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Sample records for del asma bronchial

  1. Bronchial thermoplasty.

    PubMed

    Cox, Gerard

    2010-03-01

    Asthma, by definition is a variable disease. When there is more than normal natural variation in airflow, asthma can be provoked by a wide range of stimuli that include infectious, allergic, and environmental agents. Bronchoconstriction determines much of the short-term variability in airflow that characterizes asthma. Current treatments do not redress the excess smooth muscle mass that is present in the remodeled airway in chronic asthma. Thus, it is intriguing to consider the potential contribution of bronchial thermoplasty (a procedure that involves controlled heat treatment to reduce the mass of the airway smooth muscle) as an effective therapy for poorly controlled asthma.

  2. Bronchial hygiene therapy.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, W T; Smith, B

    1995-01-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is useful and effective in the presence of careful patient evaluation, clear definition of therapeutic goals, and application of appropriate modalities. This article defines the variable bronchial hygiene modalities and discusses their indications, contraindications, and applications. Prophylactic and therapeutic bronchial hygiene modalities, diagnostic methods associated with bronchial hygiene therapy, inhaled antibiotic therapy, and therapist driven protocols are also addressed.

  3. Calumenin contributes to ER-Ca(2+) homeostasis in bronchial epithelial cells expressing WT and F508del mutated CFTR and to F508del-CFTR retention.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Réginald; Antigny, Fabrice; Buscaglia, Paul; Norez, Caroline; Huguet, Florentin; Castelbou, Cyril; Trouvé, Pascal; Becq, Frédéric; Frieden, Maud; Férec, Claude; Mignen, Olivier

    2017-02-04

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent fatal genetic disease in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the chloride channel CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for functional defects of the protein and multiple associated dysregulations. The most common mutation in patients with CF, F508del-CFTR, causes defective CFTR protein folding. Thus minimal levels of the receptor are expressed at the cell surface as the mutated CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it correlates with defective calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. In this study, we discovered that the Ca(2+) binding protein Calumenin (CALU) is a key regulator in the maintenance of ER-Ca(2+) calcium homeostasis in both wild type and F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Calumenin modulates SERCA pump activity without drastically affecting ER-Ca(2+) concentration. In addition, reducing Calumenin expression in CF cells results in a partial restoration of CFTR activity, highlighting a potential function of Calumenin in CFTR maturation. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for Calumenin in CF cells, providing insights into how modulation of Calumenin expression or activity may be used as a potential therapeutic tool to correct defects in F508del-CFTR.

  4. [Metastatic bronchial carcinoid tumors].

    PubMed

    Bouledrak, K; Walter, T; Souquet, P J; Lombard-Bohas, C

    2016-02-01

    Bronchial carcinoids are uncommon pulmonary neoplasms and represent 1 to 2 % of all lung tumors. In early stage of disease, the mainstay and only curative treatment is surgery. Bronchial carcinoids are generally regarded as low-grade carcinomas and metastatic dissemination is unusual. The management of the metastatic stage is not currently standardized due to a lack of relevant studies. As bronchial carcinoids and in particular their metastatic forms are rare, we apply treatment strategies that have been evaluated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. However, bronchial carcinoids have their own characteristic. A specific therapeutic feature of these metastatic tumors is that they require a dual approach: both anti-secretory for the carcinoid syndrome, and anti-tumoral.

  5. Bronchial malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Weshler, Z; Sulkes, A; Kopolovitch, J; Leviatan, A; Shifrin, E

    1980-01-01

    We describe a case of malignant melanoma presenting initially as an endobronchial lesion located in the left main bronchus causing total atelectasis. This resolved with radiation therapy. Widespread metastases developed shortly thereafter. The differential diagnosis of primary and metastatic bronchial malignant melanoma is discussed. Other isolated case reports are reviewed.

  6. Gastro-bronchial fistula

    PubMed Central

    Missen, Anthony J. B.; Pemberton, James; Boon, Andrew

    1974-01-01

    1. Gastro-bronchial fistula is a rare condition occurring most commonly as a complication of a subphrenic abscess. 2. Other causes include trauma and necrosis within an infiltrating neoplasm. 3. The treatment of those fistulae which are secondary to a subphrenic abscess should be by drainage of the abscess, jejunal tube feeding and continuous gastric aspiration. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:4464513

  7. [Expression of CD152 and CD137 on T regulatory cells in rhinitis and bronchial asthma patients].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Ramos, Enrique; Martínez-Jiménez, Norma E; Verdejo-Hernández, Billy; Vázquez, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: la rinitis alérgica y el asma bronquial son enfermedades inflamatorias cuya prevalencia ha aumentado en las últimas dos décadas. Los estudios de la respuesta inflamatoria en estas enfermedades muestran que las células T reguladoras (Treg) participan en la tolerancia inmunológica. La expresión de CTLA-4 (CD152) se asocia con la actividad funcional de esta población y la expresión de 4-1BB (CD137) tiene un papel controvertido. Objetivo: determinar la existencia de CTLA-4 y 4-1BB en las células Treg en sangre periférica de pacientes con rinitis, asma, o ambas. Material y método: estudio transversal comparativo en el que se reclutaron tres grupos de pacientes: 20 sujetos con rinitis alérgica, 17 sujetos con asma bronquial y 17 con ambos padecimientos. Se formó un grupo control de 19 sujetos sanos. Se analizó la frecuencia de células Treg en sangre periférica y la expresión de CD152 y CD137 en los diferentes grupos mediante citometría de flujo. Resultados: se encontró menor frecuencia estadísticamente significativa de células Treg (CD4+, CD25altas y FoxP3+) en los grupos de sujetos con: asma bronquial (p<0.001) y en el grupo de rinitis alérgica con asma bronquial (p<0.05) respecto del grupo de sujetos sanos. Los pacientes con asma bronquial únicamente tuvieron mayor frecuencia de células Treg que expresan CD152 (p <0.01) y CD137 (p<0.01) respecto del grupo control. Conclusiones: los sujetos con asma bronquial y rinitis alérgica y asma bronquial únicamente tienen deficiencia de Treg CD4+, CD25altas y FoxP3+ en sangre periférica y los sujetos con asma bronquial tienen mayor frecuencia de células Treg que expresan CD152 y CD137.

  8. [The history of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Carlo-Stella, N

    1998-01-01

    The history of bronchial asthma from ancient times is traced. The first accounts of asthma in the ancient Greeks and Romans with clinical descriptions by Aretus of Cappadocia and Aulus Celsus Cornelius are recounted. These are followed by the medieval habits of the Middle East as described by Moises Maimonides. The Renaissance is witness to a new scientific fervor in postulating theories on the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma by van Helmont, Willis and Floyer. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries will see the discovery of the anatomical foundation of bronchial asthma thanks largely to the technical advances in the diagnostic field by Auerbrugge and Laennec. The allergic nature of bronchial asthma is studied by Salter. S Meltzer's hypothesis of histamine release as the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma leads the way for the twentieth century's leading discoveries.

  9. [Rhino-bronchial syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gani, F; Vallese, G; Piglia, P; Senna, G; Mezzelani, P; Pozzi, E

    2000-12-01

    A close anatomical and functional relationship between superior and inferior airways is well documented. A typical example is offered by the close relationship between allergic rhinitis and asthma whose close connection is documented by epidemiological and pathological data. The mechanisms which can explain this phenomenon are not fully known but naso-bronchial reflexes, mouth-breathing due to nasal obstruction and aspiration of nasal secretions seem all to be important. Moreover it has been recently proved that the treatment of rhinitis can improve the concomitant asthma thus confirming their relationship. Another less frequent association is between sinusitis and asthma. Such a connection seems to be frequent in patients suffering of atopic rhinitis but also in patients presenting a nasal obstruction of different nature such as deviations of the nasal septum, adenoid hypertrophy etc. Also in this case a correct medical or surgical treatment of sinusitis can improve asthma symptomathology. Finally a classic example of involvement of superior and inferior airways is represented by the syndrome of ASA intolerance. These patients in fact initially complain of rhinitis which afterwards is complicated by the onset of nasal polyposis and asthma which can prove clinically very severe. Nowadays, anyway, there is no evidence that the treatment of rhinitis or polypectomy can improve the clinical course of asthma. In conclusion, diseases of superior and inferior airways must be considered in strict connection and need the same global treatment.

  10. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  12. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 868.5720 - Bronchial tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bronchial tube. 868.5720 Section 868.5720 Food and... ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5720 Bronchial tube. (a) Identification. A bronchial tube is a... leading directly to the lung) in order to isolate a portion of lung distal to the tube. (b)...

  15. [The history of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Glück, U

    1992-10-01

    'Panta rhei': everything flows. The significance of bronchial asthma is currently changing to no less a degree than medicine itself. In order to know where we are, we must know where we have come from. The historical course of bronchial asthma to some extent reflects the history of medicine itself: the Hellenic systems were followed by Byzantine, Galenic teaching methods, while Humanism and the Renaissance were followed by the considerable fireworks of early modern medicine. This continued with Magendie's experimental revolution in the 19th century and, finally, analytic medical research up to today.

  16. The Significance of Bronchial Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Maisel, John C.; Silvers, G. Wayne; George, Marlyce S.; Dart, Gladys A.; Petty, Thomas L.; Mitchell, Roger S.

    1972-01-01

    In a 4-year period, 196 lungs from patients with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were examined postmortem for the presence of atrophy in segmental and subsegmental bronchi. As a result of simultaneous postmortem spirometry, cinefluorobronchography and partitioning of airways resistance, plus later assessment of anatomic emphysema, bronchial atrophy emerges as only one of at least three factors usually cooperating in production of abnormal expiratory airway collapse. In selected cases, bronchial atrophy appears to be an important contributor to expiratory airways obstruction. ImagesFig 1 PMID:5021107

  17. Bronchial responsiveness in active steelworkers.

    PubMed

    Corhay, J L; Bury, T; Louis, R; Delavignette, J P; Kayembe, J M; Weber, G; Albert, A; Radermecker, M F

    1998-02-01

    Coke-oven workers are exposed to dust and irritant gases. Therefore they are at risk of developing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) has been advocated as a potential risk factor predisposing to the development of chronic bronchitis. In a previous study, we showed that prevalence of BHR was higher in retired coke-oven workers than in retired blast furnace workers. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of BHR in active steelworkers. Thus, 137 coke-oven workers and 150 blast furnace workers underwent clinical examination, a standardized questionnaire for the study of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing and methacholine aerosol challenge. The study demonstrates a higher prevalence and degree of BHR [provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) < or = 8 mg x mL(-1)] in coke-oven workers than in blast furnace workers (31.4 versus 6.7%; p<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and basal bronchial obstruction were greater among coke-oven workers with BHR in nonresponders. The basal maximum expiratory flow from 25-75% of forced vital capacity and the respiratory symptoms were correlated with bronchial responsiveness. The lack of correlation observed between BHR and the intensity of smoking or years spent in coke-oven environment may be explained by the high proportion of smokers, the worker turnover in the steel plant, and the "healthy worker effect". In conclusion, the higher prevalence and degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in coke-oven workers suggests that coke-oven pollutants are more intense irritants than those that escape from blast furnaces.

  18. Bronchial haemangioma: exceptionally rare cause of haemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Scott; Tharion, John; Jones, Peter; Brown, Michael

    2013-12-01

    Bronchial haemangioma is an exceptionally rare cause of haemoptysis in the adult. There are currently less than 10 recorded cases in the literature. Airway haemangiomas are generally seen in infants with coexistent cutaneous haemangiomas. The incidence of bronchial haemangioma in adults remains unknown. This case reports the diagnosis and treatment of a bronchial haemangioma in a 56 year-old male presenting with a one-month history of haemoptysis. Bronchial haemangioma diagnosis was confirmed and excision performed by bronchoscopy without complication. Bronchial haemangioma should be a considered differential diagnosis in the presence of meaningful haemoptysis when an endoluminal lesion is visualised on computed tomography scan. This case also demonstrates that bronchial haemangiomas can be successfully removed via bronchoscopy with minimal risk and discomfort to the patient.

  19. Roles of the outer membrane protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the control of marRAB expression and invasion of epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Ana I; Hernández, Sara B; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-06-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of approximately 70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA(+) and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro.

  20. Roles of the Outer Membrane Protein AsmA of Salmonella enterica in the Control of marRAB Expression and Invasion of Epithelial Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Ana I.; Hernández, Sara B.; Cota, Ignacio; Pucciarelli, M. Graciela; Orlov, Yuri; Ramos-Morales, Francisco; García-del Portillo, Francisco; Casadesús, Josep

    2009-01-01

    A genetic screen for suppressors of bile sensitivity in DNA adenine methylase (dam) mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium yielded insertions in an uncharacterized locus homologous to the Escherichia coli asmA gene. Disruption of asmA suppressed bile sensitivity also in phoP and wec mutants of S. enterica and increased the MIC of sodium deoxycholate for the parental strain ATCC 14028. Increased levels of marA mRNA were found in asmA, asmA dam, asmA phoP, and asmA wec strains of S. enterica, suggesting that lack of AsmA activates expression of the marRAB operon. Hence, asmA mutations may enhance bile resistance by inducing gene expression changes in the marRAB-controlled Mar regulon. In silico analysis of AsmA structure predicted the existence of one transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis of subcellular fractions revealed that the asmA gene of S. enterica encodes a protein of ∼70 kDa located in the outer membrane. Because AsmA is unrelated to known transport and/or efflux systems, we propose that activation of marRAB in asmA mutants may be a consequence of envelope reorganization. Competitive infection of BALB/c mice with asmA+ and asmA isogenic strains indicated that lack of AsmA attenuates Salmonella virulence by the oral route but not by the intraperitoneal route. Furthermore, asmA mutants showed a reduced ability to invade epithelial cells in vitro. PMID:19346309

  1. [Epidural emphysema complicating bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Rouetbi, N; Ben Saad, A; Joobeur, S; Skhiri, N; Cheikh Mhamed, S; Mribah, H; El Kamel, A

    2012-12-01

    Epidural emphysema is an exceptional complication of bronchial asthma, revealed by an incidental finding in chest tomography. We report a case of a 21-year-old man admitted with asthma attack complicated by subcutaneous and mediastinal emphysema. Chest tomography confirmed the mediastinal emphysema and also revealed the epidural emphysema within the vertebral canal. Neurological examination was negative. The patient showed complete recovery 10days after the onset of symptoms. The epidural emphysema is a rare complication during asthma attacks. The benignity of this complication should not require a systematic chest tomography.

  2. [Applications for bronchial blockers in thoracic surgery].

    PubMed

    García-Guasch, R; Campos, J H; Granell, M; Peña, J J

    2007-11-01

    One-lung ventilation is commonly used to facilitate visualization of the field during thoracic surgery. New devices for performing this technique that have become available over the past 2 decades include the Univent bronchial blocker incorporated in a single-lumen tube, the Arndt endobronchial blocker, and the Cohen endobronchial blocker. Although insertion of a double-lumen tube is still the method used most often to isolate the lung, bronchial blockade is an increasingly common technique and, in certain clinical settings, provides advantages over the double-lumen tube. This review provides an update on new concepts in the use of bronchial blockers as a technique for lung isolation and one-lung ventilation. The literature search was performed on MEDLINE through PubMed using the keywords bronchial blockers and thoracic surgery. The search span started with 1982-the year the first modern bronchial blocker was described - and ended with February 2006.

  3. Impact of bronchial circulation on bronchial exudation following combined burn and smoke inhalation injury in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Morita, Naoki; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Westphal, Martin; Murakami, Kazunori; Hawkins, Hal K.; Cox, Robert A.; Traber, Lillian. D.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    We previously reported bronchial circulation contributes to pulmonary edema and increases shunt fraction following smoke inhalation, and bronchial blood flow significantly increases in inhalation injury. We hypothesized reduction of bronchial blood flow reduces exudation to the airway and ameliorates lung injury from combined burn and smoke insults (B & S injury). Method Merino ewes (n=28) randomly divided into three groups (1: bronchial artery ligated and injured (Injury + ligation group); 2: bronchial artery left intact and injured (Injury + no ligation group); 3: bronchial artery ligated but not injured (No injury + ligation group) were subjected to a flame burn and inhalation injury under halothane anesthesia. Parameters were analyzed using Scheffe’s post hoc test (P<0.05). All Groups were resuscitated with Ringer lactate solution and placed on a ventilator for 48 hours. Results Pulmonary gas exchange (PaO2/FiO2) improved in injury + ligation group. Further, obstruction score, an index of airway cast formation, significantly changed between injury + no ligation group compared to both ligation groups. Conclusion Bronchial circulation plays a significant role in lung injury after B & S injury, and reduction of bronchial blood flow by bronchial artery ligation reduces bronchial exudation, resulting in improved gas exchange. PMID:21195551

  4. Permanent cortical blindness after bronchial artery embolization.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, Colette S; De Boo, Diederick W; Weersink, Els J M; van Delden, Otto M; Reekers, Jim A; van Lienden, Krijn P

    2013-12-01

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  5. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Doorn, Colette S. van De Boo, Diederick W.; Weersink, Els J. M.; Delden, Otto M. van Reekers, Jim A. Lienden, Krijn P. van

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  6. Anatomical modeling of the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, Gerrit; Klinder, Tobias; Blaffert, Thomas; Bülow, Thomas; Wiemker, Rafael; Lorenz, Cristian

    2010-02-01

    The bronchial tree is of direct clinical importance in the context of respective diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It furthermore constitutes a reference structure for object localization in the lungs and it finally provides access to lung tissue in, e.g., bronchoscope based procedures for diagnosis and therapy. This paper presents a comprehensive anatomical model for the bronchial tree, including statistics of position, relative and absolute orientation, length, and radius of 34 bronchial segments, going beyond previously published results. The model has been built from 16 manually annotated CT scans, covering several branching variants. The model is represented as a centerline/tree structure but can also be converted in a surface representation. Possible model applications are either to anatomically label extracted bronchial trees or to improve the tree extraction itself by identifying missing segments or sub-trees, e.g., if located beyond a bronchial stenosis. Bronchial tree labeling is achieved using a naïve Bayesian classifier based on the segment properties contained in the model in combination with tree matching. The tree matching step makes use of branching variations covered by the model. An evaluation of the model has been performed in a leaveone- out manner. In total, 87% of the branches resulting from preceding airway tree segmentation could be correctly labeled. The individualized model enables the detection of missing branches, allowing a targeted search, e.g., a local rerun of the tree-segmentation segmentation.

  7. Pendelluft in the bronchial tree

    PubMed Central

    Greenblatt, Elliot E.; Butler, James P.; Venegas, Jose G.

    2014-01-01

    Inhomogeneous inflation or deflation of the lungs can cause dynamic pressure differences between regions and lead to interregional airflows known as pendelluft. This work first uses analytical tools to clarify the theoretical limits of pendelluft at a single bifurcation. It then explores the global and regional pendelluft that may occur throughout the bronchial tree in a realistic example using an in silico model of bronchoconstriction. The theoretical limits of pendelluft volume exchanged at a local bifurcation driven by sinusoidal breathing range from 15.5% to 41.4% depending on the relative stiffness of the subtended regions. When nonsinusoidal flows are considered, pendelluft can be as high as 200% inlet tidal volume (Vin). At frequencies greater than 10 Hz, the inertia of the air in the airways becomes important, and the maximal local pendelluft is theoretically unbounded, even with sinusoidal breathing. In a single illustrative numerical simulation of bronchoconstriction with homogenous compliances, the overall magnitude of global pendelluft volume was <2% of the tidal volume. Despite the small overall magnitude, pendelluft volume exchange was concentrated in poorly ventilated regions of the lung, including local pendelluft at bifurcations of up to 13% Vin. This example suggests that pendelluft may be an important phenomena contributing to regional gas exchange, irreversible mixing, and aerosol deposition patterns inside poorly ventilated regions of the lung. The analytical results support the concept that pendelluft may be more prominent in diseases with significant heterogeneity in both resistance and compliance. PMID:25170072

  8. An optimal bronchial tree may be dangerous.

    PubMed

    Mauroy, B; Filoche, M; Weibel, E R; Sapoval, B

    2004-02-12

    The geometry and dimensions of branched structures such as blood vessels or airways are important factors in determining the efficiency of physiological processes. It has been shown that fractal trees can be space filling and can ensure minimal dissipation. The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system with an approximate fractal structure. Here we present a study of the compatibility between physical optimization and physiological robustness in the design of the human bronchial tree. We show that this physical optimization is critical in the sense that small variations in the geometry can induce very large variations in the net air flux. Maximum physical efficiency therefore cannot be a sufficient criterion for the physiological design of bronchial trees. Rather, the design of bronchial trees must be provided with a safety factor and the capacity for regulating airway calibre. Paradoxically, our results suggest that bronchial malfunction related to asthma is a necessary consequence of the optimized efficiency of the tree structure.

  9. An optimal bronchial treemay be dangerous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauroy, B.; Filoche, M.; Weibel, E. R.; Sapoval, B.

    2004-02-01

    The geometry and dimensions of branched structures such as blood vessels or airways are important factors in determining the efficiency of physiological processes. It has been shown that fractal trees can be space filling and can ensure minimal dissipation. The bronchial tree of most mammalian lungs is a good example of an efficient distribution system with an approximate fractal structure. Here we present a study of the compatibility between physical optimization and physiological robustness in the design of the human bronchial tree. We show that this physical optimization is critical in the sense that small variations in the geometry can induce very large variations in the net air flux. Maximum physical efficiency therefore cannot be a sufficient criterion for the physiological design of bronchial trees. Rather, the design of bronchial trees must be provided with a safety factor and the capacity for regulating airway calibre. Paradoxically, our results suggest that bronchial malfunction related to asthma is a necessary consequence of the optimized efficiency of the tree structure.

  10. The Bronchial Challenge Test: A New Direction in Asthmatic Management

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Calvin

    1983-01-01

    Bronchial asthma can be diagnosed when a patient develops the clinical manifestations of bronchial reactivity: wheezing, cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea. Occasionally, despite immunotherapy, bronchodilator therapy, and avoidance of the provocative factors, some asthmatic patients do not respond to treatment. Bronchial inhalation challenge, a method to test airway reactivity after inhalation of a nonspecific drug, can be used to plan and assess different modes of treatment, as well as screen for bronchial hyperreactivity in an occupational setting. PMID:6827612

  11. Affinity of bronchial secretion glycoproteins and cells of human bronchial mucosa for Ricinus communis lectins.

    PubMed

    Lhermitte, M; Lamblin, G; Degand, P; Roussel, P; Mazzuca, M

    1977-01-01

    The coupling of Ricinus communis lectins to Sephadex G 25 was used in order to study mucins and other glycoproteins from human bronchial secretion. The major part of human bronchial mucins and other glycoproteins such as immunoglobulins A, bronchotransferrin and alpha1-antichymotrypsin were isolated by this procedure. A parallel study of human bronchial mucosa was achieved with peroxidase labeled Ricinus communis lectins; this study characterized goblet cells and mucous cells which contain mucins, and serous cells which are involved in the synthesis or the secretion of the other glycoproteins.

  12. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in farmers.

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, M; Dahl, R; Jensen, E J; Korsgaard, J; Hallas, T

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and type of lung function disorders in Danish farmers. Three samples of farmers were drawn from a group of unselected farmers who had participated in an epidemiological study. Group I (47 persons) was a sample of the 8% of all farmers who had reported that they had asthma; group II (63 persons) was a sample of the 28% of farmers who had had wheezing, shortness of breath, or cough without phlegm; and group III (34 persons) a sample of the farmers (64% of the total) who had no asthma and no respiratory symptoms. The farmers with symptoms (groups I and II) had low mean levels of FEV1 and high values for residual volume, whereas the symptomless farmers had normal lung function and no airways obstruction. The proportion of farmers with an FEV1 below the 95% confidence limit for predicted values was 43% in group I and 23% in group II; there were none in group III. Bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine occurred in 96% of asthmatic farmers, 67% of farmers with wheezing or shortness of breath, and 59% of symptomless farmers. A low level of FEV1 was associated with the number of years in pig farming and bronchial hyperreactivity in group II but not group I or III. Most of the bronchial hyperreactivity was explained in the multiple regression analysis by a low FEV1, though this was significant only for farmers in group II. Thus farmers who reported asthma, wheezing, shortness of breath, or a dry cough in general had airways obstruction with an increased residual volume, whereas symptomless farmers had normal lung function. Severe bronchial hyperreactivity was mostly explained by a diagnosis of asthma and poor lung function, though some farmers with normal lung function and no respiratory symptoms had increased bronchial reactivity. PMID:2799744

  13. [Serum and bronchial concentrations of amoxicillin administered with a bronchial fluidizer].

    PubMed

    Concia, E; Dos Santos, C; Marone, P; Sardi, C; Cremaschi, P

    1982-03-01

    The authors compared the serum and bronchial concentration of amoxycillin administered alone and in association with carboxymethylcysteine. The determinations were carried out in 10 patients affected with exacerbated acute and chronic bronchopneumopathies, treated first with amoxycillin alone (15 g/day in 3 administrations) and then with amoxycillin at the same dosage and carboxymethylcysteine (450 mg/day in 3 administrations). The bronchial secretions were collected during bronchoscopy performed 2 hours after the last administration of antibiotic. The bronchial secretion values of amoxycillin administered alone varied from 0.92 mcg/ml to 1.88 mcg/ml with a mean value of 1.44 mcg/ml. The percentage ratio between levels in bronchial secretion and levels in the serum varied from 12.7 to 36.1 with a mean value of 23.2. The administration of the amoxycillin-fluidizing agent association determined a statistically significant increase of the antibiotic levels in the bronchial secretions, varying from 1.26 mcg/ml to 6.39 mcg/ml, with a percentage ratio from 19.6 to 103.0.

  14. Modulation of the Cholinergic Mechanisms in the Bronchial Smooth Muscle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    STANDARDS 16r A CD in UMODULATION OF THE CHOLINERGICMECHANISMS IN THE BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN FOR THE DOCTOR...MECHANISMS IN THE BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN FOR THE DOCTOR SCIENTIARUM DEGREE by Pi1 An E% LECTE3 NORE/PUBL-84...DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 118 FFITOX/465/001 4) TITLE MODULATION OF THE CHOLINERGIC MECHANISMS IN THE BRONCHIAL SMOOTH MUSCLE (A thesis submitted to

  15. Malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts decrease bronchial epithelial wound repair.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Todd A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Tuma, Dean J; Sisson, Joseph H; Spurzem, John R

    2005-05-01

    Most people who abuse alcohol are cigarette smokers. Previously, we have shown that malondialdehyde, an inflammation product of lipid peroxidation, and acetaldehyde, a component of both ethanol metabolism and cigarette smoke, form protein adducts that stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) activation in bronchial epithelial cells. We have also shown that PKC can regulate bronchial epithelial cell wound repair. We hypothesize that bovine serum albumin adducted with malondialdehyde and acetaldehyde (BSA-MAA) decreases bronchial epithelial cell wound repair via binding to scavenger receptors on bronchial epithelial cells. To test this, confluent monolayers of bovine bronchial epithelial cells were grown in serum-free media prior to wounding the cells. Bronchial epithelial cell wound closure was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner (up to 60%) in the presence of BSA-MAA than in media treated cells (Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis [LHC]-9-Roswell Park Memorial Institute [RPMI]). The specific scavenger receptor ligand, fucoidan, also stimulated PKC activation and decreased wound repair. Pretreatment with fucoidan blocked malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde binding to bronchial epithelial cells. When bronchial epithelial cells were preincubated with a PKC alpha inhibitor, Gö 6976, the inhibition of wound closure by fucoidan and BSA-MAA was blocked. Western blot demonstrated the presence of several scavenger receptors on bronchial epithelial cell membranes, including SRA, SRBI, SRBII, and CD36. Scavenger receptor-mediated activation of PKC alpha may function to reduce wound healing under conditions of alcohol and cigarette smoke exposure where malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde adducts may be present.

  16. Eosinophils promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Atsushi; Hosoki, Koa; Toda, Masaaki; Miyake, Yasushi; Matsushima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Boveda-Ruiz, Daniel; Gil-Bernabe, Paloma; Nagao, Mizuho; Sugimoto, Mayumi; Hiraguchi, Yukiko; Tokuda, Reiko; Naito, Masahiro; Takagi, Takehiro; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Suga, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Fujisawa, Takao; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling of the airways including subepithelial fibrosis and myofibroblast hyperplasia are characteristic pathological findings of bronchial asthma. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a critical role in airway remodelling. In this study, we hypothesized that infiltrating eosinophils promote airway remodelling in bronchial asthma. To demonstrate this hypothesis we evaluated the effect of eosinophils on EMT by in vitro and in vivo studies. EMT was assessed in mice that received intra-tracheal instillation of mouse bone marrow derived eosinophils and in human bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with eosinophils freshly purified from healthy individuals or with eosinophilic leukemia cell lines. Intra-tracheal instillation of eosinophils was associated with enhanced bronchial inflammation and fibrosis and increased lung concentration of growth factors. Mice instilled with eosinophils pre-treated with transforming growth factor(TGF)-β1 siRNA had decreased bronchial wall fibrosis compared to controls. EMT was induced in bronchial epithelial cells co-cultured with human eosinophils and it was associated with increased expression of TGF-β1 and Smad3 phosphorylation in the bronchial epithelial cells. Treatment with anti-TGF-β1 antibody blocked EMT in bronchial epithelial cells. Eosinophils induced EMT in bronchial epithelial cells, suggesting their contribution to the pathogenesis of airway remodelling.

  17. Bronchial wall region extraction algorithm using multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Kengo; Saita, Shinsuke; Kubo, Mitsuru; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Nakano, Yasutaka; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Takiguchi, Yuichi; Kawata, Naoko; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    As multi-slice CT develops, there are great expectations for an automatic and computer-support diagnoses. This research is on bronchial area which is composed of the bronchial wall regions and the air regions in the internal bronchial tube. Since to diagnose this is difficult, support diagnosis using CT images is desired. The thickness of bronchial wall changes as the airway of early lung cancer, bronchial asthma and the bronchial enhancing syndrome and others change into a malignant state. These changes are detected and the thickness of bronchial wall becomes important information. In this research, the extraction accuracy of the algorithm for bronchial wall evaluation is good.

  18. Bronchial Aneurysms Mimicking Aortic Aneurysms: Endovascular Treatment in Two Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vernhet, Helene; Bousquet, Claudine; Jean, Betty; Lesnik, Alvian; Durand, Gerard; Giron, Jacques; Senac, Jean Paul

    1999-05-15

    Bronchial artery dilatation and aneurysm formation is a potential complication of local inflammation, especially in bronchiectasis. When the bronchial artery has an ectopic origin from the inferior segment of the aortic arch, aneurysms may mimick aortic aneurysms. Despite this particular location, endovascular treatment is possible. We report two such aneurysms that were successfully embolized with steel coils.

  19. Bronchial reactions to exposure to welding fumes.

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, G R; Chan-Yeung, M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the airway response and its mechanism to welding fumes in six welders with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: Methacholine and welding challenge tests were carried out. The concentration of welding fumes during the exposure test was measured. On two subjects who developed bronchoconstricition to welding challenge, additional tests were carried out including prick, patch, and inhalation challenges with metal salt solutions. RESULTS: Three subjects developed immediate bronchial reaction to exposure to welding fume; one to mild steel and stainless steel welding, another to mild steel and galvanised welding, and one only to galvanised welding. They all had a moderate to pronounced degree of non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The concentration of fumes during welding tests, particularly to galvanised welding, was high. An inhalation challenge test with zinc chloride salt solution in two subjects who reacted to galvanised welding was negative. Prick and patch tests with zinc chloride were also negative. CONCLUSION: The airway response to welding in these subjects is non-specific and is due to irritation rather than to sensitisation. PMID:9538358

  20. Bronchial Artery Aneurysm with Associated Bronchial Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula: Treatment by Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Caleb G; Le, Thomas; Fogelfeld, Keren; Kamangar, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is a rare vascular phenomenon. This review highlights a case of a BAA that was complicated by the presence of a bronchial artery to pulmonary artery (BA-PA) fistula, consequently presenting a unique challenge to management. BAAs have a strongly reported risk of rupture resulting in life-threatening hemoptysis. Embolization has thus become routine for the management such severe cases. The management of incidentally found anomalies is less obvious, but prophylactic embolization is a generally accepted practice. In this report, we review some of the risks and benefits associated with BAA embolization with specific consideration of the challenges in cases of co-existing BA-PA fistula. PMID:28217405

  1. [Serum immunoglobulin E level in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Radkov, M; Lipcheva, N

    1976-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin E level was determined in 50 patients with bronchial asthma, treated in the out-patients department and clinical conditions at the Faculty Hospital--Varna. The quantitative determination of immunoglobulin E was carried out by radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini with monospecific anti-IgE globulin serum from Behringswerke (GFR). A considerable elevation of immunoglobulin E in the patients' sera was found, at an average of 394 IU (control 124 IU). A discrepancy in serum immunoglobulin E level was established with the different clinical forms of asthma. The highest are the values with infectious-allergic astmha-424 IU. High are the values both in the treated and not-treated with corticosteroids, without an essential difference between the two patient groups. Some of the rest immunoglobulins showed also an elevationppIgG 2620 mg% and IgA 366 mg%.

  2. Treatment of bronchial asthma with tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Lechin, F; van der Dijs, B; Lechin, A E

    2004-11-01

    Although circulating catecholamines and free serotonin in the plasma (f-5-HT) were found to be increased during asthma attacks, only f-5-HT levels correlated positively with bronchoconstriction and clinical severity. Tianeptine, a drug that enhances serotonin uptake by platelets and serotonergic axons at the central nervous system (CNS), provoked an abrupt disappearance of asthma attacks. This fact explains why tianeptine has proven to be a powerful therapeutic tool in controlling asthma. Its success has been demonstrated not only in two double-blind placebo, cross-over trials, but through an open study lasting more than seven years that included over 25,000 asthmatic patients. In the present article, we discuss the peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms that may explain the therapeutic success of tianeptine. These are summarized below. F-5-HT is taken up by pulmonary endocrine cells (PNEC) located at the parasympathetic terminals. A presynaptic element, these cells release serotonin and potentiate acetylcholine (ACh)-induced contraction of bronchial muscle. This effect is mediated by 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) postsynaptic receptors located at the bronchial muscle. According to the above, the increased f-5-HT plasma level, triggered by both platelet aggregation and nocturnal and/or diurnal hyperparasympathetic activity, potentiates ACh-induced bronchoconstriction. The fact that serotonin released by medullary serotonergic axons stimulates the medullary vagal cardiorespiratory neurons obliges us to think that serotonin-induced CNS mechanisms are also involved. Furthermore, the finding that drugs that interfere with serotonin uptake, by both platelets and 5-HT-terminals, worsen asthma symptoms and are able to provoke asthma attacks gives additional support to the above peripheral and CNS mechanisms.

  3. IL4 and IL-17A provide a Th2/Th17-polarized inflammatory milieu in favor of TGF-β1 to induce bronchial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiaoying; Li, Jinxiu; Xu, Li; Wang, Wenjing; Luo, Ming; Luo, Shuangling; Ma, Libing; Li, Keng; Gong, Subo; He, Long; Zhang, Zhijun; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Zhiguang; Xiang, Xudong; Wang, Cong-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Severe asthma is a chronic airway disease characterized by the Th2/Th17-polarized inflammation along with permanent airway remodeling. Despite past extensive studies, the exact role for Th2 and Th17 cytokines in asthmatic pathoetiology, particularly in the pathogenesis of bronchial epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is yet to be fully addressed. We herein conducted studies in 16-HBE cells and demonstrated that Th2-derived IL-4 and Th17-derived IL-17A provide a chronic inflammatory milieu that favors TGF-β1 to induce bronchial EMT. A synergic action was noted between TGF-β1, IL-4 and IL-17A in terms of induction of EMT. IL-4 and IL-17A synergized with TGF-β1 to induce epithelial cells re-entering cell cycle, and to promote epithelial to mesenchymal morphological transistion, and by which they enhanced the capacity of TGF-β1 to suppress E-cadherin expression, and to induce a-SMA expression in epithelial cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that this synergic action is coordinated by the regulation of ERK1/2 activity. Our results not only provide a novel insight into the understanding of the mechanisms underlying airway remodeling in asthmatic condition, but also have the potential for developing more effective therapeutic strategies against severe asthmatics in clinical settings. PMID:23923066

  4. Bronchial epithelium in children: a key player in asthma.

    PubMed

    Carsin, Ania; Mazenq, Julie; Ilstad, Alexandra; Dubus, Jean-Christophe; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine

    2016-06-01

    Bronchial epithelium is a key element of the respiratory airways. It constitutes the interface between the environment and the host. It is a physical barrier with many chemical and immunological properties. The bronchial epithelium is abnormal in asthma, even in children. It represents a key component promoting airway inflammation and remodelling that can lead to chronic symptoms. In this review, we present an overview of bronchial epithelium and how to study it, with a specific focus on children. We report physical, chemical and immunological properties from ex vivo and in vitro studies. The responses to various deleterious agents, such as viruses or allergens, may lead to persistent abnormalities orchestrated by bronchial epithelial cells. As epithelium dysfunctions occur early in asthma, reprogramming the epithelium may represent an ambitious goal to induce asthma remission in children.

  5. [Optimal therapy of children with bronchial asthma at Pyatigorsk spa].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, M Iu; Ivanova, N A; Shabalov, N P

    2007-01-01

    The study of efficacy of bronchial asthma children's rehabilitation at Pyatigorsk spa with different schemes of treatment has shown that combined treatment with dry air-radon baths and halotherapy is more effective than each of these modalities alone.

  6. [The measurement of bronchial hyperreactivity for military service fitness].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Grasso, S; Corbo, G M; Ciappi, G

    1991-10-01

    The authors discuss the efficacy of methacholine challenge to discriminate fit subjects to military service. We evaluated the relation between bronchial hyperreactivity and clinical symptoms, airways caliber and atopic status in a group of italian conscripts who reported to have bronchial asthma. Five-hundred-four subjects were studied. Bronchial hyperreactivity was measured by methacholine test, and atopic status was assessed by skin-tests. A measurable PC20 FEV1 was detected in 424 subjects. On the basis of the methacholine threshold concentration the overall sample was divided in four categories. The four categories differed as regards onset of disease, lung function and skin reactivity towards Dermatophagoides Pter, whereas no difference was found as regards skin reactivity towards Grass. In the group evaluated in spring, the four categories differed as regards skin reactivity towards Grass. In conclusion we found that bronchial hyperreactivity is related to clinical history, lung function and atopic status; the measurement of bronchial hyperreactivity is important to evaluate conscripts referring bronchial asthma.

  7. Lack of Clinical Relevance of ANA and ASMA Positivity in Patients with Liver Transplantation without a History of Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Lucienne; Parrilli, Gianpaolo; Santonicola, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Caputo, Cesare; Ciacci, Carolina; Zingone, Fabiana

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of isolated autoimmunity elevation in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients is unknown. Our aim was to analyse how serum autoantibodies change in time and to evaluate their clinical relevance in OLT patients. Patients were invited to provide samples to evaluate ANA, AMA, ASMA, and LKM at the time of enrolment (T0), after 6 months (T6), and after 12 months (T12). We included 114 patients in the study (76% males, median age 62.5 years), finding isolated elevation of at least one serum antibody in up to 80% of them. We described fluctuating positive autoantibodies in the one year of observation, with only 45.6% of patients positive for ANA and less than 2% positive for ASMA, at all three times. Isolated elevation of tissue antibodies was not related to gender, age, HCC at transplant, early rejection, cause of transplantation, immunotherapy taken, and age at the time of the study. We did not detect a higher prevalence of positive autoimmunity in patients with signs of liver injury. ANA and ASMA evaluation in patients with liver transplantation and no history of autoimmune disease has no clinical relevance, since it varies in time and is not related to any risk factors or liver injury. Routine autoimmunity evaluation should be avoided.

  8. Lack of Clinical Relevance of ANA and ASMA Positivity in Patients with Liver Transplantation without a History of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Lucienne; Parrilli, Gianpaolo; Santonicola, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Caputo, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    The relevance of isolated autoimmunity elevation in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients is unknown. Our aim was to analyse how serum autoantibodies change in time and to evaluate their clinical relevance in OLT patients. Patients were invited to provide samples to evaluate ANA, AMA, ASMA, and LKM at the time of enrolment (T0), after 6 months (T6), and after 12 months (T12). We included 114 patients in the study (76% males, median age 62.5 years), finding isolated elevation of at least one serum antibody in up to 80% of them. We described fluctuating positive autoantibodies in the one year of observation, with only 45.6% of patients positive for ANA and less than 2% positive for ASMA, at all three times. Isolated elevation of tissue antibodies was not related to gender, age, HCC at transplant, early rejection, cause of transplantation, immunotherapy taken, and age at the time of the study. We did not detect a higher prevalence of positive autoimmunity in patients with signs of liver injury. ANA and ASMA evaluation in patients with liver transplantation and no history of autoimmune disease has no clinical relevance, since it varies in time and is not related to any risk factors or liver injury. Routine autoimmunity evaluation should be avoided. PMID:28337446

  9. Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Liccardi, G; D'Amato, M; Holgate, S

    2005-09-01

    The prevalence of allergic respiratory diseases such as bronchial asthma has increased in recent years, especially in industrialized countries. A change in the genetic predisposition is an unlikely cause of the increase in allergic diseases because genetic changes in a population require several generations. Consequently, this increase may be explained by changes in environmental factors, including indoor and outdoor air pollution. Over the past two decades, there has been increasing interest in studies of air pollution and its effects on human health. Although the role played by outdoor pollutants in allergic sensitization of the airways has yet to be clarified, a body of evidence suggests that urbanization, with its high levels of vehicle emissions, and a westernized lifestyle are linked to the rising frequency of respiratory allergic diseases observed in most industrialized countries, and there is considerable evidence that asthmatic persons are at increased risk of developing asthma exacerbations with exposure to ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and inhalable particulate matter. However, it is not easy to evaluate the impact of air pollution on the timing of asthma exacerbations and on the prevalence of asthma in general. As concentrations of airborne allergens and air pollutants are frequently increased contemporaneously, an enhanced IgE-mediated response to aeroallergens and enhanced airway inflammation could account for the increasing frequency of allergic respiratory allergy and bronchial asthma. Pollinosis is frequently used to study the interrelationship between air pollution and respiratory allergy. Climatic factors (temperature, wind speed, humidity, thunderstorms, etc) can affect both components (biological and chemical) of this interaction. By attaching to the surface of pollen grains and of plant-derived particles of paucimicronic size, pollutants could modify not only the morphology of these antigen-carrying agents but also their allergenic

  10. A rare case of multiple bronchial artery aneurysms associated with a double aortic arch

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Rameysh Danovani; Chen, Zhi Yong; Low, Teck Boon; Ng, Keng Sin

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial artery aneurysm is uncommon, and the occurrence of multiple aneurysms arising from a bronchial artery is even rarer. To date, there has been only one published case report describing double bronchial artery aneurysms. We herein describe a case of three aneurysms arising from a left bronchial artery, accompanied by multiple bilateral hypertrophied bronchial and intercostobronchial arteries, as well as a double aortic arch. Bronchial artery aneurysm is potentially life-threatening, and immediate treatment is recommended to minimise the potential risk of rupture. The aneurysms in our case were successfully treated via transcatheter arterial embolisation using coils. PMID:25820859

  11. [Effects of high altitude on bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Schultze-Werninghaus, G

    2008-03-01

    Sojourns in the high mountains have been recommended to patients with asthma for many decades. It is the aim of this contribution to summarise the published studies about the effects of a stay at > 1500 m above sea level on asthmatic patients. These data from 428 adolescent and adult patients indicate an improvement of asthma symptoms and lung function during sojourns at high altitude. In many patients a reduction of the steroid therapy was achievable. Profound changes in the immune system have been demonstrated at high altitude, with a reduction of B- and T-helper cell activation. Total and mite-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies decrease significantly during longer sojourns. These changes are associated with a reduction of airway inflammation (e. g., reduction of eosinophil activation, NO exhalation and bronchial hyper-responsiveness). The fact that also patients with non-allergic asthma demonstrate a reduction of their airway inflammation at high altitude suggests that the high altitude climate has beneficial effects on asthma beyond the effects of allergen avoidance. High UV exposure and low humidity could be important additional factors, to explain the reductions in asthma severity in the high mountain climate. Larger controlled studies should be performed to prove the positive effects of the high altitude climate on asthma.

  12. Delphi project in bronchial asthma. Two stages.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Benítez, M; Ibero Iborra, M; Sanz Ortega, J; Garde Garde, J

    2010-01-01

    From the paediatric point of view, we have undertaken two Delphi studies into bronchial asthma. The first is related to the consensus known as the consensus document of the five associations. The second is more recent and has been undertaken with GEMA (the Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Asthma). The aim of this paper is to carry out a descriptive study comparing the 2 Delphi processes and to objectively assess if in some way behaviour over the past two years has changed as far as expert opinion is concerned. In the consensus document those points giving rise to most controversy were the treatment of children under three years of age and treatment with immunotherapy in allergic asthma. It is also necessary to highlight how important it was at that particular point in time to define the phenotypes of wheezing and the predictive index of asthma in children of less than 3 years of age. Of the 52 questions in the questionnaire, in 13.6% the panel of experts reached no consensus in their positions. Following GEMA the Delphi methodology, 56 questions were asked in the first round of the questionnaire, and consensus was reached in 87.5%. As regards the paediatric part relating to diagnosis and treatment in children, agreement was reached on all the questions in the first round. Agreement was reached in 8.92% questions in the second round. Clinical guidelines and consensus documents can modify behaviour towards an illness, both in the diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Effect of acupuncture on bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, D Y; Lee, S P

    1976-11-01

    1. Needle acupuncture was performed at three sites in twenty patients in a clinical attack of bronchial asthma. 2. In all patients the symptoms of bronchoconstriction improved during the attacks when the correct site was stimulated, and in five patients wheezing was abolished. 3. Stimulation at the correct site produced a significant increase in the mean FEV1-0 (58%) and FVC (29%) but not in maximal mid-expiratory flow rate (MMFR; 76%), when compared with the findings before acupuncture, along with a significant fall in the Pa,CO2 and an insignificant fall in Pa,O2. A mild tachycardia was also observed. 4. After acupuncture a greater improvement in FEV1-0, FVC and MMFR was produced by inhalation of isoprenaline. 5. No significant changes in FEV1-0, FVC, MMFR, pulse rate or arterial blood gas tensions occurred after acupuncture at control sites. 6. In four of the patients during clinical remission acupuncture was performed before and after histamine aerosol challenge, but there was no effect on either the severity or the duration of the histamine-induced bronchoconstriction. 7. It is concluded that acupunture probably reduced the reflex component of the bronchoconstriction, but failed to influence direct smooth muscle constriction caused by histamine.

  14. Bronchial reactivity to histamine before and after sodium cromoglycate in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Kang, B; Townley, R G; Lee, C K; Miller Kolotkin, B

    1976-01-01

    Out of 19 patients with extrinsic bronchial asthma challenged with 123 mug histamine acid phosphate by intravenous infusion only 13 responded with a fall in FEV1 of over 10% (mean 16%). Seventeen of these patients were given histamine 2 mg/ml by aerosol, and all responded with a mean decrease in FEV1 of 37.8%. When challenged with allergen extract by aerosol the mean decrease in FEV1 was 37.5%. After 40 mg sodium cromoglycate 15 of the 17 patients showed significant protection against allergen challenge with a mean decrease in FEV1 of only 23.6%. Inhalation of 40 mg sodium cromoglycate, however, failed to protect against histamine given by either the intravenous or aerosol route. Histamine given intravenously to asthmatic patients produces less of a bronchial response than when given by aerosol, even though the intravenous route produces many more systemic symptoms, such as flushing and throbbing headache. The protection of sodium cromoglycate against an allergen inhalation challenge is not due to histamine antagonsim. PMID:816411

  15. Synthesis and characterization of fac-Re(CO)3-aspartic-N-monoacetic acid, a structural analogue of a potential new renal tracer, fac-(99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA).

    PubMed

    Klenc, Jeffrey; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Taylor, Andrew T; Marzilli, Luigi G

    2012-09-01

    The reaction of an aminopolycarboxylate ligand, aspartic-N-monoacetic acid (ASMA), with [Re(CO)3(H2O)3](+) was examined. The tridentate coordination of ASMA to this Re(I) tricarbonyl precursor yielded fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) as a mixture of diastereomers. The chemistry is analogous to that of the Tc(I) tricarbonyl complex, which yields fac-(99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) under similar conditions. The formation, structure, and isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) products were characterized by HPLC, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The two major fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) diastereomeric products each have a linear ONO coordination mode with two adjacent five-membered chelate rings, but they differ in the endo or exo orientation of the uncoordinated acetate group, in agreement with expectations based on previous studies. Conditions have been identified for the expedient isomerization of fac-Re(CO)3(ASMA) to a mixture consisting primarily of one major product. Because different isomeric species typically have different pharmacokinetic characteristics, these conditions may provide for the practical isolation of a single (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) species, thus allowing the isolation of the isomer that has optimal imaging and pharmacokinetic characteristics. This information will aid in the design of future (99m)Tc radiopharmaceuticals.

  16. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  17. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  18. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5740 - Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube.../bronchial differential ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A tracheal/bronchial differential ventilation tube is a device used to isolate the left or the right lung of a patient for anesthesia or...

  1. Tracheal and bronchial stenoses and other obstructive conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Claudia; Cohen, Aliza P.

    2016-01-01

    Although tracheal stenosis and bronchial stenosis are relatively rare in the pediatric population, they are both associated with significant morbidity and mortality. While most cases of congenital tracheal stenosis in children present as complete tracheal rings (CTRs), other congenital tracheal obstructions are also encountered in clinical practice. In addition, acquired obstructive tracheal conditions stemming from endotracheal trauma or previous surgical interventions may occur. Many affected children also have associated cardiovascular malformations, further complicating their management. Optimal management of children with tracheal or bronchial stenoses requires comprehensive diagnostic evaluation and optimization prior to surgery. Slide tracheoplasty has been the operative intervention of choice in the treatment of the majority of these children. PMID:28066618

  2. Persistent specific bronchial reactivity to occupational agents in workers with normal nonspecific bronchial reactivity.

    PubMed

    Lemière, C; Cartier, A; Malo, J L; Lehrer, S B

    2000-09-01

    Specific bronchial reactivity (SBR) to common inhalants is related to the degree of nonspecific bronchial reactivity (NSBR) and to specific allergen sensitivity. We investigated 16 workers with normal NSBR who had been previously diagnosed with occupational asthma caused by high-molecular-weight agents. The agents were flour in seven workers, psyllium in five, and guar gum in four. The subjects had been removed from exposure to these agents for a mean of 5.7 (+/- 4.0 SD) yr, no longer showed evidence of persisting asthma, and had a normal lung function. In the present study, the workers were reexposed to the sensitizing agent by specific inhalation challenges, in the same way they were as at the time of the diagnosis, to assess their current SBR to the sensitizer. SBR was estimated as the duration of exposure that induced a 20% decrease in FEV(1). Eleven of the 16 subjects had an asthmatic reaction at the time of the study; the duration of exposure necessary to induce the asthmatic reaction was the same as that needed at the time of diagnosis (3.55 +/- 0.5 min and 4.2 +/- 0.7 min, respectively, p = 0.8). The decrease in specific IgE levels between the two events was much greater in the subjects who failed to react to the second challenge test (from 24.2 +/- 37.5% to 3.0 +/- 16.9% binding) than in those who reacted on both occasions (from 31.2 +/- 27.0% to 21.6 +/- 36.7% binding); however, in both groups the change was significant (p = 0.05 and 0.04, respectively). We conclude that SBR to high-molecular-weight agents persists in most cases despite a normalization of NSBR, and that this persistence is associated with a persistence of specific immunization to the agent.

  3. Accurate 3D quantification of the bronchial parameters in MDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saragaglia, A.; Fetita, C.; Preteux, F.; Brillet, P. Y.; Grenier, P. A.

    2005-08-01

    The assessment of bronchial reactivity and wall remodeling in asthma plays a crucial role in better understanding such a disease and evaluating therapeutic responses. Today, multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) makes it possible to perform an accurate estimation of bronchial parameters (lumen and wall areas) by allowing a quantitative analysis in a cross-section plane orthogonal to the bronchus axis. This paper provides the tools for such an analysis by developing a 3D investigation method which relies on 3D reconstruction of bronchial lumen and central axis computation. Cross-section images at bronchial locations interactively selected along the central axis are generated at appropriate spatial resolution. An automated approach is then developed for accurately segmenting the inner and outer bronchi contours on the cross-section images. It combines mathematical morphology operators, such as "connection cost", and energy-controlled propagation in order to overcome the difficulties raised by vessel adjacencies and wall irregularities. The segmentation accuracy was validated with respect to a 3D mathematically-modeled phantom of a pair bronchus-vessel which mimics the characteristics of real data in terms of gray-level distribution, caliber and orientation. When applying the developed quantification approach to such a model with calibers ranging from 3 to 10 mm diameter, the lumen area relative errors varied from 3.7% to 0.15%, while the bronchus area was estimated with a relative error less than 5.1%.

  4. Processing bronchial sonograms to detect respiratory cycle fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh; Zhdanov, D. S.; Zemlyakov, I. Yu; Svetlik, M. V.

    2014-10-01

    This article describes the authors' results of work on the development of a method for the automated assessment of the state of the human bronchopulmonary system based on acoustic data. In particular, the article covers the method of detecting breath sounds on bronchial sonograms obtained during the auscultation process.

  5. Congenital bronchial atresia with regional emphysema associated with pectus excavatum.

    PubMed Central

    van Klaveren, R J; Morshuis, W J; Lacquet, L K; Cox, A L; Festen, J; Heystraten, F M

    1992-01-01

    Two cases of congenital bronchial atresia with pectus excavatum are reported. Costosternal retraction during the efforts to overcome the airway obstruction due to encroachment on normal lung tissue by the hyperinflated segments may play a part in causing pectus excavatum. Images PMID:1494776

  6. [Effects of hydroxycamptothecin on TGFb1, a-SMA and collagen I expression in rat hepatic satellite cells].

    PubMed

    Hu, Guo-xin; Wan, Zan-yan; Shao, Jia-liang; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Lun-li; Gong, Zuo-jiong

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the molecular mechanism of hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT)-mediated anti-hepatic fibrosis by evaluting its effects on expression of tumor growth factor-beta 1 (TGFb1), alpha-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and collagen I (Col I) in hepatic satellite cells (HSCs). Cultured HSCs were treated with different concentrations of HCPT: low-dose group, 0.25 mg/L; middle-dose group, 0.5 mg/L; high-dose group, 0.75 mg/L; and control group, 0 mg/L. Cell proliferation was assessed by the MTT assay. The mRNA expressions of TGFb1, a-SMA and Col I were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expressions of TGFb1 and a-SMA were detected by Western blot. The content of Col I in the cultured HSCs' supernatant was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MTT absorbance values of the low-dose group (0.631+/-0.074), middle-dose group (0.469+/- 0.012) and high-dose group (0.204+/- 0.001) were significantly lower than that of the control group (0.793+/-0.098; F = 82.86, P less than 0.01). Compared with the control group, the HCPT-treated groups showed significantly down-regulated gene expressions of TGFb1 (control: 0.716+/-0.064 vs. low: 0.611+/-0.040, middle: 0.510+/-0.014, high: 0.403+/-0.026), a-SMA (control: 0.696+/-0.075 vs. low: 0.579+/-0.037, middle: 0.470+/-0.024, high: 0.299+/-0.017), and Col I (control: 1.019+/-0.056 vs. low: 0.835+/-0.022, middle: 0.696+/-0.055, high: 0.322+/-0.104) (all, P less than 0.01). Meanwhile, HCPT-treated HSCs showed significantly reduced protein expressions of TGFb1 (control: 0.872+/-0.053 vs. low: 0.654+/-0.047, middle: 0.545+/-0.042, high: 0.436+/-0.039) and a-SMA (control: 0.858+/-0.050 vs. low: 0.620+/-0.045, middle: 0.525+/-0.042, high: 0.434+/-0.052) (all, P less than 0.01). The Col I levels secreted by HSCs were significantly lower in the HCPT-treated groups (low: 168.367+/-16.453 ng/ml; middle: 141.284+/-11.731 ng/ml; high: 132.910+/-10.048 ng/ml) than in the control group (188.733 +/-18

  7. Inhaled mannitol as a test for bronchial hyper-responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Brannan, John D; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Anderson, Sandra D

    2009-10-01

    Bronchial provocation tests (BPTs) are useful for identifying one of the key features of asthma: bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR). The symptoms of asthma are not always reflective of the underlying pathophysiology of asthma and there is a need for objective tests to identify the presence and severity of BHR. A new BPT, involving the inhalation of dry powder mannitol, has recently been approved to identify BHR and is now in use as a diagnostic tool for currently active asthma. Airway sensitivity to mannitol identifies BHR that is dependent upon the presence of airway inflammation and would probably benefit from treatment with inhaled corticosteroids. The mannitol BPT is available commercially as a (single-use) test kit (Aridol/Osmohale), with the only additional requirement to perform the test being a spirometer. Accordingly, the mannitol BPT provides a point-of-need tool to identify BHR to assist in the diagnosis of asthma.

  8. Thermodynamical analysis of acoustical perturbations in the bronchial tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puente, Margarita; Perez-Guerrero, Armando; Alvarado, Manuel

    2002-11-01

    In the airways, very complex flows occur because of different conditions and the existence of a lot of complications: constantly changing temperature and pressure during the respiration process, a normally turbulent flow in the trachea which, in heavy breathing, remains so in the first three or four generations of airways, changes of the direction of the flow over the breathing cycle, from inspiration to expiration, etc. We also know the air that flows in the bronchial tree is perturbed by several sources such as the heart and the circulatory system, the diaphragm and stomach movements, etc., which produce sound waves. Thus an acoustical analysis of the phenomenon can lead us to a physical model which could help us to better understand the phenomena and to demonstrate the importance to clinical applications such as the pneumocardiograms. To this purpose we use a thermodynamical model that originally was developed to analyze supersonic air jets to explain the production of shock waves in the bronchial tree.

  9. Bilateral Renal Dysplasia, Nephroblastomatosis, and Bronchial Stenosis. A New Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Maria Matilde; Correa-Medina, Mayrin; Whittington, Elizabeth E.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral nephroblastomatosis (NB) is an uncommon renal anomaly characterized by multiple confluent nephrogenic rests scattered through both kidneys, with only a limited number of cases reported in the medical literature. Some of these children may have associated either Perlman or Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome and others do not demonstrate syndromic features. We report a full-term boy with anteverted nose, bilateral bronchial stenosis due to lack of cartilage, bilateral obstructive renal dysplasia and NB with glomeruloid features. The infant had visceromegaly, but neither gigantism nor hemihypertrophy. Immunohistochemistry for PAX2 (Paired box gene-2) and WT-1 (Wilms Tumor 1) were strongly positive in the areas of NB. GLEPP-1 (Glomerular Epithelial Protein) did not stain the areas of NB with a glomeruloid appearance, but was positive in the renal glomeruli as expected. We found neither associated bronchial stenosis nor the histology of NB resembling giant glomeruli in any of the reported cases of NB. PMID:25871299

  10. Techniques of protection and revascularization of the bronchial anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Diso, Daniele; Anile, Marco; Rendina, Erino A.

    2016-01-01

    Airway anastomosis has been traditionally considered at risk for the onset of complications, particularly dehiscence with consequent infection and erosion in the adjacent vessels. Although the modifications and improvements of the surgical technique has contributed to reduce the incidence of complications, the protection and revascularization of the anastomotic site is still considered mandatory at many centers Many techniques have been proposed for encircling the bronchial anastomosis. PMID:26981269

  11. Temperament and stress coping styles in bronchial asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Piotr; Witusik, Andrzej; Wujcik, Radosław; Antczak, Adam; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Temperament, defined as the formal characteristics of behavior, is a personality trait which can influence the clinical presentation and course of bronchial asthma. It determines susceptibility to stress as well as stress coping styles. Aim The aim of the study was to assess whether healthy subjects differ from bronchial asthma patients with regard to temperamental variables and stress coping styles, and whether these factors may also differentiate patients with severe asthma from those with the milder form. The study also assesses whether the results of flow volume curve analysis correlate with temperamental traits and stress coping styles. Material and methods The study was conducted in a group of 65 asthma patients and 62 healthy controls. All underwent flow volume curve examination and psychological tests: Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI) and Coping in Stress Situations (CISS) questionnaire. Results Bronchial asthma patients were characterized by a lower level of briskness (“agility”) than healthy subjects (13.35 ±4.48 vs. 14.97 ±3.98, p = 0.031). The remaining temperamental traits and stress coping styles did not differ between the groups. Additionally, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) value was found to correlate negatively with the intensity of the emotion-oriented stress coping style, whereas FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found to positively correlate with briskness, emotional reactivity and endurance, while a negative correlation was found with activity. Conclusions Briskness differentiates healthy subjects from bronchial asthma patients. The values obtained in FEV1 and FVC pulmonary function tests were also found to correlate with some temperamental variables. PMID:28035226

  12. [Electrophysiology and calcium signalling in human bronchial smooth muscle].

    PubMed

    Marthan, R; Hyvelin, J M; Roux, E; Savineau, J P

    1999-01-01

    Recently, cells isolated from airways have been used to characterize precisely the electrophysiological properties of this smooth muscle and to describe the changes in cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) occurring upon agonist stimulation. Although most studies have produced consistent results in terms of types of ion channel and pathways of calcium signalling implicated in the mechanical activity of airways, there are differences according to (i) the site along the bronchial tree (trachea vs. bronchi); (ii) the proliferating status of the cells (freshly isolated vs. cultured) and (iii) the species (human vs. animals). With regard to the electrophysiological properties of airway smooth muscle, the contribution to [Ca2+]i rise of Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels depends on the balance between depolarization related to non-specific cation channel and/or chloride channel activation and hyperpolarization related to activation of a variety of potassium channels. Most of the above-mentioned channels appear to be controlled, directly or indirectly, by agonists in human bronchial smooth muscle. With regard to calcium signalling, the pattern of agonist-induced [Ca2+]i responses, the so-called [Ca2+]i oscillations, has been observed recently in freshly isolated airway smooth muscle cells. The role and the calcium sources involved in these oscillations in human bronchial smooth muscle are currently being investigated.

  13. Benzalkonium Chloride Induced Bronchoconstriction in Patients with Stable Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Background Although benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced bronchoconstriction occurs in patients with bronchial asthma, BAC-containing nebulizer solutions are still being used in daily practice in Korea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhaled aqueous solutions containing BAC. Methods Thirty subjects with bronchial asthma and 10 normal controls inhaled up to three 600 µg nebulized doses of BAC using a jet nebulizer. FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at one second) was measured 15 minutes after each dose. Inhalations were repeated every 20 minutes until FEV1 decreased by 15% or more (defined as BAC-induced bronchoconstriction) or the 3 doses were administered. Results The percent fall in FEV1 in response to BAC inhalation was significantly higher in asthmatics than in normal subjects (p<0.05). BAC administration in subjects with asthma reached a plateau (maximal effect). BAC-induced bronchoconstriction was found in 6 asthmatics (20%), with two responders after the 2nd inhalation and after the 3rd inhalation. The percent fall in FEV1 in response to the 1st inhalation of BAC was significantly higher in asthmatics with higher bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) than in those with lower BHR. Conclusions This study suggests that the available multi-dose nebulized solution is generally safe. However, significant bronchoconstriction can occur at a relatively low BAC dose in asthmatics with severe airway responsiveness. PMID:18309682

  14. Bronchial colonisation in patients with lung cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Laroumagne, Sophie; Lepage, Benoît; Hermant, Christophe; Plat, Gavin; Phelippeau, Michael; Bigay-Game, Laurence; Lozano, Stéphanie; Guibert, Nicolas; Segonds, Christine; Mallard, Valérie; Augustin, Nathalie; Didier, Alain; Mazieres, Julien

    2013-07-01

    Bronchial colonisation is frequently reported in patients with lung cancer, and has a potential impact on therapeutic management and prognosis. We aimed to prospectively define the prevalence and nature of bronchial colonisation in patients at the time of diagnosing lung cancer. 210 consecutive patients with lung cancer underwent a flexible bronchoscopy for lung cancer. The type and frequency of bacterial, mycobacterial and fungal colonisation were analysed and correlated with the patients' and tumours' characteristics. Potential pathogens were found in 48.1% of samples: mainly the Gram-negative bacilli Escherichia coli (8.1%), Haemophilus influenzae (4.3%) and Enterobacter spp. (2.4%); Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus spp. (12.9%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (3.3%); atypical mycobacteria (2.9%); Candida albicans (42.9%); and Aspergillus fumigatus (6.2%). Aged patients (p=0.02) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (p=0.008) were significantly more frequently colonised; however, tumour stage, atelectasis, bronchial stenosis and abnormalities of chest radiography were not associated with a higher rate of colonisation. Squamous cell carcinoma tended to be more frequently colonised than other histological subtypes. Airway colonisation was reported in almost half of patients presenting with lung cancer, mainly in fragile patients, and was significantly associated with worse survival (p=0.005). Analysing colonisation status of patients at the time of diagnosis may help improve the management of lung cancer.

  15. High resolution computed tomographic evaluation of bronchial wall thickness in healthy and clinically asthmatic cats

    PubMed Central

    WON, Sungjun; YUN, Sookyung; LEE, Jeosoon; LEE, Mikyung; CHOI, Mincheol; YOON, Junghee

    2017-01-01

    The objective of study is to determine the thickness of bronchial walls of clinically diagnosed asthmatic cats using high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) compared to that of healthy cats. The bronchial walls and pulmonary arteries were measured in healthy 16 cats and clinically asthmatic 4 cats. The bronchial walls and pulmonary arteries were measured under general anesthesia with positive pressure inspiration using HRCT. In healthy and asthmatic cats, bronchial lumen to the artery ratio (BA ratio), the ratio of bronchial wall thickness to bronchial diameter (TD ratio) and ratio of bronchial wall thickness to pulmonary artery (TA ratio) were measured. The mean BA ratio, TD ratio and TA ratio in healthy cats were 0.86 ± 0.12, 0.18 ± 0.02 and 0.25 ± 0.05, respectively. Under the same condition, the mean BA ratio, TD ratio and TA ratio in asthmatic cats were 0.93 ± 0.21, 0.22 ± 0.24 and 0.37 ± 0.06. The TD ratio and TA ratio in asthmatic cats were significantly higher than healthy cats (P<0.001). BA ratio was not significantly different in both groups (P>0.05). The evaluation of bronchial wall thickness by HRCT could be useful for diagnosis of disease of bronchial wall thickening, such as feline asthma. PMID:28163274

  16. Complete video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) bronchial sleeve lobectomy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jun; Li, Shuben; Hao, Zhexue; Chen, Hanzhang; He, Jiaxi; Xu, Xin; Qiu, Yuan; Dong, Qinglong; Liang, Lixia; Pan, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background To explore the effectiveness of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) bronchial sleeve resection and reconstruction. Methods The clinical data of patients who had received VATS bronchial sleeve lobectomy in our center from January 2008 to February 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Totally 118 patients (105 men and 13 women) received the VATS bronchial sleeve lobectomy. The procedures included sleeve resection of right upper lobe (n=59), right middle lobe (n=7), right lower lobe (n=8), left upper lobe (n=34), and left lower lobe (n=10). The lesions were confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma (n=68), adenocarcinoma (n=16), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (n=8), adenosquamous carcinoma (n=7), large cell carcinoma (n=1), carcinoids (n=5), and others (n=13; including small cell carcinoma, pleomorphic carcinoma, and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor). Operations lasted 118–223 min [mean ± standard deviations (SD): 124.00±31.75 min]. The length of removed bronchus was 1.50–2.00 cm (mean ± SD: 1.75±0.26 cm). The duration of bronchial anastomosis (from the first puncture to the completion of knotting) was 15–42 min (mean ± SD: 30.20±7.97 min). The number of dissected lymph node stations (at least three mediastinal lymph node stations, including station 7) was 5–9 stations (mean ± SD: 6.50±1.18 min). The number of dissected lymph nodes was 10–46 (mean ± SD: 26.00±10.48). The intraoperative blood loss was 20–400 mL (mean ± SD: 71.00±43.95 mL), and no blood transfusion was performed. All patients were observed in intensive care unit (ICU) for 1 day. Postoperative drainage was performed for 3–8 days (mean ± SD: 5.00±1.49 days). Postoperative hospital stay was 3–8 days (mean ± SD: 5.10±2.07 days). Conclusions VATS bronchial sleeve resection and reconstruction is a safe and feasible technique. PMID:27076954

  17. Typhoid fever as a triggering factor in acute and intractable bronchial asthma attack.

    PubMed

    Wardhana; Surachmanto, Eko E; Datau, E A

    2013-10-01

    Typhoid fever is an enteric infection caused by Salmonella typhi. In Indonesia, typhoid fever is endemic with high incidence of the disease. In daily practice we frequently have patients with bronchial asthma, and it is becoming worse when these patients get typhoid fever. After oral ingestion, Salmonella typhi invades the the intestine mucosa after conducted by microbial binding to epithelial cells, destroying the microfold cells (M cell) then passed through the lamina propria and detected by dendritic cells (DC) which express a variety of pathogen recognition receptors on the surfaces, including Toll-Like Receptor (TLR). expressed on macrophages and on intestinal epithelial cells inducing degradation of IB, and translocation of NF-B (Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta). This process initiates the induction of pro-inflammatory gene expression profile adhesion molecules, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and other proteins that induce and perpetuate the inflammation in host cells then will induce acute ant intractable attack of bronchial asthma. The role of typhoid fever in bronchial asthma, especially in persons with acute attack of bronchial asthma, is not well understood. In this article, we will discuss the role of typhoid fever in the bronchial asthma patients which may cause bronchial asthma significantly become more severe even triggering the acute and intractable attack of bronchial asthma. This fact makes an important point, to treat completely the typhoid fever in patients with bronchial asthma.

  18. [Research advances in association between pediatric obesity and bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lian; Xu, Zhi-Liang; Cheng, Yan-Yang

    2016-07-01

    This review article introduces the research advances in the pathophysiological mechanism of obesity in inducing pediatric bronchial asthma, including the role of leptin in obesity and asthma, the association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 with obesity and asthma, the association of adiponectin and interleukins with obesity and asthma, and the influence of neurotransmitter on asthma. In particular, this article introduces the latest research on the inhibition of allergic asthma through targeting at the nociceptor of dorsal root ganglion and blocking the signaling pathway of the nociceptor.

  19. Combined laser phototherapy and growth factor treatment of bronchial obstruction after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hertz, M I; Harmon, K R; Knighton, D R; Cahill, B C; Duvall, A J; Shumway, S J; Bolman, R M

    1991-12-01

    Lung transplantation has resulted in dramatic functional improvement in patients with end-stage pulmonary diseases. Among the complications of lung transplantation are dehiscence and stenosis at the site of the bronchial or tracheal anastomosis. In this case report, we describe a single lung transplant recipient in whom partial bronchial dehiscence, followed by exuberant growth of granulation tissue, resulted in obstruction of the bronchial lumen. After mechanical dilation failed to produce lasting relief of bronchial obstruction, a novel approach to this problem was successfully employed: YAG laser phototherapy was used to remove obstructing granulation tissue, followed by application of a preparation derived from autologous blood platelets to promote epithelialization of the bronchial anastomosis. The bronchus remains patent and fully epithelialized six months after therapy.

  20. Paracellular transport through healthy and cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cell lines--do we have a proper model?

    PubMed

    Molenda, Natalia; Urbanova, Katarina; Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o- cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o- cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o- and also in CFBE41o- cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o- cells and CFBE41o- cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o- cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o- cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o- and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o- cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in 'healthy' 16HBE14o- cells compared to 'cystic fibrosis' CFBE41o- cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o- cells than in the three CFBE41o- cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o- cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR-dependent epithelial transport.

  1. SWCNTs induced autophagic cell death in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jung; Zahari, Nur Elida M; Lee, Eun-Woo; Song, Jaewhan; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2014-04-01

    Carbon nanotubes are being actively introduced in electronics, computer science, aerospace, and other industries. Thus, the urgent need for toxicological studies on CNTs is mounting. In this study, we investigated the alterations in cellular response with morphological changes induced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in BEAS-2B cells, a human bronchial epithelial cell line. At 24h after exposure, SWCNTs rapidly decreased ATP production and cell viability as well a slight increase in the number of cells in the subG1 and G1 phases. In addition, SWCNTs increased the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1, but not SOD-2, and the number of cells generating ROS. The concentration of Cu and Zn ions also increased in a dose-dependent manner in cells exposed to SWCNTs. SWCNTs significantly enhanced the release of nitric oxide, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 and up-regulated the expression of chemokine- and cytokine-related genes. Furthermore, the levels of autophagy-related genes, especially the DRAM1 gene, and the autophagosome formation-related proteins, were clearly up-regulated together with an increase of autophagosome-like vacuoles. Based on these results, we suggest that SWCNTs induce autophagic cell death through mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic damage in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  2. Optical low-coherence tomography of bronchial tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamford, Karl J.; James, Stephen W.; Barr, Hugh; Tatam, Ralph P.

    1999-12-01

    An optical fiber based low coherence interferometer for measuring the Epithelium thickness of Bronchial tissue, for early diagnosis of Carcinoma in situ, is presented. Previous simulation of laser induced fluorescence using an electromagnetic scattering model has extracted the relative permittivity value for the Submucosa and Epithelium layers indicating a difference of up to 0.14. The optical system presented here uses a low coherence source operating at 840 nm with a bandwidth of 30 nm, coupled into single mode optical fiber. A Fizeau cavity is formed between the fiber end and the tissue under investigation. A remote processing interferometer is used to monitor changes in permittivity between the different tissue layers. An initial experiment has demonstrated a sensitivity measurement of 40 dB for a permittivity difference measurement of 0.61. Preliminary results have shown that the discontinuity between the Bronchial Epithelium layer and its surrounding medium can be identified allowing the thickness of the Epithelium layer to be measured to an accuracy of 20 micrometers . Since interferometric noise contributions are only significant within the processing interferometer, the fiber optic Fizeau interferometer technique is a strong candidate for the development of an endoscope for the early detection of cancer within Gastrointestinal and Respiratory tracts.

  3. Regional differences in bronchial reactivity assessed by respiratory impedance.

    PubMed

    Beretta, Egidio; Tana, Francesco; Grasso, Gabriele Simone; Bartesaghi, Manuela; Novelli, Luca; Pesci, Alberto; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    We used the Impulse Oscillometric System (IOS) to gain information concerning the distribution of hyper-reactivity along the bronchial tree during methacholine challenge test (MCT). 37 subjects underwent MCT until reaching the provocative dose (PD20). At each dose, we estimated respiratory resistance at 5 and 20Hz (R5, R20), and reactance at 5Hz (X5). In non-responsive subjects (N=14) no changes in R5, R20, and X5 were observed during MCT. In responsive subjects, a wide spectrum of responses was found concerning frequency dependence and PD20. We describe two phenotypes representing the extremes of response. For PD20>400μg (N=13), MCT caused equal changes of resistance/reactance on varying oscillation frequencies, suggesting a homogeneous bronchoconstriction along the bronchial tree. For PD20<200μg (N=10), a remarkable frequency dependence was observed, with increase in R5, no change in R20, and decrease in X5, suggesting hyper-responsiveness of the distal airways paralleled by a change in visco-elastic properties of lung parenchyma.

  4. [Bronchial carcinoma at the Zadar Medical Center 1982-1986].

    PubMed

    Mazzi, A; Mazzi, M

    1989-01-01

    In the period between 1982-1986, 2132 neoplasms were registered in the Zadar Medical Center, out of them 164 (7.7%) were primary bronchial carcinomas of which 138 (84.1%) were morphologically verified. The difference between the number of the registered and verified bronchial carcinomas is due to the difference in the registration criteria. The annual average incidence rate of the verified carcinomas was about 30 which is lower than in the Zagreb area and Croatia as a whole. The average number of cases diagnosed in other institutions was about 20 percent. An analysis by sex revealed a prevalence among males aged 55-75. Morphologically, the most common type of carcinoma was planocellular, followed by anaplastic, small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The greatest majority of the positive findings was obtained by bronchoscopy and sputum examination. The average number of sputa obtained per patient was 3.5; 63 percent of these were adequate and 40 percent of them were positive. In 86% of cases the diagnosis was established from the first three sputa. The most frequently used bronchoscopic method of material obtained was aspiration and the best diagnostic results were obtained by puncture biopsy and excision. The high percentage of positive results obtained by transtracheal biopsy justifies its use.

  5. Laser-assisted solder closure of bronchial stumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oz, Mehmet C.; Williams, Matthew R.; Moscarelli, Richard D.; Kaynar, Murat; Fras, Christian I.; Libutti, Steven K.; Smith, Hillary; Setton, Adrianne J.; Treat, Michael R.; Nowygrod, Roman

    1992-06-01

    Broncho-pleural fistula is a difficult clinical problem without a simple solution. Laser-assisted solder techniques potentially offer a means to precisely fix tissue glues into the fistulae through a bronchoscopic approach. Using a canine model, secondary bronchi were sealed with cryoprecipitate made from solvent/detergent treated plasma (treated to inactivate membrane enveloped virus) mixed with indocyanine green (absorption 805 nm). Diode laser energy (emission 808 nm, 7.3 W/cm2) was applied to the solder until desiccation was observed. Leakage pressures ranged between 18 - 86 mmHg with a mean of 46 +/- 24 mmHg. Laser-assisted solder techniques provide a reliably strong seal over leaking bronchial stumps and use of dye enhancement prevents undesired collateral thermal injury to surrounding bronchial tissue. Solvent/detergent plasma, prepared by methods shown to inactivate large quantities of HIV, HBV, and HCV, is an effective source of cyroprecipitate and should allow widespread use of pooled human material in a clinical setting.

  6. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Alexander; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Sly, Peter D; Baraldi, Eugenio; Piacentini, Giorgio; Pavord, Ian; Lex, Christiane; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1 s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases.

  7. Measurement of bronchial blood flow in the sheep by video dilution technique.

    PubMed Central

    Link, D P; Parsons, G H; Lantz, B M; Gunther, R A; Green, J F; Cross, C E

    1985-01-01

    Bronchial blood flow was determined in five adult anaesthetised sheep by the video dilution technique. This is a new fluoroscopic technique for measuring blood flow that requires only arterial catheterisation. Catheters were placed into the broncho-oesophageal artery and ascending aorta from the femoral arteries for contrast injections and subsequent videotape recording. The technique yields bronchial blood flow as a percentage of cardiac output. The average bronchial artery blood flow was 0.6% (SD 0.20%) of cardiac output. In one sheep histamine (90 micrograms) injected directly into the bronchial artery increased bronchial blood flow by a factor of 6 and histamine (90 micrograms) plus methacholine (4.5 micrograms) augmented flow by a factor of 7.5 while leaving cardiac output unchanged. This study confirms the high degree of reactivity of the bronchial circulation and demonstrates the feasibility of using the video dilution technique to investigate the determinants of total bronchial artery blood flow in a stable animal model avoiding thoracotomy. Images PMID:3883564

  8. [Response mechanisms of the airway smooth muscle tissue in experimental bronchial spasm].

    PubMed

    Zashikhin, A L; Agafonov, Iu V; Barmina, A O

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at the complex evaluation of the reactivity mechanisms of bronchial smooth muscle tissue (SMT) in experimental bronchial spasm. Morphometric, cytospectrophotometric and electron microscopical analysis demonstrated the presence of three types of smooth muscle cells (SMC) within the bronchial SMT (small, medium, large), that differed in their linear and metabolic parameters. The findings of this study indicate that under the conditions of experimental bronchial spasm development, the ratios of SMC in bronchial SMT are changed with the increase in proportion of small SMC and the elimination of large SMC. In the dynamics of experimental bronchial spasm development, the activation of cytoplasmic synthesis as well as of DNA synthesis was detected mainly in group of small SMC. The reactive-dystrophic changes were marked at the subcellular level, that were most often identified in large SMC resulting in their elimination from population in the dynamics of an experiment. The data obtained suggest that one of the important mechanisms of airway SMT adaptation to the bronchial spasm development is a dynamic reorganization of SMC population.

  9. Eosinophil cationic protein mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Yu, H Y; Li, X Y; Cai, Z F; Li, L; Shi, X Z; Song, H X; Liu, X J

    2015-11-13

    Studies have shown that eosinophils are closely related to pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Eosinophils release eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), which plays an important role in infection and allergic reactions. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma has not been adequately investigated. We analyzed serum ECP mRNA expression in 63 children with bronchial asthma and 21 healthy children by using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to understand the role of ECP in children with bronchial asthma. The children with bronchial asthma were segregated into acute-phase and stable-phase groups, based on the severity of the illness. Serum ECP mRNA expression in children with bronchial asthma (0.375 ± 0.04) was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (0.20 ± 0.02; P < 0.05). Additionally, children in the acute-phase group showed higher ECP mRNA expression level (0.44 ± 0.06) than those in the stable-phase (0.31 ± 0.03) and healthy control groups (0.20 ± 0.02; P < 0.05), while the level in the stable-phase (0.31 ± 0.03) was markedly higher than that in the healthy control group (0.20 ± 0.02; P < 0.05). Detection of serum ECP mRNA expression level has possible applications in the diagnosis and treatment of children with bronchial asthma.

  10. Congenital right intermediate bronchial stenosis with carina trifurcation: successful management with slide tracheobronchial plasty.

    PubMed

    Wu, En-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chun; Wang, Ching-Chia; Lin, Ming-Tai; Chen, Shyh-Jye; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Hwang, Haw-Kwei; Chen, Ming-Ren; Huang, Shu-Chien

    2014-07-01

    Congenital bronchial stenosis is rarely described and is difficult to manage. Here we report two cases of right intermediate bronchial stenosis (stenotic orifice with complete cartilage rings). Both cases were associated with ventricular septal defects, and a "trifurcation" pattern was found in both carinas. Both patients underwent surgical repair of the ventricular septal defects but could not be separated from ventilator support despite successful cardiac operations. Slide tracheobronchial plasty was applied to the right intermediate bronchus and lower trachea. After correction of the bronchial stenosis, both patients could be extubated and live without supplementary ventilation support.

  11. Cortical blindness and ataxia complicating bronchial artery embolization for severe hemoptysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Guoping; Liang, Hui; Ruan, Lingxiang; Luo, Benyan

    2010-01-01

    Complications of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) are uncommon. A 37-year-old patient with pulmonary tuberculosis received bronchial artery embolization because of severe hemoptysis. The bilateral bronchial arteries and left internal mammary artery were embolized using a gelatin sponge, and the patient exhibited occipital blindness and ataxia after the second BAE. The dissolvable gelatin sponge possibly entered the posterior circulation, resulting in the multiple infarctions in the bilateral occipital lobes and cerebellum. Because of the bad prognosis and the difficulty for curability, this kind of complication should be recognized in a timely manner and carefully avoided by the interventional radiologists carrying out the BAE.

  12. [Amoxicillin and its excretion into bronchial secretion (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Weingärtner, L; Richter, I; Patsch, R; Thiemann, H H; Brömme, W; Baum, W; Vorwald, U

    1977-02-01

    Various dates on amoxicillin (resorption, distribution, elimination, tissue passage, urinary excretion) are presented. The bacterial spectrum is more fully discussed. Amoxicillin is compared with ampicillin. Dosage and therapeutical results are presented. Within repeated bronchoscopic examinations necessary on account of bronchopulmonary affections determination of germs were done in 88 children. At the same time examination of ampicillin levels in bronchial secretions were performed after amoxicillin therapy with different high doses (3 x 125 mg to 3 x 750 mg) for 7 days. It could be shown that good antibiotic levels could be found in secretion specimens above all obtained 2 to 4 hours after the last amoxicillin administration. They could be found too, if there did not exist any purulent secretion or stronger inflammation. There are relations between the amount of dosage, the level in secretion as well as the influence on germs.

  13. [Efficiency of kinesi- and hydrokinesitherapy in children with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Surovenko, T N; Iashchuk, A V; Iansons, T Ia; Ezhov, S N

    2003-01-01

    The authors review efficiency of various programs of kinesi and hydrokinesitherapy of children with atopic bronchial asthma (BA). Efficiency of the treatment was assessed by quality of life using the questionnaire by A. West, D. French "Childhood asthma questionnaire" (adapted for Russia by V. I. Petrov et al). Monitoring of the activity of allergic inflammation of the upper respiratory tracts was performed by examination of the nasal lavage fluid for nitric oxide metabolites, of the lower respiratory tracts--by the metabolites in the condensate of the expired air. It is shown that hydrokinesitherapy raises BA children's quality of life and declines inflammation activity leading to reduction of the number of BA exacerbations and hospitalizations. The above criteria of the treatment efficacy proved sensitive.

  14. Evolutional trends in the management of tracheal and bronchial injuries

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal and Bronchial injuries are potentially life threatening complications which require urgent diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. They typically occur in association with blunt and penetrating chest trauma although they are increasingly being encountered in patients following endobronchial intervention and percutaneous tracheostomy insertion. Their precise incidence is unknown. Presenting features include dyspnoea, stridor, respiratory and haemodynamic compromise, haemoptysis, surgical emphysema, pneumothorax and persistent significant airleak. There may be other additional injuries to consider in trauma patients with large airway injury. Familiarity with the diagnosis and management of large airway injuries is important for medical teams engaged in emergency medicine, thoracic surgery and medicine, anaesthesia and intensive care. Although early surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment, endobronchial manoeuvres to seal defects are receiving increasing attention particularly for patients with medical co-morbidities which may contraindicate formal surgery or transfer or where local surgical expertise is not available. PMID:28203439

  15. Bronchial hypersecretion, chronic airflow limitation, and peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Brille, D

    1981-11-01

    Men with and men without a history of peptic ulcers were compared using respiratory symptoms and spirographic measurements taken from data recorded in an epidemiologic study. Among the 1,049 men examined, 7% reported a history of peptic ulcer. A clear relationship appeared between bronchial hypersecretion and peptic ulcers. It persisted after adjustment for age, smoking habits, social class, and country of origin. Men with ulcers inhaled tobacco smoke more often. Ulcers, smoking, and chronic phlegm were independently related to a lower body build index. It seems that the relationship between smoking and ulcers was greater among men with chronic phlegm, and it is postulated that peptic ulcers and "chronic bronchitis" might be related to a "common secretory disorder." After adjustment for age, men with a history of peptic ulcers had, not a lower FEV1, but a higher vital capacity. A slightly lower FEV1/VC ratio cannot in such cases be considered as an index of chronic airflow limitation.

  16. Intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Yanagi, Masakazu; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Background: A rare case of intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt was treated under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Case Description: A 71-year-old man, who underwent LP shunt installation due to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus a year before, presented with history of high fever and sputum production. Roentgenography and computed tomography of the chest revealed migration of distal end of the peritoneal catheter into the left main bronchus. Migrated catheter was gently extracted through the abdominal wound incision under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Contrast material infused into the catheter did not spread into the pleural cavity. The patient was free of the symptoms within 2 postoperative weeks. Moreover, he underwent the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery 1-month later. Conclusion: This is the first case of the migration of peritoneal catheter of LP shunt into the main bronchus. PMID:26962468

  17. Acute bronchial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Dorca, J

    1995-10-01

    Bacterial bronchial infection is a frequent cause of COPD exacerbation but not its only aetiology. Increased purulent expectorant appears to be its best indicator rather than fever, non-productive cough or dyspnoea. The clinician must try to recognize this condition rather than systematically prescribe empirical antibiotics. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Moraxella catarrhalis are the major pathogens. Although atypical bacteria are not frequent, Chlamydia pneumoniae could play significant role. During the last years, new antibiotics, much more expensive than other regimens, are widely prescribed, often without a rational approach. In patients not already on antibiotics, sputum Gram stain is useful for deciding which patient should be treated and what would be the best anti-biotic. When it is not available, the chosen antibiotic must be at least active against three major pathogens according to the local susceptibility patterns. In patients not responding to the initial treatment, the consideration of its potential spectrum holes is then more useful than sputum examination.

  18. The use of fish oil in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Arm, J P; Lee, T H

    1989-01-01

    A fish-oil enriched diet has potential in modulating the humoral and inflammatory components of the allergic response by inhibiting the generation of pro-inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid and by reducing the production of PAF-acether. In addition, EPA suppresses the responses of target cells and tissues. Studies in bronchial asthma confirm the anti-inflammatory potential of a fish-oil enriched diet. Dietary supplementation with EPA in subjects with asthma led to changes in leukocyte mediator generation and chemotactic responses. There was also a significant attenuation of the late asthmatic response to inhaled antigen. Further studies are needed to determine the full potential of such diets in effecting changes in the clinical aspects of allergic disease.

  19. Bronchoscopic resection of bronchial angiolipoma: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhiqiang; Wan, Hongli; Shi, Min; Li, Ming; Wang, Zhanpeng; Yang, Caixia; Gao, Wei; Li, Qingxin

    2016-01-01

    Angiolipoma is a rare benign tumor that most commonly occurs in the extremities and trunk. Angiolipomas originating in the bronchial tree are extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, only one such case, confined to the bronchus intermedius, has been reported to date. The present study describes the case of an asymptomatic 74-year-old man with a yellowish round mass incidentally discovered at the orifice of the right lower bronchus during a routine health check. The tumor originated from the membranous part of the right inferior bronchus. Using a high-frequency electric snare and argon plasma coagulation under general anesthesia, successful bronchoscopic resection of the tumor was performed. At 15 months after the surgery, the patient remained recurrence- and symptom-free. PMID:28101361

  20. Cytotoxicity of folpet fungicide on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Canal-Raffin, Mireille; l'Azou, Béatrice; Jorly, Joana; Hurtier, Annabelle; Cambar, Jean; Brochard, Patrick

    2008-07-30

    Folpet, a widely used dicarboximide fungicide, has been detected in the ambient air of several vine-growing regions of France. It is present in particle form in the environment; however, no study exploring its potential health impact on airways and the respiratory system has been published. Here, the biological effect of these particles was investigated in vitro on human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-). To be close to the real-life conditions of exposure, Folpan 80WG, a commercial form of folpet, was tested. Folpan 80WG particles showed dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on 16HBE14o- cells. This effect was compared to that produced by technical-grade folpet and both were found to induce a toxicity with similar IC(50) values after 24h of exposure. After 4h and at least until 48h of exposure, the IC(50) values of Folpan 80WG particles were between 2.4 and 2.8 microg/cm(2). Investigation of the cytotoxicity found that Folpan 80WG particles at 1.85 microg/cm(2) induced an increase in ROS production from the first hour of exposure. Evidence that oxidative processes occur in folpet-exposed cells was confirmed by the presence of membrane lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, early apoptosis and late apoptosis/necrosis were both present after the first hour of exposure. These findings indicate that exposure to Folpan 80WG particles result in a rapid cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro that could be in part explained by oxidative stress, characterised by membrane lipid peroxidation and ROS production.

  1. Functional Metagenomics of the Bronchial Microbiome in COPD.

    PubMed

    Millares, Laura; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Ferrari, Rafaela; Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; García-Núñez, Marian; Montón, Concepción; Capilla, Silvia; Monsó, Eduard; Moya, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data. Eight severe COPD patients provided good quality sputum samples, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla and genera were found between stability and exacerbation. Bacterial biodiversity (Chao1 and Shannon indexes) did not show statistical differences and beta-diversity analysis (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index) showed a similar microbial composition in the two clinical situations. Four functional categories showed statistically significant differences with MG-RAST at KEGG level 2: in exacerbation, Cell growth and Death and Transport and Catabolism decreased in abundance [1.6 (0.2-2.3) vs 3.6 (3.3-6.9), p = 0.012; and 1.8 (0-3.3) vs 3.6 (1.8-5.1), p = 0.025 respectively], while Cancer and Carbohydrate Metabolism increased [0.8 (0-1.5) vs 0 (0-0.5), p = 0.043; and 7 (6.4-9) vs 5.9 (6.3-6.1), p = 0.012 respectively]. In conclusion, the bronchial microbiome as a whole is not significantly modified when exacerbation symptoms appear in severe COPD patients, but its functional metabolic capabilities show significant changes in several pathways.

  2. Functional Metagenomics of the Bronchial Microbiome in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Millares, Laura; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Ferrari, Rafaela; Gallego, Miguel; Pomares, Xavier; García-Núñez, Marian; Montón, Concepción; Capilla, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The course of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently aggravated by exacerbations, and changes in the composition and activity of the microbiome may be implicated in their appearance. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition and the gene content of the microbial community in bronchial secretions of COPD patients in both stability and exacerbation. Taxonomic data were obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing, and metabolic information through shotgun metagenomics, using the Metagenomics RAST server (MG-RAST), and the PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States) programme, which predict metagenomes from 16S data. Eight severe COPD patients provided good quality sputum samples, and no significant differences in the relative abundance of any phyla and genera were found between stability and exacerbation. Bacterial biodiversity (Chao1 and Shannon indexes) did not show statistical differences and beta-diversity analysis (Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index) showed a similar microbial composition in the two clinical situations. Four functional categories showed statistically significant differences with MG-RAST at KEGG level 2: in exacerbation, Cell growth and Death and Transport and Catabolism decreased in abundance [1.6 (0.2–2.3) vs 3.6 (3.3–6.9), p = 0.012; and 1.8 (0–3.3) vs 3.6 (1.8–5.1), p = 0.025 respectively], while Cancer and Carbohydrate Metabolism increased [0.8 (0–1.5) vs 0 (0–0.5), p = 0.043; and 7 (6.4–9) vs 5.9 (6.3–6.1), p = 0.012 respectively]. In conclusion, the bronchial microbiome as a whole is not significantly modified when exacerbation symptoms appear in severe COPD patients, but its functional metabolic capabilities show significant changes in several pathways. PMID:26632844

  3. Bronchial thermoplasty: reappraising the evidence (or lack thereof).

    PubMed

    Iyer, Vivek N; Lim, Kaiser G

    2014-07-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) involves the application of radiofrequency energy to visible proximal airways to selectively ablate airway smooth muscle. BT is the first nonpharmacologic interventional therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for severe asthma. This approval was based on the results of the pivotal Asthma Intervention Research (AIR)-2 trial, which is the only randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial of BT. The primary end point of the AIR-2 trial was improvement in the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The results of the AIR-2 trial have generated enormous interest, controversy, and confusion regarding the true efficacy of BT for severe asthma. Current marketing of BT highlights its use for patients with "severe" asthma, which is interpreted by most practicing clinicians as meaning oral corticosteroid dependence, frequent exacerbations, or a significantly reduced FEV1 with a poor quality of life. Did the AIR-2 trial include patients with a low FEV1, oral steroid dependence, or frequent exacerbations? Did the trial show efficacy for any of the primary or secondary end points? The FDA approved the device based on the reduction in severe asthma exacerbations. However, were the rates of asthma exacerbations, ED visits, or hospitalizations truly different between the two groups, and was this type of analysis even justified given the original study design? This commentary is designed to specifically answer these questions and help the practicing clinician navigate the thermoplasty literature with confidence and clarity. We carefully dissect the design, conduct, and results of the AIR-2 trial and raise serious questions about the efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty.

  4. Current practice in assessment and treatment of bronchial asthma in young males in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Pantaleo, C; Quatela, M; Fuso, L; Basso, S; Pistelli, R

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate, in a sample of young asthmatics in Italy, the current practice in assessment and treatment of asthma after the publication of guidelines. Young soldiers who declared bronchial asthma at the beginning of the compulsory military service were evaluated. One-hundred and thirty-eight subjects with confirmed asthma were selected. Sixty-seven subjects (48.5%) had had at last one spirometry, and only one subject had underwent peak flow monitoring at home; most of the subjects (96.8%) had had prick tests. More of the 50% of the subjects with bronchial obstruction or with severe bronchial hyperresponsiveness, with clinical moderate or severe asthma, had used only bronchodilators or no therapy at all in the preceding year. In this sample of young asthmatics, the lung function tests were still underutilized for the diagnosis and follow-up of bronchial asthma; moreover, the inhaled anti-inflammatory drugs were still underutilized.

  5. The low PLC-δ1 expression in cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelial cells induces upregulation of TRPV6 channel activity.

    PubMed

    Vachel, Laura; Norez, Caroline; Jayle, Christophe; Becq, Frédéric; Vandebrouck, Clarisse

    2015-01-01

    protein after F508del-CFTR rescue by low temperature for 48 h or treated for 24 h by 10 μM VX-809 in CF cells. This study revealed TRPV6 and PLC-δ1 as critical actor of Ca(2+) homeostasis in CF human bronchial epithelial cells.

  6. Update on the diagnosis and treatment of tracheal and bronchial injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhengwei; Zhang, Tianyi; Yin, Xunliang; Zhao, Jinbo; Li, Xiaofei

    2017-01-01

    Tracheal and bronchial injury, including iatrogenic injury and traumatic injury, the former usually occurred in the operation, intubation or bronchoscopy. The latter was occurred in a variety of blunt trauma, often combined with a variety of complex injuries. The therapeutic approach can be differentiated, surgical or conservative, no criteria has been universally accepted. Successful treatment of tracheobronchial injuries requires early diagnostic evaluation. This article aims to review the indications and therapeutic options for tracheal and bronchial injuries. PMID:28203437

  7. Bronchial artery infusion of mitomycin C in carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Ekholm, S.; Albrechtsson, U.; Tylen, U.

    1983-06-01

    Fifteen patients with bronchial carcinoma were treated with infusions of 10 mg Mitomycin C (MMC) in the bronchial artery feeding the tumor. The treatment was repeated three times with 2-3 weeks interval between treatments. Half of the patients then received radiation to the tumor area and mediastinum. All tumors decreased in size, complete remission occurred in two and partial remission in five patients. Survival time, however, was not prolonged and esophageal complications occurred in several patients.

  8. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    injury” throughout the respiratory tract. We have previously shown that gene expression from bronchial epithelial cells reflects the physiologic...of lung cancer, creates a “field of injury” throughout the respiratory tract. We have previously shown that gene expression from bronchial epithelial...for lung cancer.   INTRODUCTION:   Cigarette smoking, the major cause of lung cancer, creates a “field of injury” throughout the respiratory tract

  9. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0234 TITLE: Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH...single cell RNA sequencing on airway epithelial cells obtained from smokers with and without lung cancer to identify cell-type dependent gene expression

  10. Neonatal bronchial reconstruction after Norwood procedure for hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Colleen B; Nguyen, Dao; Ricci, Marco

    2009-03-01

    Left bronchial obstruction is a rare complication after neonatal aortic arch reconstruction. This article describes the surgical management of a neonate with hypoplastic left heart syndrome who underwent a stage 1 Norwood reconstruction. A mediastinal infection developed with an abscess that caused left bronchial obstruction and disruption. The left bronchus was repaired successfully by using a pedicle intercostal muscle flap that was used to cover the defect.

  11. [Air pollution and hospital admission trends of children with bronchial obstruction in Tuzla Canton].

    PubMed

    Hadzć, Devleta; Mladina, Nada; Ljuca, Farid; Bazardzanović, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial obstruction in children is continuously increasing at any age. Many studies have found associations between increase of respiratory diseases and air pollution. The aim of this paper was to establish possible connection between children hospital admission trends for bronchial obstruction and levels of measured concentration of air pollution agents in Tuzla Canton area. The results of investigation demonstrated that the distribution of hospital admissions of children with bronchial obstruction was different regarding place of inhabitants and season. Spatial distribution demonstrated that the highest number of children treated for bronchial obstruction was from Tuzla, Lukavac and Zivinice. The incidence of patients from these municipalities was significantly above the participation of these municipalities in total population. Seasonal distribution of hospital admissions of children with bronchial obstruction was different for single municipalities of Tuzla Canton and for different seasons. Air pollutants, sulfur oxide and dust deposition were significantly higher for heating season compared to season without heating. There is a link between frequency of hospital admission for bronchial obstruction and level of measured air pollutants.

  12. Pathogenesis and management of virus infection-induced exacerbation of senile bronchial asthma and chronic pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Yamaya, Metstuo

    2002-06-01

    The number of senile patients with therapy resistant bronchial asthma, chronic pulmonary emphysema increases due to the habit of smoking and increased number of older people, and these inflammatory pulmonary diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide. Rhinoviruses cause the majority of common colds, and provoke exacerbations of bronchial asthma and chronic pulmonary emphysema. Here, I review the pathogenesis and management of rhinovirus infection-induced exacerbation of senile bronchial asthma and chronic pulmonary emphysema.

  13. Deformable image registration of heterogeneous human lung incorporating the bronchial tree

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Mayah, Adil; Moseley, Joanne; Velec, Mike; Hunter, Shannon; Brock, Kristy

    2010-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of the bronchial tree on the accuracy of biomechanical-based deformable image registration of human lungs. Methods: Three dimensional finite element models have been developed using four dimensional computed tomography image data of ten lung cancer patients. Each model is built of a body, left and right lungs, tumor, and bronchial trees. Triangular shell elements are used for the bronchial trees while tetrahedral elements are used for other components. Hyperelastic material properties based on experimental investigation on human lungs are used for the lung parenchyma. Different material properties are assigned for the bronchial tree using five values for the modulus of elasticity of 0.01, 0.12, 0.5, 10, and 18 MPa. Lungs are modeled to slide inside chest cavities by applying frictionless contact surfaces between each lung and corresponding chest cavity. The accuracy of the models is examined using an average of 40 bronchial bifurcation points identified on inhale and exhale images. Relative accuracy is evaluated by comparing the displacement of all nodes within the lungs as well as the dosimetric difference at the exhale position predicted by the model. Results: There is no significant effect of bronchial tree on the model accuracy based on the bifurcation points analysis. However, on the local level, using an average of 38 000 nodes, there is a maximum difference of 8.5 mm in the deformation of the bronchial trees, as the modulus of elasticity of the bronchial trees increases from 0.01 to 18 MPa; however, more than 96% of nodes are within a 2.5 mm difference in each direction. The average dose difference at the predicted exhale position is less than 35 cGy between the models. Conclusions: The bronchial tree has little effect on the global deformation and the accuracy of deformable image registration of lungs. Hence, the homogenous model is a reasonable assumption. Since there are some local deformation differences between nodes

  14. [A three dimensional fractal simulation of the lung bronchial tree].

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuyi; Tan, Xiaoping; Pei, Juemin

    2004-06-01

    The lungs are naturally irregular and asymmetrical organ in anatomy. The conducting bronchial trees in the lungs display complex self-similar structure. We have established the host mesh coordinates of the right lung on the basis of the anatomical data from the literature. A three-dimensional fractal model of the conducting airways was set up by calculating the coordinates of the mass centers of the divided blocks, searching the branch direction and determining branch lengths with the use of the drawing tool OpenGL. Specific data of the lengths at various grades, branching angles, and capillary diameters were obtained. As a result, the computed data were identical with those of the existing statistical data. The fractal covering dimensionality obtained in the computation of this model was 2.19, which is very close to the ideal dimensionality, 2.17, from the literature. The present model has laid the foundation for further research of the gas diffusion and transfer performance in the lungs using the fractal concept, and furthermore, it helps to save the computer memories and fastening the graphic transfer.

  15. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy: focus on bronchial neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Pusceddu, Sara; Prinzi, Natalie; Imbimbo, Martina; Proto, Claudia; Signorelli, Diego; Vitali, Milena; Ganzinelli, Monica; Maccauro, Marco; Buzzoni, Roberto; Seregni, Ettore; de Braud, Filippo; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-10-01

    Well-differentiated bronchial neuroendocrine tumors (B-NETs) are rare. They represent 1-5 % of all lung cancers. The incidence of these neoplasms has risen over the past 30 years and, especially for advanced or metastatic disease, management is complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Treatment with somatostatin analogs (SSAs) is the most important first-line therapy, in particular in well-differentiated NETs with high somatostatin type receptor (SSTR) expression. In these tumors, the role of mammalian target of rapamycin (m-TOR) inhibitors and the potential utility of other target therapies remain unclear while chemotherapy represents the gold standard treatment only for aggressive forms with low SSTR expression. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an emerging treatment modality for advanced NETs. There are many cumulative evidences about the effectiveness and tolerability of this therapeutic approach, especially in gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP)-NETs. For B-NETs, scientific research is moving more slowly. Here, we performed a review in order to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of PRRT with a focus on patients with inoperable or metastatic well-differentiated B-NETs.

  16. Tungsten-induced carcinogenesis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Freda; Brocato, Jason; Cartularo, Laura; Vaughan, Joshua; Wu, Feng; Kluz, Thomas; Sun, Hong; Oksuz, Betul Akgol; Shen, Steven; Paena, Massimilano; Medici, Serenella; Zoroddu, Maria Antonietta; Costa, Max

    2015-01-01

    Metals such as arsenic, cadmium, beryllium, and nickel are known human carcinogens; however, other transition metals, such as tungsten (W), remain relatively uninvestigated with regard to their potential carcinogenic activity. Tungsten production for industrial and military applications has almost doubled over the past decade and continues to increase. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate tungsten’s ability to induce carcinogenic related endpoints including cell transformation, increased migration, xenograft growth in nude mice, and the activation of multiple cancer related pathways in transformed clones as determined by RNA seq. Human bronchial epithelial cell line (Beas-2B) exposed to tungsten developed carcinogenic properties. In a soft agar assay, tungsten-treated cells formed more colonies than controls and the tungsten-transformed clones formed tumors in nude mice. RNA-sequencing data revealed that the tungsten-transformed clones altered the expression of many cancer-associated genes when compared to control clones. Genes involved in lung cancer, leukemia, and general cancer genes were deregulated by tungsten. Taken together, our data shows the carcinogenic potential of tungsten. Further tests are needed, including in vivo and human studies, in order to validate tungsten as a carcinogen to humans. PMID:26164860

  17. Bronchial thermoplasty: Where there is smoke, there is fire.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Vivek N; Lim, Kaiser G

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is the first nonpharmacologic interventional therapy approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2010 for severe asthma. This approval was based on randomized sham-controlled trial called Asthma Intervention Research (AIR) 2 published in 2010. BT involves the application of radiofrequency energy to airways with an aim to selectively ablate airway smooth muscle. BT is currently marketed for patients with "severe" asthma. Most practicing clinicians apply this severity category to patients with oral corticosteroid dependence, frequent exacerbations, or a significantly reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second along with a poor quality of life. Did the patients studied in the AIR-2 trial have these clinical features? Was there a reduction in severe asthma exacerbation achieved in the intervention group? Did any of the primary or secondary end points in the AIR-2 trial show a positive signal? There continues to be controversy regarding patient selection and primary outcome. Its efficacy in the management of the patient with difficult-to-manage asthma is uncertain. This review covered pertinent aspects of BT, the design and results of the AIR-2 trial, and provides the practicing allergist with a comprehensive overview of this therapy.

  18. Detection of trisomy 7 in bronchial cells from uranium miners

    SciTech Connect

    Lechner, J.F.; Neft, R.E.; Belinsky, S.A.

    1995-12-01

    New Mexico was the largest producer of uranium in the western world during 1960s and 1970s. Investigators at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine`s Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program have been conducting epidemiological studies on uranium miners over the past 2 decades. Currently, this cohort includes more than 3600 men who had completed at least 1 y of underground work experience in New Mexico by December 31, 1976. These miners, who are now in their 5th through 7th decades, the age when lung cancer incidence is highest, are at high risk for developing this disease because they were exposed to high levels of radon progeny in the mines, and they also smoked tobacco. However, not all people comparably exposed develop lung cancer; in fact, the lifetime risk of lung cancer for the smoking uranium miners has been projected by epidemiological analyses to be no higher than 50%. Therefore, the identification of gene alterations in bronchial epithelium would be a valuable tool to ascertain which miners are at greatest risk for lung cancer. The underlying significance of the current effort confirms the hypothesis that chronic exposure to high concentrations of {alpha}-particles and tobacco smoke produces genetically altered lung epithelial cells throughout the respiratory tract of some susceptible individuals before they develop clinical disease.

  19. Emergent bronchofiberoptic bronchial occlusion for intractable pneumothorax with severe emphysema.

    PubMed

    Okada, S; Kano, K; Yamauchi, H; Satoh, S

    1998-11-01

    Emergent bronchofiberoptic bronchial occlusion using fibrin glue and woven polyglycolic acid mesh for persistent pneumothorax with severe emphysema is described. A 74-year-old man who had severe pulmonary dysfunction accompanying chronic emphysema was admitted with a complaint of sudden severe dyspnea. The chest X-ray on admission revealed collapse of the right lung. The patient was placed on a mechanical ventilator because of acute respiratory failure. In spite of continuous suction through a chest drainage tube, air leakage persisted. On the seventh hospital day, subcutaneous emphysema was apparent in the face and scrotum in addition to the chest. First, a double-lumen catheter was inserted into the right B5 bronchus, and fibrin glue was infused into the drainage bronchus via the double-lumen catheter. However, the procedure failed. Next, a combination of fibrin glue and woven polyglycolic acid mesh which had been cut into small pieces was introduced and pushed into the B5 bronchus using forceps. The air leakage stopped immediately after the administration. This procedure is simple and a minimally invasive method for the treatment of intractable pneumothorax in a compromised patient on a mechanical ventilator.

  20. [Bronchial injury due to double-lumen endobronchial tube].

    PubMed

    Nagahiro, I; Miyamoto, M; Sugiyama, H; Nouso, H; Kawai, T; Toda, K; Nobuhisa, T; Endo, Y; Watanabe, T; Matsumoto, Y; Kai, K; Sato, S

    2011-05-01

    A 68-years-old and 148 cm tall female with lung cancer was operated on a left lower lobectomy via posterolateral thoracotomy. A 35 Fr double-lumen endobronchial tube was smoothly inserted and the tip was placed in the left main bronchus whose position was confirmed by fiberoptic bronchoscope. After lobectomy and lymph node dissection were completed, 1-lung ventilation was terminated, the left chest cavity was filled with saline, and an air-leak test was performed. Immediately after the initiation of bilateral lung ventilation, massive air-leak was observed in the left hilar region and the saline in the chest regurgitated into the airway, and she fell into critical ventilatory insufficiency. After sucking the saline in the chest, thorough observation revealed a 3 cm-long rupture of the membranous portion of the left main bronchus. The rupture was manually occluded and ventilatory insufficiency was avoided, then the tip of the endobronchial tube was re-inserted into the right main bronchus and right single lung ventilation was initiated. The rupture was closed by a 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS) running suture with no coverage. The patient was extubated immediately after the operation. Ten days later, she had a tiny bronchial fistula, and it was cured by chest drainage only, and she discharged home on the 48th postoperative day.

  1. Pharmacological Therapy of Bronchial Asthma: The Role of Biologicals.

    PubMed

    Heck, Sebastian; Nguyen, Juliane; Le, Duc-Dung; Bals, Robert; Dinh, Quoc Thai

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a heterogeneous, complex, chronic inflammatory and obstructive pulmonary disease driven by various pathways to present with different phenotypes. A small proportion of asthmatics (5-10%) suffer from severe asthma with symptoms that cannot be controlled by guideline therapy with high doses of inhaled steroids plus a second controller, such as long-acting β2 agonists (LABA) or leukotriene receptor antagonists, or even systemic steroids. The discovery and characterization of the pathways that drive different asthma phenotypes have opened up new therapeutic avenues for asthma treatment. The approval of the humanized anti-IgE antibody omalizumab for the treatment of severe allergic asthma has paved the way for other cytokine-targeting therapies, particularly those targeting interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, IL-17, and IL-23 and the epithelium-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Knowledge of the molecular basis of asthma phenotypes has helped, and continues to help, the development of novel biologicals that target a diverse array of phenotype-specific molecular targets in patients suffering from severe asthma. This review summarizes potential therapeutic approaches that are likely to show clinical efficacy in the near future, focusing on biologicals as promising novel therapies for severe asthma.

  2. A locus regulating bronchial hyperresponsiveness maps to chromosome 5q

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, R.C.; Meyers, D.A.; Bleecker, E.R.

    1994-09-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is one of the hallmarks of asthma. BHR correlates well with asthmatic symptoms and the response to treatment. Moreover, BHR appears to be closely related to airways inflammation. Numerous studies have demonstrated a familial aggregation; however, this phenotype is not likely inherited as a simple Mendelian trait. BHR is also closely associated with total serum IgE levels, as are allergy and asthma. We studied 92 families from Northern Holland ascertained through a parent with asthma who were originally studied between 1962-1970. Since there are a number of candidate genes on chromosome 5q potentially important in producing BHR, families were genotyped for markers in this region. These genes regulate IgE production and the cellular elements that are likely involved in inflammation associated with BHR, allergy and asthma. They include IL-4, IL-3, IL-5, IL-9, IL-12, IL-13 and GM-CSF. Linkage of BHR with markers on 5q was tested using a model free sib-pair method. The data suggest a locus for BHR maps near the cytokine gene cluster on 5q. This region appears critical in producing susceptibility to BHR and possibly to asthma.

  3. Asbestos exposure increases human bronchial epithelial cell fibrinolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Gross, T J; Cobb, S M; Gruenert, D C; Peterson, M W

    1993-03-01

    Chronic exposure to asbestos fibers results in fibrotic lung disease. The distal pulmonary epithelium is an early target of asbestos-mediated injury. Local plasmin activity may be important in modulating endoluminal inflammatory responses in the lung. We studied the effects of asbestos exposure on cell-mediated plasma clot lysis as a marker of pericellular plasminogen activation. Exposing human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells to 100 micrograms/ml of asbestos fibers for 24 h resulted in increased plasma clot lysis. Fibrinolytic activity was augmented in a dose-dependent fashion, was not due to secreted protease, and occurred only when there was direct contact between the plasma clot and the epithelial monolayer. Further analysis showed that asbestos exposure increased HBE cell-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in a time-dependent manner. The increased cell-associated PA activity could be removed by acid washing. The increase in PA activity following asbestos exposure required new protein synthesis because it was abrogated by treatment with either cycloheximide or actinomycin D. Therefore, asbestos exposure increases epithelial-mediated fibrinolysis by augmenting expression of uPA activity at the cell surface by mechanisms that require new RNA and protein synthesis. These observations suggest a novel mechanism whereby exposure of the distal epithelium to inhaled particulates may result in a chronic inflammatory response that culminates in the development of fibrotic lung disease.

  4. [Pulmonary age-chronological age relation as indicator of improvement and severity of patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Castrejón-Vázquez, María Isabel; Galicia-Tapia, Jorge; Guido-Bayardo, Ricardo Leopoldo; Ortiz-Contreras, Felipe; Cícero-Sabido, Raúl; Vargas-Camaño, María Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la espirometría es una prueba clínica que se utiliza para evaluar la función pulmonar en asmáticos. La función pulmonar puede estar afectada por el género, tiempo de evolución clínica, edad pulmonar y edad cronológica. Objetivo: evaluar la relación edad pulmonar-edad cronológica (EP/EC) como indicador de gravedad en pacientes asmáticos. Material y método: estudio prospectivo en el que se evaluó la gravedad del asma mediante la clasificación GINA. La espirometría se realizó al inicio del estudio y a los días 46, 96 y 192, durante 10 meses de seguimiento. Se usaron la prueba t Student, ANOVA de dos vías, modelos de correlación y regresión múltiple y curvas ROC; un valor p<0.05 se consideró significativo. Resultados: se incluyeron 70 pacientes asmáticos (22 hombres y 48 mujeres); la media de la edad cronológica (EC) fue de 35 años, la media de la edad pulmonar (EP) fue de 48 años, con valor del indicador EP-EC=1.4 y la evolución clínica de la enfermedad fue de 13 años. El valor del indicador EP-EC=1 (intervalo de 0.5 a 0.9) se observó en pacientes asintomáticos. El indicador EP-EC mayor a 1 se relacionó con obstrucción de la vía aérea y el indicador EP-EC mayor a 2 se correlacionó con grado 3 de GINA. El análisis de la edad cronológica y pulmonar en las mujeres demostró diferencia de más de 10 años entre ambas edades (GINA grados 2 y 3); mientras que en los hombres se observaron (GINA grados 1, 2 y 3). El valor del indicador EP-EC menor o igual que 1 se consideró normal. Conclusiones: la relación edad pulmonar-edad cronológica puede usarse como indicador clínico de la gravedad y mejoría clínica de pacientes asmáticos, con buena correlación entre la función pulmonar y la edad cronológica.

  5. Paracellular Transport through Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cell Lines – Do We Have a Proper Model?

    PubMed Central

    Weiser, Nelly; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Günzel, Dorothee; Schillers, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported recently that the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) besides transcellular chloride transport, also controls the paracellular permeability of bronchial epithelium. The aim of this study was to test whether overexpressing wtCFTR solely regulates paracellular permeability of cell monolayers. To answer this question we used a CFBE41o– cell line transfected with wtCFTR or mutant F508del-CFTR and compered them with parental line and healthy 16HBE14o– cells. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and paracellular fluorescein flux were measured under control and CFTR-stimulating conditions. CFTR stimulation significant decreased TER in 16HBE14o– and also in CFBE41o– cells transfected with wtCFTR. In contrast, TER increased upon stimulation in CFBE41o– cells and CFBE41o– cells transfected with F508del-CFTR. Under non-stimulated conditions, all four cell lines had similar paracellular fluorescein flux. Stimulation increased only the paracellular permeability of the 16HBE14o– cell monolayers. We observed that 16HBE14o– cells were significantly smaller and showed a different structure of cell-cell contacts than CFBE41o– and its overexpressing clones. Consequently, 16HBE14o– cells have about 80% more cell-cell contacts through which electrical current and solutes can leak. Also tight junction protein composition is different in ‘healthy’ 16HBE14o– cells compared to ‘cystic fibrosis’ CFBE41o– cells. We found that claudin-3 expression was considerably stronger in 16HBE14o– cells than in the three CFBE41o– cell clones and thus independent of the presence of functional CFTR. Together, CFBE41o– cell line transfection with wtCFTR modifies transcellular conductance, but not the paracellular permeability. We conclude that CFTR overexpression is not sufficient to fully reconstitute transport in CF bronchial epithelium. Hence, it is not recommended to use those cell lines to study CFTR

  6. Utility of Cell-Block of Bronchial Washings in Diagnosis of Lung Cancer- A Comparative Analysis with Conventional Smear Cytology

    PubMed Central

    Vadala, Rohit; Mandrekar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bronchoscopy is a safe & effective means of diagnosing bronchogenic carcinoma with a varying diagnostic yield of different bronchoscopic procedures. Cell-Block (CB) preparation of cytology specimen has been shown to increase the diagnostic yield further. To the authors’ knowledge, the diagnostic value of CB as an adjunct to conventional smear cytology (CS) of bronchial washing specimens in the detection of bronchogenic carcinoma has not been well evaluated. Aim The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of CB of bronchial washings when compared with CS. Materials and Methods A total of 104 patients of suspected bronchogenic carcinoma were subjected to bronchoscopy as per British Thoracic Society (BTS) protocol. Bronchial biopsy, brushings and washings were collected. Smears were prepared immediately of bronchial washings and another aliquot was subjected to CB preparation and further processing by paraffin embedding and H&E staining. Results Out of 104 patients, 92 were diagnosed by bronchoscopy with a cumulative diagnostic yield of all sampling techniques being 88.46%. Yield of CB of bronchial washings (44.23%) was higher than Bronchial washings – conventional smears (36.53%). CB detected additional 8 cases of malignancy where corresponding bronchial washings-conventional smears were negative. Exclusive diagnosis by CB was obtained in 2 cases. Brushings and biopsy confirmed malignancy in 49.03% and 57.69% cases. Conclusion CB of bronchial washings had a higher yield as compared to corresponding conventional smears. Increase in yield was also noted when CB of bronchial washings was combined with biopsy and compared to bronchial washings- conventional smears combined with biopsy. In limited resource settings, CB preparation is a simple method that increases diagnostic yield of flexible bronchoscopy, is cost effective & hence can be routinely used. The immunohistochemical and molecular studies are possible with CB only, which is a

  7. Protective effect of sodium cromoglycate on lipopolysaccharide-induced bronchial obstruction in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Michel, O; Ginanni, R; Sergysels, R

    1995-11-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS, the major part of endotoxins) are bacterial proinflammatory substances which can induce in asthmatic patients after inhalation a bronchial obstruction with an increase in both histamine bronchial hyperresponsiveness and blood inflammatory markers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether an acute inhalation of sodium cromoglycate, an anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizating agent, can block the LPS-induced lung function response. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover method, 7 asthmatic subjects were submitted, at 4 days' interval, to a bronchial challenge test with either solvent solution or LPS (20 micrograms) preceded by inhalation of sodium cromoglycate (10 mg) or placebo. Compared to the solvent reaction, LPS induced a significant bronchial obstruction [measured by both the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and the airway resistances] beginning at the 60th minute and lasting more than 300 min (p < 0.01, 2-way ANOVA). On the other hand, acute pretreatment with sodium cromoglycate significantly inhibited the LPS-induced bronchial obstruction. The total lung capacity did not change significantly after LPS inhalation. Thus, this study showed that in asthmatics the LPS-induced FEV1 response is blocked by acute treatment with sodium cromoglycate. Sodium cromoglycate could be an active treatment in asthmatics exposed to house dust containing endotoxin.

  8. HIV Infects Bronchial Epithelium and Suppresses Components of the Mucociliary Clearance Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Chinnapaiyan, S.; Parira, T.; Dutta, R.; Agudelo, M.; Morris, A.; Nair, M.; Unwalla, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Recurrent lung infections and pneumonia are emerging as significant comorbidities in the HIV-infected population in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV infection has been reported to suppress nasal mucociliary clearance (MCC). Since the primary components driving nasal MCC and bronchial MCC are identical, it is possible that bronchial MCC is affected as well. Effective MCC requires optimal ciliary beating which depends on the maintenance of the airway surface liquid (ASL), a function of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) activity and the integrity of the signaling mechanism that regulates ciliary beating and fluid secretion. Impairment of either component of the MCC apparatus can compromise its efficacy and promote microbial colonization. We demonstrate that primary bronchial epithelium expresses HIV receptor CD4 and co-receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 and can be infected by both R5 and X4 tropic strains of HIV. We show that HIV Tat suppresses CFTR biogenesis and function in primary bronchial epithelial cells by a pathway involving TGF-β signaling. HIV infection also interferes with bronchial epithelial cell differentiation and suppresses ciliogenesis. These findings suggest that HIV infection suppresses tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance and this may predispose HIV-infected patients to recurrent lung infections, pneumonia and chronic bronchitis. PMID:28060951

  9. Effect of cigarette smoke exposure in vivo on bronchial smooth muscle contractility in vitro in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Yoshihiko; Murata, Masahiko; Ushikubo, Hiroko; Yoshikawa, Yuji; Saitoh, Akiyoshi; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kamei, Junzo; Misawa, Miwa

    2005-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the development of airway hyperresponsiveness and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Little is known concerning the effect of cigarette smoking on the contractility of airway smooth muscle. The current study was performed to determine the responsiveness of bronchial smooth muscles isolated from rats that were subacutely exposed to mainstream cigarette smoke in vivo. Male Wistar rats were exposed to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke for 2 h/d every day for 2 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last cigarette smoke exposure, a marked airway inflammation (i.e., increases in numbers of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and peribronchial tissues) was observed. In these subacutely cigarette smoke-exposed animals, the responsiveness of isolated intact (nonpermeabilized) bronchial smooth muscle to acetylcholine, but not to high K+ -depolarization, was significantly augmented when compared with the air-exposed control group. In alpha-toxin-permeabilized bronchial smooth muscle strips, the acetylcholine-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contraction was significantly augmented in rats exposed to cigarette smoke, although the contraction induced by Ca2+ was control level. Immunoblot analyses revealed an increased expression of RhoA protein in the bronchial smooth muscle of rats that were exposed to cigarette smoke. Taken together, these findings suggest that the augmented agonist-induced, RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization may be responsible for the enhanced bronchial smooth muscle contraction induced by cigarette smoking, which has relevance to airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  10. Specific bronchial reactivity to toluene diisocyanate: relationship with baseline clinical findings.

    PubMed Central

    Paggiaro, P L; Innocenti, A; Bacci, E; Rossi, O; Talini, D

    1986-01-01

    One hundred and fourteen subjects with asthma induced by toluene diisocyanate were identified and the pattern of their bronchial responses to challenge with toluene diisocyanate was studied. An occupational type specific bronchial provocation test with toluene diisocyanate (10-25 parts per thousand million for 10-15 minutes) elicited an immediate response in 24, a late response in 50, and a dual response in 40 patients. Subjects with a dual response showed at diagnosis a longer duration of symptoms and a greater prevalence of airway obstruction; in these subjects FEV1 (percentage of predicted value) was lower than in subjects with immediate or late reactions to toluene diisocyanate. The percentage of current smokers and ex-smokers was significantly lower in subjects with a late response (26%) than in subjects with immediate or dual responses (56% and 57% respectively). In 27 of the 114 subjects a non-specific challenge test with methacholine was performed and subjects with dual responses showed greater non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness than the other groups. These results suggest that a dual response to specific challenge in bronchial asthma related to toluene diisocyanate may be associated with more severe disease than other types of response, as assessed by duration of symptoms, baseline airway obstruction, and non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The high prevalence of non-smokers and low prevalence of smokers in the group with a late response to specific challenge is so far unexplained. PMID:3016938

  11. Management of occult adrenocorticotropin-secreting bronchial carcinoids: limits of endocrine testing and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Loli, P; Vignati, F; Grossrubatscher, E; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Zurleni, F; Lomuscio, G; Rossetti, O; Ravini, M; Vanzulli, A; Bacchetta, C; Galli, C; Valente, D

    2003-03-01

    The differential diagnosis and the identification of the source of ACTH in occult ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to a bronchial carcinoid still represents a challenge for the endocrinologist. We report our experience in six patients with occult bronchial carcinoid in whom extensive hormonal, imaging, and scintigraphic evaluation was performed. All patients presented with hypercortisolism associated with high plasma ACTH values. The CRH test and high dose dexamethasone suppression test suggested an ectopic source of ACTH in three of six patients. During bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling, none of the patients showed a central to peripheral ACTH gradient. At the time of diagnosis, none of the patients had radiological evidence of the ectopic source of ACTH, whereas pentetreotide scintigraphy identified the lesion in two of four patients. Finally, a chest computed tomography scan revealed the presence of a bronchial lesion in all patients, and pentetreotide scintigraphy identified four of six lesions. In all patients a bronchial carcinoid was found and removed. In one patient with scintigraphic evidence of residual disease after two operations, radioguided surgery, using a hand-held gamma probe after iv administration of radiolabeled pentetreotide, was performed; this allowed detection and removal of residual multiple mediastinal lymph node metastases. In conclusion, our data show that there is not a single endocrine test or imaging procedure accurate enough to diagnose and localize occult ectopic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids. Radioguided surgery appears to be promising in the presence of multiple tumor foci and previous incomplete removal of the tumor.

  12. A differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cell culture model for studying human adenovirus tropism and virulence.

    PubMed

    Lam, E; Ramke, M; Groos, S; Warnecke, G; Heim, A

    2011-12-01

    The species specificity of human adenoviruses (HAdV) almost precludes studying virulence and tropism in animal models, e.g. rodent models, or derived tissue and cell culture models. However, replication of HAdV type 5 (HAdV-C5) has been shown after intravenous injection in swine. In order to study adenovirus replication in airway tissue propagation of bronchial epithelial cells from porcine lungs was established. These primary cells proved to be fully permissive for HAdV-C5 infection in submerged culture, demonstrating efficient HAdV genome replication, infectious viral particle release (1.07×10(8) TCID(50)/ml±6.63×10(7)) and development of cytopathic effect (CPE). Differentiation of porcine bronchial epithelial cells was achieved at the air-liquid interface on collagen I coated 0.4μm polyester membranes. Morphology, expression of tubulin and occludin, the development of tight-junctions and cilia were similar to human bronchial epithelial cells. Infection with HAdV-C5 from the basolateral side resulted in release of infectious virus progeny (2.05×10(7) TCID(50)/ml±2.39×10(7)) to the apical surface as described recently in human bronchial epithelial cells, although complete CPE was not observed. Differentiated porcine bronchial epithelial cells hold promise as a novel method for studying the virulence and pathophysiology of pneumonia associated HAdV types.

  13. Captopril augments acetylcholine-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions in vitro via kinin-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Naman; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2016-06-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors therapy is aassociated with bothersome dry cough as an adverse effect. The mechanisms underlying this adverse effect are not clear. Therefore, influence of captopril (an ACE inhibitor) on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchial smooth muscle contractions was investigated. Further, the mechanisms underlying the captopril-induced changes were also explored. In vitro contractions of rat bronchial smooth muscle to cumulative concentrations of ACh were recorded before and after exposure to captopril. Further, the involvement of kinin and inositol triphosphate (IP₃) pathways for captopril-induced alterations were explored. ACh produced concentration-dependent (5-500 µM) increase in bronchial smooth muscle contractions. Pre-treatment with captopril augmented the ACh-induced contractions at each concentration significantly. Pre-treatment with aprotinin (kinin synthesis inhibitor) or heparin (inositol triphosphate, IP₃-inhibitor), blocked the captopril-induced augmentation of bronchial smooth muscle contractions evoked by ACh. Further, captopril-induced augmentation was absent in calcium-free medium. These results suggest that captopril sensitizes bronchial smooth muscles to ACh-induced contractions. This sensitization may be responsible for dry cough associated with captopril therapy.

  14. Assessing dysplasia of a bronchial biopsy with FTIR spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, Liberty; Kimber, James A.; Oliver, Katherine V.; Brown, James M.; Janes, Samuel M.; Fearn, Tom; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Rich, Peter

    2015-03-01

    An FTIR image of an 8 µm section of de-paraffinised bronchial biopsy that shows a histological transition from normal to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ was obtained in transmission by stitching together images of 256 x 256 µm recorded using a 96 x 96 element FPA detector. Each pixel spectrum was calculated from 128 co-added interferograms at 4 cm-1 resolution. In order to improve the signal to noise ratio, blocks of 4x4 adjacent pixels were subsequently averaged. Analyses of this spectral image, after conversion of the spectra to their second derivatives, show that the epithelium and the lamina propria tissue types can be distinguished using the area of troughs at either 1591, 1334, 1275 or 1215 cm-1 or, more effectively, by separation into two groups by hierarchical clustering (HCA) of the 1614-1465 region. Due to an insufficient signal to noise ratio, disease stages within the image could not be distinguished with this extent of pixel averaging. However, after separation of the cell types, disease stages within either the epithelium or the lamina propria could be distinguished if spectra were averaged from larger, manually selected areas of the tissue. Both cell types reveal spectral differences that follow a transition from normal to cancerous histology. For example, spectral changes that occurred in the epithelium over the transition from normal to carcinoma in situ could be seen in the 1200-1000 cm-1 region, particularly as a decrease in the second derivative troughs at 1074 and 1036 cm-1 , consistent with changes in some form of carbohydrate. Spectral differences that indicate a disease transition from normal to carcinoma in the lamina propria could be seen in the 1350-1175 cm-1 and 1125-1030 cm-1 regions. Thus demonstrating that a progression from healthy to severe dysplasia/squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ can be seen using FTIR spectroscopic imaging and multivariate analysis.

  15. Alteration of Cell Cycle Mediated by Zinc in Human Bronchial ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Zinc (Zn2+), a ubiquitous ambient air contaminant, presents an oxidant challenge to the human lung and is linked to adverse human health effects. To further elucidate the adaptive and apoptotic cellular responses of human airway cells to Zn2+, we performed pilot studies to examine cell cycle perturbation upon exposure using a normal human bronchial epithelial cell culture (BEAS-2B). BEAS-2B cells were treated with low (0, 1, 2 µM) and apoptotic (3 µM) doses of Zn2+ plus 1 µM pyrithione, a Zn2+-specific ionophore facilitating cellular uptake, for up to 24 h. Fixed cells were then stained with propidium iodine (PI) and cell cycle phase was determined by fluorescent image cytometry. Initial results report the percentage of cells in the S phase after 18 h exposure to 1, 2, and 3 µM Zn2+ were similar (8%, 7%, and 12%, respectively) compared with 7% in controls. Cells exposed to 3 µM Zn2+ increased cell populations in G2/M phase (76% versus 68% in controls). Interestingly, exposure to 1 µM Zn2+ resulted in decreased (59%) cells in G2/M. While preliminary, these pilot studies suggest Zn2+ alters cell cycle in BEAS-2B cells, particularly in the G2/M phase. The G2/M checkpoint maintains DNA integrity by enabling initiation of DNA repair or apoptosis. Our findings suggest that the adaptive and apoptotic responses to Zn2+ exposure may be mediated via perturbation of the cell cycle at the G2/M checkpoint. This work was a collaborative summer student project. The st

  16. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in advanced inoperable bronchial carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Stringer, Mark R.; Brown, Stanley B.

    1996-12-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy of PDT to: Palliate symptoms, control disease and extend survival in patients with advanced inoperable cancer. Subject and Method: 55 Males and 23 females aged between 45-81 years (mean 66 years) with inoperable and advanced lung cancer with > 5O. obstructive lesions of the main, lobar or segmental bronchi. Patients had pre-treatment routine clinical radiological, functional and endoscopic assessment with proven histological diagnosis. Protocol of PDT was; Intravenous injection of 2 mg/Kg bodyweight Polyhaematoporphyrin (equivalent to Photofrin) or Photofrin followed 24-72 hours later by illumination of tumour using 630 nm light (Oxford Laser) delivered via an optical fibre with end diffuser. Treatments were carried out under general anaesthesia as a day case procedure. Patients were rebronchoscoped for debridement/retreatment 4-7 days later. Results: There was no treatment related mortality. Two patients developed mild photosensitivity reaction. All patients showed symptomatic improvement with good initial functional and radiological amelioration. Every patient responded to treatment. Seven patients had complete response and negative histology for 3-12 months. After the first treatment average Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) and Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) improvement was 0.5 litres and 0.4 litres respectively. Twenty five percent of patients (nr 19) survived more than 2 years, 10'. (nr=8) between 1-2 years and the remaining 51 patients less than a year. Conclusion: PDT should be considered as a therapeutic modality for all stages of lung cancer and is an excellent treatment modality for palliation in advanced bronchial malignancies.

  17. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness measured by forced oscillometry after bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Duiverman, E J; Den Boer, J A; Roorda, R J; Rooyackers, C M; Valstar, M; Kerrebijn, K F

    1988-01-01

    Forced oscillometry was used to investigate whether lung injury due to bronchopulmonary dysplasia in early life caused abnormalities in bronchial calibre or an increase in bronchial responsiveness to histamine at school age. Results were compared with data obtained from healthy children born prematurely and from healthy children born at term. There was a mild increase in frequency dependence of total respiratory resistance in children who suffered from lung injury in early life, which indicates uneven ventilation in peripheral airways. Bronchial responsiveness to histamine in these subjects was normal. No abnormalities were found in the control group. We conclude that lung injury in early life may cause residual abnormalities of peripheral airways. This does not happen in premature babies who do not have respiratory problems in the neonatal period. Images Figure PMID:3415318

  18. Relation of perceived nasal and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to FEV1, basophil counts, and methacholine response.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, F; Neukirch, F; Annesi, I; Korobaeff, M; Doré, M F; Lellouch, J

    1988-01-01

    Perceived nasal and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to tobacco smoke and cold air were assessed in 912 working men in the Paris area. Baseline lung function measurements and peripheral leucocyte counts with standard differential counts were performed. At least one perceived nasal or bronchial hyperresponsiveness symptom was reported by 15.7%. Current smoking was significantly less frequent among those with cough induced by tobacco smoke. Rhinitis induced by cold air was associated with lower FEV1 (p less than 0.01) and the association remained after adjustment for smoking, asthma, and wheezing (p = 0.06). Symptoms induced by cold air were related to circulating basophils. Neither perceived nasal nor perceived bronchial hyperresponsiveness was significantly related to the airway response to methacholine in a sample of the group (n = 324) surveyed again five years later. The result suggest that the symptom of rhinitis provoked by cold air is a possible "new" risk factor or marker for chronic airflow limitation. PMID:3420556

  19. Increase in non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness as an early marker of bronchial response to occupational agents during specific inhalation challenges.

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, O.; Delwiche, J. P.; Jamart, J.; Van de Weyer, R.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Specific bronchial reactivity to occupational agents may decline after exposure in the workplace ceases leading to falsely negative specific inhalation challenges. A study was carried out to assess prospectively whether increases in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness could be useful in detecting the bronchial response to occupational agents during specific inhalation challenges. METHODS: Specific inhalation challenges were performed in 66 subjects with possible occupational asthma due to various agents. After a control day the subjects were challenged with the suspected agent for up to two hours on the first test day. Those subjects who did not show an asthmatic reaction were rechallenged on the next day for 2-3 hours. The provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall (PC20) in the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was assessed at the end of the control day as well as six hours after each challenge that did not cause a > or = 20% fall in FEV1. The subjects who had a significant (> or = 3.1-fold) reduction in PC20 value at the end of the second challenge day were requested to perform additional specific inhalation challenges. RESULTS: The first test day elicited an asthmatic reaction in 25 subjects. Of the other 41 subjects five (12%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4% to 26%) exhibited a > or = 3.1-fold fall in the PC20 value after the inhalation challenge and developed an asthmatic reaction during the second (n = 3) or third (n = 2) challenge exposure. The offending agents included persulphate (n = 1), wood dust (n = 2), isocyanate (n = 1), or amoxycillin (n = 1). These five subjects had left their workplace for a longer period (mean (SD) 21 (14) months) than those who reacted after the first specific inhalation challenge (8 (11) months). CONCLUSIONS: The increase in non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness after a specific inhalation challenge can be an early and sensitive marker of bronchial response to occupational

  20. Bronchial anatomy of left lung: a study of multi-detector row CT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinya; Ju, Yuanrong; Liu, Cheng; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Min; Sun, Jian; Wang, Tao

    2009-02-01

    Familiarity with prevailing pattern and variations in the bronchial tree is not only essential for the anatomist to explain bronchial variation in bronchial specimens, but also useful for guiding bronchoscopy and instructing pulmonary segmental resection. The purpose of this study was designed to demonstrate various branching patterns of left lung with 3D images, with special attention given to identify the major types at transverse thin-section CT. Two hundred and sixteen patients with routine thorax scans were enrolled. The images of bronchial tree, virtual bronchoscopy were reconstructed using post-processing technique of multi-detector row CT. We attempted to classify the segmental bronchi by interpreting the post-processing images, and identified them in transverse thin-section CT. Our results showed that the segmental bronchial ramifications of the left superior lobe were classified into three types mainly, i.e., common stem of apical and posterior segmental bronchi (64%, 138/216); trifurcation (23%, 50/216); common stem of apical and anterior segmental bronchi (10%, 22/216), and they could be identified at two typical sections of transverse thin-section CT. There were two major types in left basal segmental bronchi, i.e., bifurcation (75%, 163/216), trifurcation (18%, 39/216), and they could also be identified at two typical sections of transverse thin-section CT. In conclusion, our study have offered simplified branching patterns of bronchi and demonstrated various unusual bronchial branching patterns perfectly with 3D images, and have also revealed how to identify the main branching patterns in transverse thin-section CT.

  1. Airway Microbiota and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Patients with Sub-optimally Controlled Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yvonne J.; Nelson, Craig E.; Brodie, Eoin L.; DeSantis, Todd Z.; Baek, Marshall S.; Liu, Jane; Woyke, Tanja; Allgaier, Martin; Bristow, Jim; Wiener-Kronish, Jeanine P.; Sutherland, E. Rand; King, Tonya S.; Icitovic, Nikolina; Martin, Richard J.; Calhoun, William J.; Castro, Mario; Denlinger, Loren C.; DiMango, Emily; Kraft, Monica; Peters, Stephen P.; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Wechsler, Michael E.; Boushey, Homer A.; Lynch, Susan V.

    2010-01-01

    Background Improvement in lung function following macrolide antibiotic therapy has been attributed to reduction in bronchial infection due to specific bacteria. However, the airway may be populated by a more diverse microbiota, and clinical features of asthma may be associated with characteristics of the airway microbiota present. Objective To determine if relationships exist between the composition of the airway bacterial microbiota and clinical features of asthma, using culture-independent tools capable of detecting the presence and relative abundance of most known bacteria. Methods In this pilot study, bronchial epithelial brushings were collected from sixty-five adults with sub-optimally controlled asthma participating in a multicenter study of the effects of clarithromycin on asthma control, and ten healthy subjects. A combination of high-density 16S rRNA microarray and parallel clone library-sequencing analysis was used to profile the microbiota and examine relationships with clinical measurements. Results Compared to controls, 16S rRNA amplicon concentrations (a proxy for bacterial burden) and bacterial diversity were significantly higher among asthmatic patients. In multivariate analyses, airway microbiota composition and diversity were significantly correlated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Specifically, the relative abundance of particular phylotypes, including members of the Comamonadaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae and other bacterial families, were highly correlated with the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Conclusion The composition of bronchial airway microbiota is associated with the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness among patients with sub-optimally controlled asthma. These findings support the need for further functional studies to examine the potential contribution of members of the airway microbiota in asthma pathogenesis. PMID:21194740

  2. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis: A Retrospective Observational Study of 344 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Hongxia; Wu, Junping; Wu, Qi; Sun, Xin; Li, Li; Xing, Zhiheng; Sun, Hongfen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemoptysis is a significant clinical entity with high morbidity and potential mortality. Both medical management (in terms of resuscitation and bronchoscopic interventions) and surgery have severe limitations in these patients population. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) represents the first-line treatment for hemoptysis. This article discusses clinical analysis, embolization approach, outcomes and complications of BAE for the treatment of hemoptysis. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 344 cases, who underwent bronchial arteriography at Tianjin Haihe Hospital between 2006 and 2013. Several aspects of outcome were analyzed: Demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic studies, results, complications and follow-up of BAE. Results: Three hundred and forty-four consecutive patients underwent bronchial arteriography, 336 of 344 patients (97.7%) performed BAE; there were 1530 coils for 920 arteries embolized; the main responsible sources for bleeding were right bronchial artery (29.7%), left bronchial artery (21.6%), combined right and left bronchial trunk (18.4%), right intercostal arteries (13.3%); 61 patients (17.7%) had recurrent hemoptysis within 1 month after undergoing BAE, 74 patients (21.5%) had recurrent hemoptysis over 1 month after undergoing BAE; The common complications of BAE included subintimal dissection, arterial perforation by a guide wire, fever, chest pain, dyspnea, etc. The follow-up was completed in 248 patients, 28 patients had been dead, 21 patients still bleed, 92 patients had lost to follow-up. Conclusions: The technique of BAE is a relatively safe and effective method for controlling hemoptysis. The complications of BAE are rare. Although the long-term outcome in some patients is not good, BAE may be the only life-saving treatment option in patients who are poor surgical candidates. PMID:25563314

  3. Stimulated eosinophils and proteinases augment the transepithelial flux of albumin in bovine bronchial mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, C. A.; Edwards, D.; Boot, J. R.; Robinson, C.

    1993-01-01

    1. The apical to basolateral transmucosal flux of albumin has been measured in isolated sheets of bovine bronchial and tracheal mucosa. Under resting conditions the net unidirectional flux in the bronchial mucosa was not significantly different from that measured previously for the basolateral to apical vector. In contrast, the apical to basolateral flux in the tracheal mucosa was significantly lower than that measured in the opposite direction. 2. Addition of guinea-pig peritoneal eosinophils to the apical side of the tissues had no significant effect on the transmucosal flux of albumin in either the bronchial or tracheal mucosa. 3. When eosinophils were stimulated with the ionophore A23187 or by opsonic adherence to tissues treated with a guinea-pig anti-bovine airway epithelium antibody, the bronchial mucosal sheets that had been exposed showed a significant increase in the transmucosal flux of albumin. However, tissues from the tracheal mucosa were resistant to the effects of stimulated eosinophils. 4. Histologically, sheets of mucosa from bovine main bronchi that had been exposed to stimulated eosinophils were characterized by epithelial injury consisting of loss of columnar epithelium from the underlying basal cell layer and biomatrix. Much less evidence of cellular injury was observed in tracheal tissues. 5. Bacterial collagenases applied to the apical side of the sheets were shown to increase the permeability of the bronchial mucosa to albumin and to produce histological changes that had similarities with the pattern of damage produced by stimulated eosinophils. 6. These observations demonstrate that the ability of eosinophils to injure the bronchial mucosa is independent of the side of the tissue on which they are present.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8242259

  4. Bronchial stenosis following ferrous sulfate aspiration: Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Venci, Nicholas M; Watson, Thomas J; Kallay, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Aspiration of ferrous sulfate tablets is a rare and potentially serious condition that can lead to permanent airway stenosis. Diagnosis may be difficult, as presentation often includes nonspecific symptoms. Disease progression and treatment courses have been detailed in a limited number of publications. Herein, we report a case of severe bronchial stenosis that developed following aspiration of a ferrous sulfate tablet. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt of laser fulguration to correct ferrous sulfate-induced bronchial stenosis.

  5. Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease (1995-2000).

    PubMed

    Foster, S F; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Robertson, I D; Malik, R

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-five cases of feline bronchial disease were identified retrospectively. The criteria for inclusion were consistent clinical signs or histopathology and no other identifiable aetiology. Patient records were analysed to determine historical, clinical, clinicopathologic and radiographic features. The main presenting complaints were coughing and dyspnoea. The most common physical finding was dyspnoea. The majority of radiographs had a bronchial pattern either as the sole change or as a component of a mixed pattern. Bronchoalveolar lavage cytology was neutrophilic or eosinophilic in the majority of cats. There was no association between age, breed, sex, clinical signs, bronchoalveolar lavage cytology or radiographic severity and disease severity.

  6. Endobronchial amyloidosis mimicking bronchial asthma: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyun-Wook; Oh, Hyung-Joo; Park, Ha Young; Park, Cheol-Kyu; Shin, Hong-Joon; Lim, Jung-Hwan; Kwon, Yong-Soo; Choi, Yoo-Duk

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Among two tracheobronchial forms (local and diffuse) and two parenchymal forms (nodular and alveolar septal) that were reported in previous literature, localized endobronchial amyloidosis is an uncommon disease of unknown cause. Bronchial amyloid deposits can occur as focal nodules or multifocal infiltration of the submucosa. We report the case of a 47-year-old man who had complained of dyspnea and wheezing for 1 month and who had been treated for severe asthma at another hospital. Endobronchial amyloidosis was confirmed by histological examination of the bronchial biopsies.

  7. [Role of cockroaches Blatella germanica in the development of atopic bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Berzhets, B M; Petrova, N S; Barashkina, O F; Efremenko, I I; Dotsenko, E A; Prishchepa, I M

    2001-01-01

    The results of the development of manufacturing technology for the preparation of allergen from the bodies of cockroaches and the physico-chemical characteristics of this allergen are presented. The complex allergological examination of patients with atopic bronchial asthma revealed that 69.3% of such patients were sensitized to house dust, and in 68.4% of them IgE antibodies to cockroach allergens were detected. Patients with atopic bronchial asthma, not sensitized to house dust, were found to have sensitization to Blatella germanica in 12.2% of cases.

  8. [Allergen immunotherapy: Mechanisms of action, and therapeutic and socioeconomic impact Consensus of the Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Imunología].

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Jorge; Cardona, Ricardo; Caraballo, Luis; Serrano, Carlos; Ramírez, Ruth; Díez, Susana; García, Elizabeth; Segura, Ana María; Cepeda, Alfonso; Minotas, María

    2016-09-01

    Allergies comprise a set of highly prevalent diseases. When allergic processes are not controlled, they can endanger patients' health and lives, and have an important economic and social impact. The aim of this paper is to present a practical consensus of the scientific evidence on the use of immunotherapy in allergic diseases. A collaborative review made by various institutes and universities in Colombia was carried out upon request of the Asociación Colombiana de Alergia, Asma e Imunología, led by general practitioners, allergists, immunologists, internists and paediatricians with experience in the field of allergies. As a result, based on current national and international scientific evidence, we describe in detail what immunotherapy is about, its indications, contraindications and its economic and health benefits. Conclusions show immunotherapy as a clinically effective and safe treatment, which can substantially reduce the cost of the overall treatment of allergic patients.

  9. Human bronchial epithelial cells exposed in vitro to cigarette smoke at the air-liquid interface resemble bronchial epithelium from human smokers.

    PubMed

    Mathis, Carole; Poussin, Carine; Weisensee, Dirk; Gebel, Stephan; Hengstermann, Arnd; Sewer, Alain; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Xiang, Yang; Ansari, Sam; Wagner, Sandra; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2013-04-01

    Organotypic culture of human primary bronchial epithelial cells is a useful in vitro system to study normal biological processes and lung disease mechanisms, to develop new therapies, and to assess the biological perturbations induced by environmental pollutants. Herein, we investigate whether the perturbations induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and observed in the epithelium of smokers' airways are reproducible in this in vitro system (AIR-100 tissue), which has been shown to recapitulate most of the characteristics of the human bronchial epithelium. Human AIR-100 tissues were exposed to mainstream CS for 7, 14, 21, or 28 min at the air-liquid interface, and we investigated various biological endpoints [e.g., gene expression and microRNA profiles, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) release] at multiple postexposure time points (0.5, 2, 4, 24, 48 h). By performing a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis, we observed a significant enrichment of human smokers' bronchial epithelium gene signatures derived from different public transcriptomics datasets in CS-exposed AIR-100 tissue. Comparison of in vitro microRNA profiles with microRNA data from healthy smokers highlighted various highly translatable microRNAs associated with inflammation or with cell cycle processes that are known to be perturbed by CS in lung tissue. We also found a dose-dependent increase of MMP-1 release by AIR-100 tissue 48 h after CS exposure in agreement with the known effect of CS on this collagenase expression in smokers' tissues. In conclusion, a similar biological perturbation than the one observed in vivo in smokers' airway epithelium could be induced after a single CS exposure of a human organotypic bronchial epithelium-like tissue culture.

  10. Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, Kristin; Nyman, Jan; Baumann, Pia; Wersäll, Peter; Drugge, Ninni; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Persson, Jan-Olov; Rutkowska, Eva; Tullgren, Owe; Lax, Ingmar

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dose–response relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (α/β = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant dose–response relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

  11. Posterior Circulation Stroke After Bronchial Artery Embolization. A Rare but Serious Complication

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, Alicia; Tejero, Carlos; Fredes, Arturo; Cebrian, Luis; Guelbenzu, Santiago; Gregorio, Miguel Angel de

    2013-06-15

    Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is the treatment of choice for massive hemoptysis with rare complications that generally are mild and transient. There are few references in the medical literature with acute cerebral embolization as a complication of BAE. We report a case of intracranial posterior territory infarctions as a complication BAE in a patient with hemoptysis due to bronchiectasis.

  12. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF NORMAL HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS EXPOSED TO TRIVALENT ARSENICALS AND DIMETHYLTHIOARSINIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lung is a major target for arsenic carcinogenesis in humans. However, the carcinogenic mode of action of arsenicals is unknown. We investigated, in human bronchial epithelial (BEAS2B) cells, the effects of inorganic arsenic (iAsIII), monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII), dimethylarsi...

  13. Lung function and bronchial reactivity in asthmatics during exposure to volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Harving, H.; Dahl, R.; Molhave, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether vapors of organic solvents at low concentrations could exert an adverse effect in the lower airways. Under controlled conditions in a climate chamber, 11 persons with bronchial hyperreactivity to histamine and bronchial asthma were exposed for 90 min to a mixture of organic solvents at levels of zero, 2.5, and 25 mg/m3. During exposure to 25 mg/m3 a decrease in FEV1 to 90.7% of baseline value was measured. This was significantly different from the initial value (p less than 0.05), but not significantly different from the value found after sham exposure (FEV1, 97.4% of initial value). The decline in FEV1 during exposure to 25 mg/m3 was most pronounced in persons with high bronchial sensitivity. No changes were found in histamine reactivity after exposure, and no late reactions were registered. Ratings of discomfort showed different individual patterns ranging from no response to reactions towards both of the concentrations. The ratings indicated development of tolerance during exposure. Volatile organic compounds in concentrations found in both the work and the home environments may influence lung function and are probably of importance as bronchial irritants.

  14. Coronary-to-Bronchial Artery Communication: Report of Two Patients Successfully Treated by Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Jarry, Genevieve; Bruaire, Jean-Pierre; Commeau, Philippe; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Leborgne, Laurent; Auquier, Marie-Anne; Delonca, Jean; Quiret, Jean-Claude; Remond, Alexandre

    1999-05-15

    We report two cases of coronary-to-bronchial artery communication responsible for coronary steal. In both cases the anastomosis originated from the proximal circumflex artery and developed because of bronchiectasis. In both cases closure of the anastomosis was achieved successfully by embolization. To date, the patients remained free from symptoms.

  15. Bronchial artery aneurysm suggested to be caused by metalic tracheal stent migration.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kiyoshi; Fumimoto, Satoshi; Fukada, Takehisa; Ochi, Kaoru; Kataoka, Takayuki; Ichihashi, Yoshio; Satomi, Hidetoshi; Morita, Takuya; Hanaoka, Nobuharu; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Katsumata, Takahiro

    2016-12-01

    Occurrence of bronchial artery aneurysm is rare, and it has been detected in less than 1 % of all selective bronchial arteriography cases. Here, we present a case of a bronchial artery aneurysm caused by a tracheal stent migration. A 59-year-old man was operated on for esophageal cancer, where an esophageal-tracheal fistula occurred 1 week after operation. Surgical repair of the esophageal-tracheal fistula was performed using a muscle flap, but this not results in fistula closure. Consequently, a self-expanding covered metallic tracheal stent was implanted for rescue, and this resulted in fistula closure. After 1 year, there was frequent hemoptysis caused by migration of the stent. He was referred to our hospital where removal of the stent was planned. A sudden occurrence of massive bleeding from trachea occurred, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was used. Although removal of tracheal stent was performed successfully, the patient subsequently died from multi-organ failure. Post-mortem autopsy revealed that the massive bleeding is originated from the rupture of a bronchial artery aneurysm.

  16. Proposed Design of a Clinical Information System for the Management of Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Huq, S; Karras, BT; Wright, J; Lober, WB; Lozano, P; Zimmerman, FJ

    2002-01-01

    This poster categorizes the various applications to aid the management of Pediatric Bronchial Asthma. An attempt is made at classifying the various informatics approaches in this domain. Later, the approach of the proposed Asthma CAMS (Computer Aided Management System) project, being developed by the Child Health Institute and Clinical Informatics Research Group www.cirg.washington.edu at the University of Washington, is discussed.

  17. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Title: Asbestos-Induced Activation of Signaling Pathways in Human
    Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    X. Wang, MD 1, J. M. Samet, PhD 2 and A. J. Ghio, MD 2. 1 Center for
    Environmental Medicine, Asthma and Lung Biology, University of North
    Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, Uni...

  18. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  19. Azithromycin induces anti-viral effects in cultured bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Mandy; Akbarshahi, Hamid; Bjermer, Leif; Uller, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Rhinovirus infection is a major cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and may contribute to the development into severe stages of COPD. The macrolide antibiotic azithromycin may exert anti-viral actions and has been reported to reduce exacerbations in COPD. However, little is known about its anti-viral actions on bronchial epithelial cells at clinically relevant concentrations. Primary bronchial epithelial cells from COPD donors and healthy individuals were treated continuously with azithromycin starting 24 h before infection with rhinovirus RV16. Expression of interferons, RIG-I like helicases, pro-inflammatory cytokines and viral load were analysed. Azithromycin transiently increased expression of IFNβ and IFNλ1 and RIG-I like helicases in un-infected COPD cells. Further, azithromycin augmented RV16-induced expression of interferons and RIG-I like helicases in COPD cells but not in healthy epithelial cells. Azithromycin also decreased viral load. However, it only modestly altered RV16-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Adding budesonide did not reduce interferon-inducing effects of azithromycin. Possibly by inducing expression of RIG-I like helicases, azithromycin increased rhinovirus-induced expression of interferons in COPD but not in healthy bronchial epithelium. These effects would reduce bronchial viral load, supporting azithromycin’s emerging role in prevention of exacerbations of COPD. PMID:27350308

  20. Subepithelial fibrosis and degradation of the bronchial extracellular matrix in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Durieu, I; Peyrol, S; Gindre, D; Bellon, G; Durand, D V; Pacheco, Y

    1998-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease caused by mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Chronic inflammation and proteolysis lead to progressive damage of the bronchial wall. Extracellular matrix determines the structural organization and the mechanical properties of lung airways. It was thus examined in nine patients with cystic fibrosis (six bronchial biopsies and three lobectomies) in order to assess its level of alteration. The submucosal changes in matrix protein distribution were analyzed by immunochemistry and electron microscopy: the subepithelial basal lamina was thinned; an acellular collagen fiber layer composed of interstitial collagens (types I and III) subtended by tenascin and devoid of elastin-associated microfibrils was deposited beneath the basal lamina; this dense fibrous deposit generally formed a thick layer and could extend into the bronchial wall; the bronchial elastic framework lost arborescent distribution and appeared slender, packed, or lacunar; ultrastructural observation gave evidence for elastic and collagenic fiber lysis. Proteolytic activity is probably the major cause of matrix degradation. Fibrosis appears as a repair process rather than as an active fibrogenesis. The reversibility of extracellular matrix alterations is an important challenge and various interventions such as anti-inflammatory treatments can be targeted to halt or reverse this degradation process.

  1. Surgery of giant bulla with tube drainage and bronchofiberoptic bronchial occlusion.

    PubMed

    Oizumi, H; Hoshi, E; Aoyama, K; Yuki, Y; Murai, K; Fujishima, T; Washio, M

    1990-05-01

    A case of emphysematous bullae and right lung cancer is presented. At first, left giant bulla was managed by minithoracotomy and tube drainage combined with bronchofiberoptic bronchial occlusion to preserve the respiratory function. Four weeks later, right lung cancer was successfully resected.

  2. Role Of Hif2α Oxygen Sensing Pathway In Bronchial Epithelial Club Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Capelli, Mar; Marsboom, Glenn; Li, Qilong Oscar Yang; Tello, Daniel; Rodriguez, Florinda Melendez; Alonso, Tamara; Sanchez-Madrid, Francisco; García-Rio, Francisco; Ancochea, Julio; Aragonés, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-sensing pathways executed by the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) induce a cellular adaptive program when oxygen supply becomes limited. However, the role of the HIF oxygen-sensing pathway in the airway response to hypoxic stress in adulthood remains poorly understood. Here we found that in vivo exposure to hypoxia led to a profound increase in bronchial epithelial cell proliferation mainly confined to Club (Clara) cells. Interestingly, this response was executed by hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (HIF2α), which controls the expression of FoxM1, a recognized proliferative factor of Club cells. Furthermore, HIF2α induced the expression of the resistin-like molecules α and β (RELMα and β), previously considered bronchial epithelial growth factors. Importantly, despite the central role of HIF2α, this proliferative response was not initiated by in vivo Vhl gene inactivation or pharmacological inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase oxygen sensors, indicating the molecular complexity of this response and the possible participation of other oxygen-sensing pathways. Club cells are principally involved in protection and maintenance of bronchial epithelium. Thus, our findings identify a novel molecular link between HIF2α and Club cell biology that can be regarded as a new HIF2α-dependent mechanism involved in bronchial epithelium adaptation to oxygen fluctuations. PMID:27150457

  3. Catastrophic Bronchial Spasm Due to a Severe Anaphylactic Reaction to Protamine

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jae Hyun; Song, Kyung Sub

    2016-01-01

    Fatal anaphylactic reactions to protamine sulfate during cardiac surgery are very rare. We report a case of catastrophic bronchial spasm due to an anaphylactic reaction to protamine. The patient was managed successfully using a bronchodilator, steroid treatment, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27965927

  4. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 2: proof of concept in asthmatic subjects.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; van der Wiel, Erica; Hagedoorn, Paul; Bult, Wouter; Frijlink, Henderik W; ten Hacken, Nick H T; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-09-01

    Adenosine is an indirect stimulus to assess bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR(2)) in asthma. Bronchial challenge tests are usually performed with nebulised solutions of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP(3)). The nebulised AMP test has several disadvantages, like long administration times and a restrictive maximum concentration that does not result in BHR in all patients. In this study, we investigated the applicability of dry powder adenosine for assessment of BHR in comparison to nebulised AMP. Dry powder adenosine was prepared in doubling doses (0.01-80 mg) derived from the nebulised AMP test with addition of two higher doses. Five asthmatic subjects performed two bronchial challenge tests, one with nebulised AMP following the 2-min tidal breathing method; the second with dry powder adenosine administered with an investigational inhaler and single slow inhalations (inspiratory flow rate 30-40 L/min). All subjects reached a 20% fall in FEV₁(4) with the new adenosine test (PD20(5)) compared to four subjects with the AMP test (PC₂₀(6)). Dry powder adenosine was well tolerated by all subjects and better appreciated than nebulised AMP. In conclusion, this new bronchial challenge test appears to be a safe and convenient alternative to the nebulised AMP test to assess BHR in asthmatic subjects.

  5. CHANGES IN GENE EXPRESSION DURING DIFFERENTIATION OF CULTURED HUMAN PRIMARY BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Primary airway epithelial cell cultures are a useful tool for the in vitro study of normal bronchial cell differentiation and function, airway disease mechanisms, and pathogens and toxin response. Growth of these cells at an air-liquid interface for several days results in the f...

  6. Use of high kilovoltage filtered beam radiographs for detection of bronchial situs in infants and young children.

    PubMed Central

    Deanfield, J E; Leanage, R; Stroobant, J; Chrispin, A R; Taylor, J F; Macartney, F J

    1980-01-01

    Determination of atrial situs is of cardinal importance in the analysis of complex congenital heart lesions, and is best predicted from bronchial situs. Previous methods for assessing bronchial morphology, however, are unsuited to the very young patient. To assess bronchial morphology, 100 consecutive patients under 18 months of age (medium 57.5 days) with suspected congenital heart disease were studied by high kilovoltage filtered beam radiographs, before cardiac catheterisation. This low radiation dose technique clearly defined bronchial anatomy in 95 patients. The lengths of the left and right main bronchi were compared and 10 cases (10%) had a ratio less than 1.5 suggesting bronchial isomerism. Discriminant function analysis based on tracheal width and bronchial length enabled clear distinction of right from left bronchi. Four patients had bilateral right and six had bilateral left bronchi. Four of these 10 cases died and had necropsy confirmation of the radiological diagnosis. Practical prediction about cardiac anatomy, particularly the systemic and pulmonary venous return, may be made when bronchial morphology is known. Images PMID:7437200

  7. Evaluation of Efficacy of Curcumin as an Add-on therapy in Patients of Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Surabhi; Agarwal, Manu; Bhalla, H.L.; Saluja, Mahip

    2014-01-01

    Background: Bronchial asthma being a chronic inflammatory disease of airways has numerous treatment options none of which have disease modifying properties. Curcumin, a yellow dietary pigment has varied pharmacological activities, prominent among which is an anti-inflammatory activity which may be crucial in bronchial asthma as has been proved by various in vitro and in vivo animal studies. Aims: To determine the efficacy and safety of curcumin as an ‘add-on’ therapy in patients of bronchial asthma. Settings and Design: This study was conducted on 77 patients of mild to moderate Bronchial asthma who had a documented positive bronchodilator reversibility test with ≥15% improvement in forced expiratory volume one second (FEV1). Materials and Methods: Seventy seven patients were recruited for the study and randomized into either of the two groups, but 17 patients were lost to follow up. Thus Group A – Receiving standard therapy for bronchial asthma for 30d (n=30) and Group B – Receiving standard therapy for bronchial asthma + Cap Curcumin 500mg BD daily for 30d (n=30). The predefined primary endpoints were clinical assessments of dyspnoea, wheezing, cough, chest tightness and nocturnal symptoms, change in the pre-bronchodilator FEV1 during the treatment and hematological improvement. The secondary end points were assessed by the change in the post-bronchodilator FEV1, C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration and incidence of adverse events. Statistical Analysis used: The data was analysed by SPSS 17.0 software using one-way ANOVA or Paired t-test. Results and Conclusion: The results showed that curcumin capsules help in improving the airway obstruction which was evident by significant improvement in the mean FEV1 values. There was also significant improvement in the hematological parameters and absence of any clinically significant adverse events indicates dependable safety profile of curcumin capsules, though there was no apparent clinical efficacy. Therefore

  8. Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: research activity in Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic respiratory diseases, like bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are a worldwide health problem. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of asthma and COPD-related research from Arab countries has not been explored and there are few internationally published reports on such field. The main objectives of this study were to analyze research output originating from Arab countries in the field of bronchial asthma and COPD. Methods Original scientific articles or reviews published from the 22 Arab countries were screened using specific words pertaining to asthma and COPD using Scopus database and search engine. Research productivity was evaluated based on: (a) total and trends of contribution of each Arab country to asthma and COPD research and (b) journals in which researchers from Arab countries published their research. Results The total number of original research and review articles published globally about bronchial asthma and COPD was 163,964. The leading country in bronchial asthma and COPD research was United States of America (38,632; 23.56%). Worldwide, Turkey ranked 19th while Israel and Iran ranked 25th and 29th respectively. Among Arab countries, Egypt and Kingdom of Saudi Arabia came on positions 39th and 43rd, respectively. A total of 1,304 documents about bronchial asthma and COPD were published from Arab countries which represents 0.8% of the global research output. Research in bronchial asthma was almost double that in COPD. Research from Arab countries was low and showed a significant increase after 2000. Approximately 12% of research activity in asthma and COPD from Arab countries was published in Saudi Medical Journal, Annals of Saudi Medicine, Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal and Tunisie Medicale. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, with a total publication of 353 (27.07%) ranked first among the Arab countries while University of Kuwait was the most productive institution with a total of 123 (9

  9. Clinical analysis of eight patients with blunt main stem bronchial injuries

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Jie; Zhao, Jinbo; Tian, Feng; Wang, Xiaoping; Zhou, Yongan

    2017-01-01

    Background Blunt main stem bronchial injuries are rare but potentially life-threatening injuries in clinical. The aim of this study was to sum up the experience on diagnosis and treatment of blunt main stem bronchial injuries. Methods This report retrospective1y analyzed eight cases of main stem bronchial injuries induced by blunt chest trauma between 2013 and 2016 in Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University. Results There were eight patients, including four men and four women. The definitive diagnosis was confirmed by fibrobronchoscopy. Mean time between injury and treatment in our hospital was 4.25 days (range, 1–12 days). Mean length of airway tear was 1.04 cm (range, 0.5–2 cm). In four patients there was an injury to the left main stem bronchus, in three patients to the right main stem bronchus and in one patient to the ambilateral main stem bronchus. Emergent operation was performed in two patients and elective operation in six patients. End to end bronchial anastomosis was performed via right thoracotomy in two patients and via left thoracotomy in three patients, and primary repair was performed via right thoracotomy in two patients and via left thoracotomy in the remaining one patient. There was no death in this group. Seven patients had no complications and were able to take part in normal activities. One patient suffered from anastomotic stricture after operation was healed by granulation tissue resection and cryotherapy under fibrobronchoscopy. Conclusions Fibrobronchoscopy is able to define the blunt main stem bronchial injuries precisely and surgical approach is the preferred method for patients with these life-threatening complications. PMID:28203423

  10. Detection and identification of oral anaerobes in intraoperative bronchial fluids of patients with pulmonary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Ayako; Sato, Takuichi; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Ishida, Naoko; Tanda, Naoko; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative pneumonia may occur when upper respiratory tract protective reflexes such as cough and/or swallowing reflexes are impaired; thus, silent aspiration of oral bacteria may be a causative factor in postoperative pneumonia. This study aimed to quantify and identify bacteria in intraoperative bronchial fluids and to evaluate the relationship between impairment of cough/swallowing reflexes and silent aspiration of oral bacteria in elderly patients. After obtaining informed consent, cough and swallowing reflexes were assessed using an ultrasonic nebulizer and a nasal catheter, respectively. Using a micro-sampling probe, intraoperative bronchial fluids were collected from nine subjects with pulmonary carcinoma and cultured anaerobically on blood agar plates. After 7 days, CFUs were counted and isolated bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four subjects (aged 71.0 ± 8.4 years) had impaired swallowing reflexes with normal cough reflexes, whereas five subjects (73.6 ± 6.5 years) had normal cough and swallowing reflexes. The bacterial counts (mean CFU ± SD) tended to be higher in intraoperative bronchial fluids of subjects with impaired swallowing reflexes ([5.1 ± 7.7] × 10(5)) than in those of subjects with normal reflexes ([1.2 ± 1.9] × 10(5)); however, this difference was not statistically significant. Predominant isolates from intraoperative bronchial fluids were Streptococcus (41.8%), Veillonella (11.4%), Gemella (8.9%), Porphyromonas (7.6%), Olsenella (6.3%) and Eikenella (6.3%). These findings indicate that intraoperative bronchial fluids contain bacteria, probably derived from the oral microbiota, and suggest that silent aspiration of oral bacteria occurs in elderly patients irrespective of impairment of swallowing reflex.

  11. A Retrospective Analysis of 334 Cases of Hemoptysis Treated by Bronchial Artery Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Ashu; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Veedu, Prasad; Mohan, Anant; Gamanagatti, Shivanand

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the safety and efficacy of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) in the management of hemoptysis. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 334 patients who had undergone BAE for hemoptysis from January 2007 to July 2013. Our study included 255 (76.3%) males and 79 (23.7%) females with an age range from five to 81 years old. All relevant arteries were evaluated but only those arteries that showed hypertrophy and significant blush were targeted. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was used in all patients and gel foam was used in combination with PVA where there was significant shunting. Results Mild hemoptysis was seen in 70 patients, moderate in 195 patients, and severe in 69 patients. On imaging, right side disease was seen in 101 patients, left side involvement in 59 patients, and bilateral involvement in 174 patients. Post-tubercular changes were the predominant pathology seen in 248 patients. Among 334 patients (386 procedures), 42 patients underwent the procedure twice and five patients underwent the procedure thrice. A total of 485 arteries were attempted of which 440 arteries were successfully embolized. Right intercosto-bronchial was the most common culprit artery present in 157 patients, followed by common bronchial (n=97), left bronchial (n=55), and right bronchial (n=45). We embolized a maximum of four arteries in one session. Immediate complications such as dissection and rupture occurred in only nine sessions (2.3%). Twenty-five procedures (6.5%) were repeated within two months, which were due to technical or clinical failure and 27 procedures (7%) were repeated after two months. Conclusions BAE is a safe and effective procedure with a negligible complication rate. Our approach of targeting hypertrophied arteries was effective. PMID:25960838

  12. Identification and functional characterization of breast cancer resistance protein in human bronchial epithelial cells (Calu-3)

    PubMed Central

    Paturi, Durga Kalyani; Kwatra, Deep; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), a 72 kDa protein belongs to the subfamily G of the human ATP binding cassette transporter superfamily. Overexpression of BCRP was found to play a major role in the development of resistance against various chemotherapeutic agents. BCRP plays an important role in absorption, distribution and elimination of several therapeutic agents. BCRP expression and functional activity across human bronchial epithelium and its impact on pulmonary drug accumulation has not been established. The objective of this study is to identify and characterize the BCRP efflux transporter across human bronchial epithelium. Calu-3, a human bronchial epithelial cell line was employed as a model for this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunocytochemical studies were performed to identify and characterize the expression of BCRP. RT-PCR studies detected ABCG2 mRNA levels in Calu-3 cells. A strong band for BCRP with a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa was observed in Western blot analysis. Immunocytochemical studies confirmed the presence of BCRP on the apical membrane of human bronchial epithelium. Functional activity of BCRP was determined by performing uptake of radioactive substrate [3H]-mitoxantrone in the presence and absence of BCRP inhibitors. Uptake of [3H]-mitoxantrone was elevated significantly in the presence of GF120918 and fumitremorgin C. An increase in the accumulation of Hoechst 33342, a fluorescent dye was also detected in the presence of BCRP inhibitors when compared to control. In summary, this study provides evidence for the presence of an ATP dependent, membrane bound efflux transporter BCRP across human bronchial epithelial cell line, Calu-3. PMID:19782742

  13. Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness in lifeguards exposed to nitrogen trichloride in indoor swimming pools

    PubMed Central

    Massin, N.; Bohadana, A. B.; Wild, P.; Hery, M.; Toamain, J. P.; Hubert, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure the levels of exposure to nitrogen trichloride (NCl3) in the atmosphere of indoor swimming pools and to examine how they relate to irritant and chronic respiratory symptoms, indices of pulmonary function, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in lifeguards working in the pools. METHOD: 334 lifeguards (256 men; 78 women) recruited from 46 public swimming pools (n = 228) and 17 leisure centre swimming pools (n = 106) were examined. Concentrations of NCl3 were measured with area samplers. Symptoms were assessed by questionnaire and methacholine bronchial challenge (MBC) test by an abbreviated method. Subjects were labelled MBC+ if forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) fell by > or = 20%. The linear dose- response slope was calculated as the percentage fall in FEV1 at the last dose divided by the total dose given. RESULTS: 1262 samples were taken in the 63 pools. Mean NCl3 concentrations were greater in leisure than in public pools. A significant concentration-response relation was found between irritant eye, nasal, and throat symptoms-but not chronic respiratory symptoms-and exposure concentrations. Among women, the prevalence of MBC+ was twice as great as in men. Overall, no relation was found between bronchial hyperresponsiveness and exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that lifeguards exposed to NCl3 in indoor swimming pools are at risk of developing irritant eye, nasal, and throat symptoms. Exposure to NCl3 does not seem to carry the risk of developing permanent bronchial hyperresponsiveness, but this association might have been influenced by self selection. The possibility that subjects exposed to NCl3 are at risk of developing transient bronchial hyperresponsiveness cannot be confidently ruled out.   PMID:9624280

  14. Aberrant Left Inferior Bronchial Artery Originating from the Left Gastric Artery in a Patient with Acute Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-10-15

    Massive hemoptysis is a life-threatening condition, and the major source of bleeding in this condition is the bronchial circulation. Bronchial artery embolization is a safe and effective treatment for controlling hemoptysis. However, the sites of origin of the bronchial arteries (BAs) have numerous anatomical variations, which can result in a technical challenge to identify a bleeding artery. We present a rare case of a left inferior BA that originated from the left gastric artery in a patient with recurrent massive hemoptysis caused by bronchiectasis. The aberrant BA was embolized, and hemoptysis has been controlled for 8 months.

  15. Hemomediastinum due to spontaneous rupture of a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm – A rare cause of thoracic pain

    PubMed Central

    Vosse, B.A.H.; van Belle, A.F.; de Vries, G.J.; Das, M.

    2014-01-01

    Hemomediastinum is a rare pathological event. Multiple underlying causes and contributory factors can be identified, such as trauma, malignancy, iatrogenic, bleeding disorder or mediastinal organ hemorrhage. Also, a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm may be the source of a hemomediastinum. Hemoptysis is an important directive symptom, however occasionally, patients only present with thoracic pain or symptoms related to extrinsic compression of the airways or esophagus. Using contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) of the chest, hemomediastinum can be adequately diagnosed, and the involved vascular structures can be revealed. In case of a (ruptured) bronchial artery aneurysm, transcatheter embolization provides a minimally invasive procedure and is treatment of first choice. In this case report, a 76-year-old female is presented with spontaneous rupture of a mediastinal bronchial artery aneurysm resulting in hemomediastinum causing thoracic pain. Superselective embolization of the left bronchial artery was successfully performed. PMID:26029533

  16. Misdiagnosed Case of Bronchial Carcinoid Presenting with Refractory Dyspnoea and Wheeze: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santra, Avradip; Dutta, Pravati; Pothal, Sudarsan; Manjhi, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    A 59-year-old male smoker presented with persistent wheezing and occasional coughing that had been ongoing for two years and had been unsuccessfully treated with an inhalational β2 agonist, an anticholinergic and an inhalational steroid in the last year. On clinical examination, a left-sided wheeze was detected. The initial chest X-ray was normal. A computed tomography (CT) scan of thorax demonstrated a mass lesion in the left main bronchus. On subsequent bronchoscopy, an endobronchial polypoid mass was detected in the left main bronchus, completely occluding the bronchial lumen. A biopsy taken from the mass revealed features of bronchial carcinoid. Bronchial carcinoid can present uncommonly with wheezes, resulting in misdiagnosis as bronchial asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). If an asthma or COPD patient does not respond to conventional therapy, a CT scan and subsequent bronchoscopy is warranted. PMID:23966830

  17. BRONCHIAL LESIONS OF MOUSE MODEL OF ASTHMA ARE PRECEDED BY IMMUNE COMPLEX VASCULITIS AND INDUCED BRONCHIAL ASSOCIATED LYMPHOID TISSUE (iBALT)

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Ian; Sell, Stewart

    2015-01-01

    We systematically examined by immune-histology the lungs of some widely used mouse models of asthma. These models include sensitization by multiple intraperitoneal injections of soluble ovalbumin (OVA) or of OVA with alum, followed by three intranasal or aerosol challenges 3 days apart. Within 24 hours after a single challenge there is fibrinoid necrosis of arterial walls with deposition of immunoglobulin and OVA and infiltration of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells that lasts for about 3 days followed by peribronchial B-cell infiltration and slight reversible goblet cell hypertrophy. After 2 challenges, severe eosinophilic vasculitis is present at 6 hours, increases by 72 hours and then declines; B-cell proliferation and significant goblet cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia (GCHTH) and bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy recur more prominently. After 3 challenges, there is significantly increased induced bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) formation, GCHTH and smooth muscle hypertrophy. Elevated levels of Th2 cytokines: IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, are present in bronchial lavage fluids. Sensitized mice have precipitating antibody and positive Arthus skin reactions but also develop significant levels IgE antibody to OVA but only 1 week after challenge. We conclude that the asthma like lung lesions induced in these models is preceded by immune complex mediated eosinophilic vasculitis and iBALT formation. There are elevations of Th2 cytokines that most likely produce bronchial lesions that resemble human asthma. However, it is unlikely that mast cell activated atopic mechanisms are responsible as we found only a few presumed mast cells by toluidine blue and metachromatic staining limited to the most proximal part of the main stem bronchus, and none in the remaining main stem bronchus or in the lung periphery. PMID:26006019

  18. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  19. [The furosemide test in diagnosis of the cause of bronchial obstruction].

    PubMed

    Redhammer, R; Kosinarova, V; Tamasova, M; Urban, S

    2001-01-01

    The authors studied the rate of relief in cases of moderate, reversible airway obstruction after Furosemide administration. They examined 25 patients with bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive bronchitis (mean age 49 years). They found out that intravenous administration of Furosemide to patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis has a significant bronchodilating effect. The reduction of interstitial lung water and the decrease in congestion of airways mucosa in latent left ventricular failure may be the possible explanations of this phenomenon. After administration of Furosemide by inhalation, a mild decrease in airway obstruction was observed in asthmatic patients. The influence of Na+/K+/Cl- transport in the bronchial epithelium, or changes in PGE2 are supposed to represent the effective mechanisms. The authors conclude that Furosemide given intravenously to patients with moderate airflow limitation in connection with lung function tests may be helpful in the diagnosis of the nature of airway obstruction.

  20. A case of parenchymal-sparing right mainstem bronchial sleeve resection for carcinoid tumor.

    PubMed

    Pont, Bert Du; Decaluwé, Herbert; Van Raemdonck, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Neuroendocrine tumors are rare bronchial carcinomata often presenting in a central airway. Resection usually includes a sleeve of the bronchus with the underlying lobe. Case report We present a 19-year old male with retro-obstructive pneumonia from a tumor in the right mainstem bronchus. Bronchoscopy showed an obstructive mass confirmed as being a typical carcinoid on biopsy. Sleeve resection of the mainstem bronchus only was successfully performed sparing the entire right lung. Discussion and conclusion This type of limited tumoral resection should be reserved for carefully selected patients with a low-grade neoplasm without extrabronchial extension and with both tumor-negative lymph nodes and bronchial margins on frozen section.

  1. Rhinovirus-induced calcium flux triggers NLRP3 and NLRC5 activation in bronchial cells.

    PubMed

    Triantafilou, Kathy; Kar, Satwik; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Triantafilou, Martha

    2013-12-01

    Human rhinoviruses have been linked with underlying lung disorders, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, in children and adults. However, the mechanism of virus-induced airway inflammation is poorly understood. In this study, using virus deletion mutants and silencing for nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), we show that the rhinovirus ion channel protein 2B triggers NLRP3 and NLRC5 inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion in bronchial cells. 2B protein targets the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi and induces Ca(2+) reduction in these organelles, thereby disturbing the intracellular calcium homeostasis. NLRP3 and NLRC5 act in a cooperative manner during the inflammasome assembly by sensing intracellular Ca(2+) fluxes and trigger IL-1β secretion. These results reveal for the first time that human rhinovirus infection in primary bronchial cells triggers inflammasome activation.

  2. Preceding bronchial cutting for exposure of the pulmonary artery buried in scar tissue after chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nomori, Hiroaki; Cong, Yue; Sugimura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    It is often difficult to expose the pulmonary artery buried in a scar tissue, especially in lung cancer patients that responded well to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Difficulty to access pulmonary artery branches may lead to potentially unnecessary pneumonectomy. To complete lobectomy in such cases, a technique with preceding bronchial cutting for exposure of the pulmonary artery is presented. After dissecting the pulmonary vein, the lobar bronchus is cut from the opposite side of the pulmonary artery with scissors. The back wall of the lobar bronchus is cut using a surgical knife from the luminal face, which can expose the pulmonary artery behind the bronchial stump and then complete lobectomy. Fourteen patients have been treated using the present technique, enabling complete resection by lobectomy (including sleeve lobectomy in 3 patients) without major bleeding. The present procedure can expose pulmonary artery buried in scar tissue, resulting in making the lobectomy safer.

  3. Single-Cell RNA Sequencing of the Bronchial Epithelium in Smokers With Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    profile of changes that occur in the bronchial epithelium in response to smoking, smoking cessation, and lung cancer. These discoveries may enhance...4. Impact…………………………...…………………………………… 13 5. Changes /Problems...….…………………………………………….. 13-14 6. Products…………………………………….……….….……………. 14 7...with lung cancer. These data will provide a comprehensive single cell transcriptional profile of changes that occur in the bronchial epithelium in

  4. A Surgical Case of Bronchial Artery Aneurysm Directory Connecting with Pulmonary Artery.

    PubMed

    Kitami, Akihiko; Sano, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Shoko; Suzuki, Kosuke; Uematsu, Shugo; Suzuki, Takashi; Saeki, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    We present a surgical case of bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) connecting pulmonary artery accompanied with racemose hemangioma. This is a third surgical case report of BAA directly connecting pulmonary artery in the English literature. A 63-year-old female was found a BAA, 2 cm in diameter, connecting right A4 pulmonary artery. The patient underwent two attempts for embolization. However, due to extensive collaterals, there was persistent flow in the aneurysm. Standard lateral thoracotomy was performed. A BAA was located between A4 and A5 PA. A small branch of A4 PA was separated, and the small vessel connecting to the BAA could be ligated. A5 PA was separated similarly, however BAA was ruptured not to identify the other small vessel connecting to the BAA. After a clamp of the BAA, middle lobe lobectomy was performed. We removed the aneurysm with dilated bronchial artery connecting to the aneurysm. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  5. [Comparative serum and secretory IgA studies in recurrent bronchial infections (preliminary note)].

    PubMed

    Russu, R; Popescu, C

    1976-01-01

    In a group of 84 patients with recidivating bronchial infections IgA were evaluated with the aid of radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini. In all the patients IgA were determined from expectoration extractions and in 50 of them serum IgA were also determined. In 38 cases the determinations were simultaneous. Concentration of S IgA was low in most of the cases (65%). These results are probably influenced by the technical difficulties raised by detaching the connections existing between S IgA and mucus fibrils from the bronchial secretion. The results obtained in the dosage of serum IgA are comparable with those mentioned in the current literature. No correlations were possible between S IgA and serum IgA and there proteins can be considered as independent.

  6. [Bronchial hyperreactivity to the inhalation of hypo- and hyperosmolar aerosols and its correction by halotherapy].

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, P P; Adamova, I V; Sinitsyna, T M

    1996-01-01

    18 bronchial asthma (BA) patients (12 with mild and 6 with moderate disease) were examined before and after halotherapy (HT) for airways reactivity using provocative tests with ultrasonic inhalations of purified water (UIPW) and hypertonic salt solution (HSS). Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) to UIPW and HSS before treatment occurred in 13 and 11 patients (72 and 69%, respectively). HT reduced BHR in 2/3 and 1/2 of the patients, respectively. In the rest patients BHR was unchanged or increased, being so to UIPW only in patients with atopic asthma in attenuating exacerbation. Clinical efficacy of HT and initial BHR to UIPW correlated (r = 0.56; p < 0.05). No correlation was found between HT efficacy and initial BHR to HSS.

  7. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study , we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA – mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. PMID:26780400

  8. Tachyphylaxis to beta-adrenoceptor agonists in human bronchial smooth muscle: studies in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, C; Conolly, M E

    1980-01-01

    In studies on human isolated peripheral airway smooth muscle; 1 A concentration dependent beta-adrenoceptor tachyphylaxis was observed to isoprenaline. 2 Cross desensitization to other beta-adrenoceptor agonists was demonstrated. 3 The desensitization was reversible with time. Hydrocortisone appeared to accelerate the recovery from the desensitized state. Low concentration isoprenaline (10(-9) mol l-1) prevented recovery whereas cyclohexamide 1.8 x 10(-4) mol l-1 had no noticeable effect on recovery. Continued occupancy of the receptor appears to prevent recovery. The recovery from the desensitized state does not apparently require synthesis of new proteins. 4 Bronchial wall cyclic AMP response to isoprenaline was attenuated after isoprenaline induced desensitization whereas total phosphodiesterase activity of bronchial wall was not altered by desensitization. Thus by exclusion the adenylate cyclase receptor complex may be altered in human peripheral airway smooth muscle beta-adrenoceptor tachyphylaxis. PMID:6108126

  9. Severity-related changes of bronchial microbiome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Nuñez, Marian; Millares, Laura; Pomares, Xavier; Ferrari, Rafaela; Pérez-Brocal, Vicente; Gallego, Miguel; Espasa, Mateu; Moya, Andrés; Monsó, Eduard

    2014-12-01

    Bronchial colonization by potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) is often demonstrated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but culture-based techniques identify only a portion of the bacteria in mucosal surfaces. The aim of the study was to determine changes in the bronchial microbiome of COPD associated with the severity of the disease. The bronchial microbiome of COPD patients was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplification and pyrosequencing in sputum samples obtained during stable disease. Seventeen COPD patients were studied (forced expiratory volume in the first second expressed as a percentage of the forced vital capacity [FEV1%] median, 35.0%; interquartile range [IQR], 31.5 to 52.0), providing a mean of 4,493 (standard deviation [SD], 2,598) sequences corresponding to 47 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (SD, 17) at a 97% identity level. Patients were dichotomized according to their lung function as moderate to severe when their FEV1% values were over the median and as advanced when FEV1% values were lower. The most prevalent phyla in sputum were Proteobacteria (44%) and Firmicutes (16%), followed by Actinobacteria (13%). A greater microbial diversity was found in patients with moderate-to-severe disease, and alpha diversity showed a statistically significant decrease in patients with advanced disease when assessed by Shannon (ρ = 0.528; P = 0.029, Spearman correlation coefficient) and Chao1 (ρ = 0.53; P = 0.028, Spearman correlation coefficient) alpha-diversity indexes. The higher severity that characterizes advanced COPD is paralleled by a decrease in the diversity of the bronchial microbiome, with a loss of part of the resident flora that is replaced by a more restricted microbiota that includes PPMs.

  10. Frequent expression of MAGE1 tumor antigens in bronchial epithelium of smokers without lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    BHUTANI, MANISHA; PATHAK, ASHUTOSH KUMAR; TANG, HONGLI; FAN, YOU H.; LIU, DIANE D.; LEE, J. JACK; KURIE, JONATHAN; MORICE, RODOLFO C.; HONG, WAUN KI; MAO, LI

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma antigens (MAGE) are frequently expressed in lung cancer and are promising targets of anticancer immunotherapy. Our preliminary data suggested that MAGE may be expressed during early lung carcinogenesis, raising the possibility of targeting MAGE as a lung cancer prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to investigate MAGE activation patterns in the airways of chronic smokers without lung cancer. MAGE-A1, -A3 and -B2 gene expression was determined in bronchial brush cells from chronic former smokers without lung cancer by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The results were correlated with clinical parameters. The 123 subjects had a median age of 57 years, a median of 40 pack-years smoking history, and had quit smoking for at least one year prior to enrollment. Among the subjects, 31 (25%), 38 (31%), and 46 (37%) had detectable MAGE-A1, -A3 and -B2 expression, respectively, in their bronchial brush samples. Expression of MAGE-A1 and -B2 positively correlated with pack-years smoking history (P=0.03 and 0.03, respectively). The frequency of expression did not decrease despite a prolonged smoking cessation period. In conclusion, MAGE-A1, -A3 and -B2 genes are frequently expressed in the bronchial epithelial cells of chronic smokers without lung cancer, suggesting that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke activates these genes even before the malignant transformation of bronchial cells in susceptible individuals. Once activated, the expression persists despite long-term smoking cessation. These data support the targeting of MAGE as a novel lung cancer prevention strategy. PMID:22977481

  11. Gigantic bronchial artery aneurysm treated with transcatheter arterial embolization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Noriyuki; Tsutsui, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Toru; Kasai, Hiroki; Tomita, Takeshi; Kumazaki, Setsuo; Koyama, Jun; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kinoshita, Osamu; Yamada, Akira; Ueda, Kazuhiko; Kadoya, Masumi; Amano, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    Bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA) is a rare condition. Rupture of BAA can cause critical hemorrhage, and intervention for BAA is thus recommended. A 69-year-old woman presented with BAA 70 mm in diameter in the right hilum of the lung. Transcatheter arterial embolization for afferent arteries of the BAA was performed and the BAA has subsequently been shrinking as observed by radiography. We present this case and a brief review of management of BAA based on the literature.

  12. Coronary-bronchial blood flow and airway dimensions in exercise-induced syndromes.

    PubMed

    White, S W; Pitsillides, K F; Parsons, G H; Hayes, S G; Gunther, R A; Cottee, D B

    2001-01-01

    1. We have an incomplete understanding of integrative cardiopulmonary control during exercise and particularly during the postexercise period, when symptoms and signs of myocardial ischaemia and exercise-induced asthma not present during exercise may appear. 2. The hypothesis is advanced that baroreflex de-resetting during exercise recovery is normally associated with (i) a dominant sympathetic vasoconstrictor effect in the coronary circulation, which, when associated with obstructive coronary disease, may initiate a potentially positive-feedback cardiocardiac sympathetic reflex (variable myocardial ischaemia with symptoms and signs); and (ii) a dominant parasympathetic bronchoconstrictor effect in the presence of bronchovascular dilatation, which, when associated with raised mediator release in the bronchial wall, reinforces the tendency for airway obstruction (variable dyspnoea results). 3. There is a need for new techniques to examine hypotheses concerning autonomic control, during and after exercise, of the coronary and bronchial circulations and the dimensions of airways. Accordingly, a new ultrasonic instrument has been designed named an 'Airways Internal Diameter Assessment (AIDA) Sonomicrometer'. It combines pulsed Doppler flowmetry with transit-time sonomicrometry of airway circumference and single-crystal sonomicrometry of airway wall thickness. Initial evaluation suggests it is relatively easy to apply during thoracotomy in recovery animals. The component devices are linear and will measure target variables with excellent accuracy. 4. In anaesthetized sheep, intubated with controlled ventilation, intravenous isoproterenol causes large increases in bronchial blood flow, a fall in arterial pressure and a reduction in airway circumference. This may reflect the dominant action of reflex vagal activity over direct beta-adrenoceptor inhibition of bronchial smooth muscle, the reflex source being baroreflex secondary to the fall in arterial pressure. These

  13. Bronchial epithelial cells release monocyte chemotactic activity in response to smoke and endotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, S.; Rennard, S.I.; Leikauf, G.D.; Robbins, R.A. )

    1991-08-01

    An increase in mononuclear phagocytes occurs within the airways during airway inflammation. Bronchial epithelial cells could release monocyte chemotactic activity and contribute to this increase. To test this hypothesis, bovine bronchial epithelial cells were isolated and maintained in culture. Bronchial epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids were evaluated for monocyte chemotactic activity. Epithelial cell culture supernatant fluids attracted significantly greater numbers of monocytes compared to media alone and the number of monocytes attracted increased in a time dependent manner. Endotoxin and smoke extract induced a dose and time dependent release of monocyte chemotactic activity compared with cells cultured in media (52.5 {plus minus} 2.6 (endotoxin), 30.5 {plus minus} 2.3 (smoke) vs 20.5 {plus minus} 2.2 cells/high power field (HPF) p less than 0.001). The released activity was chemotactic by checkerboard analysis. Stimulation of the epithelial cells by opsonized zymosan, calcium ionophore (A23187), and PMA also resulted in an increase in monocyte chemotactic activity (p less than 0.01). Because the release of activity was blocked by the lipoxygenase inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and diethycarbamazine, epithelial cell monolayers were cultured with 3 microCi (3H)arachidonic acid for 24 h and then exposed to A23187, PMA, or both stimuli, for 4, 8, and 24 h. Analysis of the released 3H activity was performed with reverse-phase HPLC and revealed that the major lipoxygenase product was leukotriene B4. These data suggest that monocytes may be recruited into airways in response to chemotactic factors released by bronchial epithelial cells.

  14. Carbocysteine regulates innate immune responses and senescence processes in cigarette smoke stimulated bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Siena, Liboria; Scafidi, Valeria; Gerbino, Stefania; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Gallina, Salvatore; Lanata, Luigi; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-11-25

    Cigarette smoke represents the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) alter TLR4 expression and activation in bronchial epithelial cells. Carbocysteine, an anti-oxidant and mucolytic agent, is effective in reducing the severity and the rate of exacerbations in COPD patients. The effects of carbocysteine on TLR4 expression and on the TLR4 activation downstream events are largely unknown. This study was aimed to explore whether carbocysteine, in a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE), counteracted some pro-inflammatory CSE-mediated effects. In particular, TLR4 expression, LPS binding, p21 (a senescence marker), IL-8 mRNA and release in CSE-stimulated 16-HBE as well as actin reorganization in neutrophils cultured with supernatants from bronchial epithelial cells which were stimulated with CSE and/or carbocysteine were assessed. TLR4 expression, LPS binding, and p21 expression were assessed by flow cytometry, IL-8 mRNA by Real Time PCR and IL-8 release by ELISA. Actin reorganization, a prerequisite for cell migration, was determined using Atto 488 phalloidin in neutrophils by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. CSE increased: (1) TLR4, LPS binding and p21 expression; (2) IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 release due to IL-1 stimulation; (3) neutrophil migration. Carbocysteine in CSE stimulated bronchial epithelial cells, reduced: (1) TLR4, LPS binding and p21; (2) IL-8 mRNA and IL-8 release due to IL-1 stimulation; (3) neutrophil chemotactic migration. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that carbocysteine may contribute to control the inflammatory and senescence processes present in smokers.

  15. Image-enhanced bronchoscopic evaluation of bronchial mucosal microvasculature in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Fathy, Eman Mahmoud; Shafiek, Hanaa; Morsi, Tamer S; El Sabaa, Bassma; Elnekidy, Abdelaziz; Elhoffy, Mohamed; Atta, Mohamed Samy

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial vascular remodeling is an underresearched component of airway remodeling in COPD. Image-enhanced bronchoscopy may offer a less invasive method for studying bronchial microvasculature in COPD. Objectives To evaluate endobronchial mucosal vasculature and changes in COPD by image-enhanced i-scan3 bronchoscopy and correlate them pathologically by analyzing bronchial mucosal biopsies. Methods This case–control study analyzed 29 COPD patients (41.4% Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease B [GOLD B] and 58.6% GOLD D) and ten healthy controls admitted at Alexandria Main University Hospital, Egypt. Combined high-definition white light bronchoscopy (HD WLB) with i-scan3 was used to evaluate endobronchial mucosal microvasculature. The vascularity was graded according to the level of mucosal red discoloration (ie, endobronchial erythema) from decreased discoloration to normal, mild, moderate, and severe increased red discoloration (G−1, G0, G+1, G+2, and G+3, respectively) and scored by three bronchoscopists independently. Bronchial mucosal biopsies were taken for microvascular density counting using anti-CD34 antibody as angiogenesis marker. Results Different grades of endobronchial erythema were observed across/within COPD patients using combined HD WLB + i-scan3, with significant agreement among scorers (P=0.031; median score of G+1 [G−1–G+2]) being higher in GOLD D (P=0.001). Endobronchial erythema significantly correlated with COPD duration, exacerbation frequency, and body mass index (P<0.05). Angiogenesis was significantly decreased among COPD patients versus controls (10.6 [8–13.3] vs 14 [11–17.1]; P=0.02). Mucosal surface changes (including edema, atrophy, and nodules) were better visualized by the combined HD WLB + i-scan3 rather than HD WLB alone. Conclusion Combined HD WLB + i-scan3 seems to be valuable in evaluating mucosal microvasculature and surface changes in COPD, which may represent vasodilatation rather than

  16. Bronchial Artery Embolization in the Management of Pulmonary Parenchymal Endometriosis with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Andic, Cagatay; Bayram, Nazan; Telli, Cumali; Sarica, Akif; Sirikci, Akif

    2008-07-15

    Pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis is extremely rare and usually manifests itself with a recurrent hemoptysis associated with the menstrual cycle. The therapies proposed for women with endometriosis consist of medical treatments and surgery. Bronchial artery embolization has become a well-established and minimally invasive treatment modality for hemoptysis, and to the best of our knowledge, it has not been reported in pulmonary endometriosis. We report a case of pulmonary parenchymal endometriosis treated with embolotheraphy for hemoptysis.

  17. The daily pattern of heart rate, body temperature, locomotor activity, and autonomic nervous activity in congenitally bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Akita, Megumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Nishibata, Ryoji; Mikami, Hiroki; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2004-04-01

    We studied the characteristics of the rhythmicity of heart rate (HR), body temperature (BT), locomotor activity (LA) and autonomic nervous activity in bronchial-hypersensitive (BHS) and bronchial-hyposensitive (BHR) guinea pigs. For this purpose, HR, BT, LA, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded from conscious and unrestrained guinea pigs using a telemetry system. Autonomic nervous activity was analyzed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Nocturnal patterns, in which the values in the dark phase (20:00-06:00) were higher than those in the light phase (06:00-20:00), were observed in HR, BT and LA in both strains of guinea pigs. The autonomic nervous activity in BHS guinea pigs showed a daily pattern, although BHR guinea pigs did not show such a rhythmicity. The high frequency (HF) power in BHS guinea pigs was higher than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. Moreover, the low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio in BHS guinea pigs was lower than that in BHR guinea pigs throughout the day. These results suggest that parasympathetic nervous activity may be predominant in BHS guinea pigs.

  18. A Case of Aorto-Bronchial Fistula After Insertion of Left Main Bronchial Self-Expanding Metallic Stent in a Patient with Recurrent Esophageal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Hiroshi Kuriyama, Kengo; Komiyama, Takafumi; Tanaka, Shiho; Marino, Kan; Tsukamoto, Tatsuaki; Araki, Tsutomu

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of aorto-bronchial fistula (ABF) caused by a self-expanding metallic stent (EMS) 51 days after insertion into the left main bronchus. The patient presented with left main bronchial stenosis caused by post-operative local recurrence of esophageal cancer. Post-operative radio therapy totaling 40 Gy and post-recurrence radiotherapy totaling 34 Gy were administered, with daily fractions of 2 Gy. Stenosis of the left main bronchus improved slightly, and was followed with insertion of EMS to prevent re-stenosis. The patient experienced massive hemoptysis for 3 days before sudden death. Autopsy revealed the EMS edge perforating the descending aortic lumen. Tumor infiltration and bacterial infection were observed on the wall of the left bronchus, and atherosclerosis was present on the aortic wall around the fistula. It should be noted that the left main bronchus was at considerable risk of ABF after insertion of EMS for malignant stenosis, and prophylactic stent insertion into the bronchus without imperative need must be avoided.

  19. Interleukin-6 gene -174G/C polymorphism and bronchial asthma risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fangwei; Xie, Xinming; Li, Shaojun; Ke, Rui; Zhu, Bo; Yang, Lan; Li, Manxiang

    2015-01-01

    The Interleukin-6 (IL-6) genetic polymorphism is associated with bronchial asthma, a number of studies have been conducted to investigate the association between IL-6 gene -174G/C polymorphism and bronchial asthma risk. However, the results are inconclusive. This meta-analysis aims to investigate whether -174G/C polymorphism is a potential risk factor for bronchial asthma. We searched Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Wanfang Database from inception through December 1st, 2014. Meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0. Overall, a significantly reduced risk for asthma was found in IL-6 -174 CC genotype (CC vs. GG: OR = 0. 51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.96, P = 0.038). Furthermore, analysis by ethnicity indicated that there was a markedly reduced risk for asthma in IL-6 -174 CC genotype in Caucasian (CC vs. GG: OR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.27-0.96, P = 0.038). Analysis by age indicated that there was a significantly reduced risk for asthma in IL-6 -174 CC genotype in adults (CC vs. GG: OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.23-0.97, P = 0.042). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis indicates that IL-6 -174 CC genotype may be a protective factor against asthma in Caucasian and adults. PMID:26550171

  20. Endurance training and the risk of bronchial asthma in female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Żebrowska, A; Głuchowska, B; Jastrzębski, D; Kochańska-Dziurowicz, A; Stanjek-Cichoracka, A; Pokora, I

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is one of the crucial factors responsible for asthma development and exacerbation. The purpose of the present study was to assess the risk of bronchial asthma in female athletes. Spirometric evaluations and physical exercise test were performed and exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) levels were measured in 12 female elite cross-country skiers. Serum concentrations of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were measured in all subjects before exercise, immediately after it, and after 15 min of recovery. Peak eNO values were 18.7±4.8 (ppb) and did not confirm the risk of early bronchial asthma symptoms. A graded exercise test caused significant increases in TNF-α and IL-1β concentration (p<0.05) after 15 min of recovery. A significant negative correlation was found between resting and post-exercise eNO and IL-6 levels (p<0.01). Our study did not confirm an increased risk of bronchial asthma or respiratory tract inflammatory conditions among female cross-country skiers exposed to physical exertion.

  1. Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Zambom, Lucas Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment. PMID:27167432

  2. Endovascular Therapy of Bronchial Artery Aneurysm: Five Cases With Six Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Lue, Peng-Hua Wang Lifu; Su Yusheng; Lee, Deok-Hee; Wang Shuxiang; Sun Ling; Geng Suping; Huang Wennuo

    2011-06-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-Lipiodol mixture in patients with bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA). From January 2005 to January 2010, five patients presenting hemoptysis with six BAAs were treated with NBCA-Lipiodol mixture, including intra-aneurysm embolization (IAE) in one patient. Adjuvant embolization with spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) embolic microparticles or NBCA was first performed to embolize the distal engorged bronchiectatic arteries. Bronchial arterial angiography showed six BAAs (four in the right lobe and two in the left lobe) and some engorged, tortuous bronchial arteries. TAE through microcatheter was successful in all cases. Postembolization angiogram demonstrated the NBCA cast and total occlusion of BAAs and bronchiectatic engorged vessels. After these procedures, hemoptysis completely disappeared in all patients. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan was performed at an average of 3 months (range 2 to 6), which showed no enhancement of BAAs and accumulation of NBCA. TAE is a minimally invasive, effective, and reliable approach for treatment for patients with BAA. NBCA-Lipiodol mixture provides a good choice for treatment of BAA, especially when catheterization of the efferent branches is impossible.

  3. XB130 translocation to microfilamentous structures mediates NNK-induced migration of human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qifei; Nadesalingam, Jeya; Moodley, Serisha; Bai, Xiaohui; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-07-20

    Cigarette smoking contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. Nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK) is the most potent carcinogen among cigarette smoking components, and is known to enhance migration of cancer cells. However, the effect of NNK on normal human bronchial epithelial cells is not well studied. XB130 is a member of actin filament associated protein family and is involved in cell morphology changes, cytoskeletal rearrangement and outgrowth formation, as well as cell migration. We hypothesized that XB130 mediates NNK-induced migration of normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results showed that, after NNK stimulation, XB130 was translocated to the cell periphery and enriched in cell motility-associated structures, such as lamellipodia, in normal human bronchial epithelial BEAS2B cells. Moreover, overexpression of XB130 significantly enhanced NNK-induced migration, which requires both the N- and C-termini of XB130. Overexpression of XB130 enhanced NNK-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and promoted matrix metalloproteinase-14 translocation to cell motility-associated cellular structures after NNK stimulation. XB130-mediated NNK-induced cell migration may contribute to airway epithelial repair; however, it may also be involved in cigarette smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer.

  4. Barrier responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to grass pollen exposure.

    PubMed

    Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Dennison, Patrick; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dudley, Sarah; Monk, Phillip; Behrendt, Heidrun; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten B; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia; Davies, Donna E

    2013-07-01

    The airway epithelium forms a physical, chemical and immunological barrier against inhaled environmental substances. In asthma, these barrier properties are thought to be abnormal. In this study, we analysed the effect of grass pollen on the physical and immunological barrier properties of differentiated human primary bronchial epithelial cells. Following exposure to Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen extract, the integrity of the physical barrier was not impaired as monitored by measuring the transepithelial resistance and immunofluorescence staining of tight junction proteins. In contrast, pollen exposure affected the immunological barrier properties by modulating vectorial mediator release. CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)8/interleukin (IL)-8 showed the greatest increase in response to pollen exposure with preferential release to the apical compartment. Inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways selectively blocked apical CXCL8/IL-8 release via a post-transcriptional mechanism. Apical release of CC chemokine ligand (CCL)20/macrophage inflammatory protein-3α, CCL22/monocyte-derived chemokine and tumour necrosis factor-α was significantly increased only in severe asthma cultures, while CCL11/eotaxin-1 and CXCL10/interferon-γ-induced protein-10 were reduced in nonasthmatic cultures. The bronchial epithelial barrier modulates polarised release of mediators in response to pollen without direct effects on its physical barrier properties. The differential response of cells from normal and asthmatic donors suggests the potential for the bronchial epithelium to promote immune dysfunction in asthma.

  5. Referred Pain to the Ipsilateral Forehead and Orbit: An Unusual Phenomenon During Bronchial Artery Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Ramakantan, Ravi; Ketkar, Manoj; Maddali, Krishna; Deshmukh, Hemant

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: We report an unusual pattern of referred pain to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit observed during bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and postulate possible neural mechanisms for its occurrence. Methods: Seven men, from a series of 194 patients (171 men, 23 women) undergoing BAE (right bronchial artery 4, left 3) with gelatin sponge for control of massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary TB form the subject of this report. Results: Embolization was successful in achieving control of hemoptysis in these patients and there were no complications following the embolization. Transient, moderately severe, ipsilateral supraorbital and/or retroorbital pain occurred only during the injection of the gelatin sponge contrast mixture into the bronchial artery. The pain did not occur during the injection of heparinized saline or ionic contrast medium. Conclusions: Referred pain during BAE is an unusual phenomenon. Acute vessel distension triggering visceral sensations is probably the causative mechanism. Sympathetic afferents from the bronchi coursing through the posterior pulmonary plexus eventually pass to the trigeminal ganglion via the carotid sympathetic chain. The ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve then mediate pain sensation to the ipsilateral forehead and orbit. Similarly, parasympathetic afferents from the pulmonary plexus crossing the nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve may be responsible for interexchange of impulses to the neurons in this nucleus. Sensory fibers of the ophthalmic and maxillary nerves relaying in this nucleus are then involved in this pain being referred to the forehead and orbit.

  6. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gudbjörnsson, B; Hedenström, H; Stålenheim, G; Hällgren, R

    1991-01-01

    The prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine inhalation in a consecutive series of 21 patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome was studied prospectively. Slight to severe BHR was seen in 12/20 (60%) of the patients. Ten of 12 patients with BHR (83%) had a non-productive cough, wheezing, or intermittent breathlessness. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was more common in patients with extraglandular symptoms (10/14, 71%) than in those with only glandular symptoms (29%). Spirometrically 29% (6/21) of the patients had 'small airways' disease', and all those had BHR. Of 6/21 (29%) who had diffuse interstitial lung disease, two had BHR. Three of the four patients with obstructive lung function were challenged with methacholine and two of them had BHR. Only two patients with BHR had normal spirometry findings. The data showed that respiratory disease--mostly mild or moderate but even severe bronchial hyperresponsiveness--is commonly seen in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. PMID:1994866

  7. Radiological Management of Hemoptysis: A Comprehensive Review of Diagnostic Imaging and Bronchial Arterial Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Joo-Young Morgan, Robert; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-04-15

    Hemoptysis can be a life-threatening respiratory emergency and indicates potentially serious underlying intrathoracic disease. Large-volume hemoptysis carries significant mortality and warrants urgent investigation and intervention. Initial assessment by chest radiography, bronchoscopy, and computed tomography (CT) is useful in localizing the bleeding site and identifying the underlying cause. Multidetector CT angiography is a relatively new imaging technique that allows delineation of abnormal bronchial and nonbronchial arteries using reformatted images in multiple projections, which can be used to guide therapeutic arterial embolization procedures. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) is now considered to be the most effective procedure for the management of massive and recurrent hemoptysis, either as a first-line therapy or as an adjunct to elective surgery. It is a safe technique in the hands of an experienced operator with knowledge of bronchial artery anatomy and the potential pitfalls of the procedure. Recurrent bleeding is not uncommon, especially if there is progression of the underlying disease process. Prompt repeat embolization is advised in patients with recurrent hemoptysis in order to identify nonbronchial systemic and pulmonary arterial sources of bleeding. This article reviews the pathophysiology and causes of hemoptysis, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic options, and technique and outcomes of BAE.

  8. Increased polysomy of chromosome 7 in bronchial epithelium from patients at high risk for lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Neft, R.E.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    Current models of carcinogenesis suggest that tissues progress through multiple genetic and epigenetic changes which ultimately lead to development of invasive cancer. Epidemiologic studies of Peto, R.R. and J.A. Doll indicate that the accumulation of these genetic changes over time, rather than any single unique genetic change, is probably responsible for development of the malignant phenotype. The bronchial epithelium of cigarette smokers is diffusely exposed to a broad spectrum of carcinogens, toxicants, and tumor promoters contained in tobacco smoke. This exposure increases the risk of developing multiple, independent premalignant foci throughout the lower respiratory tract that may contain independent gene aberrations. This {open_quotes}field cancerization{close_quotes} theory is supported by studies that have demonstrated progressive histologic changes distributed throughout the lower respiratory tract of smokers. A series of autopsy studies demonstrated that cigarette smokers exhibit premalignant histologic changes ranging from hyperplasia and metaplasia to severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ diffusely throughout the bronchial mucosa. The proximal bronchi appear to exhibit the greatest number of changes, particularly at bifurcations. The results described are the first to quantitate the frequency for a chromosome aberration in {open_quotes}normal{close_quotes} bronchial epithelial cells.

  9. Treatment of bronchial asthma with low-level laser in attack-free period at children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailioaie, C.; Ailioaie, Laura

    2000-06-01

    Bronchial asthma is a common disease in both the pediatric and adult populations, characterized by wide variations over short periods of time in resistance to airflow in intrapulmonary airways. A primary goal in the use of low- level laser therapy (LLLT) was the safe, effective and rapid palliation of symptoms owing to tracheal or bronchial obstruction. We have investigated the effects of LLLT comparatively with other modality trials in children's asthma. In the study were included 98 patients aged 10-18 years diagnosed with moderate or severe asthma, in attack- free period. The patients were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received only laser therapy using extra meridian acupuncture points and scanning technique. Group 2 was treated only with inhaled Serevent 2 X 25 micrometers , two times daily, 3 months. Group 3 was tread with Theophylline retard in dosage of 15-mg/kg/12 h, 3 months. At the end of treatment we remarked a noticeable improvement of the clinical, functional and immunological characteristics at 83 percent of patients in group 1, comparatively with only 70 percent (group 2) and 53 percent (group 3). The LLLT had a very good action on bronchial patency , displayed an immunocorrecting action and is recommended in attack-free periods at children.

  10. A study on human leukocyte antigen class I molecules in paediatric bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Mahendra N; Dudeja, Puja; Gupta, Rakesh K

    2014-04-01

    Childhood asthma, often associated with atopy, is more common in boys and may persist throughout life in 50% of cases. This case-control study was carried out to examine if any association of paediatric bronchial asthma with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigens. Thirty-six children with bronchial asthma diagnosed on basis of Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) criteria and an equal number of healthy controls without history of bronchial asthma were studied. Low resolution HLA- ABC typing was performed by sequence specific primers (SSP) and the frequency of HLA-ABC antigens in the two groups was compared. Total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) estimation was done as a marker of atopy by ELISA. The study included 24 boys and 12 girls aged 13 months to 11 yrs, of which 16 (44%) had positive family history. Serum IgE levels were elevated in 20 (55%) of the cases and 33% of controls with peak values of 4877 and 627 IU/ml, respectively. No statistically significant correlation was observed between childhood asthma and HLA class I antigens, however, a statistically significant correlation was observed between serum IgE levels and asthma, which was elevated in cases, as compared to normal population. Serum IgE levels did not show a linear trend, in that a direct correlation with the severity of disease was not observed.

  11. Detection of early bronchial carcinoma by imaging of the tissue autofluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goujon, Didier; Glanzmann, Thomas M.; Gabrecht, Tanja; Zellweger, Matthieu; Radu, Alexandre; van den Bergh, Hubert; Monnier, Philippe; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2001-10-01

    Early detection and localisation of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. One approach is to exploit the changes in the autofluorescence characteristics of the bronchial tissue as a diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity. Evidence exists that this native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic and to carcinoma in situ. There is an agreement in the literature that the lesions display a decrease of autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum under illumination with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum is often reported. Imaging devices rely on this principle to detect early cancerous lesions in the bronchi. Based on a previous spectroscopic study, an industrial imaging prototype has been developed to detect early cancerous lesions in collaboration with the firm 'Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH'. A preliminary clinical trial involving 20 patients with this spectrally optimised system proved that autofluorescence can detect lesions that would otherwise have remained invisible even to an experienced endoscopist under white light illumination. A systematic analysis of the autofluorescence images pointed out that real-time decisional functions can be defined in order to reduce the number of false positive results. Using this method, a Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of 75% was achieved using autofluorescence only. A PPV of even 100% were obtained when white light mode and autofluorescence mode were combined under the applied conditions. Furthermore, the sensitivity was estimated to be twice as high in AF mode than in WL mode.

  12. Branching design of the bronchial tree based on a diameter-flow relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Kitaoka, Hiroko; Suki, B.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a method for designing the bronchial tree where the branching process is stochastic and the diameter (d) of a branch is determined by its flow rate (Q). We use two principles: the continuum equation for flow division and a power-law relationship between d and Q, given by Q {approximately} d{sup n}, where n is the diameter exponent. The value of n has been suggested to be {approximately}3. We assume that flow is divided iteratively with a random variable for the flow-division ratio, defined as the ratio of flow in the branch to that in its parent branch. We show that the cumulative probability distribution function of Q, P(>Q) is proportional to Q{sup -1}. We analyzed prior morphometric airway data and found that the cumulative probability distribution function of diameters, P(>d), is proportional to d{sup -n}, which supports the validity of Q {approximately} d{sup n} since P(>Q) {approximately} Q{sup -1}. This allowed us to assign diameters to the segments of the flow-branching pattern. We modeled the bronchial trees of four mammals and found that their statistical features were in good accordance with the morphometric data. We conclude that our design method is appropriate for robust generation of bronchial tree models. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Right pulmonary artery agenesis and coronary-to-bronchial artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    De Dominicis, Florence; Leborgne, Laurent; Raymond, Alexandre; Berna, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Isolated unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis is a rare congenital anomaly that may be complicated with hemoptysis, recurrent pulmonary infections or pulmonary hypertension. To our knowledge the occurrence of a coronary syndrome associated with a coronary-to-bronchial artery saccular aneurysmal collateralization has never been described before. A 44-year-old female presented a congenital right pulmonary artery agenesis associated with a hypotrophic and multicystic right lung complicated with recurrent bronchitis. This patient had a coronary syndrome for which the coronary artery imaging showed a coronary-to-bronchial artery collateralization with an aneurysm at this level. It gives rise to a coronary syndrome by coronary steal. Two bronchial collaterals arising from a diaphragmatic artery and the subclavian artery were also found on the computed tomography (CT)-scan. This last collateral also showed another saccular aneurysm. We first performed an embolization of those two aneurysms in order to decrease the risk of hemorrhage and coronary steal, before performing a right pneumonectomy. In this case, the surgery was indicated because of the pathological lung and the risk of postembolization ischaemia. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was doing well six months later.

  14. Relative effects of bronchial drainage and exercise for in-hospital care of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cerny, F J

    1989-08-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is a standard part of the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Coughing alone promotes sputum expectoration and is probably the primary effective component of standard bronchial hygiene therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether substituting regular exercise, which also promotes coughing, for two of three daily bronchial hygiene treatments would affect the expected improvements in pulmonary function and exercise response in hospitalized patients with CF. Seventeen patients with CF hospitalized (means length of stay = 13.0 +/- 2.6 days) for an acute exacerbation of their pulmonary disease participated in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to either a group that participated in two cycle ergometer exercise sessions and one bronchial hygiene treatment session per day (EX Group [n = 9]) or a group that participated in three bronchial hygiene treatment sessions per day (PD Group [n = 8]). Pulmonary functions and responses to a progressive, incremental cycle ergometer exercise test were measured on admission and before discharge. Bronchial hygiene therapy consisted of postural drainage, in six positions, with chest percussion and vibration. Therapeutic exercise was of moderate intensity and was individually adjusted based on the patient's heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation response to the admission exercise test. Coughing was encouraged during and after all treatments. Pulmonary function and exercise response were significantly improved over the period of hospitalization in both groups; the improvements were the same in the two groups. These results indicate that, in some hospitalized patients with CF, exercise therapy may be substituted for at least part of the standard protocol of bronchial hygiene therapy.

  15. Effect of pre-cardiac and adult stages of Dirofilaria immitis in pulmonary disease of cats: CBC, bronchial lavage cytology, serology, radiographs, CT images, bronchial reactivity, and histopathology.

    PubMed

    Ray Dillon, A; Tillson, D M; Wooldridge, A; Cattley, R; Hathcock, J; Brawner, W R; Cole, R; Welles, B; Christopherson, P W; Lee-Fowler, T; Bordelon, S; Barney, S; Sermersheim, M; Garbarino, R; Wells, S Z; Diffie, E B; Schachner, E R

    2014-11-15

    A controlled, blind study was conducted to define the initial inflammatory response and lung damage associated with the death of precardiac stages of Dirofilaria immitis in cats as compared to adult heartworm infections and normal cats. Three groups of six cats each were used: UU: uninfected untreated controls; PreS I: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 by subcutaneous injection and treated topically with selamectin 32 and 2 days pre-infection and once monthly for 8 months); IU: infected with 100 D. immitis L3 and left untreated. Peripheral blood, serum, bronchial lavage, and thoracic radiographic images were collected from all cats on Days 0, 70, 110, 168, and 240. CT images were acquired on Days 0, 110, and 240. Cats were euthanized, and necropsies were conducted on Day 240 to determine the presence of heartworms. Bronchial rings were collected for in vitro reactivity. Lung, heart, brain, kidney, and liver tissues were collected for histopathology. Results were compared for changes within each group. Pearson and Spearman correlations were performed for association between histologic, radiographic, serologic, hematologic and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) results. Infected cats treated with selamectin did not develop radiographically evident changes throughout the study, were heartworm antibody negative, and were free of adult heartworms and worm fragments at necropsy. Histologic lung scores and CT analysis were not significantly different between PreS I cats and UU controls. Subtle alveolar myofibrosis was noted in isolated areas of several PreS I cats and an eosinophilic BAL cytology was noted on Days 75 and 120. Bronchial ring reactivity was blunted in IU cats but was normal in PreS I and UU cats. The IU cats became antibody positive, and five cats developed adult heartworms. All cats with heartworms were antigen positive at one time point; but one cat was antibody positive, antigen negative, with viable adult females at necropsy. The CT revealed early involvement

  16. In vivo neutralization of eosinophil-derived major basic protein inhibits antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity in sensitized guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, J; Nahori, M A; Ruffie, C; Vargaftig, B B; Pretolani, M

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the effect of purified rabbit antiguinea pig eosinophil-derived major basic protein (MBP) Ig on antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity to inhaled acetylcholine in aerosol-sensitized guinea pigs. Ovalbumin inhalation by sensitized guinea pigs induced a rise in the numbers of eosinophils and in the levels of MBP in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which peaked at 24 h and resolved at 72 h. Antigen-challenged animals exhibited bronchial hyperreactivity to inhale acetylcholine at 72 h, but not at 6 or 24 h. The intranasal administration of 200 microliter of purified rabbit anti-guinea pig MBP Ig, at 2.5 mg/ml, but not of the control preimmune rabbit Ig, 1 h before and 5 h after ovalbumin inhalation suppressed bronchial hyperreactivity to acetylcholine at 72 h without affecting the number of eosinophils accumulating in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These findings indicate that antigen challenge in sensitized guinea pigs is followed by early eosinophil infiltration and activation within the airways and by late bronchial hyperreactivity. Neutralization of endogenously secreted MBP by a specific antiserum prevented antigen-induced bronchial hyperreactivity, suggesting that eosinophil degranulation plays an important role in the alterations of bronchopulmonary function in the guinea pig. PMID:8613536

  17. Bronchial closure methods and risks for bronchopleural fistula in pulmonary resections: how a surgeon may choose the optimum method?

    PubMed

    Uçvet, Ahmet; Gursoy, Soner; Sirzai, Serdar; Erbaycu, Ahmet E; Ozturk, Ali A; Ceylan, Kenan C; Kaya, Seyda O

    2011-04-01

    There is debate about which bronchial closure technique is the best to prevent bronchopleural fistulas (BPFs). We aim to assess the effect of bronchial closure procedures and patients' characteristics on BPF occurrence in pulmonary resections. Bronchial closures in 625 consecutive patients were assessed. Stumps were closed by manual suturing in 204 and by mechanical stapling in 421 cases. In the mechanical stapling group, stapling supported by manual suture was performed in 170 cases. BPFs occurred in 3.8%. Of these, stapling was used in 5.0%, whereas manual suturing was used in 1.5% (P=0.04). BPFs were more prevalent among patients who had undergone pneumonectomy (P<0.01), right pneumonectomy (P<0.01), stapler closure (P<0.01), patients with co-factors (P<0.01), and patients who had undergone preoperative neo-adjuvant (P=0.01) or postoperative adjuvant therapy (P=0.03). There was no difference in the frequency of BPF between patients with and without adjuvant support in the stapling group. The optimum bronchial closure method has to be chosen by considering the patient and bronchus based characteristics. This has to be assessed carefully, especially in pneumonectomy and co-factors. The manual closure seems to be the more preferable method in risky patients. An additive support suture on the bronchial stump does not decrease the risk of BPF.

  18. Blood Level of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophil Leukocytes and Bronchial Hyperreactivity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMNL) have an important defensive role against various microorganisms and other agents, but by liberating various substances, first of all the superoxide anion (O 2¯), they can damage the bronchial mucosa and influence the development of bronchial inflammation which is the fundamental of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR). Objective: to show the role of the PMNL for development and level of BHR in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Material and methods: We observed 160 patients with COPD treated in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Sarajevo during three years :from 2012 to 2014. They were divided into groups and subgroups according to the first registration of BHR in the course of illness and to the number of exacerbations of the disease in one year. The number of blood PMNL was measured in a stable state of disease at the begging and at the end of investigation. Results: The number of blood PMNL was significantly greater in patients with 3 or more exacerbations per one year (p <0.01). Patients with BHR had significantly greater number blood PMNL than patients without BHR (p< 0.05). Patients with 3 exacerbations per year had a statistically significant increase of number of PMNL between first and last examination (p<0.01). Conclusion: There is statistically significant correlation between the number of blood PMNL and the level of BHR in COPD, but future examination need to be done to determine real role and mode of action of PMNL for these processes. PMID:26543311

  19. A case of bronchial carcinoid: diagnosis and follow-up with 111In-DTPA-octreotide.

    PubMed

    Orsolon, P; Bagni, B; Basadonna, P; Geatti, O; Talmassons, G; Guerra, U P

    1995-12-01

    Scintigraphy with radiolabelled analogue of somatostatin is highly sensitive in detecting carcinoid tumors especially if performed with Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT). In this report we describe our experience with 111In-DTPA-Octreotide in a female patient affected by a small asymptomatic intrabronchial carcinoid demonstrated by CT scan and bronchial endoscopy performed after recurrent left pneumonias. Planar views and SPECT images, using 111In-DTPA-Octreotide, were collected before and four hours after the first endoscopic laser resection. All groups of SPECT images were positive in the left parahilar region but at a different degree. Scans performed after resection showed a low degree of uptake which was considered to be probably secondary to local swelling; CT scan was negative. Follow up endoscopic biopsy repeated at six months, showed a relapse always in the same site; CT scan of the thorax was again negative. 111In-DTPA-Octreotide images obtained at twelve months were positive always in the left parahilar region, CT scan was negative but another biopsy was not possible. Therefore it was suspected a relapse of the carcinoid which was probably growing only through the bronchial wall without spreading towards the bronchial lumen and/or the lung parenchima. In this occasion, it was also thought that images collected four hours after resection could be positive not only for swelling but for a relapse as well. In every scintigraphic session, SPECT images presented higher quality than planar. This case suggests that 111In-DTPA-Octreotide SPECT is a non-invasive diagnostic technique which could be applied as a follow-up tool especially to patients with no-secreting carcinoid neoplasm and/or with negative or doubtful endoscopic and radiological investigations.

  20. Bronchial Epithelial Cells from Asthmatic Patients Display Less Functional HLA-G Isoform Expression.

    PubMed

    Carlini, Federico; Picard, Christophe; Garulli, Céline; Piquemal, David; Roubertoux, Pierre; Chiaroni, Jacques; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine; Di Cristofaro, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Not all asthmatic patients adequately respond to current available treatments, such as inhaled corticosteroids or omalizumab(®). New treatments will aim to target the bronchial epithelium-immune response interaction using different pathways. HLA-G is involved in immunomodulation and may promote epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. HLA-G protein has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing that might have differential functionalities. HLA-G protein expression and genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with asthma. Our hypothesis is that bronchial epithelium from asthmatic patients displays less functional HLA-G isoforms. HLA-G transcriptional isoforms were quantified by real-time PCR in human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC) grown in air-liquid interface culture obtained from five healthy controls (HC), seven patients with mild asthma (MA), and seven patients with severe asthma (SA). They were re-differentiated, and IL-13 exposure was used as a proxy for a pro-inflammatory cytokine. HLA-G protein expression was assessed by western blot analysis. HLA-G allele was typed by direct sequencing. Our results showed that both MA and SA display less functional HLA-G isoforms than HC (p < 0.05); in vitro HBEC re-differentiation from SA displays a particular isoform expression profile compared to MA and HC (p = 0.03); HLA-G*01:06 frequency in MA and SA was significantly higher than in the healthy population (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively); and IL-13 exposure had no impact on HLA-G expression. Our results support that an impaired expression of HLA-G isoforms in asthmatic patients could contribute to the loss of inflammation control and epithelium structural remodeling. Therefore, HLA-G might be an interesting alternative target for asthmatic patients not adequately responding to current drugs.

  1. Treatment of Recurrent Bronchial Carcinoma: The Role of High-Dose-Rate Endoluminal Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Hauswald, Henrik; Stoiber, Eva; Rochet, Nathalie; Lindel, Katja; Grehn, Christian; Becker, Heinrich D.; Debus, Juergen; Harms, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: This study's aim was to assess outcome and toxicity of high-dose-rate endoluminal brachytherapy (HDREB) for recurrent bronchial carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 1987 to 2005, 41 patients were treated with HDREB for symptomatic recurrent bronchial carcinoma. All patients had previously undergone external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with a median dose of 56 Gy (range, 30-70 Gy). The median HDREB dose applied was 15 Gy (range, 5-29 Gy). The median time interval between primary EBRT and reirradiation was 9 months (range, 2-54 months). Results: After a median follow-up of 6.7 months, the 6-, 12-, and 24-month overall survival rates were 58%, 18%, and 7%, respectively. The median overall survival time was 6.7 months. Local remission was achieved in 73% of patients (n = 30). A total of 24% of patients (n = 10) showed no response or progressive disease within 8 weeks after treatment. In 1 patient, treatment response was not documented. The 6-, 12-, and 24-month local control rates were 38%, 17%, and 3%, respectively. The median local progression-free survival time was 4 months (range, 1-23 months). Prognostic factors were a total dose of >=15 Gy of HDREB (p = 0.029) and a Karnofsky performance score of >=80% (p = 0.0012). The cause of death was locoregional progression in 27% of patients (n = 11), distant metastases in 24% of patients (n = 10), fatal hemorrhage in 15% of patients (n = 6), and other causes in 29% of patients (n = 12). None of the patients with locally controlled disease showed grade 3 or 4 late effects. Conclusions: Palliative treatment of symptomatic, locally recurrent bronchial carcinoma with HDREB can effectively relieve symptoms in the majority of patients while causing only few complications. Still, time to progression is short.

  2. Bronchial Epithelial Cells from Asthmatic Patients Display Less Functional HLA-G Isoform Expression

    PubMed Central

    Carlini, Federico; Picard, Christophe; Garulli, Céline; Piquemal, David; Roubertoux, Pierre; Chiaroni, Jacques; Chanez, Pascal; Gras, Delphine; Di Cristofaro, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Not all asthmatic patients adequately respond to current available treatments, such as inhaled corticosteroids or omalizumab®. New treatments will aim to target the bronchial epithelium–immune response interaction using different pathways. HLA-G is involved in immunomodulation and may promote epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. HLA-G protein has several isoforms generated by alternative splicing that might have differential functionalities. HLA-G protein expression and genetic polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with asthma. Our hypothesis is that bronchial epithelium from asthmatic patients displays less functional HLA-G isoforms. HLA-G transcriptional isoforms were quantified by real-time PCR in human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC) grown in air–liquid interface culture obtained from five healthy controls (HC), seven patients with mild asthma (MA), and seven patients with severe asthma (SA). They were re-differentiated, and IL-13 exposure was used as a proxy for a pro-inflammatory cytokine. HLA-G protein expression was assessed by western blot analysis. HLA-G allele was typed by direct sequencing. Our results showed that both MA and SA display less functional HLA-G isoforms than HC (p < 0.05); in vitro HBEC re-differentiation from SA displays a particular isoform expression profile compared to MA and HC (p = 0.03); HLA-G*01:06 frequency in MA and SA was significantly higher than in the healthy population (p = 0.03 and p < 0.001, respectively); and IL-13 exposure had no impact on HLA-G expression. Our results support that an impaired expression of HLA-G isoforms in asthmatic patients could contribute to the loss of inflammation control and epithelium structural remodeling. Therefore, HLA-G might be an interesting alternative target for asthmatic patients not adequately responding to current drugs. PMID:28303134

  3. Alteration of transcriptional profile in human bronchial epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke condensate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying-Chun; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Zhong, Ke-Jun; Niu, Li-Jing; Pan, Xiu-Jie; Wu, De-Chang; Sun, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Ping-Kun; Zhu, Mao-Xiang; Huo, Yan-Ying

    2009-10-08

    Despite the significance of cigarette smoke for carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms that lead to increased susceptibility of human cancers are not well-understood. In our present study, the oncogenic transforming effects of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) were examined using papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEP2D). Growth kinetics, saturation density, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice were used to investigate the various stages of transformation in BEP2D cells. Illumina microarray platforms were used to explore the CSC-induced alteration of global mRNA expression profiles of the earlier period and the advanced stage of CSC-treated BEP2D cells. We showed here that a series of sequential steps arose among CSC-treated immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells, including altered growth kinetics, resistance to serum-induced terminal differentiation, and anchorage-independence growth. In the earlier period of CSC treatment, 265 genes were down-regulated and 63 genes were up-regulated, respectively, and in the advanced stage of CSC treatment, 313 genes were down-regulated and 145 genes were up-regulated, respectively. Notably, among those genes, the expression of some of imprinted genes such as IGF2, NDN, H19 and MEG3 were all silenced or down-regulated in CSC-treated cells. These genes reactivated after 5 microM 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) treatment. These results demonstrated that long-term treatment of human bronchial epithelial cells with CSC may adversely affect their genetic and epigenetic integrity and lead to further transformation.

  4. Maximum Time of the Effect of Antileukotriene - Zileuton in Treatment of Patients with Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Morina, Naim; Boçari, Gëzim; Iljazi, Ali; Hyseini, Kadir; Halac, Gunay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Maximum time of the effect of antileukotriene substances - Zileuton in the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma and increased bronchial reactivity and of the salbutamol as agonist of the beta2 adrenergic receptor studied in this work. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated. Zileuton (Zyflo, tbl. 600 mg), producer Cornerstone Therapeutics, USA was used in the research. Results: Results of this research, in patients with bronchial asthma, indicate that antileukotriene substances–Zileuton administered in a dose of 600 mg first day (oral route of administration 4 × 1 tbl.) has not caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (p value 0.1 > Alpha 0.05), whereas Zileuton administered two days in a row, in a dose of 600 mg (4 × 1 tbl. a day), has caused significant decrease of the specific resistance of the airways (SRaw) (P value 0.03 < Alpha 0.05). Effect of the control with salbutamol (beta2-adrenergic receptor agonist) is efficient in the removal of the increased bronchomotor tone, causing significant decrease of the resistance (Raw), respectively of the specific resistance (SRaw), (p value 0.05 = Alpha 0.05). Conclusion: Formation of leukotrienes depends on the lypoxygenation of the arachidonic acid by 5-lypoxygenase. Zileuton is an active and powerful inhibitor of the activity of 5- lypoxygenase and as such inhibits generation of its products. Consequently, besides inhibition of cys-LTs’, zileuton also inhibits the formation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which is a powerful chemotactic of other eicosanoids too, which depend on the synthesis of lekotriene A4 (LTA4). This suggests that the effect of antileukotrienes (Zileuton) is not immediate after oral administration, but the powerful effect of the Zileuton seen only after two days of inhibition of cys-LTs’, and inhibition of leukotriene B4 (LTB4

  5. Development of a Bronchial Wall Model: Triple Culture on a Decellularized Porcine Trachea.

    PubMed

    Melo, Esther; Kasper, Jennifer Y; Unger, Ronald E; Farré, Ramon; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2015-09-01

    In vitro coculture models mimicking the bronchial barrier are a significant step forward in investigating the behavior and function of the upper respiratory tract mucosa. To date, mostly synthetic materials have been used as substrates to culture the cells. However, decellularized tissues provide a more in vivo-like environment based on the native extracellular matrix. In this study, an in vitro, bronchial wall coculture model has been established using a decellularized, porcine luminal trachea membrane and employing three relevant human cell types. The tissue was decellularized and placed in plastic transwell supports. The human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o-, was seeded on the apical side of the membrane with the human lung fibroblast cell line, Wi-38, and/or the microvascular endothelial cell line, ISO-HAS-1, seeded on the basolateral side. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured over 10 days and tight/adherens junctions (ZO-1, occludin/β-catenin) were studied through immunofluorescence. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to evaluate microvilli and cilia formation. All cultures grew successfully on the membrane. TER values of 555 Ω·cm(2) (±21, SEM) were achieved in the monoculture. Cocultures with fibroblasts reached 565 Ω·cm(2) (±41, SEM), with endothelial cells at 638 Ω·cm(2) (±37, SEM), and the triple culture achieved 552 Ω·cm(2) (±38, SEM). ZO-1, occludin, and β-catenin were expressed in 16HBE14o- under all culture conditions. Using SEM, a dense microvilli population was found. Prominent cell-cell contacts and clusters of emerging cilia could be identified. Fibroblasts and endothelial cells strengthened the formation of a tight barrier by the 16HBE14o-. Thus, the coculture of three relevant cell types in combination with native decellularized scaffolds as a substrate approaches more closely the in vivo situation and could be used to study mechanisms of upper respiratory damage and regeneration.

  6. Molecular Impact of Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Exposure in Human Bronchial Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Moses, Elizabeth; Wang, Teresa; Corbett, Sean; Jackson, George R; Drizik, Eduard; Perdomo, Catalina; Perdomo, Claudia; Kleerup, Eric; Brooks, Daniel; O'Connor, George; Dubinett, Steven; Hayden, Patrick; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

    2017-01-01

    Little evidence is available regarding the physiological effects of exposure to electronic cigarette (ECIG) aerosol. We sought to determine the molecular impact of ECIG aerosol exposure in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Gene-expression profiling was conducted in primary grown at air liquid interface and exposed to 1 of 4 different ECIG aerosols, traditional tobacco cigarette (TCIG) smoke, or clean air. Findings were validated experimentally with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and a reactive oxygen species immunoassay. Using gene set enrichment analysis, signatures of in vitro ECIG exposure were compared with those generated from bronchial epithelial brushings of current TCIG smokers and former TCIG smokers currently using ECIGs. We found 546 genes differentially expressed across the ECIG, TCIG, and air-exposed groups of HBECs (ANOVA; FDR q < .05; fold change > 1.5). A subset of these changes were shared between TCIG- and ECIG-exposed HBECs. ECIG exposure induced genes involved in oxidative and xenobiotic stress pathways and increased a marker of reactive oxygen species production in a dose-dependent manner. ECIG exposure decreased expression of genes involved in cilia assembly and movement. Furthermore, gene-expression differences observed in vitro were concordant with differences observed in airway epithelium collected from ECIG users (q < .01). In summary, our data suggest that ECIG aerosol can induce gene-expression changes in bronchial airway epithelium in vitro, some of which are shared with TCIG smoke. These changes were generally less pronounced than the effects of TCIG exposure and were more pronounced in ECIG products containing nicotine than those without nicotine. Our data further suggest that the gene-expression alterations seen with the in vitro exposure system reflects the physiological effects experienced in vivo by ECIG users.

  7. Inhibitory effect of hydrogen sulfide on ozone-induced airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengyu; Li, Feng; Wiegman, Coen H; Zhang, Min; Hong, Yan; Gong, Jicheng; Chang, Yan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Adcock, Ian; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhou, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to ozone has been associated with airway inflammation, oxidative stress, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. The goal of this study was to examine whether these adverse effects of ozone could be prevented or reversed by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a reducing agent. The H2S donor sodium (NaHS) (2 mg/kg) or vehicle (PBS) was intraperitoneally injected into mice 1 hour before and after 3-hour ozone (2.5 ppm) or air exposure, and the mice were studied 24 hours later. Preventive and therapeutic treatment with NaHS reduced the ozone-induced increases in the total cells, including neutrophils and macrophages; this treatment also reduced levels of cytokines, including TNF-α, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1, IL-6, and IL-1β levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid; inhibited bronchial hyperresponsiveness; and attenuated ozone-induced increases in total malondialdehyde in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreases in the ratio of reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione in the lung. Ozone exposure led to decreases in the H2S production rate and in mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine-β-synthetase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in the lung. These effects were prevented and reversed by NaHS treatment. Furthermore, NaHS prevented and reversed the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and heat shock protein 27. H2S may have preventive and therapeutic value in the treatment of airway diseases that have an oxidative stress basis.

  8. Exhaled flow monitoring can detect bronchial flap-valve obstruction in a mechanical lung model.

    PubMed

    Breen, P H; Serina, E R; Barker, S J

    1995-08-01

    Flap-valve obstruction to expiratory flow (V) in a major bronchus can result from inspissated secretions, blood, or foreign body. During inhalation, increasing airway caliber preserves inspired V past the obstruction; during exhalation, decreasing airway diameter causes airflow obstruction and even frank gas trapping. We reasoned that the resultant sequential, biphasic exhalation of the lungs would be best detected by measuring exhaled V versus time. Accordingly, we designed an airway obstruction element in a mechanical lung model to examine flap-valve bronchial obstruction. A mechanical lung simulator was ventilated with a pressure-limited flow generator, where f = 10/min, tidal volume = 850 mL, and respiratory compliance = 40 mL/cm H2O. Airway V (pneumotachometer) and pressure (P) were digitally sampled for 1 min. Then, the circumference of the diaphragm in a respiratory one-way valve was trimmed to generate unidirectional resistance to expiratory V. Measurement sequences were repeated after this flap-valve was interposed in the right "main-stem bronchus." Integration of airway V versus time generated changes in lung volume. During flap-valve obstruction of the right bronchus, the V-time plot revealed preservation of peak expired flow from the normal lung, followed by retarded and decreased flow from the obstructed right lung. Gas trapping of the obstructed lung occurred during conditions of decreased expiratory time and increased expiratory resistance. Airway P could not differentiate between bronchial and tracheal flap-valve obstruction because P decreased abruptly in both conditions. The flow-volume loop displayed less distinctive changes than the flow-time plot, in part because the flow-volume loop was data (flow) plotted against its time integral (volume), with loss of temporal data. In this mechanical lung model, we conclude that bronchial flap-valve obstruction was best detected by the flow-time plot, which could measure the sequential emptying of the

  9. Absence of Fungal Spore Internalization by Bronchial Epithelium in Mouse Models Evidenced by a New Bioimaging Approach and Transmission Electronic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rammaert, Blandine; Jouvion, Grégory; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Szczepaniak, Claire; Renaudat, Charlotte; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chrétien, Fabrice; Dromer, Françoise; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-09-01

    Clinical data and experimental studies suggest that bronchial epithelium could serve as a portal of entry for invasive fungal infections. We therefore analyzed the interactions between molds and the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium at the early steps after inhalation. We developed invasive aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus) and mucormycosis (Lichtheimia corymbifera) murine models that mimic the main clinical risk factors for these infections. Histopathology studies were completed with a specific computer-assisted morphometric method to quantify bronchial and alveolar spores and with transmission electron microscopy. Morphometric analysis revealed a higher number of bronchial/bronchiolar spores for A. fumigatus than L. corymbifera. The bronchial/bronchiolar spores decreased between 1 and 18 hours after inoculation for both fungi, except in corticosteroid-treated mice infected with A. fumigatus, suggesting an effect of cortisone on bronchial spore clearance. No increase in the number of spores of any species was observed over time at the basal pole of the epithelium, suggesting the lack of transepithelial crossing. Transmission electron microscopy did not show spore internalization by bronchial epithelial cells. Instead, spores were phagocytized by mononuclear cells on the apical pole of epithelial cells. Early epithelial internalization of fungal spores in vivo cannot explain the bronchial/bronchiolar epithelium invasion observed in some invasive mold infections. The bioimaging approach provides a useful means to accurately enumerate and localize the fungal spores in the pulmonary tissues.

  10. Modulating Effect of Peptide Therapy on the Morphofunctional State of Bronchial Epithelium in Rats with Obstructive Lung Pathology.

    PubMed

    Kuzubova, N A; Lebedeva, E S; Dvorakovskaya, I V; Surkova, E A; Platonova, I S; Titova, O N

    2015-09-01

    On the model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the effect of therapy with low-molecular-weight peptides on restructuring and functional activity of bronchial epithelium for restoring the immune and barrier function of the lungs and prevention of inflammatory process progression was studied. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was modeled in rats by 60-day intermittent exposure to NO2. Administration of tetrapeptide Bronchogen for 1 month eliminates symptoms of remodeling of the bronchial epithelium and lung tissue typical of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (goblet cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, lymphocytic infiltration and emphysema, and restoration of ciliated cells). Enhanced production of secretory IgA, a local immunity marker, attested to normalization of functional activity of bronchial epithelium, while normalization of cell composition and profile of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar space reflected reduction of neutrophilic inflammation.

  11. Morphologic aspects of airways of patients with pulmonary emphysema followed by bronchial asthma-like attack.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, M; Shimura, S; Shirato, K

    1996-02-01

    Morphometric analysis of airways was performed in autopsied lungs from four patients with pulmonary emphysema (PE) followed by bronchial-asthma (BA)-like attacks (Group PE+BA) (four males, 72 +/- 9 yr). The results were compared with those from five pulmonary emphysema patients (Group PE) (five males, age 71 +/- 4 hr), three patients with bronchial asthma (Group BA) (one female and two males, age 65 +/- 7 yr), and four control subjects with no pulmonary diseases (Group Cont) (one female, three males, age 64 +/- 4 yr). The proportion of gland area to bronchial wall (gland%), ratio of goblet-cell occupancy to the total epithelial layer (goblet%), thickness of the basement membrane, amount of intraluminal mucus (mucus occupying ratio; MOR%), and number of various cell types per square millimeter in airway walls in a section 4 microns thick were measured in central (3 to 8 mm diameter) and peripheral airways (2 mm or less diameter). Gland% for the PE+BA group was significantly greater than that for the Cont group, whereas it did not differ significantly from that of the PE or BA groups. Goblet% and thickness of the basement membrane in central and/or peripheral airways in Group PE+BA were significantly greater than those in Group Cont, whereas those in Group PE were similar to those in Group Cont. Although not statistically significant, MOR% in central and peripheral airways from Group PE+BA showed a similar value to that in Group BA, whereas MOR% in Group PE was the same as that in Group Cont. The eosinophil number in peripheral airways walls in Group PE+BA showed a similar value to that in Group BA, which was significantly greater than in Group Cont. Other cells (macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils) showed similar values among Groups PE+BA, PE, and BA. The number of eosinophils in central and/or peripheral airways correlated significantly with both goblet% and BMT, whereas other cells did not. These findings indicate that the airways of Group PE+BA are

  12. Y90-Radioembolization of Lung Metastases via the Bronchial Artery: A Report of 2 Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Ricke, Jens Grosser, Oliver; Amthauer, Holger

    2013-12-15

    We report successful Y90-radioembolization of the lung applying Y90-resin microspheres via the bronchial artery in two patients with diffuse colorectal and renal cancer metastases, respectively. The deposition of radioactive Y90-resin-microspheres was technically feasible and resulted in a reasonable absorbed dose in the tumors. However, open questions remain regarding dosimetry and safe dose exposure to the lung. The technique warrants thorough investigation before clinical use. A Phase I trial to evaluate safety and preliminary efficacy is under preparation.

  13. Bronchial and arterial sleeve resection for centrally-located lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The use of bronchial and arterial sleeve resections for the treatment of centrally-located lung cancers, when available, has become the option of choice in comparison with pneumonectomy (PN). Technical expertise, in particular in vascular reconstruction, and perioperative management improved over time allowing excellent short-term and long-term results. This is even truer if considering literature data from the main experiences published in the last years. These evidences have given to such lung sparing reconstructive procedures more and more acceptance among the surgical community. This article focuses on the main technical aspects and literature data regarding bronchovascular sleeve resections. PMID:27942409

  14. Automated anatomical labeling algorithm of bronchial branches based on multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, J.; Saita, S.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Nishitani, H.; Ohmatsu, H.; Eguchi, K.; Moriyama, N.

    2006-03-01

    Multi-slice CT technology was developed, so, we can get clear contrast images and thin slice images. But doctors need to diagnosis many image, thus their load increases. Therefore, development of the algorithm that analyses lung internal-organs is expected. When doctors diagnose lung internal-organs, they understand it. So, detailed analyze of lung internal-organs is applicant to early detection of a nodule. Especially, analyzing bronchus provides that useful information of detection of airway disease and classification of the pulmonary vein and artery. In this paper, we describe a method for automated anatomical labeling algorithm of bronchial branches based on Multi-Slice CT images.

  15. Automated anatomical labeling algorithm of bronchial branches based on multi-slice CT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, J.; Saita, S.; Kubo, M.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Nakano, Y.; Nishitani, H.; Ohmatsu, H.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Kusumoto, M.; Kakinuma, R.; Moriyama, N.

    2007-03-01

    Multi-slice CT technology was developed, so, we can get clear contrast images and thin slice images. But doctors need to diagnosis many image, thus their load increases. Therefore, development of the algorithm that analyses lung internal-organs is expected. When doctors diagnose lung internal-organs, they understand it. So, detailed analyze of lung internal-organs is applicant to early detection of a nodule. Especially, analyzing bronchus provides that useful information of detection of airway disease and classification of the pulmonary vein and artery. In this paper, we describe a method for automated anatomical labeling algorithm of bronchial branches based on Multi-Slice CT images.

  16. [The effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the biochemical indices of bronchial asthma patients].

    PubMed

    Masuev, K A

    1997-01-01

    A placebo-controlled study was made of the efficacy of diet additive of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (diet oil eiconol) in 27 patients with bronchial asthma (BA). It was found that eiconol causes qualitative changes in the disease course: severe attacks of asphyxia occurred less frequently, drug doses were reduced. Provocative tests with allergen after two-week intake of eiconol versus placebo intake showed a significant decline of late allergic response due to compitative replacement of arachidonic acid in cell membranes of inflammation cell effectors by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids inhibiting production of lipid mediators of inflammation.

  17. Anesthetic management of bronchial rupture following extraction of a fishbone from the bronchus after 5 months.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoping; Yang, Jingli; Liu, Song

    2014-05-01

    Bronchial rupture occurred during bronchoscopic visualization and extraction of a fishbone from the bronchus in a 2-year-old male patient with a 5-month history of foreign body aspiration. Emergency thoracotomy was scheduled for examination and surgical repair of the bronchus. The pressure of the airway and circuit fell sharply and ventilation could not be maintained after muscle relaxants were injected and spontaneous respiration ceased. Oxygenation worsened rapidly with the peripheral oxygen saturation level decreasing below 60%. An endotracheal tube was inserted into one of the main bronchi. Peripheral oxygen saturation improved from 60% to 90%, and subsequent surgery was performed without complications.

  18. Rapid diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using bronchial lavage fluid.

    PubMed

    Kawazu, Masahito; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Komeno, Yukiko; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Ohishi, Nobuya; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a sensitive method for detection of Aspergillus DNA in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, but it has not yet been able to distinguish infection from contamination. We have established a technique to quantify Aspergillus DNA using a real-time PCR method to resolve this problem, and we report herein a successful application of real-time PCR to diagnose invasive pulmonary aspergillosis by comparing the amount of Aspergillus DNA in bronchial lavage fluid from an affected area to that from an unaffected area. This novel tool will provide rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis.

  19. Interaction between gas cooking and GSTM1 null genotype in bronchial responsiveness: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, André F S; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Minelli, Cosetta; Accordini, Simone; Sørheim, Inga-Cecilie; Pin, Isabelle; Kogevinas, Manolis; Jõgi, Rain; Balding, David J; Norbäck, Dan; Verlato, Giuseppe; Olivieri, Mario; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Janson, Christer; Zock, Jan-Paul; Heinrich, Joachim; Jarvis, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased bronchial responsiveness is characteristic of asthma. Gas cooking, which is a major indoor source of the highly oxidant nitrogen dioxide, has been associated with respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function. However, little is known about the effect of gas cooking on bronchial responsiveness and on how this relationship may be modified by variants in the genes GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1, which influence antioxidant defences. Methods The study was performed in subjects with forced expiratory volume in one second at least 70% of predicted who took part in the multicentre European Community Respiratory Health Survey, had bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine challenge and had been genotyped for GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-rs1695. Information on the use of gas for cooking was obtained from interviewer-led questionnaires. Effect modification by genotype on the association between the use of gas for cooking and bronchial responsiveness was assessed within each participating country, and estimates combined using meta-analysis. Results Overall, gas cooking, as compared with cooking with electricity, was not associated with bronchial responsiveness (β=−0.08, 95% CI −0.40 to 0.25, p=0.648). However, GSTM1 significantly modified this effect (β for interaction=−0.75, 95% CI −1.16 to −0.33, p=4×10−4), with GSTM1 null subjects showing more responsiveness if they cooked with gas. No effect modification by GSTT1 or GSTP1-rs1695 genotypes was observed. Conclusions Increased bronchial responsiveness was associated with gas cooking among subjects with the GSTM1 null genotype. This may reflect the oxidant effects on the bronchi of exposure to nitrogen dioxide. PMID:24613990

  20. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Life-Threatening Hemoptysis Using Tris-Acryl Microspheres: Short-Term Result

    SciTech Connect

    Corr, Peter D.

    2005-05-15

    A prospective study of 70 patients with life-threatening hemoptysis who had bronchial and systemic artery embolization with tris-acryl linked microspheres was performed over 15 months. The procedure was technically successful in 90% of patients and at 24 hr after the procedure (87%). Recurrent hemoptysis occurred in 13% of patients within the first week. Chest pain was experienced following embolization in 7% of patients. The mortality was 10% due to the inclusion of patients with pulmonary metastases. Bronchial artery embolization using microspheres is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for patients with life-threatening hemoptysis who are not surgical candidates.

  1. [Effect of high-altitude climate therapy on the adrenal cortex function in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Brimkulov, N N; Bakirova, A N; Chaltabaev, K S

    1990-06-01

    132 bronchial asthma patients living in Frunze (760 m above the sea level) and those on adaptation days 3-5 and 25-30 to the climate of North Tien Shan (3200 m above the sea level) underwent clinical and functional examination involving assessment of ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone levels. The patients showed clinical response and improvement of bronchial permeability associated with a pronounced growth of plasma cortisol levels starting on adaptation days 3-5. By adaptation days 25-30 cortisol levels were still on the increase while ACTH concentration tended to reduction.

  2. Transcatheter Embolization of Bronchial Artery Arising from Left Circumflex Coronary Artery in a Patient with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Jaemin; Shin, Taebeom Jun, Kyeongneo; Ryoo, Jaeuk; Choi, Hocheol; Choi, Bongryeong; Hwang, Jinyong

    2010-02-15

    It has been reported that anastomoses between the bronchial and the coronary arteries can become dilated and functional in certain diseases, provoking angina pectoris through coronary steal syndrome. The condition can be treated with endovascular or surgical management. It is possible that this abnormality may be associated with hemoptysis in patients with parenchymal or vascular disease of the lung but this condition is very rare. We present the coronary CT angiographic findings of bronchial arteries arising from the left coronary artery and their treatment with transcatheter embolization for the control of massive hemoptysis.

  3. Phentolamine action in permeability of airways at patients with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Islami, Hilmi; Krasniqi, Shaip; Ahmetaj, Halil; Haliti, Naim; Kurtishi, Ilir; Ahmetaj, Salih; Ibrahimi, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this work, effect of phentolamine as antagonist of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor in patients with bronchial asthma and with obstructive chronic bronchitis was studied. Parameters of the lung function are determined by body plethysmography. Raw and ITGV were registered and SRaw was calculated as well. Aerosolization is done with standard aerosolizing machines--Asthma with a possibility of aerosolization of 0.5 ml per minute. Results gained by this research shows that blockage of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor with phentolamine (10 mg by inhalator and intravenous ways and 20 mg by inhalator ways) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree, by comparing it with the inhalation of natrium chloride solution with percentage of 0.9% (p > 0.1), or of hexoprenaline (2 inh x 0.2 mg) and atropine 1 mg/ml (p < 0.01). This suggests that the activity of alpha-1 adrenergic receptor in the smooth musculature is not a primary mechanism that causes reaction in patients with increased bronchial reactibility, in comparison to agonists of beta2--adrenergic receptor and cholinergic antagonists that expresses their significant action in reduction of specific resistance of airways.

  4. Allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and other allergies in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: unnoticed issue

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Piotr; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Allergic diseases are becoming more prevalent in elderly patients. Allergic diseases have been observed in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The prevalence of atopic bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was analyzed in such elderly Polish population. Aim Analysis of the presence of allergic diseases in the patients with AD in Poland, including asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and atopic dermatitis. Material and methods The recruitment of subjects with AD was conducted at 6 sites representative of Polish rural and urban areas, and 1060 subjects with a mean age of 69.2 ±5.1 years were screened. Medical examinations, an original questionnaire, skin prick testing for common aeroallergens and appropriate serum-specific IgE assays were performed. Results Probable atopy was diagnosed in 234 (22.1%) analyzed patients, including 127 women (21.5% of women) and 234 men (22.8% of men). The average prevalence associated with age and sex in this population for bronchial asthma was 2.9%, atopic dermatitis/eczema was 0.6%, seasonal allergic rhinitis was 6.6%, perennial allergic rhinitis was 11.1% and polymorphous atopic disease was 4.4%. The most frequent positive results were recorded for the following allergens: mixed grass, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and Alternaria. Conclusions One-fifth of diagnosed patients with AD have allergic disease requiring treatment. PMID:27881942

  5. Pharaoh Ant (Monomorium pharaonis): Newly Identified Important Inhalant Allergens in Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Deok-In; Choi, Soo-Young; Park, Jung-Won

    2005-01-01

    The nonstinging house ant, Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant), was recently identified as a cause of respiratory allergy. This study was performed to evaluate the extent of sensitization to pharaoh ant, and its clinical significance in asthmatic patients. We carried out skin prick tests in 318 patients with asthma. Specific IgE (sIgE) to pharaoh ant was measured by ELISA, and cross-reactivity was evaluated by ELISA inhibition tests. Bronchial provocation testing was performed using pharaoh ant extracts. Fifty-eight (18.2%) of 318 patients showed positive skin responses to pharaoh ant, and 25 (7.9%) had an isolated response to pharaoh ant. Positive skin responses to pharaoh ant were significantly higher among patients with non-atopic asthma than among those with atopic asthma (26.0% vs. 14.9%, p<0.05). There was significant correlation between sIgE level and skin responses to pharaoh ant (rho=0.552, p<0.001). The ELISA inhibition tests indicated that pharaoh ant allergens had various pattern of cross-reactivity to house dust mites and cockroaches. Bronchial provocation tests to pharaoh ant were conducted for 9 patients, and eight showed typical asthmatic reactions. In conclusion, pharaoh ant is an important source of aeroallergens, and it should be included in the skin test battery for screening the causative allergens in patients with asthma. PMID:15953858

  6. E-Cadherin Mediates MMP Down-Regulation in Highly Invasive Bronchial Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocki-Raby, Béatrice; Gilles, Christine; Polette, Myriam; Martinella-Catusse, Corinne; Bonnet, Noël; Puchelle, Edith; Foidart, Jean-Michel; van Roy, Frans; Birembaut, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    The disorganization of E-cadherin/catenin complexes and the overexpression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are frequently involved in the capacity of epithelial cells to acquire an invasive phenotype. The functional link between E-cadherin and MMPs was studied by transfecting invasive bronchial BZR tumor cells with human E-cadherin cDNA. Using different in vitro (cell dispersion, modified Boyden chamber) and in vivo assays (human airway epithelial xenograft), we showed that E-cadherin-positive clones displayed a decrease of invasive abilities. As shown by immunoprecipitation, the re-expressed E-cadherin was able to sequestrate one part of free cytoplasmic β-catenin in BZR cells. The decrease of β-catenin transcriptional activity in E-cadherin-transfected clones was demonstrated using the TOP-FLASH reporter construct. Finally, we observed a decrease of MMP-1, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MT1-MMP, both at the mRNA and at the protein levels, in E-cadherin-positive clones whereas no changes in MMP-2, TIMP-1, or TIMP-2 were observed when compared with control clones. Moreover, zymography analysis revealed a loss of MMP-2 activation ability in E-cadherin-positive clones treated with the concanavalin A lectin. These data demonstrate a direct role of E-cadherin/catenin complex organization in the regulation of MMPs and suggest an implication of this regulation in the expression of an invasive phenotype by bronchial tumor cells. PMID:12875984

  7. Novel flow cytometry approach to identify bronchial epithelial cells from healthy human airways

    PubMed Central

    Maestre-Batlle, Danay; Pena, Olga M.; Hirota, Jeremy A.; Gunawan, Evelyn; Rider, Christopher F.; Sutherland, Darren; Alexis, Neil E.; Carlsten, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Sampling various compartments within the lower airways to examine human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) is essential for understanding numerous lung diseases. Conventional methods to identify HBEC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and wash (BW) have throughput limitations in terms of efficiency and ensuring adequate cell numbers for quantification. Flow cytometry can provide high-throughput quantification of cell number and function in BAL and BW samples, while requiring low cell numbers. To date, a flow cytometric method to identify HBEC recovered from lower human airway samples is unavailable. In this study we present a flow cytometric method identifying HBEC as CD45 negative, EpCAM/pan-cytokeratin (pan-CK) double-positive population after excluding debris, doublets and dead cells from the analysis. For validation, the HBEC panel was applied to primary HBEC resulting in 98.6% of live cells. In healthy volunteers, HBEC recovered from BAL (2.3% of live cells), BW (32.5%) and bronchial brushing samples (88.9%) correlated significantly (p = 0.0001) with the manual microscopy counts with an overall Pearson correlation of 0.96 across the three sample types. We therefore have developed, validated, and applied a flow cytometric method that will be useful to interrogate the role of the respiratory epithelium in multiple lung diseases. PMID:28165060

  8. Bronchial Artery and Systemic Artery Embolization in the Management of Primary Lung Cancer Patients with Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hong Suk Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyae Young; Zo, Jae-Ill; Lee, Joo Hyuk; Lee, Jin Soo

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To assess the safety and effectiveness of arterial embolization in lung cancer patients with hemoptysis. Methods. Nineteen primary lung cancer patients with hemoptysis underwent bronchial artery and systemic artery embolization from April 2002 to March 2005. There were 17 men and 2 women, with a mean age of 59 years. Histologic analysis revealed squamous cell carcinoma in 10 patients and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 9 patients. The amount of hemoptysis was bleeding of 25-50 ml within 24 hr in 8 patients, recurrent blood-tinged sputum in 6, and bleeding of 100 ml or more per 24 hr in 5. Embolization was done with a superselective technique using a microcatheter and polyvinyl alcohol particles to occlude the affected vessels. Results. Arterial embolization was technically successful in all patients and clinically successful in 15 patients (79%). The average number of arteries embolized was 1.2. Bronchial arteriography revealed staining (all patients), dilatation of the artery or hypervascularity (10 patients), and bronchopulmonary shunt (6 patients). The recurrence rate was 33% (5/15) and 11 patients were alive with a mean follow-up time of 148 days (30-349 days). Conclusion. Arterial embolotherapy for hemoptysis in patients with primary lung cancer is an effective, safe therapeutic modality despite the fact the vascular changes are subtle on angiography.

  9. The frequency of allergens implicated in bronchial asthma in different areas of Romania.

    PubMed

    Chirilă, M; Florescu, L; Popescu, M; Capetti, E; Panait, E

    1984-01-01

    The study carried out on 582 asthma patients and 164 healthy controls, ranging in age from 5 to 60 years, dwelling in four different towns ( Sibiu , Mediaş, Baia Mare, Sighetul Marma tiei ) showed that the most frequently involved antigen in allergic bronchial asthma was house dust (50.3 to 86%), followed by Dermatophagoides pteronissinus and atmospheric fungi, and the most frequently encountered associations were likewise between these allergens, hence the orientation towards a specific hyposensitizing therapy. In these localities with a rich gramineous vegetation there was a high per cent of sensitization to the polen of these plants. Sensitization to woollen hairs has been reported in a high percent in the region of Maramure ş and is linked to its ethnical characteristics. In many cases the patients also exhibited hypersensitiveness to bacteria, associated with environmental allergens, the vicious circle realized by an allergic-infectious mechanism being known. The conclusions of the study on the etiology of bronchial asthma in these geographical areas will be used as a basis for the treatment and its orientation.

  10. Correlation between the bronchial subepithelial layer and whole airway wall thickness in patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, K; Shiba, K; Ozawa, T; Okuda, K; Adachi, M

    2002-01-01

    Background: The epithelial reticular basement membrane (Rbm) of the airway wall thickens in patients with asthma. However, whether the thickening parallels whole airway wall thickening, which limits airflow, is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between the bronchial Rbm thickening and whole airway wall thickening in asthma. In addition, the association of Rbm and whole wall thickening with airflow obstruction was examined. Methods: Forty nine patients with asthma and 18 healthy control subjects took part in the study. The Rbm thickness was measured in bronchial biopsy specimens and whole airway wall thickness was assessed with high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scanning after pretreatment with oral steroids for 2 weeks and inhaled ß2 agonist to minimise reversible changes of the airway walls. The percentage airway wall area (WA%; defined as (wall area/total airway area) x 100) and percentage airway wall thickness (WT%; defined as [(ideal outer diameter – ideal luminal diameter)/ideal outer diameter] x 100) were determined from HRCT scans to assess whole airway wall thickness. Spirometric tests were also performed. Results: WA% and WT% were higher in patients with asthma than in healthy subjects. Both WA% and WT% were strongly correlated with Rbm thickness. Moreover, these three indices of airway wall thickness were inversely correlated with the percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second in patients with asthma. Conclusions: These findings indicate that Rbm thickening parallels whole airway wall thickening which can cause irreversible airflow obstruction in patients with asthma. PMID:11867829

  11. Sulfur dioxide and ammonium sulfate effects on pulmonary function and bronchial reactivity in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Kulle, T J; Sauder, L R; Shanty, F; Kerr, H D; Farrell, B P; Miller, W R; Milman, J H

    1984-03-01

    The effect of exposures to 1 ppm sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 500 micrograms/m3 respirable ammonium sulfate [(NH4)2SO4] was studied in 20 nonsmoking subjects to determine if a response can be measured at these atmospheric levels and if the response is additive or synergistic. Four-hour separate and combined exposures were employed. Each subject acted as his or her own control and performed two light-to-moderate exercise stints (612 kg-m/min) for 15 minutes on each day's confinement in the environmental chamber. Pulmonary function tests (body plethysmography and spirometry) and bronchial reactivity to methacholine were performed to assess the response of these exposures. No significant changes in pulmonary function or bronchial reactivity were observed in the individual exposures [(NH4)2SO4 or SO2], the combined exposure [(NH4)2SO4 and SO2], or 24 hours post-exposure. This study design and the observed results did not demonstrate any readily apparent risk to healthy subjects with these exposures. Since no significant changes were measured, it was not possible to conclude if these two pollutants in combination produce an additive or synergistic response.

  12. Carbon black and titanium dioxide nanoparticles elicit distinct apoptotic pathways in bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Increasing environmental and occupational exposures to nanoparticles (NPs) warrant deeper insight into the toxicological mechanisms induced by these materials. The present study was designed to characterize the cell death induced by carbon black (CB) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs in bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o- cell line and primary cells) and to investigate the implicated molecular pathways. Results Detailed time course studies revealed that both CB (13 nm) and TiO2(15 nm) NP exposed cells exhibit typical morphological (decreased cell size, membrane blebbing, peripheral chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation) and biochemical (caspase activation and DNA fragmentation) features of apoptotic cell death. A decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, activation of Bax and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria were only observed in case of CB NPs whereas lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane destabilization and cathepsin B release were observed during the apoptotic process induced by TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, ROS production was observed after exposure to CB and TiO2 but hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production was only involved in apoptosis induction by CB NPs. Conclusions Both CB and TiO2 NPs induce apoptotic cell death in bronchial epithelial cells. CB NPs induce apoptosis by a ROS dependent mitochondrial pathway whereas TiO2 NPs induce cell death through lysosomal membrane destabilization and lipid peroxidation. Although the final outcome is similar (apoptosis), the molecular pathways activated by NPs differ depending upon the chemical nature of the NPs. PMID:20398356

  13. [MORPHO-FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BLOOD CELL MITOCHONDRIA IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    PubMed

    Denisenko, Yu k; Novgorodtseva, Tp; Kondrat'eva, E V; Zhukova, N; Antonyuk, M W; Knyshova, V V; Mineeva, E e

    2015-01-01

    We undertook a structural and functional study of blood cell mitochondria in 25 patients with controlled mild bronchial asthma (BA) including evaluation of blood saturation with oxygen, carboxyhemoglobin level in blood and carbon monoxide content in the exhaled air. Membrane potential of leukocyte mitochondria was determined based on the results of flow cytofluorimetry and fatty acid (FA) composition in platelet mitochondrial membranes measured by GLC. It was shown that the absence of clinical symptoms of BA during remission was associated with a reduction of membrane potential and a change of FA composition resulting in the depletion of the basal pool of saturated (12:0, 14:0, 18:0) and polyunsaturated (20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, 22:4n-6) FA. These changes in the structural and functional state of blood cell mitochondria in patients with BA are signs of disordered energy-producing activity, membrane permeability and transmembrane transport suggesting the development of mitochondrial dysfunction and cellular hypoxia. A deeper insight into the role of the structural and functional state of blood cell mitochondria in the formation of respiratory disorders will facilitate early detection of the risk and complications of bronchial obstruction.

  14. Alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells correlate with metastatic potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Willey, J. C.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced lung cancer are not known. In the present study, alterations of p53 in tumorigenic human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by a single low dose of either alpha-particles or 1 GeV/nucleon (56)Fe were analyzed by PCR-single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) coupled with sequencing analysis and immunoprecipitation assay. A total of nine primary and four secondary tumor cell lines, three of which were metastatic, together with the parental BEP2D and primary human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were studied. The immunoprecipitation assay showed overexpression of mutant p53 proteins in all the tumor lines but not in NHBE and BEP2D cells. PCR-SSCP and sequencing analysis found band shifts and gene mutations in all four of the secondary tumors. A G-->T transversion in codon 139 in exon 5 that replaced Lys with Asn was detected in two tumor lines. One mutation each, involving a G-->T transversion in codon 215 in exon 6 (Ser-->lle) and a G-->A transition in codon 373 in exon 8 (Arg-->His), was identified in the remaining two secondary tumors. These results suggest that p53 alterations correlate with tumorigenesis in the BEP2D cell model and that mutations in the p53 gene may be indicative of metastatic potential.

  15. The Impact of Autophagy on the Cigarette Smoke Extract-Induced Apoptosis of Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Jang, An-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Previous studies report that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in the pathogenesis of emphysema, and macroautophagy is one of the processes regulating the apoptosis pathway. However, few studies have evaluated whether chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) contributes to the regulation of apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of autophagy, including both macroautophagy and CMA, on the apoptosis in bronchial epithelial cells. Methods Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was injected intratracheally into C57BL/6 mice, and emphysema and apoptosis were evaluated in the lungs. After treatment with CSE, apoptosis, macroautophagy, and CMA were measured in BEAS2-B cells, and the impact of autophagy on the apoptosis was evaluated following knockdown of autophagy-related genes by short interfering RNAs (siRNAs). Results Intratracheal CSE injection resulted in the development of emphysema and an increase in apoptosis in mice. CSE increased the apoptosis in BEAS2-B cells, and also elevated the expression of proteins related to both macroautophagy and CMA in BEAS2-B cells. The knockdown experiment with siRNAs showed that macroautophagy increases apoptosis in BEAS2-B cells, while CMA suppresses apoptosis. Conclusion The intratracheal injection of CSE induces pulmonary emphysema and an increase in apoptosis in mice. CSE also induces apoptosis, macroautophagy, and CMA of bronchial epithelial cells. Macroautophagy and CMA regulate apoptosis in opposite directions. PMID:28119751

  16. Transfection of normal human bronchial epithelial cells with the bcl-2 oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.H.; Kenyon, K.D.; Tesfaigzi, J.

    1995-12-01

    In vitro, studies examining the transformation of virus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells after exposure to chemical and physical carcinogens have contributed to our understanding of the mechanisms that underlie the development of lung cancer. Virus-immortalized HBE cells have been used because of both the limited life span of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in culture (approximately 30-35 population doublins) and their resistance to in vitro malignant transformation. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV)-immortalized HBE cells have been used to study the genetic changes that occur after exposure to {alpha}-particles in vitro. Although this model may prove to be useful for studying the 18% or less of bronchogenic carcinomas found to contain HPV sequences, it is not an appropriate model for studying the majority of lung epithelial malignancies in which HPV DNA is not detected. This view is supported by the fact that HPV-immortalized cell lines commonly exhibit aneuploidy. This results of this study suggest that: (1) NHBE cells can be transiently transfected with the pCMV{Beta} vector; and (2) the antibiotic hygromycin-resistant transfected cells.

  17. Montelukast suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition of bronchial epithelial cells induced by eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Hosoki, Koa; Kainuma, Keigo; Toda, Masaaki; Harada, Etsuko; Chelakkot-Govindalayathila, Ayshwarya-Lakshmi; Roeen, Ziaurahman; Nagao, Mizuho; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Fujisawa, Takao; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2014-07-04

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a mechanism by which eosinophils can induce airway remodeling. Montelukast, an antagonist of the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor, can suppress airway remodeling in asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether montelukast can ameliorate airway remodeling by blocking EMT induced by eosinophils. EMT induced was assessed using a co-culture system of human bronchial epithelial cells and human eosinophils or the eosinophilic leukemia cell lines, Eol-1. Montelukast inhibited co-culture associated morphological changes of BEAS-2b cells, decreased the expression of vimentin and collagen I, and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Montelukast mitigated the rise of TGF-β1 production and Smad3 phosphorylation. Co-culture of human eosinophils with BEAS-2B cells significantly enhanced the production of CysLTs compared with BEAS-2B cells or eosinophils alone. The increase of CysLTs was abolished by montelukast pre-treatment. Montelukast had similar effects when co-culture system of Eol-1 and BEAS-2B was used. This study showed that montelukast suppresses eosinophils-induced EMT of airway epithelial cells. This finding may explain the mechanism of montelukast-mediated amelioration of airway remodeling in bronchial asthma.

  18. Molecular alterations in tumorigenic human bronchial and breast epithelial cells induced by high let radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Zhao, Y. L.; Roy, D.; Piao, C. Q.; Calaf, G.; Hall, E. J.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequence of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) and breast (MCF-10F) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 150 keV/μm alpha particles or 1 GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Cell fusion studies indicated that radiation-induced tumorigenic phenotype in BEP2D cells could be completely suppressed by fusion with non-tumorigenic BEP2D cells. The differential expressions of known genes between tumorigenic bronchial and breast cells induced by alpha particles and their respective control cultures were compared using cDNA expression array. Among the 11 genes identified to be differentially expressed in BEP2D cells, three ( DCC, DNA-PK and p21 CIPI) were shown to be consistently down-regulated by 2 to 4 fold in all the 5 tumor cell lines examined. In contrast, their expressions in the fusion cell lines were comparable to control BEP2D cells. Similarly, expression levels of a series of genes were found to be altered in a step-wise manner among tumorigenic MCF-10F cells. The results are highly suggestive that functional alterations of these genes may be causally related to the carcinogenic process.

  19. Human Normal Bronchial Epithelial Cells: A Novel In Vitro Cell Model for Toxicity Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haiyan; Xia, Bo; Liu, Hongya; Li, Jie; Lin, Shaolin; Li, Tiyuan; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Human normal cell-based systems are needed for drug discovery and toxicity evaluation. hTERT or viral genes transduced human cells are currently widely used for these studies, while these cells exhibited abnormal differentiation potential or response to biological and chemical signals. In this study, we established human normal bronchial epithelial cells (HNBEC) using a defined primary epithelial cell culture medium without transduction of exogenous genes. This system may involve decreased IL-1 signaling and enhanced Wnt signaling in cells. Our data demonstrated that HNBEC exhibited a normal diploid karyotype. They formed well-defined spheres in matrigel 3D culture while cancer cells (HeLa) formed disorganized aggregates. HNBEC cells possessed a normal cellular response to DNA damage and did not induce tumor formation in vivo by xenograft assays. Importantly, we assessed the potential of these cells in toxicity evaluation of the common occupational toxicants that may affect human respiratory system. Our results demonstrated that HNBEC cells are more sensitive to exposure of 10~20 nm-sized SiO2, Cr(VI) and B(a)P compared to 16HBE cells (a SV40-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells). This study provides a novel in vitro human cells-based model for toxicity evaluation, may also be facilitating studies in basic cell biology, cancer biology and drug discovery. PMID:25861018

  20. Scintigraphic monitoring of mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance of technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Zwas, S.T.; Katz, I.; Belfer, B.; Baum, G.L.; Aharonson, E.

    1987-02-01

    A simple method for in vivo monitoring mucociliary tracheo-bronchial clearance is described. Eighteen healthy subjects and 13 patients with various chronic lung diseases were studied by this method. The principle of using an aerosol administration system similar to the system used for routine ventilation lung studies is stressed. Proximal large airway deposition of the radioaerosol was obtained by using relatively large particles (average diameter 2 microM) of (99mTc)MAA aerosol. Monitoring was performed by visual inspection of the tracheo-bronchial cinescintigraphic ascendence of the accumulated radioactive boli and by assessing their rate of clearance via automated computer analysis of the time-activity curves, following the movement of each bolus. The normal mean +/- s.d. clearance rate thus obtained was 4.7 +/- 1.3 mm/min. This rate appears to be more precise as compared with the range of results obtained by other radioisotopic methods. Significantly faster rates, mean 8.2 +/- 1.4 mm/min (p less than 0.001) were obtained in bronchiectatic patients while slower rates (2.8 mm/min) were seen in a patient with ciliary dyskinesia.

  1. Closed suctioning system reduces cross-contamination between bronchial system and gastric juices.

    PubMed

    Rabitsch, Werner; Köstler, Wolfgang J; Fiebiger, Wolfgang; Dielacher, Christoph; Losert, Heidrun; Sherif, Camillo; Staudinger, Thomas; Seper, Edith; Koller, Walter; Daxböck, Florian; Schuster, Ernst; Knöbl, Paul; Burgmann, Heinz; Frass, Michael

    2004-09-01

    In this prospective, randomized study, we evaluated whether a closed suctioning (CS) system (TrachCare) influences crossover contamination between bronchial system and gastric juices when compared with an open suctioning system (OS). The secondary aims were an analysis of the frequency of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and an analysis of alteration in gas exchange. Antibiograms were performed from tracheal secretions and gastric juice aspirates on Days 1 and 3 of intubation in 24 patients in a medical intensive care unit. Five cross-contaminations were observed in the OS group on Day 3 versus Day 1; the 5 strains shared common genotypes as determined by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. No cross-contaminations were seen in the CS group (P = 0.037). VAP occurred in 5 patients of the OS group but in none of the CS group patients (P = 0.037). Spao(2) decreased significantly in the OS group compared with presuctioning values--the opposite of the CS group. Whereas presuctioning values were comparable between groups, postsuctioning Spao(2) was significantly higher in the CS group. CS significantly reduced cross-contamination between bronchial system and gastric juices and reduced the incidence of VAP when compared with OS. Hypoxic phases can be reduced by the help of CS.

  2. Arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in bronchial epithelial cells and its inhibition by cellular oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Dairou, Julien; Petit, Emile; Ragunathan, Nilusha; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle; Marano, Francelyne; Dupret, Jean-Marie; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando

    2009-05-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells express xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) that are involved in the biotransformation of inhaled toxic compounds. The activities of these XMEs in the lung may modulate respiratory toxicity and have been linked to several diseases of the airways. Arylamine N-acetyltransferases (NAT) are conjugating XMEs that play a key role in the biotransformation of aromatic amine pollutants such as the tobacco-smoke carcinogens 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and {beta}-naphthylamine ({beta}-NA). We show here that functional human NAT1 or its murine counterpart Nat2 are present in different lung epithelial cells i.e. Clara cells, type II alveolar cells and bronchial epithelial cells, thus indicating that inhaled aromatic amines may undergo NAT-dependent biotransformation in lung epithelium. Exposure of these cells to pathophysiologically relevant amounts of oxidants known to contribute to lung dysfunction, such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2} or peroxynitrite, was found to impair the NAT1/Nat2-dependent cellular biotransformation of aromatic amines. Genetic and non genetic impairment of intracellular NAT enzyme activities has been suggested to compromise the important detoxification pathway of aromatic amine N-acetylation and subsequently to contribute to an exacerbation of untoward effects of these pollutants on health. Our study suggests that oxidative/nitroxidative stress in lung epithelial cells, due to air pollution and/or inflammation, could contribute to local and/or systemic dysfunctions through the alteration of the functions of pulmonary NAT enzymes.

  3. Chemiluminescence of neutrophiles stimulated by opsonized Zymosan in children with bronchial asthma and pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewandowicz-Uszynska, A.; Jankowski, A.

    2004-08-01

    Oxygen metabolism of neutrophils after stimulation with opsonized zymosan was examined using chemiluminescence test (in the presence of the patient serum or pooled serum). Into the study 37 children aged from 2 to 12 years were enrolled (20 girls and 17 boys). 10 healthy volunteers comprised the control group (group III). Two groups of patients were established: group I -- children with bronchial asthma (without infection), group II -- children with pneumonia. The examination in both groups was performed twice -- in acute phase and in remission period. The group I in acute phase comprised 16 children and in remission phase 9 children, group II - 21 children in acute phase and 9 children in remission phase, respectively. The following parameters of CL were estimated average value of so called spontaneous CL, maximal excitation of neutrophils after stimulation by zymogen (CLmax), time of zymosan opsonization. The following results were obtained: increased spontaneous CL and CLmax (at the presence of both sera) in acute phase of bronchial asthma and pneumonia in comparison to the control group. In the period of remission both these parameters were insignificantly decreased. The longest time of zymosan opsonization in acute period of disease was observed in children with pneumonia (18 min.). This time did not change during remission phase. Only slightly longer time of opsonization was observed in the patients from group I (in exacerbation) (15 min) than in the control group (13,1 min). This time was prolonged in the clinical remission (20 min).

  4. Increased chromium and nickel content in lung tissue and bronchial carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kollmeier, H.; Seemann, J.W.; Mueller, K.M.R.; Rothe, G.; Wittig, P.; Schejbal, V.B.

    1987-01-01

    In 25 random autopsies, chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) in lung tissue and regional lymph nodes were analysed by means of flameless atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The subjects originate from Bochum in the Ruhr District, which is defined as a particular pollution area with locally high Cr and Ni emissions. The subjects examined from Bochum (BO) and vicinity have Cr and Ni concentrations about 5 and 6 times higher than those in a previous series form Muenster (MS) and vicinity (outside the particular pollution area), which is used for comparison purposes. BO and MS data showed an age-dependent increase of chromium and nickel in the lung, and in both data sets as well as in the combined, the Cr and Ni values showed extremely high correlations. The Cr and Ni concentrations (BO) in lung (3.47 +/- 2.53 micrograms Cr/g, 1.09 +/- 1.43 micrograms Ni/g dry weight) and lymph node tissue (6.30 +/- 3.72 micrograms Cr/g, 1.00 +/- 0.58 micrograms Ni/g dry weight) do not show any correlation. The BO data contained four cases of bronchial carcinoma (all male), three of which showed pulmonary Cr and Ni concentrations that lie clearly above the predicted level. One case of bronchial carcinoma had extremely high Cr and Ni values; an occupational exposure as dental laboratory technician is taken into consideration.

  5. Involvement of PTEN in airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Yong-Geun; Song, Chang H; Yi, Ho K; Hwang, Pyoung H; Kim, Jong-Suk; Lee, Kyung S; Lee, Yong C

    2003-04-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is part of a complex signaling system that affects a variety of important cell functions. PTEN blocks the action of PI3K by dephosphorylating the signaling lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-triphosphate. We have used a mouse model for asthma to determine the effect of PI3K inhibitors and PTEN on allergen-induced bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. PI3K activity increased significantly after allergen challenge. PTEN protein expression and PTEN activity were decreased in OVA-induced asthma. Immunoreactive PTEN localized in epithelial layers around the bronchioles in control mice. However, this immunoreactive PTEN dramatically disappeared in allergen-induced asthmatic lungs. The increased IL-4, IL-5, and eosinophil cationic protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids after OVA inhalation were significantly reduced by the intratracheal administration of PI3K inhibitors or adenoviruses carrying PTEN cDNA (AdPTEN). Intratracheal administration of PI3K inhibitors or AdPTEN remarkably reduced bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings indicate that PTEN may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the asthma phenotype.

  6. Arrest in ciliated cell expansion on the bronchial lining of adult rats caused by chronic exposure to industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Pereira, António S; Ferreira, Paula G; Guimarães, Laura; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Grande, Nuno R; Aguas, Artur P

    2005-03-01

    Workers chronically exposed to high-intensity/low-frequency noise at textile plants show increased frequency of respiratory infections. This phenomenon prompted the herein investigation on the cytology of the bronchial epithelium of Wistar rats submitted to textile noise. Workplace noise from a cotton-mill room of a textile factory was recorded and reproduced in a sound-insulated animal room. The Wistar rats were submitted to a weekly schedule of noise treatment that was similar to that of the textile workers (8h/day, 5 days/week). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to compare the fine morphology of the inner surface of the bronchi in noise-exposed and control rats. SEM quantitative cytology revealed that exposure to noise for 5-7 months caused inhibition in the natural expansion of the area occupied by ciliated cells on the bronchial epithelium as adult rats grow older. This difference between noise-exposed and age-matched control rats was statistically significant (P<0.05) and documents that the cytology of the rat bronchial epithelium is mildly altered by noise exposure. The decrease in the area of bronchial cilia may impair the mucociliar clearance of the respiratory airways and, thus, increase vulnerability to respiratory infection.

  7. INHIBITION OF RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS (RSV)-INDUCED INFLAMMATION BY 3-NITROTYROSINE IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-Induced Inflammation by 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells. J. M. Soukup, MPH 1, ZW. Li, MD 2 and YC. T. Huang, MD 1. 1 NHEERL, US Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC and 2 CEMALB, University of North Carolina,...

  8. [The effect of different types of weather on external respiratory function in children ill with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Saralinova, G M; Povazhnaia, E L; Toĭchieva, F M; Niiazbekova, E A

    2000-01-01

    Questioning of 70 children with bronchial asthma aged 9 to 14 has identified high percent (71.4%) of meteolabile patients who respond to unfavourable weather with changed function of the external respiration. Reduction of pulmonary ventilation led to clinical deterioration.

  9. Threshold concentration of ozone causing an increase in bronchial reactivity in humans and adaptation with repeated exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Dimeo, M.J.; Glenn, M.G.; Holtzman, M.J.; Sheller, J.R.; Nadel, J.A.; Boushey, H.A.

    1981-09-01

    To determine the lowest concentration of ozone that causes an increase in bronchial reactivity to histamine and to determine whether adaptation to this effect of ozone develops with repeated exposures, we studied 19 healthy adult subjects. Bronchial reactivity was assessed by measuring the rise in specific airway resistance (delta SRaw) produced by inhalation of 10 breaths of histamine aerosol (1.6% solution). Results indicate that the threshold concentration of ozone causing an increase in bronchial reactivity in healthy human subjects is between 0.2 and 0.4 ppm, and that adaptation to this effect of ozone develops with repeated exposures. The threshold concentration of ozone identified in other studies as causing changes in symptoms, lung volumes, or airway resistance was also between 0.2 and 0.4 ppm, and the time course of the development of tolerance to ozone in these other studies was similar to hat observed in our study. We propose that the appearance of symptoms, changes in pulmonary function, and the increase in bronchial reactivity may be caused by a change in the activity of afferent nerve endings in the airway epithelium.

  10. AEROSOL DEPOSITION EFFICIENCIES AND UPSTREAM RELEASE POSITIONS FOR DIFFERENT INHALATION MODES IN AN UPPER BRONCHIAL AIRWAY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol Deposition Efficiencies and Upstream Release Positions for Different Inhalation Modes in an Upper Bronchial Airway Model

    Zhe Zhang, Clement Kleinstreuer, and Chong S. Kim

    Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Ch...

  11. Experimental Analysis of Air Flows in Bronchial Airway Models in the Cases of Natural Breathing and HFOV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Won-Je; Kawahashi, Masaaki; Hirahara, Hiroyuki

    The mechanism of gas transfer, flow pattern and diffusion in respiratory air flow at the end zone of human lung, especially in bronchial and alveoli, has not been clarified in detail. Recently, it is known that high frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) is an effective treatment for respiratory distress syndrome. However, the frequency effect on ventilation in relation to the gas transfer efficiency at the end zone of lungs has not been investigated. The velocity profile of oscillatory air flow in bronchial tube is one of the fundamental factors to consider the frequency effect. In this paper, velocity profiles of oscillatory flows in micro scale models of bronchial airway with single- and multi-bifurcation have been investigated for different frequencies corresponding to resting breathing and HFOV by using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (micro PIV). The temporal changes of velocity profiles were reconstructed by phase-averaged velocity maps obtained by micro PIV measurements, and the effect of frequency on the velocity profile in bronchial models has been discussed.

  12. [Cellular immunity state assessed in bronchial and alveolar lavage for experimental animals exposed to the rubber dust].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Karabalin, S K; Bakirova, R E

    2004-01-01

    Experiments on 21 rats helped to study influence of mechanical rubber dust on cellular immunity state in bronchial and alveolar lavage, efficiency of Ruvimine for prophylaxis. Findings are that mechanical rubber dust is strongly cytotoxic. Ruvimine administration during the whole experiment demonstrates therapeutic and prophylactic effect and normalizes local pulmonary phagocytosis.

  13. Control of growth and squamous differentiation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells by chemical and biological modifiers and transferred genes.

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, A M; Lechner, J F; Masui, T; Reddel, R R; Mark, G E; Harris, C C

    1989-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers arise from bronchial epithelial cells. The normal pseudostratified bronchial epithelium is composed of basal, mucous, and ciliated cells. This multi-differentiated epithelium usually responds to xenobiotics and physical injury by undergoing basal cell hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia. One step of the multistage process of carcinogenesis is thought to involve aberrations in control of the squamous metaplastic processes. Decreased responsiveness to regulators of terminal squamous differentiation may confer a selective clonal expansion advantage to an initiated cell. We studied the effects of endogenous [e.g., transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and serum] and exogenous [e.g., 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbol-acetate (TPA), tobacco smoke condensate, and aldehydes] modifiers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell in a serum-free culture system. NHBE cells are growth inhibited by all of these compounds and induced to undergo squamous differentiation by TGF-beta 1 or TPA. In contrast, lung carcinoma cell lines are relatively resistant to inducers of terminal squamous differentiation which may provide them with a selective growth advantage. Chemical agents and activated protooncogenes (ras,raf,myc) altered the response to endogenous and exogenous inducers of squamous differentiation and caused extended cellular lifespan, aneuploidy, and/or tumorigenicity. The data suggest a close relationship between dysregulation of terminal differentiation pathways and neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. PMID:2538323

  14. COMPARISON OF PM-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION PROFILES BETWEEN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS AND NASAL EPITHELIAL CELLS IN HUMAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic studies have linked exposures to particulate matter (PM) and increased pulmonary mortality and morbidity. Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are the primary target of PM. PM exposure induces a wide array of biological responses in BEC. Primary human BEC, however, need...

  15. Infection by Ascaris lumbricoides and bronchial hyper reactivity: an outstanding association in Venezuelan school children from endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Hurtado, M A; Sanchez, P; Puccio, F; Di Prisco, M C; Palenque, M

    2007-09-01

    Asthma and other respiratory diseases have increased in the last years among Venezuelan children from helminthic endemic areas where the infection by Ascaris lumbricoides has been associated to bronchial airway inflammation in parasitized individuals. The aim of this work was to investigate the possible associations between the development of bronchial hyper reactivity and the immune response against A. lumbricoides in urban and rural children. We evaluated 470 school children from rural and urban communities. Pulmonary function tests were performed and >or=20% PC(20) changes were considered as a positive diagnostic of bronchial hyper reactivity. The prevalence and intensity of A. lumbricoides infection was determined by faecal examination. Specific serum IgE levels using a modified ELISA and skin prick tests against A. lumbricoides and the common allergen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were done. The number of circulating lymphocyte sub populations was determined by flow cytometry analysis. In rural children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with increased specific levels of anti-A. lumbricoides IgE (p<0.0001) and skin test positivity for A. lumbricoides (p<0.0001). The percentage of FEV1 predictive values correlated inversely (p<0.0001) with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels. Elevated numbers of circulating CD3+CD4+ and CD20+CD23+ cells were found in rural children with bronchial hyper reactivity compared to their asymptomatic counterparts. They correlated positively with anti-A. lumbricoides IgE levels (p<0.005 and <0.0001, respectively). In contrast, in urban children, bronchial hyper reactivity was associated with elevated anti-D. pteronyssinus IgE levels (p=0. 0089), skin hyper reactivity towards this aero allergen (p=0.003) and to an increase in the number of CD3+CD8+ (p<0.0001). Our results suggest that the IgE response against A. lumbricoides infection may be involved in the development of bronchial hyper reactivity among rural children from endemic

  16. The Effects of Hexavalent Chromium on Thioredoxin Reductase and Peroxiredoxins in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Judith M.; Myers, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalational exposure to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds (e.g. chromates) is of concern in many Cr-related industries and their surrounding environments. The bronchial epithelium is directly exposed to inhaled Cr(VI). Cr(VI) species gain easy access inside cells where they are reduced to reactive Cr species which may also contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The thioredoxin (Trx) system promotes cell survival and has a major role in maintaining intracellular thiol redox balance. Previous studies with normal human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) demonstrated that chromates cause dose- and time-dependent oxidation of Trx1 and Trx2. The Trxs keep many intracellular proteins reduced including the peroxiredoxins (Prx). Prx1 (cytosolic) and Prx3 (mitochondrial) were oxidized by Cr(VI) treatments that oxidized all, or nearly all, of the respective Trxs. Prx oxidation is therefore likely the result of a lack of reducing equivalents from Trx. Trx reductases (TrxR) maintain the Trxs largely in the reduced state. Cr(VI) caused pronounced inhibition of TrxR, but the levels of TrxR protein remained unchanged. The inhibition of TrxR was not reversed by removal of residual Cr(VI) or by NADPH, the endogenous electron donor for TrxR. In contrast, the oxidation of Trx1, Trx2, and Prx3 were reversible by disulfide reductants. Prolonged inhibition of TrxR in Cr(VI)-treated cells might contribute to the sustained oxidation of Trxs and Prxs. Reduced Trx binds to an N-terminal domain of apoptosis signaling kinase (ASK1), keeping ASK1 inactive. Cr(VI) treatments that significantly oxidized Trx1 resulted in pronounced dissociation of Trx1 from ASK1. Overall, the effects of Cr(VI) on the redox state and function of the Trxs, Prxs, and TrxR in the bronchial epithelium could have important implications for redox-sensitive cell signaling and tolerance to oxidant insults. PMID:19703554

  17. A microRNA network dysregulated in asthma controls IL-6 production in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Nunez, Rocio T; Bondanese, Victor P; Louafi, Fethi; Francisco-Garcia, Ana S; Rupani, Hitasha; Bedke, Nicole; Holgate, Stephen; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E; Sanchez-Elsner, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding single stranded RNAs that regulate gene expression. While much is known about the effects of individual microRNAs, there is now growing evidence that they can work in co-operative networks. MicroRNAs are known to be dysregulated in many diseases and affect pathways involved in the pathology. We investigated dysregulation of microRNA networks using asthma as the disease model. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway remodelling. The airway epithelium is a major contributor to asthma pathology and has been shown to produce an excess of inflammatory and pro-remodelling cytokines such as TGF-β, IL-6 and IL-8 as well as deficient amounts of anti-viral interferons. After performing microRNA arrays, we found that microRNAs -18a, -27a, -128 and -155 are down-regulated in asthmatic bronchial epithelial cells, compared to cells from healthy donors. Interestingly, these microRNAs are predicted in silico to target several components of the TGF-β, IL-6, IL-8 and interferons pathways. Manipulation of the levels of individual microRNAs in bronchial epithelial cells did not have an effect on any of these pathways. Importantly, knock-down of the network of microRNAs miR-18a, -27a, -128 and -155 led to a significant increase of IL-8 and IL-6 expression. Interestingly, despite strong in silico predictions, down-regulation of the pool of microRNAs did not have an effect on the TGF-β and Interferon pathways. In conclusion, using both bioinformatics and experimental tools we found a highly relevant potential role for microRNA dysregulation in the control of IL-6 and IL-8 expression in asthma. Our results suggest that microRNAs may have different roles depending on the presence of other microRNAs. Thus, interpretation of in silico analysis of microRNA function should be confirmed experimentally in the relevant cellular context taking into account interactions with other micro

  18. Comparative Analysis of Clinicopathologic Features of, Treatment in, and Survival of Americans with Lung or Bronchial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Du, Xianglin L.; Ren, Yinghong; Liu, Peijun; Li, Shuting; Yang, Jiao; Lv, Meng; Chen, Ling; Wang, Xin; Li, Enxiao; Yang, Jin; Yi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic disparities in lung and bronchial cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have specifically assessed these differences in Asian subgroups. The primary objectives of the retrospective analysis described herein were to identify any significant differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and survival rate between Asian lung cancer patients and lung cancer patients in other broad ethnic groups in the United States and to determine the reasons for these differences among subgroups of Asian patients with lung or bronchial cancer. We searched the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program database to identify patients diagnosed with lung or bronchial cancer from 1990 to 2012. Differences in clinicopathologic features, treatment, and DSS rate in four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups were compared. The study population consisted of 849,088 patients, 5.2% of whom were of Asian descent. Female Asian patients had the lowest lung and bronchial cancer incidence rates, whereas male black patients had the highest rates. Asian patients had the best 5-year DSS rate. In our Asian subgroup analysis, Indian/Pakistani patients had the best 5-year DSS rate, whereas Hawaiian/Pacific Islander patients had the worst 5-year DSS rates. We found the differences in DSS rate among the four broad ethnic groups and eight Asian subgroups when we grouped patients by age and disease stage, as well. Asian patients had better DSS rates than those in the other three broad ethnic groups in almost every age and disease-stage group, especially in older patients and those with advanced-stage disease. In conclusion, we found that clinicopathologic features and treatment of lung and bronchial cancer differ by ethnicity in the United States, and the differences impact survival in each ethnic group. PMID:27244238

  19. Cigarette smoke-induced disruption of bronchial epithelial tight junctions is prevented by transforming growth factor-β.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, Andrea C; Mise, Nikica; Jia, Jie; Genoyer, Emmanuelle; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Meiners, Silke; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2014-06-01

    The airway epithelium constitutes an essential immunological and cytoprotective barrier to inhaled insults, such as cigarette smoke, environmental particles, or viruses. Although bronchial epithelial integrity is crucial for airway homeostasis, defective epithelial barrier function contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Tight junctions at the apical side of epithelial cell-cell contacts determine epithelial permeability. Cigarette smoke exposure, the major risk factor for COPD, is suggested to impair tight junction integrity; however, detailed mechanisms thereof remain elusive. We investigated whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 affected tight junction integrity. Exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o(-)) and differentiated primary human bronchial epithelial cells (pHBECs) to CSE significantly disrupted tight junction integrity and barrier function. Specifically, CSE decreased transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and tight junction-associated protein levels. Zonula occludens (ZO)-1 and ZO-2 protein levels were significantly reduced and dislocated from the cell membrane, as observed by fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis. These findings were reproduced in isolated bronchi exposed to CSE ex vivo, as detected by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR and immunohistochemistry. Combined treatment of 16HBE14o(-) cells or pHBECs with CSE and TGF-β1 restored ZO-1 and ZO-2 levels. TGF-β1 cotreatment restored membrane localization of ZO-1 and ZO-2 protein and prevented CSE-mediated TEER decrease. In conclusion, CSE led to the disruption of tight junctions of human bronchial epithelial cells, and TGF-β1 counteracted this CSE-induced effect. Thus, TGF-β1 may serve as a protective factor for bronchial epithelial cell homeostasis in diseases such as COPD.

  20. Induction of Bronchial Tolerance After 1 Cycle of Monophosphoryl-A-Adjuvanted Specific Immunotherapy in Children With Grass Pollen Allergies

    PubMed Central

    Girod, Katharina; Zielen, Stefan; Schubert, Ralf; Schulze, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-established and clinically effective method to treat allergic diseases, such as rhinitis and asthma. It remains unclear how soon after initiation of an ultra-short course of grass pollen immunotherapy adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL)-specific bronchial tolerance can be induced. Methods In a prospective study of 69 children double-sensitized to birch and grass pollens (51 males, average age 11.1 years), development of bronchial tolerance after 1 cycle of SCIT for grass was evaluated. In all the patients, the bronchial allergen provocation test (BAP) was performed before and after treatment. According to the results of the first BAP, the patients were divided into 2 groups: those showing a negative BAP with a decrease in FEV1 of <20% (seasonal allergic rhinitis [SAR] group, n=47); and those showing a positive BAP with a decrease in FEV1 of ≥20% (SAR with allergic asthma [SAR and Asthma] group, n=22). All the patients received MPL-adjuvanted, ultra-short course immunotherapy for birch, but only those with a positive BAP to grass received MPL-SCIT for grass. Results After the pollen season, the BAP in the SAR group remained unchanged, while it was improved in the SAR and Asthma group (decrease in FEV1 of 28.8% vs 12.5%, P<0.01). The IgG4 levels increased after SCIT (median before SCIT 0.34 to 11.4 after SCIT), whereas the total and specific IgE levels remained unchanged. Conclusions After 1 cycle of MPL-SCIT, specific bronchial tolerance may be significantly induced, whereas in patients without SCIT, bronchial hyperactivity may remain unchanged. PMID:26922936

  1. Chemical carcinogen-induced decreases in genomic 5-methyldeoxycytidine content of normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, V.L.; Smith, R.A.; Longoria, J.; Liotta, M.A.; Harper, C.M.; Harris, C.C.

    1987-05-01

    The genomic content of DNA 5-methyldeoxycytidine (m/sup 5/dC) was measured in dividing normal human bronchial epithelial cells treated with a broad range of chemical carcinogens. At noncytotoxic concentrations, all of the carcinogenic agents tested significantly reduced cellular DNA m/sup 5/dC content whereas the weakly carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic agents, benzo(e)pyrene and phenanthrene (respectively), did not. These reductions varied from 8% to 31% depending on the agent and the donor cells. The reduction is genomic m/sup 5/dC levels were concentration dependent for the carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene. The authors speculate that carcinogen-induced perturbation of DNA m/sup 5/dC patterns may lead to heritable changes in gene expression and contribute to the molecular alterations involved in the initiation and the subsequent steps of the carcinogenesis process.

  2. Flexible bronchoscopic argon plasma coagulation for management of massive hemoptysis in bronchial Dieulafoy's disease

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Karan; Dhungana, Ashesh; Hadda, Vijay; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-01-01

    Dieulafoy's disease is an uncommon condition, the usual site of occurrence being the gastrointestinal tract. The condition refers to the presence of a dysplastic submucosal artery with mucosal vascular branches that has propensity to cause recurrent bleeding. Dieulafoy's disease of the bronchus is rare. Herein, we describe the case of a 26-year-old male who presented with recurrent bouts of hemoptysis and bronchial Dieulafoy's disease was diagnosed. Flexible bronchoscopy was performed, and argon plasma coagulation (APC) of the bleeding lesion was done. The procedure was successful and was followed by complete eradication of the vascular malformation and cessation of hemoptysis. APC is a useful tool in the armamentarium of an interventional pulmonologist that can allow rapid and safe control of bleeding from superficially located and bleeding endobronchial lesions, and can be easily and effectively applied using a flexible bronchoscope. PMID:28144074

  3. Amines: possible causative agents in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity in workers manufacturing polyurethanes from isocyanates.

    PubMed Central

    Belin, L; Wass, U; Audunsson, G; Mathiasson, L

    1983-01-01

    Investigations of respiratory symptoms among workers in a factory producing polyurethane foam included measurement of air pollution with amines and isocyanates and a simultaneous health investigation of the exposed workers. An increased bronchial reactivity to inhaled methacholine was found in the study group compared with two unexposed control groups. This finding, together with visual disturbances in the exposed group, were assumed to be caused mainly by the volatile amines. The concentrations of isocyanates in air were well below 0.005 ppm. The amine concentration was 1000 to 10 000 times higher than the isocyanate concentration. The most volatile amine, N-methylmorpholine, occurred in the air in concentrations higher than 10 ppm. The results indicate that not only the isocyanates but also the amines might well be responsible for respiratory symptoms among exposed workers in polyurethane foam production. PMID:6307337

  4. Immunoglobulins in tracheo-bronchial secretion with special reference to IgE

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, H.; Johansson, S. G. O.

    1974-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of immunoglobulins E, A and G were made in tracheobronchial secretion and serum of thirty-four patients in association with bronchoscopy. Measurable quantities of all three immunoglobulins were found in both secretion and serum in all patients, except in one person, in whom IgA was found neither in the secretion nor the serum, and in another person in whom no measurable IgG was found in the secretion. Calculations indicated that all immunoglobulins were produced locally in the tracheo-bronchial mucosa. This applied especially to IgA and IgE, of which 84 and 73% respectively, were calculated to have been produced locally. Quantitative differences between the three immunoglobulins were also apparent between different groups of patients. The number of patients studied is too small, however, for definite conclusions to be drawn in this respect. PMID:4468847

  5. Wound repair and proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells enhanced by bombesin receptor subtype 3 activation.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yu-Rong; Qi, Ming-Ming; Qin, Xiao-Qun; Xiang, Yang; Li, Xiang; Wang, Yue; Qu, Fei; Liu, Hui-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Song

    2006-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of bombesin receptor subtype 3 (BRS-3) in airway wound repair. The results showed that: (1) There was few expression of BRS-3 mRNA in the control group. In contrast, the expression of BRS-3 mRNA was gradually increased in the early 2 days, and peaked on the fourth day, and then decreased in the ozone-stressed AHR animal. BRS-3 mRNA was distributed in the ciliated columnar epithelium, monolayer columnar epithelium cells, scattered mesenchymal cells and Type II alveolar cells; (2) The wound repair and proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) were accelerated in a concentration-dependent manner by BRS-3 activation with P3513, which could be inhibited by PKA inhibitor H89. The study demostrated that activation of BRS-3 may play an important role in wound repair of AHR.

  6. Study of fingerprint patterns to evaluate the role of dermatoglyphics in early detection of bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shiva; Khurana, Alkesh Kumar; Harode, Hemant Ashish; Tripathi, Apoorva; Pakhare, Abhijit; Chaware, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatoglyphics and bronchial asthma (BA) are both influenced by genetic factors. Hence, we assessed the diagnostic potential of correlation between fingerprint pattern and BA. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in out-patient Department of Pulmonary Medicine of All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bhopal. It included 36 patients of BA and 50 nonasthmatic individuals as controls. The following parameters were studied and analyzed: (a) Whorls, (b) arches, (c) radial loops, (d) ulnar loops, (e) the absolute finger ridge count (AFRC), (f) total finger ridge count (TFRC). Results: A significant decrease in the mean value of the arches and increase in the mean value of the ulnar loops were observed in BA patients compared to the control group. The mean values of TFRC, AFRC, and whorls were similar in both groups. Conclusion: Evaluation of dermatoglyphic patterns may be useful in identifying patients prone to developing BA. PMID:27003968

  7. [The physiological characteristics of the antioxidant properties of Lipin in bronchial asthma in children].

    PubMed

    Tymchenko, O H; Seredenko, M M; Portnychenko, V I; Babko, S O; Velychko, M I; Tsvietkova, K V

    1996-01-01

    In children of 4-7 years old with bronchial asthma (BA) has been studied the values of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and some others in blood plasma and erythrocytes without and with the use of new drug Lipin. It was shown that in children with BA the malondialdehyde concentration increased, the superoxydedismutase activity decreased, the NAD concentration increased, and the ratio of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde greatly decreased in comparison with normal children. The use of Lipin led to diminuation of lipid peroxidation, to marked increase of superoxidedismutase activity, to decrease of NAD concentration, and to significant increase of superoxidedismutase/malondialdehyde ratio. These results were indicated on the expressed antioxidant properties of Lipin in children's with BA.

  8. Complete right lung agenesis presenting with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Ram Avadh Singh; Ranganath, T G; Garg, Rajiv; Anand, Shipra

    2012-09-21

    A 26 year-old lady presented with episodic breathlessness, chest tightness, recurrent nasal obstruction and excessive sneezing, mainly during change of season along with opacity of the right hemithorax on chest x-ray. Further detailed work-up including spirometry, high-resolution CT scan of the thorax and fibre-optic bronchoscopy confirmed complete right lung agenesis in patients with bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis. Complete control of symptoms was achieved with formeterol 6 μg and mometasone 200 μg (via dry powder inhaler) and intranasal fluticasone 50 μg (nasal spray) 2 puffs twice daily and oral montelukast 10 mg with levocetirizine 5 mg once daily.

  9. Uptake and cytotoxic effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Seishiro; Fujitani, Yuji; Furuyama, Akiko; Kanno, Sanae

    2010-11-15

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are cytotoxic to several cell types. However, the mechanism of CNT toxicity has not been fully studied, and dosimetric analyses of CNT in the cell culture system are lacking. Here, we describe a novel, high throughput method to measure cellular uptake of CNT using turbimetry. BEAS-2B, a human bronchial epithelial cell line, was used to investigate cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory effects of multi-walled CNT (MWCNT). The cytotoxicity of MWCNT was higher than that of crocidolite asbestos in BEAS-2B cells. The IC{sub 50} of MWCNT was 12 {mu}g/ml, whereas that of asbestos (crocidolite) was 678 {mu}g/ml. Over the course of 5 to 8 h, BEAS-2B cells took up 17-18% of the MWCNT when they were added to the culture medium at a concentration of 10 {mu}g/ml. BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2, 5, or 10 {mu}g/ml of MWCNT, and total RNA was extracted for cytokine cDNA primer array assays. The culture supernatant was collected for cytokine antibody array assays. Cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a dose dependent manner at both the mRNA and protein levels. Migration inhibitory factor (MIF) also increased in the culture supernatant in response to MWCNT. A phosphokinase array study using lysates from BEAS-2B cells exposed to MWCNT indicated that phosphorylation of p38, ERK1, and HSP27 increased significantly in response to MWCNT. Results from a reporter gene assays using the NF-{kappa}B or AP-1 promoter linked to the luciferase gene in transiently transfected CHO-KI cells revealed that NF-{kappa}B was activated following MWCNT exposure, while AP-1 was not changed. Collectively, MWCNT activated NF-{kappa}B, enhanced phosphorylation of MAP kinase pathway components, and increased production of proinflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  10. Effect of dexamethasone on voltage-gated Na+ channel in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Toshiaki; Jo, Taisuke; Meguro, Kentaro; Oonuma, Hitoshi; Ma, Ji; Kubota, Nami; Imuta, Hiroyuki; Takano, Haruhito; Iida, Haruko; Nagase, Takahide; Nagata, Taiji

    2008-06-06

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channel (I(Na)) encoded by SCN9A mRNA is expressed in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells. We investigated the effects of dexamethasone on I(Na), by using whole-cell voltage clamp techniques, reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Acute application of dexamethasone (10(-6) M) did not affect I(Na). However, the percentage of the cells with I(Na) was significantly less in cells pretreated with dexamethasone for 48 h, and the current-density of I(Na) adjusted by cell capacitance in cells with I(Na) was also decreased in cells treated with dexamethasone. RT-PCR analysis showed that alpha and beta subunits mRNA of I(Na) mainly consisted of SCN9A and SCN1beta, respectively. Treatment with dexamethasone for 24-48 h inhibited the expression of SCN9A mRNA. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone was concentration-dependent, and was observed at a concentration higher than 0.1 nM. The effect of dexamethasone on SCN9A mRNA was not blocked by spironolactone, but inhibited by mifepristone. The inhibitory effects of dexamethasone on SCN9A mRNA could not be explained by the changes of the stabilization of mRNA measured by using actinomycin D. These results suggest that dexamethasone inhibited I(Na) encoded by SCN9A mRNA in cultured human bronchial smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the transcription via the glucocorticoid receptor.

  11. Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Cook Stove Emissions on Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Brie; Volckens, John

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half the world’s population uses biomass fuel for indoor cooking and heating. This form of combustion typically occurs in open fires or primitive stoves. Human exposure to emissions from indoor biomass combustion is a global health concern, causing an estimated 1.5 million premature deaths each year. Many ‘improved’ stoves have been developed to address this concern; however, studies that examine exposure-response with cleaner-burning, more efficient stoves are few. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of traditional and cleaner burning stove emissions on an established model of the bronchial epithelium. We exposed well-differentiated, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to emissions from a single biomass combustion event using either a traditional three-stone fire or one of two energy-efficient stoves. Air-liquid interface cultures were exposed using a novel, aerosol-to-cell deposition system. Cellular expression of a panel of three pro-inflammatory markers was evaluated at 1 and 24 hours following exposure. Cells exposed to emissions from the cleaner burning stoves generated significantly fewer amounts of pro-inflammatory markers than cells exposed to emissions from a traditional, three stone fire. Particulate matter emissions from each cookstove were substantially different, with the three-stone fire producing the largest concentrations of particles (by both number and mass). This study supports emerging evidence that more efficient cookstoves have the potential to reduce respiratory inflammation in settings where solid fuel combustion is used to meet basic domestic needs. PMID:22672519

  12. Challenges in the management of bronchial asthma among adults in Nigeria: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Onyedum, Cc; Ukwaja, Kn; Desalu, Oo; Ezeudo, C

    2013-07-01

    Inadequate attention given to the management of asthma and ways of improving bronchial asthma control could be an important factor for the rising morbidity and mortality from asthma despite major advances in our understanding of the disease process. There is a paucity of data concerning the challenges faced in the management of asthma in Africa. This review was aimed at highlighting the challenges facing asthma management and to discuss various strategies in improving asthma control in Nigeria. Data were sourced from PubMed, Medline, African Journals Online, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, and by reviewing the references of relevant literature. Additional articles were obtained via communications with colleagues and reviewing the Abstract Books of Nigeria Thoracic Society Annual Scientific Conference from 2005 to 2012. The data search was up-to-date as of December 31, 2012. Challenges in asthma management were found during diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. There are wide variations in diagnostic criteria for bronchial asthma and lack of standard diagnostic equipment leading to under or misdiagnosis. Treatment challenges include poor communication gap between the health-care providers and the patients, a high-cost and unavailability of essential asthma medications. Poor technique uses for medication devices, especially the inhalational drugs and Lack of National/hospital protocol or guidelines for treating asthma. Several challenges affect asthma management in developing countries, which borders on poverty, inadequate resources, weak health systems, and poor infrastructure. Efforts should be made to address these challenges by the Nigerian government, Nigerian Thoracic Society, pharmaceutical industries, and the health-care workers in general.

  13. Determinants of the bronchial response to high molecular weight occupational agents in a dry aerosol form.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, B; Weytjens, K; Cloutier, Y; Ghezzo, H; Malo, J L

    1998-10-01

    In occupational challenge tests with isocyanate vapours, bronchial responsiveness is determined by the total dose rather than the concentration or duration of exposure. Whether the same applies for high molecular weight (HMW) agents in powder form is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether the total dose of HMW agents in powder form is responsible for the immediate reaction documented in specific challenge tests. Included in the study were nine subjects (seven males and two females) with a diagnosis of occupational asthma proved by specific challenge tests carried out on a preliminary visit. Two challenge tests (using a closed-circuit exposure chamber) were performed at an interval of 2 weeks; the concentrations administered in a random order on these two visits were half and double the one that had caused a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) on a preliminary visit. The duration of exposure was adjusted until a significant fall in FEV1 (target of 20%) occurred. The two concentrations obtained were significantly different, by 2.07+/-0.36-fold (SD). The observed durations of exposure leading to a 20% fall in FEV1 on the two visits also differed significantly by 0.46+/-0.32-fold. Consequently, the cumulative efficient doses were not significantly different between the two visits: 12+/-5.4 and 9+/-5 mg x mL(-1) x min(-1), respectively. The corresponding cumulative dose ratio was 0.96+/-0.61. The expected duration of exposure (10.8+/-24 min) was not significantly different from the observed duration (5.4+/-9 min). The mean and 95% confidence interval for the difference in concentration between the two visits was 1.83-fold (1.48-2.21). In conclusion, the total dose rather than the concentration or duration of exposure per se determines bronchial responsiveness to high molecular weight agents in powder form.

  14. P2Y6 Receptor-Mediated Proinflammatory Signaling in Human Bronchial Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yuan; Liang, Jocelyn F.; Chow, Alison W.; Cheung, Wing-tai; Ko, Wing-hung

    2014-01-01

    P2Y receptors are expressed in virtually all epithelia and are responsible for the control of fluid and electrolyte transport. In asthmatic inflammation, the bronchial epithelia are damaged by eosinophil-derived, highly toxic cationic proteins, such as major basic protein (MBP). Consequently, extracellular nucleotides are released into the extracellular space from airway epithelial cells, and act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to regulate immune functions. Our data show damage to the human bronchial epithelial cell line, 16HBE14o-, by poly-L-arginine-induced UDP release into the extracellular medium. Activation of P2Y6 receptor by its natural ligand, UDP, or its specific agonist, MRS 2693, led to the production of two proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. This may have resulted from increased IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression, and activation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPK, and NF-κB pathways. Our previous study demonstrated that UDP stimulated transepithelial Cl− secretion via both Ca2+- and cAMP-dependent pathways in 16HBE14o- epithelia. This was further confirmed in this study by simultaneous imaging of Ca2+ and cAMP levels in single cells using the Fura-2 fluorescence technique and a FRET-based approach, respectively. Moreover, the P2Y6 receptor-mediated production of IL-6 and IL-8 was found to be dependent on Ca2+, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Together, these studies show that nucleotides released during the airway inflammatory processes will activate P2Y6 receptors, which will lead to further release of inflammatory cytokines. The secretion of cytokines and the formation of such “cytokine networks” play an important role in sustaining the airway inflammatory disease. PMID:25243587

  15. Cigarette smoke extract affects functional activity of MRP1 in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    van der Deen, Margaretha; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Visserman, Hylke; Zandbergen, Wouter; Postma, Dirkje S; Timens, Wim; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty

    2007-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the principal risk factor for development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters, which transport physiologic and toxic substrates across cell membranes. MRP1 is highly expressed in lung epithelium. This study aims to analyze the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on MRP1 activity. In the human bronchial epithelial cell line 16HBE14o-, MRP1 function was studied flow cytometrically by cellular retention of carboxyfluorescein (CF) after CSE incubation and MRP1 downregulation by RNA interference (siRNA). Cell survival was measured by the MTT assay. Immunocytochemically, it was shown that 16HBE14o(-) expressed MRP1 and breast cancer resistance protein. Coincubation of CSE IC50 (1.53% +/- 0.22%) with MK571 further decreased cell survival 31% (p, = 0.018). CSE increased cellular CF retention dose dependently from 1.7-fold at 5% CSE to 10.3-fold at 40% CSE (both p < 0.05). siRNA reduced MRP1 RNA expression with 49% and increased CF accumulation 67% versus control transfected cells. CSE exposure further increased CF retention 24% (p = 0.031). A linear positive relation between MRP1 function and CSE-modulating effects (r = 0.99, p =0.089) was shown in untransfected, control transfected, and MRP1 downregulated 16HBE14o- cells analogous to blocking effects with MRP1 inhibitor MK571 (r = 0.99, p = 0.034). In conclusion, cigarette smoke extract affects MRP1 activity probably competitively in bronchial epithelial cells. Inhibition of MRP1 in turn results in higher CSE toxicity. We propose that MRP1 may be a protective protein for COPD development.

  16. Expression of p53 in preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions.

    PubMed

    Martin, B; Verdebout, J-M; Mascaux, C; Paesmans, M; Rouas, G; Verhest, A; Ninane, V; Sculier, J-P

    2002-01-01

    p53 alteration has been reported to be an early event in bronchial carcinogenesis. Our study purpose was to determine the rate of p53 expression in the various preneoplastic and early neoplastic bronchial lesions obtained by biopsy during fluorescence bronchoscopy and to analyse its association with patients characteristics. Various stages of preneoplastic lesions as well as radio-occult lung cancer were studied in biopsies obtained by fluorescence bronchoscopy. We assessed the expression of p53 by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody clone DO7. The p53 expression was considered as positive if > or = 1% of cells were positive and the level of positivity was expressed in percentage of positive cells. Fourteen patients were included in each category of preneoplastic lesions. At the threshold of 1% of positive cells p53 expression was observed in 28.5% of the patients with a histologically normal epithelium. This number of positive patients increased with the severity of preneoplastic lesions and reached 100% in the mild dysplasia. The mean rates of p53 positive cells for normal epithelium, hyperplasia, metaplasia, mild and severe dysplasia, carcinoma in situ and invasive radio-occult carcinoma were respectively 0.9, 3.4, 9.1, 20.5, 50.2, 34.7 and 42.5%. There was no statistically significant correlation between p53 expression and patient characteristics such as sex, age, smoking habits and indication for fluorescence bronchoscopy. The alteration of p53 expression in patients with high risk of lung cancer was an early event: this abnormality increased with the severity of the lesions, without significant correlation with patient characteristics.

  17. PERSISTENCE OF BRONCHIAL DYSPLASIA IS ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENT OF INVASIVE SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Daniel T.; Gao, Dexiang; Miller, York E.; Keith, Robert L.; Baron, Anna E.; Feser, William; Kennedy, Timothy C.; Blatchford, Patrick J.; Braudrick, Sarah; Hirsch, Fred R.; Heasley, Lynn; Bunn, Paul A.; Franklin, Wilbur A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bronchial dysplasia (BD), a presumed precursor of pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), rarely progresses to invasive cancer. A high risk cohort at the University of Colorado provided an opportunity to directly sample airway epithelium at mapped sites on successive bronchoscopies. We have hypothesized that persistent dysplastic lesions showing a similar or higher level of dysplasia on follow-up biopsy, are associated with increased risk for the development of SCC. Methods and Material Endoscopic biopsies from 188 high risk subjects were histologically classified according to the current WHO classification for BD utilizing a numeric histology score ranging from 1-8 representing normal bronchial mucosa through invasive lung cancer. Differences in follow-up histology scores were compared between sites classified by clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical variables. Results Subjects with a higher frequency of sites that persist or progress to high grade dysplasia (≥37.5% persist/progress, N=35 versus <37.5% persist/progress, N=114) show a significant association with development of incident invasive SCC (adjusted hazard ratio: 7.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.56, 39.39), and those with incident lung SCC have adjusted mean follow-up histology scores 1.55 units higher than in subjects without lung cancer. Current smoking, elevated Ki-67 growth fraction, histologic features of angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD) and higher histology score in baseline biopsies are significantly associated with increased follow up histology scores. Conclusions These results show that persistent BD is associated with the development of invasive SCC. Furthermore, increased expression of Ki-67, the presence of angiogenic change and degree of baseline atypia are associated with persistence of BD. PMID:26542061

  18. Correspondence regarding "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome"

    PubMed Central

    Zuyderduyn, Scott D

    2009-01-01

    Background In the work of Chari et al. entitled "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome" the authors use SAGE to identify candidate gene expression changes in bronchial brushings from never, former, and current smokers. These gene expression changes are categorized into those that are reversible or irreversible upon smoking cessation. A subset of these identified genes is validated on an independent cohort using RT-PCR. The authors conclude that their results support the notion of gene expression changes in the lungs of smokers which persist even after an individual has quit. Results This correspondence raises questions about the validity of the approach used by the authors to analyze their data. The majority of the reported results suffer deficiencies due to the methods used. The most fundamental of these are explained in detail: biases introduced during data processing, lack of correction for multiple testing, and an incorrect use of clustering for gene discovery. A randomly generated "null" dataset is used to show the consequences of these shortcomings. Conclusion Most of Chari et al.'s findings are consistent with what would be expected by chance alone. Although there is clear evidence of reversible changes in gene expression, the majority of those identified appear to be false positives. However, contrary to the authors' claims, no irreversible changes were identified. There is a broad consensus that genetic change due to smoking persists once an individual has quit smoking; unfortunately, this study lacks sufficient scientific rigour to support or refute this hypothesis or identify any specific candidate genes. The pitfalls of large-scale analysis, as exemplified here, may not be unique to Chari et al. PMID:19224643

  19. Automated detection of mucus plugs within bronchial tree in MSCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Guiliguian, Diran; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Lerallut, Jean-Francois

    2007-03-01

    Pulmonary diseases characterized by chronic airway inflammation, such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary (COPD), result in abnormal bronchial wall thickening, lumen dilatation and mucus plugs. Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT) allows for assessment of these abnormalities, even in airways that are obliquely oriented to the scan plane. Chronic airway inflammation typically results in limitations of airflow, allowing for the accumulation of mucus, especially in the distal airways. In addition to obstructing airways, retained secretions make the airways prone to infection. Patients with chronic airway disease are clinically followed over time to assess disease progression and response to treatment. In this regard, the ability to obtain an automatic standardized method to rapidly and objectively assess the entire airway tree morphologically, including the extent of mucus plugging, would be of particular clinical value. We have developed a method to automatically detect the presence and location of mucus plugs within the peripheral airways. We first start with segmentation of the bronchial tree using a previously developed method. The skeleton-based tree structure is then computed and each terminal branch is individually extended using an adaptive threshold algorithm. We compute a local 2-dimensional model, based on airway luminal diameter and wall thickness. We then select a few points along the principal axis beyond the terminal branches, to extract 2D cross sections for correlation with a model of mucus plugging. Airway shape is validated with a correlation value, and the lumen distribution is analyzed and compared to the model. A high correlation indicates the presence of a mucus plug. We tested our method on 5 datasets containing a total of 40 foci of mucoid impaction. Preliminary results show sensitivity of 77.5% with a specificity of 98.2% and positive predictive value of 66%.

  20. Bronchial Artery Embolization for Hemoptysis Due to Benign Diseases: Immediate and Long-Term Results

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Akira; Kudo, Sho; Matsumoto, Koichi; Fukahori, Tetsuhiro; Shimizu, Toshihisa; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Shinichiro

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: To clarify the immediate effect and long-term results of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) for hemoptysis due to benign diseases and the factors influencing the outcomes.Methods: One hundred and one patients (aged 34-89 years) received bronchial artery embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles and gelatin sponge for massive or continuing moderate hemoptysis caused by benign pulmonary diseases and resistant to medical treatment.Results: After BAE, bleeding stopped in 94 patients (94%). The immediate effect was unfavorable in cases where feeder vessels were overlooked or the embolization of the intercostal arteries was insufficient. Long-term cumulative hemoptysis non recurrence rates after the initial embolization were 77.7% for 1 year and 62.5% for 5 years. In bronchitis (n 9) and active tuberculosis (n = 4) groups, an excellent (100%) 5-year cumulative non recurrence rate was obtained. The rate was lower in groups with pneumonia/abscess/pyothorax (n = 8) or with pulmonary aspergillosis (n = 9) (53.3%, 1-year cumulative non recurrence). There were higher incidences of early recurrence among patients with massive hemorrhage or more marked vascularity and systemic artery-pulmonary artery shunt in angiography: however, these trends were not statistically significant. Conclusions: BAE can yield long-term benefit in patients with hemoptysis due to benign diseases. Technical problems in the procedure had an impact on the short-term effect. The degree of hemorrhage or the severity of angiographical findings were not significant factors affecting the outcome. The most significant factor affecting long-term results was whether the inflammation caused by the underlying disease was medically well controlled.

  1. Simulation of bronchial mucociliary clearance of insoluble particles by computational fluid and particle dynamics methods.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Arpád; Szöke, István

    2013-08-01

    For a correct assessment of health consequences of inhaled aerosols as a function of dose, whether for environmental, occupational or therapeutic agents, knowledge of their deposition distribution in the respiratory tract and subsequent clearance is important. The objective of this study is to model particle clearance at bronchial airway bifurcation level and to analyze the combined effect of deposition and clearance. For this purpose, a numerical model has been implemented. Air and mucus flow fields were computed in a model bronchial airway bifurcation. Inhaled particles with 1 and 10 µm aerodynamic diameters were tracked to determine deposition and clearance patterns. Simulation results revealed the existence of a slow clearance zone around the peak of the airway bifurcation causing delayed clearance of the particles depositing or entering here. Particles clearing up from the deeper airways and crossing the studied bifurcation do not accumulate in this zone, because of their tendency to avoid it. The average residence time of these particles was around 20 min independently of particle size (whether it is 1 or 10 µm). However, as a result of the superposition of deposition and clearance mechanisms, the final spatial distribution of particles deposited primarily in the target bifurcation is size dependent, because deposition is size specific. Although deposition density of particles deposited in the slow clearance area is one-two orders of magnitude higher than the average deposition density, these values are reduced by clearance by the factors of 4-7, depending on the particle size and the surface area of the selected slow clearance zone. In conclusion, although particle deposition is inhomogeneous, clearance can significantly decrease the degree of spatial non-uniformity of the particles. Therefore, for a correct assessment of doses at local levels, it is important to consider both deposition and clearance. Although future research may overwrite some of

  2. In vitro cadmium effects on ECM gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Tiziano; Lilli, Cinzia; Bellucci, Catia; Luca, Giovanni; Mancuso, Francesca; Fallarino, Francesca; Falabella, Giulia; Arato, Iva; Calvitti, Mario; Marinucci, Lorella; Muzi, Giacomo; Dell'Omo, Marco; Gambelunghe, Angela; Bodo, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and its inhalation from cigarette smoke are associated with emphysema. Many growth factors and extracellular matrix (ECM) cell signaling molecules are directly involved in the epithelial bronchial cell pathway. This study investigated the direct effects of Cd on the production of several ECM components in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) that were exposed in vitro for 48 h to sub-toxic and toxic concentrations of Cd. Gene expression of collagens, metalloproteases (MMPs), integrins, tenascin and vitronectin were quantified by RT-PCR. To study apoptosis cascade, annexin assay and cellular cytotoxicity by MTT assay were performed. We also investigated whether an imbalance in the TGFβ/TGFβ receptor (TGFβR) expression mediated Cd effects. The results showed the sub-toxic Cd dose significantly increased tenascin, vitronectin, β1 and β5 integrin gene expression. The toxic Cd dose decreased type IV and V collagen, α1, α2 and β3 integrins. Both Cd doses down-regulated type I collagen and up-regulated metalloproteases. Each Cd dose caused a different imbalance in the complex pattern of TGFβ and its receptors. No alteration in classic apoptotic marker protein expression was observed in presence of the sub-toxic dose of Cd, suggesting this metal alters ECM production without apoptotic activation. In conclusion, all these data show even sub-toxic Cd dose exposure alters the specific gene expression of several ECM components that are crucially implicated in the mechanical properties of lung parenchyma supporting the hypothesis that the mechanism underlying Cd-induced lung disease may involve downstream changes in TGFβ/TGFβR signaling.

  3. E-Cigarette Affects the Metabolome of Primary Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Aug, Argo; Altraja, Siiri; Kilk, Kalle; Porosk, Rando; Soomets, Ursel; Altraja, Alan

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are widely believed to be safer than conventional cigarettes and have been even suggested as aids for smoking cessation. However, while reasonable with some regards, this judgment is not yet supported by adequate biomedical research data. Since bronchial epithelial cells are the immediate target of inhaled toxicants, we hypothesized that exposure to e-cigarettes may affect the metabolome of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and that the changes are, at least in part, induced by oxidant-driven mechanisms. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of e-cigarette liquid (ECL) on the metabolome of HBEC and examined the potency of antioxidants to protect the cells. We assessed the changes of the intracellular metabolome upon treatment with ECL in comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) with mass spectrometry and principal component analysis on air-liquid interface model of normal HBEC. Thereafter, we evaluated the capability of the novel antioxidant tetrapeptide O-methyl-l-tyrosinyl-γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine (UPF1) to attenuate the effect of ECL. ECL caused a significant shift in the metabolome that gradually gained its maximum by the 5th hour and receded by the 7th hour. A second alteration followed at the 13th hour. Treatment with CSC caused a significant initial shift already by the 1st hour. ECL, but not CSC, significantly increased the concentrations of arginine, histidine, and xanthine. ECL, in parallel with CSC, increased the content of adenosine diphosphate and decreased that of three lipid species from the phosphatidylcholine family. UPF1 partially counteracted the ECL-induced deviations, UPF1's maximum effect occurred at the 5th hour. The data support our hypothesis that ECL profoundly alters the metabolome of HBEC in a manner, which is comparable and partially overlapping with the effect of CSC. Hence, our results do not support the concept of harmlessness of e-cigarettes.

  4. Bronchial carcinoma mortality in the German chromate-producing industry: the effects of process modification.

    PubMed

    Korallus, U; Ulm, K; Steinmann-Steiner-Haldenstaett, W

    1993-01-01

    This study updates a 1982 report on mortality at two German chromate-producing factories. The main objective of the study was to establish whether the change-over to a production process using lime-free conversion of chromite ore, thus eliminating the formation of calcium chromate, had resulted in a distinct reduction in bronchial carcinoma mortality among workers exposed for the first time after the change-over (completed in 1958 in Leverkusen and 1964 in Uerdingen). A total of 1417 workers with at least 1 year of exposure were enrolled in the study. The observation period ended on 31 December 1988. The expected number of deaths was calculated using population statistics for North Rhine-Westphalia. The risk was determined in the form of a standardised mortality ratio (SMR), i.e. the ratio of observed deaths to expected deaths. In the group of 739 workers exposed before the process change-over was completed, 432 died during the observation period, 66 of them from bronchial carcinoma. This significant excess produced an SMR of 2.27 (95% confidence interval: 1.78-2.85). Where the cause of death was unknown, cases were allocated to a cause of death on the basis of the percentage occurrence of various causes of death in the specific subcohort. The cohort of 678 workers first exposed after the process modification had been completed had a slightly increased SMR for lung cancer of 1.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.58-2.38) based on nine cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Calcium dependent and independent cytokine synthesis by air pollution particle-exposed human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Noriho; Hayashi, Shizu; Gosselink, John; Ishii, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Yuji; Mukae, Hiroshi; Hogg, James C.; Eeden, Stephan F. van

    2007-12-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution particles with a diameter of < 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}) has been associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. We have shown that human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) exposed to PM{sub 10} produce pro-inflammatory mediators that contribute to a local and systemic inflammatory response. Changes in intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) have been demonstrated to regulate several functions of the airway epithelium including the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature and mechanism of calcium responses induced by PM{sub 10} in HBECs and its relationship to cytokine synthesis. Methods: Primary HBECs were exposed to urban air pollution particles (EHC-93) and [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} responses were measured using the fluoroprobe (Fura-2). Cytokine levels were measured at mRNA and protein levels using real-time PCR and ELISA. Results: PM{sub 10} increased [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} in a dose-dependent manner. This calcium response was reduced by blocking the influx of calcium into cells (i.e. calcium-free medium, NiCl{sub 2}, LaCl{sub 3}). PM{sub 10} also decreased the activity of calcium pumps. PM{sub 10} increased the production of IL-1{beta}, IL-8, GM-CSF and LIF. Preincubation with intracellular calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM) attenuated IL-1{beta} and IL-8 production, but not GM-CSF and LIF production. Conclusion: We conclude that exposure to PM{sub 10} induces an increase in cytosolic calcium and cytokine production in bronchial epithelial cells. Our results also suggest that PM{sub 10} induces the production of pro-inflammatory mediators via either intracellular calcium-dependent (IL-1{beta}, IL-8) or -independent (GM-CSF, LIF) pathways.

  6. Neutrophil and asbestos fiber-induced cytotoxicity in cultured human mesothelial and bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kinnula, V L; Raivio, K O; Linnainmaa, K; Ekman, A; Klockars, M

    1995-03-01

    This study investigates reactive oxygen species generation and oxidant-related cytotoxicity induced by amosite asbestos fibers and polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) in human mesothelial cells and human bronchial epithelial cells in vitro. Transformed human pleural mesothelial cells (MET 5A) and bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS 2B) were treated with amosite (2 micrograms/cm2) for 48 h. After 24 h of incubation, the cells were exposed for 1 h to nonactivated or amosite (50 micrograms) activated PMNs, washed, and incubated for another 23 h. Reactive oxygen species generation by the PMNs and the target cells was measured by chemiluminescence. Cell injury was assessed by cellular adenine nucleotide depletion, extracellular release of nucleotides, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Amosite-activated (but also to a lesser degree nonactivated) PMNs released substantial amounts of reactive oxygen metabolites, whereas the chemiluminescence of amosite-exposed mesothelial cells and epithelial cells did not differ from the background. Amosite treatment (48 h) of the target cells did not change intracellular adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP, AMP) or nucleotide catabolite products (xanthine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid). When the target cells were exposed to nonactivated PMNs, significant adenine nucleotide depletion and nucleotide catabolite accumulation was observed in mesothelial cells only. In separate experiments, when the target cells were exposed to amosite-activated PMNs, the target cell injury was further potentiated compared with the amosite treatment alone or exposure to nonactivated PMNs. In conclusion, this study suggests the importance of inflammatory cell-derived free radicals in the development of amosite-induced mesothelial cell injury.

  7. Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin accelerates bronchial healing after pneumonectomy in the rat with or without preoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Takeichi, Haruka; Kawaguchi, Akira T; Murayama, Chieko; Koike, Junki; Iwazaki, Masayuki

    2014-08-01

    Liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) has been reported to accelerate wound healing in the stomach and skin in an experimental setting. LEH was tested in bronchial anastomotic healing after radiation and pneumonectomy in the rat. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 61) received preoperative radiation (20 Gy) to the chest and underwent left pneumonectomy with bronchial stump closure using the Sweet method 4 days later, when they were randomized to receive intravenous infusion of LEH with high O2 affinity (P50 O2  = 17 mm Hg, 10 mL/kg, n = 32) or saline (n = 29). Additional rats (n = 18) were treated in the same way without preoperative radiation. Bronchial anastomotic healing was evaluated 2 days after surgery by determining the bursting pressure and infiltration of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Bronchial bursting pressure was elevated in the rats receiving LEH both in the unirradiated group (LEH 212 ± 78 vs. saline 135 ± 63 mm Hg, P < 0.05) and in rats with preoperative radiation (LEH 162 ± 48 vs. saline 116 ± 56 mm Hg, P < 0.01). Moreover, the percentage of rats with bursting pressure <100 mm Hg tended to be smaller in the unirradiated group (LEH 1/9 [11.1%] vs. saline 4/9 [44.4%], NS) and was significantly reduced in irradiated animals (LEH 3/32 [9.4%] vs. saline 11/29 [38%], P < 0.05). There were no morphological differences except for macrophage infiltration to the anastomotic area, which was significantly prominent in the LEH-treated rats (P < 0.05) regardless of the presence or absence of preoperative irradiation (IR). The results suggest that LEH with high O2 affinity may improve mechanical strength and morphological findings in bronchial anastomosis in rats regardless of the presence or absence of preoperative IR. The irradiated rats later treated with LEH had equivalent or better bronchial healing than that of saline-treated naïve animals undergoing pneumonectomy alone.

  8. [The clinical importance of determining fibronectin and the activity of proteolysis inhibitors in patients with bronchial asthma complicated by pulmonary emphysema].

    PubMed

    Okopnaia, L M; Glazatova, T M; Zorin, V N; Vassim, K; Padalka, I M

    1995-01-01

    Examinations of 27 inpatients with infection-dependent bronchial asthma complicated by pulmonary emphysema revealed low levels of fibronectin and alpha proteinase inhibitor, which were in a positive correlation. The said deficiency was stable in asthmatics and was virtually unchanged as remission was attained. Hence, we may propose that the said changes may underlie not only the development, but stabilization and progress of pulmonary emphysema in patients with the infection-dependent variant of bronchial asthma.

  9. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  10. Bronchial asthma healthcare costs in Mexico: analysis of trends from 1991-1996 with information from the Mexican Institute of Social Security.

    PubMed

    Rico-Méndez, F G; Barquera, S; Cabrera, D A; Escobedo, S; Ochoa, L G; Massey-Reynaud, L F

    2000-01-01

    Cost trends for bronchial asthma have not been previously estimated in Mexico. The increasing prevalence of bronchial asthma as well as its elevated costs make it necessary to expand the availability of information for health planners. This is a growing problem which has been given little attention in national health reports. We did a descriptive, retrospective analysis using national data from the Mexican Institute for Social Security. We estimated the number of medical consultations provided by the state family medicine and specialty areas. A total of 756,843 consultations due to bronchial asthma were provided between 1991 and 1996 in the service areas under study. The healthcare expenditure for bronchial asthma showed an ascending and sustained trend during the study period. When analyzing the trends by type of service, a significant increase in in-hospital care was observed, ranging from US $14.5 (1991) to $19.8 (1996) million and a maximum of $28.4 (1994) million. A similar increase was found in specialty consultation, from $3.96 (1991) to $8.5 (1996) million; in emergencies, from $1. 1 (1991) to $2.9 (1996) million; and family medicine, from $0.66 (1991) to $0.79 (1996) million. Bronchial asthma follows the same pattern as other noncommunicable chronic diseases, increasing in highly urbanized areas and nationwide. In order to improve healthcare and maximize results with scarce resources, a set of strategies is presented to reduce bronchial asthma recurrence, decrease healthcare costs, and improve quality of life.

  11. Automated display of the anatomical name of bronchial branches in a virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool for medical students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kensaku; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi; Anno, Hirofumi; Katada, Kazuhiro; Natori, Hiroshi

    1999-05-01

    This paper proposes a method for automated labeling of the bronchial branches in the virtual bronchoscopy system and its application as a training tool. Virtual Bronchoscopy System (VBS) is a new observation method of 3-D medical images. This system is useful for a variety of purposes such as diagnosis, planning of surgery, informed consent, education and training. By the proposed method the VBS can automatically labels bronchial branches which are extracted from 3-D chest X-ray CT images by the knowledge based processing in the VBS. The knowledge base of the bronchial branch name is constructed. Automated labeling is performed by comparing the tree structure of the extracted bronchus with the knowledge base. The bronchial branch name is displayed in the navigation inside the bronchus. We extended the VBS to a teaching tool by using this function. The system generates questions about bronchial branch name. When the user navigate inside the bronchus by using the VBS, the system presents a question on the virtual endoscopic view and the user answers a question. The proposed method was implemented in our VBS. We confirmed that the method can assign anatomical names to about 90% of bronchial branches extracted from 3-D X-ray CT image automatically. In an extended module for educational use of the VBS, the system could generate questions about branch names and could display them on the virtual endoscopic view automatically.

  12. Carcinogenic risk of non-uniform alpha-particle irradiation in the lungs: Radon progeny effects at bronchial bifurcations

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, W.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Menache, M.G.; Martonen, T.B.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effect of enhanced deposition and reduced clearance at bronchial bifurcations leads to increased radon progeny doses within branching sites compared to uniformly distributed activity within a given airway generation. A multi-stage carcinogenesis model was used to predict the probability of lung cancer induction at different sites of the bronchial region. For relatively low radon progeny exposures, lung cancer risk is significantly higher in bifurcation zones, particularly at carinal ridges, than along tubular segments. At sufficiently high exposures, however, lung cancer risk is highest in the tubular portions of a generation. This suggests that the common assumption of a uniform dose distribution provides realistic risk estimates for high uranium miner exposures, but may underestimate lung cancer risk at low, environmental exposures. If concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke is factored into the risk analysis in a multiplicative fashion, then the effect related to risk inhomogeneity becomes even more pronounced.

  13. [Acupoints selecting and medication rules analysis based on data mining technique for bronchial asthma treated with acupoint application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaohui; Han, Dongyue; Qie, Lili; Liu, Chang; Wang, Fuchun

    2015-06-01

    Clinical literature of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application from January 2000 to March 2014 in modern periodicals databases was retrieved through computer. With cluster analysis and frequency analysis methods of data mining, acupoints selecting and medication rules of bronchial asthma treated with acupoints application were analyzed. Total 38 articles were included eventually, including 25 acupoints and 42 medicines. The results indicate that on acupoints selecting, Feishu (BL 13) is used as the main acupoint and 3 groups of bladder meridian and conception vessel acupoints are applied alternately and on medicines, Baijiezi (Brassica alba Boiss), Xixin (Radix et Rhizoma Asari), Gansui (Radix Kansui), Yanhusuo (Corydalis) and Mahuang (Radix et Rhizonma Ephedrae) are primarily adopted, epispastic medicines being the main medicines; medicines mostly belong to lung meridian, main medicines being unchanged mostly with Shengjiang as guiding drug.

  14. Control and minimization of allergenic plants impact on bronchial asthma morbidity, based on spatial-temporal data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuzh, Tatyana Y.; Mokin, Vitaliy B.; Wójcik, Waldemar; Imanbek, Baglan

    2015-12-01

    Control and development of priority measures to minimize the impact of allergenic plants on the state of morbidity, caused by asthma are one of the most common and complex problems for public health in modern cities. Bronchial asthma in humans occurs because of aggregation of various factors, the nature of which varies in time and space. So, we should use spatial-temporal data model for formalization of this problem, but typical data formalization methods and data processing methods need to be improved, taking into consideration the peculiarities of impact, especially of allergenic plants and weather conditions on people in a city. The paper shows a new approach to unified in time and optimal by discretization in space data formalization, concerning the main factors that form the conditions for the emergence of bronchial asthma. The example of such analysis was given, which illustrated the efficiency of the proposed information model and the method of its processing.

  15. Deaths Related to Bronchial Arterial Embolization in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: Three Cases and an Institutional Review.

    PubMed

    Town, James A; Aitken, Moira L

    2016-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are at risk for life-threatening hemoptysis, sometimes necessitating bronchial arterial embolization (BAE). Spinal artery embolization and pulmonary infarction are commonly cited procedural risks, yet respiratory failure and death are underappreciated. We conducted a retrospective institutional review of our outcomes after BAE for hemoptysis in CF and present three cases highlighting this complication. From 2007 to 2015, 12 patients underwent 17 BAE procedures for hemoptysis at our institution. Three patients experienced respiratory failure and died within 3 months of BAE. Nonsurvivors had significantly lower baseline FEV1 values than survivors (21.8% vs 52.6%, P < .05). BAE as a treatment for life-threatening hemoptysis may precipitate respiratory failure in end-stage CF and should accelerate the evaluation for lung transplantation. Institutions should reevaluate their BAE practices to ensure preservation of the bronchial circulation, which contributes to gas exchange in these patients.

  16. Asian Dust and Pediatric Emergency Department Visits Due to Bronchial Asthma and Respiratory Diseases in Nagasaki, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takahiro; Hashizume, Masahiro; Ueda, Kayo; Shimizu, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Ayano; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Hashimoto, Kunio; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Odajima, Hiroshi; Kitajima, Tasuku; Tashiro, Kasumi; Tomimasu, Kunio; Nishiwaki, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of Asian dust (AD) on the respiratory system of children are unclear. We hypothesized that AD events may lead to increased visits by children to emergency medical centers due to bronchial asthma and respiratory diseases, including bronchial asthma. Methods We used anonymized data on children receiving primary emergency treatment at Nagasaki Municipal Primary Emergency Medical Center, Japan between March 2010 and September 2013. We used Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data to assess AD exposure and performed time-stratified case-crossover analyses to examine the association between AD exposure and emergency department visits. The main analysis was done with data collected from March through May each year. Results The total number of emergency department visits during the study period was 756 for bronchial asthma and 5421 for respiratory diseases, and the number of “AD days” was 47. In school children, AD events at lag day 3 and lag day 4 were associated with increased emergency department visits due to bronchial asthma, with odds ratios of 1.837 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.212–2.786) and 1.829 (95% CI, 1.179–2.806), respectively. AD events were significantly associated with respiratory diseases among preschool children at lag day 0, lag day 1, and lag day 2, with odds ratios of 1.244 (95% CI, 1.128–1.373), 1.314 (95% CI, 1.189–1.452), and 1.273 (95% CI, 1.152–1.408), respectively. These associations were also significant when the results were adjusted for meteorological variables and other air pollutants. Conclusions The study findings suggested that AD exposure increases emergency department visits by children. PMID:27180931

  17. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sriram; Schembri, Frank; Zeskind, Julie; Shah, Vishal; Gustafson, Adam M; Steiling, Katrina; Liu, Gang; Dumas, Yves-Martine; Zhang, Xiaohui; Brody, Jerome S; Lenburg, Marc E; Spira, Avrum

    2008-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal) and intrathoracic (bronchial) epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome"), we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for tobacco exposure as well as a

  18. A New System of Automated Eco-genetic Database and Modern Conception of Prognosis of Bronchial Asthma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    Karseladze National Pediatric Research Institute, 5, Melikishvili St, 0079 – Tbilisi GEORGIA Tel: 99532 25-31-25, 995 32 22 61 04 Fax: (99532...934918 Email : rkarseladze@hotmail.com Prof. Zhorzholiani Lia, MD, PhD National Pediatric Research Institute, 5, Melikishvili St, 0079 – Tbilisi...access.sanet.ge ABSTRACT The high epidemiological indexes of bronchial asthma (BA) and the high frequency of BA formation in early age groups

  19. Markers of inflammation and bronchial reactivity in children with asthma, exposed to animal dander in school dust.

    PubMed

    Lönnkvist, K; Halldén, G; Dahlén, S E; Enander, I; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Kumlin, M; Hedlin, G

    1999-02-01

    Several studies have confirmed the presence of animal dander allergens in school dust but the effect of this indirect animal exposure on health has not been evaluated. In this study we investigated bronchial reactivity and markers of eosinophil activity and inflammation during two separate weeks of school in 10 children with mild asthma and a positive skin prick test to cat and dog. At the beginning and the end of the first week the children underwent bronchial challenges with methacholine, and at the beginning and the end of the second week they underwent nasal lavages (NAL) and induced sputum samplings. Blood and urine samples for analysis of inflammatory markers were obtained before and after both school weeks. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) and symptoms of asthma and allergy were recorded daily, and spirometry was performed on each visit. The exposure to animal dander allergens was estimated from dust samples obtained in the subjects' schools and homes. Bronchial sensitivity to methacholine increased in the week when this was measured. The proportion of eosinophils in peripheral blood, and urinary eosinophil protein X (EPX), decreased in both weeks. There was a trend towards an increase of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in sputum in the week when these proteins were measured. The concentrations of cat (Fel d1) and dog (Can f1) allergens were higher in dust collected in schools than in homes. Our results show that in children with mild asthma and animal dander allergy, there is a significantly increased bronchial sensitivity to methacholine after one school week. There is also a significant decrease in the number of circulating eosinophils and a trend towards an increase of sputum EPO, which could correlate with the early phase of eosinophil recruitment to the lungs. These effects may be related to the continuous exposure to animal allergens in school dust.

  20. The inhibitory mechanism of Cordyceps sinensis on cigarette smoke extract-induced senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ailing; Wu, Jinxiang; Li, Aijun; Bi, Wenxiang; Liu, Tian; Cao, Liuzhao; Liu, Yahui; Dong, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible growth arrest induced either by telomere shortening (replicative senescence) or stress. The bronchial epithelial cell is often injured by inhaled toxic substances, such as cigarette smoke. In the present study, we investigated whether exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) induces senescence of bronchial epithelial cells; and Cordyceps sinensis mechanism of inhibition of CSE-induced cellular senescence. Methods Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) cultured in vitro were treated with CSE and/or C. sinensis. p16, p21, and senescence-associated-galactosidase activity were used to detect cellular senescence with immunofluorescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), PI3K/AKT/mTOR and their phosphorylated proteins were examined to testify the activation of signaling pathway by ROS fluorescent staining and Western blotting. Then, inhibitors of ROS and PI3K were used to further confirm the function of this pathway. Results Cellular senescence was upregulated by CSE treatment, and C. sinensis can decrease CSE-induced cellular senescence. Activation of ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway was enhanced by CSE treatment, and decreased when C. sinensis was added. Blocking ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway can attenuate CSE-induced cellular senescence. Conclusion CSE can induce cellular senescence in human bronchial epithelial cells, and ROS/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway may play an important role in this process. C. sinensis can inhibit the CSE-induced senescence. PMID:27555762

  1. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A.; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E.

    2009-07-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 {mu}m (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  2. Temporal-spatial analysis of U.S.-Mexico border environmental fine and coarse PM air sample extract activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Fredine T; Mitchell, Leah A; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E; Burchiel, Scott W

    2009-07-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 microm (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every 7 days for a period of 1 year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border crossings.

  3. Elastic Deformation Properties of Implanted Endobronchial Wire Stents in Benign and Malignant Bronchial Disease: A Radiographic In Vivo Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hautmann, Hubert; Rieger, Johannes; Huber, Rudolf M.; Pfeifer, Klaus J.

    1999-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term mechanical behavior in vivo of expandable endobronchial wire stents, we imaged three different prostheses in the treatment of tracheobronchial disease. Methods: Six patients with bronchial stenoses (three benign, three malignant) underwent insertion of metallic stents. Two self-expandable Wallstents, two balloon-expandable tantalum Strecker stents and two self-expandable nitinol Accuflex stents were used. Measurements of deformation properties were performed during voluntary cough by means of fluoroscopy, at 1 month and 7-10 months after implantation. The procedures were videotaped, their images digitized and the narrowing of stent diameters calculated at intervals of 20 msec. Results: After stent implantation all patients improved with respect to ventilatory function. Radial stent narrowing during cough reached 53% (Wallstent), 59% (tantalum Strecker stent), and 52% (nitinol Accuflex stent) of the relaxed post-implantation diameter. Stent compression was more marked in benign compared with malignant stenoses. In the long term permanent deformation occurred with the tantalum Strecker stents; the other stents were unchanged. Conclusion: Endobronchial wire stents can be helpful in the treatment of major airway collapse and obstructing bronchial lesions. However, evidence of material fatigue as a possible effect of exposure to recurrent mechanical stress on the flexible mesh tube may limit their long-term use. This seems to be predominantly important in benign bronchial collapse.

  4. Sports in extreme conditions: the impact of exercise in cold temperatures on asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in athletes.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Kai-Håkon

    2012-09-01

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) are frequently reported among elite athletes of outdoor endurance winter sports, particularly in cross-country and biathlon skiers. The pathogenesis of EIA is related to water loss and heat-loss through the increased respiration during exercise, leading to mediator release, airways inflammation and increased parasympathetic nervous activity in the airways, causing bronchial constriction and BHR. In the competing elite athlete this is presently considered to be due to the frequently repeated increased ventilation during training and competitions in combination with the repeated environmental exposure to cold air in outdoor winter sports. It is important that athletes at risk of asthma and BHR are monitored through regular medical control with assessment of lung function and BHR, and when BHR or asthma is diagnosed, optimal controlling treatment through anti-inflammatory treatment by inhaled steroids should be started and relieving treatment (inhaled ipratropium bromide and inhaled β2-agonists) should be used to relieve bronchial constriction if present.

  5. Rapid dendritic cell recruitment to the bronchial mucosa of patients with atopic asthma in response to local allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Jahnsen, F; Moloney, E; Hogan, T; Upham, J; Burke, C; Holt, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Airway dendritic cells (DC) play an important role in chronic allergic airway inflammation in experimental animals, but a similar role for DC in human allergic asthma has been difficult to define. This pilot study was undertaken to elucidate the role of DC in allergic asthma by examining their potential to migrate to the lower airways in response to bronchial challenge with specific allergen.
METHODS—Bronchial biopsy specimens were obtained from seven patients with allergic asthma before and 4-5 hours after allergen challenge. Multicolour immunofluorescence staining was performed on mucosal cryosections to identify changes in the number and phenotypes of DC.
RESULTS—A dramatic increase in the number of CD1c+HLA-DR+ DC were observed in the lamina propria after challenge compared with baseline (22.4 v 7.8 cells/mm2). The rapid accumulation (within 4-5 hours) of these cells strongly suggests that they were directly recruited from peripheral blood.
CONCLUSION—We have shown for the first time that a specific DC subset rapidly emigrates into the human bronchial mucosa during allergic inflammation. While this study is based on relatively few patients, the consistency of the overall results strongly suggests that the rapid population dynamics of human airway DC closely parallel those in animal models of acute inflammation. These findings support suggestions that DC have an important role in human airway allergy.

 PMID:11641504

  6. Studies on bronchial hyperreactivity, allergic responsiveness, and asthma in rural and urban children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Turner, K J; Dowse, G K; Stewart, G A; Alpers, M P

    1986-04-01

    The prevalence of asthma and allergic responsiveness in rural and urban children of the highlands of Papua New Guinea was studied. Bronchial provocation studies with histamine demonstrated significant bronchial hyperreactivity in 0.5% (1 in 195) rural and 1.7% (1 in 59) urban children, rates which were significantly lower than those observed in corresponding adult populations (7%). Urban children demonstrated a higher incidence of skin test reactivity toward Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and dog dander than did the rural children. However, there were no significant differences between these populations with regard to total serum IgE levels, the degree of parasitism as judged by stool examination, or allergic responses to Ascaris suum, plantain, and coffee bean husk. A more detailed study demonstrated age- and sex-related differences in total IgE and mite-specific RAST scores in the rural but not the urban population. These data suggest an active suppression of the capacity of children to mount an IgE response to environmental allergens such as the mite manifesting itself as low asthma prevalence. The data also indicate that, although the underlying defect of bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma may be genetically inherited, it is not revealed until the lung has received an allergen-induced inflammatory insult.

  7. The effect of various breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Tarun; Saxena, Manjari

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim: The incidence of bronchial asthma is on increase. Chemotherapy is helpful during early course of the disease, but later on morbidity and mortality increases. The efficacy of yoga therapy though appreciated is yet to be defined and modified. Aim: To study the effect of breathing exercises (pranayama) in patients with bronchial asthma of mild to moderate severity. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of bronchial asthma (Forced Expiratory Volume in one second (FEV1) > 70%) were studied for 12 weeks. Patients were allocated to two groups: group A and group B (control group). Patients in group A were treated with breathing exercises (deep breathing,Brahmari, and Omkara, etc.) for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were trained to perform Omkara at high pitch (forceful) with prolonged exhalation as compared to normal Omkara. Group B was treated with meditation for 20 minutes twice daily for a period of 12 weeks. Subjective assessment, FEV1%, and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were done in each case initially and after 12 weeks. Results: After 12 weeks, group A subjects had significant improvement in symptoms, FEV1, and PEFR as compared to group B subjects. Conclusion: Breathing exercises (pranayama), mainly expiratory exercises, improved lung function subjectively and objectively and should be regular part of therapy. PMID:21234211

  8. Effects of ceftaroline on the innate immune and on the inflammatory responses of bronchial epithelial cells exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Pace, E; Ferraro, M; Di Vincenzo, S; Siena, L; Gjomarkaj, M

    2016-09-06

    The tobacco smoking habit interferes with the innate host defence system against infections. Recurrent infections accelerated the functional respiratory decline. The present study assessed the effects of ceftaroline on TLR2 and TLR4 and on pro-inflammatory responses in airway epithelial cells (16HBE cell line and primary bronchial epithelial cells) with or without cigarette smoke extracts (CSE 10%). TLR2, TLR4, LPS binding and human beta defensin 2 (HBD2) were assessed by flow cytometry, NFkB nuclear translocation by western blot analysis, IL-8 and HBD2 mRNA by Real Time PCR; the localization of NFkB on the HBD2 and IL-8 promoters by ChiP Assay. CSE increased TLR4, TLR2 expression, LPS binding and IL-8 mRNA; CSE decreased HBD2 (protein and mRNA), activated NFkB and promoted the localization of NFkB on IL-8 promoter and not on HBD2 promoter. Ceftaroline counteracted the CSE effect on TLR2 expression, on LPS binding, on IL-8 mRNA, HBD2 and NFkB in 16HBE. The effects of ceftaroline on HBD2 protein and on IL-8 mRNA were confirmed in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In conclusion, ceftaroline is able to counteract the effects of CSE on the innate immunity and pro-inflammatory responses modulating TLR2, LPS binding, NFkB activation and activity, HBD2 and IL-8 expression in bronchial epithelial cells.

  9. Drug Signature-based Finding of Additional Clinical Use of LC28-0126 for Neutrophilic Bronchial Asthma.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eunji; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, So Ri; Kim, Soon Ha; Park, Joonghoon

    2015-12-02

    In recent decades, global pharmaceutical companies have suffered from an R&D innovation gap between the increased cost of a new drug's development and the decreased number of approvals. Drug repositioning offers another opportunity to fill the gap because the approved drugs have a known safety profile for human use, allowing for a reduction of the overall cost of drug development by eliminating rigorous safety assessment. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profile of LC28-0126, an investigational drug for acute myocardial infarction (MI) at clinical trial, obtained from healthy male subjects with molecular activity profiles in the Connectivity Map. We identified dyphilline, an FDA-approved drug for bronchial asthma, as a top ranked connection with LC28-0126. Subsequently, we demonstrated that LC28-0126 effectively ameliorates the pathophysiology of neutrophilic bronchial asthma in OVALPS-OVA mice accompanied with a reduction of inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines, relief of airway hyperactivity, and improvement of histopathological changes in the lung. Taken together, we suggest that LC28-0126 could be a potential therapeutic for bronchial asthma. In addition, this study demonstrated the potential general utility of computational drug repositioning using clinical profiles of the investigational drug.

  10. Optimization of the spectral design used to detect early carcinoma in the human tracheo-bronchial tree by autofluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrecht, Tanja; Glanzmann, Thomas; Freitag, Lutz; Grosjean, Pierre; Weber, Bernd C.; Monnier, Philippe; van den Bergh, Hubert; Wagnieres, Georges A.

    2003-10-01

    The early detection and localization of bronchial cancer remains a challenging task. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is emerging as a useful diagnostic tool with improved sensitivity and specificity. Evidence exists that the native fluorescence or autofluorescence of bronchial tissues changes when they turn dysplastic or to carcinoma in situ (CIS). Early lesions in the bronchi tend to show a decrease in autofluorescence in the green region of the spectrum when excited with violet light and a relative increase in the red region of the spectrum. Several endoscopic imaging devices relying on these optical properties of bronchial mucosa have been developed. An industrial endoscopic autofluorescence imaging system for the detection of early cancerous lesions in the bronchi has been developed in collaboration with the firm Richard Wolf Endoskope GmbH, Knittlingen (Germany; its performance has been evaluated in a previous clinical study. A second study, presented in this article, aims to optimize the spectral design of the device. Twenty-four lung cancer or high risk patients were enrolled in this study to assess the influence of additional backscattered red light on the tumor-to-healthy tissue contrast and to compare the effect of a narrow band violet excitation to a large band violet excitation. In our study we observed a three times higher contrast between cancer and healthy tissue, when backscattered red light was added to the violet excitation. The comparison between a narrow and a large band violet excitation indicated an increase of the tumor-to-healthy tissue contrast by the narrow band excitation.

  11. Drug Signature-based Finding of Additional Clinical Use of LC28-0126 for Neutrophilic Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eunji; Lee, Yong Chul; Kim, So Ri; Kim, Soon Ha; Park, Joonghoon

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, global pharmaceutical companies have suffered from an R&D innovation gap between the increased cost of a new drug’s development and the decreased number of approvals. Drug repositioning offers another opportunity to fill the gap because the approved drugs have a known safety profile for human use, allowing for a reduction of the overall cost of drug development by eliminating rigorous safety assessment. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profile of LC28-0126, an investigational drug for acute myocardial infarction (MI) at clinical trial, obtained from healthy male subjects with molecular activity profiles in the Connectivity Map. We identified dyphilline, an FDA-approved drug for bronchial asthma, as a top ranked connection with LC28-0126. Subsequently, we demonstrated that LC28-0126 effectively ameliorates the pathophysiology of neutrophilic bronchial asthma in OVALPS-OVA mice accompanied with a reduction of inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), inhibition of the release of proinflammatory cytokines, relief of airway hyperactivity, and improvement of histopathological changes in the lung. Taken together, we suggest that LC28-0126 could be a potential therapeutic for bronchial asthma. In addition, this study demonstrated the potential general utility of computational drug repositioning using clinical profiles of the investigational drug. PMID:26626943

  12. Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 Receptor: A Novel Pharmacological Target for Treating Human Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed

    Rogliani, Paola; Calzetta, Luigino; Capuani, Barbara; Facciolo, Francesco; Cazzola, Mario; Lauro, Davide; Matera, Maria Gabriella

    2016-12-01

    Asthma is associated with several comorbidities, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, which may lead to bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Because glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 regulates glucose homeostasis, we pharmacologically investigated the influence of the GLP1 receptor (GLP1-R) agonist, exendin-4, on BHR induced in human isolated airways. The effect of exendin-4 was assessed in human isolated airways undergoing overnight passive sensitization and high-glucose stimulation, two conditions mimicking ex vivo the BHR typical of patients with asthma and diabetes, respectively. GLP1-R activation modulated the bronchial contractile tone induced by transmural stimulation (maximum effect -56.7 ± 3.6%; onset of action, 28.2 ± 4.4 min). Exendin-4 prevented BHR induced by both high-glucose stimulation and passive sensitization (-37.8 ± 7.5% and -74.9 ± 3.9%, P < 0.05 versus control, respectively) through selective activation of GLP1-R and in an epithelium-independent manner. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor, KT5720, reduced the protective role of exendin-4 (P > 0.05 versus passively sensitized tissues). The GLP1-R stimulation by overnight incubation with exendin-4 induced the overexpression of adenylyl cyclase isoform V (+48.4 ± 1.3%, P < 0.05 versus passively sensitized tissues) and restored the cAMP levels depleted by this procedure (+330.8 ± 63.3%, P < 0.05 versus passively sensitized tissues). In conclusion, GLP1-R may represent a novel target for treating BHR by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway in human airways, and GLP1-R agonists could be used as a "new" class to treat patients with asthma and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with BHR.

  13. Nicotine exposure induces bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ROS mediated autophagy-impairment.

    PubMed

    Bodas, Manish; Van Westphal, Colin; Carpenter-Thompson, Rhett; K Mohanty, Dillip; Vij, Neeraj

    2016-08-01

    Waterpipe smoking and e-cigarette vaping, the non-combustible sources of inhaled nicotine exposure are increasingly becoming popular and marketed as safer alternative to cigarette smoking. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the impact of inhaled nicotine exposure on disease causing COPD-emphysema mechanisms. For in vitro studies, human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas2b) were treated with waterpipe smoke extract (WPSE, 5%), nicotine (5mM), and/or cysteamine (250μM, an autophagy inducer and anti-oxidant drug), for 6hrs. We observed significantly (p<0.05) increased ubiquitinated protein-accumulation in the insoluble protein fractions of Beas2b cells treated with WPSE or nicotine that could be rescued by cysteamine treatment, suggesting aggresome-formation and autophagy-impairment. Moreover, our data also demonstrate that both WPSE and nicotine exposure significantly (p<0.05) elevates Ub-LC3β co-localization to aggresome-bodies while inducing Ub-p62 co-expression/accumulation, verifying autophagy-impairment. We also found that WPSE and nicotine exposure impacts Beas2b cell viability by significantly (p<0.05) inducing cellular apoptosis/senescence via ROS-activation, as it could be controlled by cysteamine, which is known to have an anti-oxidant property. For murine studies, C57BL/6 mice were administered with inhaled nicotine (intranasal, 500μg/mouse/day for 5 days), as an experimental model of non-combustible nicotine exposure. The inhaled nicotine exposure mediated oxidative-stress induces autophagy-impairment in the murine lungs as seen by significant (p<0.05, n=4) increase in the expression levels of nitrotyrosine protein-adduct (oxidative-stress marker, soluble-fraction) and Ub/p62/VCP (impaired-autophagy marker, insoluble-fraction). Overall, our data shows that nicotine, a common component of WPS, e-cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke, induces bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and senescence via ROS mediated autophagy-impairment as a potential

  14. Delay of growth and development in children with bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Baum, W F; Schneyer, U; Lantzsch, A M; Klöditz, E

    2002-04-01

    The elevated incidence of short stature (body height < (-)x - 2s), skeletal retardation and delayed puberty in children with bronchial asthma or atopic dermatitis is generally attributed to the severity of the disorder. However, a series of findings indicate a causal influence of the atopy and the existence of atopic skeletal retardation per se.The observation that children with atopic disorders, whether bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis, exhibit a rate of short stature that is twice to five times higher than normal indicates atopic and thus genetically determined influences. The elevated prevalence of short stature associated with allergic rhinitis is especially significant, as this disorder cannot be included among the severe chronic disorders. The fact that skeletal retardation is more prevalent in boys than in girls by a ratio of about 2:1 and that a significantly more marked retardation of bone maturation is found in atopic in comparisons with non-atopic asthmatics also lend support to this postulation. The clinical relevance of atopic growth retardation is also supported by the close interaction of pathophysiological basal mechanisms of bone metabolism and the atopy status. Thus the local growth factor prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), which is important for bone metabolism, is also a messenger substance for the immediate and late allergic reaction. The platelet-activating factor (PAF), as one of the strongest mediators in the pathogenesis of allergic disorders, influences the PGE(2) synthesis in the osteoblasts. These relationships show that atopy-dependent imbalances in the complex system of local and systemic growth factors can certainly lead to disturbance of skeletal maturation which may delay growth and development in atopic children. In order to verify these assumptions it is necessary to research the interaction of local growth factors (particularly the roles of PGE(2), PAF and IGF I) in the skeletons of children of short stature

  15. Effect of once daily and twice daily sustained release theophylline formulations on daytime variation of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, M.; Olivieri, M.; Lampronti, G.; Bonazza, L.; Biasin, C.; Nacci, P.; Talamini, G.; Lo, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies evaluating spirometric values and symptoms have shown that once daily theophylline administered in the evening produces greater stabilisation of the airway function in asthmatic patients than the prototype theophylline given twice a day. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on bronchial responsiveness to methacholine of an ultrasustained release theophylline formulation (Diffumal-24, Malesci, Florence, Italy) administered once a day, a sustained release theophylline formulation (Theo-Dur, Recordati, Milan, Italy) administered twice a day, and placebo. METHODS: The study was performed in 12 adult patients with asthma using a randomised, double blind, three phase, cross-over design. Each phase lasted seven days and was followed or preceded by at least three days of theophylline washout. Diffumal-24 was administered once a day at 20.00 hours whereas Theo-Dur was given twice a day at 08.00 hours and 20.00 hours. In each patient the total daily dose of theophylline was the same during both phases. The dose of the two active preparations was titrated to individual needs before the beginning of the study and then given in divided or once daily doses. At 08.00, 14.00, and 20.00 hours on day 7 of each phase serum theophylline concentrations were measured and spirometric tests (FEV1) and bronchial challenge with methacholine were also performed. RESULTS: When the administration of Diffumal-24 was compared with that of Theo-Dur, a higher serum theophylline concentration of the former was seen in the morning whereas at 20.00 hours the reverse was true. Compared with placebo, at 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 improved FEV1 whereas Theo-Dur did not (difference between treatments 0.29 1, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.45). At 08.00 hours Diffumal-24 decreased bronchial sensitivity to methacholine, expressed as a natural logarithm of PD20, to a greater extent than Theo-Dur (difference between treatments 0.54 log units, 95% CI 0.016 to 1.08). The morning

  16. [Genetics of the neuronal NO synthase (NOS1) in the etiology of bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Grasemann, H

    2001-08-01

    The free radical nitric oxide (NO) is endogenously produced by enzymes known as NO synthases. NO in the airways is involved in a number of pathophysiological processes, such as airway inflammation, allergic reactions, and asthma. Asthma is a multifactorial disease that is caused by environmental and genetic factors. Genome wide screening approaches in families revealed evidence for linkage between chromosomal region 12q and allergic diseases, increased serum IgE levels as well as the development of asthma. The gene encoding for neuronal NOS (NOS1) is an attractive candidate gene for asthma, not only because it is localized in chromosomal region 12q24. Experimental studies in animals and humans suggest that NOS1 plays an important role in asthma. For instance, in a murine model of allergic asthma, NOS1 has been shown to be important for the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, since mice deficient for the nos1 gene were less responsive to airway challenge than both wild-type mice and mice deficient for the nos2 gene. Case-control studies in humans revealed allelic associations between polymorphic markers in the NOS1 gene and the diagnosis of asthma. Furthermore, increased concentrations of NO in the airways of asthmatics are closely related to the size of an intronic (AAT)(n)-repeat polymorphism in the NOS1 gene. The purpose of this review is to summarize studies that provide evidence for an involvement of NOS1 in the genetics of asthma.

  17. Effective detection of bronchial preinvasive lesions by a new autofluorescence imaging bronchovideoscope system.

    PubMed

    Chiyo, Masako; Shibuya, Kiyoshi; Hoshino, Hidehisa; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Sekine, Yasuo; Iizasa, Toshihiko; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2005-06-01

    Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is an important tool for the early detection of preinvasive bronchial lesions. However, autofluorescence bronchoscopy has difficulty distinguishing between preinvasive lesions and other benign epithelial changes. A new autofluorescence imaging bronchovideoscope system (AFI) comprises three signals, including an autofluorescence (460-690 nm) on excitation blue light (395-445 nm) and two different bands of reflected light: G' (550 nm) and R' (610 nm). We hypothesized that color analyses of these three wave lengths would improve our ability to differentiate between inflammation and preinvasive lesions. In order to prove this hypothesis and to evaluate the efficacy of AFI for detecting preinvasive lesions, we conducted a prospective study. A total of 32 patients with suspected or known lung cancer were entered into this study. Conventional white light bronchovideoscopy (WLB) and light induced fluorescence endoscopy (LIFE) were performed prior to using AFI. WLB and LIFE detected 62 lesions, including lung cancers (n=2), squamous dysplasias (n=30), and bronchitis (n=30). By utilizing AFI, 24 dysplasias and 2 cancer lesions were magenta in color, while 25 bronchitis lesions were blue. The sensitivities of detecting dysplasia by LIFE and AFI were 96.7% and 80%, respectively. The specificity of AFI (83.3%) was significantly higher than that of LIFE (36.6%) (p=0.0005). We conclude that AFI appears to represent a significant advance in distinguishing preinvasive and malignant lesions from bronchitis or hyperplasia under circumstances where LIFE would identify these all as abnormal lesions.

  18. Interventional pulmonology for asthma and emphysema: bronchial thermoplasty and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction.

    PubMed

    Miller, Russell J; Murgu, Septimiu D

    2014-12-01

    Emphysema and asthma are responsible for economic and social burden. Altering the natural course of these diseases is a field of intense research. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial showed that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) could significantly reduce both morbidity and mortality in properly selected patients. LVRS is seldom performed, however, due to the high morbidity associated with the surgery. Numerous bronchoscopic interventions have been introduced with the goal of providing the clinical benefits of LVRS without the surgical complications. Thus far, these modalities have not produced the results once hoped. However, through active modification of both technique and patient selection, the role of minimally invasive modalities in the treatment of emphysema continues to evolve. Bronchial thermoplasty (BT) is a method of delivering controlled heat to airway mucosa with the goal of reducing airway smooth muscle mass and hence bronchoconstriction. In patients suffering from asthma who cannot achieve control with standard medical care, BT has been shown to be safe and improves symptoms, with long lasting benefit. BT does not seem to affect traditional markers of asthma severity such as forced expiratory volume in 1 second and questions remain regarding proper patient selection for this therapy and its true physiologic effects. This article is a review of bronchoscopic modalities for emphysema and asthma.

  19. The effect of house design and environment on fungal movement in homes of bronchial asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Takatori, K; Saito, A; Yasueda, H; Akiyama, K

    2001-01-01

    The effect of house building design and environment on the fungal movement in the houses of 41 bronchial asthma (BA) patients has been investigated by examining house dust. The presence and composition of fungi were determined and compared in relation to building structure, house age, size of living room, main flooring material, presence of a living-room rug or air purifier, and frequency of vacuum cleaning. Among these elements, fungal CFU apparently varied only between building structure: wooden-board houses had significantly higher numbers of fungi than reinforced concrete houses (p < 0.01), and wooden mortar or iron-framed prefabricated houses had significantly higher numbers of fungi than reinforced concrete houses (p < 0.05). Classification of the types of fungi present in the house dust of BA patients showed that, regardless of the building designs, there were high levels of osmophilic fungi (group A) and fungi that survive at relatively dry conditions (group B), whereas fungi that survive in very wet conditions (group D) were present at low frequency.

  20. alpha-Radiation dose at bronchial bifurcations of smokers from indoor exposure to radon progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Martell, E A

    1983-01-01

    Synergistic interactions of indoor radon progeny with the cigarette smoking process have been evaluated experimentally. Smoking enhances the air concentration of submicron particles and attached radon decay products. Fractionation in burning cigarettes gives rise to the association of radon progeny with large particles in mainstream cigarette smoke, which are selectively deposited in "hot spots" at bronchial bifurcations. Because smoke tars are resistant to dissolution in lung fluid, attached radon progeny undergo substantial radioactive decay at bifurcations before clearance. Radon progeny inhaled during normal breathing between cigarettes make an even larger contribution to the alpha-radiation dose at bifurcations. Progressive chemical and radiation damage to the epithelium at bifurcations gives rise to prolonged retention of insoluble 210Pb-enriched smoke particles produced by tobacco trichome combustion. The high incidence of lung cancer in cigarette smokers is attributed to the cumulative alpha-radiation dose at bifurcations from indoor radon and thoron progeny--218Po, 214Po, 212Po, and 212Bi--plus that from 210Po in 210Pb-enriched smoke particles. It is estimated that a carcinogenic alpha-radiation dose of 80-100 rads (1 rad = 0.01 J/kg = 0.01 Gy) is delivered to approximately equal to 10(7) cells (approximately equal to 10(6) cells at individual bifurcations) of most smokers who die of lung cancer. PMID:6572389

  1. Expression of adenosine receptors in monocytes from patients with bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yuryeva, Ksenia; Saltykova, Irina; Ogorodova, Ludmila; Kirillova, Natalya; Kulikov, Evgeny; Korotkaya, Elena; Iakovleva, Yulia; Feoktistov, Igor; Sazonov, Alexey; Ryzhov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is generated from adenosine triphosphate, which is released by stressed and damaged cells. Adenosine levels are significantly increased in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) and mediate mast cell degranulation and bronchoconstriction. Over the last decade, increasing evidence has shown that adenosine can modulate the innate immune response during monocytes differentiation towards mature myeloid cells. These adenosine-differentiated myeloid cells, characterized by co-expression of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cell markers such as CD14 and CD209, produce high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of BA and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We found that expression of ADORA2A and ADORA2B are increased in monocytes obtained from patients with BA, and are associated with the generation of CD14posCD209pos pro-inflammatory cells. A positive correlation between expression of ADORA2B and IL-6 was identified in human monocytes and may explain the increased expression of IL-6 mRNA in asthmatics. Taken together, our results suggest that monocyte-specific expression of A2 adenosine receptors plays an important role in pro-inflammatory activation of human monocytes, thus contributing to the progression of asthma. PMID:26232643

  2. Stent Implantation for Malignant Pulmonary Artery Stenosis in a Metastasizing Non-Small Cell Bronchial Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzeit, A.; Koch, S.; Meier, U. R.; Zollikofer, Ch.

    2008-07-15

    A 58-year-old patient with recently diagnosed non-small cell bronchial carcinoma was referred to us with increasing shortness of breath and orthopnea by her family practitioner. To exclude the possibility of a pulmonary embolism, contrast medium-enhanced angio-CT of the thorax was performed. This showed a large mediastinal tumor, which, on the one hand, infiltrated and occluded the left upper lobe bronchus and, on the other, constricted the left pulmonary artery over a considerable part of its length. In view of the palliative situation and massively increasing dyspnea, balloon dilatation of the obstructed left pulmonary artery followed by stent placement was performed. This resulted in an immediate improvement of the symptoms. The originally strongly oxygen-dependent and heavily dyspneic patient could be relieved of the external supply of oxygen and was able to sleep normally without additional medication within 24 h. The patient was able ambulate freely within 2 days, with a markedly improved quality of life.

  3. Primary Paediatric Bronchial Airway Epithelial Cell in Vitro Responses to Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Neil; Davidson, Matthew; Scaife, Alison; Miller, David; Spiteri, Daniella; Engelhardt, Tom; Semple, Sean; Devereux, Graham; Walsh, Garry; Turner, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The bronchial airway epithelial cell (BAEC) is the site for initial encounters between inhaled environmental factors and the lower respiratory system. Our hypothesis was that release of pro inflammatory interleukins (IL)-6 and IL-8 from primary BAEC cultured from children will be increased after in vitro exposure to common environmental factors. Primary BAEC were obtained from children undergoing clinically indicated routine general anaesthetic procedures. Cells were exposed to three different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or house dust mite allergen (HDM) or particulates extracted from side stream cigarette smoke (SSCS). BAEC were obtained from 24 children (mean age 7.0 years) and exposed to stimuli. Compared with the negative control, there was an increase in IL-6 and IL-8 release after exposure to HDM (p ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). There was reduced IL-6 after higher compared to lower SSCS exposure (p = 0.023). There was no change in BAEC release of IL-6 or IL-8 after LPS exposure. BAEC from children are able to recognise and respond in vitro with enhanced pro inflammatory mediator secretion to some inhaled exposures. PMID:27023576

  4. Continuous measurements of bronchial exposure induced by radon decay products during inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2007-09-15

    The deposition of radon decay products is not equal in each of the respiratory regions and as the presence of radon has been linked with an increase in lung cancer risk, it is important to calculate the deposition of radon decay products in each of the respiratory regions. Recently, many studies on the deposition of radon in respiratory regions have been simulated using wire screens. The systems and equipment used in those studies are not suitable for field measurements as their dimensions are relatively massive, nor can they measure continuously. We developed a continuous bronchial dosimeter (CBD) which is suitable for field measurements. It was designed with specifications that allow it to be remain compact. The CBD simulates the deposition of radon decay products in the different respiratory regions by the use of a combination of wire screens. Deposition in the simulated regions of the lung can be continuously estimated in various environments. The ratio of activities deposited in a simulated nasal cavity (N) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions was calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements using CBD-R (reference), CBD-N (nasal), and CBD-TB (tracheobronchial) measurement units. After aerosols were injected into the radon chamber, the ratio of N and TB depositions decreased. This results indicate that the CBD gave a good response to changes in the environment. It was found that the ratio of N and TB deposition also varied with time in each actual environment.

  5. Relationship between exhaled NO, respiratory symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and blood eosinophilia in school children

    PubMed Central

    Steerenberg, P; Janssen, N; de Meer, G; Fischer, P; Nierkens, S; van Loveren, H; Opperhuizen, A; Brunekreef, B; van Amsterdam, J G C

    2003-01-01

    Methods: Levels of eNO in a sample of 450 children aged 7–12 years out of a total sample of 2504 school children living in different urban areas near motorways were determined. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationship between eNO, impairment of lung function (PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF), bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and blood eosinophilia in children with and without atopy as assessed by skin prick testing. Results: Regression analysis showed that wheezing and nasal discharge and conjunctivitis that had occurred during the previous 12 months were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.48 and 1.41, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. Similarly, BHR and the number of blood eosinophils per ml were positively associated with eNO levels in atopic children (relative increase of 1.55 and 2.29, respectively; p<0.05) but not in non-atopic children. The lung function indices PEF, FVC, FEV1 and MMEF were not associated with eNO levels. Conclusions: In addition to conventional lung function tests and symptom questionnaires, eNO is a suitable measure of airway inflammation and its application may reinforce the power of epidemiological surveys on respiratory health. PMID:12612304

  6. The Advance of Personalized and Stratified Therapies in Bronchial Asthma: Phenotypes - Endotypes - Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Sebastian; Renz, Harald

    2013-02-01

    Bronchial asthma (BA) is a chronic inflammatory condition with increasing incidence and prevalence worldwide. BA is currently the most prevalent chronic disease in pediatric patients. The majority of BA patients are therapeutically well controlled with guideline based anti-inflammatory therapies; however, there is also a clinically recognized proportion of patients who do not benefit from currently available medication for several reasons. This is the starting point for further investigation into the complexity of the inflammatory phenotype of BA. Recently, the heterogeneity in terms of cellular and molecular pathways underlying BA has been recognized and established. These different pathogenic mechanisms are defined as 'endotypes'. The best studied endotype so far is the association with T-helper type 2 (TH2) cell eosinophilic airway inflammation. Recently, a number of different therapeutic strategies have been clinically explored which target certain mediators of this pathway, including the interleukins IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13. It is now clear that patients with the TH2-endotype largely benefit from novel biologicals in this area. However, the challenge for diagnostics is to identify patients exhibiting this endotype, and this is the starting point for the search for new biomarkers. One biomarker that has recently been selected based on differential gene expression analysis, and which seems to be strongly associated with the TH2 endotype, is periostin. In this article we will provide a state of the art update on the definition of clinical phenotypes, pathogenetic endotypes and biomarker development for improving BA treatment.

  7. Circular flow patterns induced by ciliary activity in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viallat, Annie; Khelloufi, Kamel; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, CINaM, Marseille, France Team; Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS, Inserm, LAI, Marseille, France Team

    2016-11-01

    Mucociliary clearance is the transport at the surface of airways of a complex fluid layer, the mucus, moved by the beats of microscopic cilia present on epithelial ciliated cells. We explored the coupling between the spatial organisation and the activity of cilia and the transport of surface fluids on reconstituted cultures of human bronchial epithelium at air-liquid interface, obtained by human biopsies. We reveal the existence of stable local circular surface flow patterns of mucus or Newtonian fluid at the epithelium surface. We find a power law over more than 3 orders of magnitude showing that the average ciliated cell density controls the size of these flow patterns, and, therefore the distance over which mucus can be transported. We show that these circular flow patterns result from the radial linear increase of the local propelling forces (due to ciliary beats) on each flow domain. This linear increase of local forces is induced by a fine self-regulation of both cilia density and orientation of ciliary beats. Local flow domains grow and merge during ciliogenesis to provide macroscopic mucus transport. This is possible only when the viscoelastic mucus continuously exerts a shear stress on beating cilia, revealing a mechanosensitive function of cilia. M. K. Khelloufi thanks the society MedBioMed for financial support. This work was supported by the ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 of the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.

  8. Environmental Determinants of Bronchial Asthma among Saudi School Children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alqahtani, Jobran M.; Asaad, Ahmed M.; Awadalla, Nabil J.; Mahfouz, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim here was to study the possible environmental and dietary determinants of asthma among school-aged children in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. In a cross-sectional study on a representative sample in Najran in Southwestern Saudi Arabia using an Arabic version of the modified ISAAC Phase III, parent-administered questionnaire data were collected. Skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed. The study included 1700 school children, out of them 468 (27.5%) were diagnosed with, cases of bronchial asthma and 20.8% (353) reported a 12-month nocturnal cough (as a proxy of severe asthma). In multivariable analysis, the study identified the following risk factors for having asthma or severe asthma: having dogs in the house, being male, being exposed to dense truck traffic on the street, using wood as a cooking fuel, conducting vigorous exercise, consuming eggs, consuming vegetables, having an allergic sensitization to dog hair, and being exposed to Cladosporium, pigweed, and Bermuda grass. On the other hand, the following food stuffs were found to be protective: seafood, fruit, and dairy products. Comprehensive school educational programs for both children and their parents should be adopted to prevent the use of wood in cooking and heating, to ensure that house pets are properly cared for, and to encourage proper dietary habits. Physicians should be informed of the patterns of allergens in order to improve asthma diagnosis and management. PMID:28036050

  9. The species translation challenge-a systems biology perspective on human and rat bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Poussin, Carine; Mathis, Carole; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G; Messinis, Dimitris E; Dulize, Rémi H J; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Melas, Ioannis N; Sakellaropoulos, Theodore; Rhrissorrakrai, Kahn; Bilal, Erhan; Meyer, Pablo; Talikka, Marja; Boué, Stéphanie; Norel, Raquel; Rice, John J; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2014-01-01

    The biological responses to external cues such as drugs, chemicals, viruses and hormones, is an essential question in biomedicine and in the field of toxicology, and cannot be easily studied in humans. Thus, biomedical research has continuously relied on animal models for studying the impact of these compounds and attempted to 'translate' the results to humans. In this context, the SBV IMPROVER (Systems Biology Verification for Industrial Methodology for PROcess VErification in Research) collaborative initiative, which uses crowd-sourcing techniques to address fundamental questions in systems biology, invited scientists to deploy their own computational methodologies to make predictions on species translatability. A multi-layer systems biology dataset was generated that was comprised of phosphoproteomics, transcriptomics and cytokine data derived from normal human (NHBE) and rat (NRBE) bronchial epithelial cells exposed in parallel to more than 50 different stimuli under identical conditions. The present manuscript describes in detail the experimental settings, generation, processing and quality control analysis of the multi-layer omics dataset accessible in public repositories for further intra- and inter-species translation studies.

  10. Time course of bronchial cell inflammation following exposure to diesel particulate matter using a modified EAVES.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Brie; McKenna, Dave; Marchese, Anthony; Volckens, John

    2014-08-01

    Electrostatic deposition of particles onto the surface of well-differentiated airway cells is a rapid and efficient means to screen for toxicity associated with exposure to fine and ultrafine particulate air pollution. This work describes the development and application of an electrostatic aerosol in vitro exposure system (EAVES) with increased throughput and ease-of-use. The modified EAVES accommodates standard tissue culture plates and uses an alternating electric field to deposit a net neutral charge of aerosol onto air-interface cell cultures. Using this higher-throughput design, we were able to examine the time-course (1, 3, 6, 9, and 24 h post-exposure) of transcript production and cytotoxicity in well-differentiated human bronchial cells exposed to diesel particulate matter at levels of 'real-world' significance. Statistically significant responses were observed at exposure levels (∼0.4 μg/cm(2)) much lower than typically reported in vitro using traditional submerged/resuspended techniques. Levels of HO-1, IL-8, CYP1A1, COX-2, and HSP-70 transcripts increased immediately following diesel particulate exposure and persisted for several hours; cytotoxicity was increased at 24h. The modified EAVES provides a platform for higher throughput, more efficient and representative testing of aerosol toxicity in vitro.

  11. The Fate of ZnO Nanoparticles Administered to Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Fakra, Sirine C.; Xia, Tian; Pokhrel, Suman; Mädler, Lutz; Nel, André E.

    2014-01-01

    A particular challenge for nanotoxicology is the evaluation of the biological fate and toxicity of nanomaterials that dissolve in aqueous fluids. Zinc oxide nanomaterials are of particular concern because dissolution leads to release of the toxic divalent zinc ion. Although dissolved zinc ions have been implicated in ZnO cytotoxicity, direct identification of the chemical form of zinc taken up by cells exposed to ZnO nanoparticles, and its intracellular fate, has not yet been achieved. We combined high resolution X-ray spectromicroscopy and high elemental sensitivity X-ray microprobe analyses to determine the fate of ZnO and less soluble iron-doped ZnO nanoparticles following exposure to cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells, BEAS-2B. We complemented two-dimensional X-ray imaging methods with atomic force microscopy of cell surfaces to distinguish between nanoparticles that were transported inside the cells from those that adhered to the cell exterior. The data suggest cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles is a mechanism of zinc accumulation in cells. Following uptake, ZnO nanoparticles dissolved completely generating intracellular Zn2+ complexed by molecular ligands. These results corroborate a model for ZnO nanoparticle toxicity that is based on nanoparticle uptake followed by intracellular dissolution. PMID:22646753

  12. Trend of IgD values during the hyposensitization in children suffering from bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Kikindjanin, V; Bogdanov, B

    1977-01-01

    In 50 children, aged from 3 to 14 years, with bronchial asthma the IgD values were determined before and during the hyposensitization. The estimation of IgD values was made with method of single radial immunodiffusion, using Partigen plates - Behringwerke products. The IgD values were determined in seven serum samples in each investigated child. In 7 cases (14%) IgD was not found before hyposensitization. From 43 cases (86%) in whom the IgD value was found 34 (79%) had IgD values under 50% from the standard value and only 9 cases (21%) had the values over 50%. During the hyposenitization it came to changes in distribution of IgD values and only in 11 cases (29%) it came to real increase of IgD values. All investigated children had positive "skin-sensitive" reaction during the hyposensitization. On the base of the results obtained it could not be drawn a conclusion on relation between the IgD values and the effect of hyposensitization.

  13. Common variable immunodeficiency diagnosed during the treatment of bronchial asthma: Unusual cause of wheezing

    PubMed Central

    Akaba, Tomohiro; Kondo, Mitsuko; Toriyama, Midori; Kubo, Ayako; Hara, Kaori; Yamada, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Kentaro; Tamaoki, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent primary immunodeficiency in adults and children. We herein report a case of CVID, who was misdiagnosed with asthma due to wheezing episodes and relatively late onset. A 51-year-old woman had suffered from recurrent upper and lower airway infection for recent 2 years. She repeated wheezing attacks and was treated as asthma exacerbation triggered by infection. She was referred to our hospital for investigation and treatment. Lung function tests showed no reversibility of FEV1 by β-adrenergic agonist, but the increase of V50/V25. Chest CT showed slight to moderate bronchial wall thickening and bronchiectasis. After that, she suffered from pneumonia with wheezing attacks twice a month, and immunodeficiency was strongly suspected. Her blood tests showed marked decreases of all classes of immunoglobulin and nearly lack of memory B cells, NKT cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. She was diagnosed with CVID, and was treated with replacement of gammaglobulin. Thereafter, her wheezing episodes with infection were remarkably improved. Because the delay of diagnosis with CVID likely causes poor mortality and morbidity, a possibility of CVID should be considered in patients with frequent asthma-like symptoms due to recurrent airway infection. PMID:26744651

  14. Identification of activated T lymphocytes and eosinophils in bronchial biopsies in stable atopic asthma.

    PubMed

    Azzawi, M; Bradley, B; Jeffery, P K; Frew, A J; Wardlaw, A J; Knowles, G; Assoufi, B; Collins, J V; Durham, S; Kay, A B

    1990-12-01

    We have used immunohistochemistry and monoclonal antibodies to analyze the phenotypic composition and activation status of the cellular infiltrate of bronchial biopsies obtained by fiber optic bronchoscopy of 11 atopic asthmatic subjects (FEV1% predicted range 78 to 114), 9 atopic nonasthmatic control subjects, and 10 normal healthy subjects. Examination of mucosal biopsies obtained from both central (level I) and subsegmental (level II) bronchi showed that the highest number of CD45-, DC3-, DC4-, and CD8-positive cells were found in the group with asthma. There was a significant increase in the number of interleukin-2 receptor (CD25)-positive cells (a marker of lymphocyte activation) at airway level I in the asthmatic group compared with both nonasthmatic atopic (p less than 0.05) and normal control subjects (p less than 0.01). Eosinophil numbers were significantly increased in asthma at both airway levels and at airway level II in the nonasthmatic atopic group when compared with normal healthy control subjects (p less than 0.05). EG2-positive cells (an index of secretion of eosinophil cationic protein following activation) were found at both airway levels in the asthmatic group and at level I in the nonasthmatic atopic control group (p less than 0.05). When asthmatic subjects were compared with normal healthy subjects, there was a reduction in the number of neutrophil elastase-positive cells in the asthmatic subjects which, as a percentage of leukocytes, was significant (p = 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Human bronchial epithelial cells differentiate to 3D glandular acini on basement membrane matrix.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaofang; Peters-Hall, Jennifer R; Bose, Sumit; Peña, Maria T; Rose, Mary C

    2011-06-01

    To create a model system that investigates mechanisms resulting in hyperplasia and hypertrophy of respiratory tract submucosal glands, we developed an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) system wherein normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells differentiated into glandular acini when grown on a basement membrane matrix. The differentiation of primary HBE cells into glandular acini was monitored temporally by light microscopy. Apoptosis-induced lumen formation was observed by immunofluorescence analysis. The acinar cells expressed and secreted MUC5B mucin (marker for glandular mucous cells) and lysozyme, lactoferrin, and zinc-α2-glycoprotein (markers for glandular serous cells) at Day 22. β-Tubulin IV, a marker for ciliated cells, was not detected. Expression of mucous and serous cell markers in HBE glandular acini demonstrated that HBE cells grown on a basement membrane matrix differentiated into acini that exhibit molecular characteristics of respiratory tract glandular acinar cells. Inhibition studies with neutralizing antibodies resulted in a marked decrease in size of the spheroids at Day 7, demonstrating that laminin (a major component of the basement membrane matrix), the cell surface receptor integrin α6, and the cell junction marker E-cadherin have functional roles in HBE acinar morphogenesis. No significant variability was detected in the average size of glandular acini formed by HBE cells from two normal individuals. These results demonstrated that this in vitro model system is reproducible, stable, and potentially useful for studies of glandular differentiation and hyperplasia.

  16. Deficiency of vitamin D and vitamin C in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Ginter, E; Simko, V

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology of bronchial asthma (BA) indicates a marked paradox: rapid rise in the prevalence.Simultaneous decline in mortality is mostly related to improvement in the diagnosis and therapy. In many economically developed countries the BA affects more than 10 per cent of the population, while mortality related to this respiratory disorder is below 1/100,000. Factors favorably influencing mortality of BA include new more effective medications, decline in smoking and also improved nutrition, based on awareness of protective role of vitamins. Vitamin D deficiency has a number of biological effects that are potentially instrumental in the pathogenesis and severity of BA. Increased number of randomized, controlled, interventional studies is showing positive effects of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric and in adult BA. Oxidative stress is potentially an important pathogenic factor in the progression of BA. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) belongs to the most effective nutritional antioxidants. By counteracting oxidants, reducing generation of reactive oxygen species, vitamin C may inhibit external attacks in the respiratory tract, thus modulating the development of BA (Fig. 2, Ref. 15).

  17. [The scintigraphic prediction of residual lung function after lobectomy in patients with bronchial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Giordano, A; Calcagni, M L; Rossi, B; D'Ugo, D; Corbo, G M; Fumagalli, G; Valente, S; D'Andrea, G; Galli, G

    1995-04-01

    The scintigraphic prediction of residual pulmonary function after pneumonectomy has been validated in a number of studies while scintigraphy is not standardized in case of lobectomy. This study was aimed at investigating the accuracy of the scintigraphic prediction of post-lobectomy lung function using Wernly method. We examined 43 patients with bronchial carcinoma: 20 of them underwent pneumonectomy and 23 underwent lobectomy. The pulmonary function data (vital capacity, CV, and forced expiratory volume in one second, VEMS) predicted by quantitative lung scan were compared with those observed in the postoperative follow-up. A good correlation between predicted and observed data was obtained in both the pneumonectomized group (r = 0.77 and 0.78 for CV and VEMS, respectively; p < 0.005) and the lobectomized group (r = 0.74 and 0.79 for CV and VEMS, respectively: p < 0.005). It can be concluded that the method used for the scintigraphy prediction of post-lobectomy pulmonary function is as accurate as the post-pneumonectomy method and can be used reliably in the clinical practice.

  18. Human bronchial epithelial cells express PAR-2 with different sensitivity to thermolysin.

    PubMed

    Ubl, Joachim J; Grishina, Zoryana V; Sukhomlin, Tatiana K; Welte, Tobias; Sedehizade, Fariba; Reiser, Georg

    2002-06-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) plays a role in inflammatory reactions in airway physiology. Proteases cleaving the extracellular NH(2) terminus of receptors activate or inactivate PAR, thus possessing a therapeutic potential. Using RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry, we show PAR-2 in human airway epithelial cell lines human bronchial epithelial (HBE) and A549. Functional expression of PAR-2 was confirmed by Ca(2+) imaging studies using the receptor agonist protease trypsin. The effect was abolished by soybean trypsin inhibitor and mimicked by the specific PAR-2 peptide agonist SLIGKV. Amplitude and duration of PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response in HBE and A549 cells depend on concentration and time of agonist superfusion. The response is partially pertussis toxin (PTX) insensitive, abolished by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, and diminished by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor antagonist 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate. Cathepsin G altered neither the resting Ca(2+) level nor PAR-2-elicited Ca(2+) response. Thermolysin, a prototypic bacterial metalloprotease, induced a dose-dependent Ca(2+) response in HBE, but not A549, cells. In both cell lines, thermolysin abolished the response to a subsequent trypsin challenge but not to SLIGKV. Thus different epithelial cell types express different PAR-2 with identical responses to physiological stimuli (trypsin, SLIGKV) but different sensitivity to modifying proteases, such as thermolysin.

  19. Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Schamberger, Andrea C; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A; Mise-Racek, Nikica; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-02-02

    The differentiated human airway epithelium consists of different cell types forming a polarized and pseudostratified epithelium. This is dramatically altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by basal and goblet cell hyperplasia, and squamous cell metaplasia. The effect of cigarette smoke on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) differentiation remains to be elucidated. We analysed whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affected primary (p)HBEC differentiation and function. pHBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and differentiation was quantified after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days by assessing acetylated tubulin, CC10, or MUC5AC for ciliated, Clara, or goblet cells, respectively. Exposure of differentiating pHBEC to CSE impaired epithelial barrier formation, as assessed by resistance measurements (TEER). Importantly, CSE exposure significantly reduced the number of ciliated cells, while it increased the number of Clara and goblet cells. CSE-dependent cell number changes were reflected by a reduction of acetylated tubulin levels, an increased expression of the basal cell marker KRT14, and increased secretion of CC10, but not by changes in transcript levels of CC10, MUC5AC, or FOXJ1. Our data demonstrate that cigarette smoke specifically alters the cellular composition of the airway epithelium by affecting basal cell differentiation in a post-transcriptional manner.

  20. Keratinocyte growth factor improves alterations of lung permeability and bronchial epithelium in allergic rats.

    PubMed

    Tillie-Leblond, I; Gosset, P; Le Berre, R; Janin, A; Prangère, T; Tonnel, A B; Guery, B P H

    2007-07-01

    Chronic allergic asthma is associated with marked inflammatory reaction, microvascular leakage and epithelium injury. As previously shown in a rat model of chronic asthma, these alterations increase lung permeability and distal airway fluid clearance. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) has been shown to induce epithelial cell proliferation and to protect from acute lung injuries. Therefore, the current authors evaluated the potential role of KGF treatment on lung permeability and airway inflammation in rats with chronic asthma. KGF (1 mg x kg(-1)) was administered intravenously before the last ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in sensitised rats. Permeability was assessed by the leak of radiolabelled albumin from the alveolar and systemic compartments. Histopathological analysis was also performed. Treatment with KGF decreased the leak of both markers and decreased the level of extravascular lung water in sensitised rats challenged with OVA. KGF treatment also reduced the inflammatory cell number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid but not in bronchial mucosa. KGF markedly limited the allergen-induced alterations in epithelium integrity and the expression of the intercellular junction proteins beta-catenin and zonula occludens protein-1. In conclusion, keratinocyte growth factor administration markedly limits lung permeability and airway inflammation, an effect associated with a decrease in epithelium alterations during chronic allergic asthma. These data open new prospects in the therapeutic strategy of asthma.

  1. Neutrophilic Bronchial Inflammation Correlates with Clinical and Functional Findings in Patients with Noncystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Dente, Federico L.; Bilotta, Marta; Bartoli, Maria Laura; Bacci, Elena; Cianchetti, Silvana; Latorre, Manuela; Malagrinò, Laura; Nieri, Dario; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Vagaggini, Barbara; Paggiaro, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neutrophilic bronchial inflammation is a main feature of bronchiectasis, but not much is known about its relationship with other disease features. Aim. To compare airway inflammatory markers with clinical and functional findings in subjects with stable noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Methods. 152 NFCB patients (62.6 years; females: 57.2%) underwent clinical and functional cross-sectional evaluation, including microbiologic and inflammatory cell profile in sputum, and exhaled breath condensate malondialdehyde (EBC-MDA). NFCB severity was assessed using BSI and FACED criteria. Results. Sputum neutrophil percentages inversely correlated with FEV1 (P < 0.0001; rho = −0.428), weakly with Leicester Cough Questionnaire score (P = 0.068; rho = −0.58), and directly with duration of the disease (P = 0.004; rho = 0.3) and BSI severity score (P = 0.005; rho = 0.37), but not with FACED. Sputum neutrophilia was higher in colonized subjects, P. aeruginosa colonized subjects showing greater sputum neutrophilia and lower FEV1. Patients with ≥3 exacerbations in the last year showed a significantly greater EBC-MDA than the remaining patients. Conclusions. Sputum neutrophilic inflammation and biomarkers of oxidative stress in EBC can be considered good biomarkers of disease severity in NCFB patients, as confirmed by pulmonary function, disease duration, bacterial colonization, BSI score, and exacerbation rate. PMID:26819500

  2. Recurrent exposure to nicotine differentiates human bronchial epithelial cells via epidermal growth factor receptor activation

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Garcia, Eva; Irigoyen, Marta; Anso, Elena; Martinez-Irujo, Juan Jose; Rouzaut, Ana

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the major preventable cause of lung cancer in developed countries. Nicotine (3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine) is one of the major alkaloids present in tobacco. Besides its addictive properties, its effects have been described in panoply of cell types. In fact, recent studies have shown that nicotine behaves as a tumor promoter in transformed epithelial cells. This research focuses on the effects of acute repetitive nicotine exposure on normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE cells). Here we show that treatment of NHBE cells with recurrent doses of nicotine up to 500 {mu}M triggered cell differentiation towards a neuronal-like phenotype: cells emitted filopodia and expressed neuronal markers such as neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilament-M and the transcription factors neuronal N and Pax-3. We also demonstrate that nicotine treatment induced NF-kB translocation to the nucleus, phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and accumulation of heparin binding-EGF in the extracellular medium. Moreover, addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation, or cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that precludes ligand binding to the same receptor, prevented cell differentiation by nicotine. Lastly, we show that differentiated cells increased their adhesion to the extracellular matrix and their protease activity. Given that several lung pathologies are strongly related to tobacco consumption, these results may help to better understand the damaging consequences of nicotine exposure.

  3. Genomic instability and tumorigenic induction in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hei, T. K.; Piao, C. Q.; Wu, L. J.; Willey, J. C.; Hall, E. J.

    1998-11-01

    Carcinogenesis is postulated to be a progressive multistage process characterized by an increase in genomic instability and clonal selection with each mutational event endowing a selective growth advantage. Genomic instability as manifested by the amplification of specific gene fragments is common among tumor and transformed cells. In the present study, immortalized human bronchial (BEP2D) cells were irradiated with graded doses of either 1GeV/nucleon 56Fe ions or 150 keV/μm alpha particles. Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming tumorigenic in nude mice. Tumorigenic cells showed neither ras mutations nor deletion in the p16 tumor suppressor gene. In contrast, they harbored mutations in the p53 gene and over-expressed cyclin D1. Genomic instability among transformed cells at various stage of the carcinogenic process was examined based on frequencies of PALA resistance. Incidence of genomic instability was highest among established tumor cell lines relative to transformed, non-tumorigenic and control cell lines. Treatment of BEP2D cells with a 4 mM dose of the aminothiol WR-1065 significantly reduced their neoplastic transforming response to 56Fe particles. This model provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in malignant transformation of human epithelial cells by heavy ions.

  4. Molecular Mechanisms of Malignant Transformation by Low Dose Cadmium in Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kluz, Thomas; Cohen, Lisa; Shen, Steven S.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a carcinogenic metal, the mechanisms of which are not fully understood. In this study, human bronchial epithelial cells were transformed with sub-toxic doses of cadmium (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 μM) and transformed clones were characterized for gene expression changes using RNA-seq, as well as other molecular measurements. 440 genes were upregulated and 47 genes were downregulated in cadmium clones relative to control clones over 1.25-fold. Upregulated genes were associated mostly with gene ontology terms related to embryonic development, immune response, and cell movement, while downregulated genes were associated with RNA metabolism and regulation of transcription. Several embryonic genes were upregulated, including the transcription regulator SATB2. SATB2 is critical for normal skeletal development and has roles in gene expression regulation and chromatin remodeling. Small hairpin RNA knockdown of SATB2 significantly inhibited growth in soft agar, indicating its potential as a driver of metal-induced carcinogenesis. An increase in oxidative stress and autophagy was observed in cadmium clones. In addition, the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase was depleted by transformation with cadmium. MGMT loss caused significant decrease in cell viability after treatment with the alkylating agent temozolomide, demonstrating diminished capacity to repair such damage. Results reveal various mechanisms of cadmium-induced malignant transformation in BEAS-2B cells including upregulation of SATB2, downregulation of MGMT, and increased oxidative stress. PMID:27186882

  5. Evening primose oil and fish oil are ineffective as supplementary treatment of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Stenius-Aarniala, B; Aro, A; Hakulinen, A; Ahola, I; Seppälä, E; Vapaatalo, H

    1989-06-01

    The effect of daily dietary supplementation with 15 to 20 mL of evening primrose seed oil or fish oil was assessed by comparison with olive oil as placebo in a cross-over study in 29 asthmatics. During 10 weeks of each regimen, the patients kept record of symptoms, peak expiratory flow rates and medication. Plasma and urine TxB2, PGE2, PGF2 alpha and 6 keto-PGF1 alpha and plasma fatty acid composition of plasma cholesterol esters were measured at the end of each treatment period. There were no differences between regimes with regard to peak flow rates, symptoms, or drug consumption. Plasma PGE2 levels increased during the fish oil treatment but there were no changes in other prostanoids in plasma or urine. The fatty acid pattern of plasma cholesterol esters showed significant differences between the supplementation periods. We conclude that moderate doses of evening primrose oil or fish oil are ineffective as a supplementary treatment of bronchial asthma.

  6. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael T.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposure to space radiation is believed to be one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. In a previous study, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT, were exposed to gamma rays and high energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones induced by low- and high-LET radiation. In this research, we analyzed chromosome aberrations in these selected clones for genomic instability using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. In most of the clones, we found chromosomal aberrations involving translocations between different chromosomes, with several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed clones and the parental HBEC cells regardless of the exposure condition. Our results indicated that the chromosomal aberrations in low- and high radiation-induced transformed clones are inadequately different from spontaneous soft agar growth. Further analysis is underway to reveal the genomic instability in more transformed clones

  7. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  8. Effects of sulfur oxide pollutants on respiratory function, particle deposition and bronchial clearance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lippmann, M.

    1980-11-01

    The effects of sulfur oxide pollutants on respiratory function, particle deposition, and bronchial clearance were explored in a series of three studies, two on donkeys and one on humans. In the first study, the effects of one-hour inhalation exposures to 0.3 - 0.6 micrograms H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ aerosols in the donkey were studied in terms of alterations in pulmonary flow resistance and dynamic compliance, and changes in the regional deposition and tracheobronchial mucociliary clearance of an inert test aerosol. In the second study, the effect of chronic inhalation exposures to sulfuric acid mist upon mucociliary clearance from the lungs was studied, using the donkey as an analogue for man. Four animals were exposed one hour per day, five days per week, for six months; two to a concentration of 102 micrograms/cu m, the other to 106 micrograms/cu m. In the final study, the mucociliary particle clearance and respiratory mechanics of twelve healty nonsmokers exposed to 1/2 micrometer H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at 0 (control), 100, 300, and 1,000 micrograms/cu m for one hour per day for four days were examined.

  9. Secondhand smoke inhibits both Cl- and K+ conductances in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is an independent risk factor for asthma, rhinosinusitis, and more severe respiratory tract infections in children and adults. Impaired mucociliary clearance with subsequent mucus retention contributes to the pathophysiology of each of these diseases, suggesting that altered epithelial salt and water transport may play an etiological role. To test the hypothesis that SHS would alter epithelial ion transport, we designed a system for in vitro exposure of mature, well-differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells to SHS. We show that SHS exposure inhibits cAMP-stimulated, bumetanide-sensitive anion secretion by 25 to 40% in a time-dependent fashion in these cells. Increasing the amount of carbon monoxide to 100 ppm from 5 ppm did not increase the amount of inhibition, and filtering SHS reduced inhibition significantly. It was determined that SHS inhibited cAMP-dependent apical membrane chloride conductance by 25% and Ba2+-sensitive basolateral membrane potassium conductance by 50%. These data confirm previous findings that cigarette smoke inhibits chloride secretion in a novel model of smoke exposure designed to mimic SHS exposure. They also extend previous findings to demonstrate an effect on basolateral K+ conductance. Therefore, pharmacological agents that increase either apical membrane chloride conductance or basolateral membrane potassium conductance might be of therapeutic benefit in patients with diseases related to SHS exposure. PMID:19943936

  10. Bronchial fistula closure with negative pressure wound therapy: a feasible and cost-effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rodrigo Barboza; Müller, Bruno Francisco; Cipriano, Federico Enrique Garcia; Coltro, Pedro Soler; Farina, Jayme Adriano

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of bronchial fistula (BF) after pulmonary lobectomy is a challenge. Often, patients require long hospital stay, have recurrent empyema and pneumonia, are susceptible to sepsis, often need broad-spectrum antibiotics, as well as various surgical approaches. With the advent and growing evidence of the benefits of negative pressure therapy (NPT), its use in some patients with BF has been reported with encouraging results concerning its feasibility and cost-effectiveness. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the application of NPT as a resource for BF treatment and comparatively analyze the overall cost of treatment. RESUMO O tratamento de fístula brônquica (FB) após lobectomia pulmonar é um desafio. Muitas vezes, o paciente demanda longo tempo de internação, apresenta recidivas de empiema e pneumonia, pode evoluir para sepse, frequentemente necessita de antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro, bem como de várias abordagens cirúrgicas. Com o advento e acúmulo de evidências dos benefícios da terapia por pressão negativa (TPN), seu uso em alguns pacientes com FB tem sido relatado com resultados animadores relativos à sua viabilidade e ao seu custo-efetividade. O objetivo deste estudo foi demonstrar a aplicação de TPN como recurso para tratamento da FB e analisar comparativamente o custo global do seu tratamento.

  11. Continuous measurements of bronchial exposure induced by radon decay products during inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tokonami, Shinji; Yonehara, Hidenori; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Doi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Yatabe, Yoshinori; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yuji

    2007-09-01

    The deposition of radon decay products is not equal in each of the respiratory regions and as the presence of radon has been linked with an increase in lung cancer risk, it is important to calculate the deposition of radon decay products in each of the respiratory regions. Recently, many studies on the deposition of radon in respiratory regions have been simulated using wire screens. The systems and equipment used in those studies are not suitable for field measurements as their dimensions are relatively massive, nor can they measure continuously. We developed a continuous bronchial dosimeter (CBD) which is suitable for field measurements. It was designed with specifications that allow it to be remain compact. The CBD simulates the deposition of radon decay products in the different respiratory regions by the use of a combination of wire screens. Deposition in the simulated regions of the lung can be continuously estimated in various environments. The ratio of activities deposited in a simulated nasal cavity (N) and tracheobronchial (TB) regions was calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements using CBD-R (reference), CBD-N (nasal), and CBD-TB (tracheobronchial) measurement units. After aerosols were injected into the radon chamber, the ratio of N and TB depositions decreased. This results indicate that the CBD gave a good response to changes in the environment. It was found that the ratio of N and TB deposition also varied with time in each actual environment.

  12. Management of traumatic pneumothorax with massive air leakage: role of a bronchial blocker: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Lim, Sang Ho; Lim, Byung Gun; Kang, Sung Wook

    2014-01-01

    Massive air leakage through a lacerated lung produces inadequate ventilation and hypoxemia. Tube exchange from a single to double lumen endotracheal tube (DLT), and lung separation to maintain oxygenation, are challenging for seriously injured patients. In this case report, we aim to describe how a bronchial blocker (BB) makes it easier to perform a lung separation in this situation; it also increases the overall safety of the procedure. A 35-year-old female (163 cm, 47 kg) suffered from blunt chest trauma due to a traffic accident; the accident caused right-sided lung laceration with massive air leakage. Paradoxically, positive ventilation worsened SaO2 and leakage increased through a chest tube. We introduced BB while the patient was still awake: Left-side one-lung ventilation (OLV) was established and anesthesia was induced. After PaO2 was maximized with OLV, we changed the endotracheal tube to DLT without a hypoxic event. By BB placement, we maintained PaO2 at a secure level, conducted mechanical ventilation and exchanged the tube without deterioration. PMID:25473467

  13. The effect of inhaled sodium cromoglycate on cellular infiltration into the bronchial mucosa and the expression of adhesion molecules in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, M; Nakamura, Y

    1997-04-01

    There is no direct evidence of the anti-inflammatory effect of inhaled sodium cromoglycate (SCG). To investigate whether inhaled SCG has any effect on cellular infiltration into the bronchial mucosa and the expression of adhesion molecules in patients with asthma, biopsies of the bronchial mucosa were taken from nine patients with atopic bronchial asthma before and after treatment with inhaled SCG (8 mg x day(-1)) from a metered-dose inhaler (MDI). Eosinophils were stained with anti-EG2, neutrophils with anti-NP57, mast cells with anti-AA1, T-lymphocytes with anti-CD4, CD8 and CD3, and macrophages with anti-CD68. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) and P-selectin were stained at the same time as adhesion molecules expressed in vascular endothelium. The intensity of ICAM-1 expression in the bronchial epithelium was also evaluated. The numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, T-lymphocytes and macrophages were significantly reduced as a result of SCG administration, and the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was also significantly inhibited. A significant correlation was found between ICAM-1 expression and T-lymphocytes and between VCAM-1 expression and eosinophils. It was concluded that sodium cromoglycate does have an effect on the infiltration of the bronchial mucosa by inflammatory cells and also on the expression of adhesion molecules.

  14. A population-based case-control study on the effect of bronchial asthma during pregnancy for congenital abnormalities of the offspring.

    PubMed

    Tamási, Lilla; Somoskövi, Akos; Müller, Veronika; Bártfai, Zoltán; Acs, Nándor; Puhó, Erzsébet; Czeizel, Andrew E

    2006-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is one of the most common maternal diseases complicating pregnancy. We assessed the risks of congenital abnormalities in a case-control population-based analysis using the dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities between 1980 and 1996. Of the 22,843 cases with congenital abnormalities, 511 (2.2%) had mothers with bronchial asthma, while of the 38,151 matched control subjects without congenital abnormalities 757 (2.0%) had mothers with bronchial asthma (unadjusted prevalence odds ratios [POR] 1.2; 95% CI: 1.0-1.3). In all mothers with bronchial asthma, a higher incidence of respiratory tract infections and higher drug intake could be observed. In the case group of medically recorded bronchial asthma, a slightly increased risk for club foot has been revealed. However, this weak association could be explained by the higher proportion of preterm births in this group. The main limitation of the analysis was that at the time of data collection only a small proportion of pregnant mothers were using anti-asthma medications recommended by the actual guidelines.

  15. A hybrid method for airway segmentation and automated measurement of bronchial wall thickness on CT.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ziyue; Bagci, Ulas; Foster, Brent; Mansoor, Awais; Udupa, Jayaram K; Mollura, Daniel J

    2015-08-01

    Inflammatory and infectious lung diseases commonly involve bronchial airway structures and morphology, and these abnormalities are often analyzed non-invasively through high resolution computed tomography (CT) scans. Assessing airway wall surfaces and the lumen are of great importance for diagnosing pulmonary diseases. However, obtaining high accuracy from a complete 3-D airway tree structure can be quite challenging. The airway tree structure has spiculated shapes with multiple branches and bifurcation points as opposed to solid single organ or tumor segmentation tasks in other applications, hence, it is complex for manual segmentation as compared with other tasks. For computerized methods, a fundamental challenge in airway tree segmentation is the highly variable intensity levels in the lumen area, which often causes a segmentation method to leak into adjacent lung parenchyma through blurred airway walls or soft boundaries. Moreover, outer wall definition can be difficult due to similar intensities of the airway walls and nearby structures such as vessels. In this paper, we propose a computational framework to accurately quantify airways through (i) a novel hybrid approach for precise segmentation of the lumen, and (ii) two novel methods (a spatially constrained Markov random walk method (pseudo 3-D) and a relative fuzzy connectedness method (3-D)) to estimate the airway wall thickness. We evaluate the performance of our proposed methods in comparison with mostly used algorithms using human chest CT images. Our results demonstrate that, on publicly available data sets and using standard evaluation criteria, the proposed airway segmentation method is accurate and efficient as compared with the state-of-the-art methods, and the airway wall estimation algorithms identified the inner and outer airway surfaces more accurately than the most widely applied methods, namely full width at half maximum and phase congruency.

  16. Long term study of the effect of sodium cromoglycate on non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, C J; Breslin, A B

    1987-01-01

    A double blind, crossover study was undertaken to determine whether non-specific hyperresponsiveness in subjects with asthma was reduced by long term treatment with sodium cromoglycate and, if so, whether this was related to change in lung function. Forty four adult asthmatic subjects (41 atopic, three non-atopic) entered the one year study at intervals staggered over six months. After a baseline period to ensure that asthma control was stable subjects entered the treatment period, during which they inhaled sodium cromoglycate 20 mg four times daily or matching placebo four times daily for 16 weeks each, in random order. Response was assessed at four weekly intervals by measurement of lung function and histamine inhalation tests, from which the provocative concentration of histamine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20H) was calculated. The assessment included daily symptom score, morning and evening Airflow-meter readings and treatment; mean values for each treatment period and also for the final four weeks of each period were compared. There were no significant differences between placebo and sodium cromoglycate treatment for PC20H, FEV1, morning or evening flow meter readings, bronchodilator usage, or symptom scores for the group as a whole, for the 16 week period or for the final four weeks of each period. Thirteen subjects showed better morning and evening flow meter readings while taking sodium cromoglycate than while taking placebo and eight better readings with placebo than with sodium cromoglycate (p less than 0.05). Improvement in lung function did not correlate with baseline lung function or baseline PC20H, or with features of atopy. These results suggest that long term sodium cromoglycate treatment does not alter non-specific bronchial responsiveness in adult asthmatic subjects. PMID:3120345

  17. Genetic damage induced by organic extract of coke oven emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Duan, Huawei; Wang, Yadong; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qingjun; Chen, Wen; Ma, Junxiang; Zheng, Yuxin

    2012-08-01

    Coke oven emissions are known as human carcinogen, which is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of coke oven emissions induced carcinogenesis and to identify biomarkers of early biological effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line with CYP1A1 activity (HBE-CYP1A1). Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by alkaline and endonucleases (FPG, hOGG1 and ENDO III)-modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The cells were treated with organic extract of coke oven emissions (OE-COE) representing 5, 10, 20, 40μg/mL extract for 24h. We found that there was a dose-effect relationship between the OE-COE and the direct DNA damage presented by tail length, tail intensity and Olive tail moment in the comet assay. The presence of lesion-specific endonucleases in the assays increased DNA migration after OE-COE treatment when compared to those without enzymes, which indicated that OE-COE produced oxidative damage at the level of pyrimidine and purine bases. The dose-dependent increase of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in exposed cells was significant, indicating chromosomal and genomic damage induced by OE-COE. Based on the cytotoxic biomarkers in CBMN-Cyt assay, OE-COE may inhibit nuclear division, interfere with apoptosis, or induce cell necrosis. This study indicates that OE-COE exposure can induce DNA breaks/oxidative damage and genomic instability in HBE-CYP1A1 cells. The FPG-comet assay appears more specific for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of genotoxic substances.

  18. Microcystin-LR induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Li, Jinhui; Huang, Hui; Yang, Mingfeng; Zhuang, Donggang; Cheng, Xuemin; Zhang, Huizhen; Fu, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and to explore the mechanism of MC-LR-induced apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. HBE cells were treated with MC-LR (1, 10, 20, 30 and 40 µg/ml) alone or with MC-LR (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/ml) and Z-VAD-FMK (0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120 and 140 µM), which is a caspase inhibitor, for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was assessed via an MTT assay and the half maximal effective concentration of MC-LR was determined. The optimal concentration of Z-VAD-FMK was established as 50 µm, which was then used in the subsequent experiments. MC-LR significantly inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis of HBE cells in a dose-dependent manner, as detected by an Annexin V/propidium iodide assay. MC-LR induced cell apoptosis, excess reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, upregulated Bax expression and downregulated B-cell lymphoma-2 expression in HBE cells. Moreover, western blot analysis demonstrated that MC-LR increased the activity levels of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and induced cytochrome c release into the cytoplasm, suggesting that MC-LR-induced apoptosis is associated with the mitochondrial pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with Z-VAD-FMK reduced MC-LR-induced apoptosis by blocking caspase activation in HBE cells. Therefore, the results of the present study suggested that MC-LR is capable of significantly inhibiting the viability of HBE cells by inducing apoptosis in a mitochondria-dependent manner. The present study provides a foundation for further understanding the mechanism underlying the toxicity of MC-LR in the respiratory system. PMID:27446254

  19. In search of childhood asthma: questionnaire, tests of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and clinical evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Remes, S; Pekkanen, J; Remes, K; Salonen, R; Korppi, M

    2002-01-01

    Background: The definition or diagnosis of asthma is a challenge for both clinicians and epidemiologists. Symptom history is usually supplemented with tests of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in spite of their uncertainty in improving diagnostic accuracy. Methods: To assess the interrelationship between respiratory symptoms, BHR, and clinical diagnosis of asthma, the respiratory symptoms of 1633 schoolchildren were screened using a questionnaire (response rate 81.2%) and a clinical study was conducted in a subsample of 247 children. Data from a free running test and a methacholine inhalation challenge test were available in 218 children. The diagnosis of asthma was confirmed by a paediatric allergist. Results: Despite their high specificity (>0.97), BHR tests did not significantly improve the diagnostic accuracy after the symptom history: area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.90 for a logistic regression model with four symptoms and 0.94 for the symptoms with free running test and methacholine inhalation challenge results. On the other hand, BHR tests had low sensitivity (0.35–0.47), whereas several symptoms had both high specificity (>0.97) and sensitivity (>0.7) in relation to clinical asthma, which makes them a better tool for asthma epidemiology than BHR. Conclusions: Symptom history still forms the basis for defining asthma in both clinical and epidemiological settings. BHR tests only marginally increased the diagnostic accuracy after symptom history had been taken into account. The diagnosis of childhood asthma should not therefore be overlooked in symptomatic cases with no objective evidence of BHR. Moreover, BHR should not be required for defining asthma in epidemiological studies. PMID:11828040

  20. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Catallo, W J; Kennedy, C H; Henk, W; Barker, S A; Grace, S C; Penn, A

    2001-09-01

    Adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, especially small respirable particles and their associated adsorbed chemicals, are of growing concern to health professionals, governmental agencies, and the general public. Areas rich in petrochemical processing facilities (e.g., eastern Texas and southern California) chronically have poor air quality. Atmospheric releases of products of incomplete combustion (e.g., soot) from these facilities are not subject to rigorous regulatory enforcement. Although soot can include respirable particles and carcinogens, the toxicologic and epidemiologic consequences of exposure to environmentally relevant complex soots have not been well investigated. Here we continue our physico-chemical analysis of butadiene soot and report effects of exposure to this soot on putative targets, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We examined organic extracts of butadiene soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), probe distillation MS, and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. Hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular mass as high as 1,000 atomic mass units were detected, including known and suspected human carcinogens (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). Butadiene soot particles also had strong, solid-state free-radical character in electron spin resonance analysis. Spin-trapping studies indicated that fresh butadiene soot in a buffered aqueous solution containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) oxidized the DMSO, leading to CH(3)* radical formation. Butadiene soot DMSO extract (BSDE)-exposed NHBE cells displayed extranuclear fluorescence within 4 hr of exposure. BSDE was cytotoxic to > 20% of the cells at 72 hr. Morphologic alterations, including cell swelling and membrane blebbing, were apparent within 24 hr of exposure. These alterations are characteristic of oncosis, an ischemia-induced form of cell death. BSDE treatment also produced significant genotoxicity, as indicated by binucleated cell

  1. Pro-inflammatory responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to acute nitrogen dioxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2004-04-15

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental oxidant, known to be associated with lung epithelial injury. In the present study, cellular pro-inflammatory responses following exposure to a brief high concentration of NO2 (45 ppm) were assessed, using normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as an in vitro model of inhalation injury. Generation and release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), IL-8, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta were assessed at different time intervals following NO2 exposure. Effects of a pre-existing inflammatory condition was tested by treating the NHBE cells with different inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, either alone or in combination, before exposing them to NO2. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed oxidant-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine in the NO2-exposed cells. A marked increase in the levels of nitrite (as an index of NO) and IL-8 were observed in the NO2-exposed cells, which were further enhanced in the presence of the cytokines. Effects of various NO inhibitors combined, with immunofluorescence and Western blotting data, indicated partial contribution of the nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) toward the observed increase in nitrite levels. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha generation was observed in the NO2-exposed cells. Although NO2 exposure alone did induce slight cytotoxicity (<12%), but presence of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma resulted in an increased cell death (28-36%). These results suggest a synergistic role of inflammatory mediators, particularly of NO and IL-8, in NO2-mediated early cellular changes. Our results also demonstrate an increased sensitivity of the cytokine-treated NHBE cells toward NO2, which may have significant functional implications in vivo.

  2. Lung sound analysis helps localize airway inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Terufumi; Obase, Yasushi; Nagasaka, Yukio; Nakano, Hiroshi; Ishimatsu, Akiko; Kishikawa, Reiko; Iwanaga, Tomoaki

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Airway inflammation can be detected by lung sound analysis (LSA) at a single point in the posterior lower lung field. We performed LSA at 7 points to examine whether the technique could identify the location of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Patients and methods Breath sounds were recorded at 7 points on the body surface of 22 asthmatic subjects. Inspiration sound pressure level (ISPL), expiration sound pressure level (ESPL), and the expiration-to-inspiration sound pressure ratio (E/I) were calculated in 6 frequency bands. The data were analyzed for potential correlation with spirometry, airway hyperresponsiveness (PC20), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Results The E/I data in the frequency range of 100–400 Hz (E/I low frequency [LF], E/I mid frequency [MF]) were better correlated with the spirometry, PC20, and FeNO values than were the ISPL or ESPL data. The left anterior chest and left posterior lower recording positions were associated with the best correlations (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity: r=−0.55 and r=−0.58; logPC20: r=−0.46 and r=−0.45; and FeNO: r=0.42 and r=0.46, respectively). The majority of asthmatic subjects with FeNO ≥70 ppb exhibited high E/I MF levels in all lung fields (excluding the trachea) and V50%pred <80%, suggesting inflammation throughout the airway. Asthmatic subjects with FeNO <70 ppb showed high or low E/I MF levels depending on the recording position, indicating uneven airway inflammation. Conclusion E/I LF and E/I MF are more useful LSA parameters for evaluating airway inflammation in bronchial asthma; 7-point lung sound recordings could be used to identify sites of local airway inflammation. PMID:28392708

  3. Selective prostacyclin receptor agonism augments glucocorticoid-induced gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sylvia M; Shen, Pamela; Rider, Christopher F; Traves, Suzanne L; Proud, David; Newton, Robert; Giembycz, Mark A

    2009-11-15

    Prostacyclin receptor (IP-receptor) agonists display anti-inflammatory and antiviral activity in cell-based assays and in preclinical models of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we have extended these observations by demonstrating that IP-receptor activation also can enhance the ability of glucocorticoids to induce genes with anti-inflammatory activity. BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells stably transfected with a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) luciferase reporter were activated in a concentration-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. An IP-receptor agonist, taprostene, increased cAMP in these cells and augmented luciferase expression at all concentrations of dexamethasone examined. Analysis of the concentration-response relationship that described this effect showed that taprostene increased the magnitude of transcription without affecting the potency of dexamethasone and was, thus, steroid-sparing in this simple system. RO3244794, an IP-receptor antagonist, and oligonucleotides that selectively silenced the IP-receptor gene, PTGIR, abolished these effects of taprostene. Infection of BEAS-2B GRE reporter cells with an adenovirus vector encoding a highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also prevented taprostene from enhancing GRE-dependent transcription. In BEAS-2B cells and primary cultures of human airway epithelial cells, taprostene and dexamethasone interacted either additively or cooperatively in the expression of three glucocorticoid-inducible genes (GILZ, MKP-1, and p57(kip2)) that have anti-inflammatory potential. Collectively, these data show that IP-receptor agonists can augment the ability of glucocorticoids to induce anti-inflammatory genes in human airway epithelial cells by activating a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism. This observation may have clinical relevance in the treatment of airway inflammatory diseases that are either refractory or respond suboptimally to

  4. Impact of smoking cessation on global gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of chronic smokers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Lee, Jack; Tang, Hongli; Fan, You-Hong; Xiao, Lianchun; Ren, Hening; Kurie, Jonathan; Morice, Rodolfo C; Hong, Waun Ki; Mao, Li

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is the major cause of lung cancer and can interact in complex ways with drugs for lung cancer prevention or therapy. Molecular genetic research promises to elucidate the biologic mechanisms underlying divergent drug effects in smokers versus non-smokers and to help in developing new approaches for controlling lung cancer. The present study compared global gene expression profiles (determined via Affymetrix microarray measurements in bronchial epithelial cells) between chronic smokers, former smokers, and never smokers. Smoking effects on global gene expression were determined from a combined analysis of three independent datasets. Differential expression between current and never smokers occurred in 591 of the 13,902 genes measured on the microarrays (P < 0.01 and >2 fold change; pooled data)—a profound effect. In contrast, differential expression between current and former smokers occurred in only 145 of the measured genes (P < 0.01 and >2 fold change; pooled data). Nine of these 145 genes showed consistent and significant changes in each of the three datasets (P < 0.01 and >2 fold change), with 8 being down-regulated in former smokers. Seven of the 8 down-regulated genes, including CYP1B1 and 3 AKR genes, influence the metabolism of carcinogens and/or therapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Our data comparing former and current smokers allowed us to pinpoint the genes involved in smoking–drug interactions in lung cancer prevention and therapy. These findings have important implications for developing new targeted and dosing approaches for prevention and therapy in the lung and other sites, highlighting the importance of monitoring smoking status in patients receiving oncologic drug interventions. PMID:19138944

  5. IL-17A Induces Pendrin Expression and Chloride-Bicarbonate Exchange in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kelly M.; Abraham, Valsamma; Spielman, Daniel; Kolls, Jay K.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Conner, Gregory E.; Cohen, Noam A.; Kreindler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4) as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease. PMID:25141009

  6. Activation of CFTR trafficking and gating by vasoactive intestinal peptide in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qu, Fei; Liu, Hui-Jun; Xiang, Yang; Tan, Yu-Rong; Liu, Chi; Zhu, Xiao-Lin; Qin, Xiao-Qun

    2011-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an apical membrane chloride channel critical to the regulation of fluid, chloride, and bicarbonate transport in epithelia and other cell types. The most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) is the abnormal trafficking of CFTR mutants. Therefore, understanding the cellular machineries that transit CFTR from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface is important. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) plays an important role in CFTR-dependent chloride transport. The present study was designed to observe the affection of VIP on the trafficking of CFTR, and channel gating in human bronchial epithelium cells (HBEC). Confocal microscopy revealed CFTR immunofluorescence extending from the apical membrane deeply into the cell cytoplasm. After VIP treatment, apical extension of CFTR immunofluorescence into the cell was reduced and the peak intensity of CFTR fluorescence shifted towards the apical membrane. Western blot showed VIP increased cell surface and total CFTR. Compared with the augmented level of total CFTR, the surface CFTR increased more markedly. Immunoprecipitation founded that the mature form of CFTR had a marked increase in HBEC treated with VIP. VIP led to a threefold increase in Cl(-) efflux in HBEC. Glibenclamide-sensitive and DIDS-insensitive CFTR Cl(-) currents were consistently observed after stimulation with VIP (10(-8) mol/L). The augmentation of CFTR Cl(-) currents enhanced by VIP (10(-8) mol/L) was reversed, at least in part, by the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, H-89 and the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, H-7, suggesting PKA and PKC participate in the VIP-promoted CFTR Cl(-) currents.

  7. Radon induced hyperplasia: effective adaptation reducing the local doses in the bronchial epithelium.

    PubMed

    Madas, Balázs G

    2016-09-01

    There is experimental and histological evidence that chronic irritation and cell death may cause hyperplasia in the exposed tissue. As the heterogeneous deposition of inhaled radon progeny results in high local doses at the peak of the bronchial bifurcations, it was proposed earlier that hyperplasia occurs in these deposition hot spots upon chronic radon exposure. The objective of the present study is to quantify how the induction of basal cell hyperplasia modulates the microdosimetric consequences of a given radon exposure. For this purpose, computational epithelium models were constructed with spherical cell nuclei of six different cell types based on histological data. Basal cell hyperplasia was modelled by epithelium models with additional basal cells and increased epithelium thickness. Microdosimetry for alpha-particles was performed by an own-developed Monte-Carlo code. Results show that the average tissue dose, and the average hit number and dose of basal cells decrease by the increase of the measure of hyperplasia. Hit and dose distribution reveal that the induction of hyperplasia may result in a basal cell pool which is shielded from alpha-radiation. It highlights that the exposure history affects the microdosimetric consequences of a present exposure, while the biological and health effects may also depend on previous exposures. The induction of hyperplasia can be considered as a radioadaptive response at the tissue level. Such an adaptation of the tissue challenges the validity of the application of the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor from a mechanistic point of view. As the location of radiosensitive target cells may change due to previous exposures, dosimetry models considering the tissue geometry characteristic of normal conditions may be inappropriate for dose estimation in case of protracted exposures. As internal exposures are frequently chronic, such changes in tissue geometry may be highly relevant for other incorporated radionuclides.

  8. Sirtuin 3 Protects against Urban Particulate Matter-Induced Autophagy in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chieh; Huang, Hsin-Hsiu; Chen, Pei-Fen; Chiang, Hung-Che

    2016-07-01

    Urban particulate matter (urban PM) is a heterogeneous mixture of various types of particles originating from different sources. Exposure to high concentrations of urban PM leading to adverse health effects is evaluated by using in vitro cultures of human lung epithelial cells. However, the mechanism underlying the correlation between high concentrations of urban PM exposure and adverse health effects has not been fully elucidated; urban PM-induced oxidative stress is considered as an important mechanism of urban PM-mediated cytotoxicity. Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), a primary mitrochondrial deacetylase, controls cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and expression of antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we examined the role of SIRT3 in the regulation of urban PM-induced oxidative stress in normal primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEpiCs). Cell viability showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease when exposed to urban PM, which could indicate that the amount of lactate dehydrogenase released from the cell in response to urban PM is related to cell viability in HBEpiC. The effects of urban PM on morphological and biochemical markers of autophagy in HBEpiC were analyzed by electron microscopy and Western blotting. Overexpression of SIRT3 inhibited urban PM-induced ROS generation, while concomitantly increasing the expression of antioxidant enzymes, and decreasing NF-κB activation and release of inflammation factors. Up-regulation of SIRT3 significantly inhibited the expression of autophagy markers and autophagic vacuole formation. Our findings provide a valuable insight into the potential role of the SIRT3 enzyme in regulating urban PM-induced autophagy by mediating urban PM-induced oxidative stress, which may contribute to urban PM-induced impairment of airway epithelial cell function.

  9. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to mannitol, airway inflammation and Asthma Control Test in atopic asthmatic children

    PubMed Central

    Consilvio, Nicola P.; Rapino, Daniele; Nicola, Marta Di; Scaparrotta, Alessandra; Cingolani, Anna; Petrosino, Marianna I.; Filippo, Paola Di; Pillo, Sabrina Di; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to mannitol and bronchial inflammation measured as exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and to assess whether asthma control correlates with AHR to mannitol and FeNO in atopic asthmatic children. Material and methods Allergy evaluation, the mannitol challenge test, FeNO levels and the Asthma Control Test (ACT) questionnaire were assessed in 40 children with intermittent and mild persistent allergic asthma. Results All the subjects showed positive AHR to mannitol. Pearson's correlation test revealed a significant inverse correlation between AHR (mannitol PD15) and FeNO (p = 0.020). There was also a significant positive correlation between ACT and PD15 (p = 0.020) and a significant negative correlation between ACT and FeNO levels (p = 0.003). The study population was divided into two groups according to FeNO levels (group A ≥ 16 ppb vs. group B < 16 ppb). In group A mannitol PD15 was significantly lower (p = 0.040) and ACT score values were significantly lower (p = 0.001) compared to group B. In group A, the ACT showed that 13.3% of subjects had well-controlled asthma, 80% had partially controlled asthma and 6.7% had uncontrolled asthma. In group B, the ACT showed that 72% of subjects had well-controlled asthma and 28% had partially controlled asthma. Conclusions Our findings indicate that the degree of AHR to mannitol correlates with the degree of airway inflammation in asthmatic atopic children; moreover, better control of asthma correlates with a lower degree of AHR to both mannitol and FeNO. PMID:26925129

  10. Combustion products of 1,3-butadiene are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Catallo, W J; Kennedy, C H; Henk, W; Barker, S A; Grace, S C; Penn, A

    2001-01-01

    Adverse health effects of airborne toxicants, especially small respirable particles and their associated adsorbed chemicals, are of growing concern to health professionals, governmental agencies, and the general public. Areas rich in petrochemical processing facilities (e.g., eastern Texas and southern California) chronically have poor air quality. Atmospheric releases of products of incomplete combustion (e.g., soot) from these facilities are not subject to rigorous regulatory enforcement. Although soot can include respirable particles and carcinogens, the toxicologic and epidemiologic consequences of exposure to environmentally relevant complex soots have not been well investigated. Here we continue our physico-chemical analysis of butadiene soot and report effects of exposure to this soot on putative targets, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. We examined organic extracts of butadiene soot by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), probe distillation MS, and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS-MS. Hundreds of aromatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with molecular mass as high as 1,000 atomic mass units were detected, including known and suspected human carcinogens (e.g., benzo(a)pyrene). Butadiene soot particles also had strong, solid-state free-radical character in electron spin resonance analysis. Spin-trapping studies indicated that fresh butadiene soot in a buffered aqueous solution containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) oxidized the DMSO, leading to CH(3)* radical formation. Butadiene soot DMSO extract (BSDE)-exposed NHBE cells displayed extranuclear fluorescence within 4 hr of exposure. BSDE was cytotoxic to > 20% of the cells at 72 hr. Morphologic alterations, including cell swelling and membrane blebbing, were apparent within 24 hr of exposure. These alterations are characteristic of oncosis, an ischemia-induced form of cell death. BSDE treatment also produced significant genotoxicity, as indicated by binucleated cell

  11. Triaxial system in bronchial arterial embolization for haemoptysis using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Abematsu, Saori; Hashizume, Takuya; Nakagawa, Motoo; Ozawa, Yoshiyuki; Sakurai, Keita; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The application of bronchial artery embolization (BAE) using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for haemoptysis was recently reported to be useful. A triple co-axial (triaxial) system consisting of a 4-Fr catheter, 2.7-Fr microcatheter and 1.9-Fr no-taper microcatheter has been developed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of the triaxial system in BAE using NBCA. Methods: 12 patients with haemoptysis, 8 males and 4 females with a median age of 64 years (range, 49–88 years), underwent BAE between August 2012 and October 2014. Medical records and images were reviewed, and the technical success rate, clinical success rate, haemoptysis-free rate and complications were evaluated. Technical success was defined as the complete cessation of the target artery as confirmed by digital subtraction angiography, whereas clinical success was defined as the cessation of haemoptysis within 24 h of BAE. Recurrent haemoptysis was defined as a total of >30 ml of bleeding per day. Results: The target artery was embolized successfully in all patients, and the technical success rate was 100% (12/12). The cessation of haemoptysis was achieved in 11 out of 12 patients within 24 h, and thus, the clinical success rate was 92% (11/12). The 6-, 12- and 24-month haemoptysis-free rates were 89%, 89% and 76%, respectively. No patients exhibited any signs of complications such as spinal ischaemia. Conclusion: BAE using the triaxial system and NBCA appears to be a useful and safe procedure for haemoptysis. Advances in knowledge: The triaxial system contributes to safe and effective BAE using NBCA. PMID:26423598

  12. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease related to wood smoke

    PubMed Central

    González-García, Mauricio; Torres-Duque, Carlos A; Bustos, Adriana; Jaramillo, Claudia; Maldonado, Darío

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) related to wood smoke exposure is characterized by important inflammation of the central and peripheral airways without significant emphysema. The objective of this study is to describe the bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) level in women with COPD related to wood smoke exposure and to compare it with the BHR in women with COPD related to tobacco smoking. Materials and methods Two groups of women with stable COPD were studied: (1) wood smoke exposed (WS-COPD); and (2) tobacco smoke exposed (TS-COPD). A methacholine challenge test (MCT) was performed in all patients according to American Thoracic Society criteria. BHR levels were compared using the methacholine concentration, which caused a 20% fall in the FEV1 (PC20). Results Thirty-one patients, 19 with WS-COPD and 12 with TS-COPD, were included. There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline FVC, FEV1, IC, FEF25–75, and FEF25–75/FVC. All 31 patients had a positive MCT (PC20 < 16 mg/mL) and the fall in the FEV1 and IC was similar in both groups. The severity of BHR was significantly higher in the WS-COPD patients (PC20: 0.39 mg/mL) than in the TS-COPD patients (PC20: 1.24 mg/mL) (P = 0.028). The presence of cough, phlegm, and dyspnea during the test were similar in both groups. Conclusion We found moderate to severe BHR in women with WS-COPD, which was more severe than in the TS-COPD women with similar age and airflow obstruction. This paper suggests that the structural and inflammatory changes induced by the chronic exposure to wood smoke, described in other studies, can explain the differences with TS-COPD patients. Future studies may clarify our understanding of the impact of BHR on COPD physiopathology, phenotypes, and treatment strategies. PMID:22791990

  13. Roflumilast Inhibits Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Human Differentiated Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Manuel; Martinez, Isidoro; Melero, Jose A.; Tenor, Herman; Cortijo, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes acute exacerbations in COPD and asthma. RSV infects bronchial epithelial cells (HBE) that trigger RSV associated lung pathology. This study explores whether the phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor Roflumilast N-oxide (RNO), alters RSV infection of well-differentiated HBE (WD-HBE) in vitro. WD-HBE were RSV infected in the presence or absence of RNO (0.1-100 nM). Viral infection (staining of F and G proteins, nucleoprotein RNA level), mRNA of ICAM-1, ciliated cell markers (digital high speed videomicroscopy, β-tubulin immunofluorescence, Foxj1 and Dnai2 mRNA), Goblet cells (PAS), mRNA of MUC5AC and CLCA1, mRNA and protein level of IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, formation of H2O2 and the anti-oxidative armamentarium (mRNA of Nrf2, HO-1, GPx; total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured at day 10 or 15 post infection. RNO inhibited RSV infection of WD-HBE, prevented the loss of ciliated cells and markers, reduced the increase of MUC5AC and CLCA1 and inhibited the increase of IL-13, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα and ICAM-1. Additionally RNO reversed the reduction of Nrf2, HO-1 and GPx mRNA levels and consequently restored the TAC and reduced the H2O2 formation. RNO inhibits RSV infection of WD-HBE cultures and mitigates the cytopathological changes associated to this virus. PMID:23936072

  14. Impact Assessment of Repeated Exposure of Organotypic 3D Bronchial and Nasal Tissue Culture Models to Whole Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Diana; Majeed, Shoaib; Guedj, Emmanuel; Dulize, Remi; Baumer, Karine; Iskandar, Anita; Boue, Stephanie; Martin, Florian; Kostadinova, Radina; Mathis, Carole; Ivanov, Nikolai V.; Frentzel, Stefan; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) has a major impact on lung biology and may result in the development of lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or lung cancer. To understand the underlying mechanisms of disease development, it would be important to examine the impact of CS exposure directly on lung tissues. However, this approach is difficult to implement in epidemiological studies because lung tissue sampling is complex and invasive. Alternatively, tissue culture models can facilitate the assessment of exposure impacts on the lung tissue. Submerged 2D cell cultures, such as normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cell cultures, have traditionally been used for this purpose. However, they cannot be exposed directly to smoke in a similar manner to the in vivo exposure situation. Recently developed 3D tissue culture models better reflect the in vivo situation because they can be cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Their basal sides are immersed in the culture medium; whereas, their apical sides are exposed to air. Moreover, organotypic tissue cultures that contain different type of cells, better represent the physiology of the tissue in vivo. In this work, the utilization of an in vitro exposure system to expose human organotypic bronchial and nasal tissue models to mainstream CS is demonstrated. Ciliary beating frequency and the activity of cytochrome P450s (CYP) 1A1/1B1 were measured to assess functional impacts of CS on the tissues. Furthermore, to examine CS-induced alterations at the molecular level, gene expression profiles were generated from the tissues following exposure. A slight increase in CYP1A1/1B1 activity was observed in CS-exposed tissues compared with air-exposed tissues. A network-and transcriptomics-based systems biology approach was sufficiently robust to demonstrate CS-induced alterations of xenobiotic metabolism that were similar to those observed in the bronchial and nasal epithelial cells obtained from smokers. PMID:25741927

  15. Relationship between Intracellular Magnesium Level, Lung Function, and Level of Asthma Control in Children with Chronic Bronchial Asthma

    PubMed Central

    SEIN, Htwe Htwe; Whye Lian, CHEAH; Juan Loong, KOK; SL NG, Josephine; RAHARDJAI, Andy; SULTAN, Mohamed Ameenudeen

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the intracellular (red blood cell (RBC)) magnesium levels in children with chronic bronchial asthma and to determine the relationship between the magnesium level and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), type of asthma treatment, and level of asthma control. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Paediatric Clinic, Sarawak General Hospital. A total of 100 children, aged 6–12 years with chronic bronchial asthma, were recruited according to the study criteria. Venous blood samples were obtained to measure the intracellular (RBC) magnesium level using the GBC Avanta Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results: Mean age was 8.57 (SD 1.18) years, and 63% of the participants were male. Mean duration of asthma was 62.2 (SD 32.3) months. A normal intracellular magnesium level was found in 95% of the participants, with a mean of 2.27 (SD 0.33) mmol/L. Two-thirds of the participants had a normal peak flow expiratory rate (> 80% of predicted value). About 85% were using both reliever and controller. Almost half of the participants (49%) had chronic asthma that was well-controlled. No significant relationship was found between magnesium level and age (r = –0.089, P = 0.379), gender (t = 0.64, P = 0.52), duration of asthma (r = –0.03, P = 0.74), PEFR (t = 0.41, P = 0.68), current level of asthma control (t = 0.02, P = 0.97), and current treatment (t = 0.414, P = 0.680). Conclusion: There was no significant intracellular magnesium deficiency in children with chronic bronchial asthma. There was no significant relationship between therapeutic medications used for treatment of children with chronic asthma and intracellular magnesium levels. PMID:25977631

  16. Effects of carbocysteine on antigen-induced increases in cough sensitivity and bronchial responsiveness in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Katayama, N; Fujimura, M; Ueda, A; Kita, T; Abo, M; Tachibana, H; Myou, S; Kurashima, K

    2001-06-01

    Carbocysteine is a mucoactive drug and is being used for both acute and chronic infectious airway diseases. Although carbocysteine can repair the damage of epithelial cells caused by exposure to various agents, the effects of this agent on allergic airway diseases such as asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis with an isolated chronic cough, in both of which epithelial damage may be characteristic, is not clear. We investigated the effects of carbocysteine on antigen-induced cough hypersensitivity to inhaled capsaicin at 48 h and bronchial hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine at 72 h after challenge with an aerosolized antigen in actively sensitized guinea pigs. After measuring bronchial responsiveness, we examined neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity in the tracheal tissue. Carbocysteine (10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) was given intraperitoneally every 12 h for 3 days after antigen challenge. The number of coughs elicited by an aerosol of capsaicin (10(-4) M) was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in carbocysteine groups (6.13 +/- 0.59 at 10 mg/kg, 4.88 +/- 0.67 at 30 mg/kg, and 4.50 +/- 0.33 at 100 mg/kg during 3 min measurement) compared with the control group (9.75 +/- 0.53). Furthermore, carbocysteine dose dependently repaired the antigen-induced decrease of NEP activity in the tracheal tissue, but it did not influence the bronchial hyperresponsiveness or bronchoalveolar lavage cell component. These findings suggest that carbocysteine promotes the repair of damaged epithelium by allergic reaction and may be useful in allergic airway diseases accompanied by isolated chronic coughing, especially eosinophilic bronchitis without asthma and tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity.

  17. Upregulation of SQSTM1/p62 contributes to nickel-induced malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishan; Zhu, Junlan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Liping; Gu, Jiayan; Xie, Qipeng; Jin, Honglei; Che, Xun; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Chao; Chen, Lung-Chi; Lyu, Jianxin; Gao, Jimin; Huang, Chuanshu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic lung inflammation is accepted as being associated with the development of lung cancer caused by nickel exposure. Therefore, identifying the molecular mechanisms that lead to a nickel-induced sustained inflammatory microenvironment that causes transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells is of high significance. In the current studies, we identified SQSTM1/p62 as a novel nickel-upregulated protein that is important for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF expression, subsequently resulting in transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells. We found that nickel exposure induced SQSTM1 protein upregulation in human lung epithelial cells in vitro and in mouse lung tissues in vivo. The SQSTM1 upregulation was also observed in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. Further studies revealed that the knockdown of SQSTM1 expression dramatically inhibited transformation of human lung epithelial cells upon chronic nickel exposure, whereas ectopic expression of SQSTM1 promoted such transformation. Mechanistic studies showed that the SQSTM1 upregulation by nickel was the compromised result of upregulating SQSTM1 mRNA transcription and promoting SQSTM1 protein degradation. We demonstrated that nickel-initiated SQSTM1 protein degradation is mediated by macroautophagy/autophagy via an MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 axis, whereas RELA is important for SQSTM1 transcriptional upregulation following nickel exposure. Furthermore, SQSTM1 upregulation exhibited its promotion of nickel-induced cell transformation through exerting an impetus for nickel-induced inflammatory TNF mRNA stability. Consistently, the MTOR-ULK1-BECN1 autophagic cascade acted as an inhibitory effect on nickel-induced TNF expression and cell transformation. Collectively, our results demonstrate a novel SQSTM1 regulatory network that promotes a nickel-induced tumorigenic effect in human bronchial epithelial cells, which is negatively controlled by an autophagic cascade following nickel exposure. PMID:27467530

  18. Secretoglobin 3A2 attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation through inhibition of ERK and JNK pathways in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xintao; Tanino, Yoshinori; Sato, Suguru; Nikaido, Takefumi; Misa, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Naoko; Fukuhara, Atsuro; Saito, Junpei; Yokouchi, Hiroshi; Ishida, Takashi; Fujita, Teizo; Munakata, Mitsuru

    2015-04-01

    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, previously known as uteroglobin-related protein 1, is a secreted protein highly expressed in the epithelial cells of the airways. It has been demonstrated that SCGB3A2 is involved in allergic airway inflammation such as bronchial asthma. However, the role of SCGB3A2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced airway inflammation has yet to be reported. The goal of this study was therefore to clarify the role of SCGB3A2 in LPS-induced airway inflammation. We stimulated BEAS-2B, human bronchial epithelial cells, with LPS and analyzed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and CXCL8 with or without pre-incubation of SCGB3A2. The mRNA expression of TNF-α and CXCL8 was clearly upregulated 3 h after LPS stimulation, and pre-incubation of SCGB3A2 significantly inhibited the upregulation of the mRNA expression. The pre-incubation of SCGB3A2 also inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), but not p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, PD98059, a specific inhibitor for ERK, as well as SP600125, a specific inhibitor for JNK, inhibited LPS-induced mRNA upregulation of inflammatory mediators. These results demonstrate the novel biological activity of SCGB3A2, which is that it attenuates LPS-induced inflammation in bronchial epithelial cells through inhibition of ERK and JNK activation.

  19. Dynamic innate immune responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tomoki; Hill, Terence E; Yoshikawa, Naoko; Popov, Vsevolod L; Galindo, Cristi L; Garner, Harold R; Peters, C J; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent

    2010-01-15

    Human lung epithelial cells are likely among the first targets to encounter invading severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Not only can these cells support the growth of SARS-CoV infection, but they are also capable of secreting inflammatory cytokines to initiate and, eventually, aggravate host innate inflammatory responses, causing detrimental immune-mediated pathology within the lungs. Thus, a comprehensive evaluation of the complex epithelial signaling to SARS-CoV is crucial for paving the way to better understand SARS pathogenesis. Based on microarray-based functional genomics, we report here the global gene response of 2B4 cells, a cloned bronchial epithelial cell line derived from Calu-3 cells. Specifically, we found a temporal and spatial activation of nuclear factor (NF)kappaB, activator protein (AP)-1, and interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3/7 in infected 2B4 cells at 12-, 24-, and 48-hrs post infection (p.i.), resulting in the activation of many antiviral genes, including interferon (IFN)-beta, -lambdas, inflammatory mediators, and many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). We also showed, for the first time, that IFN-beta and IFN-lambdas were capable of exerting previously unrecognized, non-redundant, and complementary abilities to limit SARS-CoV replication, even though their expression could not be detected in infected 2B4 bronchial epithelial cells until 48 hrs p.i. Collectively, our results highlight the mechanics of the sequential events of antiviral signaling pathway/s triggered by SARS-CoV in bronchial epithelial cells and identify novel cellular targets for future studies, aiming at advancing strategies against SARS.

  20. An account of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations of the human tracheo-bronchial tree, with observations on those of some animals.

    PubMed Central

    Monkhouse, W S; Whimster, W F

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the distribution of the longitudinal mucosal corrugations in the human tracheo-bronchial tree. It has been shown that they are made up of elastic tissue in a collagen matrix, and that the elastic fibres continue into the smallest bronchioles beyond where the corrugations are no longer visible. An examination has also been made of the tracheo-bronchial trees of the hen, rat, raccoon, pig, sheep, llama and tiger. Corrugations are present in all these animals, except the hen and the raccoon, and they have been compared and contrasted with the condition in Man. The functional significance of these corrugations remains unknown, but, they could be important in equalizing tension in the tracheo-bronchial tree during inspiration, as well as in providing elastic recoil during expiration. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:1010796

  1. [Analysis of ventilation parameters before and after fiber optic bronchoscopy in patients with atopic bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases].

    PubMed

    Bajera, I; Maleszka, P; From, S

    1997-10-01

    Bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis in a stable period of the disease could be an indication for diagnostic bronchofiberoscopy. The aim of the authors of this article is to assess whether bronchoscopy may be safely used either as diagnostic or therapeutic procedure. 21 patients (age 33-46), 13 with atopic bronchial asthma and 8 with COPD took part in this study. The measurements were carried out one day before and 3 hours after the bronchoscopy. The following parameters: Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow (FEF25, FEF50, FEF75) and Resistance of Airways (R aw) were taken into consideration. It was shown that bronchofiberoscopy could be performed safely in these patients and did not lead to woersing ventilation parameters. Bronchospasm was not observed during the study. Moreover the increase in FEF50, FEF75 and R aw were observed. This significant decrease of amount of bronchial discharge could serve as an explanation of this phenomenon.

  2. Is CFTR-delF508 Really Absent from the Apical Membrane of the Airway Epithelium?

    PubMed Central

    Borthwick, Lee A.; Botha, Phil; Verdon, Bernard; Brodlie, Malcolm J.; Gardner, Aaron; Bourn, David; Johnson, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding where mutant CFTR is localised in airway epithelia is essential in guiding the best therapeutic approach to correct the dysfunction of the CFTR protein. The widely held paradigm is that CF patients harbouring the commonest mutation, CFTR-delF508, trap CFTR within the endoplasmic reticulum and target it for degradation. However there are conflicting reports concerning expression and localisation of CFTR-delF508 in lung tissue. To attempt to resolve this fundamental issue we developed a novel approach to measure CFTR-delF508 in the lower airways of patients who have undergone lung transplantation for advanced CF. By sampling CF and non-CF epithelium simultaneously from the same individual, confounding factors of different airway microenvironments which may have influenced previous observations can be overcome. Methods Epithelia sampled by bronchial brushing above (CF) and below (non-CF) the bronchial anastomosis were stained for CFTR and the localisation and level of expression assessed (n = 12). Results There was no significant difference in the proportion of tall columnar cells showing CFTR immunostaining as a discrete band at the apical membrane in cells harbouring the CFTR-delF508 mutation compared to non-CF cells (p = 0.21, n = 12). However, the amount of CFTR expressed at the apical surface was reduced by ∼50% in CF cells compared to non-CF cells (p = 0.04, n = 5). Conclusions Our novel observation challenges the prevailing paradigm that CFTR is essentially absent from the apical membrane of respiratory cells harbouring the CFTR-delF508 mutation. Moreover, it raises the possibility that the new generation of CFTR potentiators may offer a realistic therapeutic option for CF patients. PMID:21826241

  3. Clinical significance of serum concentration of interleukin 8 in patients with bronchial asthma or chronic pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, H; Kurihara, N; Otsuka, T; Fujii, T; Tanaka, S; Kudoh, S; Hirata, K; Takeda, T

    1996-01-01

    Interleukin-8 (IL-8) belongs to the family of chemotactic cytokines and has been shown to activate neutrophils in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we measured IL-8 concentration in the serum of patients with pulmonary emphysema or bronchial asthma. IL-8 concentration in serum of emphysema patients was significantly higher than in asthmatics; in emphysema patients it was significantly correlated with the smoking index and the annual decrease of FEV1.0. In asthmatics IL-8 concentration was below the level of detection, but was markedly increased during exacerbation of asthma. Our findings suggest that IL-8 may be one of the causal factors in these diseases.

  4. The bronchial obstruction as a complication of endovascular repair of aortic pseudoaneurysm in Behçet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Yesin, Mahmut; Toprak, Cüneyt; Acar, Emrah; Kalçık, Macit; Taşçı, Ahmet Erdal; Pala, Selçuk

    2016-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD) is an autoimmune disorder affecting multiple organs. Aortic pseudoaneurysm is the most catastrophic lesion in BD. This lesion type is considered as a complicated and challenging pathology by surgeons because of the technical operative difficulties and frequent recurrence. So, the endovascular repair of inflammatory aortic pseudoaneurysm has been used as an alternative to open surgical repair. It is particularly important in patients who are high-risk surgical candidates because of comorbidities. In this report, we present a case and treatment of bronchial obstruction, which caused progressive dyspnea after endovascular repair of aortic rupture, in patient with known history of BD. PMID:28203395

  5. The influence of dexamethasone and the role of some antioxidant vitamins in the pathogenesis of experimental bronchial asthma

    PubMed Central

    Nounou, H A; Deif, M M; Arafah, M

    2010-01-01

    Background Bronchial asthma is a disease characterized by paroxysmal and reversible obstruction of the airways. The imbalance between the oxidant and antioxidant system that is called oxidative stress is critical in asthma pathogenesis. It is likely, therefore, that antioxidants may be effective in the treatment of asthma. Systemic treatment with glucocorticoids has been reported to inhibit smooth muscle hypercontraction which may account partially for their beneficial effects in the treatment of asthma. Objective The present study was conducted in order to study the effect of dexamethasone and some antioxidant vitamins on interleukin-4 (IL-4), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) in bronchial asthma in rats, and to recognize their possible beneficial role. Method The study was conducted on 60 adult male albino rats randomly divided into 4 groups (15 for each group): including normal control group (group A); asthma model group where rats were sensitized by ovalbumin and challenged with antigen aerosol producing bronchial asthma (group B); asthma model group treated with antioxidant vitamins (vitamin E and vitamin C) (group C); asthma model group treated with dexamethasone (group D). Blood and lung samples were collected from all groups. Results and Conclusion Our results revealed a significant decrease of serum reduced glutathione (GSH) levels among groups B, C and D as compared to group A, while there was a significant increase in group C and D as compared to group B. Antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment resulted in a significant decrease of serum IL-4, malondialdehyde (MDA), and serum IgE levels in group C and D as compared to group B. Antioxidant treatment resulted in a significant decrease of serum Hsp70 level as compared to group B, while dexamethasone treatment resulted in a significant increase of serum Hsp70 level as compared to group B. This study suggests that it is likely that a combination of antioxidant vitamins may be effective

  6. [Unsuspected bronchial carcinoid tumor detected in a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 and hypergastrinemia].

    PubMed

    Marín-Oyaga, V; Tirado-Hospital, J L; Cuenca-Cuenca, J I; Guerrero-Vázquez, R; Luján-Rodríguez, D; Vázquez-Albertino, R

    2013-03-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 syndrome (MEN1) is characterized by the presence of tumors in parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary gland, endocrine pancreas and duodenum. However, other tumors may also occur. One of them is the carcinoid tumor, which in this context, is more common in the gastrointestinal tract. Less common is the presence of carcinoid tumors of bronchial origin, which with histologic confirmation, may occur in 5-8% of cases and that appears more frequently in patients with hypergastrinemia. We report a patient with MEN1 syndrome, hypergastrinemia and an incidental finding in a somatostatin receptor scintigraphy of an unsuspected bronchial carcinoid tumor that was confirmed histologically.

  7. The level of emotional intelligence for patients with bronchial asthma and a group psychotherapy plan in 7 steps.

    PubMed

    Ropoteanu, Andreea-Corina

    2011-01-01

    Strong emotions, either positive or negative, as well as vulnerability to stress are often major factors in triggering, maintaining and emphasizing the symptoms of bronchial asthma. On a group of 99 patients suffering from moderately and severely persistent allergic bronchial asthma for more than 2 years, I applied a situational test of emotional intelligence, the NEO PI-R personality test provided by D&D Consultants and I also elaborated a psychosocial test form of asthma by which I evaluated the frequency of physical symptoms, the intensity of negative emotional symptoms arisen during or subsequent to the crisis and the level of the patients' quality of life. I have presumed first that if the level of the emotional intelligence grew, this fact would have a significant positive influence on controlling the negative emotional symptoms arisen during or subsequent to the crisis and on patients' quality of life. This was invalidated, the correlations between the mentioned variables being insignificant. Secondly, I have presumed the existence of positive significant correlations between the emotional intelligence coefficient and the personality dimensions: extraversion, openness, conscientiousness and a negative significant correlation between the emotional intelligence coefficient and the dimension neuroticism. This presumption was totally confirmed. Finally, we proposed a group psychotherapy plan in 7 steps for asthmatic patients that has as main objectives to improve symptoms and therefore the patients' quality of life.

  8. Antigen-induced bronchial anaphylaxis in actively sensitized guinea-pigs: anti-anaphylactic effects of sodium cromoglycate and aminophylline.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, P.

    1980-01-01

    1 The inhibitory effects of sodium cromoglycate (SCG) and aminophylline on antigen-induced bronchial anaphylaxis in guinea-pigs, actively sensitized according to different regimens, were examined. 2 SCG (1 mg/kg administered intravenously) reduced the anaphylactic response in animals sensitized with 1 microgram ovalbumin (OA) together with A1(OH)3 100 mg, and challenged at 14 and 40 days after sensitization. If higher doses of antigen (10 micrograms OA together with A1(OH)3 or 5 mg OA on day 0 plus 10 mg OA on day 2) were used for sensitization, the protective effect of SCG was found only in animals tested 14 days after sensitization. 3 A low dose of aminophylline (0.3 mg/kg) that was without a direct bronchodilator effect when tested against a histamine (4 micrograms/kg)-induced bronchospasm, produced an anti-anaphylactic effect. The anti-anaphylactic effect of aminophylline varied slightly with the way the animals were immunized and the time at which they were tested. 4 It is concluded that bronchial anaphylaxis in guinea-pigs sensitized with low doses of ovalbumin is a suitable model for the evaluation of anti-anaphylactic properties of drugs. PMID:6772264

  9. Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMAIII) Has an Adverse Effect on the Innate Immune Response of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Notch, Emily G.; Goodale, Britton C.; Barnaby, Roxanna; Coutermarsh, Bonita; Berwin, Brent; Taylor, Vivien F.; Jackson, Brian P.; Stanton, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is the number one contaminant of concern with regard to human health according to the World Health Organization. Epidemiological studies on Asian and South American populations have linked arsenic exposure with an increased incidence of lung disease, including pneumonia, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, both of which are associated with bacterial infection. However, little is known about the effects of low dose arsenic exposure, or the contributions of organic arsenic to the innate immune response to bacterial infection. This study examined the effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) induced cytokine secretion by human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) by inorganic sodium arsenite (iAsIII) and two major metabolites, monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMAV), at concentrations relevant to the U.S. population. Neither iAsIII nor DMAV altered P. aeruginosa induced cytokine secretion. By contrast, MMAIII increased P. aeruginosa induced secretion of IL-8, IL-6 and CXCL2. A combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV (10 pbb total) reduced IL-8 and CXCL1 secretion. These data demonstrate for the first time that exposure to MMAIII alone, and a combination of iAsIII, MMAIII and DMAV at levels relevant to the U.S. may have negative effects on the innate immune response of human bronchial epithelial cells to P. aeruginosa. PMID:26554712

  10. A computational model that simulates mucociliary clearance in the bronchial tree, and a concomitant study on energetics and optimality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manolidis, Michail; Isabey, Daniel; Louis, Bruno; Grotberg, James; Filoche, Marcel

    2015-11-01

    Systemic deterministic models of mucociliary clearance in the bronchial tree are currently scarce. While analytical/computational efforts have focused on microscopic modeling of mucociliary propulsion, macroscopic approaches have been restricted mainly to stochastic methods. We present an analytical/computational model that simulates mucociliary clearance in macroscopic physical domains. The analytical foundations of the model are based on a Stokes flow assumption, whereby, in addition to viscous forces originating in ciliary forcing, the role of surface tension is also considered. The governing equations are solved computationally on a three-dimensional surface mesh. Flow is simulated in an anatomically/geometrically representative bifurcation of the bronchial tree. The directionality of ciliary forcing in our model is optimized in order to maintain near-uniform mucus film thickness throughout the flow field. Based on the optimized version of the model, energetic considerations, as well as aspects of optimality in nature are analyzed and presented. 2nd affiliation: Professor, Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France.

  11. Comparison of stayers, dropouts, and newcomers in a longitudinal population study of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness: introduction of bias?

    PubMed

    Ulrik, C S

    1995-01-01

    A random sample of children and adolescents from the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark, has been examined twice (6 years apart) with respect to asthma, allergy, and nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To investigate potential bias resulting from loss of baseline subjects at follow-up (dropout bias) and bias resulting from subjects entering the study at the follow-up stage (newcomer bias), stayers (subjects who participated in both examinations) were compared to dropouts and newcomers, respectively. The sample consisted of 983 subjects (aged 7-17 years at the time of the baseline study), of whom 408 (199 boys) participated in both examinations (stayers), 119 (62 boys) in the baseline study only (dropouts), and 257 (124 boys in the follow-up study only (newcomers). Thus, a total of 784 subjects (80% of the sample) were examined either once or twice. At baseline dropouts did not differ from stayers with respect to anthropometric data, smoking habits, pulmonary function, or prevalence of positive skin prick tests, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, asthma, and allergic diseases. Likewise, these variables for newcomers were not different from those of the stayers apart from a significantly higher smoking rate in newcomers (45% vs. 32%, p = 0.003). Based on these findings and the high overall response rate, it seems reasonable to assume that the group of stayers is representative of the whole sample, apart from an underestimation of the number of smokers and, therefore, an underestimation of the risks associated with smoking.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Improvement of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis after steroid tapering in a patient with bronchial asthma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We report the case of a patient who was diagnosed as having pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis while being treated with prednisolone for bronchial asthma. Even before we had experienced a case of this, the relationship between pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis and prednisolone was unclear. In this case, pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis was improved with the reduction of prednisolone, and therefore we thought a direct relationship between pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis and prednisolone might become clear, such as whether it is dose dependent. Case presentation A 62-year-old Japanese woman had been treated for bronchial asthma for approximately 40 years. She presented with abdominal distension, and a radiographic examination showed intraperitoneal free gas and intramural gas, suggestive of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis. However, when her prednisolone dose was decreased from 30mg to 0mg for approximately a year because of improvement in her asthma symptoms, her abdominal symptom resolved, and the frequency of her bowel movements returned to normal. Conclusion Amelioration of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis was observed with tapering of the prednisolone, suggesting that prednisolone may have been involved in the pathogenesis of pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis in this patient. PMID:23803391

  13. [Gustatory sensitivity to sodium chloride and potassium chloride and certain parameters of sodium metabolism in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mineev, V N; Suparnovich, I Iu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine threshold gustatory sensitivity (TGS) to sodium chloride and potassium chloride in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) taking into account a number of factors responsible for the enhanced risk of development and progress of this disease. Forty five practically healthy subjects were compared with 139 asthmatic patients; a separate group comprised patients treated permanently with oral glucocorticoids and those having non-pulmonary allergy. Chemically pure solutions of sodium and potassium chlorides were used in the dripping test to assess TGS. Asthmatic patients had enhanced TGS to sodium chloride compared with healthy subjects. TGS values were especially high in non-allergic bronchial asthma and minimal in allergic asthma when they were unrelated to the phase of the disease. TGS to potassium chloride in asthmatic patients also differed from that in healthy subjects; more patients were bitter-insensitive or sensitive only to high concentrations of potassium chloride. Patients treated with systemic glucocorticoids had the highest TGS to sodium chloride. Patients with non-pulmonary allergy and allergic BA had very similar TGS to potassium chloride. TGS to sodium chloride in the former was lower than in healthy subjects and patients with allergic BA. Asthmatic patients had a higher sodium ion concentration in erythrocytes than normal subjects; it reached maximum values in persons used to add salt to fully cooked food.

  14. A Biophysical Model for Integration of Electrical, Osmotic, and pH Regulation in the Human Bronchial Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Cibele V.; Jakobsson, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A dynamical biophysical model for the functioning of an epithelium is presented. This model integrates the electrical and osmotic behaviors of the epithelium, taking into account intracellular conditions. The specific tissue modeled is the human bronchial epithelium, which is of particular interest, as it is the location of the most common lethal symptoms of cystic fibrosis. The model is implemented in a modular form to facilitate future application of the code to other epithelial tissue by inputting different transporters, channels, and geometric parameters. The model includes pH regulation as an integral component of overall regulation of epithelial function, through the interdependence of pH, bicarbonate concentration, and current. The procedures for specification, the validation of the model, and parametric studies are presented using available experimental data of cultured human bronchial epithelium. Parametric studies are performed to elucidate a), the contribution of basolateral chloride channels to the short-circuit current functional form, and b), the role that regulation of basolateral potassium conductance plays in epithelial function. PMID:20409466

  15. The Effect of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Bronchial Stump Tissue Granulation after Pneumonectomy: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomos, Periklis; Konofaos, Petros; Karagkiouzis, Grigorios; Levidou, Georgia; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Perrea, Despina; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Recent advances in perioperative management, antibiotics, and surgical materials, including mechanical staplers, have decreased the operative risk of pulmonary resection. However, bronchopleural fistula can still occur in some instances, the occurrence often being lethal. This study investigated whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes granulation of the bronchial stump after pneumonectomy. Methods. Ten pigs were randomized into two groups: (A) control or non-PRP group (pneumonectomy) and (B) PRP group (pneumonectomy and PRP application). PRP was obtained by spinning down the animal's own blood and collecting the buffy coat containing platelets and white blood cells. Results. Increased platelet concentration triggered the healing process. The percentage of granulation tissue formed at the stumps was significantly higher in the PRP group of animals. This observation was confirmed when statistical analysis using Mann-Whitney U test was performed (P = 0.0268). Conclusions. PRP is easily produced with minimal basic equipment and is useful in accelerating granulation of the bronchial stump, although the timing and optimum number of applications in humans require further study. Autologous PRP is a safe, feasible, and reliable new healing promoter with potential therapeutic effects. PMID:24455307

  16. Increased number of cancer cells in bronchial washing fluid detected by combining conventional cytology and high-resolution flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cicconetti, F; Teodori, L; Persiani, M; Di Tondo, U; Alò, P; Marci, A; Brun, S; Göhde, W

    1997-01-01

    The present study was performed to improve early lung cancer diagnosis in bronchial washing fluid, thereby increasing the diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoscopy by means of high-resolution flow cytometry (FC). We combined dual-parameter DNA/protein FC and conventional cytology in bronchial washing fluid samples from 112 patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic lung diseases and found 43% of histologically confirmed tumor cases to be cytologically positive; 63% of the tumor samples were aneuploid, 52% of the aneuploid cases were cytologically positive and 48% were negative. In the negative cases, FC was an independent diagnostic factor. In 32% of the cases, FC also failed to detect abnormalities. However, the combination of both techniques increased the sensitivity in detecting neoplastic cells to 73%. Furthermore, simultaneous DNA/protein analysis allowed the recognition of aneuploid cell lines not detectable by single DNA measurement. Identification of aneuploid subpopulations by dual-parameter analysis in cytologically negative one-parameter FC "diploid" samples assumes an important diagnostic value. Dual-parameter DNA/protein FC is a valuable technique that increases the diagnostic yield of bronchoscopy with no risk for the patient and a low additional cost.

  17. YAP is up-regulated in the bronchial airway smooth muscle of the chronic asthma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jing; Xu, Fei; Yu, Jing Jing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by leukocytic infiltration and tissue remodeling with structural changes including subepithelial fibrosis and ASM cells proliferation. The Hippo pathway is a key regulatory point involved in cell proliferation, fibroblasts, and smooth muscle cell differentiation. In order to disclose the relation between asthma and the Hippo pathway, expression of the Yes-associated protein (YAP), a key gene in the Hippo pathway, in the bronchial smooth muscle of chronic asthma model (CAM) was studied. 40 mice were randomly divided into control (wide type) and experimental group to construct CAM using chicken ovalbumin (OVA). Pathological changes of the lung tissues were observed in the CAM mice compared with the control using HE staining method. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect if YAP protein is expressed in the lung tissues. The pathological changes of the CAM group showed that a large number of inflammatory cells infiltration including mainly lymphocytes and a small amount of eosinophilic, with the presence of certain airway smooth muscle hyperplasia, was observed in comparison with the control. IHC results showed that the YAP protein was significantly increased compared with the control groups (P < 0.01). This result was further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay which detected the up-regulation of the YAP gene (P < 0.01) and Western blot. In conclusion, the YAP protein was significantly expressed in the bronchial airway tissues of the CAM mice, and could be used as an indicator for asthma. PMID:26617833

  18. The effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma on bronchial stump tissue granulation after pneumonectomy: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Spartalis, Eleftherios; Tomos, Periklis; Konofaos, Petros; Karagkiouzis, Grigorios; Levidou, Georgia; Kavantzas, Nikolaos; Pantopoulou, Alkistis; Michail, Othon; Perrea, Despina; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2013-12-16

    Objectives. Recent advances in perioperative management, antibiotics, and surgical materials, including mechanical staplers, have decreased the operative risk of pulmonary resection. However, bronchopleural fistula can still occur in some instances, the occurrence often being lethal. This study investigated whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) promotes granulation of the bronchial stump after pneumonectomy. Methods. Ten pigs were randomized into two groups: (A) control or non-PRP group (pneumonectomy) and (B) PRP group (pneumonectomy and PRP application). PRP was obtained by spinning down the animal's own blood and collecting the buffy coat containing platelets and white blood cells. Results. Increased platelet concentration triggered the healing process. The percentage of granulation tissue formed at the stumps was significantly higher in the PRP group of animals. This observation was confirmed when statistical analysis using Mann-Whitney U test was performed (P = 0.0268). Conclusions. PRP is easily produced with minimal basic equipment and is useful in accelerating granulation of the bronchial stump, although the timing and optimum number of applications in humans require further study. Autologous PRP is a safe, feasible, and reliable new healing promoter with potential therapeutic effects.

  19. Combinations of distinct long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid species for improved dietary treatment against allergic bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Beermann, Christopher; Neumann, Sandy; Fußbroich, Daniela; Zielen, Stefan; Schubert, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways with an increasing incidence in Western societies. Exposure to allergens provokes recurrent attacks of breathlessness, airway hyperreactivity, wheezing, and coughing. For the early phase and milder forms of allergic asthma, dietary supplementation with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), predominantly fish oil-associated eicosapentaenoic (C20:5 ω-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 ω-3), and distinct crop oil-derived fatty acids might provide a sustainable treatment strategy, as discussed in several studies. In addition to immune-controlling prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and thromboxanes, specialized proresolving mediators, such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins, are metabolized from different LCPUFA, which actively resolve inflammation. The aim of this review was to discuss the possible synergistic effects of ω-3 and ω-6 LCPUFA combinations concerning rebuilding fatty acid homeostasis in cellular membranes, modifying eicosanoid metabolic pathways, controlling inflammatory processes by focusing on resolving inflammation in the bronchoalveolar system on the cellular level, and helping to control clinical symptoms in bronchial asthma.

  20. Dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    Nagakura, T; Matsuda, S; Shichijyo, K; Sugimoto, H; Hata, K

    2000-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, and high dietary levels are associated with a lower incidence of inflammatory diseases. However, only limited effects have been demonstrated in asthma. The effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil for 10 months in 29 children with bronchial asthma was investigated in a randomized controlled fashion. In order to minimize the effects of environmental inhaled allergens and diet, this study was performed in a long-term treatment hospital. Subjects received fish oil capsules containing 84 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 36 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or control capsules containing 300 mg olive oil. The daily dosages of EPA and DHA were 17.0-26.8 and 7.3-11.5 mg x kg body weight(-1), respectively. Asthma symptom scores decreased and responsiveness to acetylcholine decreased in the fish oil group but not in the control group. In addition, plasma EPA levels increased significantly only in the fish oil group (p<0.0088). No significant side-effects were observed. The present results suggest that dietary supplementation with fish oil rich in the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid is beneficial for children with bronchial asthma in a strictly controlled environment in terms of inhalant allergens and diet.

  1. [Association between polymorphism of ADAM33 gene and bronchial asthma in Mongolian population].

    PubMed

    Zhu, S F; Li, J G

    2016-09-20

    Objective: To investigate the different genotype and allele frequency distribution of ADAM33 gene T1, T2, V4, S2 sites Mongolian population, and discuss the relationship between ADAM33 gene polymorphism and bronchial asthma. Methods: From January 2014 to December 2015, a total of 180 cases of Mongolian patients with asthma were detected, compared with 186 cases of healthy Mongolian as controled and screening significant genes.Selected restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method to detected ADAM33 gene polymorphism.According to condition , the asthma group was divided into mild(n=83), medium group(n=47)and severe group(n=50). The distribution difference of different genotype and every genotype of V4 FEV1, eosinophils, IgE comparison were compared , and analysis their correlation. Results: In ADAM33 , the distribution of T1 sites (AA and AG genotypes) had statistical significance compared asthma group with control group(χ(2)=8.810, 8.294, P<0.05, OR=1.983, 0.500). The OR value of G allele was 0.580.The distribution of S2 site(CC genotype) had statistical significance(χ(2)=4.277, P<0.05), the OR value of G allele was 1.423.the distribution of V4 sites (GC and GG genotypes) had statistical significance between the two groups (χ(2)=7.880, 10.313, P<0.05), OR value was 0.459, 2.130, G allele OR value was 1.496.The distribution frequency difference of each genotype in V4 sites in mild, medium and severe group was statistically significant (χ(2)=16.049, P<0.05), and compared various genotypes of FEV1, IgE, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05), for each genotype of T2 site in asthma group and the control group there was no statistically significant in the distribution (χ(2)=1.218, 0.248, 1.287, P>0.05). Conclusions: T1, V4, S2 locus polymorphism of ADAM33 gene may play a role in the Mongolian asthma population, and T2 locus polymorphism may has no relationship with Mongolian asthma patients.And the genotype polymorphism of V4 sites may

  2. Thunderstorm-associated bronchial asthma: a forgotten but very present epidemic.

    PubMed

    Al-Rubaish, Abdullah M

    2007-05-01

    Acute episodes of bronchial asthma are associated with specific etiological factors such as air pollutants and meteorological conditions including thunderstorms. Evidence suggests that thunderstorm-associated asthma (TAA) may be a distinct subset of asthmatics, and, epidemics have been reported, but none from Saudi Arabia.The trigger for this review was the TAA epidemic in November 2002, Eastern Saudi Arabia. The bulk of patients were seen in the King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar. The steady influx of acute cases were managed effectively and involved all neighboring hospitals, without evoking any "Major Incident Plan".THREE GROUPS OF FACTORS ARE IMPLICATED AS CAUSES OF TAA: pollutants (aerobiologic or chemical) and meteorological conditions. Aerobiological pollutants include air-borne allergens: pollen and spores of molds. Their asthma-inducing effect is augmented during thunderstorms.Chemical pollutants include greenhouse gases, heavy metals, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, fumes from engines and particulate matter. Their relation to rain-associated asthma is mediated by sulfuric and nitric acid.Outbreaks of non-epidemic asthma are associated with high rainfall, drop in maximum air temperature and pressure, lightning strikes and increased humidity. Thunderstorm can cause all of these and it seems to be related to the onset of asthma epidemic.Patients in epidemics of TAA are usually young atopic adults not on prophylaxis steroid inhalers. The epidemic is usually their first known attack. These features are consistent with the hypothesis that TAA is related to both aero-allergens and weather effects. Subjects allergic to pollen who are in the path of thunderstorm can inhale air loaded with pollen allergen and so have acute asthmatic response. TAA runs a benign courseDoctors should be aware of this phenomenon and the potential outbreak of asthma during heavy rains. A & E departments and ICU should be alert for possible rush of asthmatic

  3. Alpha 4-integrins mediate antigen-induced late bronchial responses and prolonged airway hyperresponsiveness in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, W M; Sielczak, M W; Ahmed, A; Cortes, A; Lauredo, I T; Kim, J; Pepinsky, B; Benjamin, C D; Leone, D R; Lobb, R R

    1994-01-01

    Eosinophils and T lymphocytes are thought to be involved in allergic airway inflammation. Both cells express the alpha 4 beta 1-integrin, very late antigen-4 (VLA-4, CD49d/CD29); alpha 4-integrins can promote cellular adhesion and activation. Therefore, we examined the in vivo effects of a blocking anti-alpha 4 monoclonal antibody, HP 1/2, on antigen-induced early and late bronchial responses, airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammatory cell influx, and peripheral leukocyte counts in allergic sheep. Sheep blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and eosinophils expressed alpha 4 and bound HP 1/2. In control sheep, Ascaris antigen challenge produced early and late increases in specific lung resistance of 380 +/- 42% and 175 +/- 16% over baseline immediately and 7 h after challenge, respectively, as well as airway hyperresponsiveness continuing for 14 d after antigen challenge. Treatment with HP 1/2 (1 mg/kg, i.v.) 30 min before antigen challenge did not affect the early increase in specific lung resistance but inhibited the late-phase increase at 5-8 h by 75% (P < 0.05) and inhibited the post-antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness at 1, 2, 7, and 14 d (P < 0.05, for each time). Intravenous HP 1/2 given 2 h after antigen challenge likewise blocked late-phase airway changes and postchallenge airway hyperresponsiveness. Airway administration of HP 1/2 (16-mg dose) was also effective in blocking these antigen-induced changes. Response to HP 1/2 was specific since an isotypic monoclonal antibody, 1E6, was ineffective by intravenous and aerosol administration. Inhibition of leukocyte recruitment did not totally account for the activity of anti-alpha 4 antibody since HP 1/2 neither diminished the eosinopenia or lymphopenia that followed antigen challenge nor consistently altered the composition of leukocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage. Because airway administration of HP 1/2 was also active, HP 1/2 may have inhibited cell activation. Reduction of platelet-activating factor

  4. NiO nanoparticles induce apoptosis through repressing SIRT1 in human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Wei-Xia; He, Min-Di; Mao, Lin; Qian, Feng-Hua; Li, Yu-Ming; Pi, Hui-Feng; Liu, Chuan; Chen, Chun-Hai; Lu, Yong-Hui; Cao, Zheng-Wang; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zheng-Ping; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-07-15

    With application of nano-sized nickel-containing particles (Nano-Ni) expanding, the health concerns about their adverse effects on the pulmonary system are increasing. However, the mechanisms for the pulmonary toxicity of these materials remain unclear. In the present study, we focused on the impacts of NiO nanoparticles (NiONPs) on sirtuin1 (SIRT1), a NAD-dependent deacetylase, and investigated whether SIRT1 was involved in NiONPs-induced apoptosis. Although the NiONPs tended to agglomerate in fluid medium, they still entered into the human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and released Ni{sup 2+} inside the cells. NiONPs at doses of 5, 10, and 20 μg/cm{sup 2} inhibited the cell viability. NiONPs' produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process, indicated by increased numbers of Annexin V positive cells and caspase-3 activation. The expression of SIRT1 was markedly down-regulated by the NiONPs, accompanied by the hyperacetylation of p53 (tumor protein 53) and overexpression of Bax (Bcl-2-associated X protein). However, overexpression of SIRT1 through resveratrol treatment or transfection clearly attenuated the NiONPs-induced apoptosis and activation of p53 and Bax. Our results suggest that the repression of SIRT1 may underlie the NiONPs-induced apoptosis via p53 hyperacetylation and subsequent Bax activation. Because SIRT1 participates in multiple biologic processes by deacetylation of dozens of substrates, this knowledge of the impact of NiONPs on SIRT1 may lead to an improved understanding of the toxic mechanisms of Nano-Ni and provide a molecular target to antagonize Nano-Ni toxicity. - Highlights: • NiONPs were taken up by BEAS-2B cells and released Ni{sup 2+}. • NiONPs produced cytotoxicity was demonstrated through an apoptotic process. • NiONPs repressed SIRT1 expression and activated p53 and Bax. • Overexpression of SIRT1 attenuated NiONPs-induced apoptosis via deacetylation p53.

  5. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by normal human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Van Vleet, T R; Klein, P J; Coulombe, R A

    2001-08-10

    Aflatoxin B, (AFB1) is a potent hepatocarcinogen in animal models and a suspected carcinogen in humans. High concentrations of AFB, have been found in respirable grain dusts, and may therefore be a risk factor for human lung cancer in certain occupations. To study the potential for AFB, activation in human lung, cytochrome P-450 (CYP)-mediated activation and glutathione S-transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification of AFB1 were examined in cultured normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Cells were exposed to 0. 15 microM or 1.5 microM AFB, for 48 h and media was collected for metabolite analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). At 0. 15 microM, AFB1 was metabolized only to the detoxified metabolite aflatoxin Q1 (AFQ1). At 1.5 microM AFB1, both aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), and AFQ1 were produced. Cells pretreated with 50 degrees M 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a CYP 1A inducer, for 72 h prior to 0.15 microM AFB1, produced the activated AFB1 8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Similarly, microsomes prepared from 3MC-pretreated cells formed AFBO, but microsomes from noninduced cells did not. While AFB1-DNA adducts were not detected at low AFB1 concentrations in untreated NHBE, 3MC induction caused the production of AFB1-DNA adducts at 0.015 and 0.15 microM AFB1. Western immunoblots showed that the primary CYP isoforms responsible for AFB1 activation in the liver, 1A and 3A4, to be constitutively expressed in NHBE cells. Expression of CYP 1A was significantly increased in 3MC-pretreated cells, while CYP 3A4 expression increased slightly, but not to the extent of the 1A isoforms. The principal AFBO detoxifying enzyme, glutathione S-transferase (GST), was constitutively expressed in NHBE cells, and was increased approximately twofold by 3MC pretreatment. Cytosolic fractions from neither control nor 3MC-induced NHBE had measurable AFBO conjugating activity, indicating that these cells may lack AFB1-relevant GST activity. From these data, it appears that NHBE cells activate

  6. Pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin in bovine plasma, lung tissue, and bronchial fluid (from live, nonanesthetized cattle).

    PubMed

    Menge, M; Rose, M; Bohland, C; Zschiesche, E; Kilp, S; Metz, W; Allan, M; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2012-12-01

    The pharmacokinetics of tildipirosin (Zuprevo(®) 180 mg/mL solution for injection for cattle), a novel 16-membered macrolide for treatment, control, and prevention of bovine respiratory disease, were investigated in studies collecting blood plasma, lung tissue, and in vivo samples of bronchial fluid (BF) from cattle. After single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection at 4 mg/kg body weight, maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) was 0.7 μg/mL. T(max) was 23 min. Mean residence time from the time of dosing to the time of last measurable concentration (MRT(last)) and terminal half-life (T(1/2) ) was 6 and 9 days, respectively. A strong dose-response relationship with no significant sex effect was shown for both C(max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last sampling time with a quantifiable drug concentration (AUC(last) ) over the range of doses up to 6 mg/kg. Absolute bioavailability was 78.9%. The volume of distribution based on the terminal phase (V(z)) was 49.4 L/kg, and the plasma clearance was 144 mL/h/kg. The time-concentration profile of tildipirosin in BF and lung far exceeded those in blood plasma. In lung, tildipirosin concentrations reached 9.2 μg/g at 4 h, peaked at 14.8 μg/g at day 1, and slowly declined to 2.0 μg/g at day 28. In BF, the concentration of tildipirosin reached 1.5 and 3.0 μg/g at 4 and 10 h, maintained a plateau of about 3.5 μg/g between day 1 and 3, and slowly declined to 1.0 at day 21. T(1/2) in lung and BF was approximately 10 and 11 days. Tildipirosin is rapidly and extensively distributed to the respiratory tract followed by slow elimination.

  7. TEMPORAL-SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF U.S.- MEXICO BORDER ENVIRONMENTAL FINE AND COARSE PM AIR SAMPLE EXTRACT ACTIVITY IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Lauer, Fredine T.; Mitchell, Leah A.; Bedrick, Edward; McDonald, Jacob D.; Lee, Wen-Yee; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Amaya, Maria A.; Berwick, Marianne; Gonzales, Melissa; Currey, Robert; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Burchiel, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    Particulate matter less than 10 μm (PM10) has been shown to be associated with aggravation of asthma and respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity. There is also great interest in the potential health effects of PM 2.5. Particulate matter (PM) varies in composition both spatially and temporally depending on the source, location and seasonal condition. El Paso County which lies in the Paso del Norte airshed is a unique location to study ambient air pollution due to three major points: the geological land formation, the relatively large population and the various sources of PM. In this study, dichotomous filters were collected from various sites in El Paso County every seven days for a period of one year. The sampling sites were both distant and near border crossings, which are near heavily populated areas with high traffic volume. Fine (PM2.5) and Coarse (PM10-2.5) PM filter samples were extracted using dichloromethane and were assessed for biologic activity and polycyclic aromatic (PAH) content. Three sets of marker genes human BEAS2B bronchial epithelial cells were utilized to assess the effects of airborne PAHs on biologic activities associated with specific biological pathways associated with airway diseases. These pathways included in inflammatory cytokine production (IL-6, IL-8), oxidative stress (HMOX-1, NQO-1, ALDH3A1, AKR1C1), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling (CYP1A1). Results demonstrated interesting temporal and spatial patterns of gene induction for all pathways, particularly those associated with oxidative stress, and significant differences in the PAHs detected in the PM10-2.5 and PM 2.5 fractions. Temporally, the greatest effects on gene induction were observed in winter months, which appeared to correlate with inversions that are common in the air basin. Spatially, the greatest gene expression increases were seen in extracts collected from the central most areas of El Paso which are also closest to highways and border

  8. [METHODOLOGY FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF THE ATMOSPHERIC AIR POLLUTION ON THE FORMATION OF THE LEVELS OF OVERALL MORBIDITY RATE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA].

    PubMed

    Veremchuk, L V; Cherpack, N A; Gvozdenko, T A; Volkova, M V

    2015-01-01

    In large cities with strong air pollution the formation of the levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma has a complex causation that requires the search for informative methods for identification of causes and consequences of this dependence. Method for the assessment of the dependence of overall levels of morbidity rate of bronchial asthma on the degree of air pollution allows you to select a "useful information" of the direct impact of air pollution on a background of random processes and latent relationship between human and environment. The use of the method of the information entropy analysis allowed us to estimate the total and the individual contribution of the separate components of air pollution on the formation of levels of total morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in the population of the city of Vladivostok. Levels of total incidence of this pathology were established to differ in various age groups. The adult population is more adapted to air pollution, but retains a high sensitivity to the impact of nitrogen dioxide. Levels of overall l morbidity rate of bronchial asthma in children and adolescents depend on the total air pollution with some dominance of the influence of suspended matter and carbon monoxide.

  9. Enhanced Gadd45 expression and delayed G2/M progression are p53 dependent in zinc-supplemented human bronchial epithelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinc is an essential nutrient for humans; however, this study demonstrated for the first time that an elevated zinc status, created by culturing cells at optimal plasma zinc concentration attainable by oral zinc supplementation, is cytotoxic for normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. p53 p...

  10. [The nonspecific bronchial stimulation test with methacholine and an ultrasonic mist of distilled water: which is to be preferred in the military sphere?].

    PubMed

    Ferrante, E; Grasso, S; Germani, M A; Morelli, R; Corbo, G M; Ciappi, G

    1992-04-01

    The authors compare the methacholine (Mch) and the nebulized ultrasonic distilled water (NUDW) bronchial challenge as regard sensitivity and time required to perform them. For military service fitness, were studied 24 asthmatic patients. Each subject performed random a bronchial challenge by Mch (Yan method) and by NUDW (Allegra method) in two different days; for each bronchial challenge has been measured the time required to perform it. The atopic status has been evaluated by skin-prick test. All the subjects have shown a positive response to Mch test (PD 20 FEV1 mean: 352 mcg, range 80-850) whereas 13 subjects (54%) have shown a positive response to NUDW. The time required to evaluate all the subjects by Mch test has been 199.5 minutes whereas the total time required to evaluate all the subjects by NUDW test (127 minutes) and to evaluate by Mch test the non responders to NUDW (100 minutes) has been 227 minutes. The most of subjects were skin reactors. No difference was found as regard onset of disease, basal lung function and atopic status between responders and non responders to NUDW test. We conclude that NUDW test has shown a lack of sensitivity in this sample (50% of asthmatic patients could be misdiagnosed) and that the Mch test is preferable to determine a rapid method for measurement of bronchial responsiveness.

  11. IL-17 producing T cells correlate with polysensitization but not with bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Th2-type T cell response has a considerable role in atopic diseases. The involvement of Th17 and IL-17 in atopy process provided new understanding of allergic diseases. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness is quite common in allergic rhinitis. We aimed to explore the expression of IL-17 producing CD3+ CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood of rhinitic patients, with/without bronchial hyperresponsiveness and sensitized to common allergens, as this relationship has not been examined. Methods Sixty one patients with allergic rhinitis and thirty controls were examined. IL-17 producing T cells were detected by flow cytometry, IL-17, IL-4 and IL-13 levels in peripheral blood were evaluated by ELISA. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness was investigated with methacholine challenge test. Atopy was evaluated by skin prick tests with common allergens. Results IL-17 producing T cell percentage of AR group was significantly higher: 2.59 ± 1.32 than in controls 1.24 ± 0.22, (p = 0.001). Significant sex related difference in CD3+ CD4+ IL-17 T cells was observed: respectively in male patients versus female 3.15 ± 1.8% and 2.31 ± 0.9%, (p = 0.02). Rhinitics had greater bronchodilator responses compared to controls (p = 0.001), however the percentages of T cells in both groups appeared equal. Serum IL-17 levels in AR group were significantly higher (5.10 ± 4.40) pg/ml than in controls (3.46 ±1.28) pg/ml, (p = 0.04). IL-4 levels (0.88 ± 1.27) and IL-13 levels (3.14 ± 5.85) in patients were significantly higher than in control’s (0.54 ± 0.10) pg/ml, (p = 0.001) and (1.19 ± 0.64) pg/ml; (p = 0.001) respectively. The percentages of T cells in patients sensitized to 5 allergens (group I) were significantly lower (1.91 ± 0.62) than those sensitized to more than 5 allergens (group II) (2.91 ± 1.5) (p = 0.004). Conclusions The observed higher levels of IL-17 producing T cells in polysensitized males suggest a role of IL-17 in pathogenesis of AR. The higher airway responsiveness in AR

  12. Effects of RP 73401, a novel, potent and selective phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, on contractility of human, isolated bronchial muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Naline, E.; Qian, Y.; Advenier, C.; Raeburn, D.; Karlsson, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to investigate the smooth muscle relaxant effects of the novel, selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) type 4 inhibitor, RP 73401 in comparison with the classical PDE 4 inhibitor, rolipram, the non-selective PDE inhibitor, theophylline and the beta-adrenoceptor agonist, isoprenaline on the human, isolated bronchus. 2. At resting tone, the rank order of potency (pD2) for the relaxants was RP 73401 > or = rolipram > or = isoprenaline >> theophylline. In terms of maximum relaxation produced (Emax) the PDE 4-selective inhibitors were similar, but the maximal effects (70-75% of theophylline, 3 mM) were lower than that observed with isoprenaline (98% of theophylline, 3 mM) or theophylline itself (100%). 3. On the human isolated bronchus pre-contracted with acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1 or 1.0 mM), the rank order of potency remained the same. The maximal responses to RP 73401 and rolipram were however markedly reduced (Emax 39.9-46.6%) compared with isoprenaline (Emax 79-85%). 4. In tissues pre-contracted with ACh (0.1 mM), RP 73401 and rolipram (10(-9)-10(-7) M) significantly and concentration-dependently increased tissue sensitivity to isoprenaline. RP 73401 and rolipram were similar in potency. Both selective PDE 4 inhibitors also significantly increased the maximal relaxant effects of isoprenaline. These effects were not observed with the PDE 3 inhibitor, siguazodan. 5. In terms of retention by tissues (an index of duration of action), the onset of action of RP 73401 (2.11 +/- 0.53 min) and rolipram (1.70 +/- 0.45 min) was significantly slower than that of isoprenaline (0.33 +/- 0.06 min) or theophylline (1.17 +/- 0.25 min). The retention of RP 73401 (89.0 +/- 21.9 min) on the human isolated bronchial tissues after washing was however dramatically longer than that of rolipram (18.3 +/- 4.5 min), theophylline (3.43 +/- 0.58 min) or isoprenaline (2.81 +/- 0.31 min). 6. These data indicate that RP 73401 is a potent and long acting relaxant of human

  13. Effects of leukotriene D4 nasal challenge on bronchial responsiveness and inflammation in asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zheng; Xie, Yanqing; Guan, Weijie; Gao, Yi; Huang, Rongquan; Xia, Shu; Jian, Wenhua; Liang, Zhiyu

    2017-01-01

    Background In asthmatic patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), increased cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) production in the secretion of nasal mucosa has been associated with greater bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) after nasal allergen challenge. However, the role of CysLTs in eliciting BHR after nasal allergen challenge has not been evaluated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LTD4 nasal challenge on BHR and inflammation in asthmatic patients with AR. Methods In this self-controlled study, fifteen eligible consecutively recruited subjects underwent methacholine (Mch) bronchial provocation test before and 30 minutes after LTD4 nasal provocation test. The cumulative concentration of LTD4 inducing a 60% increase in nasal airway resistance (PC60NAR) was calculated. The mean values of cumulative doses inducing a 20% decrease in forced expiratory flow in one second (PD20FEV1) for Mch before and after nasal challenge were compared. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), differential inflammatory cell counts in nasal lavage and induced sputum before and after nasal challenge were compared. Results House dust mites were the major allergens accounting for 10/15 (66.7%) of asthmatic patients with AR. The PC60NAR for LT was (8.39±3.48)×10−3 mg·mL−1. The PD20FEV1 before and after nasal challenge was 3.05±3.81 and 2.70±3.81 µmol, respectively (P=0.45). The percentages of eosinophils were (38.36±23.14)% and (45.70±24.86)% in nasal lavage, and (17.51±11.05)% and (24.29±16.52)% in induced sputum before and 24 hours after nasal challenge. The neutrophil counts were (60.64±23.14)% and (53.30±24.46)% in nasal lavage, and (53.83±23.27)% and (56.19±22.28)% in induced sputum before and 24 hours after nasal challenge. The values of FeNO were 40 [35] and 43 [30] ppb before and 24 hours after nasal challenge. No severe adverse effects were reported during the tests. Conclusions Although most asthmatic patients with AR were sensitive to LTD4 nasal

  14. Preliminary results of tomotherapy for treatment of inoperable recurrent non-small cell lung cancer at bronchial stump site after right pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Seong Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study This study aimed to prospectively investigate the clinical outcomes of curative radical helical tomotherapy (HT) applied to recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at the bronchial stump site after right pneumonectomy. After right pneumonectomy, the heart shifted right laterally. The chambers of the heart closed with a recurrent mass at the bronchial stump were the right atrium and left atrium due to right shifting of the heart. The unfavorable bronchial stump recurrent cancer-heart geometry due to a right shift of the heart might serve as a reliable predictor of cardiac morbidity for aggressive radiotherapy. Material and methods The 23 patients received HT for the recurrent NSCLC at the bronchial stump site after right pneumonectomy between 2008 and 2011. The median age of the patients was 65 years (range 56–74). Results We prescribed 95% volume of the primary planning target volume (PTV) to a total dose of 69 Gy in 30 fractions, and 95% of the secondary PTV to a total dose of 54 Gy in 30 fractions with reduction of the 50% volume of the heart < 20 Gy. The median conformal index in the 23 plans was 1.21. The mean fraction of primary PTV receiving more than 95% of the prescribed dose was 97.8%. The mean V45, V50, V60 of the heart were 10.5%, 6.5%, 0.2%, respectively. The median follow-up after tomotherapy was 19.86 months. Median survival was 20 months. The 2-year OS was 39.1%. Conclusions The relatively high dose tomotherapy alone for patients with a recurrent bronchial stump mass which was proximal to the heart demonstrated favorable clinical results without severe heart or pulmonary complications. PMID:26199573

  15. [Th17/Treg imbalance mediated by IL-8 in RSV-infected bronchial epithelial cells].

    PubMed

    Qin, Ling; Feng, Juntao; Hu, Chengping; Li, Yuanyuan; Niu, Ruichao

    2016-04-01

    目的:探讨呼吸道合胞病毒(respiratory syncytial virus,RSV)感染导致哮喘易感性增加的机制,观察人支气管上皮细胞感染RSV后IL-8的表达,以及IL-8对Th17/调节性T淋巴细胞(regulatory T cells,Treg)分化的调节作用。
方法:将人支气管上皮细胞(human bronchial epithelial cells,HBECs)分为对照组和RSV感染组,构建并验证RSV持续感染HBECs模型,real-time PCR检测对照组和RSV感染组中IL-8 mRNA的表达;ELISA检测感染细胞上清液中IL-8的浓度。提取健康人外周血淋巴细胞并将其分为空白对照组和IL-8作用组,参照ELISA检测到的浓度将IL-8作用于淋巴细胞24 h,采用流式细胞仪检测淋巴细胞中Th17和Treg亚群的分布情况。结果:本实验成功构建RSV持续感染HBECs模型,感染后的细胞仍能够继续分裂传代,并可检测到RSV持续存在的证据。免疫荧光显示细胞内有RSV致病蛋白的荧光表达;电镜下观察到感染细胞的线粒体水肿和内质网扩张,出现核周裂隙以及合胞现象,细胞核、胞浆内有病毒颗粒分布。Real-time PCR和ELISA分别检测到RSV感染组细胞内IL-8 mRNA表达和上清液中IL-8的分泌水平均高于对照组(均P<0.05)。进一步将IL-8作用于淋巴细胞,流式细胞学结果表明IL-8作用组淋巴细胞中Th17亚群比率增高(P<0.05),但Treg亚群比率与对照组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:RSV感染气道上皮细胞后可通过过度分泌IL-8而引起Th17/Treg亚群分化异常。.

  16. The molecular and cellular response of normal and progressed human bronchial epithelial cells to HZE particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Larsen, Jill

    We have used a model of non-oncogenically immortalized normal human bronchial epithelial cells to determine the response of such cells to particles found outside the protection of the earth’s electromagnetic field. We have identified an enhanced frequency of cellular transformation, as measured by growth in soft agar, for both 56Fe and 28Si (1 GeV/n) that is maximal (4-6 fold) at 0.25 Gy and 0.40 Gy, respectively. At 4 months post-irradiation 38 individual soft agar clones were isolated. These clones were characterized extensively for cellular and molecular changes. Gene expression analysis suggested that these clones had down-regulated several genes associated with anti-oxidant pathways including GLS2, GPX1 and 4, SOD2, PIG3, and NQO1 amongst others. As a result, many of these transformed clones were exposed to high levels of intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS), although there appeared not to be any enhanced mitochondrial ROS. DNA repair pathways associated with ATM/ATR signaling were also upregulated. However, these transformants do not develop into tumors when injected into immune-compromised mice, suggesting that they have not progressed sufficiently to become oncogenic. Therefore we chose 6 soft agar clones for continuous culture for an additional 14 months. Amongst the 6 clones, only one clone showed any significant change in phenotype. Clone 3kt-ff.2a, propagated for 18 months, were 2-fold more radioresistant, had a shortened doubling time and the background rate of transformation more than doubled. Furthermore, the morphology of transformed clones changed. Clones from this culture are being compared to the original clone as well as the parental HBEC3KT and will be injected into immune-compromised mice for oncogenic potential. Oncogenically progressed HBECs, HBEC3KT cells that overexpress a mutant RAS gene and where p53 has been knocked down, designated HBEC3KTR53, responded quite differently to HZE particle exposure. First, these cells are more

  17. Immunological abnormalities in the syndrome of poliomyelitis-like illness associated with acute bronchial asthma (Hopkin's syndrome).

    PubMed Central

    Manson, J I; Thong, Y H

    1980-01-01

    In recent years an unusual syndrome of poliomyelitis-like illness, associated with acute bronchial asthma, has been reported from different parts of the world. A further 3 cases are described in this paper. Although the condition resembles poliomyelitis in most respects, particularly with regard to the severe permanent residual weakness usually observed, consistent evidence of a viral aetiology has not been forthcoming. Tests of immune function suggested the presence of varying degrees of nonspecific immune deficiency in our 3 patients, but evidence of viral invasion was inconclusive. It is suggested that a combination of immune deficiency with the stress of the acute asthma attack rendered the patients susceptible to invasion of the anterior horn cells by a viral agent, which may have been of external origin, or may have existed in a latent form within the host. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7377814

  18. [Efficiency of a combination of haloaerosols and helium-neon laser in the multimodality treatment of patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Faradzheva, N A

    2007-01-01

    A hundred and thirty-eight patients with infection-dependent bronchial asthma, including 73 with moderate persistent asthma and 65 with severe persistent one, were examined. Four modes of a combination of traditional (drug) therapy (DT) and untraditional (halotherapy (HT) and endobronchial helium-neon laser irradiation (ELI) one were used. The efficiency of the treatment performed was evaluated, by determining the time course of clinical symptoms of the disease on the basis of scores of their magnitude and the patients' condition. The findings indicated that in moderate persistent asthma, both HT and ELI in combination with DT exerted an equal therapeutic effect, which provided a good and excellent condition in 83.3% of cases. In severe persistent asthma, such a condition was achieved in 93.75% of cases only when multimodality treatment involving DT, HT, and ELI had been performed.

  19. Pharmacokinetics of Enrofloxacin and Danofloxacin in Plasma, Inflammatory Exudate, and Bronchial Secretions of Calves following Subcutaneous Administration

    PubMed Central

    McKellar, Quintin; Gibson, Ian; Monteiro, Ana; Bregante, Miguel

    1999-01-01

    Enrofloxacin (2.5 mg/kg of body weight) and danofloxacin (1.25 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously to ruminating calves (n = 8) fitted with subcutaneous tissue cages. Concentrations of enrofloxacin, its metabolite ciprofloxacin, and danofloxacin in blood (plasma), tissue cage exudate (following intracaveal injection of 0.3 ml of 1% [vol/wt] carrageenan), and bronchial secretions were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and microbiological assay (enrofloxacin plus ciprofloxacin and danofloxacin). Mean maximum concentrations (Cmax) ± standard deviations of enrofloxacin (0.24 ± 0.08 μg/ml), ciprofloxacin (0.11 ± 0.03 [total, 0.34 ± 0.10] μg/ml), and danofloxacin (0.23 ± 0.05 μg/ml) were detected in the plasma of calves by HPLC. The Cmax were 0.49 ± 0.17 μg/ml (enrofloxacin equivalents) and 0.24 ± 0.03 μg/ml (danofloxacin) when they were measured by microbiological assay. Mean Cmax in exudate (HPLC) were 0.18 ± 0.07 μg/ml (enrofloxacin), 0.10 ± 0.04 μg/ml (ciprofloxacin), 0.27 ± 0.09 μg/ml (enrofloxacin plus ciprofloxacin), and 0.19 ± 0.05 μg/ml (danofloxacin), and concentrations in exudate exceeded those in plasma from 8 h (enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin) or 6 h (danofloxacin) after drug administration. The Cmax were 0.34 ± 0.09 μg/ml (enrofloxacin equivalents) and 0.22 ± 0.04 μg/ml (danofloxacin) in exudate when they were measured by the microbiological assay. The maximum mean concentration achieved in bronchial secretions (HPLC) were 0.07 ± 0.04 μg/ml (enrofloxacin), 0.04 ± 0.07 μg/ml (ciprofloxacin), 0.10 ± 0.05 μg/ml (enrofloxacin plus ciprofloxacin), and 0.12 ± 0.09 μg/ml (danofloxacin). The maximum mean concentration in bronchial secretions from a limited number of animals from which samples were available for microbiological assay were 0.27 ± 0.11 μg/ml (n = 4 [enrofloxacin equivalents]) and 0.14 ± 0.02 μg/ml (n = 3 [danofloxacin]). With predictive models of efficacy (Cmax/MIC and area under the

  20. Theophylline action on primary human bronchial epithelial cells under proinflammatory stimuli and steroidal drugs: a therapeutic rationale approach

    PubMed Central

    Gallelli, Luca; Falcone, Daniela; Cannataro, Roberto; Perri, Mariarita; Serra, Raffaele; Pelaia, Girolamo; Maselli, Rosario; Savino, Rocco; Spaziano, Giuseppe; D’Agostino, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Theophylline is a natural compound present in tea. Because of its property to relax smooth muscle it is used in pharmacology for the treatment of airway diseases (ie, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma). However, this effect on smooth muscle is dose dependent and it is related to the development of side effects. Recently, an increasing body of evidence suggests that theophylline, at low concentrations, also has anti-inflammatory effects related to the activation of histone deacetylases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of theophylline alone and in combination with corticosteroids on human bronchial epithelial cells under inflammatory stimuli. Theophylline administrated alone was not able to reduce growth-stimulating signaling via extracellular signal-regulated kinases activation and matrix metalloproteases release, whereas it strongly counteracts this biochemical behavior when administered in the presence of corticosteroids. These data provide scientific evidence for supporting the rationale for the pharmacological use of theophylline and corticosteroid combined drug. PMID:28176948

  1. Penicillium marneffei infection in a HIV-Positive patient: A comparison of bronchial washing cytology and biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Chu Hyun; Pil, Chong Young; Cho, Kyung Ja

    2017-01-01

    Penicilliosis is a disseminated and progressive infection that is mainly found in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Because of the high mortality of patients with disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection, rapid diagnosis and early treatment are required. Diagnosis is traditionally made by biopsy and/or culture of blood or any involved organ. Cytology offers several advantages over biopsy, including more rapid diagnosis and greater resolution of cytomorphologic details of organisms, allowing rapid initiation of treatment. Here, we describe a case of penicilliosis in an HIV-positive patient with emphasis on the morphological characteristics of the organism in cytologic specimens, as well as a comparison of bronchial washing and biopsy findings. PMID:28182077

  2. Evidence for an Association Between Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy and Bronchial Asthma: Retrospective Analysis in a Primary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    von Blotzheim, Leonardo Glutz; Christen, Stefan; Wieser, Stephan; Ulrich, Silvia; Huber, Lars C

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of bronchial asthma in patients with Tako-Tsubo Syndrome (TTS). Design: This retrospective case-series study was conducted in a primary care hospital in Zurich, Switzerland. Data of all patients with newly diagnosed TTS (2002 - 2012) were assessed electronically by the use of ICD-10. Asthma prevalence was compared to published epidemiologic data. Setting: Bronchial asthma is characterized by airway inflammation and, during attack, release of endogenous catecholamines. Sympathomimetic drugs are the mainstay of treatment for asthma patients. Likewise, catecholamine mediated diffuse microvascular myocardial dysfunction seems to be of critical importance for the development of TTS. Results: 20 cases of TTS were identified. 90% were female, showed a median age of 70±13y [25y - 90y], an apical and/or midventricular ballooning pattern with preserved basal function and a median initial LVEF of 34±9% [25% - 55%]. 65% of patients underwent coronary angiography to rule out significant coronary artery disease. Hypertension was present in 45% of patients, 35% were smokers, none was suffering from diabetes. Prevalence of asthma in patients with TTS was significantly higher compared to the normal population (25% vs. 7%, p=0.012). In 30% of the TTS patients an iatrogenic cause for development of TTS was identified. Conclusion: Prevalence of asthma was significantly higher in patients with TTS compared to epidemiologic data from an age-matched population. Phenotypes of patients developing obstructive ventilatory disease and TTS might share common pathogenic mechanisms beyond the use of bronchodilatators. In addition, we identified other iatrogenic etiologies in patients with TTS. PMID:25767631

  3. Development of Combining of Human Bronchial Mucosa Models with XposeALI® for Exposure of Air Pollution Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jie; Hedelin, Anna; Malmlöf, Maria; Kessler, Vadim; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Gerde, Per; Palmberg, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Background Exposure to agents via inhalation is of great concerns both in workplace environment and in the daily contact with particles in the ambient air. Reliable human airway exposure systems will most likely replace animal experiment in future toxicity assessment studies of inhaled agents. Methods In this study, we successfully established a combination of an exposure system (XposeALI) with 3D models mimicking both healthy and chronic bronchitis-like mucosa by co-culturing human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBEC) and fibroblast at air-liquid interface (ALI). Light-, confocal microscopy, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement and RT-PCR were performed to identify how the PBEC differentiated under ALI culture condition. Both models were exposed to palladium (Pd) nanoparticles which sized 6–10 nm, analogous to those released from modern car catalysts, at three different concentrations utilizing the XposeALI module of the PreciseInhale® exposure system. Results Exposing the 3D models to Pd nanoparticles induced increased secretion of IL-8, yet the chronic bronchitis-like model released significantly more IL-8 than the normal model. The levels of IL-8 in basal medium (BM) and apical lavage medium (AM) were in the same ranges, but the secretion of MMP-9 was significantly higher in the AM compared to the BM. Conclusion This combination of relevant human bronchial mucosa models and sophisticated exposure system can mimic in vivo conditions and serve as a useful alternative animal testing tool when studying adverse effects in humans exposed to aerosols, air pollutants or particles in an occupational setting. PMID:28107509

  4. Reliability of commercially available immunocytochemical markers for identification of neuroendocrine differentiation in bronchoscopic biopsies of bronchial carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Gosney, J. R.; Gosney, M. A.; Lye, M.; Butt, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Although neuroendocrine differentiation occurs quite commonly in non-small cell bronchial malignancies, its biological significance and implications for management remain uncertain. Determining these facts requires its recognition early, ideally at diagnosis, which is usually made on tissue from bronchoscopy, but the best means of its detection in such material is unclear. A prospective comparative study was performed of 10 commercially available antisera to a series of markers of neuroendocrine differentiation, to test their efficacy when applied to fibreoptic bronchoscopy biopsy specimens. METHODS--Expression of chromogranin A, synaptophysin, neurone-specific enolase, protein gene product 9.5, the BB isoenzyme of creatine kinase, gastrin releasing peptide, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, calcitonin, calcitonin gene related peptide, and leucine enkephalin was sought by immunolabelling of bronchoscopic biopsy tissue from 83 primary bronchial carcinomas, 22 of them of small cell type. RESULTS--Only synaptophysin and chromogranin were sensitive and specific enough for neuroendocrine differentiation to discriminate between small cell and non-small cell lesions, whereas protein gene product 9.5 and creatine kinase were neither particularly sensitive nor specific and neurone-specific enolase actually labelled more non-small cell tumours than small cell lesions. Of the five secretory products sought, only gastrin releasing peptide was detectable in just one tumour. Three squamous and two morphologically undifferentiated tumours immunolabelled for synaptophysin and chromogranin, almost certainly indicating neuroendocrine differentiation in the absence of small cell morphology. CONCLUSIONS--Of the markers studied, only synaptophysin and chromogranin were sufficiently specific and sensitive for neuroendocrine differentiation to justify their inclusion in any panel of antibodies used in its detection in tissue obtained at fibreoptic brochoscopy. Images PMID:7701447

  5. Functional variables associated with the clinical grade of dyspnoea in coal miners with pneumoconiosis and mild bronchial obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, T; Schultze-Werningh..., G; Kollmeier, J; Weber, A; Eibel, R; Lemke, B; Schmidt, E

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Dyspnoea is a common symptom in coal miners with pneumoconiosis. Among others, gas exchange disturbances due to airway obstruction or mismatch between ventilation and perfusion may be underlying mechanisms. The validation of dyspnoea by the degree of airway obstruction is controversial, because the extent of airway obstruction often does not correlate with the clinical grade of breathlessness.
METHODS—The association was investigated between breathlessness (self reported, on a six point scale) and indices of submaximal spiroergometry in 66 coal workers with radiographically confirmed pneumoconiosis (International Labour Organisation (ILO) grade of profusion ⩾1/0, mean (SD) age 64 (5.5) years, mean (SD) forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1) 77.5 (22.9) % predicted).
RESULTS—The clinical degree of breathlessness was independently associated with minute ventilation/oxygen consumption (V̇E/V̇O2) ratio (β 0.423, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.18 to 0.67, p=0.001) and smoking (β 0.318, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.79, p=0.014) in a multiple linear regression analysis. The V̇E/V̇O2 ratio (β 0.556, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.90, p=0.003) was also the best predictor of breathlessness when only coal miners with airway obstruction (FEV1 < 80% predicted) were analyzed.
CONCLUSION—The V̇E/V̇O2 ratio as a measurement of mismatch between ventilation and perfusion predicted the clinical grade of breathlessness better than measurements of bronchial obstruction at rest in coal workers with pneumoconiosis.


Keywords: coal workers' pneumoconiosis; bronchial obstruction; ventilation PMID:11706146

  6. Benzo[ghi]perylene activates the AHR pathway to exert biological effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza-Ojeda, Montserrat; Eguía-Aguilar, Pilar; Perezpeña-Díazconti, Mario; Arenas-Huertero, Francisco

    2016-08-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are produced by incomplete combustion of organic material. In the Mexico City atmosphere, the most abundant PAH is benzo[ghi]perylene (BghiP), a gasoline combustion marker. At present, there are no reports of the effects of BghiP on human bronchial cells, so the aim of the study was to evaluate the effects in vitro of BghiP on the NL-20 cell line. Results showed that BghiP induced the formation of small vesicles throughout the cytoplasm, with absence of nuclear fragmentation. At 48h exposition, damage in cell membrane increased significantly at 1.24μg/mL of BghiP (p<0.05). Immunocytochemistry revealed that BghiP provokes nuclear translocation of AhR receptor, which indicates that this compound can induce transcription of genes via receptor binding (AhR pathway activation). BghiP induced a two-fold increase (p<0.05) in the expression of AhR and CYP4B1 (a lung-specific pathway effector). In the presence of the receptor antagonist CH-223191, the loss of viability, the nuclear translocation and the overexpression of genes decreased, though this did not prevent the formation of vesicles. BghiP induced oxidative stress and in presence of the receptor antagonist this increased significantly. In conclusion, BghiP can activate the overexpression of AhR and CYP4B1, and the effects are abated by the AhR receptor antagonist. This is the first report to prove that BghiP utilizes the AhR pathway to exert its toxic effects on the NL-20 human bronchial cell line .

  7. Toluene diisocyanate exposure induces airway inflammation of bronchial epithelial cells via the activation of transient receptor potential melastatin 8

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Hee; Jang, Young-Sook; Jang, Seung-Hun; Jung, Ki-Suck; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Ye, Young-Min; Park, Hae-Sim

    2017-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) is the most important cause of occupational asthma (OA), and various pathogenic mechanisms have been suggested. Of these mechanisms, neurogenic inflammation is an important inducer of airway inflammation. Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a well-established cold-sensing cation channel that is expressed in both neuronal cells and bronchial epithelial cells. A recent genome-wide association study of TDI-exposed workers found a significant association between the phenotype of TDI-induced OA and the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10803666, which has been mapped to the TRPM8 gene. We hypothesized that TRPM8 located in airway epithelial cells may be involved in the pathogenic mechanisms of TDI-induced OA and investigated its role. Bronchial epithelial cells were treated with TDI in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression levels of TRPM8 mRNA and protein were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. TDI-induced morphological changes in the cells were evaluated by immunocytochemistry. Alterations in the transcripts of inflammatory cytokines were examined in accordance with TRPM8 activation by TDI. TRPM8 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels was enhanced by TDI in airway epithelial cells. TRPM8 activation by TDI led to significant increases in the mRNA of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-25 and IL-33. The increased expression of the cytokine genes by TDI was partly attenuated after treatment with a TRPM8 antagonist. TDI exposure induces increased expression of TRPM8 mRNA in airway epithelial cells coupled with enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines, suggesting a novel role of TRPM8 in the pathogenesis of TDI-induced OA. PMID:28255167

  8. Non-Genomic Estrogen Regulation of Ion Transport and Airway Surface Liquid Dynamics in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Criq, Vinciane; Kim, Sung Hoon; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Harvey, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Male cystic fibrosis (CF) patients survive longer than females and lung exacerbations in CF females vary during the estrous cycle. Estrogen has been reported to reduce the height of the airway surface liquid (ASL) in female CF bronchial epithelium. Here we investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol on the airway surface liquid height and ion transport in normal (NuLi-1) and CF (CuFi-1) bronchial epithelial monolayers. Live cell imaging using confocal microscopy revealed that airway surface liquid height was significantly higher in the non-CF cells compared to the CF cells. 17β-estradiol (0.1–10 nM) reduced the airway surface liquid height in non-CF and CF cells after 30 min treatment. Treatment with the nuclear-impeded Estrogen Dendrimer Conjugate mimicked the effect of free estrogen by reducing significantly the airway surface liquid height in CF and non-CF cells. Inhibition of chloride transport or basolateral potassium recycling decreased the airway surface liquid height and 17β-estradiol had no additive effect in the presence of these ion transporter inhibitors. 17β-estradiol decreased bumetanide-sensitive transepithelial short-circuit current in non-CF cells and prevented the forskolin-induced increase in ASL height. 17β-estradiol stimulated an amiloride-sensitive transepithelial current and increased ouabain-sensitive basolateral short-circuit current in CF cells. 17β-estradiol increased PKCδ activity in CF and non-CF cells. These results demonstrate that estrogen dehydrates CF and non-CF ASL, and these responses to 17β-estradiol are non-genomic rather than involving the classical nuclear estrogen receptor pathway. 17β-estradiol acts on the airway surface liquid by inhibiting cAMP-mediated chloride secretion in non-CF cells and increasing sodium absorption via the stimulation of PKCδ, ENaC and the Na+/K+ATPase in CF cells. PMID:24223826

  9. Comparative cytoprotective effects of carbocysteine and fluticasone propionate in cigarette smoke extract-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pace, Elisabetta; Ferraro, Maria; Di Vincenzo, Serena; Cipollina, Chiara; Gerbino, Stefania; Cigna, Diego; Caputo, Valentina; Balsamo, Rossella; Lanata, Luigi; Gjomarkaj, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) induce oxidative stress, an important feature in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and oxidative stress contributes to the poor clinical efficacy of corticosteroids in COPD patients. Carbocysteine, an antioxidant and mucolytic agent, is effective in reducing the severity and the rate of exacerbations in COPD patients. The effects of carbocysteine on CSE-induced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells as well as the comparison of these antioxidant effects of carbocysteine with those of fluticasone propionate are unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of carbocysteine (10(-4) M) in cell survival and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (by flow cytometry) as well as total glutathione (GSH), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC-2) expression/activation in CSE-stimulated bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBE) and to compare these effects with those of fluticasone propionate (10(-8) M). CSE, carbocysteine or fluticasone propionate did not induce cell necrosis (propidium positive cells) or cell apoptosis (annexin V-positive/propidium-negative cells) in 16-HBE. CSE increased ROS production, nuclear Nrf2 and HO-1 in 16-HBE. Fluticasone propionate did not modify intracellular ROS production, GSH and HDCA-2 but reduced Nrf2 and HO-1 in CSE-stimulated 16-HBE. Carbocysteine reduced ROS production and increased GSH, HO-1, Nrf2 and HDAC-2 nuclear expression/activity in CSE-stimulated cells and was more effective than fluticasone propionate in modulating the CSE-mediated effects. In conclusion, the present study provides compelling evidences that the use of carbocysteine may be considered a promising strategy in diseases associated with corticosteroid resistance.

  10. Effects of Carbocysteine and Beclomethasone on Histone Acetylation/Deacetylation Processes in Cigarette Smoke Exposed Bronchial Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Pace, E; Di Vincenzo, S; Ferraro, M; Siena, L; Chiappara, G; Dino, P; Vitulo, P; Bertani, A; Saibene, F; Lanata, L; Gjomarkaj, M

    2016-12-07

    Histone deacetylase expression/activity may control inflammation, cell senescence, and responses to corticosteroids. Cigarette smoke exposure, increasing oxidative stress, may negatively affect deacetylase expression/activity. The effects of cigarette smoke extracts (CSE), carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on chromatin remodelling processes in human bronchial epithelial cells are largely unknown. The present study was aimed to assess the effects of cigarette smoke, carbocysteine, and beclomethasone dipropionate on histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) expression/activity, N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) expression, histone acetyltransferases (HAT) (p300/CBP) expression, p-CREB and IL-1 m-RNA expression, neutrophil chemotaxis. Increased p-CREB expression was observed in the bronchial epithelium of smokers. CSE increased p-CREB expression and decreased HDAC3 expression and activity and N-CoR m-RNA and protein expression. At the same time, CSE increased the expression of the HAT, p300/CBP. All these events increased acetylation processes within the cells and were associated to increased IL-1 m-RNA expression and neutrophil chemotaxis. The incubation of CSE exposed cells with carbocysteine and beclomethasone counteracted the effects of cigarette smoke on HDAC3 and N-CoR but not on p300/CBP. The increased deacetylation processes due to carbocysteine and beclomethasone dipropionate incubation is associated to reduced p-CREB, IL-1 m-RNA expression, neutrophil chemotaxis. These findings suggest a new role of combination therapy with carbocysteine and beclomethasone dipropionate in restoring deacetylation processes compromised by cigarette smoke exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. A catheter-type flow sensor for measurement of aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics in the bronchial region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikida, M.; Naito, J.; Yokota, T.; Kawabe, T.; Hayashi, Y.; Sato, K.

    2009-10-01

    We developed a novel catheter-type flow sensor for measuring the aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics trans-bronchially. An on-wall in-tube thermal flow sensor is mounted inside the tube, and it is used as a measurement tool in a bronchoscope. The external diameter of the tube is less than a few mm, and therefore, it can evaluate the flow characteristics in the small bronchial region. We newly developed a fabrication process to miniaturize it to less than 2.0 mm in the external diameter by using a heat shrinkable tube. A film sensor fabricated by photolithography was inserted into the tube by hand. By applying a heat shrinking process, the film was automatically mounted on the inner wall surface, and the outer size of the tube was miniaturized to almost half its original size. The final inner and outer diameters of the tube were 1.0 mm and 1.8 mm, respectively. The relationship between the input power of the sensor and the flow rate obeyed King's equation in both forward and reverse flow conditions. The sensor output dependence on ambient temperature was also studied, and the curve obtained at 39.2 °C was used as the calibration curve in animal experiments. The sensor characteristics under reciprocating flow were studied by using a ventilator, and we confirmed that the sensor was able to measure the reciprocating flow at 2.0 Hz. Finally, we successfully measured the aspirated- and inspired-air characteristics in the air passage of a rat.

  12. WNT/β-catenin pathway modulates the TNF-α-induced inflammatory response in bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jaewoong; Jung, Yoonju; Chae, Seyeon; Chung, Sang-In; Kim, Seok-Min; Yoon, Yoosik

    2017-03-04

    In this study, TNF-α was found to activate the WNT/β-catenin pathway in BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells. Levels of phospho-LRP6, Dvl-2, and phospho-GSK-3β were elevated, while that of Axin was reduced by TNF-α treatment. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin and the reporter activity of a β-catenin-responsive promoter were increased by TNF-α treatment. Under the same experimental conditions, TNF-α activated the NF-κB signaling, which includes the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and nuclear translocation and target DNA binding of NF-κB, and it was found that an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, JSH-23, inhibited TNF-α-induced Wnt signaling as well as NF-κB signaling. It was also found that recombinant Wnt proteins induced NF-κB nuclear translocations and its target DNA binding, suggesting that Wnt signaling and NF-κB signaling were inter-connected. TNF-α-induced modulations of IκB and NF-κB as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression were significantly suppressed by the transfection of β-catenin siRNA compared to that of control siRNA. Transfection of a β-catenin expression plasmid augmented the TNF-α-induced modulations of IκB and NF-κB as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. These results clearly demonstrated that the WNT/β-catenin pathway modulates the inflammatory response induced by TNF-α, suggesting that this pathway may be a useful target for the effective treatment of bronchial inflammation.

  13. Wood dusts induce the production of reactive oxygen species and caspase-3 activity in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pylkkänen, Lea; Stockmann-Juvala, Helene; Alenius, Harri; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Savolainen, Kai

    2009-08-21

    Wood dusts are associated with several respiratory symptoms, e.g. impaired lung function and asthma, in exposed workers. However, despite the evidence from epidemiological studies, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we investigated different wood dusts for their capacity to induce cytotoxicity and production of radical oxygen species (ROS) as well as activation of the apoptotic caspase-3 enzyme in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Dusts from three different tree species widely used in wood industry were studied; birch and oak represented hardwood species, and pine a common softwood species. All the experiments were carried out in three different concentrations (10, 50, and 500 microg/ml) and the analysis was performed after 0.5, 2, 6, and 24h exposure. All wood dusts studied were cytotoxic to human bronchial epithelial cells in a dose-dependent manner after 2 and 6h treatment. Exposure to pine, birch, or oak dust had a significant stimulating effect on the production of ROS. Also an induction in caspase-3 protease activity, one of the central components of the apoptotic cascade, was seen in BEAS-2B cells after 2 and 6h exposure to each of the wood dusts studied. In summary, we demonstrate that dusts from pine, birch and oak are cytotoxic, able to increase the production of ROS and the apoptotic response in human broncho-epithelial cells in vitro. Thus, our current data suggest oxidative stress by ROS as an important mechanism likely to function in wood dust related pulmonary toxicity although details of the cellular targets and cell-particle interactions remain to be solved. It is though tempting to speculate that redox-regulated transcription factors such as NFkappaB or AP-1 may play a role in this wood dust-evoked process leading to apparently induced apoptosis of target cells.

  14. Possible role of WT1 in a human fetus with evolving bronchial atresia, pulmonary malformation and renal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Loo, Christine K C; Algar, Elizabeth M; Payton, Diane J; Perry-Keene, Joanna; Pereira, Tamara N; Ramm, Grant A

    2012-01-01

    The association of peripheral bronchial atresia and congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM) has recently been recognised, but the pathology of the lesions evolving together has not been described. We present autopsy findings in a 20 week fetus showing areas of peripheral bronchial destruction and airway malformation consistent with developing CPAM in the right lung supporting a causal relationship between these lesions. This fetus also had congenital heart defect, bilateral renal agenesis and syndactyly. We identified another fetus from our autopsy files, with bilateral renal agenesis, similar right sided pulmonary malformation and cardiac defects. Similar bilateral renal agenesis and defects of the heart and lungs are found in wt1(-/-) mice and we have investigated the expression of WT1 in these fetuses. We hypothesise that the cardiac, liver, renal and possibly lung lesions in these two cases may arise due to mesenchymal defects consequent to WT1 misexpression and discuss evidence for this from the scientific literature. We used immunoperoxidase stains to analyse WT1 expression in autopsy hepatic tissue in both fetuses. We also investigated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a marker of activated hepatic stellate cells/myofibroblasts, and desmin in hepatic mesenchyme and compare these findings with control fetuses, without congenital malformations. We found reduced WT1 expression in hepatic mesothelium in both fetuses with malformations. There was also increased expression of α-SMA in liver perisinusoidal cells, as seen in the wt1(-/-) mouse model. We therefore propose that abnormality of WT1 signalling may be an underlying factor, as WT1 is expressed in coelomic lining cells from which mesenchyme is derived in many organs.

  15. Rhinovirus Load Is High despite Preserved Interferon-β Response in Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cammisano, Maria; Chen, He; Singh, Sareen; Kooi, Cora; Leigh, Richard; Beaudoin, Trevor; Rousseau, Simon; Lands, Larry C.

    2015-01-01

    Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is often exacerbated following acute upper respiratory tract infections caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Pathophysiology of these exacerbations is presently unclear and may involve deficient innate antiviral or exaggerated inflammatory responses in CF airway epithelial cells. Furthermore, responses of CF cells to HRV may be adversely affected by pre-exposure to virulence factors of Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa, the microorganism that frequently colonizes CF airways. Here we examined production of antiviral cytokine interferon-β and inflammatory chemokine interleukin-8, expression of the interferon-responsive antiviral gene 2’-5’-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS1), and intracellular virus RNA load in primary CF (delF508 CFTR) and healthy airway epithelial cells following inoculation with HRV16. Parallel cells were exposed to virulence factors of P. aeruginosa prior to and during HRV16 inoculation. CF cells exhibited production of interferon-β and interleukin-8, and expression of OAS1 at levels comparable to those in healthy cells, yet significantly higher HRV16 RNA load during early hours post-inoculation with HRV16. In line with this, HRV16 RNA load was higher in the CFBE41o- dF cell line overexpessing delF508 CFTR, compared with the isogenic control CFBE41o- WT (wild-type CFTR). Pre-exposure to virulence factors of P. aeruginosa did not affect OAS1 expression or HRV16 RNA load, but potentiated interleukin-8 production. In conclusion, CF cells demonstrate elevated HRV RNA load despite preserved interferon-β and OAS1 responses. High HRV load in CF airway epithelial cells appears to be due to deficiencies manifesting early during HRV infection, and may not be related to interferon-β. PMID:26599098

  16. [Effect of a stay in the North Sea climate on lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of patients with exogenous allergic bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Wolf, I; Fischer, J

    1990-02-01

    This study investigated the influence of a three-week sojourn on the island of Norderney on the lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood of patients with exogenous allergic bronchial asthma. For this purpose, we examined 25 patients at the start of their sojourn at our clinic, and again three weeks later. Patients with chronic bronchitis served as a control group. During the three-week stay, a clinical improvement in obstructive ventilation disturbances was observed. After 21 days, the patients with bronchial asthma showed a significant increase in the OKT8 suppressor cells (22.5-26.6%), and a significant decrease in helper/suppressor ratio (2.7-2.1). In patients with chronic bronchitis, no changes in the T lymphocyte subpopulations were to be found. The difference in the immunological status between the two disease categories present at the start of the study was, therefore, eradicated by a specific and unspecific therapy.

  17. [EVALUETION OF THE CLINICAL EFFICACY OF SUSTAINED RELEASE THEOPHILLINE IN A COMPLEX BASIC THERAPY OF EOSINOPHILIC PHENOTYPE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Ortemenka, Ye P

    2014-01-01

    Based on a complex examination of 11 school age children with eosinophilic phenotype of bronchial asthma, it has been demonstrated that combination of inhaled corticosteroids with oral sustained release theophillines were more effective as a basic anti-inflammatory asthma therapy, in comparison with monotherapy by inhaled corticosteroids. The usage of such combined anti-relapsing asthma treatment has been reduced both the relative risk (RR = 57%) and the attributable risk (AR = 36.3%) of insufficient control of bronchial asthma in children with eosinophilic type of airways inflammation. At the same time, the minimum number of patients, which have to be treated by such method with the object of preventing at least one case of poor asthma control, came to 3 children.

  18. Social networks: a new source of psychological stress or a way to enhance self-esteem? Negative and positive implications in bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    D'Amato, G; Cecchi, L; Liccardi, G; Pellegrino, F; D'Amato, M; Sofia, M

    2012-01-01

    The Internet and, in particular, social networks are an increasingly important part of daily life for both adolescents and adults who maintain a virtual relationship with others sharing interests and goals. Very often, they disclose more about themselves online than they do in person. However, cyberbullying and cyberostracism can be problematic for adolescents and sensitive individuals, who might be negatively affected by social networks. Some studies have shown an increased risk of depression, whereas others suggest beneficial effects through enhanced communication, social connection, and self-esteem. Bronchial asthma is an increasingly frequent disease in the industrialized world, and psychological implications play a role in increasing or in reducing its severity. One year after the case report of an asthma exacerbation that may have been triggered by Facebook, it seems reasonable to analyze the effects of social networks on bronchial asthma.

  19. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Annina; Haarmann, Helge; Zahradnik, Sabrina; Frenzel, Katrin; Schreiber, Frauke; Klassert, Tilman E; Heyl, Kerstin A; Endres, Anne-Sophie; Schmidtke, Michaela; Hofmann, Jörg; Slevogt, Hortense

    2016-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complicated by infectious exacerbations with acute worsening of respiratory symptoms. Coinfections of bacterial and viral pathogens are associated with more severe exacerbations. Moraxella catarrhalis is one of the most frequent lower respiratory tract pathogens detected in COPD. We therefore studied the impact of M. catarrhalis on the antiviral innate immune response that is mediated via TLR3 and p53. Molecular interactions between M. catarrhalis and normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as well as Beas-2B cells were studied using flow cytometry, quantitative PCR analysis, chromatin immunoprecipitation, RNA interference, and ELISA. M. catarrhalis induces a significant down-regulation of TLR3 in human bronchial epithelial cells. In M. catarrhalis-infected cells, expression of p53 was decreased. We detected a reduced binding of p53 to the tlr3 promoter, resulting in reduced TLR3 gene transcription. M. catarrhalis diminished the TLR3-dependent secretion of IFN-β, IFN-λ, and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8. In addition in M. catarrhalis infected cells, expression of rhinovirus type 1A RNA was increased compared with uninfected cells. M. catarrhalis reduces antiviral defense functions of bronchial epithelial cells, which may increase susceptibility to viral infections.-Heinrich, A., Haarmann, H., Zahradnik, S., Frenzel, K., Schreiber, F., Klassert, T. E., Heyl, K. A., Endres, A.-S., Schmidtke, M., Hofmann, J., Slevogt, H. Moraxella catarrhalis decreases antiviral innate immune responses by down-regulation of TLR3 via inhibition of p53 in human bronchial epithelial cells.

  20. Increased cytochrome P450 and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in bronchial epithelium of heavy smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma carries a poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Tsunehiro; Sugio, Kenji; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Iwata, Teruo; Onitsuka, Takamitsu; Isse, Toyohi; Nozoe, Tadahiro; Kagawa, Norio; Yasumoto, Kosei; Kawamoto, Toshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Smoking induces mutations via the formation of DNA-adducts in the bronchial and alveolar epithelium and contributes to the development of lung cancer. Benz(a)pyrene and nitrosamine, typical carcinogens in cigarette smoke, undergo metabolic activation by the phase I enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1. The transcriptional regulation of these phase I enzymes is regulated by arylhydrocarbon receptor (AH-R) which binds many well-known carcinogens. To identify a cause and effect relationship, the expression of cytochrome CYP and AH-R in the bronchial epithelium was correlated with the history of cigarette smoking in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Although CYP3A+ cells were absent in the bronchial epithelium of all patients, there were many CYP2E1+ cells in heavy (>1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (38.5%). In contra-distinction, there was significantly less number of CYP2E1+ cells in light (less than 1000 cigarette/day x year) smokers (15.6%) or non-smokers (10.0%). Similarly, there were more CYP1A1+ (19.2%) and CYP2A6+ cells in heavy (65.4%) smokers as compared to non-smokers. The number of AH-R+ cells was also significantly higher in cases with p53 mutation (62.5%) than those without (12.2%) mutation. Since in patients with early NSCLC, CYP positivity showed a close correlation with a poor survival (p less than 0.01), expression of CYP in bronchial epithelium has a prognostic potential.

  1. Use of radioguided surgery with [111In]-pentetreotide in the management of an ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid causing ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grossrubatscher, E; Vignati, F; Dalino, P; Possa, M; Belloni, P A; Vanzulli, A; Bramerio, M; Marocchi, A; Rossetti, O; Zurleni, F; Loli, P

    2005-01-01

    Intraoperative [111In]-pentetreotide scintigraphy with a hand-held gamma detector probe has recently been proposed to increase the intraoperative detection rate of small neuroendocrine tumors and their metastases. We report a case of a 28-yr-old woman with ectopic Cushing's syndrome due to an ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoid, in whom the use of radioguided surgery improved disease management. At presentation, radiolabeled pentetreotide scintigraphy was the only procedure able to detect the ectopic source of ACTH. After radiologic confirmation, the patient underwent removal of a bronchial carcinoid, with disease persistence. After surgery, pentetreotide scintigraphy showed pathologic uptake in the mediastinum not previously detected at surgery and only subsequently confirmed by radiologic studies. Despite a second thoracic exploration, hormonal, scintigraphic, and radiological evidence of residual disease persisted. Radioguided surgery was then performed using a hand-held gamma probe 48 h after iv administration of a tracer dose of radiolabeled [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]-pentetreotide, which permitted detection and removal of multiple residual mediastinal lymph node metastases. Clinical and radiologic cure, with no evidence of tracer uptake at pentetreotide scintigraphy, was subsequently observed. The use of an intraoperative gamma counter appears a promising procedure in the management of metastatic ACTH-secreting bronchial carcinoids.

  2. The Effect of Therapeutic Blockades of Dust Particles-Induced Ca2+ Signaling and Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-8 in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Hee; Jeong, Sung Hwan; Hong, Jeong Hee

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells are the first barrier of defense against respiratory pathogens. Dust particles as extracellular stimuli are associated with inflammatory reactions after inhalation. It has been reported that dust particles induce intracellular Ca2+ signal, which subsequently increases cytokines production such as interleukin- (IL-) 8. However, the study of therapeutic blockades of Ca2+ signaling induced by dust particles in human bronchial epithelial cells is poorly understood. We investigated how to modulate dust particles-induced Ca2+ signaling and proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 expression. Bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to PM10 dust particles and subsequent mediated intracellular Ca2+ signaling and reactive oxygen species signal. Our results show that exposure to several inhibitors of Ca2+ pathway attenuated the PM10-induced Ca2+ response and subsequent IL-8 mRNA expression. PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression were attenuated by several pharmacological blockades such as antioxidants, IP3-PLC blockers, and TRPM2 inhibitors. Our results show that blockades of PLC or TRPM2 reduced both of PM10-mediated Ca2+ signal and IL-8 expression, suggesting that treatment with these blockades should be considered for potential therapeutic trials in pulmonary epithelium for inflammation caused by environmental events such as seasonal dust storm. PMID:26640326

  3. Utility of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-11-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of /sup 67/Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment.

  4. Effect of an inhaled neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, phosphoramidon, on baseline airway calibre and bronchial responsiveness to bradykinin in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Crimi, N.; Polosa, R.; Pulvirenti, G.; Magrì, S.; Santonocito, G.; Prosperini, G.; Mastruzzo, C.; Mistretta, A.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Bradykinin is a potent vasoactive peptide which has been proposed as an important inflammatory mediator in asthma since it provokes potent bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects. Little is known at present about the potential role of lung peptidases in modulating bradykinin-induced airway dysfunction in vivo in man. The change in bronchial reactivity to bradykinin was therefore investigated after treatment with inhaled phosphoramidon, a potent neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor, in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study of 10 asthmatic subjects. METHODS--Subjects attended on six separate occasions at the same time of day during which concentration-response studies with inhaled bradykinin and histamine were carried out, without treatment and after each test drug. Subjects received nebulised phosphoramidon sodium salt (10(-5) M, 3 ml) or matched placebo for 5-7 minutes using an Inspiron Mini-neb nebuliser 5 minutes before the bronchoprovocation test with bradykinin or histamine. Agonists were administered in increasing concentrations as an aerosol generated from a starting volume of 3 ml in a nebuliser driven by compressed air at 8 1/min. Changes in airway calibre were measured as forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and responsiveness as the provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20). RESULTS--Phosphoramidon administration caused a transient fall in FEV1 from baseline, FEV1 values decreasing 6.3% and 5.3% on the bradykinin and histamine study days, respectively. When compared with placebo, phosphoramidon elicited a small enhancement of the airways response to bradykinin, the geometric mean PC20 value (range) decreasing from 0.281 (0.015-5.575) to 0.136 (0.006-2.061) mg/ml. In contrast, NEP blockade failed to alter the airways response to a subsequent inhalation with histamine, the geometric mean (range) PC20 histamine value of 1.65 (0.17-10.52) mg/ml after placebo being no different from that of 1.58 (0

  5. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  6. Hyaluronidases and hyaluronan synthases expression is inversely correlated with malignancy in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions, affecting prognosis

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, V.K.; Rocha, T.P.; Moreira, AL.; Soares, F.A.; Takagaki, T.; Carvalho, L.; Nicholson, A.G.; Capelozzi, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    We collected a series of 136 lung/bronchial and 56 matched lung parenchyma tissue samples from patients who underwent lung/bronchial biopsies and presented invasive carcinoma after lung surgery. The lung/bronchial samples included basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, moderate dysplasia, adenomatous hyperplasia, severe dysplasia, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Matched lung parenchyma tissue samples included 25 squamous cell carcinomas and 31 adenocarcinomas. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze for the distribution of hyaluronidase (Hyal)-1 and −3, and hyaluronan synthases (HAS)-1, −2, and −3. Hyal-1 showed significantly higher expression in basal cell hyperplasia than in moderate dysplasia (P=0.01), atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.0001), or severe dysplasia (P=0.03). Lower expression of Hyal-3 was found in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia than in basal cell hyperplasia (P=0.01) or moderate dysplasia (P=0.02). HAS-2 was significantly higher in severe dysplasia (P=0.002) and in squamous metaplasia (P=0.04) compared with basal cell hyperplasia. HAS-3 was significantly expressed in basal cell hyperplasia compared with atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (P=0.05) and severe dysplasia (P=0.02). Lower expression of HAS-3 was found in severe dysplasia compared with squamous metaplasia (P=0.01) and moderate dysplasia (P=0.01). Epithelial Hyal-1 and −3 and HAS-1, −2, and −3 expressions were significantly higher in pre-neoplastic lesions than in neoplastic lesions. Comparative Cox multivariate analysis controlled by N stage and histologic tumor type showed that patients with high HAS-3 expression in pre-neoplastic cells obtained by lung/bronchial biopsy presented a significantly higher risk of death (HR=1.19; P=0.04). We concluded that localization of Hyal and HAS in lung/bronchial pre-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions was inversely related to malignancy, which implied that visualizing these factors could be a useful diagnostic

  7. Glutathione-S-transferase M1 regulation of diesel exhaust particle-induced pro-inflammatory mediator expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) contribute substantially to ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Inhalation of PM has been associated with increased incidence of lung disease in susceptible populations. We have demonstrated that the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype could aggravate DEP-induced airway inflammation in human subjects. Given the critical role airway epithelial cells play in the pathogenesis of airway inflammation, we established the GSTM1 deficiency condition in primary bronchial epithelial cells from human volunteers with GSTM1 sufficient genotype (GSTM1+) using GSTM1 shRNA to determine whether GSTM1 deficiency could exaggerate DEP-induced expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-1β proteins. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying GSTM1 regulation of DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression were also investigated. Methods IL-8 and IL-1β protein levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GSTM1 deficiency in primary human bronchial epithelial cells was achieved using lentiviral GSTM1 shRNA particles and verified using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated using flow cytometry. Phosphorylation of protein kinases was detected using immunoblotting. Results Exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells (GSTM1+) to 25-100 μg/ml DEP for 24 h significantly increased IL-8 and IL-1β protein expression. Knockdown of GSTM1 in these cells further elevated DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression, implying that GSTM1 deficiency aggravated DEP-induced pro-inflammatory response. DEP stimulation induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt, the downstream kinase of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), in GSTM1+ bronchial epithelial cells. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK kinase and PI3K activity blocked DEP-induced IL-8 and IL-1β expression. DEP-induced ERK and Akt

  8. Metagenomic Sequencing of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Upper Bronchial Tract Microbiome Reveals Functional Changes Associated with Disease Severity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Simon J S; Lewis, Keir E; Huws, Sharon A; Lin, Wanchang; Hegarty, Matthew J; Lewis, Paul D; Mur, Luis A J; Pachebat, Justin A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a major source of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The microbiome associated with this disease may be an important component of the disease, though studies to date have been based on sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and have revealed unequivocal results. Here, we employed metagenomic sequencing of the upper bronchial tract (UBT) microbiome to allow for greater elucidation of its taxonomic composition, and revealing functional changes associated with the disease. The bacterial metagenomes within sputum samples from eight COPD patients and ten 'healthy' smokers (Controls) were sequenced, and suggested significant changes in the abundance of bacterial species, particularly within the Streptococcus genus. The functional capacity of the COPD UBT microbiome indicated an increased capacity for bacterial growth, which could be an important feature in bacterial-associated acute exacerbations. Regression analyses correlated COPD severity (FEV1% of predicted) with differences in the abundance of Streptococcus pneumoniae and functional classifications related to a reduced capacity for bacterial sialic acid metabolism. This study suggests that the COPD UBT microbiome could be used in patient risk stratification and in identifying novel monitoring and treatment methods, but study of a longitudinal cohort will be required to unequivocally relate these features of the microbiome with COPD severity.

  9. [Issues and current limits for immunohistochemical assessment of PD-L1 status in bronchial biopsies].

    PubMed

    Hofman, Véronique; Ilie, Marius; Long, Elodie; Butori, Catherine; Lassalle, Sandra; Washetine, Kevin; Lalve, Salomé; Marquette, Charles-Hugo; Soria, Jean-Charles; Hofman, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Immunotherapy targeting the PD-L1/PD-1 axis has shown recently some promising results in metastatic lung cancer patients. This treatment seems to be more effective when a high expression of PD-L1 is detected by immunohistochemistry in bronchial biopsies. In this regard, this targeted therapy will be proposed soon in metastatic lung cancer patients. This immunotherapy could be dependent to the immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of PD-L1 expression, thus considered as a companion diagnostic test. This near perspective poses challenges with regard to the positivity threshold value for PD-L1 expression before therapy administration, the positive cellular compartment (tumour cells and/or immune cells), the percentage of positive cells and the clone which is used. A couple of patients have a good response to treatment targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis despite the absence or a weak PD-L1 expression. However the assessment of PD-L1 expression by immunohistochemistry will be the only mandatory approach before therapeutic strategies targeting the PD1/PD-L1 axis for lung cancer patients. In this review, the main challenges of using PD-L1 immunohistochemistry as a potential companion diagnostic tool for metastatic lung cancer patient immunotherapy will be discussed.

  10. Annual direct medical costs of bronchiectasis treatment: Impact of severity, exacerbations, chronic bronchial colonization and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease coexistence.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, David; Martínez-Garcia, Miguel-Angel; Olveira, Casilda; Girón, Rosa; Máiz, Luis; Prados, Concepción

    2016-04-12

    Patients with bronchiectasis (BE) present exacerbations that increase with severity of the disease. We aimed to determine the annual cost of BE treatment according to its severity, determined by FACED score, as well as the parameters associated with higher costs. Multicentre historical cohorts study with patients from six hospitals in Spain. The costs arising during the course of a year from maintenance treatment, exacerbations, emergency visits and hospital admissions were analysed. In total, 456 patients were included (56.4% mild BE, 26.8% moderate BE and 16.9% severe BE). The mean cost was €4671.9 per patient, which increased significantly with severity. In mild BE, most of the costs were due to bronchodilators and inhaled steroids; in severe BE, most were due to exacerbations and inhaled antibiotics. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%), age, colonization byPseudomonas aeruginosaand the number of admissions were independently related to higher costs. The highest costs were found in patients with BE associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, with the most exacerbations and with chronic bronchial colonization byPseudomonas aeruginosa(PA). In conclusion, BE patients gave rise to high annual costs, and these were doubled on each advance in severity on the FACED score. FEV1%, age, colonization by PA and the number of admissions were independently related to higher costs.

  11. Differentiation of Gram-Negative Bacterial Aerosol Exposure Using Detected Markers in Bronchial-Alveolar Lavage Fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Wunschel, David S.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Frevert, Charles W.; Skerret, Shawn J.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Willse, Alan R.; Colburn, Heather A.; Antolick, Kathryn C.

    2009-09-16

    The identification of biosignatures of aerosol exposure to pathogens has the potential to provide useful diagnostic information. In particular, markers of exposure to different types of respiratory pathogens may yield diverse sets of markers that can be used to differentiate exposure. We examine a of mouse model of aerosol exposure to known Gram negative bacterial pathogens, Francisella tularensis novicida and Pseudomonas auriginosa. Mice were subjected to either a pathogen or control exposure and bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at four and twenty four hours post exposure. Small protein and peptide markers within the BALF were detected by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) and analyzed using both exploratory and predictive data analysis methods; principle component analysis and degree of association. The markers detected were successfully used to accurately identify the four hour exposed samples from the control samples. This report demonstrates the potential for small protein and peptide marker profiles to identify aerosol exposure in a short post-exposure time frame.

  12. [Comparative assessment of various methods of determination of interleukin-5 production and their clinical significance in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Sazonov, A E; Ogorodova, L M; Ivanchuk, I I; Kobiakova, O S; Gereng, E A; Kop'eva, A P

    2004-04-01

    Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is an important marker of inflammation in bronchial asthma (BA). The level of IL-5 was investigated by immune-enzyme assay (IEA); the expression degree of IL-5 mRNA was studied, before and after the conducted therapy, by the inhibition reaction-IEA (IR-IEA) in sputum and blood serum of patients. No differences between contents of IL-5 were found in blood plasma of patients with various disease degrees or of patients with different BA etiologies. The IL-5 contents in sputum were reliably different in different groups and depended on a disease severity, exacerbation and remission. An evaluation of an expression degree of the IL-5 RNAm in eosinophiles, derived from patients' blood, provided for clarifying the differences between acute asthma and other disease forms and for defining the therapy influence on the parameter in question. The IL-5 RNAm expression in sputum was reliably different in patients with moderate forms and with acute forms of the disease; it was decreasing due to treatment. Finally, the results of the evaluation of the IL-5 level and the study of mRNA expression of the cytokine mutually supplement one another and make it possible to evaluate the disease degree and therapy efficiency.

  13. Pulmonary autoimmunity as a feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and identification of KCNRG as a bronchial autoantigen

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadi, Mohammad; Dubois, Noémie; Sköldberg, Filip; Hallgren, Åsa; Tardivel, Isabelle; Hedstrand, Håkan; Haavik, Jan; Husebye, Eystein S.; Gustafsson, Jan; Rorsman, Fredrik; Meloni, Antonella; Janson, Christer; Vialettes, Bernard; Kajosaari, Merja; Egner, William; Sargur, Ravishankar; Pontén, Fredrik; Amoura, Zahir; Grimfeld, Alain; De Luca, Filippo; Betterle, Corrado; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Kämpe, Olle; Carel, Jean-Claude

    2009-01-01

    Patients with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) suffer from multiple organ-specific autoimmunity with autoantibodies against target tissue-specific autoantigens. Endocrine and nonendocrine organs such as skin, hair follicles, and liver are targeted by the immune system. Despite sporadic observations of pulmonary symptoms among APS-1 patients, an autoimmune mechanism for pulmonary involvement has not been elucidated. We report here on a subset of APS-1 patients with respiratory symptoms. Eight patients with pulmonary involvement were identified. Severe airway obstruction was found in 4 patients, leading to death in 2. Immunoscreening of a cDNA library using serum samples from a patient with APS-1 and obstructive respiratory symptoms identified a putative potassium channel regulator (KCNRG) as a pulmonary autoantigen. Reactivity to recombinant KCNRG was assessed in 110 APS-1 patients by using immunoprecipitation. Autoantibodies to KCNRG were present in 7 of the 8 patients with respiratory symptoms, but in only 1 of 102 APS-1 patients without respiratory symptoms. Expression of KCNRG messenger RNA and protein was found to be predominantly restricted to the epithelial cells of terminal bronchioles. Autoantibodies to KCNRG, a protein mainly expressed in bronchial epithelium, are strongly associated with pulmonary involvement in APS-1. These findings may facilitate the recognition, diagnosis, characterization, and understanding of the pulmonary manifestations of APS-1. PMID:19251657

  14. MicroRNA-146a modulates human bronchial epithelial cell survival in response to the cytokine-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiangde Nelson, Amy; Wang Xingqi; Kanaji, Nobuhiro; Kim, Miok; Sato, Tadashi; Nakanishi, Masanori; Li Yingji; Sun Jianhong; Michalski, Joel; Patil, Amol; Basma, Hesham; Rennard, Stephen I.

    2009-02-27

    MicroRNA plays an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and cell death. The current study found that miRNA-146a was up-regulated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) in response to stimulation by TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (a mixture of IL-1ss, IFN-{gamma} and TNF-{alpha}). TGF-ss1 plus cytomix (TCM) induced apoptosis in HBECs (3.4 {+-} 0.6% of control vs 83.1 {+-} 4.0% of TCM treated cells, p < 0.01), and this was significantly blocked by the miRNA-146a mimic (8.8 {+-} 1.5%, p < 0.01). In contrast, a miRNA-146a inhibitor had only a modest effect on cell survival but appeared to augment the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in response to the cytokines. The MicroRNA-146a mimic appears to modulate HBEC survival through a mechanism of up-regulating Bcl-XL and STAT3 phosphorylation, and by this mechanism it could contribute to tissue repair and remodeling.

  15. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in the assessment of asthma control: Airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma: its measurement and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Brannan, John D

    2010-08-01

    The two key pathophysiologic features of asthma are bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and airway inflammation. Symptoms and lung function are the most accessible clinical markers for the diagnosis of asthma as well as for assessing asthma control using the most effective treatment of asthma, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, BHR and inflammation usually take longer to resolve using ICS compared with symptoms and lung function. BHR can be assessed using "direct" stimuli that act on the airway smooth muscle (eg, methacholine) or "indirect" stimuli that require the presence of airway inflammation (eg, exercise, osmotic stimuli). Although there are practical limitations in using BHR to assess asthma control, efforts have been made to make BHR more accessible and standardized. Some studies have demonstrated that treatment aimed to decrease BHR with direct stimuli can lead to improved asthma control; however, it often results in the use of higher doses of ICS. Furthermore, BHR to direct stimuli does not usually resolve using ICS because of a fixed component. By contrast, BHR with an indirect stimulus indicates a responsive smooth muscle that occurs only in the presence of inflammation sensitive to ICS (eg, mast cells, eosinophils). BHR to indirect stimuli does resolve using ICS. Because ICS target both key pathophysiologic features of asthma, assessing indirect BHR in the presence of ICS will identify resolution or persistence of BHR and airway inflammation. This may provide a more clinically relevant marker for asthma control that may also lead to improving the clinical usefulness of ICS.

  16. Expression profile of lncRNA in human bronchial epithelial cells response to Talaromyces marneffei infection: A microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Li, Meihua; Luo, Honglin; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Jianquan; Zhong, Xiaoning; Lan, Xiuwan; He, Zhiyi

    2017-03-01

    Talaromyces marneffei is an important opportunistic pathogenic fungus capable of causing systemic lethal infection through inhalation of its conidia. However, little is known about the pathogenesis and interactions between Talaromyces marneffei and host. The aim of this study was to identify potential long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and coding genes associated with interactions between airway epithelial cell and Talaromyces marneffei conidia. We carried out a microarray analysis to determine the expression profile of lncRNA and mRNA in human bronchial epithelial cell in response to Talaromyces marneffei infection. Compared to control group, we found that 370 and 149 lncRNAs were up and down regulated, respectively. Meanwhile, the expression level of 269 and 60 mRNAs was increased and decreased, respectively. To understand the potential role of the differentially expressed lncRNAs, we performed functional annotations of the corresponding coding genes using gene ontology and pathway analyses. Our results provide insights into the pathogenesis of early infection by Talaromyces marneffei.

  17. Endovascular Embolization of Bronchial Artery Originating from the Upper Portion of Aortic Arch in Patients with Massive Hemoptysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Sen Sun, Xi-Wen Yu, Dong Jie, Bing

    2013-05-15

    PurposeOur experience with endovascular embolization (EVE) of the bronchial artery (BA) originating from the upper portion of the aortic arch (AA) in six patients is described.MethodsAltogether, 818 patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) before EVE or AA angiography during EVE. Aberrant BAs originating from the upper portion of the AA were the source of massive hemoptysis in six patients (0.73 %). MDCT angiograms and/or Digital subtraction angiograms were retrospectively reviewed. Selective catheterization and embolization were performed.ResultsThe ostia of the BAs were located on the superior surface of the AA between the brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery in three patients, the junction of the aorta and medial surface of the left subclavian artery in two, and the posterior wall of the upper portion of the AA in one. The six BAs comprised two common trunks, three single right sides, and one single left side. The targeted vessels were successfully catheterized and embolized by a coaxial microcatheter system using polyvinyl alcohol particles. Other pathologic BAs and nonbronchial systemic arteries also were embolized. Bleeding was immediately controlled in all patients with no recurrence of hemoptysis. No procedure-related complications occurred.ConclusionsApplication of EVE of anomalous origin of BAs in patients with hemoptysis is important, as demonstrated in the six reported patients. MDCTA before EVE or AA angiography during EVE is critical to avoid missing a rare aberrant BA originating from the upper portion of the AA.

  18. The response of a human bronchial epithelial cell line to histamine: Intracellular calcium changes and extracellular release of inflammatory mediators

    SciTech Connect

    Noah, T.L.; Paradiso, A.M.; Madden, M.C.; McKinnon, K.P.; Devlin, R.B. )

    1991-11-01

    Epithelial cells are likely to modulate inflammation and tissue repair in the airways, but the factors responsible for these processes remain unclear. Because human airway epithelia are infrequently available for in vitro studies, transformed epithelial cell lines are of interest as models. The authors therefore investigated the response of an SV-40/adenovirus-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) to histamine, a mediator with relevance for airway diseases. The intracellular calcium response to histamine (10(-4) M) was measured, using Fura-2 and microspectrofluorimetry. Histamine induced a transient increase in intracellular calcium that originated from intracellular sources; this effect was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist diphenhydramine, suggesting that BEAS cells retain functioning histamine receptors. BEAS cells were grown to confluence on microporous, collagen-coated filters, allowing measurement of vectorial release of soluble mediators. Monolayers exposed to histamine for 30 min released interleukin-6 and fibronectin in the apical direction, in a dose-dependent manner. Little eicosanoid production was induced by histamine, either in the apical or the basolateral direction, although BEAS cells constitutively produced small amounts of prostaglandin E2 and 15-HETE. However, these cells formed large amounts of eicosanoids in response to ozone exposure as a positive control. Comparison of their data with published reports for human airway epithelia in primary culture suggests that the BEAS cell line is, in a number of respects, a relevant model for the study of airway epithelial responses to a variety of stimuli.

  19. Thymic and Bronchial Carcinoid Tumors in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1: The Mayo Clinic Experience from 1977 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Singh Ospina, Naykky; Thompson, Geoffrey B; C Nichols, Francis; Cassivi, Stephen D; Young, William F

    2015-12-01

    The clinical features of thymic carcinoid (TC) and bronchial carcinoid (BC) tumors as part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) have been rarely described and their importance in clinical practice is debated. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical presentation and outcome of this uncommon manifestation of MEN1 in a tertiary care center setting. We present the clinical features of patients with MEN1 and either TC or BC evaluated at the Mayo Clinic from 1977 to 2013. A total of 348 patients with MEN1 were evaluated and the prevalence of TC was 2.0% (n = 7) and of BC 4.9% (n = 17). The majority of the patients with BC were men (61%) diagnosed on routine screening (77%) and BC was not the confirmed cause of death in any patient. In contrast, TC patients were all men and during follow-up 43% died due to TC complications. We conclude that TC and BC tumors are uncommon, but important components of MEN1. BC were most commonly diagnosed during routine screening and associated with an indolent course. TC were predominantly seen in men and associated with a more aggressive behavior.

  20. Resveratrol and 4-hydroxynonenal act in concert to increase glutamate cysteine ligase expression and glutathione in human bronchial epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongqiao; Shih, Albert; Rinna, Alessandra; Forman, Henry Jay

    2009-01-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to protect against oxidative stress through modulating antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated resveratrol-mediated induction of glutathione (GSH) and glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), and the combined effect of resveratrol and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) on GSH synthesis in cultured HBE1 human bronchial epithelial cells. Resveratrol increased GSH and the mRNA contents of both the catalytic (GCLC) and modulatory subunit (GCLM) of GCL. Combined HNE and resveratrol treatment increased GSH content and GCL mRNAs to a greater extent than either compound did alone. Compared to individual agent, combining exposure to HNE and resveratrol also showed more protection against cell death caused by oxidative stress. These effects of combined exposure were additive rather than synergistic. In addition, Nrf2 silencing significantly decreased the combined effect of HNE and resveratrol on GCL induction. Our data suggest that resveratrol increases GSH and GCL gene expression and that there is an additive effect on GSH synthesis between resveratrol and HNE. The results also reveal that Nrf2-EpRE signaling was involved in the combined effects. PMID:18983812

  1. Appalachian mountaintop mining particulate matter induces neoplastic transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells and promotes tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Luanpitpong, Sudjit; Chen, Michael; Knuckles, Travis; Wen, Sijin; Luo, Juhua; Ellis, Emily; Hendryx, Michael; Rojanasakul, Yon

    2014-11-04

    Epidemiological studies suggest that living near mountaintop coal mining (MTM) activities is one of the contributing factors for high lung cancer incidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term carcinogenic potential of MTM particulate matter (PMMTM) exposure on human bronchial epithelial cells. Our results show that chronic exposure (3 months) to noncytotoxic, physiological relevant concentration (1 μg/mL) of PMMTM, but not control particle PMCON, induced neoplastic transformation, accelerated cell proliferation, and enhanced cell migration of the exposed lung cells. Xenograft transplantation of the PMMTM-exposed cells in mice caused no apparent tumor formation, but promoted tumor growth of human lung carcinoma H460 cells, suggesting the tumor-promoting effect of PMMTM. Chronic exposure to the main inorganic chemical constituent of PMMTM, molybdenum but not silica, similarly induced cell transformation and tumor promotion, suggesting the contribution of molybdenum, at least in part, in the PMMTM effects. These results provide new evidence for the carcinogenic potential of PMMTM and support further risk assessment and implementation of exposure control for PMMTM.

  2. Validation of Normal Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells as a Model for Influenza A Infections in Human Distal Trachea

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. Sally; Chertow, Daniel S.; Moyer, Jenna E.; Suzich, Jon; Sandouk, Aline; Dorward, David W.; Logun, Carolea; Shelhamer, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Primary normal human bronchial/tracheal epithelial (NHBE) cells, derived from the distal-most aspect of the trachea at the bifurcation, have been used for a number of studies in respiratory disease research. Differences between the source tissue and the differentiated primary cells may impact infection studies based on this model. Therefore, we examined how well-differentiated NHBE cells compared with their source tissue, the human distal trachea, as well as the ramifications of these differences on influenza A viral pathogenesis research using this model. We employed a histological analysis including morphological measurements, electron microscopy, multi-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy, lectin histochemistry, and microarray expression analysis to compare differentiated NHBEs to human distal tracheal epithelium. Pseudostratified epithelial height, cell type variety and distribution varied significantly. Electron microscopy confirmed differences in cellular attachment and paracellular junctions. Influenza receptor lectin histochemistry revealed that α2,3 sialic acids were rarely present on the apical aspect of the differentiated NHBE cells, but were present in low numbers in the distal trachea. We bound fluorochrome bioconjugated virus to respiratory tissue and NHBE cells and infected NHBE cells with human influenza A viruses. Both indicated that the pattern of infection progression in these cells correlated with autopsy studies of fatal cases from the 2009 pandemic. PMID:25604814

  3. Involvement of RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization in antigen-induced bronchial smooth muscle hyperresponsiveness in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Yoshihiko; Ueno, Ayako; Shinozaki, Koji; Takeyama, Hisao; Nakazawa, Shuji; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Misawa, Miwa

    2005-01-01

    Background It has recently been suggested that RhoA plays an important role in the enhancement of the Ca2+ sensitization of smooth muscle contraction. In the present study, a participation of RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization in the augmented bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) contraction in a murine model of allergic asthma was examined. Methods Ovalbumin (OA)-sensitized BALB/c mice were repeatedly challenged with aerosolized OA and sacrificed 24 hours after the last antigen challenge. The contractility and RhoA protein expression of BSMs were measured by organ-bath technique and immunoblotting, respectively. Results Repeated OA challenge to sensitized mice caused a BSM hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine (ACh), but not to high K+-depolarization. In α-toxin-permeabilized BSMs, ACh induced a Ca2+ sensitization of contraction, which is sensitive to Clostridium botulinum C3 exoenzyme, indicating that RhoA is implicated in this Ca2+ sensitization. Interestingly, the ACh-induced, RhoA-mediated Ca2+ sensitization was significantly augmented in permeabilized BSMs of OA-challenged mice. Moreover, protein expression of RhoA was significantly increased in the hyperresponsive BSMs. Conclusion These findings suggest that the augmentation of Ca2+ sensitizing effect, probably via an up-regulation of RhoA protein, might be involved in the enhanced BSM contraction in antigen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. PMID:15638941

  4. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  5. Involvement of HIF-2α-mediated inflammation in arsenite-induced transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Yuan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Wenchao; Luo, Fei; Wang, Bairu; Li, Yuan; Pang, Ying; Liu, Qizhan

    2013-10-15

    Arsenic is a well established human carcinogen that causes diseases of the lung. Some studies have suggested a link between inflammation and lung cancer; however, it is unknown if arsenite-induced inflammation causally contributes to arsenite-caused malignant transformation of cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammation during neoplastic transformation induced in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells by chronic exposure to arsenite. The results showed that, on acute or chronic exposure to arsenite, HBE cells over-expressed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The data also indicated that HIF-2α was involved in arsenite-induced inflammation. Moreover, IL-6 and IL-8 were essential for the malignant progression of arsenite-transformed HBE cells. Thus, these experiments show that HIF-2α mediates arsenite-induced inflammation and that such inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced malignant transformation of HBE cells. The results provide a link between the inflammatory response and the acquisition of a malignant transformed phenotype by cells chronically exposed to arsenite and thus establish a previously unknown mechanism for arsenite-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Arsenite induces inflammation. • Arsenite-induced the increases of IL-6 and IL-8 via HIF-2α. • Inflammation is involved in arsenite-induced carcinogenesis.

  6. Granulation tissue formation at the bronchial stump is reduced after stapler closure in comparison to suture closure in dogs.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yotaro; Kawamura, Masafumi; Gika, Masatoshi; Nomori, Hiroaki

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the morphology of the bronchial stump after lobectomy between mechanical stapler closure and manual suture closure. The effect of fibrin glue application on each method of closure was also observed. Right upper lobectomy was performed in beagles (n=31) using staplers (ST group) or sutures (SU group). In a separate experiment, fibrin glue was sprayed onto the stump after each respective method of closure. After one week, the stump region was examined macroscopically, and also by histology. chi(2)-Test and Mann-Whitney test were used for comparative analysis. The incidence of adhesion formation between the surrounding tissues was significantly reduced in the ST group in comparison to the SU group (22 vs. 80%, P=0.04). The thickness of granulation tissue over the stump was significantly reduced in the ST group in comparison to the SU group (0.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.5+/-0.3 mm, P<0.0001). Vessel density in the granulation tissue was also significantly reduced in the ST group in comparison to the SU group (6+/-2 vs. 16+/-2, P=0.003). Fibrin glue application after stapler closure significantly increased the incidence of adhesion formation, granulation tissue thickness, and vessel density in the granulation tissue over the stump.

  7. YThe BigH3 Tumor Suppressor Gene in Radiation-Induced Malignant Transformation of Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shao, G.; Piao, C.; Hei, T.

    Carcinogenesis is a multi-stage process with sequences of genetic events governing the phenotypic expression of a series of transformation steps leading to the development of metastatic cancer Previous studies from this laboratory have identified a 7 fold down- regulation of the novel tumor suppressor Big-h3 among radiation induced tumorigenic BEP2D cells Furthermore ectopic re-expression of this gene suppresses tumorigenic phenotype and promotes the sensitivity of these tumor cells to etoposide-induced apoptosis To extend these studies using a genomically more stable bronchial cell line we ectopically expresses the catalytic subunit of telomerase hTERT in primary human small airway epithelial SAE cells and generated several clonal cell lines that have been continuously in culture for more than 250 population doublings and are considered immortal Comparably-treated control SAE cells infected with only the viral vector senesced after less than 10 population doublings The immortalized clones demonstrated anchorage dependent growth and are non-tumorigenic in nude mice These cells show no alteration in the p53 gene but a decrease in p16 expression Exponentially growing SAEh cells were exposed to graded doses of 1 GeV nucleon of 56 Fe ions accelerated at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Irradiated cells underwent gradual phenotypic alterations after extensive in vitro cultivation Transformed cells developed through a series of successive steps before becoming anchorage independent in semisolid medium These findings indicate

  8. Knowledge and Attitudes of GPs in Saxony-Anhalt concerning the Psychological Aspects of Bronchial Asthma: A Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Bronchial Asthma is a worldwide condition with particularly high prevalence in first world countries. The reasons are multifactorial but a neglected area is the psychological domain. It is well known that heavy emotions can trigger attacks and that depression negatively affects treatment outcomes. It is also known that personality type has a greater effect on disease prevalence than in many other conditions. However, many potential psychological treatments are hardly considered, neither in treatment guidelines nor in reviews by asthma specialists. Moreover, there is very little research concerning the beliefs and practices of doctors regarding psychological treatments. Using a questionnaire survey we ascertained that local GPs in Saxony-Anhalt have reasonably good knowledge about the psychological elements of asthma; a third consider it to be some of the influence (20-40% aetiology) and a further third consider it to be even more important than that (at least 40% total aetiology). Our GPs use psychosomatic counseling sometimes or usually in the areas of sport and smoking (circa 85% GPs), although less so regarding breathing techniques and relaxation (c40% usually or sometimes do this) However despite this knowledge they refer to the relevant clinicians very rarely (98% sometimes, usually or always refer to a respiratory physician compared with only 11% referring for psychological help). PMID:21171975

  9. Comparison of cellular and transcriptomic effects between electronic cigarette vapor and cigarette smoke in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Anthérieu, Sébastien; Garat, Anne; Beauval, Nicolas; Soyez, Mélissa; Allorge, Delphine; Garçon, Guillaume; Lo-Guidice, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-05

    The use of electronic cigarette (e-cig) can be considered as an alternative to smoking. However, due to a lack of thorough toxicological studies, absolute safety of these products cannot be guaranteed. The aim of this in vitro work was to investigate the potential toxicity of e-vapors generated by a smoking machine in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells cultured at air-liquid interface, in comparison to cigarette smoke (CS). Although CS decreased strongly cell viability from 48min exposure, e-vapors induced no cytotoxicity up to 288min exposure. Moreover, oxidative stress was evidenced only after exposure to CS, with a decrease secretion of GRO-ɑ from 8min and of IL-8 and MCP-1 after 48min exposure. Only a low increase of IL-6 secretion was measured in cells exposed to e-vapors. Finally, transcriptomic data of exposed cells indicated that a large number of genes were deregulated in response to CS, especially genes involved in important biological functions as oxidative stress and cell death, while e-vapors elicited very discrete modulation. These results strongly suggest a lower toxicity of e-vapors compared to CS in the BEAS-2B cell line and constitute a baseline for further experimental studies with a larger spectrum of e-liquids and e-cig models.

  10. Evaluation of E-cigarette liquid vapor and mainstream cigarette smoke after direct exposure of primary human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-04-08

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as "reduced-risk" nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5-8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5-5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  11. Effects of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter on Cellular Oxidant Radical Generation in Human Bronchial Epithelial BEAS-2B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Longfei; Rui, Wei; Bai, Ru; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of size-fractionated (i.e., <1; 1–2.5, and 2.5–10 µm in an aerodynamic diameter) ambient particulate matter (PM) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity and cell viability in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The PM samples were collected from an urban site (uPM) in Beijing and a steel factory site (sPM) in Anshan, China, from March 2013 to December 2014. Metal elements, organic and elemental carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions in the uPM and sPM were analyzed. The cell viability and ROS generation in PM-exposed BEAS-2B cells were measured by MTS and DCFH-DA. The results showed that both uPM and sPM caused a decrease in the cell viability and an increase in ROS generation. The level of ROS measured in sPM1.0 was approximately triple that in uPM1.0. The results of correlation analysis showed that the ROS activity and cytotoxicity were related to different PM composition. Moreover, deferoxamine (DFO) significantly prevented the increase of ROS generation and the decrease of cell viability. Taken together, our results suggest that the metals absorbed on PM induced oxidant radical generation in BEAS-2B cells that could lead to impairment of pulmonary function. PMID:27171105

  12. Proinflammatory cytokine secretion is suppressed by TMEM16A or CFTR channel activity in human cystic fibrosis bronchial epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Veit, Guido; Bossard, Florian; Goepp, Julie; Verkman, A. S.; Galietta, Luis J. V.; Hanrahan, John W.; Lukacs, Gergely L.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by the functional expression defect of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel at the apical plasma membrane. Impaired bacterial clearance and hyperactive innate immune response are hallmarks of the CF lung disease, yet the existence of and mechanism accounting for the innate immune defect that occurs before infection remain controversial. Inducible expression of either CFTR or the calcium-activated chloride channel TMEM16A attenuated the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, and CXCL1/2 in two human respiratory epithelial models under air–liquid but not liquid–liquid interface culture. Expression of wild-type but not the inactive G551D-CFTR indicates that secretion of the chemoattractant IL-8 is inversely proportional to CFTR channel activity in cftr∆F508/∆F508 immortalized and primary human bronchial epithelia. Similarly, direct but not P2Y receptor–mediated activation of TMEM16A attenuates IL-8 secretion in respiratory epithelia. Thus augmented proinflammatory cytokine secretion caused by defective anion transport at the apical membrane may contribute to the excessive and persistent lung inflammation in CF and perhaps in other respiratory diseases associated with documented down-regulation of CFTR (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Direct pharmacological activation of TMEM16A offers a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce the inflammation of CF airway epithelia. PMID:22973054

  13. Activation of transcription factors in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to aqueous extracts of mainstream cigarette smoke in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sekine, Takashi; Hirata, Tadashi; Mine, Toshiki; Fukano, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the most sensitive transcription factor activated by cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and to explore cigarette smoke components that have high biological activities in a cell-base assay. Previously, we found evidence that implicated 10 different transcription factors as having a high biological activity to CSE in vitro, based on the results of a comprehensive gene expression profile. For this study, luciferase reporter assays for each transcription factor were developed in two types of human bronchial epithelial cells: NCI-H292 and BEAS-2B cells. The results demonstrated that the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)/anti-oxidant response element (ARE) pathway was the most sensitive in response to CSE. Consistently, hemo oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a downstream target gene of NRF2, was effectively up-regulated in BEAS-2B cells exposed to CSE. Moreover, among 1395 cigarette smoke components, naphthoquinones including 9,10-phenaotrenquinone, quinones, benzenediols and α, β-unsaturated carbonyls, were identified as major smoke components that contribute to activating the NRF2/ARE pathway, as indicated by the ARE-reporter assay in BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, NRF2 appears to be a key molecule in the CSE-induced cellular response, and the employed methodology is helpful for the analysis of molecular and cellular effects by CSE.

  14. Analysis of internal mo