this enzyme family already contains members that accept a broad range of substrates. To test whether the natural history of an enzyme is a predictor of its innate evolvability, directed evolution was carried out on AlaDH. A single mutation identified through molecular modeling, F94S, introduced into the AlaDH from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAlaDH) completely alters its substrate specificity pattern, enabling activity toward a range of larger amino acids. Saturation mutagenesis libraries in this mutant background additionally identified a double mutant (F94S/Y117L) showing improved activity toward hydrophobic amino acids. The catalytic efficiencies achieved in AlaDH are comparable with those that resulted from similar efforts in the amino acid dehydrogenase superfamily and demonstrate the evolvability of MtAlaDH specificity toward other amino acid substrates. PMID:25538307

  17. Benzene toxicity: emphasis on cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcsak, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Blood dyscrasias such as leukopenia and anemia have been clearly identified as consequences of chronic benzene exposure. The metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone produced inhibition of /sup 59/Fe uptake in mice which followed the same time course as that produced by benzene. The inhibitor of benzene oxidation, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, mitigated the inhibitory effects of benzene and phenol only. These data support the contention that benzene toxicity is mediated by a metabolite and suggest that the toxicity of phenol is a consequence of its metabolism to hydroquinone and that the route of metabolism to catechol may also contribute to the production of toxic metabolite(s). The properties of mouse liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases were examined. These enzymes catalyze the NADP/sup +/-dependent oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (BDD) to catechol, a possible toxic metabolite of benzene produced via this metabolic route. Four distinct dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1, DD2, DD3, and DD4) were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. DD1 appeared to be identical to the major ketone reductase and 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the liver. DD2 exhibited aldehyde reductase activity. DD3 and DD4 oxidized 17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, but no carbonyl reductase activity was detected. These relationships between BDD dehydrogenases and carbonyl reductase and/or 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were supported by several lines of evidence.

  18. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from the chemolithotroph Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Takashi; Ehara, Nagisa; Nishito, Akira; Nakayama, Yumi; Maekawa, Makiko; Imada, Katsumi; Tanaka, Hidehiko; Inagaki, Kenji

    2002-08-27

    An isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) with an unique coenzyme specificity from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was purified and characterized, and its gene was cloned. The native enzyme was homodimeric with a subunit of M(r) 45000 and showed a 78-fold preference for NAD(+) over NADP(+). The cloned ICDH gene (icd) was expressed in an icd-deficient strain of Escherichia coli EB106; the activity was found in the cell extract. The gene encodes a 429-amino acid polypeptide and is located between open reading frames encoding a putative aconitase gene (upstream of icd) and a putative succinyl-CoA synthase beta-subunit gene (downstream of icd). A. thiooxidans ICDH showed high sequence similarity to bacterial NADP(+)-dependent ICDH rather than eukaryotic NAD(+)-dependent ICDH, but the NAD(+)-preference of the enzyme was suggested due to residues conserved in the coenzyme binding site of the NAD(+)-dependent decarboxylating dehydrogenase.

  19. Affinity chromatography of bacterial lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, N; Delaney, M; O'Carra, P

    1978-01-01

    The affinity system used was the immobilized oxamate derivative previously used to purify mammalian lactate dehydrogenases. The bacterial dehydrogenases specific for the L-stereoisomer of lactate behaved in the same way as the mammalian enzymes, binding strongly in the presence of NADH. The D-lactate-specific enzymes, however, did not show any biospecific affinity for this gel. The L-specific enzymes could be purified to homogeneity in one affinity-chromatographic step. The D-specific enzymes could be efficiently separated from the L-specific ones and could then be further purified on an immobilized NAD derivative. The mechanism of activation of the lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was investigated by using the immobilized oxamate gel. PMID:666726

  20. Affinity chromatography of bacterial lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Kelly, N; Delaney, M; O'Carra, P

    1978-06-01

    The affinity system used was the immobilized oxamate derivative previously used to purify mammalian lactate dehydrogenases. The bacterial dehydrogenases specific for the L-stereoisomer of lactate behaved in the same way as the mammalian enzymes, binding strongly in the presence of NADH. The D-lactate-specific enzymes, however, did not show any biospecific affinity for this gel. The L-specific enzymes could be purified to homogeneity in one affinity-chromatographic step. The D-specific enzymes could be efficiently separated from the L-specific ones and could then be further purified on an immobilized NAD derivative. The mechanism of activation of the lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus faecalis by fructose 1,6-bisphosphate was investigated by using the immobilized oxamate gel. PMID:666726

  1. NAD + -dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Alekseeva, A.A.; Savin, S.S.; Tishkov, V.I.

    2011-01-01

    NAD+-dependent formate dehydrogenase (FDH, EC 1.2.1.2) widely occurs in nature. FDH consists of two identical subunits and contains neither prosthetic groups nor metal ions. This type of FDH was found in different microorganisms (including pathogenic ones), such as bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and plants. As opposed to microbiological FDHs functioning in cytoplasm, plant FDHs localize in mitochondria. Formate dehydrogenase activity was first discovered as early as in 1921 in plant; however, until the past decade FDHs from plants had been considerably less studied than the enzymes from microorganisms. This review summarizes the recent results on studying the physiological role, properties, structure, and protein engineering of plant formate dehydrogenases. PMID:22649703

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status and risk of hemolysis in Plasmodium falciparum-infected African children receiving single-dose primaquine.

    PubMed

    Eziefula, Alice C; Pett, Helmi; Grignard, Lynn; Opus, Salome; Kiggundu, Moses; Kamya, Moses R; Yeung, Shunmay; Staedke, Sarah G; Bousema, Teun; Drakeley, Chris

    2014-08-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme function and genotype were determined in Ugandan children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria enrolled in a primaquine trial after exclusion of severe G6PD deficiency by fluorescent spot test. G6PD A- heterozygotes and hemizygotes/homozygotes experienced dose-dependent lower hemoglobin concentrations after treatment. No severe anemia was observed. PMID:24913169

  3. Structural insight into the type-II mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yue; Li, Wenfei; Li, Jian; Wang, Jiawei; Ge, Jingpeng; Xu, Duo; Liu, Yanjing; Wu, Kaiqi; Zeng, Qingyin; Wu, Jia-Wei; Tian, Changlin; Zhou, Bing; Yang, Maojun

    2012-11-15

    The single-component type-II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2s) serve as alternatives to the multisubunit respiratory complex I (type-I NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-1), also called NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase; EC 1.6.5.3) in catalysing electron transfer from NADH to ubiquinone in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The yeast NDH-2 (Ndi1) oxidizes NADH on the matrix side and reduces ubiquinone to maintain mitochondrial NADH/NAD(+) homeostasis. Ndi1 is a potential therapeutic agent for human diseases caused by complex I defects, particularly Parkinson's disease, because its expression restores the mitochondrial activity in animals with complex I deficiency. NDH-2s in pathogenic microorganisms are viable targets for new antibiotics. Here we solve the crystal structures of Ndi1 in its substrate-free, NADH-, ubiquinone- and NADH-ubiquinone-bound states, to help understand the catalytic mechanism of NDH-2s. We find that Ndi1 homodimerization through its carboxy-terminal domain is critical for its catalytic activity and membrane targeting. The structures reveal two ubiquinone-binding sites (UQ(I) and UQ(II)) in Ndi1. NADH and UQ(I) can bind to Ndi1 simultaneously to form a substrate-protein complex. We propose that UQ(I) interacts with FAD to act as an intermediate for electron transfer, and that NADH transfers electrons through this FAD-UQ(I) complex to UQ(II). Together our data reveal the regulatory and catalytic mechanisms of Ndi1 and may facilitate the development or targeting of NDH-2s for potential therapeutic applications.

  4. Succinate dehydrogenase mutation underlies global epigenomic divergence in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Killian, J Keith; Kim, Su Young; Miettinen, Markku; Smith, Carly; Merino, Maria; Tsokos, Maria; Quezado, Martha; Smith, William I; Jahromi, Mona S; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Walker, Robert L; Lasota, Jerzy; Raffeld, Mark; Klotzle, Brandy; Wang, Zengfeng; Jones, Laura; Zhu, Yuelin; Wang, Yonghong; Waterfall, Joshua J; O'Sullivan, Maureen J; Bibikova, Marina; Pacak, Karel; Stratakis, Constantine; Janeway, Katherine A; Schiffman, Joshua D; Fan, Jian-Bing; Helman, Lee; Meltzer, Paul S

    2013-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) harbor driver mutations of signal transduction kinases such as KIT, or, alternatively, manifest loss-of-function defects in the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, a component of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. We have uncovered a striking divergence between the DNA methylation profiles of SDH-deficient GIST (n = 24) versus KIT tyrosine kinase pathway-mutated GIST (n = 39). Infinium 450K methylation array analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues disclosed an order of magnitude greater genomic hypermethylation relative to SDH-deficient GIST versus the KIT-mutant group (84.9 K vs. 8.4 K targets). Epigenomic divergence was further found among SDH-mutant paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (n = 29), a developmentally distinct SDH-deficient tumor system. Comparison of SDH-mutant GIST with isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant glioma, another Krebs cycle-defective tumor type, revealed comparable measures of global hypo- and hypermethylation. These data expose a vital connection between succinate metabolism and genomic DNA methylation during tumorigenesis, and generally implicate the mitochondrial Krebs cycle in nuclear epigenomic maintenance. PMID:23550148

  5. Succinate dehydrogenase mutation underlies global epigenomic divergence in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Killian, J Keith; Kim, Su Young; Miettinen, Markku; Smith, Carly; Merino, Maria; Tsokos, Maria; Quezado, Martha; Smith, William I; Jahromi, Mona S; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Walker, Robert L; Lasota, Jerzy; Raffeld, Mark; Klotzle, Brandy; Wang, Zengfeng; Jones, Laura; Zhu, Yuelin; Wang, Yonghong; Waterfall, Joshua J; O'Sullivan, Maureen J; Bibikova, Marina; Pacak, Karel; Stratakis, Constantine; Janeway, Katherine A; Schiffman, Joshua D; Fan, Jian-Bing; Helman, Lee; Meltzer, Paul S

    2013-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) harbor driver mutations of signal transduction kinases such as KIT, or, alternatively, manifest loss-of-function defects in the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex, a component of the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain. We have uncovered a striking divergence between the DNA methylation profiles of SDH-deficient GIST (n = 24) versus KIT tyrosine kinase pathway-mutated GIST (n = 39). Infinium 450K methylation array analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues disclosed an order of magnitude greater genomic hypermethylation relative to SDH-deficient GIST versus the KIT-mutant group (84.9 K vs. 8.4 K targets). Epigenomic divergence was further found among SDH-mutant paraganglioma/pheochromocytoma (n = 29), a developmentally distinct SDH-deficient tumor system. Comparison of SDH-mutant GIST with isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant glioma, another Krebs cycle-defective tumor type, revealed comparable measures of global hypo- and hypermethylation. These data expose a vital connection between succinate metabolism and genomic DNA methylation during tumorigenesis, and generally implicate the mitochondrial Krebs cycle in nuclear epigenomic maintenance.

  6. Factor V deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... in blood plasma. These proteins are called blood coagulation factors. Factor V deficiency is caused by a ... Gailani D, Neff AT. Rare coagulation factor deficiencies. In: ... HE, Weitz JI, Anastasi J, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and ...

  7. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  8. DOCK8 Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases (PIDDs) Immune System ​​​​​​​ Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned ... Scientists Identify Genetic Cause of Previously Undefined Primary Immune Deficiency Disease Signs and Symptoms DOCK8 deficiency causes persistent skin ...

  9. Iron-Deficiency Anemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Iron-Deficiency Anemia? Español Iron-deficiency anemia is a common, easily ... Featured Video Living With and Managing Iron-Deficiency Anemia 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  10. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    PubMed

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems.

  11. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    PubMed

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. PMID:27459246

  12. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the activity of the lactic dehydrogenase enzyme in serum. Increased levels of lactic dehydrogenase...

  13. Clinical Manifestation and a New "ISCU" Mutation in Iron-Sulphur Cluster Deficiency Myopathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kollberg, Gittan; Tulinius, Mar; Melberg, Atle; Darin, Niklas; Andersen, Oluf; Holmgren, Daniel; Oldfors, Anders; Holme, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Myopathy with deficiency of succinate dehydrogenase and aconitase is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by childhood-onset early fatigue, dyspnoea and palpitations on trivial exercise. The disease is non-progressive, but life-threatening episodes of widespread weakness, severe metabolic acidosis and rhabdomyolysis may occur. The…

  14. Effects of Molybdate, Tungstate, and Selenium Compounds on Formate Dehydrogenase and Other Enzyme Systems in Escherichia coli1

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Harry G.; Lester, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    The role of selenium and molybdenum in the metabolism of Escherichia coli was explored by growing cells in a simple salts medium and examining the metabolic consequences of altering the concentration of molybdenum and selenium compounds in the medium. The addition of tungstate increased the molybdate deficiency of this medium, as reflected by lowered levels of enzyme systems previously recognized to require compounds of molybdenum and selenium for their formation [formate-dependent oxygen reduction, formate dehydrogenase (FDH) (EC 1.2.2.1), and nitrate reductase (EC 1.9.6.1)]. The requirement for selenium and molybdenum appears to be unique to the enzymes of formate and nitrate metabolism since molybdate- and selenite-deficient medium had no effect on the level of several dehydrogenase and oxidase systems, for which the electron donors were reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, succinate, d- or l-lactate, and glycerol. In addition, no effect was observed on the growth rate or cell yield with any carbon source tested (glucose, glycerol, dl-lactate, acetate, succinate, and l-malate) when the medium was deficient in molybdenum and selenium. dl-Selenocystine was about as effective as selenite in stimulating the formation of formate dehydrogenase, whereas dl-selenomethionine was only 1% as effective. In aerobic cells, an amount of FDH was formed such that 3,200 or 3,800 moles of formate were oxidized per min per mole of added selenium (added as dl-selenocystine or selenite, respectively). PMID:4555402

  15. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  16. Multiple retinoid dehydrogenases in testes cytosol from alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice.

    PubMed

    Posch, K C; Napoli, J L

    1992-05-28

    Retinoic acid syntheses from retinol by cytosol from testes of alcohol dehydrogenase negative or positive deermice were similar in specific activity and in their insensitivity to 1 M ethanol or 100 mM 4-methylpyrazole. Anion-exchange followed by size-exclusion chromatography revealed multiple and similarly migrating peaks in each cytosol that had both retinol and retinal dehydrogenase activities. Thus, the effects of ethanol on testes cannot be caused by direct inhibition of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis because retinoid dehydrogenases distinct from mouse class A2 alcohol dehydrogenases, which corresponds to human class I, occurred in testes and they were not inhibited by ethanol. These data also demonstrate the occurrence of multiple cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis activities and indicate that the two reactions of cytosolic retinoic acid synthesis, retinol and retinal dehydrogenation, may be catalyzed by enzymes that occur as complexes. PMID:1599517

  17. The physiological role of liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Krebs, H A; Perkins, J R

    1970-07-01

    1. Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase was used to determine ethanol in the portal and hepatic veins and in the contents of the alimentary canal of rats given a diet free from ethanol. Measurable amounts of a substance behaving like ethanol were found. Its rate of interaction with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase and its volatility indicate that the substance measured was in fact ethanol. 2. The mean alcohol concentration in the portal blood of normal rats was 0.045mm. In the hepatic vein, inferior vena cava and aorta it was about 15 times lower. 3. The contents of all sections of the alimentary canal contained measurable amounts of ethanol. The highest values (average 3.7mm) were found in the stomach. 4. Infusion of pyrazole (an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) raised the alcohol concentration in the portal vein 10-fold and almost removed the difference between portal and hepatic venous blood. 5. Addition of antibiotics to the food diminished the ethanol concentration of the portal blood to less than one-quarter and that of the stomach contents to less than one-fortieth. 6. The concentration of alcohol in the alimentary canal and in the portal blood of germ-free rats was much decreased, to less than one-tenth in the alimentary canal and to one-third in the portal blood, but detectable quantities remained. These are likely to arise from acetaldehyde formed by the normal pathways of degradation of threonine, deoxyribose phosphate and beta-alanine. 7. The results indicate that significant amounts of alcohol are normally formed in the gastro-intestinal tract. The alcohol is absorbed into the circulation and almost quantitatively removed by the liver. Thus the function, or a major function, of liver alcohol dehydrogenase is the detoxication of ethanol normally present. 8. The alcohol concentration in the stomach of alloxan-diabetic rats was increased about 8-fold. 9. The activity of liver alcohol dehydrogenase is generally lower in carnivores than in herbivores and omnivores

  18. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5560 Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. (a) Identification. A lactic dehydrogenase... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test...

  19. Properties of formate dehydrogenase in Methanobacterium formicicum.

    PubMed Central

    Schauer, N L; Ferry, J G

    1982-01-01

    Soluble formate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium formicicum was purified 71-fold with a yield of 35%. Purification was performed anaerobically in the presence of 10 mM sodium azide which stabilized the enzyme. The purified enzyme reduced, with formate, 50 mumol of methyl viologen per min per mg of protein and 8.2 mumol of coenzyme F420 per min per mg of protein. The apparent Km for 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin, a hydrolytic derivative of coenzyme F420, was 10-fold greater (63 microM) than for coenzyme F420 (6 microM). The purified enzyme also reduced flavin mononucleotide (Km = 13 microM) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (Km = 25 microM) with formate, but did not reduce NAD+ or NADP+. The reduction of NADP+ with formate required formate dehydrogenase, coenzyme F420, and coenzyme F420:NADP+ oxidoreductase. The formate dehydrogenase had an optimal pH of 7.9 when assayed with the physiological electron acceptor coenzyme F420. The optimal reaction rate occurred at 55 degrees C. The molecular weight was 288,000 as determined by gel filtration. The purified formate dehydrogenase was strongly inhibited by cyanide (Ki = 6 microM), azide (Ki = 39 microM), alpha,alpha-dipyridyl, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Denaturation of the purified formate dehydrogenase with sodium dodecyl sulfate under aerobic conditions revealed a fluorescent compound. Maximal excitation occurred at 385 nm, with minor peaks at 277 and 302 nm. Maximal fluorescence emission occurred at 455 nm. Images PMID:7061389

  20. Characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Debaryomyces hansenii

    SciTech Connect

    Girio, F.M.; Amaral-Collaco, M.T.; Pelica, F.

    1996-01-01

    The xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) from xylose-grown cells of Debaryomyces hansenii was partially purified in two chromatographic steps, and characterization studies were carried out in order to investigate the role of the xylitol dehydrogenase-catalyzed step in the regulation of D-xylose metabolism. The enzyme was most active at pH 9.0-9.5, and exhibited a broad polyol specificity. The Michaelis constants for xylitol and NAD{sup +} were 16.5 and 0.55 mM, respectively. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} did not affect the enzyme activity. Conversely, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. It was concluded that NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase from D. hansenii has similarities with other xylose-fermenting yeasts in respect to optimal pH, substrate specificity, and K{sub m} value for xylitol, and therefore should be named L-iditol:NAD{sup +}-5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.14). The reason D. hansenii is a good xylitol producer is not because of its value of K for xylitol, which is low enough to assure its fast oxidation by NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase. However, a higher K{sub m} value of xylitol dehydrogenase for NAD{sup +} compared to the K{sub m} values of other xylose-fermenting yeasts may be responsible for the higher xylitol yields. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Succinate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana is regulated by light via phytochrome A.

    PubMed

    Popov, Vasily N; Eprintsev, Alexander T; Fedorin, Dmitry N; Igamberdiev, Abir U

    2010-01-01

    The effect of light on succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and mRNA content was studied in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The transition from darkness to light caused a short transient increase in the SDH activity followed by a decrease to a half of the original activity. The white or red light were found to be down-regulating factors for the mRNA content of the sdh1-2 and sdh2-3 genes and SDH catalytic activity both in A. thaliana wild-type plants and in the mutant deficient in the phytochrome B gene, but not in the mutant deficient in the phytochrome A gene, while the far-red light of 730 nm reversed the red light effect. It is concluded that phytochrome A participates in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration through effect on SDH expression.

  2. Characteristics of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (Aldh2) knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hsu-Sheng; Oyama, Tsunehiro; Isse, Toyohi; Kitakawa, Kyoko; Ogawa, Masanori; Pham, Thi-Thu-Phuong; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2009-11-01

    Acetaldehyde is an intermediate of ethanol oxidation. It covalently binds to DNA, and is known as a carcinogen. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is an important enzyme that oxidizes acetaldehyde. Approximately 45% of Chinese and Japanese individuals have the inactive ALDH2 genotypes (ALDH2*2/*2 and ALDH2*1/*2), and Aldh2 knockout mice appear to be a valid animal model for humans with inactive ALDH2. This review gives an overview of published studies on Aldh2 knockout mice, which were treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde. According to these studies, it was found that Aldh2 -/- mice (Aldh2 knockout mice) are more susceptible to ethanol and acetaldehyde-induced toxicity than Aldh2 +/+ mice (wild type mice). When mice were fed with ethanol, the mortality was increased. When they were exposed to atmospheres containing acetaldehyde, the Aldh2 -/- mice showed more severe toxic symptoms, like weight loss and higher blood acetaldehyde levels, as compared with the Aldh2 +/+ mice. Thus, ethanol and acetaldehyde treatment affects Aldh2 knockout mice more than wild type mice. Based on these findings, it is suggested that ethanol consumption and acetaldehyde inhalation are inferred to pose a higher risk to ALDH2-inactive humans. These results also support that ALDH2-deficient humans who habitually consume alcohol have a higher rate of cancer than humans with functional ALDH2. PMID:19874182

  3. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase 2 in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Główka, Franciszek K.

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a serious medical problem affecting the mother and her child and influences their health not only during the pregnancy, but also many years after. Although preeclampsia is a subject of many research projects, the etiology of the condition remains unclear. One of the hypotheses related to the etiology of preeclampsia is the deficiency in placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2), the enzyme which in normal pregnancy protects the fetus from the excess of maternal cortisol. The reduced activity of the enzyme was observed in placentas from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia. That suggests the overexposure of the developing child to maternal cortisol, which in high levels exerts proapoptotic effects and reduces fetal growth. The fetal growth restriction due to the diminished placental 11β-HSD2 function may be supported by the fact that preeclampsia is often accompanied with fetal hypotrophy. The causes of the reduced function of 11β-HSD2 in placental tissue are still discussed. This paper summarizes the phenomena that may affect the activity of the enzyme at various steps on the way from the gene to the protein. PMID:27200090

  4. Mutations in 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase cause primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Sandeep; Diggle, Christine P; Carr, Ian M; Fishwick, Colin W G; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Ibrahim, Gamal H; Helliwell, Philip S; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Phillips, Simon E V; Markham, Alexander F; Bennett, Christopher P; Bonthron, David T

    2008-06-01

    Digital clubbing, recognized by Hippocrates in the fifth century BC, is the outward hallmark of pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, a clinical constellation that develops secondary to various acquired diseases, especially intrathoracic neoplasm. The pathogenesis of clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy has hitherto been poorly understood, but a clinically indistinguishable primary (idiopathic) form of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (PHO) is recognized. This familial disorder can cause diagnostic confusion, as well as significant disability. By autozygosity methods, we mapped PHO to chromosome 4q33-q34 and identified mutations in HPGD, encoding 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase, the main enzyme of prostaglandin degradation. Homozygous individuals develop PHO secondary to chronically elevated prostaglandin E(2) levels. Heterozygous relatives also show milder biochemical and clinical manifestations. These findings not only suggest therapies for PHO, but also imply that clubbing secondary to other pathologies may be prostaglandin mediated. Testing for HPGD mutations and biochemical testing for HPGD deficiency in patients with unexplained clubbing might help to obviate extensive searches for occult pathology. PMID:18500342

  5. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  6. Colour vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, M P

    2010-05-01

    Colour vision deficiency is one of the commonest disorders of vision and can be divided into congenital and acquired forms. Congenital colour vision deficiency affects as many as 8% of males and 0.5% of females--the difference in prevalence reflects the fact that the commonest forms of congenital colour vision deficiency are inherited in an X-linked recessive manner. Until relatively recently, our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of colour vision deficiency largely rested on behavioural data; however, modern molecular genetic techniques have helped to elucidate its mechanisms. The current management of congenital colour vision deficiency lies chiefly in appropriate counselling (including career counselling). Although visual aids may be of benefit to those with colour vision deficiency when performing certain tasks, the evidence suggests that they do not enable wearers to obtain normal colour discrimination. In the future, gene therapy remains a possibility, with animal models demonstrating amelioration following treatment.

  7. α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hatipoğlu, Umur; Stoller, James K

    2016-09-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an autosomal codominant condition that predisposes to emphysema and cirrhosis. The condition is common but grossly under-recognized. Identifying patients' α1-antitrypsin deficiency has important management implications (ie, smoking cessation, genetic and occupational counseling, and specific treatment with the infusion of pooled human plasma α1-antitrypsin). The weight of evidence suggests that augmentation therapy slows the progression of emphysema in individuals with severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:27514595

  8. Peafowl lactate dehydrogenase: problem of isoenzyme identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, R G; Wilson, A C

    1966-09-16

    Peafowl, like other vertebrates, contain multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase. The electrophoretic properties of the peafowl isoenzymes are unusual in that the isoenzyme from heart tissue can be either more or less anodic than that of muscle, depending on the pH. This finding focuses attention on the problem of isoenzyme identification. It is suggested that isoenzymes be identified on the basis of properties that are chemically and biologically more significant than electrophoretic mobility.

  9. Peafowl lactate dehydrogenase: problem of isoenzyme identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, R G; Wilson, A C

    1966-09-16

    Peafowl, like other vertebrates, contain multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase. The electrophoretic properties of the peafowl isoenzymes are unusual in that the isoenzyme from heart tissue can be either more or less anodic than that of muscle, depending on the pH. This finding focuses attention on the problem of isoenzyme identification. It is suggested that isoenzymes be identified on the basis of properties that are chemically and biologically more significant than electrophoretic mobility. PMID:5917779

  10. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed

    Perozich, J; Nicholas, H; Wang, B C; Lindahl, R; Hempel, J

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project.

  12. Xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida Fu1: two molybdenum-containing dehydrogenases of novel structural composition.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, K; Andreesen, J R

    1990-01-01

    The constitutive xanthine dehydrogenase and the inducible 2-furoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase could be labeled with [185W]tungstate. This labeling was used as a reporter to purify both labile proteins. The radioactivity cochromatographed predominantly with the residual enzymatic activity of both enzymes during the first purification steps. Both radioactive proteins were separated and purified to homogeneity. Antibodies raised against the larger protein also exhibited cross-reactivity toward the second smaller protein and removed xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity up to 80 and 60% from the supernatant of cell extracts, respectively. With use of cell extract, Western immunoblots showed only two bands which correlated exactly with the activity stains for both enzymes after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molybdate was absolutely required for incorporation of 185W, formation of cross-reacting material, and enzymatic activity. The latter parameters showed a perfect correlation. This evidence proves that the radioactive proteins were actually xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The apparent molecular weight of the native xanthine dehydrogenase was about 300,000, and that of 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase was 150,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both enzymes revealed two protein bands corresponding to molecular weights of 55,000 and 25,000. The xanthine dehydrogenase contained at least 1.6 mol of molybdenum, 0.9 ml of cytochrome b, 5.8 mol of iron, and 2.4 mol of labile sulfur per mol of enzyme. The composition of the 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase seemed to be similar, although the stoichiometry was not determined. The oxidation of furfuryl alcohol to furfural and further to 2-furoic acid by Pseudomonas putida Fu1 was catalyzed by two different dehydrogenases. Images PMID:2170335

  13. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and the brain: From zero to hero, a decade of progress

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin S.; Holmes, Megan C.; Seckl, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    Glucocorticoids have profound effects on brain development and adult CNS function. Excess or insufficient glucocorticoids cause myriad abnormalities from development to ageing. The actions of glucocorticoids within cells are determined not only by blood steroid levels and target cell receptor density, but also by intracellular metabolism by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD). 11β-HSD1 regenerates active glucocorticoids from their inactive 11-keto derivatives and is widely expressed throughout the adult CNS. Elevated hippocampal and neocortical 11β-HSD1 is observed with ageing and causes cognitive decline; its deficiency prevents the emergence of cognitive defects with age. Conversely, 11β-HSD2 is a dehydrogenase, inactivating glucocorticoids. The major central effects of 11β-HSD2 occur in development, as expression of 11β-HSD2 is high in fetal brain and placenta. Deficient feto-placental 11β-HSD2 results in a life-long phenotype of anxiety and cardiometabolic disorders, consistent with early life glucocorticoid programming. PMID:21144857

  14. Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase: Biochemical–Molecular–Clinical Disease Mechanisms, Redox Regulation, and Functional Significance

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung-Jin; Pearl, Phillip L.; Jensen, Kimmo; Snead, O. Carter; Malaspina, Patrizia; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH; aldehyde dehydrogenase 5a1, ALDH5A1; E.C. 1.2.1.24; OMIM 610045, 271980) deficiency is a rare heritable disorder that disrupts the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Identified in conjunction with increased urinary excretion of the GABA analog gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), numerous patients have been identified worldwide and the autosomal-recessive disorder has been modeled in mice. The phenotype is one of nonprogressive neurological dysfunction in which seizures may be prominently displayed. The murine model is a reasonable phenocopy of the human disorder, yet the severity of the seizure disorder in the mouse exceeds that observed in SSADH-deficient patients. Abnormalities in GABAergic and GHBergic neurotransmission, documented in patients and mice, form a component of disease pathophysiology, although numerous other disturbances (metabolite accumulations, myelin abnormalities, oxidant stress, neurosteroid depletion, altered bioenergetics, etc.) are also likely to be involved in developing the disease phenotype. Most recently, the demonstration of a redox control system in the SSADH protein active site has provided new insights into the regulation of SSADH by the cellular oxidation/reduction potential. The current review summarizes some 30 years of research on this protein and disease, addressing pathological mechanisms in human and mouse at the protein, metabolic, molecular, and whole-animal level. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 691–718. PMID:20973619

  15. Cerebral Folate Deficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral folate deficiency (CFD) is associated with low levels of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with normal folate levels in the plasma and red blood cells. The onset of symptoms caused by the deficiency of folates in the brain is at around 4 to 6 months of age. This is followed by delayed development, with deceleration…

  16. Iron induced nickel deficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is increasingly apparent that economic loss due to nickel (Ni) deficiency likely occurs in horticultural and agronomic crops. While most soils contain sufficient Ni to meet crop requirements, situations of Ni deficiency can arise due to antagonistic interactions with other metals. This study asse...

  17. Iron deficiency: beyond anemia.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Dinesh; Chandra, Jagdish

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder affecting at least one third of world's population. Though anemia is common manifestation of iron deficiency, other effects of iron deficiency on various tissues, organs and systems are usually under recognized. Impaired brain development and cognitive, behavioural and psychomotor impairment are most worrisome manifestations of iron deficiency. Studies have demonstrated that some of these changes occurring during period of brain growth spurt (<2 years age) may be irreversible. Association of iron deficiency with febrile seizures, pica, breath holding spells, restless leg syndrome and thrombosis is increasingly being recognized. Impaired cell-mediated immunity and bactericidal function are generally noted in iron-deficient persons; however, the findings are inconsistent. Despite proven reversible functional immunological defects in vitro studies, a clinically important relationship between states of iron deficiency and susceptibility to infections remains controversial. Studies from malaria endemic regions have reported increased incidence of malaria in association with iron supplementation. These and some other aspects of iron deficiency are reviewed in this article.

  18. Iodine-deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Jooste, Pieter L; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2008-10-01

    2 billion individuals worldwide have insufficient iodine intake, with those in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa particularly affected. Iodine deficiency has many adverse effects on growth and development. These effects are due to inadequate production of thyroid hormone and are termed iodine-deficiency disorders. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of preventable mental impairment worldwide. Assessment methods include urinary iodine concentration, goitre, newborn thyroid-stimulating hormone, and blood thyroglobulin. In nearly all countries, the best strategy to control iodine deficiency is iodisation of salt, which is one of the most cost-effective ways to contribute to economic and social development. When iodisation of salt is not possible, iodine supplements can be given to susceptible groups. Introduction of iodised salt to regions of chronic iodine-deficiency disorders might transiently increase the proportion of thyroid disorders, but overall the small risks of iodine excess are far outweighed by the substantial risks of iodine deficiency. International efforts to control iodine-deficiency disorders are slowing, and reaching the third of the worldwide population that remains deficient poses major challenges. PMID:18676011

  19. MENTAL DEFICIENCY. SECOND EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HILLIARD, L.T.; KIRMAN, BRIAN H.

    REVISED TO INCLUDE LEGISLATIVE AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES NEW IN BRITAIN SINCE THE 1957 EDITION, THE TEXT INCLUDES RECENT ADVANCES IN ETIOLOGY, PATHOLOGY, AND TREATMENT OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY. CONSIDERATION OF THE BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY INCLUDES HISTORICAL AND LEGAL ASPECTS, THE SOCIAL BACKGROUND OF MENTAL DEFECT, PRENATAL CAUSES OF…

  20. Iron deficiency anemia

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - iron deficiency ... iron from old red blood cells. Iron deficiency anemia develops when your body's iron stores run low. ... You may have no symptoms if the anemia is mild. Most of the time, ... slowly. Symptoms may include: Feeling weak or tired more often ...

  1. Multiple congenital coagulation deficiencies.

    PubMed

    BONNIN, J A; HICKS, N D; INNIS, M D; SIMPSON, D A

    1960-07-01

    A 6-week-old infant is presented who suffered from a congenital haemorrhagic disorder which caused death from subdural haemorrhage following mild trauma. Haematological investigation revealed deficiencies of factor VII and Christmas factor. Prower-Stuart factor was probably also deficient although investigation of this clotting factor was carried out only on serum obtained at necropsy.

  2. OsHSD1, a hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is involved in cuticle formation and lipid homeostasis in rice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhe; Cheng, Zhi-Jun; Gan, Lu; Zhang, Huan; Wu, Fu-Qing; Lin, Qi-Bing; Wang, Jiu-Lin; Wang, Jie; Guo, Xiu-Ping; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Zhi-Chao; Lei, Cai-Lin; Zhu, Shan-Shan; Wang, Chun-Ming; Wan, Jian-Min

    2016-08-01

    Cuticular wax, a hydrophobic layer on the surface of all aerial plant organs, has essential roles in plant growth and survival under various environments. Here we report a wax-deficient rice mutant oshsd1 with reduced epicuticular wax crystals and thicker cuticle membrane. Quantification of the wax components and fatty acids showed elevated levels of very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and accumulation of soluble fatty acids in the leaves of the oshsd1 mutant. We determined the causative gene OsHSD1, a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase reductase family, through map-based cloning. It was ubiquitously expressed and responded to cold stress and exogenous treatments with NaCl or brassinosteroid analogs. Transient expression of OsHSD1-tagged green fluorescent protein revealed that OsHSD1 localized to both oil bodies and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Dehydrogenase activity assays demonstrated that OsHSD1 was an NAD(+)/NADP(+)-dependent sterol dehydrogenase. Furthermore, OsHSD1 mutation resulted in faster protein degradation, but had no effect on the dehydrogenase activity. Together, our data indicated that OsHSD1 plays a specialized role in cuticle formation and lipid homeostasis, probably by mediating sterol signaling. This work provides new insights into oil-body associated proteins involved in wax and lipid metabolism. PMID:27297988

  3. A comparison of potato and vertebrate lactate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Poerio, E; Davies, D D

    1980-01-01

    A 2000-fold purification of L(+)-lactate dehydrogenase from potatoes is reported. Five isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase can be detected in crude extracts of potato, and three of these are present in the purified preparation. The enzyme (mol.wt. 150 000), which is composed of four subunits (mol.wt. 37 500), is active with the same oxo acids and hydroxy acids that have been reported as substrates with the same oxo acids and hydroxy acids that have been reported as substrates for vertebrate lactate dehydrogenases. These similarities between potato and vertebrate lactate dehydrogenases contrast sharply with some other reports on potato lactate dehydrogenase. These discrepancies are discussed in relation to the proposition that vertebrate and potato lactate dehydrogenases share a common evolutionary origin. PMID:7236200

  4. Plants Possess a Cyclic Mitochondrial Metabolic Pathway similar to the Mammalian Metabolic Repair Mechanism Involving Malate Dehydrogenase and l-2-Hydroxyglutarate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hüdig, Meike; Maier, Alexander; Scherrers, Isabell; Seidel, Laura; Jansen, Erwin E W; Mettler-Altmann, Tabea; Engqvist, Martin K M; Maurino, Veronica G

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic side reactions can give rise to the formation of wasteful and toxic products that are removed by metabolite repair pathways. In this work, we identify and characterize a mitochondrial metabolic repair mechanism in Arabidopsis thaliana involving malate dehydrogenase (mMDH) and l-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (l-2HGDH). We analyze the kinetic properties of both A. thaliana mMDH isoforms, and show that they produce l-2-hydroxyglutarate (l-2HG) from 2-ketoglutarate (2-KG) at low rates in side reactions. We identify A. thaliana l-2HGDH as a mitochondrial FAD-containing oxidase that converts l-2HG back to 2-KG. Using loss-of-function mutants, we show that the electrons produced in the l-2HGDH reaction are transferred to the mitochondrial electron transport chain through the electron transfer protein (ETF). Thus, plants possess the biochemical components of an l-2HG metabolic repair system identical to that found in mammals. While deficiencies in the metabolism of l-2HG result in fatal disorders in mammals, accumulation of l-2HG in plants does not adversely affect their development under a range of tested conditions. However, orthologs of l-2HGDH are found in all examined genomes of viridiplantae, indicating that the repair reaction we identified makes an essential contribution to plant fitness in as yet unidentified conditions in the wild. PMID:26203119

  5. Partial Similarities Between Yeast and Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Jörnvall, Hans

    1973-01-01

    The primary structure of about half of the protein chain of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase has been determined and compared with the amino-acid sequences of other dehydrogenases. The enzyme is found to be distantly related to horse-liver alcohol dehydrogenase, although these two proteins have different quaternary structures and subunit sizes. Some regions show no significant similarities, but long segments within the N-terminal parts of the molecules are homologous, suggesting a common and important function for these segments. Ancestral connections between some different dehydrogenases can be concluded and the degree of evolutionary changes may be estimated. PMID:4599620

  6. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... plasma. Malic dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle and liver diseases, myocardial infarctions, cancer, and blood disorders such as myelogenous (produced in the...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and plasma. Isocitric dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver disease such as viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, or acute inflammation of the biliary tract; pulmonary...

  11. Localization of the gene (OGDH) coding for the E1k component of the [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex to chromosome 7p13-p11. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, P.; Cai, X.; Ali, G.; Blass, J.P. )

    1994-03-15

    [alpha]-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (E1k), also designated oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH; EC 1.2.4.2), is a component of the enzyme complex that catalyzes the conversion of [alpha]-ketogluterate to succinyl coenzyme A, a critical step in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle. Deficiencies in the activity of this enzyme complex have been observed in brain and peripheral cells of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This finding led the authors to localize the genes for the polypeptides that compose the [alpha]-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KDGHC). The E1k locus was mapped to chromosome 7p13-p11.2 using a pair of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid panels. A second related sequence, possibly a pseudogene, was identified and mapped to chromosome 10. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Differential inhibition of PDKs by phenylbutyrate and enhancement of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity by combination with dichloroacetate.

    PubMed

    Ferriero, Rosa; Iannuzzi, Clara; Manco, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2015-09-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a key enzyme in metabolism linking glycolysis to tricarboxylic acid cycle and its activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation catalyzed by four pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoforms. PDKs are pharmacological targets for several human diseases including cancer, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, and inherited PDHC deficiency. We investigated the inhibitory activity of phenylbutyrate toward PDKs and found that PDK isoforms 1-to-3 are inhibited whereas PDK4 is unaffected. Moreover, docking studies revealed putative binding sites of phenylbutyrate on PDK2 and 3 that are located on different sites compared to dichloroacetate (DCA), a previously known PDK inhibitor. Based on these findings, we showed both in cells and in mice that phenylbutyrate combined to DCA results in greater increase of PDHC activity compared to each drug alone. These results suggest that therapeutic efficacy can be enhanced by combination of drugs increasing PDHC enzyme activity. PMID:25601413

  13. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, D

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  14. Thiamine and magnesium deficiencies: keys to disease.

    PubMed

    Lonsdale, D

    2015-02-01

    Thiamine deficiency (TD) is accepted as the cause of beriberi because of its action in the metabolism of simple carbohydrates, mainly as the rate limiting cofactor for the dehydrogenases of pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate, both being critical to the action of the citric acid cycle. Transketolase, dependent on thiamine and magnesium, occurs twice in the oxidative pentose pathway, important in production of reducing equivalents. Thiamine is also a cofactor in the dehydrogenase complex in the degradation of the branched chain amino acids, leucine, isoleucine and valine. In spite of these well accepted facts, the overall clinical effects of TD are still poorly understood. Because of the discovery of 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) as the first peroxisomal enzyme in mammals found to be dependent on thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) and the ability of thiamine to bind with prion protein, these factors should improve our clinical approach to TD. HACL1 has two important roles in alpha oxidation, the degradation of phytanic acid and shortening of 2-hydroxy long-chain fatty acids so that they can be degraded further by beta oxidation. The downstream effects of a lack of efficiency in this enzyme would be expected to be critical in normal brain metabolism. Although TD has been shown experimentally to produce reversible damage to mitochondria and there are many other causes of mitochondrial dysfunction, finding TD as the potential biochemical lesion would help in differential diagnosis. Stresses imposed by infection, head injury or inoculation can initiate intermittent cerebellar ataxia in thiamine deficiency/dependency. Medication or vaccine reactions appear to be more easily initiated in the more intelligent individuals when asymptomatic marginal malnutrition exists. Erythrocyte transketolase testing has shown that thiamine deficiency is widespread. It is hypothesized that the massive consumption of empty calories, particularly those derived from carbohydrate and fat, results in

  15. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.; Reed, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). No pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase activity was detected at any stage of the purification. However, the purified PDC was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified PDH kinase from bovine kidney mitochondria, Mg/sup 2 +/, and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The protein-bound radioactivity was localized in the PDH ..cap alpha.. subunit. The phosphorylated, inactivated PDC was dephosphorylated and reactivated with purified bovine PDH phosphatase, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/. From a tryptic digest of phosphorylated yeast PDC a radioactive peptide was isolated by anion and reverse phase HPLC. The sequence of this tetradecapeptide is Tyr-Gly-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Thr-Thr-Tyr-Arg. This sequence is very similar to the sequence of a tryptic phosphopeptide derived from the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine kidney and heart PDH: Tyr-His-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Val-Ser-Tyr-Arg.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Yun; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2012-10-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity is crucial to maintains blood glucose and ATP levels, which largely depends on the phosphorylation status by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Although it has been reported that PDC is phosphorylated and inactivated by PDK2 and PDK4 in metabolically active tissues including liver, skeletal muscle, heart, and kidney during starvation and diabetes, the precise mechanisms by which expression of PDK2 and PDK4 are transcriptionally regulated still remains unclear. Insulin represses the expression of PDK2 and PDK4 via phosphorylation of FOXO through PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Several nuclear hormone receptors activated due to fasting or increased fat supply, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, estrogen-related receptors, and thyroid hormone receptors, also participate in the up-regulation of PDK2 and PDK4; however, the endogenous ligands that bind those nuclear receptors have not been identified. It has been recently suggested that growth hormone, adiponectin, epinephrine, and rosiglitazone also control the expression of PDK4 in tissue-specific manners. In this review, we discuss several factors involved in the expressional regulation of PDK2 and PDK4, and introduce current studies aimed at providing a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie the development of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:23130316

  17. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver from damage. The condition can lead to emphysema and liver disease . ... descent. Adults with severe AAT deficiency will develop emphysema , often before age 40. Smoking can increase the ...

  18. Growth hormone deficiency - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...

  19. Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and white-colored blood vessels in the retinas Pancreatitis that keeps returning Yellowing of the eyes and ... discuss your diet needs with a registered dietitian. Pancreatitis that is related to lipoprotein lipase deficiency responds ...

  20. Vitamin D Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency can lead to a loss of bone density (size and strength), broken bones (fractures), muscle weakness, ... get too much calcium in their blood or urine. Careful monitoring of blood vitamin D levels will ...

  1. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... the right shape, they get stuck in the liver cells and can't reach the lungs. Symptoms of AAT deficiency include Shortness of breath and wheezing Repeated lung ... or delay lung symptoms. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  2. MAPPING OF SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE LOSSES IN 2258 EPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Markku; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Cue, Peter Mc.; Czapiewski, Piotr; Langfor, Renata; Waloszczyk, Piotr; Wazny, Krzysztof; Biernat, Wojciech; Lasota, Jerzy; Wang, Zengfeng

    2013-01-01

    Losses in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex characterize 20–30% of extra-adrenal paragangliomas and 7–8% of gastric GISTs, and rare renal cell carcinomas. This loss is reflected as lack of the normally ubiquitous immunohistochemical expression of the SDH subunit B (SDHB). In paragangliomas, SDHB loss correlates with homozygous loss of any of the SDH subunits, typically by loss-of-function mutations. The occurrence of SDHB losses in other epithelial malignancies is unknown. In this study, we immunohistochemically examined 2258 epithelial, mostly malignant neoplasms including common carcinomas of all sites. Among renal cell carcinomas, SDHB loss was observed in 4 of 711 cases (0.6%) including a patient with an SDHB-deficient GIST. Histologically the SDHB-negative renal carcinomas varied. There was one clear cell carcinoma with a high nuclear grade, one papillary carcinoma type 2, one unclassified carcinoma with a glandular pattern, and one oncocytoid low-grade carcinoma as previously described for SDHB-negative renal carcinoma. None of these patients was known to have paragangliomas or had loss of SDHA expression in the tumor. Three of these patients had metastases at presentation (2 in the adrenal, one in the retroperitoneal lymph nodes). There were no cases with SDHB-loss among 64 renal oncocytomas. SDHB-losses were not seen in other carcinomas, except in one prostatic adenocarcinoma (1/57), one lymphoepithelial carcinoma of the stomach, and one (1/40) seminoma. Based on this study, SDHB-losses occur in 0.6% of renal cell carcinomas and extremely rarely in other carcinomas. Some of these renal carcinomas may be clinically aggressive. The clinical significance and molecular genetics of these SDHB-negative tumors requires further study. PMID:23531856

  3. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity promotes survival of human muscle precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Elise; Laoudj-Chenivesse, Dalila; Notarnicola, Cécile; Rouger, Karl; Serratrice, Nicolas; Bonnieu, Anne; Gay, Stéphanie; Bacou, Francis; Duret, Cédric; Carnac, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) are a family of enzymes that efficiently detoxify aldehydic products generated by reactive oxygen species and might therefore participate in cell survival. Because ALDH activity has been used to identify normal and malignant cells with stem cell properties, we asked whether human myogenic precursor cells (myoblasts) could be identified and isolated based on their levels of ALDH activity. Human muscle explant-derived cells were incubated with ALDEFLUOR, a fluorescent substrate for ALDH, and we determined by flow cytometry the level of enzyme activity. We found that ALDH activity positively correlated with the myoblast-CD56+ fraction in those cells, but, we also observed heterogeneity of ALDH activity levels within CD56-purified myoblasts. Using lentiviral mediated expression of shRNA we demonstrated that ALDH activity was associated with expression of Aldh1a1 protein. Surprisingly, ALDH activity and Aldh1a1 expression levels were very low in mouse, rat, rabbit and non-human primate myoblasts. Using different approaches, from pharmacological inhibition of ALDH activity by diethylaminobenzaldehyde, an inhibitor of class I ALDH, to cell fractionation by flow cytometry using the ALDEFLUOR assay, we characterized human myoblasts expressing low or high levels of ALDH. We correlated high ALDH activity ex vivo to resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cytotoxic effect and in vivo to improved cell viability when human myoblasts were transplanted into host muscle of immune deficient scid mice. Therefore detection of ALDH activity, as a purification strategy, could allow non-toxic and efficient isolation of a fraction of human myoblasts resistant to cytotoxic damage. PMID:19840193

  4. Hepatic Deficiency of Augmenter of Liver Regeneration Exacerbates Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury and Promotes Fibrosis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sudhir; Wang, Jiang; Rani, Richa; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R

    2016-01-01

    Why only a subpopulation (about 15%) of humans develops liver cirrhosis due to alcohol is a critical as yet unanswered question. Liver-specific depletion of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protein in mice causes robust steatosis and hepatocyte apoptosis by 2 weeks; these pathologies regress subsequently with return of ALR expression even at lower than control levels, but the mice develop modest steatohepatitis by 8 weeks. We aimed to investigate whether chronic alcohol ingestion promotes excessive hepatic fibrosis in these ALR-deficient mice. Liver-specific ALR-deficient and wild type (WT) female mice (8-10 weeks old) were placed on 4% alcohol-supplemented or isocaloric diet for 4 weeks. Liver sections were examined for histopathology, and parameters of steatosis and fibrosis were quantified. The mRNA expression of alcohol dehydrogenase-1, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-1 and cytochrome P450-2E1 increased in WT mice but decreased in ALR-deficient mice upon alcohol ingestion. While alcohol induced steatosis and mild inflammation in WT mice, ALR-deficient mice showed minimal steatosis, strong hepatocellular injury and inflammation, prominent ductular proliferation, and robust fibrosis. Compared to the WT mice, alcohol feeding of ALR-deficient mice resulted in significantly greater increase in hepatic TNFα and TGFβ, and oxidative stress; there was also hepatic iron accumulation, robust lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial DNA damage. Importantly, similar to ALR-deficient mice, lower hepatic ALR levels in human alcoholic liver cirrhosis were associated with increased iron content, reduced expression of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, and elevated fibrogenic markers. We conclude that ALR deficiency or anomaly can play a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis, mechanisms of which may involve dysregulation of alcohol metabolism and iron homeostasis, mitochondrial damage and oxidative injury. PMID:26808690

  5. Hepatic Deficiency of Augmenter of Liver Regeneration Exacerbates Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury and Promotes Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhir; Wang, Jiang; Rani, Richa; Gandhi, Chandrashekhar R.

    2016-01-01

    Why only a subpopulation (about 15%) of humans develops liver cirrhosis due to alcohol is a critical as yet unanswered question. Liver-specific depletion of augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protein in mice causes robust steatosis and hepatocyte apoptosis by 2 weeks; these pathologies regress subsequently with return of ALR expression even at lower than control levels, but the mice develop modest steatohepatitis by 8 weeks. We aimed to investigate whether chronic alcohol ingestion promotes excessive hepatic fibrosis in these ALR-deficient mice. Liver-specific ALR-deficient and wild type (WT) female mice (8–10 weeks old) were placed on 4% alcohol-supplemented or isocaloric diet for 4 weeks. Liver sections were examined for histopathology, and parameters of steatosis and fibrosis were quantified. The mRNA expression of alcohol dehydrogenase-1, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-1 and cytochrome P450-2E1 increased in WT mice but decreased in ALR-deficient mice upon alcohol ingestion. While alcohol induced steatosis and mild inflammation in WT mice, ALR-deficient mice showed minimal steatosis, strong hepatocellular injury and inflammation, prominent ductular proliferation, and robust fibrosis. Compared to the WT mice, alcohol feeding of ALR-deficient mice resulted in significantly greater increase in hepatic TNFα and TGFβ, and oxidative stress; there was also hepatic iron accumulation, robust lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial DNA damage. Importantly, similar to ALR-deficient mice, lower hepatic ALR levels in human alcoholic liver cirrhosis were associated with increased iron content, reduced expression of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, and elevated fibrogenic markers. We conclude that ALR deficiency or anomaly can play a critical role in alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis, mechanisms of which may involve dysregulation of alcohol metabolism and iron homeostasis, mitochondrial damage and oxidative injury. PMID:26808690

  6. Genetics Home Reference: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... down (metabolize) a group of fats called medium-chain fatty acids. These fatty acids are found in foods and the body's fat tissues. Fatty acids are a major source of energy for the heart and muscles. During periods of fasting, ... of this enzyme, medium-chain fatty acids are not metabolized properly. As a ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... metabolize) a group of fats called very long-chain fatty acids. These fatty acids are found in foods and the body's fat tissues. Fatty acids are a major source of energy for the heart and muscles. During periods of fasting, ... of this enzyme, very long-chain fatty acids are not metabolized properly. As a ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... These mutations prevent the normal processing of long-chain fatty acids from food and body fat. As a result, these fatty acids are not converted to energy, which can lead to some features of this disorder, ... Long-chain fatty acids or partially metabolized fatty acids may ...

  9. Dietary zinc deficiency effects dorso-lateral and ventral prostate of Wistar rats: histological, biochemical and trace element study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sangeeta; Nair, Neena; Bedwal, R S

    2014-10-01

    Zinc deficiency has become a global problem affecting the developed and developing countries due to inhibitors in the diet which prevents its absorption or due to a very low concentration of bioavailable zinc in the diet. Being present in high concentration in the prostate and having diverse biological function, we investigated the effects of dietary zinc deficiency for 2 and 4 weeks on dorso-lateral and ventral prostate. Sixty prepubertal rats were divided into three groups: zinc control (ZC), pair fed (PF) and zinc deficient (ZD) and fed on 100 μg/g (zinc control and pair fed groups) and 1 μg/g (zinc deficient) diet. Zinc deficiency was associated with degenerative changes in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as made evident by karyolysis, karyorhexis, cytoplasmolysis, loss of cellularisation, decreased intraluminar secretion and degeneration of fibromuscular stroma. In response, protein carbonyl, nitric oxide, acid phosphatase, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase increased, exhibiting variable level of significance. Total protein and total zinc concentration in dorso-lateral and ventral prostate as well as in serum decreased (P < 0.001). Decrease (P < 0.001) was recorded in serum FSH and testosterone after 2 and 4 weeks of zinc deficiency. The changes were more prominent after 4 weeks of synthetic zinc deficient diet. The results indicate that zinc deficiency during prepubertal period affects the prostate structure, total protein concentration, enhanced protein carbonyl concentration, nitric oxide as well as acid phosphatase activities and impaired hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities. Evidently these changes could be attributed to dysfunction of dorso-lateral and ventral prostate after dietary zinc deficiency as well as impairment of metabolic and secretory activity, reduced gonadotropin levels by hypothalamus -hypophysial system which is indicative of a critical role of zinc in maintaining the prostate integrity. PMID

  10. NADP-dehydrogenases from pepper fruits: effect of maturation.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Rosa M; Bonilla-Valverde, Daniel; del Río, Luis A; Palma, José M; Corpas, Francisco J

    2009-02-01

    NADPH is an important molecule in the redox balance of the cell. Pepper fruits are the second worldwide consumable vegetables and exhibit different phenotypes after maturation. In this paper, two pepper cultivars were studied: Vergasa whose fruits shift from green to red after maturation, and Biela that shifts to yellow. Using fresh fruits from the same plants of the two cultivars at distinct maturation stages, the activity and gene expression of the main NADPH-generating dehydrogenases was studied. The activity analysis of the main NADP-dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) and NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), showed that, except for the G6PDH, all the activities were enhanced (54-100%) in the mature pepper fruits from both cultivars (red or yellow) with respect to green pepper fruits. The content of NADPH and NADP in the mature fruits of both cultivars showed a noteworthy increase with respect to green fruits. For the transcript analysis, a partial cDNA of each NADP-dehydrogenase was obtained, and the NADP-ME was the only NADP-dehydrogenase that showed a significant induction. The increase in the content of NADPH in mature fruits because of the enhanced activity of NADP-dehydrogenases suggests that these NADPH-generating enzymes could be involved in the maturation of pepper fruits.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1670 - Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sorbitol dehydrogenase test system. 862.1670 Section 862.1670 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1670 Sorbitol dehydrogenase...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA-deficient models and aging.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Abdullah; Akman, Serif

    2007-04-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes 13 subunits of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme complexes I, III, IV, and V except complex II. MtDNA is more sensitive to oxidative damage than nuclear DNA. MtDNA defects are involved in many pathologies including aging. Several mtDNA-deficient cell culture, yeast, and animal models were generated to study the role of mtDNA in many physiological processes. Ethidium bromide (EB), an agent that is known to inhibit mtDNA replication with a negligible effect on nuclear DNA, is generally used to generate mtDNA-deficient models. The antibiotics chloramphenicol and doxycycline, which were known to inhibit mitochondrial translation, were also used to generate the same phenotype. Cultured mtDNA-deficient cells need uridine and pyruvate to survive. At the organismal level, uridine can be supplemented, but pyruvate supplementation can cause a worser phenotype because of lactic acidosis. In C. elegans, EB, when used during larval development, increases life span, but decreases, when used after the beginning of adult stage. This should be kept in mind since mitochondria-related genes are generally detected in genome-wide screening studies for longevity. We believe that conditional knockout studies need to be carried out for these genes after reaching adulthood. MtDNA mutator mouse did not show an increase of free radical production. Therefore, the downstream phenomena to mtDNA defects are likely ineffective pyrimidine synthesis (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, DHODH, needs a functional respiratory chain) and excess NADH (decreased NAD pool) in addition to free radicals. PMID:17460185

  13. VERMILION-DEFICIENCY.

    PubMed

    Bridges, C B

    1919-07-20

    In May, 1916, a culture of Drosophila melanogaster showed that a new sex-linked lethal had arisen. The linkage relations indicated that the position of the lethal was in the neighborhood of the sex-linked recessive "vermilion," whose locus in the X chromosome is at 33.0. When females heterozygous for the lethal were outcrossed to vermilion males, all the daughters that received the lethal-bearing chromosome showed vermilion eye-color, though, from the pedigree, vermilion was known to be absent from the ancestry of the mother. The lethal action and the unexpected appearance of vermilion both suggested that this was another instance of the phenomenon called "deficiency;" that is, the loss or "inactivation" of the genes of a section of the X chromosome. The lethal action would then be due to the deficient region including one or more genes necessary for the life of the individual. The appearance of vermilion in females carrying only one vermilion gene would be explainable on the ground that the deficient-bearing females are virtually haploid for the region including the vermilion locus. Linkage tests showed that the amount of crossing over in the neighborhood of the deficiency was cut down by about five units. Part of this may be attributed to the actual length of the "deficient" region, within which it is probable that no crossing over occurs, and part (probably most) to an alteration in the synaptic relations in the regions immediately adjacent. In more remote regions there was no disturbance or perhaps a slight rise in the frequency of crossing over. Both the local fall and the possible rise in more distant regions would seem to argue that a "pucker" at synapsis had been caused by an actual shortening of the deficient chromosome. That the deficient region extends to the left of the locus of vermilion was indicated by a test in which it was observed that the presence of an extra piece of chromosome including the loci for vermilion and sable ("vermilion

  14. Conformations of Diphosphopyridine Coenzymes upon Binding to Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yu; Eichner, Ronald D.; Kaplan, Nathan O.

    1973-01-01

    The binding of oxidized as well as reduced coenzyme to some dehydrogenases has been studied under different concentration ratios and temperatures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A significant difference in the spectral behavior between DPN+ and DPNH upon binding is interpreted in terms of fast and slow on-off rates relative to the nuclear magnetic resonance time scale in the binding of these two coenzymes. Significant downfield shifts of DPN+ were observed upon binding, comparable in magnitude to those expected upon opening (destacking) of the coenzymes in the case of chicken-muscle and lobster-tail lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) and yeast alchol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1.). A preliminary survey of several other dehydrogenases is consistent with these findings. In the case of 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde dehydrogenase, there is a possibility that the coenzyme exists in the folded form. PMID:4351183

  15. Pyrimidine Pathway-Dependent and -Independent Functions of the Toxoplasma gondii Mitochondrial Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Hortua Triana, Miryam Andrea; Cajiao Herrera, Daniela; Zimmermann, Barbara H; Fox, Barbara A; Bzik, David J

    2016-10-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) mediates the fourth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis and is a proven drug target for inducing immunosuppression in therapy of human disease as well as a rapidly emerging drug target for treatment of malaria. In Toxoplasma gondii, disruption of the first, fifth, or sixth step of de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis induced uracil auxotrophy. However, previous attempts to generate uracil auxotrophy by genetically deleting the mitochondrion-associated DHODH of T. gondii (TgDHODH) failed. To further address the essentiality of TgDHODH, mutant gene alleles deficient in TgDHODH activity were designed to ablate the enzyme activity. Replacement of the endogenous DHODH gene with catalytically deficient DHODH gene alleles induced uracil auxotrophy. Catalytically deficient TgDHODH localized to the mitochondria, and parasites retained mitochondrial membrane potential. These results show that TgDHODH is essential for the synthesis of pyrimidines and suggest that TgDHODH is required for a second essential function independent of its role in pyrimidine biosynthesis. PMID:27481247

  16. Microarray data on altered transcriptional program of Phgdh-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused by ʟ-serine depletion

    PubMed Central

    Hamano, Momoko; Sayano, Tomoko; Kusada, Wataru; Kato, Hisanori; Furuya, Shigeki

    2016-01-01

    Inherent ʟ-Ser deficiency culminates in intrauterine growth retardation, severe malformation of multiple organs particularly the central nervous system, and perinatal or early postnatal death in human and mouse. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth-arrested phenotypes of l-Ser deficiency, we compared gene expression profiles of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), the first enzyme of de novo ʟ-Ser synthetic pathway, between ʟ-Ser-depleted and -supplemented conditions. The datasets (CEL and CHP files) from this study are publicly available on the Gene Expression Omnibus repository (accession number GEO: GSE55687). PMID:27222860

  17. Microarray data on altered transcriptional program of Phgdh-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts caused by ʟ-serine depletion.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Momoko; Sayano, Tomoko; Kusada, Wataru; Kato, Hisanori; Furuya, Shigeki

    2016-06-01

    Inherent ʟ-Ser deficiency culminates in intrauterine growth retardation, severe malformation of multiple organs particularly the central nervous system, and perinatal or early postnatal death in human and mouse. To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the growth-arrested phenotypes of l-Ser deficiency, we compared gene expression profiles of mouse embryonic fibroblasts deficient in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (Phgdh), the first enzyme of de novo ʟ-Ser synthetic pathway, between ʟ-Ser-depleted and -supplemented conditions. The datasets (CEL and CHP files) from this study are publicly available on the Gene Expression Omnibus repository (accession number GEO: GSE55687). PMID:27222860

  18. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  19. Interactions between heparinoids and alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Paulíková, H; Valusová, E; Antalík, M

    1997-07-01

    The interaction between polysulfated polysaecharides (low-molecular-weight heparin LMWH, dextran sulfate DS and pentosan sulfate PS) and yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) was investigated. The fluorescence and UV spectra of YADH after adding the tested polysaccharides have confirmed the interaction between the enzyme and these compounds. Kinetic studies have shown that LMWH, DS and PS are inhibitors of YADH (mixed type with respect to NAD). The most potent inhibitor is PS (ID50=37.5 ng/ml, Ki=0.6 muM). The inhibition effect depends on the ionic strength (the inhibition decreased by about 50% in the presence of 100 mM Na2SO4) and pH value (the inhibition decreased at pH>7). The results indicate that the inhibition effect of these polyanions is caused by their electrostatic interactions with the NAD-binding region of YADH.

  20. The Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily Resource Center

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The website http://www.aldh.org is a publicly available database for nomenclature and functional and molecular sequence information for members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily for animals, plants, fungi and bacteria. The site has organised gene-specific records. It provides synopses of ALDH gene records, marries trivial terms to correct nomenclature and links global accession identifiers with source data. Server-side alignment software characterises the integrity of each sequence relative to the latest genomic assembly and provides identifier-specific detail reports, including a graphical presentation of the transcript's exon - intron structure, its size, coding sequence, genomic strand and locus. Also included are a summary of substrates, inhibitors and enzyme kinetics. The site provides reference lists and is designed to facilitate data mining by interested investigators. PMID:20038501

  1. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and cardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Sun, Lihan; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2010-01-01

    Numerous conditions promote oxidative stress, leading to the build-up of reactive aldehydes that cause cell damage and contribute to cardiac diseases. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are important enzymes that eliminate toxic aldehydes by catalysing their oxidation to non-reactive acids. The review will discuss evidence indicating a role for a specific ALDH enzyme, the mitochondrial ALDH2, in combating oxidative stress by reducing the cellular ‘aldehydic load’. Epidemiological studies in humans carrying an inactive ALDH2, genetic models in mice with altered ALDH2 levels, and small molecule activators of ALDH2 all highlight the role of ALDH2 in cardioprotection and suggest a promising new direction in cardiovascular research and the development of new treatments for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20558439

  2. Untangling the glutamate dehydrogenase allosteric nightmare.

    PubMed

    Smith, Thomas J; Stanley, Charles A

    2008-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is found in all living organisms, but only animal GDH is regulated by a large repertoire of metabolites. More than 50 years of research to better understand the mechanism and role of this allosteric network has been frustrated by its sheer complexity. However, recent studies have begun to tease out how and why this complex behavior evolved. Much of GDH regulation probably occurs by controlling a complex ballet of motion necessary for catalytic turnover and has evolved concomitantly with a long antenna-like feature of the structure of the enzyme. Ciliates, the 'missing link' in GDH evolution, might have created the antenna to accommodate changing organelle functions and was refined in humans to, at least in part, link amino acid catabolism with insulin secretion.

  3. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Monkenbusch, M; Stadler, A; Biehl, R; Ollivier, J; Zamponi, M; Richter, D

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D2O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains. PMID:26298156

  4. NADH electrochemical sensor coupled with dehydrogenase enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Hideko; Mascini, Marco )

    1992-06-01

    A graphite electrode assembled in a flow cell has shown to be a good detector for NADH. Current is linearly dependent on concentration in the range 10{sup {minus}7}-10{sup {minus}3} M without any mediator at the potential applied of 300 mV vs Ag/AgCl. Lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases were immobilized near to the electrode surface or in a reactor to obtain an NADH-based biosensor for lactate or ethanol. With lactate the authors succeeded to obtain a response only if the reactor was used and for alcohol a current proportional to the concentration was obtained either if the enzyme was immobilized in a membrane and placed near the electrode surface or when the enzyme was immobilized in a reactor form. By FIA procedures fast responses and recoveries were obtained, but with a short linear range.

  5. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana cytokinin dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Bitto, Eduard; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2008-08-13

    Since first discovered in Zea mays, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) genes have been identified in many plants including rice and Arabidopsis thaliana, which possesses CKX homologues (AtCKX1-AtCKX7). So far, the three-dimensional structure of only Z. mays CKX (ZmCKX1) has been determined. The crystal structures of ZmCKX1 have been solved in the native state and in complex with reaction products and a slowly reacting substrate. The structures revealed four glycosylated asparagine residues and a histidine residue covalently linked to FAD. Combined with the structural information, recent biochemical analyses of ZmCKX1 concluded that the final products of the reaction, adenine and a side chain aldehyde, are formed by nonenzymatic hydrolytic cleavage of cytokinin imine products resulting directly from CKX catalysis. Here, we report the crystal structure of AtCKX7 (gene locus At5g21482.1, UniProt code Q9FUJ1).

  6. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A. Biehl, R.; Richter, D.; Ollivier, J.; Zamponi, M.

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D{sub 2}O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.

  7. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  8. Structure-Function Relationships in Lactate Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Margaret J.; Buehner, Manfred; Chandrasekhar, K.; Ford, Geoffrey C.; Hackert, Marvin L.; Liljas, Anders; Rossmann, Michael G.; Smiley, Ira E.; Allison, William S.; Everse, Johannes; Kaplan, Nathan O.; Taylor, Susan S.

    1973-01-01

    The binding of coenzyme and substrate are considered in relation to the known primary and tertiary structure of lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). The adenine binds in a hydrophobic crevice, and the two coenzyme phosphates are oriented by interactions with the protein. The positively charged guanidinium group of arginine 101 then folds over the negatively charged phosphates, collapsing the loop region over the active center and positioning the unreactive B side of the nicotinamide in a hydrophobic protein environment. Collapse of the loop also introduces various charged groups into the vicinity of the substrate binding site. The substrate is situated between histidine 195 and the C4 position on the nicotinamide ring, and is partially oriented by interactions between its carboxyl group and arginine 171. The spatial arrangements of these groups may provide the specificity for the L-isomer of lactate. PMID:4146647

  9. Molybdenum and tungsten-dependent formate dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luisa B; Moura, José J G; Moura, Isabel

    2015-03-01

    The prokaryotic formate metabolism is considerably diversified. Prokaryotes use formate in the C1 metabolism, but also evolved to exploit the low reduction potential of formate to derive energy, by coupling its oxidation to the reduction of numerous electron acceptors. To fulfil these varied physiological roles, different types of formate dehydrogenase (FDH) enzymes have evolved to catalyse the reversible 2-electron oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide. This review will highlight our present knowledge about the diverse physiological roles of FDH in prokaryotes, their modular structural organisation and active site structures and the mechanistic strategies followed to accomplish the formate oxidation. In addition, the ability of FDH to catalyse the reverse reaction of carbon dioxide reduction, a potentially relevant reaction for carbon dioxide sequestration, will also be addressed.

  10. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment.

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Anthony; Cacoub, Patrice; Macdougall, Iain C; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent

    2016-02-27

    Anaemia affects roughly a third of the world's population; half the cases are due to iron deficiency. It is a major and global public health problem that affects maternal and child mortality, physical performance, and referral to health-care professionals. Children aged 0-5 years, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women are particularly at risk. Several chronic diseases are frequently associated with iron deficiency anaemia--notably chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Measurement of serum ferritin, transferrin saturation, serum soluble transferrin receptors, and the serum soluble transferrin receptors-ferritin index are more accurate than classic red cell indices in the diagnosis of iron deficiency anaemia. In addition to the search for and treatment of the cause of iron deficiency, treatment strategies encompass prevention, including food fortification and iron supplementation. Oral iron is usually recommended as first-line therapy, but the most recent intravenous iron formulations, which have been available for nearly a decade, seem to replenish iron stores safely and effectively. Hepcidin has a key role in iron homoeostasis and could be a future diagnostic and therapeutic target. In this Seminar, we discuss the clinical presentation, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and acute management of iron deficiency anaemia, and outstanding research questions for treatment. PMID:26314490

  12. A New Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala→Gly), is the Major Polymorphic Variant in Tribal Populations in India

    PubMed Central

    Kaeda, J. S.; Chhotray, G. P.; Ranjit, M. R.; Bautista, J. M.; Reddy, P. H.; Stevens, D.; Naidu, J. M.; Britt, R. P.; Vulliamy, T. J.; Luzzatto, L.; Mason, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is usually found at high frequencies in areas of the world where malaria has been endemic. The frequency and genetic basis of G6PD deficiency have been studied in Africa, around the Mediterranean, and in the Far East, but little such information is available about the situation in India. To determine the extent of heterogeneity of G6PD, we have studied several different Indian populations by screening for G6PD deficiency, followed by molecular analysis of deficient alleles. The frequency of G6PD deficiency varies between 3% and 15% in different tribal and urban groups. Remarkably, a previously unreported deficient variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala→Gly), is responsible for most of the G6PD deficiency in tribal Indian populations but is not found in urban populations, where most of the G6PD deficiency is due to the G6PD Mediterranean (188 Ser→Phe) variant. The K of G6PD Orissa is fivefold higher than that of the normal enzyme. This may be due to the fact that the alanine residue that is replaced by glycine is part of a putative coenzyme-binding site. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:8533762

  13. A new glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala{yields}Gly), is the major polymorphic variant in tribal populations in India

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeda, J.S.; Bautista, J.M.; Stevens, D.

    1995-12-01

    Deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is usually found at high frequencies in areas of the world where malaria has been epidemic. The frequency and genetic basis of G6PD deficiency have been studied in Africa, around the Mediterranean, and in the Far East, but little such information is available about the situation in India. To determine the extent of heterogeneity of G6PD, we have studied several different Indian populations by screening for G6PD deficiency, followed by molecular analysis of deficient alleles. The frequency of G6PD deficiency varies between 3% and 15% in different tribal and urban groups. Remarkably, a previously unreported deficient variant, G6PD Orissa (44 Ala{yields}Gly), is responsible for most of the G6PD deficiency in tribal Indian populations but is not found in urban populations, where most of the G6PD deficiency is due to the G6PD Mediterranean (188 Ser{yields}Phe) variant. The K{sup NADP}{sub m} of G6PD Orissa is fivefold higher than that of the normal enzyme. This may be due to the fact that the alanine residue that is replaced by glycine is part of a putative coenzyme-binding site. 37 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Hemolytic crisis in a G6PD-deficient infant after ingestion of pumpkin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 8 month-old infant presented with acute onset of severe jaundice, anemia requiring transfusion and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. The infant did not take drugs, he did not consume fava beans, but fava beans DNA was found on pumpkin he consumed the day before jaundice onset. This is the first case of hemolysis triggered by ingestion of food cross-contaminated with fava beans. PMID:25048415

  15. Hemolytic crisis in a G6PD-deficient infant after ingestion of pumpkin.

    PubMed

    Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Redaelli, Francesca; Gualdi, Valentina; Rizzi, Valeria; Mameli, Chiara; Dilillo, Dario; Fabiano, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    A 8 month-old infant presented with acute onset of severe jaundice, anemia requiring transfusion and Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase deficiency. The infant did not take drugs, he did not consume fava beans, but fava beans DNA was found on pumpkin he consumed the day before jaundice onset. This is the first case of hemolysis triggered by ingestion of food cross-contaminated with fava beans. PMID:25048415

  16. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  17. Effect of ADH II Deficiency on the Intracellular Redox Homeostasis in Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Galinina, Nina; Lasa, Zane; Strazdina, Inese; Rutkis, Reinis; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2012-01-01

    Mutant strain of the facultatively anaerobic, ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis, deficient in the Fe-containing alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme (ADH II), showed impaired homeostasis of the intracellular NAD(P)H during transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions, and also in steady-state continuous cultures at various oxygen supplies. At the same time, ADH II deficiency in aerobically grown cells was accompanied by a threefold increase of catalase activity and by about 50% increase of hydrogen peroxide excretion. It is concluded that ADH II under aerobic conditions functions to maintain intracellular redox homeostasis and to protect the cells from endogenous hydrogen peroxide. PMID:22629192

  18. Effect of ADH II deficiency on the intracellular redox homeostasis in Zymomonas mobilis.

    PubMed

    Galinina, Nina; Lasa, Zane; Strazdina, Inese; Rutkis, Reinis; Kalnenieks, Uldis

    2012-01-01

    Mutant strain of the facultatively anaerobic, ethanol-producing bacterium Zymomonas mobilis, deficient in the Fe-containing alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme (ADH II), showed impaired homeostasis of the intracellular NAD(P)H during transition from anaerobic to aerobic conditions, and also in steady-state continuous cultures at various oxygen supplies. At the same time, ADH II deficiency in aerobically grown cells was accompanied by a threefold increase of catalase activity and by about 50% increase of hydrogen peroxide excretion. It is concluded that ADH II under aerobic conditions functions to maintain intracellular redox homeostasis and to protect the cells from endogenous hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Antepartum ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hitoshi; Sasaki, Yosuke; Maeda, Tadashi; Takeda, Masako; Hara, Noriko; Nakanishi, Kazushige; Urita, Yoshihisa; Hattori, Risa; Miura, Ken; Taniguchi, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is the most common type urea cycle enzyme deficiencies. This syndrome results from a deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme ornithine transcarbamylase, which catalyzes the conversion of ornithine and carbamoyl phosphate to citrullin. Our case was a 28-year-old female diagnosed with OTCD following neurocognitive deficit during her first pregnancy. Although hyperammonemia was suspected as the cause of the patient's mental changes, there was no evidence of chronic liver disease. Plasma amino acid and urine organic acid analysis revealed OTCD. After combined modality treatment with arginine, sodium benzoate and hemodialysis, the patient's plasma ammonia level stabilized and her mental status returned to normal. At last she recovered without any damage left. PMID:25759629

  20. Transient neonatal zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Krieger, I; Alpern, B E; Cunnane, S C

    1986-06-01

    We report an infant who developed clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency during the first month of life although the diet was adequate for zinc and no other causes could be ascertained. The diagnosis was confirmed by low plasma-zinc concentrations and a positive response to zinc treatment. The fatty acid profile of plasma phospholipids was typical of zinc deficiency (ie, arachidonic acid was markedly decreased). The transient nature of this disorder was evident when no relapse occurred after cessation of zinc therapy and plasma-zinc and arachidonic acid concentrations remained normal. Several explanations for the development of transient neonatal zinc deficiency are offered. The observation demonstrates that occasional infants may have requirements for zinc that are beyond the intakes of the conventional RDA. PMID:3717070

  1. Neglect-induced pseudo-thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to vitamin B12 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Asano, Takeshi; Narazaki, Hidehiko; Kaizu, Kiyohiko; Matsukawa, Shouhei; Takema-Tochikubo, Yuki; Fujii, Shuichi; Saitoh, Nobuyuki; Mashiko, Kunihiko; Fujino, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    Although thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is rare, early diagnosis and treatment are important for decreasing the mortality rate. Acquired vitamin B12 deficiency is frequently overlooked because of its rarity in developed countries, particularly in children and adolescents. The hematological changes in vitamin B12 deficiency present as megaloblastic anemia, increased lactate dehydrogenase, vasoconstriction, increased platelet aggregation, and abnormal activation of the coagulation followed by microangiopathy as well as neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. We report herein the case of a 15-year-old girl who had been neglected, which might have caused pseudo-TTP through malnutrition, particularly vitamin B12 deficiency. When we encounter cases of TTP in children, clinicians must be aware of the possibility of malnutrition, particularly with vitamin B12 deficiency, even in developed countries, and investigate the cause of malnutrition including neglect. PMID:26387768

  2. Molecular analysis of mutant and wild type alcohol dehydrogenase alleles from Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Wild type alcohol dehydrogenase polypeptides (ADH) from Drosophila melanogaster transformants were examined using western blots and polyclonal antiserum specific for Drosophila melanogaster ADH. Mutants induced in Drosophila spermatozoa at the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) locus using X-rays, 1-ethyl-1-nitrosourea (ENU) or ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) were characterized using genetic complementation tests, western blots, Southern blots, northern blots and enzymatic amplification of the Adh locus. Genetic complementation tests showed that 22/30 X-ray-induced mutants, and 3/13 ENU and EMS induced mutants were multi-locus deficiencies. Western blot analysis of the intragenic mutations showed that 4/7 X-ray-induced mutants produced detectable polypeptides, one of which was normal in molecular weight and charge. In contrast 8/10 intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants produced normal polypeptides. Southern blot analysis showed that 5/7 intragenic X-ray induced mutants and all 10 of the intragenic ENU and EMS induced mutants were normal with respect to the alleles they were derived from.

  3. Genetic inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases improves hepatic insulin resistance induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tao, Rongya; Xiong, Xiwen; Harris, Robert A; White, Morris F; Dong, Xiaocheng C

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK1-4) play a critical role in the inhibition of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex especially when blood glucose levels are low and pyruvate can be conserved for gluconeogenesis. Under diabetic conditions, the Pdk genes, particularly Pdk4, are often induced, and the elevation of the Pdk4 gene expression has been implicated in the increased gluconeogenesis in the liver and the decreased glucose utilization in the peripheral tissues. However, there is no direct evidence yet to show to what extent that the dysregulation of hepatic Pdk genes attributes to hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in vivo. To address this question, we crossed Pdk2 or Pdk4 null mice with a diabetic model that is deficient in hepatic insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (Irs1/2). Metabolic analyses reveal that deletion of the Pdk4 gene had better improvement in hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance than knockout of the Pdk2 gene whereas the Pdk2 gene deletion showed better insulin tolerance as compared to the Pdk4 gene inactivation on the Irs1/2 knockout genetic background. To examine the specific hepatic effects of Pdks on diabetes, we also knocked down the Pdk2 or Pdk4 gene using specific shRNAs. The data also indicate that the Pdk4 gene knockdown led to better glucose tolerance than the Pdk2 gene knockdown. In conclusion, our data suggest that hepatic Pdk4 may be critically involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes. PMID:23940800

  4. Insights from retinitis pigmentosa into the roles of isocitrate dehydrogenases in the Krebs cycle.

    PubMed

    Hartong, Dyonne T; Dange, Mayura; McGee, Terri L; Berson, Eliot L; Dryja, Thaddeus P; Colman, Roberta F

    2008-10-01

    Here we describe two families with retinitis pigmentosa, a hereditary neurodegeneration of rod and cone photoreceptors in the retina. Affected family members were homozygous for loss-of-function mutations in IDH3B, encoding the beta-subunit of NAD-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NAD-IDH, or IDH3), which is believed to catalyze the oxidation of isocitrate to alpha-ketoglutarate in the citric acid cycle. Cells from affected individuals had a substantial reduction of NAD-IDH activity, with about a 300-fold increase in the K(m) for NAD. NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH, or IDH2), an enzyme that catalyzes the same reaction, was normal in affected individuals, and they had no health problems associated with the enzyme deficiency except for retinitis pigmentosa. These findings support the hypothesis that mitochondrial NADP-IDH, rather than NAD-IDH, serves as the main catalyst for this reaction in the citric acid cycle outside the retina, and that the retina has a particular requirement for NAD-IDH.

  5. Genomic organization and expression of the human fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (FALDH)

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.R.; Markova, N.G.; Compton, J.G.

    1997-01-15

    Mutations in the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) gene cause Sjoegren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) - a disease characterized by mental retardation, spasticity, and congenital ichthyosis. To facilitate mutation analysis in SLS and to study the pathogenesis of FALDH deficiency, we have determined the structural organization and characterized expression of the FALDH (proposed designation ALDH10) gene. The gene consists of 10 exons spanning about 30.5 kb. A TATA-less promoter is associated with the major transcription initiation site found to be 258 hp upstream of the ATG codon. The G4C-rich sequences surrounding the transcription initiation site encompassed regulatory elements that interacted with proteins in HeLa nuclear extracts and were able to promote transcription in vitro. FALDH is widely expressed as three transcripts of 2, 3.8, and 4.0 kb, which originate from multiple polyadenylation signals in the 3{prime} UTR. An alternatively spliced mRNA was detected that contains an extra exon and encodes an enzyme that is likely to have altered membrane-binding properties. The FALDH gene lies only 50-85 kb from ALDH3, an aldehyde dehydrogenase gene that has homologous sequence and intron/exon structure. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Inactivation of 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 2 delays zebrafish erythroid maturation by conferring premature mitophagy

    PubMed Central

    Davuluri, Gangarao; Song, Ping; Liu, Zhuoming; Wald, David; Sakaguchi, Takuya F.; Devireddy, L.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are the site of iron utilization, wherein imported iron is incorporated into heme or iron–sulfur clusters. Previously, we showed that a cytosolic siderophore, which resembles a bacterial siderophore, facilitates mitochondrial iron import in eukaryotes, including zebrafish. An evolutionarily conserved 3-hydroxy butyrate dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxy butyrate dehydrogenase 2 (Bdh2), catalyzes a rate-limiting step in the biogenesis of the eukaryotic siderophore. We found that inactivation of bdh2 in developing zebrafish embryo results in heme deficiency and delays erythroid maturation. The basis for this erythroid maturation defect is not known. Here we show that bdh2 inactivation results in mitochondrial dysfunction and triggers their degradation by mitophagy. Thus, mitochondria are prematurely lost in bdh2-inactivated erythrocytes. Interestingly, bdh2-inactivated erythroid cells also exhibit genomic alterations as indicated by transcriptome analysis. Reestablishment of bdh2 restores mitochondrial function, prevents premature mitochondrial degradation, promotes erythroid development, and reverses altered gene expression. Thus, mitochondrial communication with the nucleus is critical for erythroid development. PMID:26929344

  7. Loss of succinate dehydrogenase activity results in dependency on pyruvate carboxylation for cellular anabolism.

    PubMed

    Lussey-Lepoutre, Charlotte; Hollinshead, Kate E R; Ludwig, Christian; Menara, Mélanie; Morin, Aurélie; Castro-Vega, Luis-Jaime; Parker, Seth J; Janin, Maxime; Martinelli, Cosimo; Ottolenghi, Chris; Metallo, Christian; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Favier, Judith; Tennant, Daniel A

    2015-11-02

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central metabolic pathway responsible for supplying reducing potential for oxidative phosphorylation and anabolic substrates for cell growth, repair and proliferation. As such it thought to be essential for cell proliferation and tissue homeostasis. However, since the initial report of an inactivating mutation in the TCA cycle enzyme complex, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in paraganglioma (PGL), it has become clear that some cells and tissues are not only able to survive with a truncated TCA cycle, but that they are also able of supporting proliferative phenotype observed in tumours. Here, we show that loss of SDH activity leads to changes in the metabolism of non-essential amino acids. In particular, we demonstrate that pyruvate carboxylase is essential to re-supply the depleted pool of aspartate in SDH-deficient cells. Our results demonstrate that the loss of SDH reduces the metabolic plasticity of cells, suggesting vulnerabilities that can be targeted therapeutically.

  8. Receptor protein kinase FERONIA controls leaf starch accumulation by interacting with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Wang, Long; Li, Chiyu; Liu, Ying; Zhu, Sirui; Qi, Yinyao; Liu, Xuanming; Lin, Qinglu; Luan, Sheng; Yu, Feng

    2015-09-11

    Cell expansion is coordinated by several cues, but available energy is the major factor determining growth. Receptor protein kinase FERONIA (FER) is a master regulator of cell expansion, but the details of its control mechanisms are not clear. Here we show that FER interacts with cytosolic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, GAPC1 and GAPC2), that catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis, which contributes to energy production. When there is an FER deficiency, there are corresponding decreases in the enzyme activity of GAPDH and increased amounts of starch. More importantly, gapc1/2 mutants mimic fer4 mutants. These data indicate that FER regulated starch content is an evolutionarily conserved function in plants that connects the cell expansion and energy metabolism pathways.

  9. Nitrate Reductase-Deficient Mutants in Barley 1

    PubMed Central

    Somers, David A.; Kuo, Tsung-Min; Kleinhofs, Andris; Warner, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate reductase-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants were assayed for the presence of a functional molybdenum cofactor determined from the activity of the molybdoenzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, and for nitrate reductase-associated activities. Rocket immunoelectrophoresis was used to detect nitrate reductase cross-reacting material in the mutants. The cross-reacting material levels of the mutants ranged from 8 to 136% of the wild type and were correlated with their nitrate reductase-associated activities, except for nar 1c, which lacked all associated nitrate reductase activities but had 38% of the wild-type cross-reacting material. The cross-reacting material of two nar 1 mutants, as well as nar 2a, Xno 18, Xno 19, and Xno 29, exhibited rocket immunoprecipitates that were similar to the wild-type enzyme indicating structural homology between the mutant and wild-type nitrate reductase proteins. The cross-reacting materials of the seven remaining nar 1 alleles formed rockets only in the presence of purified wild-type nitrate reductase, suggesting structural modifications of the mutant cross-reacting materials. All nar 1 alleles and Xno 29 had xanthine dehydrogenase activity indicating the presence of functional molybdenum cofactors. These results suggest that nar 1 is the structural gene for nitrate reductase. Mutants nar 2a, Xno 18, and Xno 19 lacked xanthine dehydrogenase activity and are considered to be molybdenum cofactor deficient mutants. Cross-reacting material was not detected in uninduced wild-type or mutant extracts, suggesting that nitrate reductase is synthesized de novo in response to nitrate. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:16662774

  10. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes.

  11. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex from Chloroplasts of Pisum sativum L 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael; Randall, Douglas D.

    1979-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is associated with intact chloroplasts and mitochondria of 9-day-old Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The ratio of the mitochondrial complex to the chloroplast complex activities is about 3 to 1. Maximal rates observed for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity ranged from 6 to 9 micromoles of NADH produced per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. Osmotic rupture of pea chloroplasts released 88% of the complex activity, indicating that chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a stromal complex. The pH optimum for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was between 7.8 and 8.2, whereas the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex had a pH optimum between 7.3 and 7.7. Chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was specific for pyruvate, dependent upon coenzyme A and NAD and partially dependent upon Mg2+ and thiamine pyrophosphate. Chloroplast-associated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex provides a direct link between pyruvate metabolism and chloroplast fatty acid biosynthesis by providing the substrate, acetyl-CoA, necessary for membrane development in young plants. Images PMID:16661100

  12. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from higher plant mitochondria and proplastids.

    PubMed

    Reid, E E; Thompson, P; Lyttle, C R; Dennis, D T

    1977-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from pea (Pisum sativum L.) mitochondria was purified 23-fold by high speed centrifugation and glycerol gradient fractionation. The complex had a s(20,w) of 47.5S but this is a minimal value since the complex is unstable. The complex is specific for NAD(+) and pyruvate; NADP(+) and other keto acids give no reaction. Mg(2+), thiamine pyrophosphate, and cysteine are also required for maximal activity. The pH optimum for the complex was between 6.5 and 7.5.Continuous sucrose density gradients were used to separate castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) endosperm proplastids from mitochondria. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was found to be coincident with the proplastid peak on all of the gradients. Some separation of proplastids and mitochondria could be achieved by differential centrifugation and the ratios of the activities of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex to succinic dehydrogenase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase to succinic dehydrogenase were consistent with both the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and acetyl-CoA carboxylase being present in the proplastid. The proplastid fraction has to be treated with a detergent, Triton X-100, before maximal activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity is expressed, indicating that it is bound in the organelle. The complex had a sharp pH optimum of 7.5. The complex required added Mg(2+), cysteine, and thiamine pyrophosphate for maximal activity but thiamine pyrophosphate was inhibitory at higher concentrations.

  13. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. PMID:25542170

  14. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Intracellular Gate-Keepers of Tissue Glucocorticoid Action

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Karen; Holmes, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid action on target tissues is determined by the density of “nuclear” receptors and intracellular metabolism by the two isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) which catalyze interconversion of active cortisol and corticosterone with inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone. 11β-HSD type 1, a predominant reductase in most intact cells, catalyzes the regeneration of active glucocorticoids, thus amplifying cellular action. 11β-HSD1 is widely expressed in liver, adipose tissue, muscle, pancreatic islets, adult brain, inflammatory cells, and gonads. 11β-HSD1 is selectively elevated in adipose tissue in obesity where it contributes to metabolic complications. Similarly, 11β-HSD1 is elevated in the ageing brain where it exacerbates glucocorticoid-associated cognitive decline. Deficiency or selective inhibition of 11β-HSD1 improves multiple metabolic syndrome parameters in rodent models and human clinical trials and similarly improves cognitive function with ageing. The efficacy of inhibitors in human therapy remains unclear. 11β-HSD2 is a high-affinity dehydrogenase that inactivates glucocorticoids. In the distal nephron, 11β-HSD2 ensures that only aldosterone is an agonist at mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). 11β-HSD2 inhibition or genetic deficiency causes apparent mineralocorticoid excess and hypertension due to inappropriate glucocorticoid activation of renal MR. The placenta and fetus also highly express 11β-HSD2 which, by inactivating glucocorticoids, prevents premature maturation of fetal tissues and consequent developmental “programming.” The role of 11β-HSD2 as a marker of programming is being explored. The 11β-HSDs thus illuminate the emerging biology of intracrine control, afford important insights into human pathogenesis, and offer new tissue-restricted therapeutic avenues. PMID:23899562

  15. Biospecific affinity chromatographic purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, P; Griffin, T; O'Carra, P

    1997-02-01

    The development of a biospecific affinity chromatographic method for the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from molluscs is described. The method utilizes immobilized NAD+ derivatives in conjunction with soluble specific substrates to promote binding. Using this method, octopine dehydrogenase has been purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single chromatographic step from three different marine invertebrate sources [the queen scallop, Chlamys opercularis (adductor muscle), the great scallop, Pecten maximus (adductor muscle), and the squid Loligo vulgaris (mantle muscle)]. However, the system is not applicable to the purification of octopine dehydrogenase from some other marine invertebrate sources investigated (the mussel Mytilus edulis and the topshell Monodonta lineata). PMID:9116492

  16. Role of quinate dehydrogenase in quinic acid metabolism in conifers

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-08-10

    Quinate dehydrogenase was isolated from young needles of the Siberian larch and partially purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation. It was found that in conifers, in contrast to other plants, quinate dehydrogenase is active both with NAD and with NADP. The values of K/sub m/ for quinate and NADP were 1.8 and 0.18 mM. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity at pH 9.0. It was assumed that NADP-dependent quinate dehydrogenase is responsible for quinic acid synthesis. The special features of the organization and regulation of the initial stages of the shikimate pathway in conifers are discussed.

  17. Assignment of the human dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase gene (DPYD) to chromosome region 1p22 by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    SciTech Connect

    Takai, Setsuo; Fernandez-Salguero, Pedro; Kimura, Shioko

    1994-12-01

    Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, EC 1.3.1.2) is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the three-step pathway of uracil and thymine catabolism leading to the formation of {beta}-alanine and {beta}-aminobutyric acid, respectively. Several studies have demonstrated the importance of DPD in cancer patients, particularly in those lacking or having only low levels of activity. Patients exhibiting severe toxicity when administered 5-fluorouracil were shown to have low DPD activity. Studies of affected families demonstrated that the deficiency was inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. DPD deficiency is one of several inherited disorders of pyrimidine metabolism, clinically termed thymine-uracil-uria. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Arginase-1 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sin, Yuan Yan; Baron, Garrett; Schulze, Andreas; Funk, Colin D

    2015-12-01

    Arginase-1 (ARG1) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects the liver-based urea cycle, leading to impaired ureagenesis. This genetic disorder is caused by 40+ mutations found fairly uniformly spread throughout the ARG1 gene, resulting in partial or complete loss of enzyme function, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine to ornithine and urea. ARG1-deficient patients exhibit hyperargininemia with spastic paraparesis, progressive neurological and intellectual impairment, persistent growth retardation, and infrequent episodes of hyperammonemia, a clinical pattern that differs strikingly from other urea cycle disorders. This review briefly highlights the current understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of ARG1 deficiency derived from clinical case reports and therapeutic strategies stretching over several decades and reports on several exciting new developments regarding the pathophysiology of the disorder using ARG1 global and inducible knockout mouse models. Gene transfer studies in these mice are revealing potential therapeutic options that can be exploited in the future. However, caution is advised in extrapolating results since the lethal disease phenotype in mice is much more severe than in humans indicating that the mouse models may not precisely recapitulate human disease etiology. Finally, some of the functions and implications of ARG1 in non-urea cycle activities are considered. Lingering questions and future areas to be addressed relating to the clinical manifestations of ARG1 deficiency in liver and brain are also presented. Hopefully, this review will spark invigorated research efforts that lead to treatments with better clinical outcomes. PMID:26467175

  19. Immune Deficiency Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for IDF Join our nationwide network of volunteers Resources For Patients & Families Peer Support Speak with someone who understands Locate a Physician ... secure Legacy Giving Establish your personal legacy and support IDF 'Immune Deficiency Foundation Remembers' Plaque Pay tribute to ... Educational Resources Find a wealth of IDF educational publications and ...

  20. Reversal of coenzyme specificity of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisae and in vivo functional analysis.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Maryam; Fernández, Maria R; Biosca, Josep A; Dequin, Sylvie

    2009-10-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAD(H)-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1), a medium chain dehydrogenase/reductase is the main enzyme catalyzing the reduction of acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. In this work we focused on altering the coenzyme specificity of Bdh1 from NAD(H) to NADP(H). Based on homology studies and the crystal structure of the NADP(H)-dependent yeast alcohol dehydrogenase Adh6, three adjacent residues (Glu(221), Ile(222), and Ala(223)) were predicted to be involved in the coenzyme specificity of Bdh1 and were altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Coenzyme reversal of Bdh1 was obtained with double Glu221Ser/Ile222Arg and triple Glu221Ser/Ile222Arg/Ala223Ser mutants. The performance of the triple mutant for NADPH was close to that of native Bdh1 for NADH. The three engineered mutants were able to restore the growth of a phosphoglucose isomerase deficient strain (pgi), which cannot grow on glucose unless an alternative NADPH oxidizing system is provided, thus demonstrating their in vivo functionality. These mutants are interesting tools to reduce the excess of acetoin produced by engineered brewing or wine yeasts overproducing glycerol. In addition, they represent promising tools for the manipulation of the NADP(H) metabolism and for the development of a powerful catalyst in biotransformations requiring NADPH regeneration.

  1. Neonatal hydrocephalus is a result of a block in folate handling and metabolism involving 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Naz, Naila; Jimenez, Alicia Requena; Sanjuan-Vilaplana, Anna; Gurney, Megan; Miyan, Jaleel

    2016-08-01

    Folate is vital in a range of biological processes and folate deficiency is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as neural tube defects and hydrocephalus (HC). 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase (FDH) is a key regulator for folate availability and metabolic interconversion for the supply of 1-carbon groups. In previous studies, we found a deficiency of FDH in CSF associated with the developmental deficit in congenital and neonatal HC. In this study, we therefore aimed to investigate the role of FDH in folate transport and metabolism during the brain development of the congenital hydrocephalic Texas (H-Tx) rat and normal (Sprague-Dawley) rats. We show that at embryonic (E) stage E18 and E20, FDH-positive cells and/or vesicles derived from the cortex can bind methyl-folate similarly to folate receptor alpha, the main folate transporter. Hydrocephalic rats expressed diminished nuclear FDH in both liver and brain at all postnatal (P) ages tested (P5, P15, and P20) together with a parallel increase in hepatic nuclear methyl-folate at P5 and cerebral methylfolate at P15 and P20. A similar relationship was found between FDH and 5-methyl cytosine, the main marker for DNA methylation. The data indicated that FDH binds and transports methylfolate in the brain and that decreased liver and brain nuclear expression of FDH is linked with decreased DNA methylation which could be a key factor in the developmental deficits associated with congenital and neonatal HC. Folate deficiency is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as neural tube defects and hydrocephalus. 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate-dehydrogenase (FDH) is a key regulator for folate availability and metabolic interconversion. We show that FDH binds and transports methylfolate in the brain. Moreover, we found that a deficiency of FDH in the nucleus of brain and liver is linked with decreased DNA methylation which could be a key factor in the developmental deficits associated with congenital and

  2. Oxidant injury of caucasian glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase—deficient red blood cells by phagocytosing leukocytes during infection

    PubMed Central

    Baehner, Robert L.; Nathan, David G.; Castle, William B.

    1971-01-01

    Patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency of red blood cells (RBC) may develop sudden hemolytic anemia during infection. Since phagocytizing polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are known to generate hydrogen peroxide, we explored the influence of this oxidant product of PMN on juxtaposed G6PD-deficient and normal RBC. The oxidant stress induced by phagocytosis depleted G6PD-deficient RBC of reduced glutathione (GSH) and this was associated with rapid removal of these cells from the circulation by the liver and spleen. No such effect was observed on normal RBC. Phagocytizing chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) PMN which lack hydrogen peroxide generation, failed to diminish GSH level in G6PD-deficient RBC. Thus, PMN can pose as a source of oxidant damage to G6PD-deficient RBC due to hydrogen peroxide generated during phagocytosis. PMID:5129301

  3. Adaptational modification of serine and threonine metabolism in the liver to essential amino acid deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Kenji; Bannai, Makoto; Seki, Shinobu; Mori, Masato; Takahashi, Michio

    2009-03-01

    It is known that plasma serine and threonine concentrations are elevated in rats chronically fed an essential amino acid deficient diet, but the underlying mechanisms including related gene expressions or serine and threonine concentrations in liver remained to be elucidated. We fed rats lysine or valine deficient diet for 4 weeks and examined the mRNA expressions of serine synthesising (3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, PHGDH) and serine/threonine degrading enzymes (serine dehydratase, SDS) in the liver. Dietary deficiency induced marked elevation of hepatic serine and threonine levels associated with enhancement of PHGDH mRNA expression and repression of SDS mRNA expression. Increases in plasma serine and threonine levels due to essential amino acid deficiency in diet were caused by marked increases in hepatic serine and threonine levels. Proteolytic responses to the amino acid deficiency may be lessened by storing amino radicals as serine and inducing anorexia through elevation of threonine. PMID:18584286

  4. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  5. A novel glutamate dehydrogenase from bovine brain: purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, S W; Cho, S W

    1995-08-01

    A soluble form of novel glutamate dehydrogenase has been purified from bovine brain. The preparation was homogeneous on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and composed of six identical subunits having a subunit size of 57,500 Da. The biochemical properties of glutamate dehydrogenase such as N-terminal amino acids sequences, kinetic parameters, amino acids analysis, and optimum pH were examined in both reductive amination of alpha-ketoglutarate and oxidative deamination of glutamate. N-terminal amino acid sequences of the bovine brain enzyme showed the significant differences in the first 5 amino acids compared to other glutamate dehydrogenases from various sources. These results indicate that glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from bovine brain is a novel polypeptide.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  13. Mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (stomach alcohol dehydrogenase): structure, origin, and correlation with enzymology.

    PubMed Central

    Parés, X; Cederlund, E; Moreno, A; Hjelmqvist, L; Farrés, J; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    The structure of a mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase has been determined by peptide analysis of the protein isolated from rat stomach. The structure indicates that the enzyme constitutes a separate alcohol dehydrogenase class, in agreement with the distinct enzymatic properties; the class IV enzyme is somewhat closer to class I (the "classical" liver alcohol dehydrogenase; approximately 68% residue identities) than to the other classes (II, III, and V; approximately 60% residue identities), suggesting that class IV might have originated through duplication of an early vertebrate class I gene. The activity of the class IV protein toward ethanol is even higher than that of the classical liver enzyme. Both Km and kcat values are high, the latter being the highest of any class characterized so far. Structurally, these properties are correlated with replacements at the active site, affecting both substrate and coenzyme binding. In particular, Ala-294 (instead of valine) results in increased space in the middle section of the substrate cleft, Gly-47 (instead of a basic residue) results in decreased charge interactions with the coenzyme pyrophosphate, and Tyr-363 (instead of a basic residue) may also affect coenzyme binding. In combination, these exchanges are compatible with a promotion of the off dissociation and an increased turnover rate. In contrast, residues at the inner part of the substrate cleft are bulky, accounting for low activity toward secondary alcohols and cyclohexanol. Exchanges at positions 259-261 involve minor shifts in glycine residues at a reverse turn in the coenzyme-binding fold. Clearly, class IV is distinct in structure, ethanol turnover, stomach expression, and possible emergence from class I. PMID:8127901

  14. Factor XII (Hageman factor) deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... takes longer than normal to clot in a test tube. Factor XII deficiency is a rare inherited disorder. Symptoms There are usually no symptoms. Exams and Tests Factor XII deficiency is most often found when ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: pseudocholinesterase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency is a condition that results in increased sensitivity to certain muscle relaxant drugs used during general ... People with pseudocholinesterase deficiency may also have increased sensitivity to certain other drugs, including the local anesthetic ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aydin HI, Sennaroğlu L, Belgin E, Jensen K, Wolf B. Hearing loss in biotinidase deficiency: genotype-phenotype ... corrected to Aydin, Halil Ibrahim]. Citation on PubMed Wolf B. Biotinidase deficiency: "if you have to have ...

  17. Elusive transition state of alcohol dehydrogenase unveiled

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Daniel; Kohen, Amnon

    2010-01-01

    For several decades the hydride transfer catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase has been difficult to understand. Here we add to the large corpus of anomalous and paradoxical data collected for this reaction by measuring a normal (> 1) 2° kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for the reduction of benzaldehyde. Because the relevant equilibrium effect is inverse (< 1), this KIE eludes the traditional interpretation of 2° KIEs. It does, however, enable the development of a comprehensive model for the “tunneling ready state” (TRS) of the reaction that fits into the general scheme of Marcus-like models of hydrogen tunneling. The TRS is the ensemble of states along the intricate reorganization coordinate, where H tunneling between the donor and acceptor occurs (the crossing point in Marcus theory). It is comparable to the effective transition state implied by ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory. Properties of the TRS are approximated as an average of the individual properties of the donor and acceptor states. The model is consistent with experimental findings that previously appeared contradictory; specifically, it resolves the long-standing ambiguity regarding the location of the TRS (aldehyde-like vs. alcohol-like). The new picture of the TRS for this reaction identifies the principal components of the collective reaction coordinate and the average structure of the saddle point along that coordinate. PMID:20457944

  18. Optimization of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-04-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently influence the immobilization efficiency, expressed in terms of residual activity and protein loading. Residual activity of 79% was achieved with ADH from bakers' yeast (YADH) after optimizing the immobilization parameters. A step-wise drying process has been found to be more effective than one-step drying. A hypothesis of deactivation through bubble nucleation during drying of the enzyme/glass bead suspension at low drying pressure (<45 kPa) is experimentally verified. In the case of ADH from Lactobacillus brevis (LBADH), >300% residual activity was found after drying. Hyperactivation of the enzyme is probably caused by structural changes in the enzyme molecule during the drying process. ADH from Thermoanaerobacter species (ADH T) is found to be stable under drying conditions (>15 kPa) in contrast to LBADH and YADH.

  19. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren–Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513–5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106–3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  20. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  1. Targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeo; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; DiNardo, Courtney D; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip

    2016-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG. High levels of 2-HG have been shown to inhibit α-KG dependent dioxygenases, including histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Current targeted inhibitors of IDH1 (AG120, IDH305), IDH2 (AG221), and pan-IDH1/2 (AG881) selectively inhibit mutant IDH protein and induce cell differentiation in in vitro and in vivo models. Preliminary results from phase I clinical trials with IDH inhibitors in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated an objective response rate ranging from 31% to 40% with durable responses (>1 year) observed. Furthermore, the IDH inhibitors have demonstrated early signals of activity in solid tumors with IDH mutations, including cholangiocarcinomas and low grade gliomas. PMID:27355333

  2. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John J

    2015-12-01

    Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2), Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2), hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1), γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1), methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1), pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1), and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1). We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015) 5513-5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013) 3106-3120). Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs. PMID:26693506

  3. Malic dehydrogenase locus of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Smith-Sonneborn, J

    1980-04-01

    A search was undertaken for naturally occurring genetic markers for use in clonal aging studies of Paramecium tetraurelia. Clonal age is defined as the number of cell divisions since the last sexual process. Autogamy (self-fertilization) is a sexual process which can occur in aging lines, resulting in homozygosity and initiation of the next generation. Such "illicit" autogamies must be detected and eliminated from the aged clone. With codominant alleles, heterozygous aging lines can be established which will express a phenotype distinguishable from that of either parental type and autogamy can then be monitored by the appearance of either segregant homozygous phenotype. However, very few codominant alleles are available in this species. Electrophoretic mobilities of malic dehydrogenase (MDH) were assayed in 11 stocks of Paramecium tetraurelia by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nine stocks showed a single-banded "stock 51" type, while stock 174 and stock 29 each exhibited unique mobility. Crosses between stock 51 and the deviant stocks revealed distinct three-banded patterns indicative of heterozygosity of the F1 generation. In the autogamous F2 generation, 1:1 segregation of the parental types were recovered. The pattern of inheritance is consistent with codominant alleles and Mendelian inheritance. These naturally occurring biochemical markers are stable with increasing clonal age and are therefore useful genetic markers for studies of cellular aging. PMID:6934772

  4. Lactic dehydrogenase and cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Monica; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Daniele; Calogero, Armando; Naviglio, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the intense scientific efforts made, there are still many tumors that are difficult to treat and the percentage of patient survival in the long-term is still too low. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of cancer are needed. Cancer is a highly heterogeneous and complex disease, whose development requires a reorganization of cell metabolism. Most tumor cells downregulate mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and increase the rate of glucose consumption and lactate release, independently of oxygen availability (Warburg effect). This metabolic rewiring is largely believed to favour tumor growth and survival, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Importantly, the correlation between the aerobic glycolysis and cancer is widely regarded as a useful biochemical basis for the development of novel anticancer strategies. Among the enzymes involved in glycolysis, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is emerging as a very attractive target for possible pharmacological approaches in cancer therapy. This review addresses the state of the art and the perspectives concerning LDH both as a useful diagnostic marker and a relevant molecular target in cancer therapy and management.

  5. Succinate Dehydrogenase Loss in Familial Paraganglioma: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Her, Yeng F.; Maher, L. James

    2015-01-01

    It is counterintuitive that metabolic defects reducing ATP production can cause, rather than protect from, cancer. Yet this is precisely the case for familial paraganglioma, a form of neuroendocrine malignancy caused by loss of succinate dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we review biochemical, genetic, and epigenetic considerations in succinate dehydrogenase loss and present leading models and mysteries associated with this fascinating and important tumor. PMID:26294907

  6. [Activity of NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase in wheat leaves under water stress].

    PubMed

    Cherniad'ev, I I; Monakhova, O F

    2006-01-01

    The activities of NADP: glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), an enzyme complex comprising of phosphoglycerate kinase (EC 2.7.2.3) and glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.13), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPK; EC 4.1.1.31) in seedlings and leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants of the cultivars Mironovskaya 808 and Lutescens 758 have been compared under conditions of normal water supply, water deficiency, and subsequent rehydration. GAPDH activity, which determines the carbohydrate route of photosynthetic metabolism at the initial stages, is decreased by water stress to a greater extent than that of PEPK, on the activity of which non-carbohydrate metabolic pathways depend. Pretreatment of seedlings and mature plants with natural (6-benzylaminopurine) and synthetic (tidiazuron, kartolin-2, and kartolin-4) cytokinins attenuates the loss of enzyme activities during drought and facilitates their recovery within the period of rehydration; both effects are underlain by augmentation of reparation processes. The relative intensification of non-carbohydrate pathways of photosynthetic metabolism, observed under conditions of water deficiency, is accompanied by an increase in the osmotic pressure of cell sap. Possible mechanisms of this protector effect of cytokinin preparations are discussed. PMID:16878554

  7. [α1-Antitrypsin deficiency].

    PubMed

    Hirai, Toyohiro

    2016-05-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is the commonest genetic risk factor for developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In 2015, AATD has been categorized as one of intractable diseases called "Nanbyo" in Japan. The prevalence of AATD is extremely low in Japanese compared with Caucasians in North America and Europe. According to recent nationwide epidemiological survey, the prevalence of AATD in Japan was estimated to be 24 patients with a 95% confidence interval. The mutation PI*S(iiyama) is commonly found in the Japanese patients with AATD, whereas PI*Z is the most frequent mutation associated with severe deficiency in Caucasians. The availability of AAT augmentation therapy in Japan is expected. This paper reviews the diagnosis and treatment in AATD. PMID:27254961

  8. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    PubMed

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  9. The structure of the quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of Acetobacter aceti modelled on that of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium extorquens.

    PubMed

    Cozier, G E; Giles, I G; Anthony, C

    1995-06-01

    The 1.94 A structure of methanol dehydrogenase has been used to provide a model structure for part of a membrane quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase. The basic superbarrel structure and the active-site region are retained, indicating essentially similar mechanisms of action, but there are considerable differences in the external loops, particularly those involved in formation of the shallow funnel leading to the active site.

  10. Dimethylglycine Deficiency and the Development of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Thomas J.; Clish, Clary; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Peter; Gerszten, Robert E.; Melander, Olle

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested possible protective effects of dimethylglycine (DMG) on glucose metabolism. DMG is degraded to glycine through a DMG-dehydrogenase (DMGDH)-catalyzed reaction, and this is the only known pathway for the breakdown of DMG in mammals. In this study, we aimed to identify the strongest genetic determinant of circulating DMG concentration and to investigate its associations with metabolic traits and incident diabetes. In the cohort with full metabolomics data (n = 709), low plasma levels of DMG were significantly associated with higher blood glucose levels (P = 3.9E–4). In the genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the discovery cohort (n = 5,205), the strongest genetic signal of plasma DMG was conferred by rs2431332 at the DMGDH locus, where the major allele was associated with lower DMG levels (P = 2.5E–15). The same genetic variant (major allele of rs2431332) was also significantly associated with higher plasma insulin (P = 0.019), increased HOMA insulin resistance (P = 0.019), and an increased risk of incident diabetes (P = 0.001) in the pooled analysis of the discovery cohort together with the two replication cohorts (n = 20,698 and n = 7,995). These data are consistent with a possible causal role of DMG deficiency in diabetes development and encourage future studies examining if inhibition of DMGDH, or alternatively, supplementation of DMG, might prove useful for the treatment/prevention of diabetes. PMID:25795213

  11. ald of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes both the alanine dehydrogenase and the putative glycine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Giffin, Michelle M; Modesti, Lucia; Raab, Ronald W; Wayne, Lawrence G; Sohaskey, Charles D

    2012-03-01

    The putative glycine dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the reductive amination of glyoxylate to glycine but not the reverse reaction. The enzyme was purified and identified as the previously characterized alanine dehydrogenase. The Ald enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and had both pyruvate and glyoxylate aminating activities. The gene, ald, was inactivated in M. tuberculosis, which resulted in the loss of all activities. Both enzyme activities were found associated with the cell and were not detected in the extracellular filtrate. By using an anti-Ald antibody, the protein was localized to the cell membrane, with a smaller fraction in the cytosol. None was detected in the extracellular medium. The ald knockout strain grew without alanine or glycine and was able to utilize glycine but not alanine as a nitrogen source. Transcription of ald was induced when alanine was the sole nitrogen source, and higher levels of Ald enzyme were measured. Ald is proposed to have several functions, including ammonium incorporation and alanine breakdown.

  12. Stringency of substrate specificity of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase.

    SciTech Connect

    Boernke, W. E.; Millard, C. S.; Stevens, P. W.; Kakar, S. N.; Stevens, F. J.; Donnelly, M. I.; Nebraska Wesleyan Univ.

    1995-09-10

    Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase are members of the structurally and functionally homologous family of 2-ketoacid dehydrogenases. Both enzymes display high specificity for their respective keto substrates, oxaloacetate and pyruvate. Closer analysis of their specificity, however, reveals that the specificity of malate dehydrogenase is much stricter and less malleable than that of lactate dehydrogenase. Site-specific mutagenesis of the two enzymes in an attempt to reverse their specificity has met with contrary results. Conversion of a specific active-site glutamine to arginine in lactate dehydrogenase from Bacillus stearothermophilus generated an enzyme that displayed activity toward oxaloacetate equal to that of the native enzyme toward pyruvate (H. M. Wilks et al. (1988) Science 242, 1541-1544). We have constructed a series of mutants in the mobile, active site loop of the Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase that incorporate the complementary change, conversion of arginine 81 to glutamine, to evaluate the role of charge distribution and conformational flexibility within this loop in defining the substrate specificity of these enzymes. Mutants incorporating the change R81Q all had reversed specificity, displaying much higher activity toward pyruvate than to the natural substrate, oxaloacetate. In contrast to the mutated lactate dehydrogenase, these reversed-specificity mutants were much less active than the native enzyme. Secondary mutations within the loop of the E. coli enzyme (A80N, A80P, A80P/M85E/D86T) had either no or only moderately beneficial effects on the activity of the mutant enzyme toward pyruvate. The mutation A80P, which can be expected to reduce the overall flexibility of the loop, modestly improved activity toward pyruvate. The possible physiological relevance of the stringent specificity of malate dehydrogenase was investigated. In normal strains of E. coli, fermentative metabolism was not affected by expression of the mutant

  13. Yeast Alcohol Dehydrogenase Structure and Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) alcohol dehydrogenase I (ADH1) is the constitutive enzyme that reduces acetaldehyde to ethanol during the fermentation of glucose. ADH1 is a homotetramer of subunits with 347 amino acid residues. A structure for ADH1 was determined by X-ray crystallography at 2.4 Å resolution. The asymmetric unit contains four different subunits, arranged as similar dimers named AB and CD. The unit cell contains two different tetramers made up of “back-to-back” dimers, AB:AB and CD:CD. The A and C subunits in each dimer are structurally similar, with a closed conformation, bound coenzyme, and the oxygen of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol ligated to the catalytic zinc in the classical tetrahedral coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, and His-66. In contrast, the B and D subunits have an open conformation with no bound coenzyme, and the catalytic zinc has an alternative, inverted coordination with Cys-43, Cys-153, His-66, and the carboxylate of Glu-67. The asymmetry in the dimeric subunits of the tetramer provides two structures that appear to be relevant for the catalytic mechanism. The alternative coordination of the zinc may represent an intermediate in the mechanism of displacement of the zinc-bound water with alcohol or aldehyde substrates. Substitution of Glu-67 with Gln-67 decreases the catalytic efficiency by 100-fold. Previous studies of structural modeling, evolutionary relationships, substrate specificity, chemical modification, and site-directed mutagenesis are interpreted more fully with the three-dimensional structure. PMID:25157460

  14. Structural Studies of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of Mg(2+) and thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) followed by the rate-limiting reductive acetylation of the lipoyl moiety linked to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The three-dimensional structure of human E1 is elucidated using the methods of macromolecular X-ray crystallography. The structure is an alpha, alpha', beta and beta' tetramer with the protein units being in the tetrahedral arrangement. Each 361-residue alpha-subunit and 329-residue beta-subunit is composed of a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helical domains. Each subunit is in extensive contact with all the three subunits involving TPP and magnesium cofactors, and potassium ions. The two binding sites for TPP are at the alpha-beta' and alpha'-beta interfaces, each involving a magnesium ion and Phe6l, His63, Tyr89, and Met200 from the alpha-subunit (or alpha'-subunit), and Met81 Phe85, His128 from the beta-subunit (or beta'-subunit). K+ ions are nestled between two beta-sheets and the end of an alpha-helix in each beta-subunit, where they are coordinated by four carbonyl oxygen groups from Ile12, Ala160, Asp163, and Asnl65, and a water molecule. The catalytic C2 carbon of thiazolium ring in this structure forms a 3.2 A contact with a water molecule involved in a series of H-bonds with other water molecules, and indirectly with amino acids including those involved in the catalysis and regulation of the enzyme.

  15. Iron-Deficiency Anemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron-Deficiency Anemia KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron-Deficiency Anemia Print A ... common nutritional deficiency in children. About Iron-Deficiency Anemia Every red blood cell in the body contains ...

  16. Human mutations in methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 impair nuclear de novo thymidylate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Field, Martha S; Kamynina, Elena; Watkins, David; Rosenblatt, David S; Stover, Patrick J

    2015-01-13

    An inborn error of metabolism associated with mutations in the human methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1 (MTHFD1) gene has been identified. The proband presented with SCID, megaloblastic anemia, and neurologic abnormalities, but the causal metabolic impairment is unknown. SCID has been associated with impaired purine nucleotide metabolism, whereas megaloblastic anemia has been associated with impaired de novo thymidylate (dTMP) biosynthesis. MTHFD1 functions to condense formate with tetrahydrofolate and serves as the primary entry point of single carbons into folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism in the cytosol. In this study, we examined the impact of MTHFD1 loss of function on folate-dependent purine, dTMP, and methionine biosynthesis in fibroblasts from the proband with MTHFD1 deficiency. The flux of formate incorporation into methionine and dTMP was decreased by 90% and 50%, respectively, whereas formate flux through de novo purine biosynthesis was unaffected. Patient fibroblasts exhibited enriched MTHFD1 in the nucleus, elevated uracil in DNA, lower rates of de novo dTMP synthesis, and increased salvage pathway dTMP biosynthesis relative to control fibroblasts. These results provide evidence that impaired nuclear de novo dTMP biosynthesis can lead to both megaloblastic anemia and SCID in MTHFD1 deficiency.

  17. Aldosterone impairs vascular reactivity by decreasing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Jane A.; Dam, Aamir; Maron, Bradley A.; Scribner, Anne W.; Liao, Ronglih; Handy, Diane E.; Stanton, Robert C.; Pitt, Bertram; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Hyperaldosteronism is associated with impaired vascular reactivity; however, the mechanism by which aldosterone promotes endothelial dysfunction remains unknown. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd), the principal source of Nadph, modulates vascular function by limiting oxidant stress to preserve bioavailable nitric oxide (NO•). In these studies, we show that aldosterone (10−9-10−7 mol/l) decreases endothelial G6pd expression and activity in vitro resulting in increased oxidant stress and decreased cGMP levels similar to what is observed in G6pd-deficient cells. Aldosterone decreases G6pd expression by protein kinase A activation to increase expression of Crem, which interferes with Creb binding to the G6pd promoter. In vivo, infusion of aldosterone decreases vascular G6pd expression and impairs vascular reactivity. These effects are abrogated by spironolactone or vascular gene transfer of G6pd. These studies demonstrate that aldosterone induces a G6pd-deficient phenotype to impair endothelial function; aldosterone antagonism or gene transfer of G6pd improves vascular reactivity by restoring G6pd activity. PMID:17273168

  18. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. PMID:25419131

  19. Chronic alcoholism in rats induces a compensatory response, preserving brain thiamine diphosphate, but the brain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases are inactivated despite unchanged coenzyme levels.

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, Yulia M; Kudryavtsev, Pavel A; Pylypchuk, Svetlana Yu; Chekhivska, Lilia I; Stepanenko, Svetlana P; Sergiichuk, Andrej A; Bunik, Victoria I

    2011-06-01

    Thiamine-dependent changes in alcoholic brain were studied using a rat model. Brain thiamine and its mono- and diphosphates were not reduced after 20 weeks of alcohol exposure. However, alcoholism increased both synaptosomal thiamine uptake and thiamine diphosphate synthesis in brain, pointing to mechanisms preserving thiamine diphosphate in the alcoholic brain. In spite of the unchanged level of the coenzyme thiamine diphosphate, activities of the mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate and pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes decreased in alcoholic brain. The inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was caused by its increased phosphorylation. The inactivation of 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC) correlated with a decrease in free thiols resulting from an elevation of reactive oxygen species. Abstinence from alcohol following exposure to alcohol reactivated OGDHC along with restoration of the free thiol content. However, restoration of enzyme activity occurred before normalization of reactive oxygen species levels. Hence, the redox status of cellular thiols mediates the action of oxidative stress on OGDHC in alcoholic brain. As a result, upon chronic alcohol consumption, physiological mechanisms to counteract the thiamine deficiency and silence pyruvate dehydrogenase are activated in rat brain, whereas OGDHC is inactivated due to impaired antioxidant ability.

  20. Different effects of ascorbate deprivation and classical vascular nitrate tolerance on aldehyde dehydrogenase-catalysed bioactivation of nitroglycerin

    PubMed Central

    Wenzl, MV; Wölkart, G; Stessel, H; Beretta, M; Schmidt, K; Mayer, B

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Vascular tolerance to nitroglycerin (GTN) may be caused by impaired GTN bioactivation due to inactivation of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). As relaxation to GTN is reduced but still sensitive to ALDH2 inhibitors in ascorbate deficiency, we compared the contribution of ALDH2 inactivation to GTN hyposensitivity in ascorbate deficiency and classical in vivo nitrate tolerance. Experimental approach: Guinea pigs were fed standard or ascorbate-free diet for 2 weeks. Reversibility was tested by feeding ascorbate-deficient animals standard diet for 1 week. Nitrate tolerance was induced by subcutaneous injection of 50 mg·kg−1 GTN 4 times daily for 3 days. Ascorbate levels were determined in plasma, blood vessels, heart and liver. GTN-induced relaxation was measured as isometric tension of aortic rings; vascular GTN biotransformation was assayed as formation of 1,2-and 1,3-glyceryl dinitrate (GDN). Key results: Two weeks of ascorbate deprivation had no effect on relaxation to nitric oxide but reduced the potency of GTN ∼10-fold in a fully reversible manner. GTN-induced relaxation was similarly reduced in nitrate tolerance but not further attenuated by ALDH inhibitors. Nitrate tolerance reduced ascorbate plasma levels without affecting ascorbate in blood vessels, liver and heart. GTN denitration was significantly diminished in nitrate-tolerant and ascorbate-deficient rings. However, while the ∼10-fold preferential 1,2-GDN formation, indicative for active ALDH2, had been retained in ascorbate deficiency, selectivity was largely lost in nitrate tolerance. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that nitrate tolerance is associated with ALDH2 inactivation, whereas ascorbate deficiency possibly results in down-regulation of ALDH2 expression. PMID:19254277

  1. SNL Mechanical Computer Aided Design (MCAD) guide 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Brandon; Pollice, Stephanie L.; Martinez, Jack R.

    2007-12-01

    This document is considered a mechanical design best-practice guide to new and experienced designers alike. The contents consist of topics related to using Computer Aided Design (CAD) software, performing basic analyses, and using configuration management. The details specific to a particular topic have been leveraged against existing Product Realization Standard (PRS) and Technical Business Practice (TBP) requirements while maintaining alignment with sound engineering and design practices. This document is to be considered dynamic in that subsequent updates will be reflected in the main title, and each update will be published on an annual basis.

  2. Retinoic acid deficiency alters second heart field formation.

    PubMed

    Ryckebusch, Lucile; Wang, Zengxin; Bertrand, Nicolas; Lin, Song-Chang; Chi, Xuan; Schwartz, Robert; Zaffran, Stéphane; Niederreither, Karen

    2008-02-26

    Retinoic acid (RA), the active derivative of vitamin A, has been implicated in various steps of cardiovascular development. The retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) enzyme catalyzes the second oxidative step in RA biosynthesis and its loss of function creates a severe embryonic RA deficiency. Raldh2(-/-) knockout embryos fail to undergo heart looping and have impaired atrial and sinus venosus development. To understand the mechanism(s) producing these changes, we examined the contribution of the second heart field (SHF) to pharyngeal mesoderm, atria, and outflow tract in Raldh2(-/-) embryos. RA deficiency alters SHF gene expression in two ways. First, Raldh2(-/-) embryos exhibited a posterior expansion of anterior markers of the SHF, including Tbx1, Fgf8, and the Mlc1v-nlacZ-24/Fgf10 reporter transgene as well as of Islet1. This occurred at early somite stages, when cardiac defects became irreversible in an avian vitamin A-deficiency model, indicating that endogenous RA is required to restrict the SHF posteriorly. Explant studies showed that this expanded progenitor population cannot differentiate properly. Second, RA up-regulated cardiac Bmp expression levels at the looping stage. The contribution of the SHF to both inflow and outflow poles was perturbed under RA deficiency, creating a disorganization of the heart tube. We also investigated genetic cross-talk between Nkx2.5 and RA signaling by generating double mutant mice. Strikingly, Nkx2.5 deficiency was able to rescue molecular defects in the posterior region of the Raldh2(-/-) mutant heart, in a gene dosage-dependent manner. PMID:18287057

  3. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Roe, C R.; Yang, B-Z; Brunengraber, H; Roe, D S.; Wallace, M; Garritson, B K.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is an important cause of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in children and adults. Current treatment includes dietary fat restriction, with increased carbohydrate intake and exercise restriction to avoid muscle pain and rhabdomyolysis. Methods: CPT II enzyme assay, DNA mutation analysis, quantitative analysis of acylcarnitines in blood and cultured fibroblasts, urinary organic acids, the standardized 36-item Short-Form Health Status survey (SF-36) version 2, and bioelectric impedance for body fat composition. Diet treatment with triheptanoin at 30% to 35% of total daily caloric intake was used for all patients. Results: Seven patients with CPT II deficiency were studied from 7 to 61 months on the triheptanoin (anaplerotic) diet. Five had previous episodes of rhabdomyolysis requiring hospitalizations and muscle pain on exertion prior to the diet (two younger patients had not had rhabdomyolysis). While on the diet, only two patients experienced mild muscle pain with exercise. During short periods of noncompliance, two patients experienced rhabdomyolysis with exercise. None experienced rhabdomyolysis or hospitalizations while on the diet. All patients returned to normal physical activities including strenuous sports. Exercise restriction was eliminated. Previously abnormal SF-36 physical composite scores returned to normal levels that persisted for the duration of the therapy in all five symptomatic patients. Conclusions: The triheptanoin diet seems to be an effective therapy for adult-onset carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency. GLOSSARY ALT = alanine aminotransferase; AST = aspartate aminotransferase; ATP = adenosine triphosphate; BHP = β-hydroxypentanoate; BKP = β-ketopentanoate; BKP-CoA = β-ketopentanoyl–coenzyme A; BUN = blood urea nitrogen; CAC = citric acid cycle; CoA = coenzyme A; CPK = creatine phosphokinase; CPT II = carnitine palmitoyltransferase II; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; MCT

  4. Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Young, R C; Blass, J P

    1982-01-01

    This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been

  5. Disialotransferrin developmental deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansson, B; Andersson, M; Tonnby, B; Hagberg, B

    1989-01-01

    Seven mentally deficient children and adolescents (three pairs of siblings and one singleton) were studied. A peculiar external appearance, a characteristic neurohepatosubcutaneous tissue impairment syndrome and, as a biological marker, an abnormal sialic acid transferrin pattern were characteristic features. All seven seemed odd from birth and prone to acute cerebral dysfunction during catabolic states. Abnormal lower neurone, cerebellar, and retinal functions dominated from later childhood. The disialotransferrin pattern found in serum and cerebrospinal fluid is thought to be the biological marker of a newly discovered inborn error of glycoprotein metabolism with autosomal recessive inheritance. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 p74-b PMID:2466439

  6. Antithrombin deficiency in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Durai, Shivani; Tan, Lay Kok; Lim, Serene

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 39-year-old, gravida 3 para 2, Chinese female with a history of inherited type 1 Antithrombin deficiency and multiple prior episodes of venous thromboembolism. She presented at 29+4 weeks' gestation with severe pre-eclampsia complicated by haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. She subsequently underwent an emergency caesarean section for non-reassuring fetal status, which was complicated by postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony, requiring a B-Lynch suture intraoperatively. PMID:27207982

  7. Acute haemolytic anaemia and myolysis due to G6PD deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mangat, Chetna; Inoue, Susumu; Saah, Elna; Sharman, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    A 2-year-old African-American male patient with sickle cell trait developed cough, red coloured urine, pallor and fatigue. The patient was hospitalised. Diagnostic workup showed that he was glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient in erythrocytes. He also had chest X-ray findings of pneumonia. His urine examination showed the presence of haemoglobin and myoglobin. On repeated questioning it was found that he had a moth ball in his mouth a few days prior to this medical episode. This case illustrates a rarely described complication of myolysis in G6PD deficient persons on exposure to a strong oxidant. A review of the literature showed that most people with G6PD deficiency tolerate exercise well without untoward effect in muscles. However, assay of myoglobin in urine has not been routinely performed in these patients during acute haemolytic episode, and thus it is uncertain how frequent myoglobulinaemia occurs in a similar stress situation. PMID:25234071

  8. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase I deficiency presenting as maternal illness in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Innes, A M; Seargeant, L E; Balachandra, K; Roe, C R; Wanders, R J; Ruiter, J P; Casiro, O; Grewar, D A; Greenberg, C R

    2000-01-01

    The spectrum of clinical presentation of fatty acid oxidation defects (FAOD) continues to expand. One FAOD, L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency has been associated with liver disease in pregnancies involving a heterozygous mother carrying an affected fetus. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) deficiency typically presents as a Reyelike syndrome in children between 8 and 18 mo. of age. We have investigated a family in which the mother developed liver disease consistent with acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) and hyperemesis gravidarum in her two successive pregnancies. Neither child nor their mother was found to carry the common LCHAD G1528C mutation. Both children were subsequently shown to have absent activity of CPT I. This is the first report of CPT I deficiency presenting as maternal illness in pregnancy.

  9. Rearrangement of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase protein-protein interactions by the MDM2 ligand nutlin-3.

    PubMed

    Way, Luke; Faktor, Jakub; Dvorakova, Petra; Nicholson, Judith; Vojtesek, Borek; Graham, Duncan; Ball, Kathryn L; Hupp, Ted

    2016-09-01

    Drugs targeting MDM2's hydrophobic pocket activate p53. However, these agents act allosterically and have agonist effects on MDM2's protein interaction landscape. Dominant p53-independent MDM2-drug responsive-binding proteins have not been stratified. We used as a variable the differential expression of MDM2 protein as a function of cell density to identify Nutlin-3 responsive MDM2-binding proteins that are perturbed independent of cell density using SWATH-MS. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, the E3 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, was one of two Nutlin-3 perturbed proteins identified fours hour posttreatment at two cell densities. Immunoblotting confirmed that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase was induced by Nutlin-3. Depletion of MDM2 using siRNA also elevated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in Nutlin-3 treated cells. Mitotracker confirmed that Nutlin-3 inhibits mitochondrial activity. Enrichment of mitochondria using TOM22+ immunobeads and TMT labeling defined key changes in the mitochondrial proteome after Nutlin-3 treatment. Proximity ligation identified rearrangements of cellular protein-protein complexes in situ. In response to Nutlin-3, a reduction of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase/dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase protein complexes highlighted a disruption of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This coincides with an increase in MDM2/dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase complexes in the nucleus that was further enhanced by the nuclear export inhibitor Leptomycin B. The data suggest one therapeutic impact of MDM2 drugs might be on the early perturbation of specific protein-protein interactions within the mitochondria. This methodology forms a blueprint for biomarker discovery that can identify rearrangements of MDM2 protein-protein complexes in drug-treated cells. PMID:27273042

  10. Rearrangement of mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase protein–protein interactions by the MDM2 ligand nutlin‐3

    PubMed Central

    Way, Luke; Faktor, Jakub; Dvorakova, Petra; Nicholson, Judith; Vojtesek, Borek; Graham, Duncan; Ball, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Drugs targeting MDM2's hydrophobic pocket activate p53. However, these agents act allosterically and have agonist effects on MDM2's protein interaction landscape. Dominant p53‐independent MDM2‐drug responsive‐binding proteins have not been stratified. We used as a variable the differential expression of MDM2 protein as a function of cell density to identify Nutlin‐3 responsive MDM2‐binding proteins that are perturbed independent of cell density using SWATH‐MS. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, the E3 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, was one of two Nutlin‐3 perturbed proteins identified fours hour posttreatment at two cell densities. Immunoblotting confirmed that dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase was induced by Nutlin‐3. Depletion of MDM2 using siRNA also elevated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase in Nutlin‐3 treated cells. Mitotracker confirmed that Nutlin‐3 inhibits mitochondrial activity. Enrichment of mitochondria using TOM22+ immunobeads and TMT labeling defined key changes in the mitochondrial proteome after Nutlin‐3 treatment. Proximity ligation identified rearrangements of cellular protein–protein complexes in situ. In response to Nutlin‐3, a reduction of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase/dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase protein complexes highlighted a disruption of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. This coincides with an increase in MDM2/dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase complexes in the nucleus that was further enhanced by the nuclear export inhibitor Leptomycin B. The data suggest one therapeutic impact of MDM2 drugs might be on the early perturbation of specific protein–protein interactions within the mitochondria. This methodology forms a blueprint for biomarker discovery that can identify rearrangements of MDM2 protein–protein complexes in drug‐treated cells. PMID:27273042

  11. Dehydrogenase activity of forest soils depends on the assay used

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januszek, Kazimierz; Długa, Joanna; Socha, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenases are exclusively intracellular enzymes, which play an important role in the initial stages of oxidation of soil organic matter. One of the most frequently used methods to estimate dehydrogenase activity in soil is based on the use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an artificial electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of dehydrogenases of forest soils with varied physicochemical properties using different triphenyltetrazolium chloride assays. The determination was carried out using the original procedure by Casida et al., a modification of the procedure which involves the use of Ca(OH)2 instead of CaCO3, the Thalmann method, and the assay by Casida et al. without addition of buffer or any salt. Soil dehydrogenase activity depended on the assay used. Dehydrogenase determined by the Casida et al. method without addition of buffer or any salt correlated with the pH values of soils. The autoclaved strongly acidic samples of control soils showed high concentrations of triphenylformazan, probably due to chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride. There is, therefore, a need for a sterilization method other than autoclaving, ie a process that results in significant changes in soil properties, thus helping to increase the chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  12. Characterization and purification of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase from Methanosarcina barkeri.

    PubMed Central

    Krzycki, J A; Zeikus, J G

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-dependent production of H2, CO2, and CH4 was detected in crude cell extracts of acetate-grown Methanosarcina barkeri. This metabolic transformation was associated with an active methyl viologen-linked CO dehydrogenase activity (5 to 10 U/mg of protein). Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity was inhibited 85% by 10 microM KCN and was rapidly inactivated by O2. The enzyme was nearly homogeneous after 20-fold purification, indicating that a significant proportion of soluble cell protein was CO dehydrogenase (ca. 5%). The native purified enzyme displayed a molecular weight of 232,000 and a two-subunit composition of 92,000 and 18,000 daltons. The enzyme was shown to contain nickel by isolation of radioactive CO dehydrogenase from cells grown in 63Ni. Analysis of enzyme kinetic properties revealed an apparent Km of 5 mM for CO and a Vmax of 1,300 U/mg of protein. The spectral properties of the enzyme were similar to those published for CO dehydrogenase from acetogenic anaerobes. The physiological functions of the enzyme are discussed. Images PMID:6425262

  13. Interaction of carbohydrates with alcohol dehydrogenase: Effect on enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swati B; Bankar, Sandip B; Granström, Tom; Ojamo, Heikki; Singhal, Rekha S; Survase, Shrikant A

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was covalently conjugated with three different oxidized carbohydrates i.e., glucose, starch and pectin. All the carbohydrates inhibited the enzyme. The inhibition was studied with respect to the inhibition rate constant, involvement of thiol groups in the binding, and structural changes in the enzyme. The enzyme activity decreased to half of its original activity at the concentration of 2 mg/mL of pectin, 4 mg/mL of glucose and 10 mg/mL of starch within 10 min at pH 7. This study showed oxidized pectin to be a potent inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase followed by glucose and starch. Along with the aldehyde-amino group interaction, thiol groups were also involved in the binding between alcohol dehydrogenase and carbohydrates. The structural changes occurring on binding of alcohol dehydrogenase with oxidized carbohydrates was also confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Oxidized carbohydrates could thus be used as potential inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase.

  14. Crystal Structure of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase: NAD[superscript +]/NADH Binding and the Structural Basis of Disease-causing Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Tomchick, Diana R.; Machius, Mischa; Chuang, David T.

    2010-07-13

    Human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (hE3) is an enzymatic component common to the mitochondrial {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase and glycine decarboxylase complexes. Mutations to this homodimeric flavoprotein cause the often-fatal human disease known as E3 deficiency. To catalyze the oxidation of dihydrolipoamide, hE3 uses two molecules: noncovalently bound FAD and a transiently bound substrate, NAD{sup +}. To address the catalytic mechanism of hE3 and the structural basis for E3 deficiency, the crystal structures of hE3 in the presence of NAD{sup +} or NADH have been determined at resolutions of 2.5 {angstrom} and 2.1 {angstrom}, respectively. Although the overall fold of the enzyme is similar to that of yeast E3, these two structures differ at two loops that protrude from the proteins and at their FAD-binding sites. The structure of oxidized hE3 with NAD{sup +} bound demonstrates that the nicotinamide moiety is not proximal to the FAD. When NADH is present, however, the nicotinamide base stacks directly on the isoalloxazine ring system of the FAD. This is the first time that this mechanistically requisite conformation of NAD{sup +} or NADH has been observed in E3 from any species. Because E3 structures were previously available only from unicellular organisms, speculations regarding the molecular mechanisms of E3 deficiency were based on homology models. The current hE3 structures show directly that the disease-causing mutations occur at three locations in the human enzyme: the dimer interface, the active site, and the FAD and NAD{sup +}-binding sites. The mechanisms by which these mutations impede the function of hE3 are discussed.

  15. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, J B; Contempré, B; Duale, N L; Deckx, H; Bebe, N; Longombé, A O; Thilly, C H; Diplock, A T; Dumont, J E

    1993-02-01

    Studies were performed to assess the role of combined selenium and iodine deficiency in the etiology of endemic myxedematous cretinism in a population in Zaire. One effect of selenium deficiency may be to lower glutathione peroxidase activity in the thyroid gland, thus allowing hydrogen peroxide produced during thyroid hormone synthesis to be cytotoxic. In selenium-and-iodine-deficient humans, selenium supplementation may aggravate hypothyroidism by stimulating thyroxin metabolism by the selenoenzyme type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. Selenium supplementation is thus not indicated without iodine or thyroid hormone supplementation in cases of combined selenium and iodine deficiencies.

  16. Selenium deficiency mitigates hypothyroxinemia in iodine-deficient subjects.

    PubMed

    Vanderpas, J B; Contempré, B; Duale, N L; Deckx, H; Bebe, N; Longombé, A O; Thilly, C H; Diplock, A T; Dumont, J E

    1993-02-01

    Studies were performed to assess the role of combined selenium and iodine deficiency in the etiology of endemic myxedematous cretinism in a population in Zaire. One effect of selenium deficiency may be to lower glutathione peroxidase activity in the thyroid gland, thus allowing hydrogen peroxide produced during thyroid hormone synthesis to be cytotoxic. In selenium-and-iodine-deficient humans, selenium supplementation may aggravate hypothyroidism by stimulating thyroxin metabolism by the selenoenzyme type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase. Selenium supplementation is thus not indicated without iodine or thyroid hormone supplementation in cases of combined selenium and iodine deficiencies. PMID:8427203

  17. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase polymorphisms and susceptibility to mild malaria in Dogon and Fulani, Mali

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is associated with protection from severe malaria, and potentially uncomplicated malaria phenotypes. It has been documented that G6PD deficiency in sub-Saharan Africa is due to the 202A/376G G6PD A-allele, and association studies have used genotyping as a convenient technique for epidemiological studies. However, recent studies have shown discrepancies in G6PD202/376 associations with severe malaria. There is evidence to suggest that other G6PD deficiency alleles may be common in some regions of West Africa, and that allelic heterogeneity could explain these discrepancies. Methods A cross-sectional epidemiological study of malaria susceptibility was conducted during 2006 and 2007 in the Sahel meso-endemic malaria zone of Mali. The study included Dogon (n = 375) and Fulani (n = 337) sympatric ethnic groups, where the latter group is characterized by lower susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fifty-three G6PD polymorphisms, including 202/376, were genotyped across the 712 samples. Evidence of association of these G6PD polymorphisms and mild malaria was assessed in both ethnic groups using genotypic and haplotypic statistical tests. Results It was confirmed that the Fulani are less susceptible to malaria, and the 202A mutation is rare in this group (< 1% versus Dogon 7.9%). The Betica-Selma 968C/376G (~11% enzymatic activity) was more common in Fulani (6.1% vs Dogon 0.0%). There are differences in haplotype frequencies between Dogon and Fulani, and association analysis did not reveal strong evidence of protective G6PD genetic effects against uncomplicated malaria in both ethnic groups and gender. However, there was some evidence of increased risk of mild malaria in Dogon with the 202A mutation, attaining borderline statistical significance in females. The rs915942 polymorphism was found to be associated with asymptomatic malaria in Dogon females, and the rs61042368 polymorphism was

  19. Familial apolipoprotein E deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, E J; Gregg, R E; Ghiselli, G; Forte, T M; Ordovas, J M; Zech, L A; Brewer, H B

    1986-01-01

    A unique kindred with premature cardiovascular disease, tubo-eruptive xanthomas, and type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) associated with familial apolipoprotein (apo) E deficiency was examined. Homozygotes (n = 4) had marked increases in cholesterol-rich very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL), which could be effectively lowered with diet and medication (niacin, clofibrate). Homozygotes had only trace amounts of plasma apoE, and accumulations of apoB-48 and apoA-IV in VLDL, IDL, and low density lipoproteins. Radioiodinated VLDL apoB and apoE kinetic studies revealed that the homozygous proband had markedly retarded fractional catabolism of VLDL apoB-100, apoB-48 and plasma apoE, as well as an extremely low apoE synthesis rate as compared to normals. Obligate heterozygotes (n = 10) generally had normal plasma lipids and mean plasma apoE concentrations that were 42% of normal. The data indicate that homozygous familial apoE deficiency is a cause of type III HLP, is associated with markedly decreased apoE production, and that apoE is essential for the normal catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein constituents. Images PMID:3771793

  20. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  1. Properties of lactate dehydrogenase in a psychrophilic marine bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, P; Yen, H C; Mathemeier, P F

    1985-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) from Vibrio marinus MP-1 was purified 15-fold and ammonium activated. The optimum pH for pyruvate reduction was 7.4. Maximum lactate dehydrogenase activity occurred at 10 to 15 degrees C, and none occurred at 40 degrees C. The crude-extract enzyme was stable between 15 and 20 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 45 degrees C. The partially purified enzyme was stable between 8 and 15 degrees C and lost 50% of its activity after 60 min at 30 degrees C. The thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase was increased by mercaptoethanol, with 50% remaining activity at 42 degrees C. Images PMID:4004236

  2. [Features of glutamate dehydrogenase in fetal and adult rumen tissue].

    PubMed

    Kalachniuk, H I; Fomenko, I S; Kalachniuk, L H; Kavai, Sh; Marounek, M; Savka, O H

    2001-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from rumen mucosa of cow fetus, liver and two forms from mucosa (bacterial and tissue) of the adult animal were partly purified and characterized. The activity of the bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase was shown to depend on qualities of a biomass of microbes, adhered on surface of rumen mucosa. All enzymes from tissues (GDHTRF, TRC, TLC), revealed the hypersensibility to increase in the concentration medium of Zn2+, guanosine triphosphate (GTP), acting here in a role of negative modulators, and also adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and leucine, which acted as activators. However, in the same concentrations these effectors do not influence the activity of the bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase. And if all tissues enzymes are highly specific to coenzyme NADH, the bacterial ones almost in 3 times is more active at NADPH use. PMID:11642036

  3. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor. PMID:27266631

  4. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Guillermo Hugo; Bergamini, Carina Viviana; Hynes, Erica Rut

    2016-01-01

    Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  5. [Iron deficiency and digestive disorders].

    PubMed

    Cozon, G J N

    2014-11-01

    Iron deficiency anemia still remains problematic worldwide. Iron deficiency without anemia is often undiagnosed. We reviewed, in this study, symptoms and syndromes associated with iron deficiency with or without anemia: fatigue, cognitive functions, restless legs syndrome, hair loss, and chronic heart failure. Iron is absorbed through the digestive tract. Hepcidin and ferroportin are the main proteins of iron regulation. Pathogenic micro-organisms or intestinal dysbiosis are suspected to influence iron absorption.

  6. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Human brain tissue contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and possess also aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. In our last experiments we have shown that ADH and ALDH are present also in the brain tumour cells. Moreover the activities of total ADH and class I isoenzymes were significantly higher in cancer tissue than healthy cells. It can suggests that these changes may be reflected by enzyme activity in the serum of patients with brain cancer. Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 62 patients suffering from brain cancer (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. A statistically significant increase of class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes was found in the sera of patients with brain cancer. The median activity of this class isoenzyme in the patients group increased about 24 % in the comparison to the control level. The total alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also significantly higher (26 %) among patients with brain tumour than healthy ones. The activities of other tested ADH isoenzymes and total ALDH were unchanged. The increase of the activity of total ADH and class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme in the sera of patients with brain cancer seems to be caused by the release of this isoenzyme from tumour's cells.

  7. Crystal structure of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Hendershot, Jenna M.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2013-09-18

    Lysine biosynthesis in fungi, euglena, and certain archaebacteria occurs through the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway. Enzymes in the first steps of this pathway have been proposed as potential targets for the development of antifungal therapies, as they are absent in animals but are conserved in several pathogenic fungi species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. One potential antifungal target in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway is the third enzyme in the pathway, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH), which catalyzes the divalent metal-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to 2-oxoadipate (2-OA) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) as a cofactor. HICDH belogns to a family of {beta}-hydroxyacid oxidative decarboxylases that includes malate dehydrogenase, tartrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and 3-isopropylmalte dehydrogenase (IPMDH). ICDH and IPMDH are well-characterized enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) in the citric acid cycle and the conversion of 3-isopropylmalate to 2-oxoisovalerate in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Recent structural and biochemical studies of HICDH reveal that this enzyme shares sequence, structural, and mechanistic homology with ICDH and IPMDH. To date, the only published structures of HICDH are from the archaebacteria Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH). Fungal HICDHs diverge from TtHICDH in several aspects, including their thermal stability, oligomerization state, and substrate specificity, thus warranting further characterization. To gain insights into these differences, they determined crystal structures of a fungal Schizosaccharomyces pombe HICDH (SpHICDH) as an apoenzyme and as a binary complex with additive tripeptide glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG) to 1.55 {angstrom} and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the SpHICDH and TtHICDH structures reveal differences in

  8. E1 of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase defends Mycobacterium tuberculosis against glutamate anaplerosis and nitroxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Maksymiuk, Christina; Balakrishnan, Anand; Bryk, Ruslana; Rhee, Kyu Y.; Nathan, Carl F.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes of central carbon metabolism (CCM) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) make an important contribution to the pathogen’s virulence. Evidence is emerging that some of these enzymes are not simply playing the metabolic roles for which they are annotated, but can protect the pathogen via additional functions. Here, we found that deficiency of 2-hydroxy-3-oxoadipate synthase (HOAS), the E1 component of the α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) dehydrogenase complex (KDHC), did not lead to general metabolic perturbation or growth impairment of Mtb, but only to the specific inability to cope with glutamate anaplerosis and nitroxidative stress. In the former role, HOAS acts to prevent accumulation of aldehydes, including growth-inhibitory succinate semialdehyde (SSA). In the latter role, HOAS can participate in an alternative four-component peroxidase system, HOAS/dihydrolipoyl acetyl transferase (DlaT)/alkylhydroperoxide reductase colorless subunit gene (ahpC)-neighboring subunit (AhpD)/AhpC, using α-KG as a previously undescribed source of electrons for reductase action. Thus, instead of a canonical role in CCM, the E1 component of Mtb’s KDHC serves key roles in situational defense that contribute to its requirement for virulence in the host. We also show that pyruvate decarboxylase (AceE), the E1 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC), can participate in AceE/DlaT/AhpD/AhpC, using pyruvate as a source of electrons for reductase action. Identification of these systems leads us to suggest that Mtb can recruit components of its CCM for reactive nitrogen defense using central carbon metabolites. PMID:26430237

  9. [Human semen lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in fertility studies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Buitrago, J M; García Díez, L C; de Castro, S

    1981-01-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern has been obtained in the semen of 87 males undergoing fertility studies. The proportion of LDH-X, the isoenzyme specific to the spermatozoa, is reduced in proportion to the reduction of the sperm density and motility. LDH-X is the most abundant isoenzyme in the semen of normospermic subjects. As to the other isoenzymes, the most abundant ones are the LDH-2 and the LDH-3. The results obtained lead us to conclude that the measurement of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes may be useful in studies of fertility as an indicative parameter of the quality of the semen.

  10. Malate dehydrogenase isozymes in the longnose dace, Rhinichthys cataractae.

    PubMed

    Starzyk, R M; Merritt, R B

    1980-08-01

    The interspecies homology of dace supernatant (A2,AB,B2) and mitochondrial (C2) malate dehydrogenase isozymes has been established through cell fractionation and tissue distribution studies. Isolated supernatant malate dehydrogenase (s-MDH) isozymes show significant differences in Michaelis constants for oxaloacetate and in pH optima. Shifts in s-MDH isozyme pH optima with temperature may result in immediate compensation for increase in ectotherm body pH with decrease in temperature, but duplicate s-MDH isozymes are probably maintained through selection for tissue specific regulation of metabolism.

  11. Isolation of human lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme X by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, A H; van Kuyk, L; Boettcher, B

    1978-01-01

    Human isoenzyme LDH-X (lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme X) was isolated from seminal fluid of frozen semen samples by affinity chromatography by using oxamate-Sepharose and AMP-Sepharose. In the presence of 1.6 mM-NAD+, isoenzyme LDH-X does not bind to AMP-Sepharose, whereas the other lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes do. This is the crucial point in the isolation of isoenzyme LDH-X from the other isoenzymes. The purified human isoenzyme LDH-X had a specific activity of 146 units/mg of protein. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:213050

  12. Purification and characterization of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase from Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, H; Inagaki, K; Matsunami, H; Nakayama, Y; Tano, T; Tanaka, H

    2000-01-01

    3-Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase was purified to homogeneity from the acidophilic autotroph Thiobacillus thiooxidans. The native enzyme was a dimer of molecular weight 40,000. The apparent K(m) values for 3-isopropylmalate and NAD+ were estimated to be 0.13 mM and 8.7 mM, respectively. The optimum pH for activity was 9.0 and the optimum temperature was 65 degrees C. The properties of the enzyme were similar to those of the Thiobacillus ferrooxidans enzyme, expect for substrate specificity. T. thiooxidans 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase could not utilize malate as a substrate.

  13. Reversible inactivation of CO dehydrogenase with thiol compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kreß, Oliver; Gnida, Manuel; Pelzmann, Astrid M.; Marx, Christian; Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram; Meyer, Ortwin

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Rather large thiols (e.g. coenzyme A) can reach the active site of CO dehydrogenase. • CO- and H{sub 2}-oxidizing activity of CO dehydrogenase is inhibited by thiols. • Inhibition by thiols was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. • Thiols coordinate the Cu ion in the [CuSMo(=O)OH] active site as a third ligand. - Abstract: Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO dehydrogenase) from Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a structurally characterized member of the molybdenum hydroxylase enzyme family. It catalyzes the oxidation of CO (CO + H{sub 2}O → CO{sub 2} + 2e{sup −} + 2H{sup +}) which proceeds at a unique [CuSMo(=O)OH] metal cluster. Because of changing activities of CO dehydrogenase, particularly in subcellular fractions, we speculated whether the enzyme would be subject to regulation by thiols (RSH). Here we establish inhibition of CO dehydrogenase by thiols and report the corresponding K{sub i}-values (mM): L-cysteine (5.2), D-cysteine (9.7), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (8.2), D,L-homocysteine (25.8), L-cysteine–glycine (2.0), dithiothreitol (4.1), coenzyme A (8.3), and 2-mercaptoethanol (9.3). Inhibition of the enzyme was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of thiol-inhibited CO dehydrogenase revealed a bimetallic site in which the RSH coordinates to the Cu-ion as a third ligand ([Mo{sup VI}(=O)OH{sub (2)}SCu{sup I}(SR)S-Cys]) leaving the redox state of the Cu(I) and the Mo(VI) unchanged. Collectively, our findings establish a regulation of CO dehydrogenase activity by thiols in vitro. They also corroborate the hypothesis that CO interacts with the Cu-ion first. The result that thiol compounds much larger than CO can freely travel through the substrate channel leading to the bimetallic cluster challenges previous concepts involving chaperone function and is of importance for an understanding how the sulfuration step in

  14. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from germinating castor bean endosperm.

    PubMed

    Rapp, B J; Randall, D D

    1980-02-01

    Subcellular organelles from castor bean (Ricinus communis) endosperm were isolated on discontinuous sucrose gradients from germinating seeds which were 1 to 7 days postimbibition. Marker enzyme activities of the organelles were measured (fumarase, catalase, and triose phosphate isomerase) and the homogeneity of the organelle fractions was examined by electron microscopy. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was measured only in the mitochondrial fraction and attempts to activate or release the enzyme from the proplastid were not successful. A pathway is proposed for the most efficient use of endosperm carbon for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis that does not require the presence of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in the proplastid to provide acetyl-coenzymeA.

  15. G6PD Deficiency Does Not Enhance Susceptibility for Acquiring Helicobacter pylori Infection in Sardinian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria Pina; Marras, Giuseppina; Rocchi, Chiara; Soro, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjects with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency may be more susceptible to infections due to impaired leukocyte bactericidal activity. The disorder is common in the Mediterranean area. The aim of this study was to investigate whether G6PD deficiency may be a risk factor for acquiring H. pylori infection. Methods We performed a retrospective study. Data from clinical records of 6565 patients (2278 men and 4287 women, median age 51, range 7‒94) who underwent upper endoscopy between 2002 and 2014 were collected. H. pylori status, assessed by histology plus rapid urease test or 13C-urea breath test, and G6PD status were also reported. A multiple logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between G6PD deficiency and H. pylori infection. Results Enzyme deficiency was detected in 12% (789/6565) of the entire cohort, and more specifically in 8.3% of men and in 14.0% of women. Overall, the proportion of patients positive for H. pylori was 50.6% and 51.5% among G6PD deficient and non-deficient patients (χ² = 0.271; p = 0.315). Moreover, among G6PD-deficient and normal patients the frequency of previous H. pylori infection was similar. After adjustment for age and gender the risk for acquiring H. pylori infection was similar in G6PD-deficient and normal patients. Only age was a strong statistically significant risk predictor. Conclusions These results demonstrate for the first time that G6PD deficiency does not enhance patients’ susceptibility to acquire H. pylori infection in Sardinia. PMID:27467818

  16. [Vitamin deficiencies in breastfed children due to maternal dietary deficiency].

    PubMed

    Kollée, L A A

    2006-03-01

    Dietary deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation may result in health problems in exclusively breastfed infants. Vitamin-B12 deficiency in these infants results in irritability, anorexia and failure to thrive during the first 4-8 months of life. Severe and permanent neurodevelopmental disturbances may occur. The most at risk for vitamin-B12 deficiency are breast-fed infants ofveganist and vegetarian mothers. Mothers who cover their skin prevent exposure to the sun and may consequently be at risk for vitamin-D deficiency, as well as putting their offspring at risk. In prenatal and perinatal care, it is important to take the maternal dietary history in order to be able to prevent or treat these disorders. Guidelines for obstetrical and neonatal care should include the topic of vitamin deficiency.

  17. 3-Ketothiolase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Middleton, B; Bartlett, K; Romanos, A; Gomez Vazquez, J; Conde, C; Cannon, R A; Lipson, M; Sweetman, L; Nyhan, W L

    1986-04-01

    Two patients have been studied in whom the activity of the short chain-length-specific mitochondrial 3-ketothiolase was found to be deficient. Use of a range of 3-ketoacyl-CoA substrates showed that the other 3-ketothiolase isoenzymes were normal in each case. Both patients had episodic ketosis and metabolic acidosis. One patient had substantial evidence of damage to the central nervous system and two siblings who had died of the disease. The organic aciduria was characterized by the excretion of 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyric acid and tiglyglycine. In one patient the organic aciduria was very subtle and was masked during the presence of ketosis, but it was clarified by an isoleucine load after recovery from ketosis.

  18. Hereditary galactokinase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J. G. H.; Don, N. A.; Mann, Trevor P.

    1971-01-01

    A baby with galactokinase deficiency, a recessive inborn error of galactose metabolism, is described. The case is exceptional in that there was no evidence of gypsy blood in the family concerned. The investigation of neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia led to the discovery of galactosuria. As noted by others, the paucity of presenting features makes early diagnosis difficult, and detection by biochemical screening seems desirable. Cataract formation, of early onset, appears to be the only severe persisting complication and may be due to the biosynthesis and accumulation of galactitol in the lens. Ophthalmic surgeons need to be aware of this enzyme defect, because with early diagnosis and dietary treatment these lens changes should be reversible. PMID:5109408

  19. Origin and spread of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variant (G6PD-Mediterranean) in the Middle East.

    PubMed Central

    Kurdi-Haidar, B; Mason, P J; Berrebi, A; Ankra-Badu, G; al-Ali, A; Oppenheim, A; Luzzatto, L

    1990-01-01

    A common glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variant characterized by severe enzyme deficiency and B-like electrophoretic mobility is called "G6PD-Mediterranean" because it is found in different populations around the Mediterranean Sea. Sequence analysis of Italian subjects has revealed that the molecular basis of G6PD-Mediterranean is a single C-T transition at nucleotide position 563, causing a serine phenylalanine replacement at amino acid position 188. Most G6PD-Mediterranean subjects also have a silent C-T transition (without amino acid replacement) at nucleotide position 1311. Twenty-one unrelated individuals from Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel with both severe G6PD deficiency and B-like electrophoretic mobility were tested for both mutations by using amplification followed by digestion with appropriate restriction enzymes. All but one had the 563 mutation, and, of these, all but one had the 1311 mutation. Another 24 unrelated Middle Eastern individuals with normal G6PD activity or not known to be G6PD deficient were similarly tested. Four had the silent mutation at position 1311 in the absence of the deficiency mutation at position 563. We conclude that (1) the large majority of Middle Eastern subjects with the G6PD-Mediterranean phenotype have the same mutation found in Italy, (2) the silent mutation is an independent polymorphism in the Middle East, with a frequency of about .13, and (3) the mutation leading to the G6PD-Mediterranean deficiency has probably arisen on a chromosome that already carried the silent mutation. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1978555

  20. Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in women.

    PubMed

    Coad, Jane; Pedley, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional problems in the world and disproportionately affects women and children. Stages of iron deficiency can be characterized as mild deficiency where iron stores become depleted, marginal deficiency where the production of many iron-dependent proteins is compromised but hemoglobin levels are normal and iron deficiency anemia where synthesis of hemoglobin is decreased and oxygen transport to the tissues is reduced. Iron deficiency anemia is usually assessed by measuring hemoglobin levels but this approach lacks both specificity and sensitivity. Failure to identify and treat earlier stages of iron deficiency is concerning given the neurocognitive implications of iron deficiency without anemia. Most of the daily iron requirement is derived from recycling of senescent erythrocytes by macrophages; only 5-10 % comes from the diet. Iron absorption is affected by inhibitors and enhancers of iron absorption and by the physiological state. Inflammatory conditions, including obesity, can result in iron being retained in the enterocytes and macrophages causing hypoferremia as a strategic defense mechanism to restrict iron availability to pathogens. Premenopausal women usually have low iron status because of iron loss in menstrual blood. Conditions which further increase iron loss, compromise absorption or increase demand, such as frequent blood donation, gastrointestinal lesions, athletic activity and pregnancy, can exceed the capacity of the gastrointestinal tract to upregulate iron absorption. Women of reproductive age are at particularly high risk of iron deficiency and its consequences however there is a controversial argument that evolutionary pressures have resulted in an iron deficient phenotype which protects against infection.

  1. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-05-21

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site.

  2. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  3. Functional and Biochemical Characterization of Three Recombinant Human Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Mutants: Zacatecas, Vanua-Lava and Viangchan

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Serrano-Posada, Hugo; González-Valdez, Abigail; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Hernández-Ochoa, Beatriz; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Castillo-Rodríguez, Rosa Angélica; Cuevas-Cruz, Miguel; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in humans causes severe disease, varying from mostly asymptomatic individuals to patients showing neonatal jaundice, acute hemolysis episodes or chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. In order to understand the effect of the mutations in G6PD gene function and its relation with G6PD deficiency severity, we report the construction, cloning and expression as well as the detailed kinetic and stability characterization of three purified clinical variants of G6PD that present in the Mexican population: G6PD Zacatecas (Class I), Vanua-Lava (Class II) and Viangchan (Class II). For all the G6PD mutants, we obtained low purification yield and altered kinetic parameters compared with Wild Type (WT). Our results show that the mutations, regardless of the distance from the active site where they are located, affect the catalytic properties and structural parameters and that these changes could be associated with the clinical presentation of the deficiency. Specifically, the structural characterization of the G6PD Zacatecas mutant suggests that the R257L mutation have a strong effect on the global stability of G6PD favoring an unstable active site. Using computational analysis, we offer a molecular explanation of the effects of these mutations on the active site. PMID:27213370

  4. Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces.

    Research findings on college instruction and basic skills deficiencies are discussed in 12 papers from the first Regional Conference on University Teaching. Titles and authors are as follows: "Basic Skills: Dealing with Deficiencies" (Susanne D. Roueche, with responses by Gary B. Donart, Betty Harris, and James Nordyke); "Is Higher Education an…

  5. Amino acid sequence homology among the 2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenases: mitochondrial and cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenases form a homologous system with lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Birktoft, J J; Fernley, R T; Bradshaw, R A; Banaszak, L J

    1982-01-01

    The amino acid sequence of porcine heart mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH; L-malate: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.37) has been compared with the sequences of six different lactate dehydrogenases (LDH; L-lactate: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27) and with the "x-ray" sequence of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (sMDH). The main points are that (i) all three enzymes are homologous; (ii) invariant residues in the catalytic center of these enzymes include a histidine and an internally located aspartate that function as a proton relay system; (iii) numerous residues important to coenzyme binding are conserved, including several glycines and charged residues; and (iv) amino acid side chains present in the subunit interface common to the MDHs and LDHs appear to be better conserved than those in the protein interior. It is concluded that LDH, sMDH, and mMDH are derived from a common ancestral gene and probably have similar catalytic mechanisms. PMID:6959107

  6. NADP+-Preferring D-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Sporolactobacillus inulinus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingfeng; Xu, Xiaoling; Wang, Limin; Dong, Hui; Yu, Bo; Ma, Yanhe

    2015-09-01

    Hydroxy acid dehydrogenases, including l- and d-lactate dehydrogenases (L-LDH and D-LDH), are responsible for the stereospecific conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids and extensively used in a wide range of biotechnological applications. A common feature of LDHs is their high specificity for NAD(+) as a cofactor. An LDH that could effectively use NADPH as a coenzyme could be an alternative enzymatic system for regeneration of the oxidized, phosphorylated cofactor. In this study, a d-lactate dehydrogenase from a Sporolactobacillus inulinus strain was found to use both NADH and NADPH with high efficiencies and with a preference for NADPH as its coenzyme, which is different from the coenzyme utilization of all previously reported LDHs. The biochemical properties of the D-LDH enzyme were determined by X-ray crystal structural characterization and in vivo and in vitro enzymatic activity analyses. The residue Asn(174) was demonstrated to be critical for NADPH utilization. Characterization of the biochemical properties of this enzyme will contribute to understanding of the catalytic mechanism and provide referential information for shifting the coenzyme utilization specificity of 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases.

  7. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. 866.5560 Section 866.5560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system. 866.5560 Section 866.5560 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... blood cells), myocardial infarction (heart disease), and some forms of leukemia (cancer of the...

  9. A novel small-molecule inhibitor of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Mullarky, Edouard; Lairson, Luke L; Cantley, Lewis C; Lyssiotis, Costas A

    2016-07-01

    Serine metabolism is likely to play a critical role in cancer cell growth. A recent study reports the identification of a novel small-molecule inhibitor of serine synthesis that targets 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), the first enzyme of the serine synthesis pathway, and selectively abrogates the proliferation of PHGDH overexpressing breast cancer cells. PMID:27652319

  10. 21 CFR 862.1565 - 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1565 Section 862.1565 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1565...

  11. Molecular cloning of gluconobacter oxydans DSM 2003 xylitol dehydrogenase gene

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, H. Mir Mohammad; Ahmadi, R.; Aghaabdollahian, S.; Mofid, M.R.; Ghaemi, Y.; Abedi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the widespread applications of xylitol dehydrogenase, an enzyme used for the production of xylitol, the present study was designed for the cloning of xylitol dehydrogenase gene from Glcunobacter oxydans DSM 2003. After extraction of genomic DNA from this bacterium, xylitol dehydrogenase gene was replicated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified product was entered into pTZ57R cloning vector by T/A cloning method and transformation was performed by heat shocking of the E. coli XL1-blue competent cells. Following plasmid preparation, the cloned gene was digested out and ligated into the expression vector pET-22b(+). Electrophoresis of PCR product showed a 789 bp band. Recombinant plasmid (rpTZ57R) was then constructed. This plasmid was double digested with XhoI and EcoRI resulting in 800 bp and 2900 bp bands. The obtained insert was ligated into pET-22b(+) vector and its orientation was confirmed with XhoI and BamHI restriction enzymes. In conclusion, in the present study the recombinant expression vector containing xylitol dehydrogenase gene has been constructed and can be used for the production of this enzyme in high quantities. PMID:22110522

  12. Heterologous expression of glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene [DhGPD1] from the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Thomé, Patricia E

    2005-08-01

    The role for the gene encoding glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (DhGPD1) from the osmotolerant yeast Debaryomyces hansenii, in glycerol production and halotolerance, was studied through its heterologous expression in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in glycerol synthesis (gpd1Delta). The expression of the DhGPD1 gene in the gpd1Delta background restored glycerol production and halotolerance to wild type levels, corroborating its role in the salt-induced production of glycerol. Although the gene was functional in S. cerevisiae, its heterologous expression was not efficient, suggesting that the regulatory mechanism may not be shared by these two yeasts.

  13. Effects of aerobic training on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Paul J; Peters, Sandra J; Tunstall, Rebecca J; Cameron-Smith, David; Heigenhauser, George J F

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the effects of short- and long-term aerobic training on the stable up-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and PDH kinase (PDK) in human skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that 8 weeks, but not 1 week, of aerobic training would increase total PDH (PDHt) and PDK activities compared to pretraining, and this would be detectable at the level of gene transcription (mRNA) and/or gene translation (protein). Resting muscle biopsies were taken before and after 1 and 8 weeks of aerobic cycle exercise training. PDHt and PDK activities, and their respective protein and mRNA expression, did not differ after 1 week of aerobic training. PDHt activity increased 31% after 8 weeks and this may be partially due to a 1.3-fold increase in PDH-E(1)alpha protein expression. PDK activity approximately doubled after 8 weeks of aerobic training and this was attributed to a 1.3-fold increase in PDK2 isoform protein expression. Similar to 1 week, no changes were observed at the mRNA level after 8 weeks of training. These findings suggest that aerobically trained human skeletal muscle has an increased maximal capacity to utilize carbohydrates, evident by increased PDHt, but increased metabolic control sensitivity to pyruvate through increased contribution of PDK2 to total PDK activity. PMID:15020699

  14. Interactions between copper deficiency, selenium deficiency and adriamycin toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, J.; Tackett, R.; Johnson, M.A. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that there are interactions between copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) status, and adriamycin (ADR) toxicity. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed Cu,Se adequate; Cu deficient, Se adequate ({minus}Cu); Cu adequate, Se deficient; or Cu,Se deficient diets for 38-41 days. ADR or saline (SAL) were administered weekly for the last 4 weeks of the study. Cu deficiency was confirmed by a 3-fold decrease in liver Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and liver Cu, and a 5-fold decrease in RBC Cu,Zn-SOD. Se deficiency was confirmed by a 10-fold decrease in liver glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). ADR, Cu deficiency and Se deficiency all caused EKG abnormalities. However, Cu and Se deficiencies did not enhance ADR's influence on EKGs. ADR increased lipid peroxidation in liver by 15% and in heart by 18% (NS). Cu deficiency decreased ADR-induced lipid peroxidation in heart tissue by 25%. ADR influenced Se status by significantly increasing heart GSH-Px, and Cu status by increasing liver Cu, plasma ceruloplasmin and liver Cu, Zn-SOD. These elevations in Cu,Zn-SOD and GSH-Px may be a consequence of the increased lipid peroxidation initiated by ADR. In {minus}Cu rats, ADR caused severe hemolytic anemia characterized by a 19% decrease in hematocrit and a 17-fold increase in splenic Fe. These data suggest that there are numerous interactions between ADR toxicity and Cu and Se status.

  15. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  18. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7360 - Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase... § 864.7360 Erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay. (a) Identification. An erythrocytic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase assay is a device used to measure the activity of the enzyme...

  20. Glutamate dehydrogenases: the why and how of coenzyme specificity.

    PubMed

    Engel, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    NAD(+) and NADP(+), chemically similar and with almost identical standard oxidation-reduction potentials, nevertheless have distinct roles, NAD(+) serving catabolism and ATP generation whereas NADPH is the biosynthetic reductant. Separating these roles requires strict specificity for one or the other coenzyme for most dehydrogenases. In many organisms this holds also for glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH), NAD(+)-dependent for glutamate oxidation, NADP(+)-dependent for fixing ammonia. In higher animals, however, GDH has dual specificity. It has been suggested that GDH in mitochondria reacts only with NADP(H), the NAD(+) reaction being an in vitro artefact. However, contrary evidence suggests mitochondrial GDH not only reacts with NAD(+) but maintains equilibrium using the same pool as accessed by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase. Another complication is the presence of an energy-linked dehydrogenase driving NADP(+) reduction by NADH, maintaining the coenzyme pools at different oxidation-reduction potentials. Its coexistence with GDH makes possible a futile cycle, control of which is not yet properly explained. Structural studies show NAD(+)-dependent, NADP(+)-dependent and dual-specificity GDHs are closely related and a few site-directed mutations can reverse specificity. Specificity for NAD(+) or for NADP(+) has probably emerged repeatedly during evolution, using different structural solutions on different occasions. In various GDHs the P7 position in the coenzyme-binding domain plays a key role. However, whereas in other dehydrogenases an acidic P7 residue usually hydrogen bonds to the 2'- and 3'-hydroxyls, dictating NAD(+) specificity, among GDHs, depending on detailed conformation of surrounding residues, an acidic P7 may permit binding of NAD(+) only, NADP(+) only, or in higher animals both.

  1. Marked reduction of alcohol dehydrogenase in keratoconus corneal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kanoff, J.M.; Shankardas, J.; Dimitrijevich, S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify differentially expressed genes in keratoconus (KC) corneal fibroblasts. Methods Stromal keratocytes (having a fibroblast morphology) from KC keratoplasty specimens and eye bank donor corneas were isolated and expanded using a serum containing medium. RNA was isolated from three KC fibroblast cultures and five eye bank donor cornea fibroblast cultures. The targets from the cultured fibroblasts were hybridized to the Affymetrix U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. Western blot analyses of cell lysates were performed to examine protein levels of interest in the two groups. Protein levels of select differentially expressed genes were further examined by immunohistochemistry. Keratocyte staining of archived KC keratoplasty specimens were graded using a 0 to 3+ scale and compared to five archived whole globes having normal corneas as well as to 10 Fuchs’ dystrophy keratoplasty specimens. Results Microarray analysis revealed up to a 212 fold reduction in the mRNA levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (class 1) beta polypeptide (ADH1B) in KC fibroblasts (p=0.04). Decreased alcohol dehydrogenase in KC fibroblasts was confirmed by western blot analysis of early passage primary keratocyte cell lysates. Immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal mouse immunoglobulin G (IgG) against human liver alcohol dehydrogenase revealed a dramatic difference in protein staining in the keratocytes of the KC group compared to the normal cornea group. Immunohistochemistry also showed decreased immunostaining against alcohol dehydrogenase in the KC stromal sections compared to those obtained from Fuchs’ endothelial corneal dystrophy samples. Conclusions Decreased alcohol dehydrogenase in KC corneal fibroblasts represents a strong marker and possible mediator of keratoconus. PMID:19365573

  2. Spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity (DH) in forest soils using geostatistics. We have studied variability soil dehydrogenase and their relationship with variability of some physic-chemical properties. Two study areas (A and B) were set up in southern Poland in the Zlotoryja Forest District. Study areas were covered by different types of vegetation (A- broadleaf forest with beech, ash and sycamore), B- coniferous forest with Norway spruce). The soils were classified as Dystric Cambisols (WRB 2006). The samples for laboratory testing were collected from 49 places on each areas. 15 cm of surface horizon of soil were taken (with previously removed litter). Dehydrogenase activity was marked with Lenhard's method according to the Casida procedure. Soil pH, nitrogen (N) and soil organic carbon (C) content (by LECO CNS 2000 carbon analyzer) was marked. C/N ratio was calculated. Particle size composition was determined using laser diffraction. Statistical analysis were performed using STATISTICA 10 software. Geostatistical analysis and mapping were done by application of GS 9+ (Gamma Design) and Surfer 11 (Golden Software). The activity of DH ranged between 5,02 and 71,20 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1 on the A area and between 0,94 and 16,47 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1. Differences in spatial variability of the analised features were noted. The variability of dehydrogenase activity on the A study area was described by an exponential model, whereas on the B study area the spatial correlation has not been noted. The relationship of dehydrogenase activity with the remaining parameters of soil was noted only in the case of A study area. The variability of organic carbon content on the A and B study areas were described by an exponential model. The variability of nitrogen content on both areas were described by an spherical model.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions GPI deficiency glucose phosphate isomerase deficiency Enable Javascript to view the ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) deficiency is an inherited disorder ...

  4. Genetics Home Reference: adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Adenosine deaminase 2 (ADA2) deficiency is a disorder characterized by abnormal ...

  5. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: protein C deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions protein C deficiency protein C deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Protein C deficiency is a disorder that increases the ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: protein S deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions protein S deficiency protein S deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Protein S deficiency is a disorder of blood clotting. People ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions isolated growth hormone deficiency isolated growth hormone deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Isolated growth hormone deficiency is a condition caused by a severe ...

  9. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.

  10. [Iodine deficiency during pregnancy ].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

    2005-09-01

    Iodine is an essential micronutrient, it would be administered every day with our diet. The main role of this micronutrient is the synthesis of thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormones are related with brain development and metabolic regulation. Iodine deficit is related with goitre, and an important problem "diseases related with iodine deficiency", including high rate of neonatal mortality, decrease of intelligence, delayed of growth, high rate of aborts and congenital abnormalities.A risk group is pregnant women. Some authors have been demonstrated the utility of iodine supplementation during pregnancy. A systematic review of Cochrane group has shown that iodine supplementation during pregnancy decreased neonatal mortality RR 0.71 (0.56-0.9), and decrease the incidence of cretinism in children under 4 years RR 0.27 (0.12-0.6). As final recommendations, a program in pregnant women must be development to treat with iodine such as we make with folic acid. Pills with iron and iodine (1 mg iron and 25 ug iodine) have been demonstrated better results that pills with iodine. Tablets are the main presentation due to the role of the women in our Society and the work time. Programs of iodine enriched salt have been demonstrated a follow up of 50%. PMID:16386080

  11. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Greene, Catherine M; Marciniak, Stefan J; Teckman, Jeffrey; Ferrarotti, Ilaria; Brantly, Mark L; Lomas, David A; Stoller, James K; McElvaney, Noel G

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in SERPINA1, leading to liver and lung disease. It is not a rare disorder but frequently goes underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or cryptogenic liver disease. The most frequent disease-associated mutations include the S allele and the Z allele of SERPINA1, which lead to the accumulation of misfolded α1-antitrypsin in hepatocytes, endoplasmic reticulum stress, low circulating levels of α1-antitrypsin and liver disease. Currently, there is no cure for severe liver disease and the only management option is liver transplantation when liver failure is life-threatening. A1ATD-associated lung disease predominately occurs in adults and is caused principally by inadequate protease inhibition. Treatment of A1ATD-associated lung disease includes standard therapies that are also used for the treatment of COPD, in addition to the use of augmentation therapy (that is, infusions of human plasma-derived, purified α1-antitrypsin). New therapies that target the misfolded α1-antitrypsin or attempt to correct the underlying genetic mutation are currently under development. PMID:27465791

  12. Iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Elliott, T C

    1987-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) affects 800 million people in the world, yet iodine supplementation is one of the most cost-effective nutritional interventions known. Iodine is incorporated into thyroid hormones, necessary for regulating metabolic rate, growth, and development of the brain and nervous system. IDD may appear as goiter in adults, usually not a serious problem, or in cretinism in children, which is marked by severe mental and physical retardation, with irreversible hearing and speech defects and either deaf-mutism, squint and paralysis, or stunting and edema. Children supplemented by age 1 or 2 can sometimes be helped. Foods contain variable amounts of iodine dependent on the soil where they are grown, hence mountainous and some inland regions have high goiter and IDD incidence. There are also goitrogenic foods, typically those of the cabbage family. Diagnosis is clinical or by blood tests for thyroid hormone levels and ratios. Finger-stick methods are available. Prevention of IDD is simple with either iodized salt or flour, iodinated central water supplies, injectable or oral iodine-containing oil. All cost about $.04 per person per year, except injections, which cost about $1 per person, but have the advantage that they could be combined with immunizations. Local problems with supplements are loss of iodine in salt with storage in tropics, and local production of cheaper uniodinated salt. Emphasis should be given to pregnant women and young children. There is no harm in giving pregnant women iodine injections in 2nd or 3rd trimester. PMID:12343033

  13. Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Breymann, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Anemia is a common problem in obstetrics and perinatal care. Any hemoglobin below 10.5 g/dL can be regarded as true anemia regardless of gestational age. Reasons for anemia in pregnancy are mainly nutritional deficiencies, parasitic and bacterial diseases, and inborn red blood cell disorders such as thalassemias. The main cause of anemia in obstetrics is iron deficiency, which has a worldwide prevalence between estimated 20%-80% and consists of a primarily female population. Stages of iron deficiency are depletion of iron stores, iron-deficient erythropoiesis without anemia, and iron deficiency anemia, the most pronounced form of iron deficiency. Pregnancy anemia can be aggravated by various conditions such as uterine or placental bleedings, gastrointestinal bleedings, and peripartum blood loss. In addition to the general consequences of anemia, there are specific risks during pregnancy for the mother and the fetus such as intrauterine growth retardation, prematurity, feto-placental miss ratio, and higher risk for peripartum blood transfusion. Besides the importance of prophylaxis of iron deficiency, the main therapy options for the treatment of pregnancy anemia are oral iron and intravenous iron preparations.

  14. Betaine Deficiency in Maize 1

    PubMed Central

    Lerma, Claudia; Rich, Patrick J.; Ju, Grace C.; Yang, Wen-Ju; Hanson, Andrew D.; Rhodes, David

    1991-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a betaine-accumulating species, but certain maize genotypes lack betaine almost completely; a single recessive gene has been implicated as the cause of this deficiency (D Rhodes, PJ Rich [1988] Plant Physiol 88: 102-108). This study was undertaken to determine whether betaine deficiency in diverse maize germplasm is conditioned by the same genetic locus, and to define the biochemical lesion(s) involved. Complementation tests indicated that all 13 deficient genotypes tested shared a common locus. One maize population (P77) was found to be segregating for betaine deficiency, and true breeding individuals were used to produce related lines with and without betaine. Leaf tissue of both betaine-positive and betaine-deficient lines readily converted supplied betaine aldehyde to betaine, but only the betaine-containing line was able to oxidize supplied choline to betaine. This locates the lesion in betaine-deficient plants at the choline → betaine aldehyde step of betaine synthesis. Consistent with this location, betaine-deficient plants were shown to have no detectable endogenous pool of betaine aldehyde. PMID:16668098

  15. Effects of boron deficiency on major metabolites, key enzymes and gas exchange in leaves and roots of Citrus sinensis seedlings.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yi-Bin; Yang, Lin-Tong; Li, Yan; Xu, Jing; Liao, Tian-Tai; Chen, Yan-Bin; Chen, Li-Song

    2014-06-01

    Boron (B) deficiency is a widespread problem in many crops, including Citrus. The effects of B-deficiency on gas exchange, carbohydrates, organic acids, amino acids, total soluble proteins and phenolics, and the activities of key enzymes involved in organic acid and amino acid metabolism in 'Xuegan' [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] leaves and roots were investigated. Boron-deficient leaves displayed excessive accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and much lower CO2 assimilation, demonstrating feedback inhibition of photosynthesis. Dark respiration, concentrations of most organic acids [i.e., malate, citrate, oxaloacetate (OAA), pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate] and activities of enzymes [i.e., phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), NAD-malate dehydrogenase, NAD-malic enzyme (NAD-ME), NADP-ME, pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphoenolpyruvate phosphatase (PEPP), citrate synthase (CS), aconitase (ACO), NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH) and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the anapleurotic reaction were higher in B-deficient leaves than in controls. Also, total free amino acid (TFAA) concentration and related enzyme [i.e., NADH-dependent glutamate 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (NADH-GOGAT) and glutamate OAA transaminase (GOT)] activities were enhanced in B-deficient leaves. By contrast, respiration, concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrates and three organic acids (malate, citrate and pyruvate), and activities of most enzymes [i.e., PEPC, NADP-ME, PK, PEPP, CS, ACO, NAD-isocitrate dehydrogenase, NADP-IDH and hexokinase] involved in glycolysis, the TCA cycle and the anapleurotic reaction, as well as concentration of TFAA and activities of related enzymes (i.e., nitrate reductase, NADH-GOGAT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and glutamine synthetase) were lower in B-deficient roots than in controls. Interestingly, leaf and root concentration of total phenolics increased, whereas that of total soluble protein decreased

  16. Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase associates with a protein super-complex integrating multiple metabolic pathways.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Srinivas B; Master, Stephen R; Sireci, Anthony N; Bierl, Charlene; Stanley, Paige E; Li, Changhong; Stanley, Charles A; Bennett, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Proteins involved in mitochondrial metabolic pathways engage in functionally relevant multi-enzyme complexes. We previously described an interaction between short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (SCHAD) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) explaining the clinical phenotype of hyperinsulinism in SCHAD-deficient patients and adding SCHAD to the list of mitochondrial proteins capable of forming functional, multi-pathway complexes. In this work, we provide evidence of SCHAD's involvement in additional interactions forming tissue-specific metabolic super complexes involving both membrane-associated and matrix-dwelling enzymes and spanning multiple metabolic pathways. As an example, in murine liver, we find SCHAD interaction with aspartate transaminase (AST) and GDH from amino acid metabolic pathways, carbamoyl phosphate synthase I (CPS-1) from ureagenesis, other fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis enzymes and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, an extra-mitochondrial enzyme of the glycolytic pathway. Most of the interactions appear to be independent of SCHAD's role in the penultimate step of fatty acid oxidation suggesting an organizational, structural or non-enzymatic role for the SCHAD protein.

  17. A newborn lethal defect due to inactivation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3 is prevented by maternal retinoic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dupé, Valérie; Matt, Nicolas; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The retinoic acid (RA) signal, produced locally from vitamin A by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) and transduced by the nuclear receptors for retinoids (RA receptor and 9-cis-RA receptor), is indispensable for ontogenesis and homeostasis of numerous tissues. We demonstrate that Raldh3 knockout in mouse suppresses RA synthesis and causes malformations restricted to ocular and nasal regions, which are similar to those observed in vitamin A-deficient fetuses and/or in retinoid receptor mutants. Raldh3 knockout notably causes choanal atresia (CA), which is responsible for respiratory distress and death of Raldh3-null mutants at birth. CA is due to persistence of nasal fins, whose rupture normally allows the communication between nasal and oral cavities. This malformation, which is similar to isolated congenital CA in humans and may result from impaired RA-controlled down-regulation of Fgf8 expression in nasal fins, can be prevented by a simple maternal treatment with RA. PMID:14623956

  18. Pituitary Adenoma With Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma (3PAs) and Succinate Dehydrogenase Defects in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xekouki, Paraskevi; Szarek, Eva; Bullova, Petra; Giubellino, Alessio; Quezado, Martha; Mastroyannis, Spyridon A.; Mastorakos, Panagiotis; Wassif, Christopher A.; Raygada, Margarita; Rentia, Nadia; Dye, Louis; Cougnoux, Antony; Koziol, Deloris; Sierra, Maria de La Luz; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Belyavskaya, Elena; Malchoff, Carl; Moline, Jessica; Eng, Charis; Maher, Louis James; Pacak, Karel; Lodish, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Context: Germline mutations in genes coding succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits A, B, C, and D have been identified in familial paragangliomas (PGLs)/pheochromocytomas (PHEOs) and other tumors. We described a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (PA) caused by SDHD mutation in a patient with familial PGLs. Additional patients with PAs and SDHx defects have since been reported. Design: We studied 168 patients with unselected sporadic PA and with the association of PAs, PGLs, and/or pheochromocytomas, a condition we named the 3P association (3PAs) for SDHx germline mutations. We also studied the pituitary gland and hormonal profile of Sdhb+/− mice and their wild-type littermates at different ages. Results: No SDHx mutations were detected among sporadic PA, whereas three of four familial cases were positive for a mutation (75%). Most of the SDHx-deficient PAs were either prolactinomas or somatotropinomas. Pituitaries of Sdhb+/− mice older than 12 months had an increased number mainly of prolactin-secreting cells and several ultrastructural abnormalities such as intranuclear inclusions, altered chromatin nuclear pattern, and abnormal mitochondria. Igf-1 levels of mutant mice tended to be higher across age groups, whereas Prl and Gh levels varied according to age and sex. Conclusion: The present study confirms the existence of a new association that we termed 3PAs. It is due mostly to germline SDHx defects, although sporadic cases of 3PAs without SDHx defects also exist. Using Sdhb+/− mice, we provide evidence that pituitary hyperplasia in SDHx-deficient cells may be the initial abnormality in the cascade of events leading to PA formation. PMID:25695889

  19. Some properties of an alcohol dehydrogenase partially purified from baker's yeast grown without added zinc.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, C J; Dickinson, F M

    1976-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase was partially purified from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) grown in the presence of 20 muM-MnSO4 without added Zn2+ and from yeast grown in the presence of 1.8 muM-MnSO4. The enzyme from yeast grown with added Zn2+ has the same properties as the crystalline enzyme from commercial supplies of baker's yeast. The enzyme from yeast grown without added An2+ has quite different properties. It has a mol.wt. in the region of 72000 and an S 20 w of 5.8S. The values can be compared with a mol.wt. of 141000 and an S 20 w of 7.6S for the crystalline enzyme. ADP-ribose, a common impurity in commercial samples of NAD+, is a potent competitive inhibitor of the new enzyme (K1 = 0.5 muM), but is not so for the crystalline enzyme. The observed maximum rate of ethanol oxidation at pH 7.05 and 25 degrees C was decreased 12-fold by the presence of 0.06 mol of inhibitor/mol of NAD+ when using the enzyme from Zn2+-deficient yeast, but with crystalline enzyme the maximum rate was essentially unchanged by this concentration of inhibitor. The kinetic characteristics for the two enzymes with ethanol, butan-1-ol, acetaldehyde and butyraldehyde as substrates are markedly different. These kinetic differences are discussed in relation to the mechanism of catalysis for the enzyme from Zn2+-deficient yeast. PMID:179534

  20. Clinical manifestations of zinc deficiency.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S

    1985-01-01

    The essentiality of zinc for humans was recognized in the early 1960s. The causes of zinc deficiency include malnutrition, alcoholism, malabsorption, extensive burns, chronic debilitating disorders, chronic renal diseases, following uses of certain drugs such as penicillamine for Wilson's disease and diuretics in some cases, and genetic disorders such as acrodermatitis enteropathica and sickle cell disease. In pregnancy and during periods of growth the requirement of zinc is increased. The clinical manifestations in severe cases of zinc deficiency include bullous-pustular dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhea, emotional disorder, weight loss, intercurrent infections, hypogonadism in males; it is fatal if unrecognized and untreated. A moderate deficiency of zinc is characterized by growth retardation and delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism in males, rough skin, poor appetite, mental lethargy, delayed wound healing, taste abnormalities, and abnormal dark adaptation. In mild cases of zinc deficiency in human subjects, we have observed oligospermia, slight weight loss, and hyperammonemia. Zinc is a growth factor. Its deficiency adversely affects growth in many animal species and humans. Inasmuch as zinc is needed for protein and DNA synthesis and for cell division, it is believed that the growth effect of zinc is related to its effect on protein synthesis. Whether or not zinc is required for the metabolism of somatomedin needs to be investigated in the future. Testicular functions are affected adversely as a result of zinc deficiency in both humans and experimental animals. This effect of zinc is at the end organ level; the hypothalamic-pituitary axis is intact in zinc-deficient subjects. Inasmuch as zinc is intimately involved in cell division, its deficiency may adversely affect testicular size and thus affect its functions. Zinc is required for the functions of several enzymes and whether or not it has an enzymatic role in steroidogenesis is not known at present

  1. [State of the energy-supply system of the liver mitochondria under the conditions of alimentary deficiency of protein].

    PubMed

    voloshchuk, O N; Kopyl'chuk, G P; Kadaĭskaia, T G

    2014-01-01

    The NADH-dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase activity of the rats' liver mitochondria under the conditions of alimentary deprivation of protein has been studied. Research was carried out on 65 white non-linear rats divided according to the diet protein content into three groups: 1--rats fed a hypoprotein diet (7% of protein, 10% of fat u 83% of carbohydrates; n = 26); 2--rats fed a protein-free diet (n = 26); 3--rats fed a complete semi-synthetic ration (14% of protein, 10% of fat u 76% of carbohydrates; n = 13). The NADH-dehydrogenase activity was estimated by spectrophotometric method, succinate dehydrogenase activity--by the intensity of reduction of the potassium ferricyanide. It has been estimated that the decrease of NADH-dehydrogenase activity of mitochondria occurred on the 14th day of feeding rats with protein-free diet, and four-week feeding of rats under these conditions lead to the decrease of enzyme activity by 5,5 fold compared with the control group (0.506 +/- 0.040 nmol NADH/min/mg of protein) and by 3,0 fold compared with the previous stage of the experiment. At the same time a hypoprotein diet caused 2-fold decrease of NADH-dehydrogenase activity of liver mitochondria only on the 28th day. It has been shown that the succinate dehydrogenase activity didn't change significantly after two-week maintenance of rats on a protein-free diet as compared with control, while the four-week maintenance on both hypoprotein and protein-free diet lead to the decrease of the succinate dehydrogenase activity. Specifically, under the conditions of the hypoprotein diet succinate dehydrogenase activity of liver mitochondria decreased twofold and under the conditions of the protein free diet-- threefold. Probably, the disorders at the level of Complex I of respiratory chain underlie the realization of the changes in the system of energy biotransformation in mitochondria under the conditions of alimentary protein deficiency. PMID:25300104

  2. L-ascorbic acid metabolism in the ascorbate-deficient arabidopsis mutant vtc1.

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, P L; Pallanca, J E; Last, R L; Smirnoff, N

    1997-01-01

    The biosynthesis of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is not well understood in plants. The ozone-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana mutant vitamin c-1 (vtc1; formerly known as soz1) is deficient in ascorbic acid, accumulating approximately 30% of wild-type levels. This deficiency could result from elevated catabolism or decreased biosynthesis. No differences that could account for the deficiency were found in the activities of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation or reduction of ascorbic acid. The absolute rate of ascorbic acid turnover is actually less in vtc1 than in wild type; however, the turnover rate relative to the pool of ascorbic acid is not significantly different. The results from [U-14C]Glc labeling experiments suggest that the deficiency is the result of a biosynthetic defect: less L-[14C]ascorbic acid as a percentage of total soluble 14C accumulates in vtc1 than in wild type. The feeding of two putative biosynthetic intermediates, D-glucosone and L-sorbosone, had no positive effect on ascorbic acid levels in either genotype. The vtc1 defect does not appear to be the result of a deficiency in L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, an enzyme able to convert L-galactono-1,4-lactone to ascorbic acid. PMID:9390448

  3. Marked differences in drug-induced methemoglobinemia in sheep are not due to RBC glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, reduced glutathione, or methemoglobin reductase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.G.; Guertler, A.T.; Lagutchik, M.S.; Woodard, C.L.; Leonard, D.A.

    1993-05-13

    Benzocaine is a commonly used topical anesthetic that is structurally similar to current candidates for cyanide prophylaxis. Benzocaine induces profound methemoglobinemia in some sheep but not others. After topical benzocaine administration certain sheep respond to form MHb (elevated MHb 16-50% after a 56-280 mg dose, a 2-10 second spray with benzocine), while other phenotypically similar sheep fail to significantly form MHb (less than a 2% increase from baseline). Deficiencies in Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and MHb reductase increase the susceptibility to methemoglobinemia in man and animals. Sheep are used as a model for G-6-PD deficiency in man, and differences in this enzyme level could cause the variable response seen in these sheep. Similarly, differences in GSH and MHb reductase could be responsible for the observed differences in MHb formation.

  4. Regulation of human dihydrodiol dehydrogenase by Michael acceptor xenobiotics.

    PubMed

    Ciaccio, P J; Jaiswal, A K; Tew, K D

    1994-06-01

    A human oxidoreductase (H-37) that is overexpressed in ethacrynic acid-resistant HT29 colon cells (Ciaccio, P. J., Stuart, J.E., and Tew, K.D. (1993) Mol. Pharmacol. 43, 845-853) has been identified as a dihydrodiol dehydrogenase. Translated protein from a dihydrodiol dehydrogenase cDNA isolated from a library prepared from ethacrynic acid-resistant HT29 cell poly(A+) RNA was recognized by anti-H-37 IgG and was identical in molecular weight with H-37. The isolated cDNA was identical in both nucleotide and amino acid sequences with the recently cloned liver dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (Stolz, A., Hammond, L., Lou, H., Takikawa, H., Ronk, M., and Shively, J.E. (1993) J. Biol. Chem. 268, 10448-10457). Using this cDNA as probe, we have examined its induction by Michael acceptors. The steady state dihydrodiol dehydrogenase mRNA level in the ethacrynic acid-resistant line was increased 30-fold relative to that of wild-type cells. Twenty-four hour treatment of wild-type cells with ethacrynic acid or dimethyl maleate increased mRNA 10-fold and 5-fold, respectively. These changes are accompanied by both increased protein expression and increased NADP-dependent 1-acenaphthenol oxidative activity in cell cytosol. In gel shift assays, compared to wild type controls, increased binding of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase human antioxidant response element (hARE) DNA to redox labile protein complexes present in treated and resistant cell nuclear extract was observed. Ethacrynic acid induced CAT activity 2-fold in Hepa1 cells stably transfected with NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase hARE-tk-CAT chimeric gene construct. Thus, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase protein is inducible by de novo synthesis from mRNA by structurally related monofunctional inducer Michael acceptors. Altered in vitro binding of nuclear protein to the hARE is indirect evidence for the involvement of an element similar to hARE in the regulation of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase by these agents. PMID:7515059

  5. Severe encephalopathy associated to pyruvate dehydrogenase mutations and unbalanced coenzyme Q10 content.

    PubMed

    Asencio, Claudio; Rodríguez-Hernandez, María A; Briones, Paz; Montoya, Julio; Cortés, Ana; Emperador, Sonia; Gavilán, Angela; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Yubero, Dèlia; Montero, Raquel; Pineda, Mercedes; O'Callaghan, María M; Alcázar-Fabra, María; Salviati, Leonardo; Artuch, Rafael; Navas, Plácido

    2016-03-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is associated to a variety of clinical phenotypes including neuromuscular and nephrotic disorders. We report two unrelated boys presenting encephalopathy, ataxia, and lactic acidosis, who died with necrotic lesions in different areas of brain. Levels of CoQ10 and complex II+III activity were increased in both skeletal muscle and fibroblasts, but it was a consequence of higher mitochondria mass measured as citrate synthase. In fibroblasts, oxygen consumption was also increased, whereas steady state ATP levels were decreased. Antioxidant enzymes such as NQO1 and MnSOD and mitochondrial marker VDAC were overexpressed. Mitochondria recycling markers Fis1 and mitofusin, and mtDNA regulatory Tfam were reduced. Exome sequencing showed mutations in PDHA1 in the first patient and in PDHB in the second. These genes encode subunits of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) that could explain the compensatory increase of CoQ10 and a defect of mitochondrial homeostasis. These two cases describe, for the first time, a mitochondrial disease caused by PDH defects associated with unbalanced of both CoQ10 content and mitochondria homeostasis, which severely affects the brain. Both CoQ10 and mitochondria homeostasis appears as new markers for PDH associated mitochondrial disorders. PMID:26014431

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in aplastic anemia, Fanconi anemia and hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenhove, Lauren D; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Weinberg, Kenneth I

    2016-09-01

    Maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment depends on the ability to metabolize exogenously and endogenously generated toxins, and to repair cellular damage caused by such toxins. Reactive aldehydes have been demonstrated to cause specific genotoxic injury, namely DNA interstrand cross-links. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a member of a 19 isoenzyme ALDH family with different substrate specificities, subcellular localization, and patterns of expression. ALDH2 is localized in mitochondria and is essential for the metabolism of acetaldehyde, thereby placing it directly downstream of ethanol metabolism. Deficiency in ALDH2 expression and function are caused by a single nucleotide substitution and resulting amino acid change, called ALDH2*2. This genetic polymorphism affects 35-45% of East Asians (about ~560 million people), and causes the well-known Asian flushing syndrome, which results in disulfiram-like reactions after ethanol consumption. Recently, the ALDH2*2 genotype has been found to be associated with marrow failure, with both an increased risk of sporadic aplastic anemia and more rapid progression of Fanconi anemia. This review discusses the unexpected interrelationship between aldehydes, ALDH2 and hematopoietic stem cell biology, and in particular its relationship to Fanconi anemia. PMID:27650066

  7. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase drives heat adaptation by sequestering fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Dengke K.; Li, Zhijie; Lu, Alice Y.; Sun, Fang; Chen, Sidi; Rothe, Michael; Menzel, Ralph; Sun, Fei; Horvitz, H. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cells adapt to temperature shifts by adjusting levels of lipid desaturation and membrane fluidity. This fundamental process occurs in nearly all forms of life, but its mechanism in eukaryotes is unknown. We discovered that the evolutionarily conserved C. elegans gene acdh-11 (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, ACDH) facilitates heat adaptation by regulating the lipid desaturase FAT-7. Human ACDH deficiency causes the most common inherited disorders of fatty acid oxidation, with syndromes that are exacerbated by hyperthermia. Heat up-regulates acdh-11 expression to decrease fat-7 expression. We solved the high-resolution crystal structure of ACDH-11 and established the molecular basis of its selective and high-affinity binding to C11/C12-chain fatty acids. ACDH-11 sequesters C11/C12-chain fatty acids and prevents these fatty acids from activating nuclear hormone receptors and driving fat-7 expression. Thus, the ACDH-11 pathway drives heat adaptation by linking temperature shifts to regulation of lipid desaturase levels and membrane fluidity via an unprecedented mode of fatty acid signaling. PMID:25981666

  8. Defects in succinate dehydrogenase in gastrointestinal stromal tumors lacking KIT and PDGFRA mutations.

    PubMed

    Janeway, Katherine A; Kim, Su Young; Lodish, Maya; Nosé, Vânia; Rustin, Pierre; Gaal, José; Dahia, Patricia L M; Liegl, Bernadette; Ball, Evan R; Raygada, Margarita; Lai, Angela H; Kelly, Lorna; Hornick, Jason L; O'Sullivan, Maureen; de Krijger, Ronald R; Dinjens, Winand N M; Demetri, George D; Antonescu, Cristina R; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Helman, Lee; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2011-01-01

    Carney-Stratakis syndrome, an inherited condition predisposing affected individuals to gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and paraganglioma, is caused by germline mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunits B, C, or D, leading to dysfunction of complex II of the electron transport chain. We evaluated the role of defective cellular respiration in sporadic GIST lacking mutations in KIT or PDGFRA (WT). Thirty-four patients with WT GIST without a personal or family history of paraganglioma were tested for SDH germline mutations. WT GISTs lacking demonstrable SDH genetic inactivation were evaluated for SDHB expression by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and for complex II activity. For comparison, SDHB expression was also determined in KIT mutant and neurofibromatosis-1-associated GIST, and complex II activity was also measured in SDH-deficient paraganglioma and KIT mutant GIST; 4 of 34 patients (12%) with WT GIST without a personal or family history of paraganglioma had germline mutations in SDHB or SDHC. WT GISTs lacking somatic mutations or deletions in SDH subunits had either complete loss of or substantial reduction in SDHB protein expression, whereas most KIT mutant GISTs had strong SDHB expression. Complex II activity was substantially decreased in WT GISTs. WT GISTs, particularly those in younger patients, have defects in SDH mitochondrial complex II, and in a subset of these patients, GIST seems to arise from germline-inactivating SDH mutations. Testing for germline mutations in SDH is recommended in patients with WT GIST. These findings highlight a potential central role of SDH dysregulation in WT GIST oncogenesis.

  9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and quantity decreases after coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Teng J.; Giberson, Tyler A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key gatekeeper enzyme in aerobic metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to determine if PDH activity is affected by major stress in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which has previously been used as a model of critical illness. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients undergoing CABG at an urban, tertiary care hospital. We included adult patients undergoing CABG with or without concomitant valve surgery. Measurements of PDH activity and quantity and thiamine were obtained prior to surgery, at the completion of surgery, and 6 hours post-surgery. Results Fourteen patients were enrolled (age: 67 ± 10 years, 21 % female). Study subjects had a mean 41.7 % (SD: 27.7) reduction in PDH activity after surgery and a mean 32.0% (SD: 31.4) reduction 6 hours after surgery (p < 0.001). Eight patients were thiamine deficient (≤ 7 nmol/L) after surgery compared to none prior to surgery (p = 0.002). Thiamine level was a significantly associated with PDH quantity at all time points (p = 0.01). Post-surgery lactate levels were inversely correlated with post-surgery thiamine levels (r = −0.58 and p = 0.04). Conclusion The stress of major surgery causes decreased PDH activity and quantity, and depletion of thiamine levels. PMID:25526377

  10. E4F1-mediated control of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is essential for skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Goguet-Rubio, Perrine; Seyran, Berfin; Gayte, Laurie; Bernex, Florence; Sutter, Anne; Delpech, Hélène; Linares, Laetitia Karine; Riscal, Romain; Repond, Cendrine; Rodier, Geneviève; Kirsh, Olivier; Touhami, Jawida; Noel, Jean; Vincent, Charles; Pirot, Nelly; Pavlovic, Guillaume; Herault, Yann; Sitbon, Marc; Pellerin, Luc; Sardet, Claude; Lacroix, Matthieu; Le Cam, Laurent

    2016-09-27

    The multifunctional protein E4 transcription factor 1 (E4F1) is an essential regulator of epidermal stem cell (ESC) maintenance. Here, we found that E4F1 transcriptionally regulates a metabolic program involved in pyruvate metabolism that is required to maintain skin homeostasis. E4F1 deficiency in basal keratinocytes resulted in deregulated expression of dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (Dlat), a gene encoding the E2 subunit of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. Accordingly, E4f1 knock-out (KO) keratinocytes exhibited impaired PDH activity and a redirection of the glycolytic flux toward lactate production. The metabolic reprogramming of E4f1 KO keratinocytes associated with remodeling of their microenvironment and alterations of the basement membrane, led to ESC mislocalization and exhaustion of the ESC pool. ShRNA-mediated depletion of Dlat in primary keratinocytes recapitulated defects observed upon E4f1 inactivation, including increased lactate secretion, enhanced activity of extracellular matrix remodeling enzymes, and impaired clonogenic potential. Altogether, our data reveal a central role for Dlat in the metabolic program regulated by E4F1 in basal keratinocytes and illustrate the importance of PDH activity in skin homeostasis. PMID:27621431

  11. Genetics Home Reference: tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3. Citation on PubMed Liu TT, Chiang SH, Wu SJ, Hsiao KJ. Tetrahydrobiopterin-deficient hyperphenylalaninemia in the ... Citation on PubMed Wang L, Yu WM, He C, Chang M, Shen M, Zhou Z, Zhang Z, ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: arginase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes the amino acid arginine (a building block of proteins) and ammonia ... links) Encyclopedia: Hereditary urea cycle abnormality Health Topic: Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders Health Topic: Genetic Brain Disorders Health ...

  13. [Judicial aspect of mental deficiency].

    PubMed

    Viret, M J

    1979-01-01

    The author examines the different laws on mental deficiency with particular references to protective measures such as: different forms of guardianship and legal advice. The provisions of the laws on guardianship which do offer an effectual protection, often remain unrecognized.

  14. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  15. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity. PMID:25765687

  16. Genetics Home Reference: prekallikrein deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... a role in a process called the intrinsic coagulation pathway (also called the contact activation pathway). This ... functional plasma kallikrein, which likely impairs the intrinsic coagulation pathway. Researchers suggest that this lack (deficiency) of ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: prothrombin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients and Caregivers: How Blood Clots Orphanet: Congenital factor II deficiency University of Iowa Health Care: Prothrombin Gene Mutation Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Canadian Hemophilia Society National Hemophilia Foundation: Factor II ... Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Prothrombin ...

  18. [Niacin deficiency and cutaneous immunity].

    PubMed

    Ikenouchi-Sugita, Atsuko; Sugita, Kazunari

    2015-01-01

    Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is required for the synthesis of coenzymes, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Niacin binds with G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 109A on cutaneous Langerhans cells and causes vasodilation with flushing in head and neck area. Niacin deficiency due to excessive alcohol consumption, certain drugs or inadequate uptake in diet causes pellagra, a photosensitivity dermatitis. Recently several studies have revealed the mechanism of photosensitivity in niacin deficiency, which may pave a way for new therapeutic approaches. The expression level of prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) is up-regulated in the skin of both pellagra patients and niacin deficient pellagra mouse models. In addition, pellagra is mediated through prostaglandin E₂-EP4 (PGE₂-EP4) signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in keratinocytes. In this article, we have reviewed the role of niacin in immunity and the mechanism of niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity.

  19. Mutations in PDX1, the human lipoyl-containing component X of the pyruvate dehydrogenase-complex gene on chromosome 11p1, in congenital lactic acidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Aral, B; Benelli, C; Ait-Ghezala, G; Amessou, M; Fouque, F; Maunoury, C; Créau, N; Kamoun, P; Marsac, C

    1997-01-01

    We have identified and sequenced a cDNA that encodes an apparent human orthologue of a yeast protein-X component (ScPDX1) of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes. The new human cDNA that has been referred to as "HsPDX1" cDNA was cloned by use of the "database cloning" strategy and had a 1,506-bp open reading frame. The amino acid sequence of the protein encoded by the cDNA was 20% identical with that encoded by the yeast PDX1 gene and 40% identical with that encoded by the lipoate acetyltransferase component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and included a lipoyl-bearing domain that is conserved in some dehydrogenase enzyme complexes. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that the major HsPDX1 mRNA was 2.5 kb in length and was expressed mainly in human skeletal and cardiac muscles but was also present, at low levels, in other tissues. FISH analysis performed with a P1-derived artificial chromosome (PAC)-containing HsPDX1 gene sublocalized the gene to 11p1.3. Molecular investigation of PDX1 deficiency in four patients with neonatal lactic acidemias revealed mutations 78del85 and 965del59 in a homozygous state, and one other patient had no PDX1 mRNA expression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9399911

  20. Anomalous behaviour of yeast isocitrate dehydrogenase during isoelectric focusing

    PubMed Central

    Illingworth, John A.

    1972-01-01

    Isoelectric focusing of yeast isocitrate dehydrogenase apparently reveals a number of `isoenzymes'. These have isoelectric points near pH5.5 in crude material, but during purification the mean isoelectric point progressively rises to pH7.0 and the band pattern changes. The shift in isoelectric point during purification is apparently genuine, since it is also manifested in the electrophoretic and chromatographic properties of the enzyme. The multiple forms, however, are an artifact, generated by exposure of the enzyme to Ampholine, since their activities vary with the protein/Ampholine ratio and they cannot be observed in any system from which Ampholine is excluded. There are no detectable isoenzymes of yeast isocitrate dehydrogenase. PMID:4571177