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  1. Composting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  2. Markets for compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Table of Contents: Introduction; Characteristics and Benefits of Compost and Competing/Complementary Products; Compost Uses and Markets; Factors Pertinent to Developing Compost Markets; Compost Specifications; Compost Testing Requirements; Compost Distribution; Compost Policies; Economic and Noneconomic Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; Strategies to Mitigate/Overcome Barriers to Developing Compost Markets; and Examples of Existing Programs and Markets (as of 1989).

  3. Colorado composting

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, K.

    1994-08-01

    Composting operations come in all shapes and sizes, and there are many variables in operating a successful composting operation. The author looked at two markedly different composting operations in Colorado--the recycling/composting program at the Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs, and the biosolids composting operation at the Upper Eagle Valley Sanitation District, Colorado Springs--to report on how each operation was developed and how both are working today. At the Air Force Academy, a three-acre base for the composting facility was prepared in the fall of 1991. As word of the facility started getting out, people began offering to bring in their clean, green yard trimmings. A Wildcat Compost Turner made it possible for the academy to add a variety of organic matter to the typical yard clippings it was collecting. Material currently being composted at the academy includes a mixture of approximately 15% grass, 25% sod, 10% pine needles, and 50% stable bedding. Four years ago, Colorado's Upper Eagle Valley Consolidated Sanitation District looked to composting as a way to handle its biosolids. A small, two-acre parcel, three miles from the nearest community, was chosen as the composting site. After meeting all of the associated regulations, trucks began hauling biosolids to the site. The sludge was mixed with sawdust and recycled sludge, and then windrowed. The district already has 14,000 cubic yards of compost stored up and ready to go.

  4. Successful School Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahar, Rhea Dawn

    2001-01-01

    School composting programs that have met the challenges inherent in long-term composting have several traits in common: a supportive educational program, schoolwide participation, and a consistent maintenance program. Examines the elements of success, offers examples of incorporating composting into the curriculum, and describes three methods of…

  5. Composting: Fast 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  6. Composting Begins at Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  7. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: COMPOSTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composting is an emerging ex situ biological technology that is potentially applicable to nonvolatile and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in soils. It has been applied to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and explosives. It has been found to be potentially effectiv...

  8. The Science of Composting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swarthout, Flora L.

    1993-01-01

    Students are able to experience cellular respiration in action and become more informed about the environment by creating compost. This article describes an activity that brings a natural process into the classroom. (ZWH)

  9. Composting: Great Rotten Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    To help students investigate both the advantages and disadvantages of composting, various activities are presented dealing with the definitions and the applications of the concepts of recyclable and biodegradable. (MCO)

  10. Composting: The next step?

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Composting is a natural process, and is, therefore, as old as the earth. And yet, while composting is growing as a method of solid waste management--for municipal solid waste (MSW), yard waste, sludge, food waste, etc.--in many ways, it is still in its infancy. Like recycling, municipal composting (as opposed to agricultural) existed in various sporadic or fledgling enterprises in years past. But unlike recycling, which can point to a past history of scrap and steel recycling and a nationwide effort during World War II, municipal composting programs of the 1950s and 1960s are either looked on as failures or rural experiments whose example did not transfer well when carried out on a larger scale in metropolitan areas. Today, however, there are an estimated 4,000 + municipal composting facilities in the US, according to various sources, the vast majority of which are dedicated to yard waste. One reason for this is that the concept of composting is easy to understand--reusing of waste in another form rather than discarding it.

  11. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    PubMed Central

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  12. Composting of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2011-06-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the composting process, which is one of the technological options for the processing of municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The process assumes a great significance, particularly from the point of its economic viability, capability for recycling of nutrients and waste minimization with minimum environmental problems. A number of studies on various aspects of the composting process, including process control and monitoring parameters such as temperature, pH, moisture content, aeration, and porosity are reviewed. Salient observations on microbial properties of composting are described and details of vermicomposting, as well as a detailed analysis of patents on composting of MSW, are presented.

  13. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting.

  14. Successful bioremediation with compost

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    An Air Force Base has begun using a composting process developed by a private company to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons on site. In the process, a layer of compost is placed on top of the sealer to prevent accidental damage by the equipment. Then a layer of contaminated soil is applied, followed by another layer of compost and a final layer of turkey manure supplied by a local farmer on top. Two passes are made with the Scat to provide thorough mixing. Different techniques were examined to turn volumes of the material and it was found that this equipment works very well for smaller batches. After mixing, materials are covered with a gray, vinyl-coated nylon cover to protect the pile from the elements and encourage bacterial growth. The tarp is tied to eyelets inserted every five feet along the curb of the treatment area. Although not specifically developed for hazardous materials, PXS has piloted the process to handle PCBs, trichlorethylene, benzopyrene and other chemicals found around wood preservative plants, manufactured gas plants and military installations. It is seen that they are all degraded: first the white rot degrades them and then the bacteria metabolizes them.

  15. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... clipping bags labeled as “Compostable in California Municipal Yard Trimmings Composting Facilities.” When... compost piles. Yard trimmings programs in many communities compost these bags, but such programs are not... yard trimmings bags only to consumers residing in particular geographic areas served by county...

  16. 16 CFR 260.7 - Compostable Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... clipping bags labeled as “Compostable in California Municipal Yard Trimmings Composting Facilities.” When... compost piles. Yard trimmings programs in many communities compost these bags, but such programs are not... yard trimmings bags only to consumers residing in particular geographic areas served by county...

  17. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  18. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  19. Physical analyses of compost from composting plants in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barreira, L P; Philippi Junior, A; Rodrigues, M S; Tenório, J A S

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays the composting process has shown itself to be an alternative in the treatment of municipal solid wastes by composting plants. However, although more than 50% of the waste generated by the Brazilian population is composed of matter susceptible to organic composting, this process is, still today, insufficiently developed in Brazil, due to low compost quality and lack of investments in the sector. The objective of this work was to use physical analyses to evaluate the quality of the compost produced at 14 operative composting plants in the Sao Paulo State in Brazil. For this purpose, size distribution and total inert content tests were done. The results were analyzed by grouping the plants according to their productive processes: plants with a rotating drum, plants with shredders or mills, and plants without treatment after the sorting conveyor belt. Compost quality was analyzed considering the limits imposed by the Brazilian Legislation and the European standards for inert contents. The size distribution tests showed the influence of the machinery after the sorting conveyer on the granule sizes as well as the inert content, which contributes to the presence of materials that reduce the quality of the final product.

  20. Continuous Thermophilic Composting12

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, K. L.

    1962-01-01

    Under complete mixing conditions, aerobic decomposition of mixed organic waste materials has been maintained continuously in the thermophilic phase in a 55-gal rotating drum. Temperatures ranged between 53 and 70 C. Raw material was added daily or every second day in amounts up to 18 lb per 100 lb of decomposing material. The weight of material removed ranged between 42 and 60% of the raw material added. Factors influencing the operation of the composting unit were studied in detail. Images FIG. 2 PMID:13909559

  1. NASA tests composters for space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C.

    1997-01-01

    For long term missions, composters may be an integral part of a life support system that provides edible food crops, extracts nutrients from plant biomass and removes contaminants from the recycling stream.

  2. Characterization of compost biofiltration media.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-González, B; Ergas, S J; Switzenbaum, M S

    1999-07-01

    The effect of compost quality on performance of biofiltration media was investigated. Three types of compost media were characterized in terms of their key properties, including pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen, moisture content, oxygen uptake rates and heterotrophic and fungal plate counts. Laboratory-scale biofilter columns were each filled with a different compost medium mixed with buffer and a bulking agent. The columns were operated with a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture consisting of ethyl alcohol, butyraldehyde, ethyl acetate, and 1,1-diethoxybutane and subjected to various operating conditions. After 13 months, the columns were sampled and post-characterization of the media was performed. A mixture of biosolids/horse manure compost, which had a high initial microbial activity, had the shortest acclimation period. Best overall performance, however, was observed with yard waste compost, which was the most stable medium. Media hydrophobicity was a key factor in long-term performance. Significant changes in compost structure, moisture content, pH, volatile solids, oxygen uptake rates, and microbial population densities were observed over the course of the study. Analyses of organic nitrogen content showed that significant amounts of nitrogen were not depleted from the media.

  3. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  4. Assessment of Composting Feasibility at Army Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    composting organic matter include the suppression of certain plant diseases , the reduced need for fertilizers and pesticides, the prevention of soil...beautification, and soil enrichment. Composting also helps suppress plant diseases and pests. In addition, compost facilities are not likely to contaminate... compost enriched soil can also help suppress diseases and ward off pests. It destroys disease organisms and creates a nutrient-rich

  5. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  6. Biosolids composting in Davenport, Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Boyette, R.A.; Williams, T.; Plett, S.

    1996-09-01

    The City of Davenport, Iowa constructed an aerated static pile composting facility to process 28 dry tons per day of dewatered biosolids and 25,000 cubic yards per year of yard wastes. This is the first large totally enclosed aerated static pile biosolids composting facility to be built in several years in the US. Design of the facility was completed in March 1994, construction began in July 1994, with substantial completion of the facility in August 1995. This paper outlines the major operating systems and describes the major components of the facility. The facility processes all of the City`s anaerobically digested biosolids which is currently dewatered by belt filter presses to 20% solids. Yard wastes are used as the primary bulking agent supplemented by wood chips and shredded rubber tires to minimize O and M costs. A mechanized continuous feed mixing system consisting of hoppers, conveyors, and pugmill mixers is used to combine bulk agents with the dewatered biosolids to the desired ratio for composting. Composting and drying of these materials occurs in a totally enclosed pre-fabricated metal building for maximum environmental control and odor control. Multiple aeration stations provide both positive and negative aeration through pre-cast aeration trenches beneath compost piles.

  7. [Technology of composting].

    PubMed

    Jäger, B

    1983-09-01

    The technology of composting must guarantee the material-chemical, biological and physical-technical reaction conditions essential for the rotting process. In this, the constituents of the input material and the C/N ratio play an important role. Maintaining optimum decomposition conditions is rendered difficult by the fact that the physical-technical reaction parameters partly exclude each other. These are: optimum humidity, adequate air/oxygen supply, large active surface, loose structure with sufficient decomposition volume. The processing of the raw refuse required to maintain the physical-technical reaction parameters can be carried out either by the conventional method of preliminary fragmentizing, sieving and mixing or else in conjunction with separating recycling in adapted systems. The latter procedure obviates some drawbacks which mainly result from the high expenditure required for preliminary fragmentation of the raw refuse. Moreover, presorting affords the possibility of reducing the heavy-metal content of the organic composing fraction and this approaches a solution to the noxa disposal problem which at present stands in the way of being accepted as an ecological waste disposal method.

  8. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed.

  9. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  10. Biogas, compost and fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wichert, B.; Wittrup, L.; Robel, R.

    1994-08-01

    A pilot project now under development in Folsom, California, incorporates an anaerobic digestion/aerobic composting process that could eventually supply enough biogas to a fuel cell. The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) has two fuel cells in operation and is participating in the research project. Recently, the California Prison Industry Authority (PIA) began operating a processing facility at the Folsom prison, designed for 100 tons/day of mixed waste from the City of Folsom. The 35,000 square foot Correctional Resource Recovery Facility (CRRF) uses minimum security inmates from Folsom`s Return to Custody Facility to manually separate recyclables and compostable materials from the waste stream. The PIA will be using a new technology, high solids anaerobic digestion, to compost the organic fraction (representing approximately 60 to 70 percent of the waste stream). Construction began in June on a 40-foot wide by 120-foot long and 22-foot deep anaerobic digester. Once the vessel is operational in 1995, the composting process and the gradual breakdown of organic material will produce biogas, which SMUD hopes to use to power an adjacent two megawatt fuel cell. The electricity generated will serve SMUD customers, including the waste facility and nearby correctional institutions. 1 fig.

  11. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  12. Determination of Thermal Properties of Composting Bulking Materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric hea...

  13. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: co-composting versus incorporation.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R; Nason, Mark A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2009-02-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost.

  14. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    PubMed

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  15. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang.

  16. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P < 0.05) compared to compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P < 0.05) than in the compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  17. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  18. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  19. Current and future North American compost markets

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.

    1995-09-01

    As composting grows in popularity and research continues, the science of composting is becoming better understood. The successful marketing and distribution of composted products, however, is less than an exact science. In order to develop a successful compost marketing program, it is important to understand current and potential compost markets, their specific applications for compost products, their product quality requirements, and their current level of acceptance for specific products. It is also important to understand that specific barriers to market development exist, as do specific challenges. When preparing to approach specific compost markets, we must first consider the characteristics of our particular compost product. The specific chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of a product will affect our ability to market it within specific markets. Producing a product of consistent quality or possessing consistent characteristics will also influence its acceptability within specific markets. The ability to meet other end user requirements, such as providing technical assistance and service, are also factor not often considered. It is necessary to educate end users regarding proper compost use, as well as to address stigmas that may be attached to the product. False marketing barriers, based on regulatory issues, must be removed and market related research and planning must be approached with the same seriousness as design and operational considerations.

  20. Meeting the MSW composting challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Hiscock, E. )

    1994-01-01

    A co-composting facility in Sevier County, Tennessee is exceeding all expectations for MSW/sludge processing and for the quality of its product. It's also beating the odor problem that has afflicted other composting operations. In the first six months of 1993, almost 71% of the county's waste stream was recycled. When a planned aluminium/non-ferrous metals recovery system is added to the facility, the diversion due to recycling activities should hit 75%. This has been accomplished while controlling odors and heavy metal levels and elminating toxins, pathogens, leachates, and landfill vector problems. This article presents an overview of the technology selection, plant design, siting, economics, and environmental concerns of the project.

  1. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions.

  2. Changes in Bacterial and Fungal Communities across Compost Recipes, Preparation Methods, and Composting Times

    PubMed Central

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.; Bates, Scott T.; Leff, Jonathan W.; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  3. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  4. Evaluation of compost activators for yard waste

    SciTech Connect

    Razvi, A.S.; Kramer, D.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evaluation of the efficiency of yard waste composting (grass clippm`gs/wood chip mixture) was studied for seven commercially available activators, two naturally occurring activators, and one control (absence of activator). The overall decomposition response for each activator was evaluated by comparing four indices of composting efficiency. These were weight loss, change in volume, loss of volatile solids, and oxygen uptake rate. Four experimental blocks were set up in the field, and two experimental blocks were set up in the laboratory. The physical/chemical characteristics were monitored for all samples as a function of time, and individual activators were evaluated so interrelationships between indices could be studied. Based on the four indices, grass clippings can be efficiently composted with natural activators such as Surface Soil or Mature Compost. Commercially available compost activators performed similar to the Control. The cost of commercially available activators was $1.37 to $9.36 per cubic yard of grass clippings to be composted. Naturally occurring activators such as Surface Soil and Mature Compost may be available at no cost to the backyard composter.

  5. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  6. Compost - Brown gold or toxic trouble ?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  7. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns.

  8. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  9. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  10. 7 CFR 3201.64 - Compost activators and accelerators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compost activators and accelerators. 3201.64 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.64 Compost activators and accelerators. (a) Definition. Products in liquid or powder form designed to be applied to compost piles to aid in speeding up the composting...

  11. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  12. Behaviour of biodegradable plastics in composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Körner, I; Redemann, K; Stegmann, R

    2005-01-01

    Composting is a preferred treatment strategy for biodegradable plastics (BDPs). In this sense, the collection of BDPs together with organic household wastes is a highly discussed possibility. Under the aspect of the behaviour of BDPs in composting facilities, a telephone survey was carried out with selected composting facility operators. They were interviewed with respect to treated wastes, content of impurities, processes for impurity separation, experiences with biodegradable plastics and assumptions to the behaviour of biodegradable plastics in their facility. Forty percent of the facilities had some experiences with BDPs due to test runs, and also since the occurrence of BDPs in their waste was known. The majority of the operators expressed apprehension regarding an increase of impurities resulting from a combined collection of biowaste and BDPs. In the facilities, measures for the impurity separation from the biowaste were used in common practice - in 33% of the cases, separation of disturbing plastics was done before composting, in 33% after composting, and in 13% before and after composting. The most important separation processes for conventional plastics were sieving and manual sorting. In two cases air classification was also used. When asked about the separation possibility of the conventional but not of the biodegradable plastics in their facilities, the majority of operators were not in a position to comment or they replied that it was not an option. No problems were seen in most cases if the impurity separation follows composting. If impurity separation takes place before composting it was often assumed that the BDPs are mainly separated by sieving. In conclusion, in more than half of the cases, BDPs would not be composted if delivered to a composting facility. Under the actual conditions regarding the collection and the treatment/disposal possibilities, an application of BDPs seems to only be reasonable for clean (i.e., source separated on their own

  13. Comparison of NOx Removal Efficiencies in Compost Based Biofilters Using Four Different Compost Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lacey, Jeffrey Alan; Lee, Brady Douglas; Apel, William Arnold

    2001-06-01

    In 1998, 3.6 trillion kilowatt-hours of electricity were generated in the United States. Over half of this was from coal-fired power plants, resulting in more than 8.3 million tons of nitrogen oxide (NOx) compounds being released into the environment. Over 95% of the NOx compounds produced during coal combustion are in the form of nitric oxide (NO). NOx emission regulations are becoming increasingly stringent, leading to the need for new, cost effective NOx treatment technologies. Biofiltration is such a technology. NO removal efficiencies were compared in compost based biofilters using four different composts. In previous experiments, removal efficiencies were typically highest at the beginning of the experiment, and decreased as the experiments proceeded. This work tested different types of compost in an effort to find a compost that could maintain NO removal efficiencies comparable to those seen early in the previous experiments. One of the composts was wood based with manure, two were wood based with high nitrogen content sludge, and one was dairy compost. The wood based with manure and one of the wood based with sludge composts were taken directly from an active compost pile while the other two composts were received in retail packaging which had been out of active piles for an indeterminate amount of time. A high temperature (55-60°C) off-gas stream was treated in biofilters operated under denitrifying conditions. Biofilters were operated at an empty bed residence time of 13 seconds with target inlet NO concentrations of 500 ppmv. Lactate was the carbon and energy source. Compost was sampled at 10-day intervals to determine aerobic and anaerobic microbial densities. Compost was mixed at a 1:1 ratio with lava rock and calcite was added at 100g/kg of compost. In each compost tested, the highest removal efficiencies occurred within the first 10 days of the experiment. The wood based with manure peaked at day 3 (77.14%), the dairy compost at day 1 (80.74%), the

  14. Assessment of respiration activity and ecotoxicity of composts containing biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Kopeć, Michał; Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka

    2013-03-01

    The research was conducted to determine if introducing biodegradable polymer materials to the composting process would affect selected biological properties of mature compost. Determination of biological properties of composts composed of testing their respiration activity and toxicity. Respiration activity was measured in material from the composting process by means of OxiTop Control measuring system. The ecotoxicity of composts was estimated by means of a set of biotests composed of three microbiotests using five test organisms. Introduction of polymer materials caused a decrease in respiration activity of mature compost. Similar dependencies as in the case of mass loss were registered. Compost to which a biodegradable polymer with the highest content of starch was added revealed the smallest difference in comparison with organic material composted without polymers. Lower content of starch in a polymer caused lower respiration activity of composts, whereas microorganism vaccine might have accelerated maturing of composts, thus contributing to the smallest respiration of compost. In composts containing biopolymers the following were observed: an increase in germination inhibition--2.5 times, roots growth inhibition--1.8 times, growth inhibition of Heterocypris incongruens--four times and luminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri--1.6 times in comparison with the control (compost K1). Composts containing biopolymers were classified as toxicity class III, whereas the compost without polymer addition as class II.

  15. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Srinath R. . E-mail: srinathrangamani@yahoo.com; Bhave, Prashant P. . E-mail: drppbhave@vsnl.net

    2006-07-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes.

  16. Composting process design criteria. II. Detention time

    SciTech Connect

    Haug, R.T.

    1986-09-01

    Attention has always been directed to detention time as a criteria for design and operation of composting systems. Perhaps this is a logical outgrowth of work on liquid phase systems, where detention time is a fundamental parameter of design. Unlike liquid phase systems, however, the interpretation of detention time and actual values required for design have not been universally accepted in the case of composting. As a case in point, most compost systems incorporate facilities for curing the compost product. However, curing often is considered after the fact or as an add on with little relationship to the first stage, high-rate phase, whether reactor (in-vessel), static pile, or windrow. Design criteria for curing and the relationships between the first-stage, high-rate and second-stage, curing phases of a composting system have been unclear. In Part 2 of this paper, the concepts of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids residence time (SRT) are applied to the composting process. Definitions and design criteria for each are proposed. Based on these criteria, the first and second-stages can be designed and integrated into a complete composting system.

  17. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  18. Assessing risk of solid waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, J.M.; Razvi, A.S. )

    1987-03-01

    This paper addresses the movement of metals in soils and their accumulation in plants. Research with sewage sludge compost indicates that these risks can be minimized with proper handling and management. The objectives of this study were: (I) to evaluate potential groundwater contamination due to plant nutrients and heavy metals in the compost; and (II) to assess the accumulation of metals in plants grown on compost-amended soil. Data are presented for analyses of nickel, lead, cadmium, copper and zinc in snap beans.

  19. Composting of animal manures and chemical criteria for compost maturity assessment. A review.

    PubMed

    Bernal, M P; Alburquerque, J A; Moral, R

    2009-11-01

    New livestock production systems, based on intensification in large farms, produce huge amount of manures and slurries without enough agricultural land for their direct application as fertilisers. Composting is increasingly considered a good way for recycling the surplus of manure as a stabilised and sanitised end-product for agriculture, and much research work has been carried out in the last decade. However, high quality compost should be produced to overcome the cost of composting. In order to provide and review the information found in the literature about manure composting, the first part of this paper explains the basic concepts of the composting process and how manure characteristics can influence its performance. Then, a summary of those factors such as nitrogen losses (which directly reduce the nutrient content), organic matter humification and compost maturity which affect the quality of composts produced by manure composting is presented. Special attention has been paid to the relevance of using an adequate bulking agent for reducing N-losses and the necessity of standardising the maturity indices due to their great importance amongst compost quality criteria.

  20. Method of making compost and spawned compost, mushroom spawn and generating methane gas

    SciTech Connect

    Stoller, B.B.

    1981-04-28

    Newly designed ribbon-type mixers provide an improved method for making composts, aerating composts, growing mushroom spawn, generating methane gas, and filling conveyors in the mushroom-growing industry. The mixers may be the double-ribbon type for purely mixing operations or the single-ribbon type for moving the material from one place to another. Both types can operate under pressure. In preparing compost for mushroom growing, operators can first use the airtight mixers for a preliminary anaerobic fermentation to produce methane, then by changing the atmosphere to an oxidizing one, complete the compost preparation under the necessary aerobic conditions.

  1. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation.

  2. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems.

  3. Composting in advanced life support systems.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Sager, J C; Alazraki, M; Loader, C

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  4. How composting affects heavy metal content

    SciTech Connect

    Canarutto, S.; Petruzzelli, G.; Lubrano, L.; Guidi, G.V.

    1991-06-01

    This paper describes ways in which a properly conducted composting process can alter the chemical forms of heavy metals and consequently the quality of the compost. This process is of particular interest in the Italian policy of waste management due to the low level of organic matter in Italian agricultural soils. Results of the studies show that the proper process of compost maturation seems to increase the concentrations of humic acids with respect to those of fulvic acids. These variations in the quantity and quality of humic substances influence the speciation of heavy metals with a large part of the metals complexed and reaching the soil in a less mobile form. The distribution of copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead and chromium among humic fractions is compared in two composting procedures.

  5. Composting in advanced life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, C. F.; Sager, J. C.; Alazraki, M.; Loader, C.

    1998-01-01

    Space missions of extended duration are currently hampered by the prohibitive costs of external resupply. To reduce the need for resupply, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently testing methods to recycle solid wastes, water, and air. Composting can be an integral part of a biologically based waste treatment/recycling system. Results indicate that leachate from composted plant wastes is not inhibitory to seed germination and contains sufficient inorganic minerals to support plant growth. Other solid wastes, for example kitchen (food) wastes and human solid wastes, can be composted with inedible plant residues to safely reduce the volume of the wastes and levels of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans. Finished compost could serve as a medium for plant growth or mushroom production.

  6. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    PubMed Central

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  7. Pathogen re-colonization of in-house composted and non-composted broiler litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “In-house” litter composting has been reintroduced to the industry and shown to reduce bacteria by as much as two orders of magnitude. Other industries have demonstrated that pathogens can recolonize a waste-residual when microbial competition has been reduced or inhibited following composting. Po...

  8. Influence of straw types and nitrogen sources on mushroom composting emissions and compost productivity.

    PubMed

    Noble, R; Hobbs, P J; Mead, A; Dobrovin-Pennington, A

    2002-09-01

    The effects of different straw types and organic and inorganic nitrogen (N) sources on the chemical composition and odor concentration (OC) of mushroom composting emissions, compost parameters, and mushroom yield were examined using bench-scale and large-scale (windrows and aerated tunnels) composting systems. There were close correlations between the butanol or combined H(2)S+dimethyl sulfide (DMS) concentration and OC of air samples taken from different composting ingredients (r=0.83 and 0.76-0.87, P<0.01, for log(e)-transformed data). Differences in N availability, in terms of NH(3) and N losses during composting, were found between different N sources. Materials in which the N was less available (chipboard and digester wastes, cocoa shells, ammonium sulfate) produced lower mushroom yields than materials in which the N was more readily available (poultry manure, urea, brewers' grains, hop and molasses wastes, cocoa meal). Replacement of poultry manure with the other N sources at 50-100% or wheat straw with rape, bean, or linseed straw in aerated tunnel or windrow composts reduced the OC and emissions of odorous sulfur-containing compounds, but also reduced yield. Urea and cocoa meal may be suitable for "low odor" prewetting of straw, with addition of poultry manure immediately before aerated tunnel composting. Rape straw in compost reduces the formation of anaerobic zones and resulting odorous emissions, since it maintains its structure and porosity better than wheat straw.

  9. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility.

  10. Composting of spent mushroom compost, carnation wastes, chicken and cattle manures.

    PubMed

    Kulcu, Recep; Sönmez, Ilker; Yaldiz, Osman; Kaplan, Mustafa

    2008-11-01

    This study has purposed to determine the optimum mixture ratio of used mushroom compost, chicken manure, cattle manure and carnation waste for composting. For this purpose, these materials have been mixed in seven various ratios (R1-R7) and composted in the experimental composting reactors. The highest dry material losses and temperature values have been obtained by the R4 which contains 50% carnation waste, 25% chicken manure and 25% spent mushroom compost. Beside R4, mixtures of R2, R5 and R6 have also provided high process temperature and dry material loss values. The lowest dry material loss and temperature values have been obtained in the R7 which contains only carnation wastes. In the study, it has also seen that FAS (free air space) parameter is effective on the process and must be in the interval of 24-32%.

  11. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  12. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  13. Changes in enzymatic activity in composts containing chicken feathers.

    PubMed

    Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa

    2009-07-01

    Enzymatic activity, i.e. respiratory activity, dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, caseinian protease activity, BAA protease activity and urease activity, was determined to investigate the process of biochemical transformations and to select enzymatic indices of maturity of composts prepared from feathers and lignocellulose wastes (bark, straw). Composting was conducted for 7 months, with periodic determinations of activity of the enzymes. The study revealed significant differences in the enzymatic activity, related with the duration of composting and with the substrate composition of the composts. Generally, composts enriched with straw were characterised by higher enzymatic activity than composts without any addition of straw. It was found that the activity of such enzymes as cellulase and protease, towards the end of the period of composting decreased and stabilised. The enzymes enumerated can be taken into consideration in estimation of the maturity of composts prepared from feathers and lignocellulose wastes.

  14. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  15. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    PubMed

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  16. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  17. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 3201.56 Section 3201.56... Designated Items § 3201.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a... landscaping. Compost is the aerobically decomposed remnants of organic materials used in gardening...

  19. Source Separation and Composting of Organic Municipal Solid Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mark; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a variety of composting techniques that may be utilized in a municipal level solid waste management program. Suggests how composting system designers should determine the amount and type of organics in the waste stream, evaluate separation approaches and assess collection techniques. Outlines the advantages of mixed waste composting and…

  20. 7 CFR 2902.56 - Mulch and compost materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mulch and compost materials. 2902.56 Section 2902.56... Items § 2902.56 Mulch and compost materials. (a) Definition. Products designed to provide a protective... procurement preference for qualifying biobased mulch and compost materials. By that date, Federal...

  1. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  2. Effects of basaltic mineral fines on composting.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Lawrence J

    2004-01-01

    A by-product of the construction aggregate industry is fines or dust that contain trace elements such as zinc and copper and significant amounts of iron, aluminum, silica and potassium. Beneficial uses for these materials have been proposed such as replenishing depleted soils and amendment in mixtures of organic byproducts prior to composting. To evaluate the beneficial uses in composting, outdoor bin studies were conducted using a beef cattle manure, straw and wood chip mixture amended with and without basaltic mineral fines. Temperature differences in composting mixtures of equal volumes, equal moisture and relatively equal material content are considered an indication of differing biological activities [Haug, Compost Engineering Principles and Practice. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI. (1980)]. Temperatures were lower in the mineral fine-treated manure mixture initially. After turning the piles at six weeks, temperatures tended to be higher in the mineral fine amended mixture. Overall, temperatures were not significantly different suggesting that mineral fines amendment does not significantly increase temperature and activity in composting mixtures.

  3. Compost treatment of contaminated pond sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, M.; Gukert, D. |

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an experiment involving compost treatment of pond sediment contaminated with hydrocarbons. Experimental variables included the size, shape, and aeration of the compost pile. Pile temperature measurements and hydrocarbon analyses were made periodically. Temperatures in the pyramid shaped compost piles rose quickly and remained elevated above ambient for about one month; during this period, hydrocarbon loss from the piles was greatest. The flat pile did not show elevated temperatures at any time, and total hydrocarbon losses by volatilization were 19.1 g. Total losses from the passively aerated pile were 1.02 g, while the actively aerated pile had losses of 0.08 g. Individual identified component compounds in the sediment included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Final levels were in the 2 to 20 ppM range compared to 100 to 400 ppM in the original sediment. Composting removed PAH components and other light organics, and the composted material can be stored onsite or landfilled without leaching concerns.

  4. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins).

  5. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-01-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems. PMID:26949962

  6. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    SciTech Connect

    Tambone, Fulvia Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  7. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  8. Composting of MSW: Needs, problems and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Irwin, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper is constructed of three complementary sections. The first section discusses the need for composting municipal solid waste (MSW). Too often as scientists and engineers the focus narrows to solve a specific problem within a system or to find the most cost effective solution. One habitually fails to examine concepts holistically due to tight schedules or work backlogs. One understands how things work and gets renumerated by the ability to scale up from the bench or pilot, keep costs down and to troubleshoot cranky processes. Sitting back to understand the reason why something like composting makes sense is a luxury one usually cannot afford. Section two discusses problems specific to MSW composting such as product quality, production stabilization, nuisance odors, and vector attraction. The final segment deals with some solutions to these difficulties.

  9. Energetics of compost production and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F.; Golueke, C.G.; Savage, G.M.

    1986-09-01

    Developments during the past decade have led to a fairly clear delineation of the role of composting in municipal solid waste (MSW) management. However, before that role can be accepted and implemented on a practical scale, certain important environmental and economic factors must be resolved. Of the economic factors, the energetics of composting in waste management is in urgent need of further elaboration and exploration. This need prompted an attempt on the part of the authors of this paper to resolve basic questions regarding the energetics involved in the production and utilization of compost from urban solid waste and municipal sludges, and peripherally, the applicability of these findings to the management of other wastes (e.g., agricultural). Progress made in pursuing this attempt is described in the present paper.

  10. Endotoxin emissions from commercial composting activities.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Lewis; Pankhurst, Louise; Liu, Jian; Drew, Gillian H; Hayes, Enda T; Jackson, Simon; Longhurst, James; Longhurst, Philip; Pollard, Simon; Tyrrel, Sean

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes an exploratory study of endotoxin emissions and dispersal from a commercial composting facility. Replicated samples of air were taken by filtration at different locations around the facility on 10 occasions. Measurements were made of endotoxin and associated culturable microorganisms. The inflammatory response of cell cultures exposed to extracts from the filters was measured. Endotoxin was detected in elevated concentrations close to composting activities. A secondary peak, of lesser magnitude than the peak at source was detected at 100-150 m downwind of the site boundary. Unexpectedly high concentrations of endotoxin were measured at the most distant downwind sampling point. Extracted endotoxin was found to stimulate human monocytes and a human lung epithelial cell line to produce significant amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. On a weight basis, endotoxin extracted from the composting source has a greater inflammatory cytokine inducing effect than commercial E. coli endotoxin.

  11. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-06-15

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  12. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw.

  13. Indigenous microorganisms production and the effect on composting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Bakar, Nurul-Ain; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    In this study, production of indigenous microorganisms (IMO) and effect on addition of IMO in composting process were done. Production of IMO was done in a series of steps to allow propagation of beneficial microorganisms. Effect of IMO addition in composting process was investigated by having 4 treatments; 1) rice straw without IMO nor manure and rice bran, 2) rice straw with IMO only, 3) rice straw with manure and rice bran, 4) rice straw with IMO, manure and rice bran. Production of IMO using cooked rice yields white molds. Addition of IMO during composting did not affect temperature increment. However, there were differences in numbers of microorganisms found during each stages of composting. Initial composting stage was dominated by mesophilic bacteria and actinomycetes, followed by thermophilic bacteria and later by actinomycetes upon composting completion. In conclusion, this study showed that IMO addition in composting increased microorganisms which are responsible in organic decomposition.

  14. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  15. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents.

  16. Nitrogen availability in composted poultry litter using natural amendments.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze

    2009-02-01

    Poultry litter compost is used as fertilizer on agricultural land because of its high nutrient content. A major limitation of land application of poultry litter compost is the loss of nitrogen via NH3 volatilization. The present work was conducted to monitor nitrogen availability during composting of poultry litter with natural zeolite, expanded perlite, pumice and expanded vermiculite. Poultry litter was composted for 100 days using five in-vessel composting simulators with a volumetric ratio of natural materials:poultry litter of 1:10. It was found that natural materials significantly reduced NH3 volatilization. At the end of the process, the control treatment without any natural materials had the lowest rate of total N: 72% of the initial total N was lost from the compost made with no amendment, while 53, 42, 26 and 16% of initial total N was lost from compost containing expandable perlite, expandable vermiculite, pumice and natural zeolite, respectively.

  17. Response of compost maturity and microbial community composition to pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soil during composting.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangming; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Yaoning; Zhang, Jiachao; Li, Hui; Yu, Man; Zhao, Mingjie

    2011-05-01

    Two composting piles were prepared by adding to a mixture of rice straw, vegetables and bran: (i) raw soil free from pentachlorophenol (PCP) contamination (pile A) and (ii) PCP-contaminated soil (pile B). It was shown by the results that compost maturity characterized by water soluble carbon (WSC), TOC/TN ratio, germination index (GI) and dehydrogenase activity (DA) was significantly affected by PCP exposure, which resulted in an inferior degree of maturity for pile B. DGGE analysis revealed an inhibited effect of PCP on compost microbial abundance. The bacteria community shifts were mainly consistent with composting factors such as temperature, pH, moisture content and substrates. By contrast, the fungal communities were more sensitive to PCP contamination due to the significant correlation between fungal community shifts and PCP removal. Therefore, the different microbial community compositions for properly evaluating the degree of maturity and PCP contamination were suggested.

  18. Fate of Compost Nutrients as Affected by Co-Composting of Chicken and Swine Manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A.; Ogunjimi, Lawrence A. O.; Osunade, James A.

    2014-04-01

    Passive aeration co-composting using four mixtures of chicken manure and swine manure at 1:0, 1:1, 3:7 and 0:1 with sawdust and rice husk was carried out to study the effects of co-composting on the physicochemical properties of the organic materials. The experiment, which lasted 66 days, was carried out in bins equipped with inverted T aeration pipes. The results showed that nutrient losses decreased as the proportion of chicken manure in the mixtures decreased for saw dust and rice husk treatments. This indicates better nutrientst conservation during composting in swine than chicken manure. Manure mixtures with rice husk had higher pile temperatures (> 55°C), total carbon and total nitrogen losses, while manure mixtures with saw dust had higher total phosphorus loss and carbon to nitrogen ratio. Composts with rice husk demonstrated the ability to reach maturity faster by the rate of drop of the carbon to nitrogen ratio.

  19. Assessment of bacterial diversity during composting of agricultural byproducts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Composting is microbial decomposition of biodegradable materials and it is governed by physicochemical, physiological and microbiological factors. The importance of microbial communities (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) during composting is well established. However, the microbial diversity during composting may vary with the variety of composting materials and nutrient supplements. Therefore, it is necessary to study the diversity of microorganisms during composting of different agricultural byproducts like wheat bran, rice bran, rice husk, along with grass clippings and bulking agents. Here it has been attempted to assess the diversity of culturable bacteria during composting of agricultural byproducts. Results The culturable bacterial diversity was assessed during the process by isolating the most prominent bacteria. Bacterial population was found to be maximum during the mesophilic phase, but decreased during the thermophilic phase and declined further in the cooling and maturation phase of composting. The bacterial population ranged from 105 to 109 cfu g-1 compost. The predominant bacteria were characterized biochemically, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative groups belonged to the order Burkholderiales, Enterobacteriales, Actinobacteriales and Bacillales, which includes genera e.g. Staphylococcus, Serratia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Terribacillus, Lysinibacillus Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas. Genera like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax, Comamonas and some new species of Bacillus were also identified for the first time from the compost made from agricultural byproducts. Conclusion The use of appropriate nitrogen amendments and bulking agents in composting resulted in good quality compost. The culture based strategy enabled us to isolate some novel bacterial isolates like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas first time from agro-byproducts compost

  20. [Characteristics of organic nitrogen mineralization in organic waste compost-amended soil].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zi-Min; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xin-Yu

    2013-06-01

    A laboratory aerobic incubation experiment was conducted under a constant temperature to investigate the differentiation rule of nitrogen form among soils amended with different organic wastes composted with food waste, chicken manure, cow manure, domestic waste, vegetable residue, sludge, turf and tomato residue. Experiment utilized soils amended with 0%, 5% and 50% (m/m) of eight organic waste composts. The purpose was to understand the effect of different organic wastes on nitrogen mineralization in soil. This study deals with eight organic waste compost treatments could rapidly increase NH4(+) -N concentrations, reduce the NO3(-)-N concentrations and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil after 3-4 weeks incubation. All parameter tended to be stable. The improved amplitude of the same compost-amended soil: 30% compost treatments > 15% compost treatments > 5% compost treatments. Within the same proportion, chicken manure compost, turf compost and sludge compost product treatments' relative N mineralization was higher than other compost product treatments, and the chicken manure compost treatment's relative N mineralization was significantly higher than other compost product treatments. Food waste compost and vegetable residue compost product treatments' mineralization was low, the lowest was domestic waste compost product treatment. All compost treatments could significantly improve the values of potentially mineralizable nitrogen(N(0)), mineralization rate (k), and promote nitrogen mineralization in soil. The results illustrated that the effect of organic waste compost on the mineralization of nitrogen varied with types of compost and the amount of input compost.

  1. Composting of Sewage Sludge Using Recycled Matured Compost as a Single Bulking Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Jian; Niu, Huasi; Wu, Xingwu

    2010-11-01

    Pretreatment (bulking agent choice and mixing) is an essential phase of dewatered raw sludge (RS) composting affecting its industrialization significantly. In this paper recycled compost (RC) was chosen as a single bulking agent in the composting experiment instead of other agents such as sawdust, rice straw, MSW, and the mixing machine was developed for mixing of SS and RC. According to the mixing experiment, SS and RC can be mixed uniformly and formed into small particles of 10˜15 mm in diameter, which improved the availability of oxygen during composting. The effect of different volumetric ratios of RS to RC, 1:1 (Exp.1), 1:2 (Exp.2) and 1:4 (Exp.3), on the performance of composting was investigated in detail. Temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matter, C/N ratio and moisture content were monitored in each experiment. In despite of low initial C/N of the mixture, intensive fermentation happened in all the experiments. Exp.1 and Exp.2 achieved stability and sanitization, but Exp 1 took more days to accomplish the fermentation. Exp 3 maintained thermophilic temperatures for a shortest time and did not satisfy the necessary sanitation requirements because more RC was recycled. In all experiments, the moisture content of their final composts were too high to be used as bulking agents before extra moisture was reduced. RS: RC = 1:2 (v/v) was the optimum and advisable proportion for the industrialization of sewage sludge composting of, the composting period was about 10 days, and the aeration rate 0.05 m3/(m3ṡmin) was appropriate in this study.

  2. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation.

  3. Greenhouse gas emission from the total process of swine manure composting and land application of compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuansong; Wan, Hefeng; Wu, Yulong; Zheng, Jiaxi; Han, Shenghui; Zheng, Bofu

    2013-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal manure management are of great concern in China. However, there are still great uncertainties about China's GHG inventory due to the GHG emission factors partly used default values from the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. The purpose of this study was to use a case study in Beijing to determine the regional GHG emission factors based on the combination of swine manure composting and land application of the compost with both on-site examination and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results showed that the total GHG emission factor was 240 kgCO2eq tDS-1 (dry solids), including the direct GHG emission factor of 115 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for swine manure composting and 48 kgCO2eq tDS-1 for land application of the compost. Among the total GHG emissions of 5.06 kgCH4 tDS-1 and 0.13 kgN2O tDS-1, the swine manure composting contributed approximately 89% to CH4 emissions while land application accounted for 92% of N2O emission. Meanwhile, the GHG emission profile from the full process in Beijing in 2015 and 2020 was predicted by the scenario analysis. The composting and land application is a cost-effective way for animal manure management in China considering GHG emissions.

  4. Radiation sensitivity of hyperthermal composting microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jong-Il; Yoon, Min-Chul; Kim, Jae-Hun; Yamashita, Masamichi; Kim, Geun Joong; Lee, Ju-Woon

    In the space station and vehicles designed for long human mission, high-temperature compost is a promising technology for decomposing organic waste and producing the fertilizers. In space, the microorganisms could have the changed biological activities or even be mutated by ionizing irradiation. Therefore, in this study, the effect of gamma irradiation on the sensitivity of bacteria in hyperthermal composting was investigated. The sequence analysis of the amplified 16s rDNA genes and amoA gene were used for the identification of composting microorganisms. Viability of microorganisms in compost soil after gamma irradiation was directly visualized with LIVE/DEAD Baclight viability kit. The dominant bacterial genera are Weissella cibaria and Leuconostoc sp. and fungus genera are Metschnikowia bicuspidate and Pichia guilliermondii, respectively. By the gamma irradiation up to the dose of 1 kGy, the microbial population was not changed. Also, the enzyme activities of amylase and cellulose were sustained by the gamma irradiation. These results show that these hyperthermia microorganisms might have the high resistance to gamma radiation and could be used for agriculture in the Space Station.

  5. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  6. Converting Alaska Fish Byproducts into Compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska’s commercial fishing industry, sportfishing and subsistence fisheries generate over one million metric tons of processing waste each year. Composting is a practical alternative for salvaging some of these discarded materials. Rural and remote coastal communities can benefit from these sources...

  7. Lightweight and Compostable Fiberboard for the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    performance under adverse environmental conditions to the existing containers. Compression studies were performed on prototypes after exposing the...Results of Cold Weather Study ......................................................................................................... 80  5.2.4 Air...Compost Studies of Fiberboard ........................................................................................... 87  6.1 Materials and Methods

  8. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  9. Compost: The Rot Thing for Our Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Fred; Fucigna, Carolee

    2013-01-01

    Fred Estes is a science teacher and lower school science coordinator at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Carolee Fucigna is a prekindergarten teacher at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Their year in the classroom regularly begins with starting a compost pile that serves as a focus for classroom research and science…

  10. Application of aerobic composting system for space agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Tairo; Yoshii, Takahiro; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

    Composting is a classical technique to decompose organic wastes such as animal bodies, straw, paper, raw sludge, and so on. Compared with burning of wastes, the composting method has many advantages. It is an inexpensive and safer method because of its self-heating without spending extra energy resources. It does not emit toxic pollutants such as dioxin, NOx , and SOx . The composting products can be used as organic fertilizers for agricultural production. Composting is a promising way for digesting organic wastes safely on spaceships or manned exploration on extraterrestrial planets. We have developed a small scale high-temperature composter in order to examine its feasobility to operate food waste disposing facility and fertilizer production in space. This composter has a heated reaction vessel containing compost soil (seed bacteria) provided by a compost factory. To determine the optimal condition for its operation, we analyzed the effect of temperature on metabolic activity (CO2 production rate), and water content. The dynamics of microbial community was studied by polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Water content was maintained to a range between 27% and 40% by continuously adding water. The highest CO2 emission was observed at around 70° C. PCR-DGGE analysis shows that the bacterial community of the compost soil is dramatically changed by changing reaction temperature. We will discuss the application of the composter in space in order to establish the closed recycling loop of bio-elements in space agriculture.

  11. Characterization of dairy cattle manure/wallboard paper compost mixture.

    PubMed

    Saludes, Ronaldo B; Iwabuchi, Kazunori; Miyatake, Fumihito; Abe, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Yoshifumi

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the use of manufacturing wallboard paper scraps as an alternative bulking agent for dairy cattle manure composting. The characteristics of the composting process were studied based on the changes in physico-chemical parameters and final compost quality. Composting of dairy cattle manure with wallboard paper was performed in a 481-L cylindrical reactor with vacuum-type aeration. Rapid degradation of organic matter was observed during the thermophilic stage of composting due to high microbial activity. High temperature and alkaline pH conditions promoted intense ammonia emission during the early stage of composting. The number of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms were found to be affected by changes in temperature at different composting stages. The total nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) concentrations of the mixture did not change significantly after 28days of composting. However, the presence of gypsum in the paper scraps increased the calcium content of the final compost. The wallboard paper had no phyto-inhibitory effects as shown by high germination index of final compost (GI=99%).

  12. Heavy metals in composts of separated municipal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.P.; Huang, W.C.; Fan, W.H.; Hsu, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study is to examine the influence of the metal components on the contents of heavy metals in composts of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). Fresh MSW used in composting was obtained from the city landfill of Taichung in Taiwan. Compost 1 was from as-collected MSW; Compost 2 was from degradable fraction in MSW; Compost 3 was from MSW without metal. The results show that the total concentration of zinc is the highest among the five heavy metals examined. Paper wastes are main sources of lead and copper with average concentrations of 18.53 mg/kg and 26.92 mg/kg of compost on dry weight. The contents of nickel and cadmium are relatively low. The total concentrations of the five heavy metals in composts increase by typical ratios between 1.72 and 2.58 for Composts 2 and 3, but 3.16 to 4.69 for Compost 1. The increase of concentration around a ratio of 2.0 is due to the loss of degraded organic matter. For the ratios above 2.0, fractions of some heavy metals have corroded from the surfaces of metal components into the Compost 1 in the early phase of acidic fermentation.

  13. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-03-15

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  14. [Composting facilities. 1. Microbiological quality of compost with special regard to disposable diapers].

    PubMed

    Jager, E; Rüden, H; Zeschmar-Lahl, B

    1994-10-01

    At three different composting facilities, co-composting of used panty diapers with an addition of 10% (weight) to the usual plant input was investigated for various hygienic and microbiological parameters. In nearly any case, a sufficient degree of germ reduction above 99.9% could be observed by determination of reduction rates of B. subtilis spores. The concentrations of "total microorganisms" ranged from 3.9 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(11) colony forming units per gram compost (CFU/g) in composts without and from 3.3 x 10(5) to 4.7 x 10(9) CFU/g in composts with panty diapers in the input. The concentrations of "gram-negative bacteria" ranged from 3.3 x 10(4) to 1.3 x 10(9) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 3.3 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers), the concentrations of "fecal streptococci" from 1.7 x 10(3) to 7.7 x 10(7) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 1.4 x 10(4) to 1.4 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers). Facultatively pathogenic microorganisms showed a broad variety, but no common trend in composts with and without panty diapers in the input. Statistical validity of the determination of contents of microorganisms in compost samples was guaranteed by the collection and analysis of 20 parallel samples with an average sample mass of 10 to 15 kg. From the analyzed quantitative and qualitative hygienic-microbiological parameters, it can be concluded that no negative hygienic-microbiological effects, caused by the addition of 10% (weight) of used panty diapers in the input, have to be expected. Under the aspects of epidemiologic hygiene, composting of used panty diapers together with usual input materials seems to cause no increased risks under the tested conditions. Under the aspect of consumer protection, there is no increase in the risk of infection when using compost produced with addition of panty diapers, compared to compost produced without panty diaper addition to the input.

  15. Composting public health aspects: Odors and bioaerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.O.; Epstein, E.

    1995-09-01

    The two dominating public health issues associated with composting are odors and bioaerosols, regardless of the feedstock or method of composting. Odors, per se, are an irritant and a nuisance rather than a direct health problem. However, when odors emanate form a facility, the surrounding public often associates odors with compounds which may result in health problems. For example, hydrogen sulfide is not found in high concentrations during composting or found to be of a health significance in the air surrounding composting facilities, yet health issues related to this compound have emerged as a result of odors. Another health concern associated with odors is bioaerosols. Bioaerosols are biological organisms or substances from biological organisms which have been implicated in human health. Bioaerosols may contain fungal spores, actinomycetes, microbial products, and other organisms. Mitigating odors and bioaerosols is a function of facility design and operations. There is a greater opportunity in municipal solid waste (MSW) and biosolids facilities for effective design than with year waste facilities. MSW and biosolids facilities as a result of the nature of the feedstock generally require more sophisticated materials handling equipment which require enclosures. With enclosures there is a greater opportunity to scrub the air for removal of odors and dust. There are also more regulatory requirements for MSW and sewage sludge composting for both process and product by states and the Federal government. The objective of this paper is to provide information on the concerns, state-of-the-art, and potential mitigating aspects which need to be considered in the design and operation of MSW facilities.

  16. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants. PMID:20350306

  17. Compost maturity and nitrogen availability by co-composting of paddy husk and chicken manure amended with clinoptilolite zeolite.

    PubMed

    Latifah, Omar; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Susilawati, Kassim; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-04-01

    The availability of paddy husk from rice processing plants remains high owing to increase in the worldwide rice consumption. Increasing demand for chicken products leads to poultry wastes production. Co-composting of the aforementioned wastes could solve the indiscriminate disposal of these wastes. Thus, co-composting of paddy husk and chicken slurry with clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additive was carried out. Clinoptilolite zeolite was used to enhance ammonium and nitrate retention in the compost. Temperature of the compost was monitored three times daily for 55 days. Cation exchange capacity, organic matter, ash, humic acids, pH, total C, N, C/N ratio; total P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, NH4+, NO3-, and heavy metals contents were determined using standard procedures. pH, total N, humic acids, ash, NH4+, NO3-, P, Ca, Mg, and K contents increased but the salinity, heavy metals contents, and microbial population were low after the co-composting process. Zea mays L. (test crop) seed germination rate in distilled water and the compost were not significantly different. Growth of Spinach oleracea (test crop) on a peat-based growing medium and the compost was also not significantly different. These findings were possible because the clinoptilolite zeolite used in co-composting reduced accumulation of heavy metals that may have damage effects on the test crops. Mature compost with good agronomic properties can be produced by co-composting chicken slurry and paddy husk using clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additives.

  18. White spruce response to co-composted hydrocarbon-contaminated drilling waste: effects of compost age and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jung; Chang, Scott X; Hao, Xiying

    2005-01-01

    There are growing interests to use co-composted drilling wastes contaminated with hydrocarbons as growth media for planting in land reclamation. However, such use of the compost may have potential problems such as inherent toxicity of residual hydrocarbon and microbial N immobilization due to high compost C to N ratios. We investigated the growth, biomass production, N uptake, and foliar delta13C of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings in a pot experiment using 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old composts (with different hydrocarbon concentrations and C to N ratios) and a local noncontaminated soil with (200 kg N ha(-1)) or without N fertilization. Growth and N content of seedlings (particularly N content in roots) were lower when grown in the compost media as compared with those grown in the soil. Within the compost treatments seedling growth was affected by compost age, but the magnitude of growth reduction was not linearly proportional to hydrocarbon concentrations. Plant N uptake increased with compost age, which corresponds with an increase in indigenous mineral N concentration. Effects of N fertilization on N uptake were curtailed by the presence of indigenous mineral N (e.g., in the 4-yr-old compost) and by fertilization-induced stimulation of microbial activities (e.g., in the 1-yr-old compost). The differences in foliar delta13C values between seedlings grown in compost and soil (P < 0.05) suggest that limitations on water uptake caused by the residual hydrocarbon might have been the predominant factor limiting seedling growth in the compost media. This study suggests that water stress caused by residual hydrocarbons may be a critical factor for the successful use of co-composted drilling wastes as a growth medium.

  19. Physical and chemical properties of biochars co-composted with biowastes and incubated with a chicken litter compost.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naser; Clark, Ian; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Shea, Syd; Meier, Sebastian; Qi, Fangjie; Kookana, Rai S; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted where three biochars, made from macadamia nutshell (MS), hardwood shaving (WS) and chicken litter (CL), were co-composted with chicken manure and sawdust, and also incubated with a chicken litter based commercial compost. Biochars were added at the rates of 5% and 10% in the co-composting and 10% and 20% in the incubation experiment. The rates of biochar had no consistent effect on the change in element contents of composted- or incubated-biochars. The biochar C demonstrated recalcitrance in both composting and incubation systems. Composting increased the CEC of biochars probably due to thermophilic oxidation. The increases in CEC of WS and CL were 6.5 and 2.2 times, respectively, for composting. Translocation of elements, between biochar and compost medium, occurred in both directions. In most cases, biochars gained elements under the influence of positive difference of concentrations (i.e., when compost medium had higher concentration of elements than biochar), while in some cases they lost elements despite a positive difference. Biochar lost some elements (WS: B; CL: B, Mg and S) under the influence of negative difference of concentrations. Some biochars showed strong affinity for B, C, N and S: the concentration of these elements gained by biochars surpassed the concentration in the respective composting medium. The material difference in the biochars did not have influence on N retention: all three netbag-biochars increased their N content. The cost of production of biochar-compost will be lower in co-composting than incubation, which involves two separate processes, i.e., composting and subsequent incubation.

  20. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  1. Monitoring of changes in substrate characteristics during mushroom compost production.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Gary A; Sharma, H S Shekhar; Kilpatrick, Mairead; Cheung, Linda; Moore, Solveig

    2006-06-28

    Substrates from three mushroom compost facilities in Northern Ireland, employing similar production technologies, were examined to assess the quality of the compost produced. Biochemical investigation highlighted changes in substrates through each step of the production cycle. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) provided useful information on fiber fraction content and extent of substrate breakdown. A comparison of productivity, chemical, and thermal data permitted assessment of the degree of bioconversion that had occurred in the decomposition from raw materials to finished substrate for each composter. One of the composters consistently produced substrate of inferior quality compared to the other two, indicating production inefficiencies during composting. Results demonstrated that allied to chemical analyses, TGA is a useful tool, providing valuable information on substrate quality and, in particular, for studying the bioconversion of lignocellulosic materials in mushroom compost.

  2. Variations of metal distribution in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Nomeda, Sabiene; Valdas, Paulauskas; Chen, Shen-Yi; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2008-01-01

    In the study, the variations of heavy metal distributions (of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) during the sewage sludge composting process were investigated by sequential extraction procedures. The total content of Cu and Zn in the composted mixture increased after the composting process. Mn and Zn were mainly found in mobile fractions (exchangeable fraction (F1), carbonate fraction (F2), and Fe/Mn oxide fraction (F3)). Cu and Pb were strongly associated with the stable fractions (organic matter/sulfides fraction (F4) and residual fraction (F5)). These five metal fractions were used to calculate the metal mobility (bioavailability) in the sewage sludge and composted mixture. The mobility (bioavailability) of Mn, Pb, and Zn (but not Cu) increased during the composting process. The metal mobility in the composted mixture ranked in the following order: Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu.

  3. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting.

  4. Composting in small laboratory pilots: performance and reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, G; Barriuso, E; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M; Houot, S

    2012-02-01

    Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O(2) consumption and CO(2) emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures.

  5. Inactivation mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in several matrixes during the composting process in a composting toilet.

    PubMed

    Sossou, S K; Hijikata, N; Sou, M; Tezuka, R; Maiga, A H; Funamizu, N

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the inactivation rate and the mechanisms of pathogenic bacteria in three matrixes (sawdust, rice husk and charcoal) during the composting process. The inactivation rate was evaluated with Escherichia coli strain and the damaged parts and/or functions were evaluated with three different media. Normalized inactivation rate constant in three media and from three matrixes had no significant difference in each process (pure, 1 month and 2 months). The value in rice husk was relatively increased during 2 months but there was no significant difference. The inactivation rate constants of Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) and Compact Dry E. coli/Coliform in pure sawdust and rice husk were relatively lower than that of Desoxycholate Agar, but increased in 2 months. This indicated that damaging part was changed from outer membrane to enzymes and metabolisms during the 2-month composting process. In the case of charcoal, only the TSA value in apure matrix was relatively lower than that of others, but it increased in 2 months. This indicated that damaging part was changed from outer membrane and enzyme to metabolisms during the composting process. Composting matrix and composting process did not significantly affect inactivation rate of pathogenic bacteria during the process but affected the damaging part of the bacteria.

  6. Effects of bulking agents on food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Chang, James I; Chen, Y J

    2010-08-01

    The effects of rice husk, sawdust and rice bran on the composting process of food waste were studied in a 180-L laboratory composter based on a mixture experimental design. Linear and quadratic models of seven important process characteristics (composting and acidification times, lowest and final pH values, highest temperature, the water-soluble organic carbon to water-soluble organic nitrogen (C(OW)/N(OW) ratio), and the water-soluble organic carbon to total organic nitrogen (C(OW)/N(OT)) ratio) in terms of fractional compositions of bulking agents as well as the water absorption capacity and the free air space of the composting matrix were developed.

  7. The biosecurity of on-farm mortality composting.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, K G

    2007-03-01

    Composting is a natural biological decomposition process that takes place under aerobic and thermophilic conditions. It can be used for the day-to-day management of mortalities on farms and for carcass disposal in emergency animal disease (EAD) outbreaks. In mortality composting, carcasses are placed in piles or bins together with supplemental carbon sources such as sawdust, litter, straw or wood shavings. Composting is particularly suitable for broiler-farm mortalities and litter. In the case of emergency disease outbreaks, composting can be conducted either inside or outside the poultry house following killing. Composting has been successfully employed for emergency disposal of carcasses in a few cases in North America, but research is lacking on the biosecurity of the process. Composting is a well-established pathogen reduction technology, but process management and heterogenous pile conditions pose particular challenges for validating the microbiological safety of mortality composting. This paper reviews the available information on the biosecurity of mortality composting, identifies potential sources of risk, and highlights emerging research needs. Reports to date of the use of composting in EAD outbreaks are also discussed.

  8. Co-composting of palm oil mill sludge-sawdust.

    PubMed

    Yaser, Abu Zahrim; Abd Rahman, Rakmi; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid

    2007-12-15

    Composting of Palm Oil Mill Sludge (POMS) with sawdust was conducted in natural aerated reactor. Composting using natural aerated reactor is cheap and simple. The goal of this study is to observe the potential of composting process and utilizing compost as media for growing Cymbopogun citratus, one of Malaysia herbal plant. The highest maximum temperature achieved is about 40 degrees C and to increase temperature bed, more biodegradable substrate needs to be added. The pH value decrease along the process with final pH compost is acidic (pH 5.7). The highest maximum organic losses are about 50% with final C/N ratio of the compost is about 19. Final compost also showed some fertilizing value but need to be adjusted to obtain an ideal substrate. Addition of about 70% sandy soil causes highest yield and excellent root development for C. citratus in potted media. Beside that, compost from POMS-sawdust also found to have fertilizer value and easy to handle. Composting of POMS with sawdust shows potential as an alternative treatment to dispose and recycle waste components.

  9. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation.

  10. Composting barrel for sustainable organic waste management in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, Md Azizul; Bushra, Quazi Sifat; Rahman, M H

    2011-12-01

    To ensure quick and uniform aerobic stabilization of biowaste through domestic composting and to prevent malodorous emissions, two modifications were made to a conventional steel barrel composter by: (1) providing 0.0125 m diameter openings throughout the sides and (2) placing a 0.0254 m diameter perforated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe in the middle portion of the barrel. The volume of composting waste before modification of the composting barrel was 40% of the original volume and it was 70%, 4 weeks following the modifications. In addition, the nutrients in the compost were found to be in a more suitable range after modification of the composting barrel. The carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) of the compost was in the ideal range of 11-15 in the modified composting reactor but it was quite high (24-25) in the conventional barrel. This modified barrel composting plant proved to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective solution for the management of organic solid waste materials in developing and technologically less sophisticated countries such as Bangladesh.

  11. Changes in cadmium mobility during composting and after soil application

    SciTech Connect

    Hanc, Ales Tlustos, Pavel; Szakova, Jirina; Habart, Jan

    2009-08-15

    The effect of twelve weeks of composting on the mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in six composts containing sewage sludge, wood chips and grass was studied, along with the cadmium immobilization capacity of compost. Two different soils were used and Cd accumulation measured in above-ground oat biomass (Avena sativa L.). Increasing pH appears to be an important cause of the observed decreases in available cadmium through the composting process. A pot experiment was performed with two different amounts of compost (9.6 and 28.8 g per kg of soil) added into Fluvisol with total Cd 0.255 mg kg{sup -1}, and contaminated Cambisol with total Cd 6.16 mg kg{sup -1}. Decrease of extractable Cd (0.01 mol l{sup -1} CaCl{sub 2}) was found in both soils after compost application. The higher amount of compost immobilized an exchangeable portion of Cd (0.11 mol l{sup -1} CH{sub 3}COOH extractable) in contaminated Cambisol unlike in light Fluvisol. The addition of a low amount of compost decreased the content of Cd in associated above-ground oat biomass grown in both soils, while a high amount of compost decreased the Cd content in oats only in the Cambisol.

  12. Sewage sludge composting: quality assessment for agricultural application.

    PubMed

    Nafez, Amir Hossein; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Kadkhodaie, Safora; Hatamzadeh, Maryam; Moghim, Sharareh

    2015-11-01

    In order to use sewage sludge (SS) composts in agriculture, it is extremely important to estimate the quality of compost products. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of composted SS as a fertilizer and soil amendment especially in semi-arid areas. To determine the quality and agronomic value of the SS compost products, analyses on pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter content, C/N ratio, phytotoxicity, microbial load, and heavy metal content of composted anaerobically digested SS, with different proportions (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 v/v) of green and dry plant waste, as bulking agents, were performed. The 1:2 and 1:3 mixtures of SS and green/dry plant waste were the most beneficial for composting, with final composts attaining high organic matter degradation and exhibiting low amounts of heavy metals, a relatively high germination index, and significant reduction of pathogens, suggesting the agricultural relevance of composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 (v/v) proportions. pH and electrical conductivity were also within the permissible limits. With respect to international standards, it appears that composted SS and green/dry plant waste at 1:2 and 1:3 proportions pose no threat to soil or plant quality if used in agriculture or land restoration.

  13. Toxicity testing of trinitrotoluene-contaminated soil composts

    SciTech Connect

    Honeycutt, M.E.; McFarland, V.A.; Jarvis, A.S.

    1997-10-01

    The Mutatox{trademark} assay and earthworm acute toxicity test were employed to evaluate the efficacy of composting in reducing the toxicity of TNT-contaminated soils. The Mutatox assay is a proprietary bacterial bioluminescence test that determines the mutagenic potential of sample extracts. The earthworm acute toxicity test was chosen because it exposes the organisms to the unaltered contaminant/solid matrix. Rockeye soil, a TNT-contaminated soil collected from a military installation, was composted using two methods. This yielded five samples, Rockeye, Compost A composting. Soil extracts were prepared for Mutatox using the sonification method. Ten serial dilution samples were tested soils/artificial soil were tested in the earthworm toxicity test. In the Rockeye soil samples, a toxic response was shown in both test methods. Mutatox indicated no toxicity in Composts A and B after composting but did not show a positive mutagenic response in the lower serial dilutions. The LC50s for Compost A and B after composting in the earthworm toxicity test were 35.3% and 100%, respectively. Using Mutatox and the earthworm toxicity test together provides a sensitive means of monitoring the effectiveness of various composting techniques for remediating TNT-contaminated soils.

  14. Effects of age of cattle, turning technology and compost environment on disappearance of bone from mortality compost.

    PubMed

    Stanford, K; Hao, X; Xu, S; McAllister, T A; Larney, F; Leonard, J J

    2009-10-01

    As residual bones in mortality compost negatively impact subsequent tillage, two studies were performed. For the first study, windrows of mature cattle or calves were placed on a base of barley straw and covered with beef manure. Windrows were divided into two sections and turned at 3-month intervals. Approximately 5000 kg of finished compost per windrow was passed through a 6mm trommel screen, with bones collected and weighed. Bone weight was 0.66% of mature cattle compost and 0.38% of calf compost on a dry matter basis, but did not differ after adjustment for weights of compost ingredients. In a subsequent study, four windrows were constructed containing mortalities, straw and beef manure (STATC) or straw, manure and slaughter waste (STATW). Also, straw, beef manure and slaughter waste was added to an 850 L rolling drum composter (DRUMW). Fresh bovine long-bones from calves were collected, weighed and embedded in the compost. Bones were retrieved and weighed when windrows were turned, or with DRUMW, after 8 weeks. Temperatures achieved followed the order STATW>STATC>DRUMW (p<0.05). Rate of bone disappearance followed a pattern identical to temperature, with the weight of bones in STATW declining by 53.7% during 7 weeks of composting. For STATC, temperatures were uniform over three composting periods, but bone disappearance was improved (p<0.05) when compost dry matter was lower (46%), as compared to 58%. Using a ratio of five parts manure to one part mortalities, results of this study demonstrated that residual bone was <1% of cured cattle compost and may be reduced by maintaining a high compost temperature and moisture content.

  15. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    PubMed

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1).

  16. Composting: Dirty riches. [Composting organic wastes from the municiple solid waste stream

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, A.

    1993-08-01

    Up to three-quarters of municiple solid waste (MSW) is organic, readily biodegradable material, such as food, leaves, and paper. If this waste were allowed to root properly, the solid waste crisis would be less serious. However, rotting isn't easy in a tightly packed mountain of garbage at a typical landfill. The last few years have at least established composing as a rising green industry, especially in the most populous regions of the developed world. However, the variety of composting programs is too inefficient to divert any more than a tiny fraction of the compostable waste stream away from landfills and incinerators. This article discusses the problems of mixed municiple solid wastes and composting organic wastes, and possible solutions.

  17. Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    commercial or field-scale composting system for Type 2 wastes would require, in its early stages , experimental investigation in two broad areas...consists of the alfalfa, straw/ manure , and woodchips storage and/or handling. The alfalfa and straw/ manure are staged in the designated clean area of the...throughput of 300 yd3 per day. 0 No pad is necessary for all alfalfa and straw/ manure storage. These •aaterials will be staged on visqueen (plastic

  18. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario.

  19. Opportunities and barriers to on-farm composting and compost application: A case study from northwestern Europe.

    PubMed

    Viaene, J; Van Lancker, J; Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Bijttebier, J; Ruysschaert, G; De Neve, S; Reubens, B

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining and increasing soil quality and fertility in a sustainable way is an important challenge for modern agriculture. The burgeoning bioeconomy is likely to put further pressure on soil resources unless they are managed carefully. Compost has the potential to be an effective soil improver because of its multiple beneficial effects on soil quality. Additionally, it fits within the bioeconomy vision because it can valorize biomass from prior biomass processing or valorize biomass unsuitable for other processes. However, compost is rarely used in intensive agriculture, especially in regions with high manure surpluses. The aim of this research is to identify the barriers to on-farm composting and the application of compost in agriculture, using a mixed method approach for the case of Flanders. The significance of the 28 identified barriers is analyzed and they are categorized as market and financial, policy and institutional, scientific and technological and informational and behavioral barriers. More specifically, the shortage of woody biomass, strict regulation, considerable financial and time investment, and lack of experience and knowledge are hindering on-farm composting. The complex regulation, manure surplus, variable availability and transport of compost, and variable compost quality and composition are barriers to apply compost. In conclusion, five recommendations are suggested that could alleviate certain hindering factors and thus increase attractiveness of compost use in agriculture.

  20. Performance of compostable baby used diapers in the composting process with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    PubMed

    Colón, Joan; Mestre-Montserrat, Maria; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    In modern societies, disposable diapers constitute a significant percentage of municipal solid wastes. They have been traditionally landfilled or incinerated as only limited recycling processes are being implemented in some parts of Europe. With the implementation of separated collection systems for the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSWs) and the need to preserve the environment, compostable diapers have appeared in the market to avoid the main environmental impacts associated to non-biodegradable disposable diapers. In this study, a full-scale composting of door-to-door collected OFMSW with a 3% (w/w) of compostable diapers has also been carried out. Previously, lab-scale experiments confirmed that almost 50% of carbon of compostable diapers is emitted as CO2 under aerobic controlled conditions. The results obtained at full-scale demonstrate that both the composting process and the final end product (compost) are not altered by the presence of compostable diapers in crucial aspects such as pathogenic content, stability and elemental composition (including nutrients and heavy metals). The main conclusion of this study is that the collection of the OFMSW with compostable diapers can be a new way to transform this waste into high-quality compost.

  1. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    PubMed

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity.

  2. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  3. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    SciTech Connect

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  4. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  5. COP-compost: a software to study the degradation of organic pollutants in composts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Zhu, Y-G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2014-02-01

    Composting has been demonstrated to be effective in degrading organic pollutants (OP) whose behaviour depends on the composting conditions, the microbial populations activated and interactions with organic matters. The fate of OP during composting involves complex mechanisms and models can be helpful tools for educational and scientific purposes, as well as for industrialists who want to optimise the composting process for OP elimination. A COP-Compost model, which couples an organic carbon (OC) module and an organic pollutant (OP) module and which simulates the changes of organic matter, organic pollutants and the microbial activities during the composting process, has been proposed and calibrated for a first set of OP in a previous study. The objectives of the present work were (1) to introduce the COP-Compost model from its convenient interface to a potential panel of users, (2) to show the variety of OP that could be simulated, including the possibility of choosing between degradation through co-metabolism or specific metabolism and (3) to show the effect of the initial characteristics of organic matter quality and its microbial biomass on the simulated results of the OP dynamic. In the model, we assumed that the pollutants can be adsorbed on organic matter according to the biochemical quality of the OC and that the microorganisms can degrade the pollutants at the same time as they degrade OC (by co-metabolism). A composting experiment describing two different (14)C-labelled organic pollutants, simazine and pyrene, were chosen from the literature because the four OP fractions simulated in the model were measured during the study (the mineralised, soluble, sorbed and non-extractable fractions). Except for the mineralised fraction of simazine, a good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of the different organic fractions. For simazine, a specific biomass had to be added. To assess the relative importance

  6. A new combination of microbial indicators for monitoring composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Olivier; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Milferstedt, Kim; Bacheley, Hélène; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2012-12-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on occupational health and neighboring residential areas. The aim of this study was to identify microbial indicators that are most useful for monitoring bioaerosol emittance and dispersal by industrial composting plants. Seven microbial indicators were measured in air collected outdoors in natural environments and at eleven composting plants. The indicators were: cultivable bacteria and fungi, total bacteria (epifluorescent microscopy), viable bacteria (solid-phase cytometry) and quantification by qPCR of three microbial indicators which had been previously shown as strongly associated with composting. For each indicator, the increase in concentrations due to the turning of composting piles as compared to the background concentration obtained in natural environments and upwind of composting plants was determined. Based on these results, the most effective combination of three indicators was selected for monitoring composting bioaerosol emissions: viable bacteria as one general indicator of bioaerosol emission and two bacterial phylotypes specific to composting bioaerosol: NA07, affiliated to Saccharopolyspora sp. and NC38, affiliated to the Thermoactinomycetaceae. This set of indicator was then quantified on-site and at increasing distances downwind during the turning of compost windrows in thermophilic phase. Composting activity was considered to affect bioaerosol emission when the concentrations of the three indicators were higher than their respective background levels. For all the composting sites studied, an impact was measureable up to distances of 100 m. Further away, the impact was not systematically observed as it depended on meteorological conditions (wind speed) and on levels of bioaerosol emissions.

  7. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method.

  8. Maturity and hygiene quality of composts and hygiene indicators in agricultural soil fertilised with municipal waste or manure compost.

    PubMed

    Tontti, Tiina; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Karinen, Päivi; Reinikainen, Olli; Halinen, Arja

    2011-02-01

    Composts produced from municipal source separated biowaste (Biowaste), a mixture of biowaste and anaerobically digested sewage sludge (Biosludge) and cattle manure (Manure) were examined for their maturity and hygiene quality. The composts were applied to a potato crop in 2004 and to a barley nurse crop of forage ley in 2005 in a field experiment. Numbers of faecal coliforms, enterococci, clostridia and Salmonella in field soil were determined 2 weeks and 16 weeks after compost applications. Municipal compost batches chosen based on successful processing showed variable maturity during field application, and the need to evaluate compost maturity with multiple variables was confirmed. The numbers of faecal coliform were similar in all compost types, averaging 4.7 and 2.3 log( 10) CFU g(-1) in the first and second years, respectively. The highest number of enterococci was 5.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), found in Manure compost in the first year, while the highest clostridia numbers were found in Biosludge compost, averaging 4.0 log(10) CFU g(-1) over both years. Except for one case, less than 2.4 log(10) CFU g(-1) of faecal coliforms or clostridia were found in compost-fertilised soil, while the numbers of enterococci were mostly higher than in unfertilised soil (<4.2 or <3.2 log(10) CFU g(-1), respectively). No hygiene indicator bacteria were present in compost-fertilised potato at harvest. Overall, compost fertilisations caused rather small changes in the counts of hygiene indicators in the field environment.

  9. Evaluating the quality of communities made compost manure in South Africa: a case study of content and sources of metals in compost manure from Thulamela Municipality, Limpopo province.

    PubMed

    Manungufala, T E; Chimuka, L; Maswanganyi, B X

    2008-03-01

    The main aim of this research was to assess the quality of the compost manure of a community project which is part of Government's initiative for job creation. This was done by determining the sources, presence and concentrations of metals in the composting materials and compost manure. Generally, there are many communities involved in making compost manure with no assessment of the quality of the compost. This is because no quality assurance guidelines are in place. The main source of heavy metals in the composting materials was found to be sawdust while cabbage was the main source of the essential nutrient elements such as magnesium calcium and potassium. The level of heavy metals in all the compost materials were found in the following order: Fe>Mn>Cr>Ni>Zn>Cu>Co>Cd. The level of essential elements was in the following order: Ca>Mg>K>S>Na>Li>Si>P. The level of heavy metals in the compost materials reflected the level in the final compost manure. The concentration of metals in the compost materials and compost manure was below the international standards of compost manure. Therefore, compost manure can be said to be of good quality. However, sawdust was found to be not a good compost material as it was the source of main heavy metals.

  10. "ComPost": A Writing Program Newsletter and Its Rationale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development and rationale of "ComPost," a weekly newsletter of the Composition Program at the University of Louisville. Suggests that a vehicle like ComPost can promote the communications that contribute to accomplishing collegiality and genuine program consensus. (RS)

  11. Effect of amendments on windrow composting of sugar industry pressmud.

    PubMed

    Satisha, G C; Devarajan, L

    2007-01-01

    Bioconversion of sugar and distillery industrial wastes with other biodegradables into enriched compost is an important possibility in need of research. In this paper, changes in temperature and physico-chemical (pH, NH4+-N, C/N ratio, CEC) parameters during windrow composting, related to biological stabilization of the compost, were studied. The rise in temperature, which occurred as composting progressed, was accompanied by an increase in NH4+-N and the passage of the thermophilic phase to mesophilic took place between 90 and 105 days. This overall pattern was observed in all composting mixes, whereby the concentrations of NH4+-N increased rapidly and then declined gradually over the course of monitoring pari passu with increase in NO3- -N. The C/N ratios of the composting mixes decreased substantially by the 90th day in full thermophilic phase and became comparatively stable later on. Addition of additives showed potential in improving the C/N ratios. Increases in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the germination index value of a sensitive crop (Raphanus sativus) had value in establishing the optimum degree of maturity. The rise and fall of temperature and changes in NH4+-N concentrations, C/N ratios and CEC over time proved to be reliable indicators of the progress of the composting process for establishing biological stability and compost maturity.

  12. Rotary drum composting of vegetable waste and tree leaves.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Singh, Yatish K; Ali, Muntjeer; Khwairakpam, Meena; Kazmi, A A

    2009-12-01

    High rate composting studies on institutional waste, i.e. vegetable wastes, tree leaves, etc., were conducted on a demonstration-scale (3.5 m(3)) rotary drum composter by evaluating changes in some physico-chemical and biological parameters. During composting, higher temperature (60-70 degrees C) at inlet zone and (50-60 degrees C) at middle zone were achieved which resulted in high degradation in the drum. As a result, all parameters including TOC, C/N ratio, CO(2) evolution and coliforms were decreased significantly within few days of composting. Within a week period, quality compost with total nitrogen (2.6%) and final total phosphorus (6 g/kg) was achieved; but relatively higher final values of fecal coliforms and CO(2) evolution, suggested further maturation. Thus, two conventional composting methods namely windrow (M1) and vermicomposting (M2) tried for maturation of primary stabilized compost. By examining these methods, it was suggested that M2 was found suitable in delivering fine grained, better quality matured compost within 20 days of maturation period.

  13. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  14. Biodegradation of phenanthrene and pyrene in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shaw Y; Su, Lai M; Chang, Bea V

    2009-06-01

    This study investigated the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) phenanthrene and pyrene in compost and compost-amended soil. The degradation rates of the two PAHs were phenanthrene>pyrene. The degradation of PAH was enhanced when the two PAHs were present simultaneously in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) individually enhanced PAH degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned 2-50 microm, 50-105 microm, 105-500 microm, and 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAH degradation rates. However, when the different compost fractions were added to soil, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAH degradation. Of the micro-organisms isolated from the soil-compost mixtures, strains S1, S2, and S8, which were identified as Arthrobacter nicotianae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Bordetella Petrii, respectively, demonstrated the best degradation ability.

  15. Biodegradation of phthalate esters in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Chang, B V; Lu, Y S; Yuan, S Y; Tsao, T M; Wang, M K

    2009-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the biodegradation of the phthalate acid esters (PAEs) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di-(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in compost and compost-amended soil. DBP (50 mg kg(-1)) and DEHP (50 mg kg(-1)) were added to the two types of compost (straw and animal manure) and subsequently added to the soil; they were tested as a single compound and in combination. Optimal PAE degradation in soil was at pH 7 and 30 degrees C. The degradation of PAE was enhanced when DBP and DEHP were simultaneously present in the soil. The addition of either of the two types of compost individually also improved the rate of PAE degradation. Compost samples were separated into fractions with various particle size ranges, which spanned from 0.1-0.45 to 500-2000 microm. We observed that the compost fractions with smaller particle sizes demonstrated higher PAE degradation rates. When the different compost fractions were added to soil, however, compost particle size had no significant effect on the rate of PAE degradation.

  16. Compost stability assessment using a secondary metabolite: geosmin.

    PubMed

    Li, H F; Imai, T; Ukita, M; Sekine, M; Higuchi, T

    2004-11-01

    Composting is a process involved not only in transformation of organic matter (OM), but also for transition of the microbial community. Microorganisms can directly provide important information on the stages and characteristics of composting. This paper was aimed at characterizing compost stability by a microbial secondary metabolite, geosmin, which is a volatile compound presenting an earthy smell. Since secondary metabolite production is dependent on the nutrient state of microorganisms, its production in association with physical and chemical parameters was monitored in the laboratory-scale and plant-scale composting processes. The results showed that the peaked geosmin liberation was consistent with stable state of composting indicated by the ambient temperature achieved, a slightly alkaline product and steady states of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), N and P contents and OM degradation in the laboratory-scale experiment. It was also in accordance with the stability identified by the facilities and CO2 respiration rate in the plant-scale composting. In addition, the production of geosmin was correlated with the C/N ratio for the solid sample. These results demonstrated that geosmin levels could be used as an index for the compost stability assessment in different composting processes with various organic solid wastes.

  17. Heavy metal contamination in compost. A possible solution.

    PubMed

    Zennaro, Mariachiara; Cristofori, Fabrizio; Formigoni, Daniele; Frignani, Franco; Pavoni, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    With the objective of improving qualitative characteristics of compost, an analytical survey was carried out in a composting plant in Lombardy (Italy) in all process of production, with particular reference to heavy metals (HM) Zn and Pb. The investigation was principally aimed to study the contents and the accumulation of HM during composting process and to identify a technological solution for reducing HM content in the final product. A merceological analysis of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) input to the composting plant, a chemical analysis of the organic fraction of MSW after mechanical separation, and a comparison with values reported by some authors, showed that Zn and Pb are significant contaminants, even though concentrations have recently decreased in comparison to previous years. On the basis of Zn and Pb content in raw material input to the plant, an estimate of the theoretical value of Zn and Pb in produced compost was made. The comparison of theoretical values with the real ones, experimentally determined, confirmed that at the end of composting process the concentration is 2.6 times the initial value for Zn and 1.6 times the initial value for Pb, as suggested by some authors. Finally, the analytical investigation of Zn and Pb contents in the compost refining line, carried out by means of sieving tests, showed that by eliminating a fraction of compost < 1 mm, both Zn and Pb, which is the more critical one, can be largely removed, without a substantial yield loss (only 10% of the final product is eliminated).

  18. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  19. Renovation of a pear orchard site with sludge compost

    SciTech Connect

    Korcak, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    A lime-stabilized sewage sludge compost was used as a surface amendment to improve the soil and nutritional status of a number of established pear cultivars grown on an acidic, low fertility soil site. Leaf Ca status was significantly increased while trace metals were not elevated and in most cases decreased by sludge compost over the course of the study. Soil chemical properties were modified in a manner similar to liming. Addition of sludge composts, particularly low metal containing materials, appears to represent an acceptable aid in renovating established pear orchards located on poor soil sites. Leaf, fruit flesh or peel Cd were not significantly effected by the compost addition. The compost added twice the recommended level of available N the first year and sub-optimum N the following two years. Leaf N, although significantly increased in the composted versus non-composted controls, was below sufficiency levels by the third year after addition. This indicates that compost cannot fully supply required N from a one time application even over the short term.

  20. Trained Home Composters Reduce Solid Waste by 18%.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vossen, Paul; Rilla, Ellen

    1996-01-01

    In the University of California Cooperative Extension's Master Gardener Program, a partnership with the Sonoma County Waste Management Agency, volunteers teach approximately 1000 people annually how to compost in their backyards to help reduce landfill waste. Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1996 showed that home composters reduced their input into…

  1. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    SciTech Connect

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E.; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M.; Houot, S.

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We design an innovative small-scale composting device including six 4-l reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the performance and reproducibility of composting on a small scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic conditions are established by self-heating in all replicates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical transformations, organic matter losses and stabilisation are realistic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic matter evolution exhibits good reproducibility for all six replicates. - Abstract: Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final

  2. Isolation and identification of fungal communities in compost and vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Anastasi, Antonella; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Marchisio, Valeria Filipello

    2005-01-01

    This research illustrates the qualitative and quantitative composition of the mycoflora of both a green compost (thermophilically produced from plant debris) and a vermicompost (mesophilically produced by the action of earthworms on plant and animal wastes after thermophilic preconditioning). Fungi were isolated using three media (PDA, CMC, PDA plus cycloheximide), incubated at three temperatures (24, 37 and 45 C). Substantial qualiquantitative differences in the species composition of the two composts were observed. The total fungal load was up to 8.2 X 10(5) CFU/g dwt in compost and 4.0 x 10(5) CFU/g dwt in vermicompost. A total of 194 entities were isolated: 118 from green compost, 142 from vermicompost; 66 were common to both. Structural characterization of this kind is necessary to determine the most appropriate application of a compost and its hygienic quality.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of Legionella species in composted plant materials.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, M S; Steele, T W

    1994-01-01

    Legionellae were found in many samples of composted plant matter obtained from home gardeners and from facilities which undertook bulk composting. The predominant species isolated from these composts was Legionella pneumophila, the strains of which belonged to serogroups other than serogroup 1. Other Legionella species were present in many samples. Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1, which is implicated in human infections in South Australia, was present in samples obtained from two of six facilities composting large volumes of material and from 3 of 30 gardeners. Many of the species or strains isolated from composts have not been implicated as causative agents of legionellosis in South Austrailia, but some cause infection in healthy and immunosuppressed persons. PMID:11001749

  4. Microbiology of nitrogen cycle in animal manure compost

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Hanajima, Dai; Toyoda, Sakae; Yoshida, Naohiro; Morioka, Riki; Osada, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Summary Composting is the major technology in the treatment of animal manure and is a source of nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. Although the microbiological processes of both nitrification and denitrification are involved in composting, the key players in these pathways have not been well identified. Recent molecular microbiological methodologies have revealed the presence of dominant Bacillus species in the degradation of organic material or betaproteobacterial ammonia‐oxidizing bacteria on nitrification on the surface, and have also revealed the mechanism of nitrous oxide emission in this complicated process to some extent. Some bacteria, archaea or fungi still would be considered potential key players, and the contribution of some pathways, such as nitrifier denitrification or heterotrophic nitrification, might be involved in composting. This review article discusses these potential microbial players in nitrification–denitrification within the composting pile and highlights the relevant unknowns through recent activities that focus on the nitrogen cycle within the animal manure composting process. PMID:21375720

  5. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  6. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  7. Removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and peat: mechanisms and potential use for groundwater nitrate remediation.

    PubMed

    Su, Chunming; Puls, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    We conducted batch tests on the nature of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (121 degrees C for 2h each day for three consecutive days) for the cotton burr compost and autoclaving of all labware and the nitrate working solutions resulted in drastically different results compared to the non-autoclaved treatment. In the non-autoclaved cotton burr compost, added nitrate at 20 mg N l(-1) decreased rapidly and was not detected after 3d; whereas, the autoclaved cotton burr compost showed persistent nitrate above 15.5 mg N l(-1) even after 10d, which is comparable with nitrate concentrations above 17.6 mg N l(-1) in a treatment using NaN(3) at 1000 mg l(-1). Dewaxed cotton burr compost showed decreased nitrate reduction compared to the pristine cotton burr compost. No nitrate reduction was detected in the dewaxed sphagnum peat. It is concluded that nitrate removal in the organic media is controlled by microbiologically mediated processes. The use of readily available cotton burr and mulch composts may offer a cost-effective method of nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater.

  8. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin and the compost's effect on vegetable growth and soil water quality.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Chen, Liming; Gao, Lihong; Michel, Frederick C; Keener, Harold M; Klingman, Michael; Dick, Warren A

    2012-12-01

    Melamine resin (MR) is introduced to the environment from many industrial effluents, including waste paint sludge (WPS) from the automobile industry. Melamine resin contains a high nitrogen (N) content and is a potential N source during composting. In this study, two carbon sources, waste paper (WP) and plant residue (PR), were used to study their effects on composting of WPS. Additional work tested the WPS-composts effects on plant growth and soil water quality. After 84 days of composting, 85% and 54% of the initial MR was degraded in WP- and PR-composts, respectively. The limiting factor was that the MR created clumps during composting so that decomposition was slowed. Compared to the untreated control, both WP- and PR-composts increased growth of cucumber (Cucumis sativus), radish (Raphanus sativus) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Concentrations of trace elements in plants and soil water did not rise to a level that would preclude WPS-composts from being used as a soil amendment.

  9. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days.

  10. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Vos, Aurin M; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T S; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G; Wösten, Han A B

    2017-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control. In contrast, it increased to 1200 nmol g(-1) compost in the presence of A. bisporus. Laccase activity was absent throughout culturing in the negative control, while it correlated with the fungal PLFA marker in the presence of A. bisporus. PLFA was also used to quantify living bacterial biomass. In the negative control, the bacterial markers remained constant at 3000-3200 nmol PLFA g(-1) compost. In contrast, they decreased to 850 nmol g(-1) compost during vegetative growth of A. bisporus, implying that bacterial biomass decreased from 17.7 to 4.7 mg g(-1) compost. The relative amount of the Gram positive associated PLFA markers a15:0 and a17:0 and the Gram negative PLFA associated markers cy17:0 and cy19:0 increased and decreased, respectively, suggesting that Gram negative bacteria are more suppressed by A. bisporus. Together, these data indicate that fungal biomass can make up 6.8% of the compost after A. bisporus colonization, 57% of which being dead. Moreover, results show that A. bisporus impacts biomass and composition of bacteria in compost.

  11. Characterization of the biosolids composting process by hyperspectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Ilani, Talli; Herrmann, Ittai; Karnieli, Arnon; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-02-01

    Composted biosolids are widely used as a soil supplement to improve soil quality. However, the application of immature or unstable compost can cause the opposite effect. To date, compost maturation determination is time consuming and cannot be done at the composting site. Hyperspectral spectroscopy was suggested as a simple tool for assessing compost maturity and quality. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in knowledge regarding several compost maturation characteristics, such as dissolved organic carbon, NO3, and NH4 contents. In addition, this approach has not yet been tested on a sample at its natural water content. Therefore, in the current study, hyperspectral analysis was employed in order to characterize the biosolids composting process as a function of composting time. This goal was achieved by correlating the reflectance spectra in the range of 400-2400nm, using the partial least squares-regression (PLS-R) model, with the chemical properties of wet and oven-dried biosolid samples. The results showed that the proposed method can be used as a reliable means to evaluate compost maturity and stability. Specifically, the PLS-R model was found to be an adequate tool to evaluate the biosolids' total carbon and dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen and dissolved nitrogen, and nitrate content, as well as the absorbance ratio of 254/365nm (E2/E3) and C/N ratios in the dry and wet samples. It failed, however, to predict the ammonium content in the dry samples since the ammonium evaporated during the drying process. It was found that in contrast to what is commonly assumed, the spectral analysis of the wet samples can also be successfully used to build a model for predicting the biosolids' compost maturity.

  12. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  13. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes.

  14. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    PubMed Central

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  15. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    PubMed

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  16. Production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Ohtaki, Akihito; Takemoto, Minoru; Fujiwara, Shunrokuro

    2011-03-01

    The effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. The optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°C and an initial pH value of 8. Rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (E(C)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomposition, was less than 40%, indicating that the sludge contained only a small amount of easily degradable organic material. A plant growth assay using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L. var. rapiferafroug) in a 1/5000a standard cultivation pot was then conducted for the compost at various degrees of organic matter decomposition: the raw composting material, the final compost obtained on day 6, and the 2 intermediate compost products (i.e., E(C)=10% and 20%). It was found that the larger the E(C), the greater the yield of Komatsuna growth. It was also found that 6 days of composting is sufficient to promote Komatsuna growth at the standard loading level, which is equivalent to a 1.5 g N/pot, since the promotion effect was as high as that obtained using chemical fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that well-matured compost could be obtained in a short period of time (i.e., as early as 6 days), when night-soil sludge is composted under optimum conditions.

  17. Bacterial composting of animal fleshing generated from tannery industries.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, B; Sekaran, G

    2010-12-01

    Animal fleshing (ANFL) is the major proteinaceous solid waste generated during the manufacture of leather, which requires to be disposed of by environmentally sound manner. This study reports about the treatment of ANFL into an organic compost and its effects on physiological parameters of different crops in a laboratory study. The ANFL was hydrolysed using Selenomonas ruminantium HM000123 and then the hydrolysed ANFL was mixed with cow dung and leaf litter for producing composted organic fertilizer (COF). The COF was characterized for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), and total organic carbon (TOC). The composting resulted in a significant reduction in pH, TOC and C:N ratio and an increase in TKN after 49 days in a compost reactor. Scanning electron microscope and FT-IR were used to analyse the hydrolysis of intra structural ANFL matrix and changes in the functional groups, respectively, in initial and final day COF. Thermogravimetry (TG) analysis was carried out for the raw mixture and COF samples to identify the weight loss under the nitrogen environment. The relative seed germination was found to be 94% in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), 92% in green gram (Vigna radiata), 86% in bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.) and 84% in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) using the extracts of COF. The results indicate that the combination of both hydrolysis and bacterial composting reduced the overall time required for composting and producing a nutrient-enriched compost product.

  18. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  19. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting in practice.

    PubMed

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Sundberg, Cecilia; Pell, Mikael; Jönsson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    In Sweden, 16% of all biologically treated food waste is home composted. Emissions of the greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O and emissions of NH3 from home composts were measured and factors affecting these emissions were examined. Gas and substrate in the compost bins were sampled and the composting conditions assessed 13 times during a 1-year period in 18 home composts managed by the home owners. The influence of process parameters and management factors was evaluated by regression analysis. The mean CH4 and N2O concentration was 28.1 and 5.46 ppm (v/v), respectively, above the ambient level and the CH4:CO2 and N2O:CO2 ratio was 0.38% and 0.15%, respectively (median values 0.04% and 0.07%, respectively). The home composts emitted less CH4 than large-scale composts, but similar amounts of N2O. Overall NH3 concentrations were low. Increasing the temperature, moisture content, mixing frequency and amount of added waste all increased CH4 emissions.

  1. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    PubMed

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  2. Prolonged Survival of Campylobacter Species in Bovine Manure Compost

    PubMed Central

    Inglis, G. Douglas; McAllister, Tim A.; Larney, Francis J.; Topp, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of naturally occurring campylobacteria in aerobic compost constructed of manure from beef cattle that were administered chlortetracycline and sulfamethazine (AS700) or from cattle not administered antibiotics (control) was examined. Although there were no differences in population sizes of heterotrophic bacteria, the temperature of AS700 compost was more variable and did not become as high as that of control compost. There were significant differences in water content, total carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), and electrical conductivity but not in the C/N ratio or pH between the two compost treatments. Campylobacteria were readily isolated from pen manure, for up to day 15 from control compost, and throughout the active phase of AS700 compost. Campylobacter DNA (including Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter fetus, Campylobacter hyointestinalis, and Campylobacter jejuni) was detected over the ca. 10-month composting period, and no reductions in quantities of C. jejuni DNA were observed over the duration of the active phase. The utilization of centrifugation in combination with ethidium monoazide (EMA) significantly reduced (>90%) the amplification of C. jejuni DNA that did not originate from cells with intact cell membranes. No differences were observed in the frequency of Campylobacter DNA detection between EMA- and non-EMA-treated samples, suggesting that Campylobacter DNA amplified from compost was extracted from cells with intact cell membranes (i.e., from viable cells). The findings of this study indicate that campylobacteria excreted in cattle feces persist for long periods in compost and call into question the common belief that these bacteria do not persist in manure. PMID:20023098

  3. [Effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Li, Wan; Xu, Xiu-Hong; Li, Hong-Tao

    2011-10-01

    Taking the cow dung and straw as composting raw materials, effect of cellulose-decomposing strain on microbial community of cow manure compost was investigated with the traditional culture method and PCR-DGGE technique. The results showed that the microbiological inocula showed a more rapid rate of temperature elevation at the start of composting and prolonged the time of high-temperature process and increased the number of microbial. The DGGE map of cellulose-decomposing strain compost was different from natural compost, the succession of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain was faster than natural compost. Sequence comparison revealed that the Pseudomonas sp. of bacterial appeared at the initial stage and Acinetobacter sp., Flavobacteria were existed at the high-temperature process in natural compost; while Arthrobacter sp. was appeared at the high-temperature process in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Bacillus sp. was dominant species at middle and later stage in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Eimeriidae of fungal appeared in compost materials, Aspergillus and thermophilic fungi were dominant species at the high-temperature process in natural compost and cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Ascomycota appeared at middle and later stage in natural compost; while Basidiomycetes in cellulose-decomposing strain compost. Aspergillus was found throughout the process. This result suggested that the microbiological inocula were able to facilitate the bacterial microbial diversity of the compost; reduced the fungal microbial diversity of the compost. The aims of this study were to provide a scientific basis to the diversity of microbial community by monitoring the dynamics of microbial community in cellulose-decomposing strain compost and represent an important step towards the understanding of microbiological inocula and its function in the degradation process of compost.

  4. Simulating the dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in contaminated soil through composting by COP-Compost model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Yidong; Shi, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts, and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance to minimize the risk of soil contamination and improve soil fertility. In this work, integration of the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and OPs in an overall experimental framework is first proposed and adopted to validate the applicability of the COP-Compost model and to calibrate the model parameters on the basis of what has been achieved with the COP-Compost model. The COP-Compost model was evaluated via composting experiments containing 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the sorption coefficient (Kd) values of two types of OP: fluorenthene (FLT) and pyrene (PHE). In our study, these compounds are used to characterize the sequential extraction and are quantified as soluble, sorbed, and non-extractable fractions. The model was calibrated, and coupling the OC and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. The results show good agreement between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of different organic pollutants using the OP module, as well as the coupling module. However, no clear relationship is found between the Kd and the property of organic fractions. Further estimation of parameters is still necessary to modify the insufficiency of this present research.

  5. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council... Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Composting management or conditions that result in inadequate exposure of the compostable materials to destructive time-temperature regimens can result in survival of enteric human pathogens. Bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., can regrow in finished compost. ...

  6. Effect of composting and vermicomposting on properties of particle size fractions.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Dreslova, Marketa

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of the composting and the vermicomposting processes on the distribution of particles into three size fractions, and to assess the agrochemical properties of the size fractions of the composts and the vermicomposts. Three different mixtures of biowaste were subjected to two thermophilic pre-composting, and then the mixtures were subsequently subjected to 5months composting and vermicomposting under laboratory conditions. Vermicomposting was able to achieve the finer and more homogeneous final product compared to composting. For compost, the highest portion of the finest fraction was achieved from products which originated from kitchen waste containing used paper, followed by digestate with straw, and finally sewage sludge with garden biowaste. In most cases, compost particles which were less than 5mm exhibited the better agricultural potential than coarser compost. However, agrochemical properties of the finest vermicompost exceeded classical compost.

  7. Air permeability of compost as related to bulk density and volumetric air content.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Moldrup, Per

    2007-08-01

    Compost air permeability controls air flow through compost during composting or when using compost as biofilter material. Air permeability is therefore an important characteristic of compost. The relationships between air permeability (k(a)) in compost and compost dry bulk density (rho b), gravimetric water content (omega), and volumetric air content (epsilon) was investigated for two types of composts. The composts used were produced from a digested sewage sludge-straw mixture and from garden waste and measurements were conducted on sieved and repacked 100 cm3 compost samples. Results showed a linear relation between log(k(a)) and rho b at constant values of omega for both composts, indicating an exponential relationship between k(a) and rho b. The slopes of these relationships generally became more negative with increasing rho b. The results further showed a linear relationship between log(k(a)) and log(epsilon) for both composts as also often observed for soils. It was observed that the log(k(a)) and log(epsilon) relationships for the garden waste compost all intercepted at the same location despite having very different slopes. This means that it is possible to predict the entire k(a)-epsilon relationship using only one measurement of corresponding (k(a), epsilon) for garden waste. It was not possible to determine whether this was also the case for the sewage sludge compost due to difficulties in sample preparation at low and high water content.

  8. Short-term dynamics of carbon and nitrogen using compost, compost-biochar mixture and organo-mineral biochar.

    PubMed

    Darby, Ian; Xu, Cheng-Yuan; Wallace, Helen M; Joseph, Stephen; Pace, Ben; Bai, Shahla Hosseini

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effects of different organic treatments including compost (generated from cattle hide waste and plant material), compost mixed with biochar (compost + biochar) and a new formulation of organo-mineral biochar (produced by mixing biochar with clay, minerals and chicken manure) on carbon (C) nitrogen (N) cycling. We used compost at the rate of 20 t ha(-1), compost 20 t ha(-1) mixed with 10 t ha(-1) biochar (compost + biochar) and organo-mineral biochar which also contained 10 t ha(-1) biochar. Control samples received neither of the treatments. Compost and compost + biochar increased NH4 (+) -N concentrations for a short time, mainly due to the release of their NH4 (+) -N content. Compost + biochar did not alter N cycling of the compost significantly but did significantly increase CO2 emission compared to control. Compost significantly increased N2O emission compared to control. Compost + biochar did not significantly change N supply and also did not decrease CO2 and N2O emissions compared to compost, suggesting probably higher rates of biochar may be required to be added to the compost to significantly affect compost-induced C and N alteration. The organo-mineral biochar had no effect on N cycling and did not stimulate CO2 and N2O emission compared to the control. However, organo-mineral biochar maintained significantly higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than compost and compost + biochar from after day 14 to the end of the incubation. Biochar used in organo-mineral biochar had increased organic C adsorption which may become available eventually. However, increased DOC in organo-mineral biochar probably originated from both biochar and chicken manure which was not differentiated in this experiment. Hence, in our experiment, compost, compost + biochar and organo-mineral biochar affected C and N cycling differently mainly due to their different content.

  9. Evaluation of nitrogen availability in irradiated sewage sludge, sludge compost and manure compost

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Guang; Bates, T.E.; Voroney, R.P.

    1995-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted during 2 yr to determine plant availability of organic N from organic wastes, and effects of gamma irradiation on organic N availability in sewage sludge. The wastes investigated were: digested, dewatered sewage sludge (DSS), irradiated sewage sludge (DISS), irradiated, composted sewage sludge (DICSS), and composted livestock manure (CLM). The annual application rates were: 10, 20, 30, and 40 Mg solids ha{sup {minus}1}. Fertilizer N was added to the control, to which no waste was applied, as well as to the waste applications to ensure approximately equal amounts of available N (110 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}) for all treatments. Lettuce, petunias, and beans were grown in 1990 and two cuts of lettuce were harvested in 1991. Crop yields and plant N concentrations were measured. Assuming that crop N harvested/available N applied would be approximately equal for the control and the waste treatments, the N from organic fraction of the wastes, which is as available as that in fertilizer, was estimated. With petunia in 1990 and the combination of first and second cut of lettuce in 1991, the percentage ranged from 11.2 to 29.7 in nonirradiated sludge, 10.1 to 14.0 in irradiated sludge, 10.5 to 32.1 in sludge compost and 10.0 to 19.7 in manure compost. Most often, the highest values were obtained with the lowest application rates. Yields of petunia and N concentrations in second cut lettuce in 1991 were lower with irradiated sludge than with nonirradiated sludge suggest that the availability of organic N in digested sludge may have been reduced after irradiation. Irradiation of sludge appears to have released NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. The availability of organic N, however, appears to have been reduced by irradiation by greater amount than the increase in NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N. 41 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Effect of commercial mineral-based additives on composting and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Himanen, M; Hänninen, K

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness of two commercial additives meant to improve the composting process was studied in a laboratory-scale experiment. Improver A (sulphates and oxides of iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc mixed with clay) and B (mixture of calcium hydroxide, peroxide, and oxide) were added to source-separated biowaste:peat mixture (1:1, v/v) in proportions recommended by the producers. The composting process (T, emissions of CO(2), NH(3), and CH(4)) and the quality of the compost (pH, conductivity, C/N ratio, water-soluble NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, water- and NaOH-soluble low-weight carboxylic acids, nutrients, heavy metals and phytotoxicity to Lepidium sarivum) were monitored during one year. Compared with the control, the addition of improver B increased pH by two units, led to an earlier elimination of water-soluble ammonia, an increase in nitrates, a 10-fold increase in concentrations of acetic acid, and shortened phytotoxicity period by half; as negative aspect it led to volatilization of ammonia. The addition of improver A led to a longer thermophilic stage by one week and lower concentrations of low-weight carboxylic acids (both water- and NaOH-extractable) with formic and acetic of similar amounts, however, most of the aspects claimed by the improver's producer were not confirmed in this trial.

  11. Microbial inoculants for small scale composting of putrescible kitchen wastes.

    PubMed

    Nair, J; Okamitsu, K

    2010-06-01

    This research looked at the need for ligno-cellulolytic inoculants (EM bacteria and Trichoderma sp.) in small to medium scale composting of household wastes. A mixture of household organic waste comprised of kitchen waste, paper, grass clippings and composted material was subjected to various durations of thermo composting followed by vermicomposting with and without microbial inoculants for a total of 28days. The results revealed that ligno-celluloytic inoculants are not essential to speed up the process of composting for onsite small scale household organic waste treatment as no significant difference was observed between the control and those inoculated with Trichoderma and EM in terms of C:N ratio of the final product. However, it was observed that EM inoculation enhanced reproductive rate of earthworms, and so probably created the best environment for vermicomposting, in all treatment groups.

  12. Pre-processing technologies to prepare solid waste for composting

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, M.

    1996-09-01

    The organic constituents of municipal solid waste can be converted into compost for use as a safe, beneficial soil amendment, conserving landfill space. The solid waste must first be processed to remove contaminants and prepare the organics for composting. This paper describes five different preprocessing systems, covering a broad range of technical approaches. Three are described briefly; two, from projects managed by the author, are presented as more detailed case histories: (1) a pilot study at a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) plant in Hartford, Connecticut and (2) a solid waste composting facility in East Hampton, New York. Materials flow diagrams and mass balances are presented for each process, showing that 100 tons of solid waste will yield 32 to 44 tons of compost, requiring disposal of 3 to 10 tons of metal, grit, and glass and 16 to 40 tons of light residue that can be landfilled or used as RDF.

  13. Compostable cutlery and waste management: an LCA approach.

    PubMed

    Razza, Francesco; Fieschi, Maurizio; Innocenti, Francesco Degli; Bastioli, Catia

    2009-04-01

    The use of disposable cutlery in fast food restaurants and canteens in the current management scenario generates mixed heterogeneous waste (containing food waste and non-compostable plastic cutlery). The waste is not recyclable and is disposed of in landfills or incinerated with or without energy recovery. Using biodegradable and compostable (B&C) plastic cutlery, an alternative management scenario is possible. The resulting mixed homogeneous waste (containing food waste and compostable plastic cutlery) can be recycled through organic recovery, i.e., composting. This LCA study, whose functional unit is "serving 1000 meals", shows that remarkable improvements can be obtained by shifting from the current scenario to the alternative scenario (based on B&C cutlery and final organic recovery of the total waste). The non-renewable energy consumption changes from 1490 to 128MJ (an overall 10-fold energy savings) and the CO(2) equivalents emission changes from 64 to 22 CO(2) eq. (an overall 3-fold GHG savings).

  14. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting.

    PubMed

    Lalander, C; Senecal, J; Gros Calvo, M; Ahrens, L; Josefsson, S; Wiberg, K; Vinnerås, B

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (<10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment.

  15. Production and physical characteristics of composted poultry carcases.

    PubMed

    Lawson, M J; Keeling, A A

    1999-12-01

    1. Experiments were designed to determine whether composting could be a safe and effective method for the disposal of poultry carcases in the UK climate. Laying hen carcases (125) were composted in a wooden compost bin over autumn and winter months, using the United States Department of Agriculture method. 2. The process took 8 weeks and effectively decomposed the carcases to leave only leg and breast bones. The compost was turned once, which ensured that all the material reached the high temperatures (60 degrees to 70 degrees C) required to control pathogens. Salmonella was fully heat-inactivated, indicating that many poultry-associated bacterial pathogens would also have been inactivated. 3. It is concluded that this method is suitable for use in the UK and provides a sanitised fertiliser supplement.

  16. Integrating particle physical geometry into composting degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjiang; Ai, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to integrate physical geometry of compost particle with degradation kinetics to model biological reactions, which revealing additional dynamic approaches. A sphere and its circumscribing cube were used to represent compost particles. An inner sphere, representing anaerobic zone, was introduced to describe variations of substrate volume without sufficient oxygen supply. Degradation of soluble substrates and hydrolysis of insoluble substrates were associated with the particle geometry. Transportation of soluble substrates produced from hydrolysis was expressed using Fick's law. Through the integration of degradation kinetics with geometry models, degradation models could describe varying volume of composting materials involving aerobic or anaerobic digestion and transportation of soluble substrates in a unit compost particle.

  17. Occupational hygiene in a Finnish drum composting plant.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Outi; Nykänen, Jenni; Nivukoski, Ulla; Himanen, Marina; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2005-01-01

    Bioaerosols (microbes, dust and endotoxins) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were determined in the working air of a drum composting plant treating source-separated catering waste. Different composting activities at the Oulu drum composting plant take place in their own units separated by modular design and constructions. Important implication of this is that the control room is a relatively clean working environment and the risk of exposure to harmful factors is low. However, the number of viable airborne microbes was high both in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The concentration (geometric average) of total microbes was 21.8 million pcs/m3 in the biowaste receiving hall, 13.9 million pcs/m3 in the drum composting hall, and just 1.4 million pcs/m3 in the control room. Endotoxin concentrations were high in the biowaste receiving hall and in the drum composting hall. The average (arithmetic) endotoxin concentration was over the threshold value of 200 EU/m3 in both measurement locations. In all working areas, the average (arithmetic) dust concentrations were in a low range of 0.6-0.7 mg/m3, being below the Finnish threshold value of 5 mg/m3. In the receiving hall and drum composting hall, the concentrations of airborne microbes and endotoxins may rise to levels hazardous to health during prolonged exposure. It is advisable to use a respirator mask (class P3) in these areas. Detected volatile organic compounds were typical compounds of composting plants: carboxylic acids and their esters, alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes. Concentrations of VOCs were much lower than the Finnish threshold limit values (Finnish TLVs), many of the quantified compounds exceeded their threshold odour concentrations (TOCs). Primary health effects due VOCs were not presumable at these concentrations but unpleasant odours may cause secondary symptoms such as nausea and hypersensitivity reactions. This situation is typical of composting plants where

  18. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  19. The value of composting in Germany--economy, ecology, and legislation.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Kohlstock, Daniel; Hädrich, Gunnar; Bidlingmaier, Werner; Kraft, Eckhard

    2013-03-01

    Based on a recent survey of German composting plants an evaluation of costs and benefits of composting was attempted. In this regard, several economical, ecological and legal aspects and some interrelations are discussed in this paper. A special emphasis is placed on the fees and compost prices of composting plants. It is also shown how the legal framework provides the economic basis for composting in Germany, how economical and ecological costs and benefits could be assessed, and why it is so difficult to determine the value of composting.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from green waste composting windrow.

    PubMed

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Bailey, Shannon K; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R

    2017-01-01

    The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH4 emission of 254±76gCday(-1) dry weight (DW) Mg(-1) and lowest average N2O emission of 152±21mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N2O emissions (342±41mgNday(-1) DW Mg(-1)) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather. The compost windrow oxygen (O2) concentration and moisture content were the most consistent factors predicting N2O and CH4 emissions from all seasonal compost piles. Compared to N2O, CH4 was a higher contributor to the overall global warming potential (GWP) expressed as CO2 equivalents (CO2 eq.). Therefore, CH4 mitigation practices, such as increasing O2 concentration in the compost windrows through moisture control, feedstock changes to increase porosity, and windrow turning, may reduce the overall GWP of composting. Based on the results of the present study, statewide total GHG emissions of green waste composting were estimated at 789,000Mg of CO2 eq., representing 2.1% of total annual GHG emissions of the California agricultural sector and 0.18% of the total state emissions.

  1. Bioremediation of industrially contaminated soil using compost and plant technology.

    PubMed

    Taiwo, A M; Gbadebo, A M; Oyedepo, J A; Ojekunle, Z O; Alo, O M; Oyeniran, A A; Onalaja, O J; Ogunjimi, D; Taiwo, O T

    2016-03-05

    Compost technology can be utilized for bioremediation of contaminated soil using the active microorganisms present in the matrix of contaminants. This study examined bioremediation of industrially polluted soil using the compost and plant technology. Soil samples were collected at the vicinity of three industrial locations in Ogun State and a goldmine site in Iperindo, Osun State in March, 2014. The compost used was made from cow dung, water hyacinth and sawdust for a period of twelve weeks. The matured compost was mixed with contaminated soil samples in a five-ratio pot experimental design. The compost and contaminated soil samples were analyzed using the standard procedures for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus, exchangeable cations (Na, K, Ca and Mg) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cr). Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) seeds were also planted for co-remediation of metals. The growth parameters of Kenaf plants were observed weekly for a period of one month. Results showed that during the one-month remediation experiment, treatments with 'compost-only' removed 49 ± 8% Mn, 32 ± 7% Fe, 29 ± 11% Zn, 27 ± 6% Cu and 11 ± 5% Cr from the contaminated soil. On the other hand, treatments with 'compost+plant' remediated 71 ± 8% Mn, 63 ± 3% Fe, 59 ± 11% Zn, 40 ± 6% Cu and 5 ± 4% Cr. Enrichment factor (EF) of metals in the compost was low while that of Cu (EF=7.3) and Zn (EF=8.6) were high in the contaminated soils. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) revealed low metal uptake by Kenaf plant. The growth parameters of Kenaf plant showed steady increments from week 1 to week 4 of planting.

  2. Sequential extraction of heavy metals during composting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Amir, Soumia; Hafidi, Mohamed; Merlina, Georges; Revel, Jean-Claude

    2005-05-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system. This study was conducted to determine the heavy metal speciation and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium in the course of composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in sewage sludge. Principal physical and chemical properties and FTIR spectroscopical characterization of sludge compost during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. The total metal contents in the final compost were much lower than the limit values of composts to be used as good soil fertilizer. Furthermore, it was observed by using a sequential extraction procedure in sludge compost at different steps of treatment, that a large proportion of the heavy metals were associated to the residual fraction (70-80%) and more resistant fractions to extraction X-NaOH, X-EDTA, X-HNO3 (12-29%). Less than 2% of metals bound to bioavailable fractions X-(KNO3+H2O). Heavy metal distribution and bioavailability show some changes during composting depending on the metal itself and the physico-chemical properties of the medium. Bioavailable fractions of all elements tend to decrease except Ni-H2O. Zn and mainly Cu present more affinity to organic and carbonate fractions. In contrast, Pb is usually preferentially bound to sulfide forms X-HNO3. Nickel shows a significant decrease of organic form. Significant degrees of correlation were found between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected variables (e.g. pH, ash, organic matter, humic substance) during the course of composting. Mobile fractions of metals are poorly predictable from the total content. The R2 value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as the amount of organic matter (OM) and pH.

  3. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes.

    PubMed

    Colón, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez, Antoni; González, Aina; Puig, Ignasi

    2011-03-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process performance and the characteristics of the compost obtained when compared with that of composting OFMSW without diapers. The experiments demonstrated that the composting process presented similar trends in terms of evolution of routine parameters (temperature, oxygen content, moisture and organic matter content) and biological activity (measured as respiration index). In relation to the quality of both composts, it can be concluded that both materials were identical in terms of stability, maturity and phytotoxicity and showed no presence of pathogenic micro-organisms. However, compost coming from OFMSW with a 3% of disposable diapers presented a slightly higher level of zinc, which can prevent the use of large amounts of diapers mixed with OFMSW.

  4. Modelling of organic matter dynamics during the composting process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Doublet, J; Steyer, J P; Zhu, Y G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2012-01-01

    Composting urban organic wastes enables the recycling of their organic fraction in agriculture. The objective of this new composting model was to gain a clearer understanding of the dynamics of organic fractions during composting and to predict the final quality of composts. Organic matter was split into different compartments according to its degradability. The nature and size of these compartments were studied using a biochemical fractionation method. The evolution of each compartment and the microbial biomass were simulated, as was the total organic carbon loss corresponding to organic carbon mineralisation into CO(2). Twelve composting experiments from different feedstocks were used to calibrate and validate our model. We obtained a unique set of estimated parameters. Good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results that described the evolution of different organic fractions, with the exception of some compost because of a poor simulation of the cellulosic and soluble pools. The degradation rate of the cellulosic fraction appeared to be highly variable and dependent on the origin of the feedstocks. The initial soluble fraction could contain some degradable and recalcitrant elements that are not easily accessible experimentally.

  5. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  6. Modeling organic micro pollutant degradation kinetics during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2014-11-01

    Degradation of 13 different organic micro-pollutants in sewage sludge during aerobic composting at 5 different temperatures over a 52 day period was investigated. Adequacy of two kinetic models: a single first order, and a dual first order expression (using an early (first 7 days) and a late-time (last 45 days) degradation coefficient), for describing micro-pollutant degradation, and kinetic constant dependency on composting temperature were evaluated. The results showed that both models provide relatively good descriptions of the degradation process, with the dual first order model being most accurate. The single first order degradation coefficient was 0.025 d(-1) on average across all compounds and temperatures. At early times, degradation was about three times faster than at later times. Average values of the early and late time degradation coefficients for the dual first order model were 0.066 d(-1) and 0.022 d(-1), respectively. On average 30% of the initial micro-pollutant mass present in the compost was degraded rapidly during the early stages of the composting process. Single first order and late time dual first order kinetic constants were strongly dependent on composting temperature with maximum values at temperatures of 35-65°C. In contrast the early time degradation coefficients were relatively independent of composting temperature.

  7. Predominance of single bacterial cells in composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galès, Amandine; Bru-Adan, Valérie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delabre, Karine; Catala, Philippe; Ponthieux, Arnaud; Chevallier, Michel; Birot, Emmanuel; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants have become an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. Accurate knowledge of the particle-size distribution in bioaerosols emitted from open-air composting facilities during operational activity is a requirement for improved modeling of air dispersal. In order to investigate the aerodynamic diameter of bacteria in composting bioaerosols this study used an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor for sampling and quantitative real-time PCR for quantification. Quantitative PCR results show that the size of bacteria peaked between 0.95 μm and 2.4 μm and that the geometric mean diameter of the bacteria was 1.3 μm. In addition, total microbial cells were counted by flow cytometry and revealed that these qPCR results corresponded to single whole bacteria. Finally, the enumeration of cultivable thermophilic microorganisms allowed us to set the upper size limit for fragments at an aerodynamic diameter of ∼0.3 μm. Particle-size distributions of microbial groups previously used to monitor composting bioaerosols were also investigated. In collected the bioaerosols, the aerodynamic diameter of the actinomycetes Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula-and-relatives and also of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, appeared to be consistent with a majority of individual cells. Together, this study provides the first culture-independent data on particle-size distribution of composting bioaerosols and reveals that airborne single bacteria were emitted predominantly from open-air composting facilities.

  8. Characterisation of source-separated household waste intended for composting.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Cecilia; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Kauppi, Sari; Yu, Dan; Romantschuk, Martin; Insam, Heribert; Jönsson, Håkan

    2011-02-01

    Large-scale composting of source-separated household waste has expanded in recent years in the Nordic countries. One problem can be low pH at the start of the process. Incoming biowaste at four composting plants was characterised chemically, physically and microbiologically. The pH of food waste ranged from 4.7 to 6.1 and organic acid concentration from 24 to 81 mmol kg(-1). The bacterial diversity in the waste samples was high, with all samples dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, particularly Pseudomonas and Enterobacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter). Lactic acid bacteria were also numerically important and are known to negatively affect the composting process because the lactic acid they produce lowers the pH, inhibiting other bacteria. The bacterial groups needed for efficient composting, i.e. Bacillales and Actinobacteria, were present in appreciable amounts. The results indicated that start-up problems in the composting process can be prevented by recycling bulk material and compost.

  9. Effect of high compost temperature on enzymatic activity and species diversity of culturable bacteria in cattle manure compost.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Fumihito; Iwabuchi, Kazunori

    2005-11-01

    To clarify the characteristics of thermophilic bacteria in cattle manure compost, enzymatic activity and species diversity of cultivated bacteria were investigated at 54, 60, 63, 66 and 70 degrees C, which were dependent on composting temperature. The highest level of thermophilic bacterial activity was observed at 54 degrees C. Following an increase in temperature to 63 degrees C, a reduction in bacterial diversity was observed. At 66 degrees C, bacterial diversity increased again, and diverse bacteria including Thermus spp. and thermophilic Bacillus spp. appeared to adapt to the higher temperature. At 70 degrees C, bacterial activity measured as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was significantly higher than at 66 degrees C. However, the decomposition rate of protein in the compost was lower than the rate at 66 degrees C due to the higher compost temperature.

  10. Comparison of the chemical, physical and microbial properties of composts produced by conventional composting or vermicomposting using the same feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R J; Zhou, Y-F

    2016-06-01

    The chemical, physical and microbial properties of thermophilic composts and vermicomposts were compared using the same municipal green waste-based feedstocks: (i) municipal green waste alone, (ii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % green garden waste and (iii) 75 % municipal green waste/25 % cattle manure. Temperatures reached 37 °C during composting of municipal green waste alone but when garden waste or cattle manure were added, temperatures reached 47 and 52 °C, respectively. At the end of vermicomposting (using Eisenia fetida), the number of earthworms present was greater than that added for the cattle manure-amended feedstock but much less for both the garden waste and municipal green waste alone treatments. The products formed in all treatments generally fell within suggested maturity indices for composts. Greater organic matter decomposition occurred during composting than vermicomposting resulting in composts having a significantly lower organic C content and a greater content of total N, extractable Mg, K, Na, P, and mineral N, a higher EC and a lower C/N ratio than the vermicomposts. For all three feedstocks, vermicomposts had a lower bulk density and greater total porosity and macroporosity than composts. For the garden waste- and cattle manure-amended feedstocks, vermicomposts had a higher microbial biomass C than the composts and for all three feedstocks, basal respiration and metabolic quotient were greatest for vermicomposts. It was concluded that composting is a robust process suitable for treatment of a range of organic wastes but, because of the nutritional requirements of the earthworms, vermicomposting is a much less robust and was only suitable for the cattle manure-amended feedstock.

  11. Rock phosphate enriched compost: an approach to improve low-grade Indian rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Biswas, D R; Narayanasamy, G

    2006-12-01

    In this study, rock phosphate enriched composts (RP-compost) were prepared by mixing four low-grade Indian rock phosphates with rice straw with and without Aspergillus awamori. RP-compost had higher total P, citrate soluble P (CSP), organic P (Org.P), acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, and lower water soluble P (WSP) and microbial biomass C (MBC) than normal compost. Inoculation with A. awamori increased total P, WSP, CSP, Org.P, MBC and acid phosphatase activity. RP-compost recorded lower Olsen P at the initial period of incubation study than diammonium phosphate (DAP), but improved significantly with the progress of time. RP-compost prepared at 4% charged rate resulted in higher Olsen P throughout the incubation period compared to 2% charged rate. Similar trend were obtained with those RP-composts prepared with A. awamori. Data on pot experiment revealed higher yield and P uptake by mungbean (Vigna radiata) due to addition of RP-composts over control. The effectiveness of RP-compost ranged from 61.4% (MussoorieRP-compost) to 94.1% (PuruliaRP-compost) as that of DAP on dry matter yield and 48.8% (JhabuaRP-compost) to 83.7% (PuruliaRP-compost) on total P uptake. Enriched compost prepared at 4% charged rate recorded 15.8% and 10.6% extra yield and P uptake, respectively by mungbean over 2% charged compost. Also RP-compost inoculated with A. awamori resulted in 13.0 and 21.5% extra yield and P uptake than without A. awamori treated group. Thus, RP enriched compost could be an alternative and viable technology to utilize both low-grade RPs and rice straw efficiently.

  12. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lu Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  13. The impact of sewage sludge compost on tree peony growth and soil microbiological, and biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong; Huang, Xiangdong

    2013-10-01

    In order to assess the suitability of sludge compost application for tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa)-soil ecosystems, we determined soil microbial biomass C (Cmic), basal respiration (Rmic), enzyme activities, and tree peony growth parameters at 0-75% sludge compost amendment dosage. Soil Cmic, Rmic, Cmic as a percent of soil organic C, enzyme (invertase, urease, proteinase, phosphatase, polyphenoloxidase) activities, and plant height, flower diameter, and flower numbers per plant of tree peony significantly increased after sludge compost amendment; however, with the increasing sludge compost amendment dosage, a decreasing trend above 45% sludge compost amendment became apparent although soil organic C, total Kjeldahl N, and total P always increased with the sludge compost amendment. Soil metabolic quotient first showed a decreasing trend with the increasing sludge compost application in the range of 15-45%, and then an increasing trend from compost application of 45-75%, with the minimum found at compost application of 45%. As for the diseased plants, 50% of tree peony under the treatment without sludge compost amendment suffered from yellow leaf disease of tree peony, while no any disease was observed under the treatments with sludge compost application of 30-75%, which showed sludge compost application had significant suppressive effect on the yellow leaf disease of tree peony. This result convincingly demonstrated that ≤45% sludge compost application dosage can take advantage of beneficial effect on tree peony growth and tree peony-soil ecosystems.

  14. Contrasting Effects of Farmyard Manure (FYM) and Compost for Remediation of Metal Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Muhammad; Ali, Amanat; Zia-Ur-rehman, Muhammad; Hakeem, Khalid Rehman

    2015-01-01

    We investigated effect of farm yard manure (FYM) and compost applied to metal contaminated soil at rate of 1% (FYM-1, compost-1), 2% (FYM-2, compost-2), and 3% (FYM-3, compost-3). FYM significantly (P < 0.001) increased dry weights of shoots and roots while compost increased root dry weight compared to control. Amendments significantly increased nickel (Ni) in shoots and roots of maize except compost applied at 1%. FYM-3 and -1 caused maximum Ni in shoots (11.42 mg kg(-1)) and roots (80.92 mg kg(-1)), respectively while compost-2 caused maximum Ni (14.08 mg kg(-1)) and (163.87 mg kg(-1)) in shoots and roots, respectively. Plants grown in pots amended with FYM-2 and compost-1 contained minimum Cu (30.12 and 30.11 mg kg(-1)) in shoots, respectively. FYM-2 and compost-2 caused minimum zinc (Zn) (59.08 and 66.0 mg kg(-1)) in maize shoots, respectively. FYM-2 caused minimum Mn in maize shoots while compost increased Mn in shoots and roots compared to control. FYM and compost increased the ammonium bicarbonate diethylene triamine penta acetic acid (AB-DTPA) extractable Ni and Mn in the soil and decreased Cu and Zn. Lower remediation factors for all metals with compost indicated that compost was effective to stabilize the metals in soil compared to FYM.

  15. Aerobic composting of waste activated sludge: Kinetic analysis for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Y.; Kawase, Y. . E-mail: bckawase@mail.eng.toyo.ac.jp

    2006-07-01

    In order to examine the optimal design and operating parameters, kinetics for microbiological reaction and oxygen consumption in composting of waste activated sludge were quantitatively examined. A series of experiments was conducted to discuss the optimal operating parameters for aerobic composting of waste activated sludge obtained from Kawagoe City Wastewater Treatment Plant (Saitama, Japan) using 4 and 20 L laboratory scale bioreactors. Aeration rate, compositions of compost mixture and height of compost pile were investigated as main design and operating parameters. The optimal aerobic composting of waste activated sludge was found at the aeration rate of 2.0 L/min/kg (initial composting mixture dry weight). A compost pile up to 0.5 m could be operated effectively. A simple model for composting of waste activated sludge in a composting reactor was developed by assuming that a solid phase of compost mixture is well mixed and the kinetics for microbiological reaction is represented by a Monod-type equation. The model predictions could fit the experimental data for decomposition of waste activated sludge with an average deviation of 2.14%. Oxygen consumption during composting was also examined using a simplified model in which the oxygen consumption was represented by a Monod-type equation and the axial distribution of oxygen concentration in the composting pile was described by a plug-flow model. The predictions could satisfactorily simulate the experiment results for the average maximum oxygen consumption rate during aerobic composting with an average deviation of 7.4%.

  16. Co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes: management aspects and the horticultural value of the resulting composts.

    PubMed

    Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M

    2010-09-01

    Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.

  17. Effects on Ni and Cd speciation in sewage sludge during composting and co-composting with steel slag.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zheng-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Li; Gou, Jian-Feng; Zhang, He-Fei; Wang, Hou-Cheng; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    Sewage sludge and industrial steel slag (SS) pose threats of serious pollution to the environment. The experiments aimed to improve the stabilizing effects of heavy metal Ni and Cd morphology in composting sludge. The total Ni and Cd species distribution and chemical forms in the compost sewage sludge were investigated with the use of compost and co-compost with SS, including degradation. The carbon/nitrogen ratio of piles was regulated with the use of sawdust prior to batch aerobic composting experiments. Results indicated that the co-composting with SS and organic matter humification can contribute to the formation of Fe and Mn hydroxides and that the humus colloid significantly changed Ni and Cd species distribution. The decreased content of Ni and Cd in an unstable state inhibited their biological activity. Conclusions were drawn that an SS amount equal to 7% of the dry sludge mass was optimal value to guarantee the lowest amount of Cd in an unstable state, whereas the amount was 14% for Ni.

  18. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    PubMed

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  19. Application of high-Cu compost to dill and peppermint.

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Warman, Philip R

    2004-05-05

    A controlled environment experiment was conducted to determine the effect of amending soil with various rates of high-Cu compost (0, 20, 40, and 60% compost/soil by volume) on dill (Anethum graveolens L.) and peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.) yields, on fractionation of Cu and Zn in soils, on elemental composition of soil and tissue, and on the essential oils. The compost contained about 2000 mg kg(-)(1) of Cu. Dill yields were greatest in the 20 or 40% treatments, but peppermint yields were greatest in the 20% treatment. Compost additions increased soil pH and electrical conductivity (EC), HNO(3) extractable soil B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Na, and Pb. Additions of high-Cu compost to soil increased tissue P, S, and Na in both crops and Mn, Mo, and Zn in dill but decreased tissue Ca, Cd, and Fe in both crops and Mn, Mo, and Zn in peppermint, increased Cu in all soil fractions including exchangeable, and increased tissue Cu of dill and peppermint as compared to unamended soil. Addition of 60% of high-Cu compost to soil resulted in 760-780 mg kg(-)(1) Cu in the growth medium. Nevertheless, Cu content in both crops reached only 12 mg kg(-)(1) DW in the 60% compost treatment, which is below the toxicity levels for plants and below the upper chronic dietary exposure for animals. The application of high-Cu compost altered chemical composition of dill and peppermint essential oils, but oils were free of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb. Results from this study suggest that mature composts with concentrations of Cu and Zn of 2008 and 321 mg/kg, respectively, can be used as a soil conditioner without risk for phytotoxicity or risk of increasing the normal range of Cu and Zn in crop tissue. However, the long-term effect of the accumulation of heavy metals in soils following repeated compost applications needs to be carefully considered.

  20. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process.

  1. Effect of biochar on leaching of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from compost in bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Hamid; Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Flury, Markus

    2015-07-15

    Compost is used in bioretention systems to improve soil quality, water infiltration, and retention of contaminants. However, compost contains dissolved organic matter, nitrate, and phosphorus, all of which can leach out and potentially contaminate ground and surface waters. To reduce the leaching of nutrients and dissolved organic matter from compost, biochar may be mixed into the bioretention systems. Our objective was to test whether biochar and co-composted biochar mixed into mature compost can reduce the leaching of organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. There was no significant difference between the effects of biochar and co-composted biochar amendments on nutrient leaching. Further, biochar amendments did not significantly reduce the leaching of dissolved organic carbon, nitrate, and phosphorus as compared to the compost only treatment. The compost-sand mix was the most effective in reducing nitrate and phosphorus leaching among the media.

  2. Conditions for energy generation as an alternative approach to compost utilization.

    PubMed

    Raclavska, H; Juchelkova, D; Skrobankova, H; Wiltowski, T; Campen, A

    2011-01-01

    Very strict limits constrain the current possibilities for compost utilization in agriculture and for land reclamation, thus creating a need for other compost utilization practices. A favourable alternative can be compost utilization as a renewable heat source - alternative fuel. The changes of the basic physical-chemical parameters during the composting process are evaluated. During the composting process, energy losses of 920 kJ/kg occur, caused by carbohydrate decomposition (loss of 12.64% TOC). The net calorific value for mature compost was 11.169 kJ/kg dry matter. The grain size of compost below 0.045 mm has the highest ash content. The energetic utilization of compost depended on moisture, which can be influenced by paper addition or by prolonging the time of maturation to six months.

  3. Composting in cold climates: Results from two field trials

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, S.J.; Kerr, J.M.; Davis, P.S.; Bruney, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Two composting field trials have been successfully completed at Exxon Company USA`s Big Stick Madison Unit (BSMU) in Billings, North Dakota and Imperial Oil`s (Exxon`s Canadian affiliate) Willesden Green producing field in the Province of Alberta, Canada. Composting is a bioremediation method in which bulking agents such as manure, wood chips, and straw are added to oily soil/sludge to improve the soil texture, tilth, air permeability, water holding capacity, and organic matter content. The compost mixture is placed in windrows or static piles where heat is generated by microbial breakdown of hydrocarbons and organic matter. Because composting conserves heat generated by biodegradation, it is well suited for bioremediating wastes in cold climates. In addition, the temperature in the piles increases the rate of the biochemical processes responsible for oil degradation and can significantly reduce the time required to achieve a remediation target. Elevated temperatures were observed in both field trials, and in Canada the compost piles remained warm throughout the winter months thereby expanding the normal bioremediation season. Hydrocarbon loss data indicate that clean-up criteria for both sites was met within a few months. Extensive hydrocarbon characterization confirmed that the total petroleum hydrocarbon losses were due to biodegradation. At the BSMU site 71 cubic yards (54 m{sup 3}) of oily soil were composted in five windrows that were aerated by periodic tilling, and at Willesden Green 1700 cubic yards (1300 m{sup 3}) of oily soil were composted in three static, passively aerated piles.

  4. Process Improvements: Aerobic Food Waste Composting at ISF Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, installed an aerobic food waste composting system in November of 2013. The system has been operational for over seven months; we will be making improvements to the system to ensure the continued operational viability and quality of the compost. As a school we are committed to reducing our carbon footprint and the amount of waste we send to the local landfill. Over an academic year we produce approximately 27 metric tons of food waste. Our system processes the food waste to compost in 14 days and the compost is used by our primary school students in a organic farming project.There are two areas of improvement: a) if the composting system becomes anaerobic, there is an odor problem that is noticed by the school community; we will be testing the use of a bio-filter to eliminate the odor problem and, b) we will be working with an equipment vendor from Australia to install an improved grease trap system. The grease and oil that is collected will be sold to a local company here in Hong Kong that processes used cooking oil for making biofuels. This system will include a two stage filtration system and a heated vessel for separating the oil from the waste water.The third project will be to evaluate biodegradable cutlery for the compositing in the system. Currently, we use a significant quantity of non-biodegradable cutlery that is then thrown away after one use. Several local HK companies are selling biodegradable cutlery, but we need to evaluate the different products to determine which ones will work with our composting system. The food waste composting project at ISF Academy demonstrates the commitment of the school community to a greener environment for HK, the above listed projects will improve the operation of the system.

  5. Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting

    SciTech Connect

    Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle Martinez, Jose; King, Susan

    2009-01-15

    Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends. Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment.

  6. Chemical precipitation for controlling nitrogen loss during composting.

    PubMed

    Ren, Li-Mei; Li, Guo-Xue; Shen, Yun-Jun; Schuchardt, Frank; Lu Peng

    2010-05-01

    Aimed at controlling the nitrogen loss during composting, the mixture of magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)( 2)) and phosphoric acid (H(3)PO(4)) (molar ratio 1:2) were utilized as additives to avoid increasing total salinity. In trial TA, the additives were put into absorption bottles connecting with a gas outlet of fermentor (ex situ method); in trial TB, the additives were directly added to the composting materials (in situ method). During the 26 day composting period, the temperature, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP) and germination index (GI) were measured. The experimental results show that the additives reduced the pH, while NH( 4)(+)-N and TN were obviously improved. NH(4)( +)-N was 11.9 g kg(-1) and 3 g kg(- 1) in amended compost trial (TB) and unamended compost trial (TA), respectively; TN increased from 26.5 g kg(-1) to 40.3 g kg(-1) in TB and increased from 26.5 g kg( -1) to 26.8 g kg(-1) in TA. Analysis of the TOC and carbon mass revealed that absorbents accelerated the degradation of organic matter. The germination index test showed the maturity of TB (102%) was better than TA (82%) in final compost. Furthermore, TP and AP were also obviously improved. X-ray diffraction analysis of precipitation showed that the precipitation in absorption bottle of TA was newberyite (MgHPO( 4) 3H(2)O), however, the crystal in the TB compost was struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4) 6H(2)O: magnesium ammonium phosphate). These results indicated that Mg(OH)(2) and H(3)PO( 4) could reduce the ammonia emission by struvite crystallization reaction. Optimal conditions for struvite precipitation should be determined for different systems.

  7. Laboratory Investigation of Rill Erosion on Compost Blankets under Concentrated Flow Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    A flume study was conducted using a soil, yard waste compost, and an erosion control compost to investigate the response to concentrated flow and determine if the shear stress model could be used to describe the response. Yard waste compost (YWC) and the bare Cecil soil (CS) cont...

  8. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  9. Antibiotic resistance patterns in E. coli and Salmonella isolates recovered from commercially available compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Compost is used by both conventional and organic farming practices as an eco-friendly means to enhance soil properties and to reduce fertilizer inputs. Inadequate composting may lead to residual human pathogens (e.g. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.) in the final compost ...

  10. Antibiotic resistance patterns in E. coli and Salmonella isolates recovered from commercially available compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost is used by both conventional and organic farming practices as an eco-friendly means to enhance soil properties and to reduce fertilizer inputs. Inadequate composting may lead to residual human pathogens (e.g. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.) in the final product. Since compost...

  11. Antibiotic resistance patterns in E. coli and Salmonella isolates recovered from commercially vailable compost

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Compost is used by both conventional and organic farming practices as an eco-friendly means to enhance soil properties and to reduce fertilizer inputs. Inadequate composting may lead to residual human pathogens (e.g. Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp.) in the final compost ...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  13. Composting. Sludge Treatment and Disposal Course #166. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arasmith, E. E.

    Composting is a lesson developed for a sludge treatment and disposal course. The lesson discusses the basic theory of composting and the basic operation, in a step-by-step sequence, of the two typical composting procedures: windrow and forced air static pile. The lesson then covers basic monitoring and operational procedures. The instructor's…

  14. Changes in the microbial communities during co-composting of digestates☆

    PubMed Central

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Confalonieri, Alberto; Insam, Heribert; Schlegelmilch, Mirko; Körner, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a waste treatment method which is of increasing interest worldwide. At the end of the process, a digestate remains, which can gain added value by being composted. A study was conducted in order to investigate microbial community dynamics during the composting process of a mixture of anaerobic digestate (derived from the anaerobic digestion of municipal food waste), green wastes and a screened compost (green waste/kitchen waste compost), using the COMPOCHIP microarray. The composting process showed a typical temperature development, and the highest degradation rates occurred during the first 14 days of composting, as seen from the elevated CO2 content in the exhaust air. With an exception of elevated nitrite and nitrate levels in the day 34 samples, physical–chemical parameters for all compost samples collected during the 63 day process indicated typical composting conditions. The microbial communities changed over the 63 days of composting. According to principal component analysis of the COMPOCHIP microarray results, compost samples from the start of the experiment were found to cluster most closely with the digestate and screened compost samples. The green waste samples were found to group separately. All starting materials investigated were found to yield fewer and lower signals when compared to the samples collected during the composting experiment. PMID:24456768

  15. Comparison of several maturity indicators for estimating phytotoxicity in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Danielle N; Horwath, William; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2008-11-01

    Compost can provide a rich organic nutrient source and soil conditioner for agricultural and horticultural applications. Ideal compost amendment rates, however, vary based on starting material and compost maturity or their interaction, and there is little consensus on appropriate methods to gauge maturity. In this study, electrical conductivity, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and carbon mineralization measurements were made on compost-amended soils and compared to phytotoxicity measured as cress (Lepidium sativum) germination. Cress germination in soil and compost mixtures incubated for 8-10 days significantly decreased with increasing electrical conductivity and carbon mineralization rate of the mixture and with carbon mineralization rate and mineralizable carbon associated with the compost. Cress germination was not related to carbon-to-nitrogen ratio or pH of soil and compost mixtures. The electrical conductivity of the soil and compost mixtures significantly decreased with decreasing mineralizable carbon suggesting that compounds contributing to electrical conductivity were present in the compost and decomposed upon soil amendment. The results of this study indicate that measurements of mineralizable carbon and mineralization rate of composts in soil, and electrical conductivity and mineralization rate of soil and compost mixtures, can be used as indicators of compost maturity.

  16. Effect of Turning Frequency on Composting of Empty Fruit Bunches Mixed with Activated Liquid Organic Fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisakti, B.; Lubis, J.; Husaini, T.; Irvan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) by mixing it with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative way in the utilization of solid waste produced from the palm oil mill (POM). This research was to determine the effect of turning frequency on the rate of composting of EFB mixed with ALOF in a basket composter. The composting process was started with cutting the EFB into pieces with size 1-3 cm, inserting the EFB pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding ALOF until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The turning frequency on each composter was varied i.e. once in every 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 days. The parameters analysed during composting were temperature, pH, MC, compost weight, water holding capacity (WHC), CN ratio, and the quality of the final compost. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the best result obtained at turning frequency was 3 days. The best compost characteristic was pH 9.0; MC 57.24%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15%; P 0.58%; and K 0. 95%.

  17. Performance of Elaeis Guineensis Leaves Compost in Filter Media for Stormwater Treament Through Column Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaijudin, H.; Ghani, A. A.; Zakaria, N. A.; Tze, L. L.

    2016-07-01

    Compost based materials arv e widely used in filter media for improving soil capability and plant growth. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different types of compost materials used in engineered soil media through soil column investigation. Three (3) column, namely C1 (control), C2 and C3 had different types compost (10%) which were, commercial compost namely PEATGRO, Compost A and Compost B were prepared with 60% medium sand and 30% of topsoil. The diluted stormwater runoff was flushed to the columns and it was run for six (6) hour experiment. The influent and effluent samples were collected and tested for Water Quality Index (WQI) parameters. The results deduced that C3 with Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost (Compost B) achieved 90.45 (Class II) better than control condition which accomplished 84 (Class II) based on WQI Classification. C3 with Compost A (African Mahogany Leaves Compost) obtained only 59.39 (Class III). C3 with the composition of Compost B effectively removed most pollutants, including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), were reduced by 89±4% and 96.6±0.9%, respectively. The result concluded that Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost is recommended to be used as part of engineered soil media due to its capabilities in eliminating stormwater pollutants.

  18. Fate of microconstituents in biosolids composted in an aerated silage bag

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of silage bags for composting was evaluated as a means to produce Class A Biosolids while minimizing vector attraction and odor emissions. While most composting studies report pathogen concentrations, little is known about the fate of Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) during composting. ...

  19. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology.

  20. Release of heavy metals during long-term land application of sewage sludge compost: Percolation leaching tests with repeated additions of compost.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Leaching assessment procedures have been used to determine the leachability of heavy metals as input for evaluating the risk from sewage sludge compost land application. However, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding leaching from soils with repeated application of sewage sludge compost with elevated levels of heavy metals. In this paper, leaching assessment is extended to evaluate the potential leaching of heavy metals during repetitive application of composted sewage sludge to soils. Four cycling of compost additions and percolation leaching were conducted to investigate how leaching behavior of heavy metals changed with repeated additions of compost. Results showed that repetitive additions of compost to soil significantly increased the content of organic matter, which favored the formation of reducing condition due to improved microbial activities and oxygen consumption. Establishment of reducing conditions can enhance the leaching concentrations of As by approximately 1 order of magnitude, especially for the soil rich in organic matter. For Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, repeated additions of compost will cause accumulation in total contents but not enhancement in leaching concentrations. The infiltration following compost additions will leach out the mobile fraction and the residual fraction might not release in the next cycling of compost addition and infiltration. The cumulative release of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb accounted for less than 5% of the total contents during four times of compost applications.

  1. DGGE and T-RFLP analysis of bacterial succession during mushroom compost production and sequence-aided T-RFLP profile of mature compost.

    PubMed

    Székely, Anna J; Sipos, Rita; Berta, Brigitta; Vajna, Balázs; Hajdú, Csaba; Márialigeti, Károly

    2009-04-01

    The amount of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) harvested from compost is largely affected by the microbial processes taking place during composting and the microbes inhabiting the mature compost. In this study, the microbial changes during the stages of this specific composting process were monitored, and the dominant bacteria of the mature compost were identified to reveal the microbiological background of the favorable properties of the heat-treated phase II mushroom compost. 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA)-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) molecular fingerprinting methods were used to track the succession of microbial communities in summer and winter composting cycles. DNA from individual DGGE bands were reamplified and subjected to sequence analysis. Principal component analysis of fingerprints of the composting processes showed intensive changes in bacterial community during the 22-day procedure. Peak temperature samples grouped together and were dominated by Thermus thermophilus. Mature compost patterns were almost identical by both methods (DGGE, T-RFLP). To get an in-depth analysis of the mature compost bacterial community, the sequence data from cultivation of the bacteria and cloning of environmental 16S rDNA were uniquely coupled with the output of the environmental T-RFLP fingerprints (sequence-aided T-RFLP). This method revealed the dominance of a supposedly cellulose-degrading consortium composed of phylotypes related to Pseudoxanthomonas, Thermobifida, and Thermomonospora.

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-12-15

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week{sup -1} and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 {sup o}C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH{sub 4} Mg{sup -1} input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N{sub 2}O Mg{sup -1} ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH{sub 4} during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH{sub 4} emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg{sup -1} ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO{sub 2}-eq. Mg{sup -1} ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  3. Biological testing of a digested sewage sludge and derived composts.

    PubMed

    Moreira, R; Sousa, J P; Canhoto, C

    2008-11-01

    Aiming to evaluate a possible loss of soil habitat function after amendment with organic wastes, a digested sewage sludge and derived composts produced with green residues, where biologically tested in the laboratory using soil animals (Eisenia andrei and Folsomia candida) and plants (Brassica rapa and Avena sativa). Each waste was tested mimicking a field application of 6ton/ha or 12ton/ha. Avoidance tests did not reveal any impact of sludge and composts to soil biota. Germination and growth tests showed that application of composts were beneficial for both plants. Composts did not affect earthworm's mass increase or reproduction, but the highest sludge amendment revealed negative effects on both parameters. Only the amendment of composts at the highest dose originated an impairment of springtails reproductive output. We suggest that bioassays using different test species may be an additional tool to evaluate effects of amendment of organic wastes in soil. Biological tests are sensitive to pollutants at low concentrations and to interactions undetected by routine chemical analysis.

  4. Comparative management of offshore posidonia residues: composting vs. energy recovery.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Zaccone, Claudio; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Miano, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Residues of the marine plant posidonia (Posidonia oceanica, PO) beached in tourist zones represent a great environmental, economical, social and hygienic problem in the Mediterranean Basin, in general, and in the Apulia Region in particular, because of the great disturb to the bathers and population, and the high costs that the administrations have to bear for their removal and disposal. In the present paper, Authors determined the heating values of leaves and fibres of PO, the main offshore residues found on beaches, and, meantime, composted those residues with mowing and olive pruning wood. The final composts were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition, dynamic respiration index, phytotoxicity, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic fingerprints. The aim of the paper was to investigate the composting and energy recovery of PO leaves and fibres in order to suggest alternative solutions to the landfill when offshore residues have to be removed from recreational beaches. The fibrous portion of PO residues showed heating values close to those of other biofuels, thus suggesting a possible utilization as source of energy. At the same time, compost obtained from both PO wastes showed high quality features on condition that the electrical conductivity and Na content are lowered by a correct management of wetting during the composting.

  5. Odour in composting processes at pilot scale: monitoring and biofiltration.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, M C; Serrano, A; Martín, M A; Chica, A F

    2014-08-01

    Although odour emissions associated with the composting process, especially during the hydrolytic stage, are widely known, their impact on surrounding areas is not easily quantifiable, For this reason, odour emissions during the first stage ofcomposting were evaluated by dynamic olfactometry at pilot scale in order to obtain results which can be extrapolated to industrial facilities. The composting was carried out in a commercial dynamic respirometer equipped with two biofilters at pilot scale filled with prunings (Populus) and mature compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Given that the highest odour emissions occur in the first stage of the composting process, this stage was carried out in a closed system to better control the odour emissions, whose maximum value was estimated to be 2.78 ouF S-1 during the experiments. Odour concentration, the dynamic respiration index and temperature showed the same evolution during composting, thus indicating that odour could be a key variable in the monitoring process. Other variables such as total organic carbon (CTOC) and pH were also found to be significant in this study due to their influence over odour emissions. The efficiency of the biofilters (empty bed residence time of 86 s) was determined by quantifying the odour emissions at the inlet and outlet of both biofilters. The moisture content in the biofilters was found to be an important variable for improving odour removal efficiency, while the minimum moisture percentage to obtain successful results was found to be 55% (odour removal efficiency of 95%).

  6. Wastes of multilayer containers as substrate in composting processes.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M E; Narros, G A; Molleda, J A

    1995-03-01

    An evaluation of the influence and degradation of ground multilayer containers, such as Tetra Brik Aseptic (TBA), in the composting process of municipal solid wastes (MSW) is presented. Two composting piles were formed by mixing, in different proportions, an organic fraction of MSW and TBA material ground as flakes or stripes. Piles were periodically aerated by mechanical mixing. Evolution of the composting was followed by frequent measurements of suitable parameters such as temperature, moisture, ashes, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, C/N ratio, pH, conductivity, nutrients, and heavy metals. As expected, aluminum and polyethylene films from TBA were not degraded during the processes, but the cardboard fraction of TBA showed a partial decomposition that was more intense in the material ground as flakes. After two months of curing, the composts were refined and analyzed to determine their nutrient and heavy-metals contents. Despite their poor aesthetic properties, mainly resulting from the presence of little pieces of plastic and aluminum films, the composts contained the required amounts of nutrients; furthermore, their heavy-metals content was below the limits proposed by some official European organizations.

  7. Intelligent composting assisted by a wireless sensing network.

    PubMed

    López, Marga; Martinez-Farre, Xavier; Casas, Oscar; Quilez, Marcos; Polo, Jose; Lopez, Oscar; Hornero, Gemma; Pinilla, Mirta R; Rovira, Carlos; Ramos, Pedro M; Borges, Beatriz; Marques, Hugo; Girão, Pedro Silva

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring of the moisture and temperature of composting process is a key factor to obtain a quality product beyond the quality of raw materials. Current methodologies for monitoring these two parameters are time consuming for workers, sometimes not sufficiently reliable to help decision-making and thus are ignored in some cases. This article describes an advance on monitoring of composting process through a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that allows measurement of temperature and moisture in real time in multiple points of the composting material, the Compo-ball system. To implement such measurement capabilities on-line, a WSN composed of multiple sensor nodes was designed and implemented to provide the staff with an efficient monitoring composting management tool. After framing the problem, the objectives and characteristics of the WSN are briefly discussed and a short description of the hardware and software of the network's components are presented. Presentation and discussion of practical issues and results obtained with the WSN during a demonstration stage that took place in several composting sites concludes the paper.

  8. High-rate anaerobic composting with biogas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    DeBaere, L.; Verstraete, W.

    1984-03-01

    In Belgium a novel high rate anaerobic composting process with biogas has been developed as an alternative to aerobic systems, producing a commercial dry compost and 60 to 95 cubic metres methane per ton of municipal solid waste. This is a high value energy source simultaneously yielding a stabilized end product. The process was developed so that digestion could take place at 25 to 35% total solids, thus reducing the amount of water needed to dilute the waste, decreasing the digestor volume and cutting transportation costs. The end product is odorless and stable. High rate anaerobic composting of MSW can be combined with sewage sludge stabilization. Manure, vegetable or fruit wastes can be co-treated in certain proportions as required. About 15 to 20% of the energy produced is transformed into electricity and heat and consumed as the waste disposal plant itself. 120 to 140 US $ worth of methane gas and compost can be produced per cubic metre of reactor per year, making anaerobic composting economically attractive.

  9. Investigation of biomethylation of arsenic and tellurium during composting.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Bone, Roland A; Raabe, Maren; Awissus, Simone; Keuter, Bianca; Menzel, Bernd; Küppers, Klaus; Widmann, Renatus; Hirner, Alfred V

    2011-05-30

    Though the process of composting features a high microbiological activity, its potential to methylate metals and metalloids has been little investigated so far in spite of the high impact of this process on metal(loid) toxicity and mobility. Here, we studied the biotransformation of arsenic, tellurium, antimony, tin and germanium during composting. Time resolved investigation revealed a highly dynamic process during self-heated composting with markedly differing time patterns for arsenic and tellurium species. Extraordinary high concentrations of up to 150 mg kg(-1) methylated arsenic species as well as conversion rates up to 50% for arsenic and 5% for tellurium were observed. In contrast, little to no conversion was observed for antimony, tin and germanium. In addition to experiments with metal(loid) salts, composting of arsenic hyperaccumulating ferns Pteris vittata and P. cretica grown on As-amended soils was studied. Arsenic accumulated in the fronds was efficiently methylated resulting in up to 8 mg kg(-1) methylated arsenic species. Overall, these studies indicate that metal(loid)s can undergo intensive biomethylation during composting. Due to the high mobility of methylated species this process needs to be considered in organic waste treatment of metal(loid) contaminated waste materials.

  10. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal.

    PubMed

    Kumar, J Sudhir; Subbaiah, K Venkata; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by earthworms which convert the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients, i.e. Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 - 65 tons of wet waste can be collected in a town per day and if this wet waste is converted to quality compost, around 12.30 tons of vermi compost can be generated. If a Municipal Corporation manages this wet waste an income of over (see text symbol) for 0.8 9 crore per anum can be earned which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public.

  11. Microbial community succession and lignocellulose degradation during agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongyan; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Hongli; Xi, Xingmei; Wang, Renyou; Huang, Danlian; Huang, Guohe; Li, Jianbing

    2007-12-01

    The changes of microbial community during agricultural waste composting were successfully studied by quinone profiles. Mesophilic bacteria indicated by MK-7 and mesophilic fungi containing Q-9 as major quinone were predominant and seemed to be important during the initial stage of composting. Actinobacteria indicated by a series of partially saturated and long-chain menaquinones were preponderant during the thermophilic period. While Actinobacteria, fungi and some bacteria, especially those microbes containing MK-7(H4) found in Gram-positive bacteria with a low G+C content or Actinobacteria were found cooperate during the latter maturating period. Since lignocellulose is abundant in the agricultural wastes and its degradation is essential for the operation of composting, it's important to establish the correlation between the quinone profiles changes and lignocellulose degradation. The microbes containing Q-9 or Q-10(H2) as major quinone were found to be the most important hemicellulose and cellulose degrading microorganisms during composting. While the microorganisms containing Q-9(H2) as major quinone and many thermophilic Actinobacteria were believed to be responsible for lignin degradation during agricultural waste composting.

  12. Composting systems for the bioremediation of chlorophenol-contaminated land

    SciTech Connect

    Semple, K.T.; Fermor, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorophenols are among the most environmentally hazardous and intractable xenobiotic compounds. Particular attention is being paid to pentachlorophenol (PCP). The microflora found in PCP-augmented compost and PCP-contaminated soils from Finland and the US were screened for their putative PCP-degradative abilities using both liquid and solid-state enrichment techniques. These putative degraders were isolated on R8 agar containing PCP. The capabilities of the putative PCP-degrading organisms, several of which are actinomycetes, were characterized in liquid culture using high-performance liquid chromatography and radiorespirometry. These isolated organisms have been found to colonize composts, and radiorespirometric studies are under way using [universally labeled (U)-{sup 14}C]PCP to determine the ability of these composts to mineralize the {sup 14}C-label to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in small-scale composting units. The next stage will investigate mixes of chlorophenol-contaminated soils with enriched composts, thus evaluating the potential to remediate chlorophenol-contaminated soils.

  13. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    PubMed

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow.

  14. Methane oxidation in water-spreading and compost biofilters.

    PubMed

    Powelson, David K; Chanton, Jeffery; Abichou, Tarek; Morales, Jose

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluated two biofilter designs to mitigate methane emissions from landfill vents. Water-spreading biofilters were designed to use the capillarity of coarse sand overlain by a finer sand to increase the active depth for methane oxidation. Compost biofilters consisted of 238-L barrels containing a 1:1 mixture (by volume) of compost to expanded polystyrene pellets. Two replicates of each type of biofilter were tested at an outdoor facility. Gas inflow consisted of an approximately 1:1 mixture (by volume) of CH4 and CO2. Methane output rates (J(out); g m(-2) day(-1)) were measured using the static chamber technique and the Pedersen et al. (2001) diffusion model. Methane oxidation rate (J(ox); g m(-2) day(-1)) and fraction of methane oxidized (f(ox)) were determined by mass balance. For methane inflow rates (J(in)) between 250 and 500 g m(-2) day(-1), the compost biofilter J(ox), 242 g m(-2) day(-1), was not significantly different (P = 0.0647) than the water-spreading biofilter J(ox), 203 g m(-2) day(-1); and the compost f(ox), 69%, was not significantly different (P = 0.7354) than water-spreading f(ox), 63%. The water-spreading biofilter was shown to generally perform as well as the compost biofilter, and it may be easier to implement at a landfill and require less maintenance.

  15. Re-use of invasive plants (water hyacinth) as organic fertilizer through composting and vermicomposting (Extremadura, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrador, Juana; Gordillo, Judit; Ruiz, Trinidad; Moreno, Marta M.

    2015-04-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is an invasive plant that is native of the Amazon basin and whose capacity for growth and propagation causes major conservation problems with considerable socioeconomic repercussions. The greatest damage due to its fast expansion has been in the middle reaches of the River Guadiana in the SW Iberian Peninsula, where was detected in the Autumn of 2004. Due to its rapid expansion, mechanical extraction was carried out by the Confederación Hidrográfica del Guadiana (CHG) of Spain's Ministry of the Environment since the affected zone is an important area of irrigation farming and hydraulic works and this alien plant weed provoked acute social alarm (Ruiz et al., 2008). In this work we used composting and vermicomposting techniques as an environmental alternative to assess the possibilities of biotransformation of the water hyacinth biomass removed mechanically from the Guadiana River Basin (Spain). Four compost piles 1.5 x 10 m size, mechanically tumbled and with no forced ventilation (turning windrows system), were constructed outdoor. Each compost pile was considered as a different treatment: CC1: fresh water hyacinth / wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC2: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol); CC3: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (2:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2) to favor the composting process; CC4: fresh water hyacinth / sheep manure rich in wheat straw (1:1 vol/vol) + Bokachi EM Activator (200 g m-2). The vermicomposting process was performed on mesh coated wooden boxes (0.34 m3) covered with a shadow mesh with the aim of harmonizing the environmental conditions. The quantities of water hyacinth biomass used were identical in volume (120 l) but with different state or composition: fresh and chopped biomass (VCF); dry and chopped biomass (VCS); fresh and pre-composted biomass with sheep manure rich in wheat straw (VCP). Identical worm density, irrigation

  16. Investigation on the utilization of coal fly ash as amendment to compost for vegetation in acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.P.

    1990-04-16

    The use of fly ash as amendment to compost is presented. Plant growth/yields of corn collard greens, mustard greens, and sorgum is described. The treatment parameters such as fly ash to compost ratio, fly ash-amended compost to soil ratio, type of compost used for treatment etc. are discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs. (CBS)

  17. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Gómez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter–rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near) real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS) models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation—RPD = 2.68), humification ratio (RPD = 2.23), total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07) and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66) with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring. PMID:27854280

  18. A laboratory-scale comparison of compost and sand--compost--perlite as methane-oxidizing biofilter media.

    PubMed

    Philopoulos, Andrew; Ruck, Juliane; McCartney, Daryl; Felske, Christian

    2009-03-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills produce methane, a potent greenhouse gas. A treatment approach is to passively vent landfill gas through a methane-oxidizing biofilter medium, a porous substrate that facilitates the growth of methanotrophic bacteria. Two substrates, compost and a sand-compost-perlite (SCP) mixture, were evaluated in a laboratory-scale experiment for their suitability as biofilter media. The SCP mixture was investigated to minimize settlement and was based on a particle size distribution specification used for turf grass. The long-term (218 days) methane removal rates showed that both compost and SCP were capable of removing 100% of the methane influent flux (134 g CH(4) m( -2) day(-1)). The post-experiment analysis showed that compost had compacted more than SCP. This did not affect the results; however, in a field installation, traffic on the biofilter surface (e.g. maintenance) could cause further compaction and negatively affect performance. Exopolymeric substance produced by the methanotrophic bacteria, attributed by others for declining removal rates due to bio-clogging, was not observed to affect the results. The maximum exopolymeric substance values measured were 23.9 and 7.8 mg D-glucose g(-1) (dry basis) for compost and SCP, respectively.

  19. Water state changes during the composting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Huan-Lin; Hu, Li-Fang; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste were determined. Three experiments, R(55), R(60), and R(65), with different initial moisture contents, 55%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, were performed. Three water states, entrapped water (EW), capillary water (CW), and multiple-molecular-layer water (MMLW), were monitored during the experiments. Changes only occurred with the EW and CW during the composting process. The percentage of EW increased, and the percentage of CW decreased as the composting process progressed. The R(60) experiment performed better than the other experiments according to changes in the temperature and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The percentage of EW correlated well (P<0.05) with the dissolved organic carbon content (DOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N, and was affected by the hemicellulose and cellulose contents.

  20. Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcu, Recep; Yaldiz, Osman

    2008-07-01

    In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.

  1. Compost-powered food drying project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Results of a study performed to demonstrate the use of heat generated from compost piles to dry food are presented. Results indicate that compost pile heat, the main source of heat for the dryer, performed rather erratically in past trials, but its positive effects on the environment merit more study. The increase in nitrogen fertilizer value of finished compost over the original materials ranged between 25% and 90%. This replaces nitrogen usually made with fossil fuels, without generating any known toxic effects on the surrounding environment. Bacteria are very efficient workers that can be harnessed to do certain tasks. Heating and producing nitrogen would be using the same bacteria to do two jobs efficiently. When too much heat is extracted from a pile, the bacteria cannot function efficiently and the pile cools down. Therefore there is only a limited amount of heat available for outside uses. This amount of heat is felt to be proportionate to pile size, so a larger pile could meet the heating demands of the dryer used in the project. Operator expertise is very critical in composting for heat and is effectively gained only through experience. Since the cost effectiveness of the operation depends on using waste materials available at the site, the operator must find the correct combination of these materials and combine them correctly. The length of time involved in fully composting materials and the seasonal limitations of the method combine to bring expertise to the operator only after years of composting. A positive side effect of the project has been the realization of the usefulness of the pre-made insulated box (used refrigerator truck body) in temperature controlled situations. It has proved to be a very cost effective and portable dryer.

  2. Microbial disinfection capacity of municipal solid waste (MSW) composting.

    PubMed

    Déportes, I; Benoit-Guyod, J L; Zmirou, D; Bouvier, M C

    1998-08-01

    The disinfection capacity of a municipal solid waste (MSW) composting plant (Siloda) has been evaluated. In spring and summer, MSW was followed during the composting process from raw material to mature compost and long-term storage (1 year). Ascaris eggs, Salmonella, Shigella, total streptococci, faecal streptococci, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were studied. Disinfection was successful in terms of a decrease in faecal contamination indicators and disappearance of faecal pathogens. Faecal coliform concentration in raw waste reached 2.1 x 10(8) cfu g-1 dry weight in spring (CI 95%:5.2 x 10(7)-3.4 x 10(8)) and 7.2 x 10(8) cfu g-1 dry weight (1 x 10(8)-1.7 x 10(9)) in summer, and fell to less than 100 cfu g-1 dry weight within 20 d. Faecal streptococci concentrations reached 8.7 x 10(8) cfu g-1 dry weight (3.7 x 10(8)-1.3 x 10(9)) in spring and 2.0 x 10(9)cfu g-1 dry weight (5.6 x 10(8)-3.4 x 10(9)) in summer, and fell to 8.7 x 10(4) cfu g-1 dry weight (6.9 x 10(4)-1.0 x 10(5)). No seasonal pattern of contamination, mainly of animal origin, was observed. Microbiological quality of finished compost depends on the storage conditions. Therefore, the storage stage should be viewed as part of the composting process. Monitoring disinfection capacity of MSW composting needs to combine several microbial populations.

  3. Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C.

    2008-04-01

    Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

  4. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  5. Food Waste Composting Study from Makanan Ringan Mas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Ismail, S. N. M.; Jamaludin, S. N.

    2016-07-01

    The poor management of municipal solid waste in Malaysia has worsened over the years especially on food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Composting is one of low cost alternative method to dispose the food waste. This study is conducted to compost the food waste generation in Makanan Ringan Mas, which is a medium scale industry in Parit Kuari Darat due to the lack knowledge and exposure of food waste recycling practice. The aim of this study is to identify the physical and chemical parameters of composting food waste from Makanan Ringan Mas. The physical parameters were tested for temperature and pH value and the chemical parameter are Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium. In this study, backyard composting was conducted with 6 reactors. Tapioca peel was used as fermentation liquid and soil and coconut grated were used as the fermentation bed. Backyard composting was conducted with six reactors. The overall results from the study showed that the temperature of the reactors were within the range which are from 30° to 50°C. The result of this study revealed that all the reactors which contain processed food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 5 to 6 which can be categorized as slightly acidic. Meanwhile, the reactors which contained raw food waste tend to produce pH value within the range of 7 to 8 which can be categorized as neutral. The highest NPK obtained is from Reactor B that process only raw food waste. The average value of Nitrogen is 48540 mg/L, Phosphorus is 410 mg/L and Potassium is 1550 mg/L. From the comparison with common chemical fertilizer, it shows that NPK value from the composting are much lower than NPK of the common chemical fertilizer. However, comparison with NPK of organic fertilizer shown only slightly difference value in NPK.

  6. Determination of thermal properties of composting bulking materials.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H K; Sauer, T J; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2009-09-01

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 12 compost bulking materials were determined in this study. Thermal properties were determined at varying bulk densities (1, 1.3, 1.7, 2.5, and 5 times uncompacted bulk density), particle sizes (ground and bulk), and water contents (0, 20, 50, 80% of water holding capacity and saturated condition). For the water content at 80% of water holding capacity, saw dust, soil compost blend, beef manure, and turkey litter showed the highest thermal conductivity (K) and volumetric heat capacity (C) (K: 0.12-0.81 W/m degrees C and C: 1.36-4.08 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Silage showed medium values at the same water content (K: 0.09-0.47 W/m degrees C and C: 0.93-3.09 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Wheat straw, oat straw, soybean straw, cornstalks, alfalfa hay, and wood shavings produced the lowest K and C values (K: 0.03-0.30 W/m degrees C and C: 0.26-3.45 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity showed a linear relationship with moisture content and bulk density, while thermal diffusivity showed a nonlinear relationship. Since the water, air, and solid materials have their own specific thermal property values, thermal properties of compost bulking materials vary with the rate of those three components by changing water content, bulk density, and particle size. The degree of saturation was used to represent the interaction between volumes of water, air, and solids under the various combinations of moisture content, bulk density, and particle size. The first order regression models developed in this paper represent the relationship between degree of saturation and volumetric heat capacity (r=0.95-0.99) and thermal conductivity (r=0.84-0.99) well. Improved

  7. Plant tests for determining the suitability of grape marc composts as components of plant growth media.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; González, Desiree; Barral, María Teresa

    2012-10-01

    Five grape marc composts prepared by different procedures (composting and vermicompost at several scales) were tested as potential components of plant growth media. The five composts had high organic matter content (>90%), low electric conductivity (<1 dS m(-1)) and a pH between 7 and 8. Different chemical and biochemical analyses performed indicated the higher stability of those composts submitted to a longer composting process or to a vermicomposting process (lower water soluble organic matter, respiration and dehydrogenase activity). In order to determine the suitability of the composts as substrate components, plant growth tests were performed by blending the composts with peat or commercial substrate at two compost rates (25% and 50%). The mixtures were sown with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and grown under controlled conditions in an incubation chamber. No prejudicial effects derived from the use of composted grape marc were observed, whatever the procedure of composting used. The results showed that four out of the five composts would be suitable for use in plant growth substrates elaboration, as they did not reduce productivity with respect to the control substrates.

  8. The effects of high metal concentrations in soil-compost mixtures on soil enzymes.

    PubMed

    Warman, P R; Munroe, M D

    2010-10-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the impact of high-metal composts on the activities of four soil enzymes. High concentrations of metal salts (Cr, Cu, Ni or a Co-Mo-Pb combination) were added to feedstocks during the thermophilic stage of composting. These four metal-enriched composts and an unamended control compost were then mixed with soil collected from long-term agriculture plots under organic management or conventional management. The compost-soil mixtures were prepared at two rates (1:1 or 1:3 compost:soil, v/v) and incubated at 20 degrees C for three weeks. These 20 combinations plus the five composts and the two soils were added to pots and incubated for three weeks. Following incubation, soil enzyme activities (acid phosphatase, arysulfatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase) were measured using traditional assay procedures. Compared to the control, none of the high-metal composts inhibited soil enzyme activity. Notably, the Cu compost treatment produced significantly higher activity of all four enzymes in the soil compared to the control. Previous soil management influenced the activity of three enzymes, arysulfatase and dehydrogenase had greater activity in the organic soil while phosphatase activity was greater in the conventional soil. Increasing the proportion of compost in the pot had a positive effect on phosphodiesterase activity only. In conclusion, the high-metal compost treatments either enhanced or caused no adverse effects on soil enzyme activity.

  9. Effects of lime amendment on availability of heavy metals and maturation in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Fang, M; Wong, J W

    1999-07-01

    A batch composting study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of co-composting sewage sludge with lime, aiming at reducing the availability of heavy metals in the sludge compost. Sewage sludge with sawdust as bulking agent was amended with lime at 0, 0.63, 1.0, and 1.63% w/w, and composted for 100 days in laboratory batch reactors. The changes in temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and extractable heavy metal contents were measured while compost maturity was determined by C/N(organic) and cress seed germination during the composting period. Liming raised pH of compost effectively at the initial stage of composting and caused a decrease in EC through precipitation of soluble ions. Lime amendment also significantly reduced water-soluble and Diethylene triamine pentracetic acid (DTPA)-extractable metal contents. The maximum reductions were 60 and 40% for Cu, 80 and 40% for Mn, 55 and 10% for Zn, and 20 and 25% for Ni at the end of the composting period for the lime-amended sludge as compared to the control. In spite of the inhibitory effect of lime amendment on the decomposition activity of sewage sludge, all treatments reached maturation after 63 days of composting as indicated by the results of C/N(organic) ratio and cress seed germination test results. A lime amendment of < or =1.0% is recommended to co-compost with sewage sludge.

  10. Composting and bioremediation process evaluation of wood waste materials generated from the construction and demolition industry.

    PubMed

    McMahon, V; Garg, A; Aldred, D; Hobbs, G; Smith, R; Tothill, I E

    2008-04-01

    The suitability of using bioremediation and composting techniques for diverting construction and demolition (C&D) waste from landfill has been validated in this study. Different timber products from C&D waste have been composted using various composting approaches. The present work demonstrates the quality of compost produced as a result of composting of mixed board product wood waste, which is frequently obtained from the construction and demolition industry. Three compost mixes were prepared by mixing shredded chip board, medium density fibre, hardboard and melamine. Poultry manure, Eco-Bio mixture and green waste were used as nutrient supplements. The results revealed that compost produced from mixtures of poultry manure and green waste used as nutrient supplements improved the performance in plant growth trials (phytotoxicity tests). Results obtained from the experimental study clearly indicate that the composts produced comply with the criterion suggested in BSI PAS 100 (A specification for compost materials) for use in different applications. Composting can also be demonstrated to be a very practical approach to material management including transport reduction to and from the site. The economic suitability of the process will be improved with the increase in landfill tax. In the current regulatory scenario, it is recommended that these materials should be composted at a centralised facility.

  11. Diversity and dynamics of the microbial community on decomposing wheat straw during mushroom compost production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Yaohua; Yang, Shida; Zhang, Weixin; Xu, Meiqing; Ma, Anzhou; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Chen, Guanjun; Liu, Weifeng

    2014-10-01

    The development of communities of three important composting players including actinobacteria, fungi and clostridia was explored during the composting of wheat straw for mushroom production. The results revealed the presence of highly diversified actinobacteria and fungal communities during the composting process. The diversity of the fungal community, however, sharply decreased in the mature compost. Furthermore, an apparent succession of both actinobacteria and fungi with intensive changes in the composition of communities was demonstrated during composting. Notably, cellulolytic actinomycetal and fungal genera represented by Thermopolyspora, Microbispora and Humicola were highly enriched in the mature compost. Analysis of the key cellulolytic genes revealed their prevalence at different composting stages including several novel glycoside hydrolase family 48 exocellulase lineages. The community of cellulolytic microbiota also changed substantially over time. The prevalence of the diversified cellulolytic microorganisms holds the great potential of mining novel lignocellulose decomposing enzymes from this specific ecosystem.

  12. Heavy metal fractionation during the co-composting of biosolids, deinking paper fibre and green waste.

    PubMed

    Tandy, S; Healey, J R; Nason, M A; Williamson, J C; Jones, D L

    2009-09-01

    Due to the introduction of the European Union Landfill Directive, composting has become a potentially viable disposal route for some organic wastes. As waste-derived compost is frequently added to soil to improve soil quality, it is important to quantify the environmental risk posed by potentially toxic elements contained within it. Here we used a sequential chemical extraction procedure to investigate the temporal dynamics of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni) during the co-composting of biosolids, deinking paper fibre and green waste. Overall, composting over 26 weeks reduced the availability of Ni, had no effect on Pb and slightly increased the availability of Cu and Zn. We conclude that although the total Cu and Ni concentrations in the compost exceed legislative guidelines for land application, due to their recalcitrant nature within the compost, this compost posed very little threat to soil or plant quality if used in agriculture or land restoration.

  13. Influence of biochar addition on methane metabolism during thermophilic phase of composting.

    PubMed

    Sonoki, Tomonori; Furukawa, Toru; Jindo, Keiji; Suto, Koki; Aoyama, Masakazu; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Á

    2013-07-01

    CH(4) is known to be generated during the most active phase of composting, even in well-managed composting piles. In this manuscript, we studied the influence of biochar on the CH(4) metabolism during composting of cattle manure and local organic wastes. We evaluated the presence of methanogens and methanotrophs in the composting piles quantified by the level of mcrA encoding methyl coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit and pmoA encoding particulate methane monooxygenase. A decrease of methanogens (mcrA) and an increase of methanotrophs (pmoA) were measured in the composting mixture containing biochar during the most active phase of composting. During the thermophilic phase, the mcrA/pmoA ratios obtained in the composting piles with biochar were twofold lower than in the pile without biochar.

  14. Effects of composting process on the dissipation of extractable sulfonamides in swine manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bei; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Xuelian; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Shen, Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of composting on the fate of sulfonamides (SAs) in the manure-straw mixture were explored through a simulation of aerobic composting process. Additionally, factors of temperature and coexistence of heavy metal Cu that might influence the removal efficiency were particularly investigated. As shown in the results, the extractable SAs dissipated rapidly during the composting process. The coexistence of Cu in the composting process might have delayed the decline of SAs, but the drugs could still be completely removed by the end of the composting. In contrast to the thermophilic aerobic composting, extractable SAs in air-temperature-placed mixture dissipated much slower and 1.12-1.56mg/kg could be detected after 35days of incubation. The results confirmed that temperature could influence the dissipation of SAs, which was identified as a more important factor than Cu-coexistence. Hence, thermophilic aerobic composting is an effective process to eliminate VAs before manure land application.

  15. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds.

  16. Reducing nitrogen loss and salinity during 'struvite' food waste composting by zeolite amendment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Man Ting; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-01-01

    Struvite formation during composting through supplementation of Mg and P salts conserved nitrogen but in the same time increased the electrical conductivity (EC) of the compost limiting its application. Therefore the present study aimed at utilizing zeolite to control the EC under 'struvite' composting of food waste. Zeolite at 5% and 10% (dry weight basis) was supplemented to the composting mass receiving Mg and P salts and compared with treatment with Mg and P salts only and the control without any amendment. Addition of Mg and P salts effectively buffered the pH to ∼8.0 but also increased the EC of the compost to 6.45mS/cm. Co-amendment with 10% zeolite effectively reduced the EC down to 2.82mS/cm and improved compost maturity. It also increased the adsorption of ammonium ions reducing ammonia loss to 18% resulting in higher total nitrogen content in the final compost.

  17. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, W.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Ironside, K.S.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.; Tan, E.

    1991-11-01

    Static pile and mechanically stirred composts generated at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity in a field composting optimization study were chemically and toxicologically characterized to provide data for the evaluation of composting efficiency to decontaminate and detoxify explosives-contaminated soil. Characterization included determination of explosives and 2,4,6,-trinitrotoluene metabolites in composts and their EPA Synthetic Precipitation Leaching Procedure Leachates, leachate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia Dubia and mutagenicity of the leachates and organic solvent extracts of the composts to Ames bacterial strains TA-98 and TA-100. The main conclusion from this study is that composting can effectively reduce the concentrations of explosives and bacterial mutagenicity in explosives -- contaminated soil, and can reduce the aquatic toxicity of leachable compounds. Small levels of explosive and metabolites, bacterial mutagenicity, and leachable aquatic toxicity remain after composting. The ultimate fate of the biotransformed explosives, and the source(s) of residual toxicity and mutagenicity remain unknown.

  18. Bioremediation of PAH-contaminated soil by composting: a case study.

    PubMed

    Cajthaml, T; Bhatt, M; Sasek, V; Matĕjů, V

    2002-01-01

    Composting technique was used for bioremediation of industrial soil originating from a former tar-contaminated site. The composting process was regulated by aeration to keep optimal temperature gradient and concentrations of O2 and CO2 inside the composting pile. The efficiency of bioremediation was evaluated by performing analysis of 11 individual three- to six-ring unsubstituted aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and estimating of changes in ecotoxicity of the contaminated soil. After 42 d of composting, PAH with 3-4 rings were removed from 42 to 68%, other higher-molar mass PAH from 35 to 57%. Additional 100 d of compost maturation in open-air field did not result in a further decrease of PAH. Ecotoxicity tests performed with bioluminescent bacteria Vibrio fischerii showed a decrease in toxicity both after composting and maturation phases. However, toxicity tests on mustard-seed germination did not reveal any significant changes during composting and maturation phases.

  19. Can we build better compost? Use of waste drywall to enhance plant growth on reclamation sites.

    PubMed

    Naeth, M Anne; Wilkinson, Sarah R

    2013-11-15

    Compost is a readily available source of organic matter and nutrients and is produced large scale in many jurisdictions. Novel advancements in composting include addition of construction waste, such as drywall, to address its disposal while potentially improving compost quality for use in land reclamation. Varying compositions (15-30% by weight) of coarse and ground waste drywall were added to manure and biosolids during composting. Six composts were applied at four rates (0, 50, 100, 200 Mg ha(-1)) to three reclamation soils (agricultural, urban clean fill, oil sands tailings). Response to composts was assessed in the greenhouse with three plant species (Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte (slender wheat grass) and Festuca saximontana Rydb. (rocky mountain fescue). Drywall added to biosolids or manure during composting had no detrimental effects on vegetation; any negative effects of compost occurred with and without drywall. In agricultural soil and clean fill, biosolids composts with 15% coarse and 18% ground drywall improved native grass response, particularly biomass, relative to biosolids compost without drywall. Drywall manure composts reduced native grass response relative to manure compost without drywall. Only low quality tailings sand was improved by 30% coarse drywall. Compost rate significantly affected above and below ground biomass in agricultural soil and reduced performance of native species at highest rates, suggesting a threshold beyond which conditions will not be suitable for reclamation. Grinding drywall did not significantly improve plant performance and use of coarse drywall would eliminate the need for specialized equipment and resources. This initial research demonstrates that drywall composts are appropriate soil amendments for establishment of native and non native plant species on reclamation sites with consideration of substrate properties and plant species tolerances to dictate which additional feed

  20. Compost and Legionella longbeachae: an emerging infection?

    PubMed

    Currie, Sandra L; Beattie, Tara K

    2015-11-01

    Human disease caused by Legionella species is dominated by Legionella pneumophila, the main causative agent in cases of Legionnaires' disease. However, other species are known to cause infection, for example, Legionella longbeachae causes an equivalent number of cases of disease as L. pneumophila in Australia and New Zealand. Infection with L. longbeachae is commonly associated with exposure to composts and potting soils, and cases of infection with this organism have been increasing in Europe over the past ten years. The increase in incidence may be linked to factors such as increased awareness of clinical presentation, or due to changing formulation of growing media, although it should be noted that the presence of Legionella species in growing media does not correlate with the number of cases currently seen. This is likely due to the variables associated with infection, for example, host factors such as smoking or underlying health conditions, or difference in growing media storage or climate, especially warm humid conditions, which may affect survival and growth of these organisms in the growing media environment. There are numerous unknowns in this area and collaboration between growing media manufacturers and researchers, as well as more awareness among diagnosing clinicians, laboratory staff and the general public is necessary to reduce risk. More research is needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn: L. pneumophila research currently dominates the field and it is likely that the overreliance on diagnostic techniques such as the urinary antigen test, which is specific for L. pneumophila Sg 1, is detrimental to the diagnosis of L. longbeachae infection.

  1. Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov., isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Chandna, Piyush; Mayilraj, Shanmugam; Kuhad, Ramesh Chander

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming, aerobic bacterium capable of growing at 15-42 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 5-11 (optimum pH 7) was isolated from compost. Its taxonomic position was deduced using a polyphasic approach and the strain was designated RC2(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belongs to the division Firmicutes, forming a clade within the cluster containing Bacillus flexus IFO 15715(T), and showed highest similarity to B. flexus IFO 15715(T) (98.1 %). The cell wall contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strain were iso-C15:0 (36.83 %), anteiso-C15:0 (49.19 %) and C16:0 (5.19 %). DNA-DNA hybridization between strain RC2(T) and B. flexus DSM 1320(T) showed a level of relatedness of 54.5 %. The polar lipid profile of strain RC2(T) showed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylethanolamine. The predominant isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of strain RC2(T) was 37.6 mol%. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and the results of biochemical and physiological tests, strain RC2(T) was clearly distinguished from closely related members of the genus, and the strain is assigned to a novel species, for which the name Bacillus paraflexus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RC2(T) ( = MTCC 9831(T) = MCC 2100(T) = KCTC 13724(T) = CCM 7754(T)).

  2. Composting swine slurry to reduce indicators and antibiotic resistance genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  3. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  4. Storm Water Pollution Removal Performance of Compost Filter Socks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, the US Environmental Protection Agency National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. Filtrexx International manufactures and distributes Filter Soxx (FS). Literature suggests...

  5. Dissipation of 17B-estradiol in composted poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of heated composting and ambient temperature poultry waste decomposition on the fate of 17ß-estradiol and testosterone were determined in separate experiments. A mixture of poultry litter, wood chips and straw was amended with [14C]17ß-estradiol or [14C]testosterone and allowed to under...

  6. Compost odor control using high carbon wood ash.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, P E; Grey, M A; Suffet, I H

    2004-01-01

    A pilot study on the feasibility of using high carbon wood ash to control composting odor emissions was conducted at a green material composting facility. The study's treatments consisted of adding 0%, 12.5%, and 25% high carbon wood ash by volume to green-material compost feedstock in three separate windrows. The wood ash has properties similar to activated carbon with an active surface area of 105 square metres per gram on a dry weight basis. The odorant emission data suggest that the higher percentage wood ash treatment results in the most effective control of most compost odors and that wood ash provides effective treatment of volatile fatty acids and some aldehydes and ketones. The 25% wood ash treatment resulted in more effective treatment of odors for a longer time period than the 12.5% treatment. Acetaldehyde had the highest concentration in the control (14,000 times its odor threshold concentration), was reduced by high carbon ash by over 97% but remained 386 times its reported odor threshold concentration after 14 days. Ethyl mecaptan and ammonia were produced in the process and were also over their reported human detection limits.

  7. [Analysis of odor pollutants in kitchen waste composting].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-yu; Zou, Ke-hua; Yang, Jin-bing; Li, Guo-xue; Yang, Qing-yuan; Zhang, Feng

    2012-08-01

    Odor pollution has become a major environmental problem in municipal solid waste composting. The odor samples at different composting phases of kitchen waste were collected and analyzed by olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The correlation between the odor concentration and the emission of odor compounds was also analyzed. The results showed that there were 43 kinds of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the composting process of kitchen waste, including 5 kinds of sulfur odor compounds, 22 kinds of hydrocarbon compounds, 11 kinds of aromatic compounds and 5 kinds of other odor compounds. The correlation analysis indicated that the odor concentration was very significantly correlated with the emission of hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, 1,3-xylene and o-xylene (P < 0.01), and significantly correlated with the emission of dimethyl disulfide and p-xylene (P < 0.05). Therefore, those 6 kinds of odor compounds should be intensively monitored and controlled during the composting process of kitchen waste.

  8. Effect of pre-composting on vermicomposting of kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Nair, Jaya; Sekiozoic, Vanja; Anda, Martin

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test combination of the thermocomposting and vermicomposting to improve the treatment efficiency and assess the optimum period required in each method to produce good quality compost. The results showed that pre-thermocomposting improved vermicomposting of kitchen waste. A 9-day thermocomposting prior to vermicomposting helped in mass reduction, moisture management and pathogen reduction.

  9. Converting Alaska fish byproducts into compost: a review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alaska's commercial fishing industry, sportfishing and susbsistence fisheries generate over one million metric tons of processing waste each year. Composting is a practical alternative for salvaging some of these discarded materials. Rural and remote coastal communities can benefit from these source...

  10. Compost addition reduces porosity and chlordecone transfer in soil microstructure.

    PubMed

    Woignier, Thierry; Clostre, Florence; Fernandes, Paula; Rangon, Luc; Soler, Alain; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2016-01-01

    Chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, pollutes soils and contaminates crops and water resources and is biomagnified by food chains. As chlordecone is partly trapped in the soil, one possible alternative to decontamination may be to increase its containment in the soil, thereby reducing its diffusion into the environment. Containing the pesticide in the soil could be achieved by adding compost because the pollutant has an affinity for organic matter. We hypothesized that adding compost would also change soil porosity, as well as transport and containment of the pesticide. We measured the pore features and studied the nanoscale structure to assess the effect of adding compost on soil microstructure. We simulated changes in the transport properties (hydraulic conductivity and diffusion) associated with changes in porosity. During compost incubation, the clay microstructure collapsed due to capillary stresses. Simulated data showed that the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion coefficient were reduced by 95 and 70% in the clay microstructure, respectively. Reduced transport properties affected pesticide mobility and thus helped reduce its transfer from the soil to water and to the crop. We propose that the containment effect is due not only to the high affinity of chlordecone for soil organic matter but also to a trapping mechanism in the soil porosity.

  11. Improving the quality of municipal organic waste compost.

    PubMed

    Tognetti, C; Mazzarino, M J; Laos, F

    2007-03-01

    The effects of different municipal organic waste (MOW) management practices (shredding, addition of carbon-rich materials and inoculation with earthworms) on organic matter stabilization and compost quality were studied. Four static piles were prepared with: (i) shredded MOW; (ii) shredded MOW+woodshavings; (iii) non-shredded MOW; and (iv) non-shredded MOW+woodshavings. After 50 days, a part of each pile was separated for vermistabilization, while the rest continued as traditional thermophilic composting piles. At different sampling dates, and in the finished products, the following parameters were measured: pH, electrical conductivity, carbon dioxide evolution, and concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, water-soluble carbon, nitrate nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, and extractable phosphorus. Shredded treatments exhibited faster organic matter stabilization than non-shredded treatments, evidenced specially by earlier stabilization of carbon dioxide production and shorter thermophilic phases. Woodshavings addition greatly increased quality of final products in terms of organic matter concentration, and pH and electrical conductivity values, but decreased total nitrogen and available nutrient concentrations. Vermicomposting of previously composted material led to products richer in organic matter, total nitrogen, and available nutrient concentrations than composting only, probably due to the coupled effect of earthworm activity and a shorter thermophilic phase.

  12. Chemical characteristics of custom compost for highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent development of markets for blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) produced under Organic certification has stimulated interest in production of composts specifically tailored to its edaphic requirements. Blueberry is a calcifuge (acid-loving) plant that responds favorably to mulching and incorpo...

  13. Narrow grass hedge effects on nutrient transport following compost application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of stiff-stemmed grass hedges can be a valuable soil conservation measure. A study was conducted to measure the effectiveness of a narrow grass hedge, planted on the contour along the hillslope, in reducing runoff nutrient transport from plots with a range of soil nutrient values. Composted ...

  14. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  15. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  16. An Experimental Ecological Study of a Garden Compost Heap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curds, Tracy

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative study of the fauna of a garden compost heap shows it to be similar to that of organisms found in soil and leaf litter. Materials, methods, and results are discussed and extensive tables of fauna lists, wet/dry masses, and statistical analyses are presented. (Author/DH)

  17. Urban Composting in the Technology and Engineering Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buelin-Biesecker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The average American produces around 1,600 pounds of garbage every year, and it is estimated that 50 percent of that waste is material that could be composted (Clean Air Council, 2012). Instead, most is sent to landfills and incinerators. In technology and engineering education, a great deal of time is spent in talking, teaching, and thinking…

  18. Nutrient leaching when compost is part of plant growth media

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioretention cells collect urban runoff and are used to slow storm water surge, reduce or remove nutrients or other pollutants, and provide aesthetics to the landscape. A cell is filled with soil mixed with sand, compost, and other materials, and underlain by an aggregate layer and drainage pipe. Th...

  19. Turning schedules influence final composition of composted swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure is a high-moisture, low-nutrient product that limits economical transport to areas in proximity of its source, possibly contributing to localized high soil nutrient levels. Composting swine manure converts liquid slurries to solids at lower moisture conten...

  20. Microbiological degradation of pesticides in yard waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Fogarty, A M; Tuovinen, O H

    1991-01-01

    Changes in public opinion and legislation have led to the general recognition that solid waste treatment practices must be changed. Solid-waste disposal by landfill is becoming increasingly expensive and regulated and no longer represents a long-term option in view of limited land space and environmental problems. Yard waste, a significant component of municipal solid waste, has previously not been separated from the municipal solid-waste stream. The treatment of municipal solid waste including yard waste must urgently be addressed because disposal via landfill will be prohibited by legislation. Separation of yard waste from municipal solid waste will be mandated in many localities, thus stressing the importance of scrutinizing current composting practices in treating grass clippings, leaves, and other yard residues. Yard waste poses a potential environmental health problem as a result of the widespread use of pesticides in lawn and tree care and the persistence of the residues of these chemicals in plant tissue. Yard waste containing pesticides may present a problem due to the recalcitrant and toxic nature of the pesticide molecules. Current composting processes are based on various modifications of either window systems or in-vessel systems. Both types of processes are ultimately dependent on microbial bioconversions of organic material to innocuous end products. The critical stage of the composting process is the thermophilic phase. The fate and mechanism of removal of pesticides in composting processes is largely unknown and in need of comprehensive analysis. PMID:1886519

  1. Rotary drum composting of different organic waste mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kazmi, Absar A

    2009-03-01

    The effects of three different mixtures of organic waste on composting in a rotary drum were examined by measuring changes in physico-chemical and biological parameters. It was observed that the time courses of the three mixtures: run A (grass cuttings, vegetable waste and food waste), run B (cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust) and run C (cattle manure, food waste, vegetable waste, paper waste and sawdust) were quite diverse. Run B, with initial C/N ratio 22 and containing a large proportion of cattle manure produced high quality and mature compost within 20 days. It showed a final total nitrogen (2.1%), final total phosphorus 3.52 g kg(-1), final total organic carbon (TOC) (24.8%) and final moisture content (44%). At the end of 20 days, higher degradation led to final chemical oxygen demand (COD) (454 mg L(- 1)), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (107 mg L(- 1)), fecal coliform (1.2 x 10(2) bacteria g(- 1)), fecal streptococci (85 bacteria g(-1)) and low electrical conductivity (1.658 dS m(-1)), respectively. Furthermore, run C with initial C/N ratio of 30 and containing a larger amount of food and vegetable waste produced good quality compost and resulted in 4.34% total nitrogen and 2.42% total phosphorus after 20 days, but, it had higher final fecal coliform 2.5 x 10(4) bacteria g( -1), fecal streptococci 2.1 x 10(4) bacteria g(-1), high TOC and NH(4)-N and a BOD/COD ratio of 0.63, which rendered it hygienically unsafe and immature. Finally, run A with initial C/N ratio of 15 showed a higher amount of EC (4.84 dS m(-1)), NH(4)-N, BOD/COD ratio of 0.4 with 15% nitrogen loss, which indicated an unstable product even after 20 days of composting. Therefore, it was found that rotary drum composting of a combination of cattle manure, vegetable waste and sawdust resulted in a primary stabilized compost within 20 days of composting.

  2. Influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting.

    PubMed

    de Guardia, A; Petiot, C; Rogeau, D; Druilhe, C

    2008-01-01

    The paper aimed to study the influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting of wastewater sludge with wood chips. Wastewater sludge was sampled at a pig slaughterhouse 24h before each composting experiment, and mixtures were made at the same mass ratio. Six composting experiments were performed in a lab reactor (300 L) under forced aeration. Aeration flow was constant throughout the experiment and aeration rates applied ranged between 1.69 and 16.63 L/h/kg DM of mixture. Material temperature and oxygen consumption were monitored continuously. Nitrogen losses in leachates as organic and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate, and losses in exhaust gases as ammonia were measured daily. Concentrations of total carbon and nitrogen i.e., organic nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, and nitrite and nitrate were measured in the initial substrates and in the composted materials. The results showed that organic nitrogen, which was released as NH4+/NH3 by ammonification, was closely correlated to the ratio of carbon removed from the material to TC/N(org) of the initial substrates. The increase of aeration was responsible for the increase in ammonia emissions and for the decrease in nitrogen losses through leaching. At high aeration rates, losses of nitrogen in leachates and as ammonia in exhaust gases accounted for 90-99% of the nitrogen removed from the material. At low aeration rates, those accounted for 47-85% of the nitrogen removed from the material. The highest concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen in composts occurred at the lowest aeration rate. Due to the correlation of ammonification with biodegradation and to the measurements of losses in leachates and in exhaust gases, the pool NH4+/NH3 in the composting material was calculated as a function of time. The nitrification rate was found to be proportional to the mean content of NH4+/NH3 in the material, i.e., initial NH4+/NH3 plus NH4+/NH3 released by ammonification minus losses in

  3. [Application of white-rot fungi in composting lead-contaminated waste].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan-Lian; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Huang, Guo-He; Hu, Tian-Jue; Jiang, Xiao-Yun; Feng, Chong-Ling; Chen, Yao-Ning

    2006-01-01

    Simulative lead polluted wastes which containing unpolluted soil, household waste, straw, bran and lead nitrate were prepared. Inoculation of white-rot fungi and uninoculation in composting of lead-contaminated waste were studied. Change of chemical factor, biological parameter and biological toxicity analyses with time during the composting process were determined to study effect of heavy metal on composting process and probability of application of white-rot fungi in composting of metal-contaminated waste. The results show the composting of lead-contaminated waste inoculated white-rot fungi could be successfully processed, which lead to the reduction of the bioavailability of Pb in compost and alleviate the potential harm from heavy metal. Under this composting process, for the final compost, pH, water-soluble organic carbon/nitrogen, volatile solid, lignin and coarse fibre remained reached 7.9, 4.01, 36.1%, 22.4g, 30.1g, respectively. In addition, 63.38% of Pb in residual fraction and 0% of Pb in soluble-exchangeable fraction were found in final compost, and the germination index of final compost reached 121%.

  4. Physicochemical profile of microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches of oil palm trees.

    PubMed

    Lim, Li Yee; Bong, Cassendra Phun Chien; Chua, Lee Suan; Lee, Chew Tin

    2015-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical properties of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) inoculated with effective microorganisms (EM∙1™). The duration of microbial-assisted composting was shorter (∼7 days) than control samples (2 months) in a laboratory scale (2 kg) experiment. The temperature profile of EFB compost fluctuated between 26 and 52 °C without the presence of consistent thermophilic phase. The pH of compost changed from weak acidic (pH ∼5) to mild alkaline (pH ∼8) because of the formation of nitrogenous ions such as ammonium (NH4 (+)), nitrite (NO2 (-)), and nitrate (NO3 (-)) from organic substances during mineralization. The pH of the microbial-treated compost was less than 8.5 which is important to prevent the loss of nitrogen as ammonia gas in a strong alkaline condition. Similarly, carbon mineralization could be determined by measuring CO2 emission. The microbial-treated compost could maintain longer period (∼13 days) of high CO2 emission resulted from high microbial activity and reached the threshold value (120 mg CO2-C kg(-1) day(-1)) for compost maturity earlier (7 days). Microbial-treated compost slightly improved the content of minerals such as Mg, K, Ca, and B, as well as key metabolite, 5-aminolevulinic acid for plant growth at the maturity stage of compost. Graphical Abstract Microbial-assisted composting on empty fruit bunches.

  5. Effect of Compost and Maize Cultivars on Plant-parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of yard waste compost and maize (Zea mays) cultivar on population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were examined in four experiments in north Florida. In one experiment, eight maize cultivars were evaluated; the other three experiments involved split-plot designs with compost treatments as main plots and maize cultivars as subplots. The three compost treatments used in these experiments were: 269 mt/ha of a yard-waste compost applied to the soil surface as a mulch, 269 mt/ha of compost incolporated into the soil, and an unamended control. No interactions between compost treatment and cultivar occurred in any experiment. Effects of compost treatment on Mesocriconema spp., Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus spp. were inconsistent, whereas significant effects of compost on population densities of Paratrichodorus minor were found on four of six sampling occasions. Cultivar affected final population densities (Pf) of M. incognita. In two tests, Pf of M. incognita on a Florida subtropical experimental hybrid (Howard III) were only 36% and 23% of Pf on the standard tropical hybrid (Pioneer Brand X304C). In an integrated approach to management of nematodes in maize, the effects of compost amendment and culfivar choice acted independently. Apparently, cultivar choice is more important than amendment with yard waste compost for management of M. incognita population levels in a maize rotation crop. PMID:19274277

  6. Estimation of maturity of compost from food wastes and agro-residues by multiple regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Chikae, Miyuki; Ikeda, Ryuzoh; Kerman, Kagan; Morita, Yasutaka; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2006-11-01

    The composting process of food wastes and tree cuttings was examined on four composting types composed from two kinds of systems and added mixture of microorganisms. The time courses of 32 parameters in each composting type were observed. The efficient composting system was found to be the static aerated reactor system in comparison with the turning pile one. Using the multiple regression analysis of all the data (159 samples) obtained from this study, some parameters were selected to predict the germination index (GI) value, which was adopted as a marker of compost maturity. For example, using the regression model generated from pH, NH(4)(+) concentration, acid phosphatase activity, and esterase activity of water extracts of the compost, GI value was expressed by the multi-linear regression equation (p<0.0001). High correlations between the measured GI value and the predicted one were made in each type of compost. As a result of these observations, the compost maturity might be predicted by only sensing of the water extract at the composting site without any requirements for a large-size equipment and skill, and this prediction system could contribute to the production of a stable compost in wide-spread use for the recycling market.

  7. Improving green waste composting by addition of sugarcane bagasse and exhausted grape marc.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-10-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic waste into compost is a potential way of sustainably disposing of a waste while generating a useful product. The current study determined whether the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) (at 0, 15, and 25%) and/or exhausted grape marc (EGM) (at 0, 10, and 20%) improved the two-stage composting of green waste (GW). The combined addition of SCB and EGM improved composting conditions and the quality of the compost product in terms of temperature, water-holding capacity, particle-size distribution, coarseness index, pH, electrical conductivity, water-extractable organic carbon and nitrogen, microbial numbers, enzymatic activities, polysaccharide and lignin content, nutrient content, respiration, and phytotoxicity. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with the combined addition of 15% SCB and 20% EGM. With the optimized two-stage composting method, the compost matured in only 21days rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting.

  8. Image parameters for maturity determination of a composted material containing sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujawa, S.; Nowakowski, K.; Tomczak, R. J.; Boniecki, P.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    Composting is one of the best methods for management of sewage sludge. In a reasonably conducted composting process it is important to early identify the moment in which a material reaches the young compost stage. The objective of this study was to determine parameters contained in images of composted material's samples that can be used for evaluation of the degree of compost maturity. The study focused on two types of compost: containing sewage sludge with corn straw and sewage sludge with rapeseed straw. The photographing of the samples was carried out on a prepared stand for the image acquisition using VIS, UV-A and mixed (VIS + UV-A) light. In the case of UV-A light, three values of the exposure time were assumed. The values of 46 parameters were estimated for each of the images extracted from the photographs of the composted material's samples. Exemplary averaged values of selected parameters obtained from the images of the composted material in the following sampling days were presented. All of the parameters obtained from the composted material's images are the basis for preparation of training, validation and test data sets necessary in development of neural models for classification of the young compost stage.

  9. Effect of compost age and composition on the atrazine removal from solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Compost samples from two composting facilities, the Urbana (Illinois) Landscape Recycling Center (ULRC) and Illinois State University (ISU), were selected to examine the effect of compost age on atrazine removal from solution. The ULRC samples were made from yard waste without an additional nitrogen source. The ISU samples were made from yard waste or sawdust with the addition of manure. The 6-month-old ULRC compost had the greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution, which we attributed to its greater organic carbon content. The addition of nitrate into ULRC compost could influence the extent of atrazine removal, but did not have a significant impact on atrazine removal when applied to ISU compost, probably because manure was added to the yard waste to produce the compost. For both ULRC and ISU samples, the presence of sodium azide inhibited atrazine removal, suggesting that microbial activity contributed to the atrazine removal. Metabolic analysis demonstrated that hydroxyatrazine was the major identified metabolite that accumulated in solution before significant ring mineralization could occur. When compared with the ISU compost, the ULRC compost sample had a greater capacity to remove atrazine from solution during the 120 days of study because of the larger humic acid content. The experimental results suggested that less-mature compost may be better suited for environmental applications such as removing atrazine from tile-drainage waters. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Compost impacts on dissolved organic carbon and available nitrogen and phosphorus in turfgrass soil.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alan L; Provin, Tony L; Hons, Frank M; Zuberer, David A; White, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    Compost application to turfgrass soils may increase dissolved organic C (DOC) levels which affects nutrient dynamics in soil. The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of compost source and application rate on soil organic C (SOC), DOC, NO(3), and available P during 29 months after a one-time application to St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] turf. Compost sources had variable composition, yet resulted in few differences in SOC, DOC, and NO(3) after applied to soil. Available NO(3) rapidly decreased after compost application and was unaffected by compost source and application rate. Available P increased after compost application and exhibited cyclical seasonal patterns related to DOC. Compost application decreased soil pH relative to unamended soil, but pH increased during the course of the study due to irrigation with sodic water. Increasing the compost application rate increased SOC by 3 months, and levels remained fairly stable to 29 months. In contrast, DOC continued to increase from 3 to 29 months after application, suggesting that compost mineralization and growth of St. Augustinegrass contributed to seasonal dynamics. Dissolved organic C was 75%, 78%, and 101% greater 29 months after application of 0, 80, and 160 Mg compostha(-1), respectively, than before application. Impacts of composts on soil properties indicated that most significant effects occurred within a few months of application. Seasonal variability of SOC, DOC, and available P was likely related to St. Augustinegrass growth stages as well as precipitation, as declines occurred after precipitation events.

  11. Effects of the main extraction parameters on chemical and microbial characteristics of compost tea.

    PubMed

    Islam, M K; Yaseen, T; Traversa, A; Ben Kheder, M; Brunetti, G; Cocozza, C

    2016-06-01

    The rising popularity of compost tea as fertilizer or foliar spray against pathogens has encouraged many researchers to evaluate its performance without standardizing its quality, so obtaining inconsistent and controversial results. The fertilizing and pesticide-like effects of compost tea are due to its chemical and microbiological properties. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the best combination of the compost tea extraction parameters for exalting both chemical and microbiological features. A factorial design was adopted to evaluate the effects of compost/water ratio, extraction time, storage duration and storage temperature in different combination on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of compost tea, and the results were elaborated through different statistical analyses. Compost tea nutrients and microorganisms were influenced by compost/water ratio and extraction time. In addition, the storage duration affected the microbial populations, whereas the storage temperature influenced only the fungal population of compost tea. Results suggested that the best combination of the studied parameters was: 1:2.5 compost/water ratio, 2days of extraction time and the compost tea should be utilized immediately after the extraction, since the storage reduced the microbial populations.

  12. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C; Pascual, Jose A; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67-75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases.

  13. Microbiota Characterization of Compost Using Omics Approaches Opens New Perspectives for Phytophthora Root Rot Control

    PubMed Central

    Blaya, Josefa; Marhuenda, Frutos C.; Pascual, Jose A.; Ros, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is an economically important disease in pepper crops. The use of suppressive composts is a low environmental impact method for its control. Although attempts have been made to reveal the relationship between microbiota and compost suppressiveness, little is known about the microorganisms associated with disease suppression. Here, an Ion Torrent platform was used to assess the microbial composition of composts made of different agro-industrial waste and with different levels of suppressiveness against P. nicotianae. Both bacterial and fungal populations responded differently depending on the chemical heterogeneity of materials used during the composting process. High proportions (67–75%) of vineyard pruning waste were used in the most suppressive composts, COM-A and COM-B. This material may have promoted the presence of higher relative abundance of Ascomycota as well as higher microbial activity, which have proved to be essential for controlling the disease. Although no unique fungi or bacteria have been detected in neither suppressive nor conducive composts, relatively high abundance of Fusarium and Zopfiella were found in compost COM-B and COM-A, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that studies compost metabolome. Surprisingly, composts and peat clustered together in principal component analysis of the metabolic data according to their levels of suppressiveness achieved. This study demonstrated the need for combining the information provided by different techniques, including metagenomics and metametabolomics, to better understand the ability of compost to control plant diseases. PMID:27490955

  14. Optimization of waste combinations during in-vessel composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2017-01-01

    In-vessel composting of agricultural waste is a well-described approach for stabilization of compost within a short time period. Although composting studies have shown the different combinations of waste materials for producing good quality compost, studies of the particular ratio of the waste materials in the mix are still limited. In the present study, composting was conducted with a combination of vegetable waste, cow dung, sawdust and dry leaves using a 550 L rotary drum composter. Application of a radial basis functional neural network was used to simulate the composting process. The model utilizes physico-chemical parameters with different waste materials as input variables and three output variables: volatile solids, soluble biochemical oxygen demand and carbon dioxide evolution. For the selected model, the coefficient of determination reached the high value of 0.997. The complicated interaction of agricultural waste components during composting makes it a nonlinear problem so it is difficult to find the optimal waste combinations for producing quality compost. Optimization of a trained radial basis functional model has yielded the optimal proportion as 62 kg, 17 kg and 9 kg for vegetable waste, cow dung and sawdust, respectively. The results showed that the predictive radial basis functional model described for drum composting of agricultural waste was well suited for organic matter degradation and can be successfully applied.

  15. Estimating the demand for municipal waste compost via farmers' willingness-to-pay in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Danso, G; Drechsel, P; Fialor, S; Giordano, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper has its primary focus on the analysis of perceptions and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for composted municipal solid and faecal waste among urban and peri-urban farmers and other potential compost users in Ghana. Participatory rural appraisal and contingent valuation methods (CVM) were used for the demand analysis. Most respondents were clear and firm in their responses to the principal question about WTP for compost, as well as in giving their views and perceptions about issues involved in demand for compost. The probit analysis proved valuable in highlighting variables, which explain variations in the WTP. The WTP analysis allowed the quantification of the compost demand under different scenarios of subsidized and non-subsidized compost production, with due allowance for a local reference price to cover compost station operating costs. The analysis revealed that the effective demand for compost for agricultural purposes is marginal and limited by farmers' transport costs. Only through the additional consideration of the demand of the construction sector can about 25% of the organic waste produced in Ghana's capital, Accra, be transformed and utilized. Public subsidies appear necessary and could be generated through savings in transport and disposal. Without subsidies, the challenge for an increased agricultural use is how to produce a low-cost but nutrient-rich compost, which can compete with abundant and cheap poultry manure and still achieve the price to maintain a compost station. The experience in Ghana shows that this is hardly possible except through private-public partnerships.

  16. Inoculation of Scytalidium thermophilum in Button Mushroom Compost and Its Effect on Yield

    PubMed Central

    Straatsma, Gerben; Olijnsma, Tineke W.; Gerrits, Jan P. G.; Amsing, Jos G. M.; Op Den Camp, Huub J. M.; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.

    1994-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum isolates in culture, as well as the endogenous strain(s) in mushroom compost, were inactivated at 70°C. This temperature was used to pasteurize composts for experiments. Of nine thermophilic fungal species, only S. thermophilum and Myriococcum thermophilum grew well on pasteurized compost in test tubes. The effect of both species on the crop yield of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms was studied. In solid-state fermentation rooms called tunnels, compost was pasteurized and inoculated. After incubation, the inoculated organisms were reisolated and counted, showing their successful colonization. The yield of mushrooms on inoculated composts was almost twice that on the pasteurized control. This result demonstrates the effectiveness of S. thermophilum in compost preparation. Inoculation is not necessary for traditional compost preparation. Naturally occurring strains of S. thermophilum, present in ingredients, readily colonize compost during preparation. Inoculation may be vital if compost is pretreated at a high temperature in tunnels. This finding is of relevance for the environmentally controlled production of high-yielding compost. PMID:16349366

  17. Studies on production and characterization of enriched urban waste composts and their influence on crops productivity.

    PubMed

    Salakinkop, S R; Hunshal, C S; Gorogi, P T; Basavaraj, B

    2008-01-01

    Enriched compost produced with use of municipal solid wastes (MSW) recorded narrow C:N ratio at the end of decomposition period than municipal solid wastes decomposed without enrichers. To enhance the decomposition rate, quality of municipal solid wastes and enrichers/amendments are found very significant for production of compost. Nutrient content particularly nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium could be enhanced with addition of organic amendment/enrichers. Response of different crops for composts produced with addition of different enrichers like night soil, 25% distillery sludge and bio-fertilizers (Azospirillum sp and Bacillus sp) was conspicuous compared to the compost derived from municipal solid wastes alone with respect to increased growth and yield of crops. Among the enriched composts, night soil enriched compost significantly increased the response of potato and groundnut crops. According to farmer's opinion obtained with matrix scoring, chemical fertilizers and sheep penning are cheaper compared to pit compost or urban solid waste compost. While chemical fertilizers are considered to have adverse effects on soil more than pit compost, tank silt, sheep penning and urban solid waste. Weed infestation is associated more with urban waste than other sources. For dry land, agriculture urban waste could be useful due to good moisture holding capacity. Crop yields could be improved under low rainfall condition whenever pit compost or urban solid waste is used.

  18. Sorption and mineralization of organic pollutants during different stages of composting.

    PubMed

    Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Barriuso, E

    2010-04-01

    The organic pollutant (OP) content is a key factor when determining compost quality. The OPs present in feedstock materials may either be degraded during composting or stabilized in the compost by sorption interactions with organic matter (OM), which may reduce the availability of OP to microorganism degradation. It is particularly important to identify the key stages during composting that are involved in OP mineralization so as to be able to optimize the composting process and determine whether OP sorption on OM is a limiting factor to OP mineralization. Four (14)C-labeled OPs were used during the study: a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4-n-nonylphenol - NP and sodium linear dodecylbenzene sulfonate - LAS) and a herbicide (glyphosate). The potential for compost microflora to degrade OP, and compost sorption properties, were characterized at different stages of composting. The highest levels of LAS and glyphosate mineralization were found during the thermophilic stage, at the beginning of maturation for NP and at the end of maturation for fluoranthene. A specific microflora was probably involved in the biodegradation of fluoranthene while NP, LAS and glyphosate mineralization were linked to total microbial activity. OP sorption on compost was linked to their hydrophobicity, decreasing in the order: fluoranthene>NP>LAS>glyphosate. Moreover, sorption decreased as compost maturity increased, except for glyphosate. The sorption coefficients were positively correlated to mineralization kinetics parameters for NP, LAS and glyphosate, suggesting a positive effect of sorption on increasing mineralization rates.

  19. Quantifying the capacity of compost buffers for treating agricultural runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, S. A.; Beighley, R. E.; Buyuksonmez, F.

    2007-12-01

    Agricultural operations, specifically, avocado and commercial nurseries require frequent and significant fertilizing and irrigating which tends to result in excessive nutrient leaching and off-site runoff. The increased runoff contains high concentrations of nutrients which negatively impacts stream water quality. Researcher has demonstrated that best management practices such as compost buffers can be effective for reducing nutrient and sediment concentrations in agricultural runoff. The objective of this research is to evaluate both the hydraulic capacity and the nutrient removal efficiency of: (a) compost buffers and (b) buffers utilizing a combination of vegetation and compost. A series of experiments will be performed in the environmental hydraulics laboratory at San Diego State University. A tilting flume 12-m long, 27-cm wide and 25-cm deep will be used. Discharge is propelled by an axial flow pump powered by a variable speed motor with a maximum capacity of 30 liters per second. The experiments are designed to measure the ratio compost mass per flow rate per linear width. Two different discharges will be measured: (a) treatment discharge (maximum flow rate such that the buffer decreases the incoming nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations below a maximum allowable limit) and (b) breaking discharge (maximum flow rate the buffer can tolerate without structural failure). Experimental results are presented for the hydraulic analysis, and preliminary results are presented for the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from runoff. The results from this project will be used to develop guidelines for installing compost buffers along the perimeters of nursery sites and avocado groves in southern California.

  20. Mathematical modelling of the composting process: a review.

    PubMed

    Mason, I G

    2006-01-01

    In this paper mathematical models of the composting process are examined and their performance evaluated. Mathematical models of the composting process have been derived from both energy and mass balance considerations, with solutions typically derived in time, and in some cases, spatially. Both lumped and distributed parameter models have been reported, with lumped parameter models presently predominating in the literature. Biological energy production functions within the models included first-order, Monod-type or empirical expressions, and these have predicted volatile solids degradation, oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production, with heat generation derived using heat quotient factors. Rate coefficient correction functions for temperature, moisture, oxygen and/or free air space have been incorporated in a number of the first-order and Monod-type expressions. The most successful models in predicting temperature profiles were those which incorporated either empirical kinetic expressions for volatile solids degradation or CO2 production, or which utilised a first-order model for volatile solids degradation, with empirical corrections for temperature and moisture variations. Models incorporating Monod-type kinetic expressions were less successful. No models were able to predict maximum, average and peak temperatures to within criteria of 5, 2 and 2 degrees C, respectively, or to predict the times to reach peak temperatures to within 8 h. Limitations included the modelling of forced aeration systems only and the generation of temperature validation data for relatively short time periods in relation to those used in full-scale composting practice. Moisture and solids profiles were well predicted by two models, but oxygen and carbon dioxide profiles were generally poorly modelled. Further research to obtain more extensive substrate degradation data, develop improved first-order biological heat production models, investigate mechanistically-based moisture

  1. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  2. Composition variability of spent mushroom compost in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S N; Mullen, G J; Murphy, M C

    2008-01-01

    Spent mushroom compost (SMC) has proven to be an attractive material for improving soil structure in tilled soils and increasing dry matter production in grassland soils, owing to its high organic matter content and availability of essential plant nutrients. Because of this, it is important to identify the variability in composition of SMC in order to evaluate its merit as a fertilizer/soil conditioner. For this reason, a study was carried out involving the analysis of SMC samples obtained from five mushroom growers using compost from each of the 13 mushroom composting yards currently operating in both Northern Ireland (5 yd) and the Republic of Ireland (8 yd). The selected parameters measured include dry matter, organic matter, total N, P and K, C/N ratio; plant-available P and K, pH, EC, total Ca, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb; and cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin constituents. Yield of mushroom data were also collected from the selected growers. There were significant differences (P<0.05) within two compost production yards for some parameters, therefore, for the most part, the uniformity of SMC within each yard is relatively consistent. However, significant differences (P<0.05) were evident when comparing SMC obtained from growers supplied with compost from Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland independently, particularly among total and available phosphorus and potassium values. The results obtained show that, while SMC has fertilizer merit, its variability of composition must be taken into account when assessing this value. The variability of composition is also of particular interest in the context of recent emphasis on plant nutrient management in agriculture.

  3. Nitrogen dynamics in soil amended with manures composted in dynamic and static systems.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ania; González-Arias, Ander; del Hierro, Oscar; Pinto, Miriam; Gartzia-Bengoetxea, Nahia

    2012-10-15

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the stability of three different composts and to study the N dynamics in soil incubated with the composts under laboratory conditions. The composts were produced from sheep manure processed by static pile composting (C1) and from cattle and sheep manure processed by dynamic pile composting (C2 and C3 respectively). Laboratory incubation assays were carried out at 28 °C to determine the amount of N mineralized and N leached under extreme rainfall conditions in the first 30 days after application of doses of each compost equivalent to 170 and 450 kg ha(-1) of N. There were no differences in the values of these parameters in samples of the composts produced by the static (C1) and dynamic (C3) systems, and both composts behaved in the same way when applied to soil. The chemical characteristics of the three final composts, the respiration rates and the lack of stimulation of total microbial biomass indicated that the composts were stable. However, the final C/N ratio was slightly higher in C2 than in C1 and C3 (14 compared with 10 and 11) as was the respiration rate of the high dose of C2 indicating that C2 was more labile, and thus less stable than C1 and C3. Compost C2 generated the highest N mineralization rates after application of different doses (6.5 and 13.1%), as well as the highest N supplying potential (54.7 and 36.2%), and thus the highest rate of mineral N leaching (16.8 and 16.5 mg L(-1) of NO(3)-N), probably as a result of the slight difference in lability. The N release after compost application was very low and thus the leaching potential was also low, indicating that high doses of mature compost (>170 kg ha(-1) of N) could be applied to soil.

  4. Nitrogen availability and leaching from soil amended with municipal solid waste compost

    SciTech Connect

    Mamo, M.; Rosen, C.J.; Halbach, T.R.

    1999-08-01

    Beneficial use of municipal solid waste compost depends on identifying a management strategy that supports crop production and protects water quality. Effects of compost and N fertilizer management strategies on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching were evaluated in a 3-yr study on a Hubbard loamy sand soil. Two composts were each applied at either 90 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} yr{sup {minus}1} from 1993 to 1995, or at 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} in one application in 1993. The compost and non-amended plots were side dressed annually with N fertilizer as urea at 0, 125, and 250 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Biochemical properties of the compost as well as compost management strongly affected crop response and fate of N. Compost increased grain yield with no significant yield response to N fertilizer with the single compost application in Year 1 and the annual compost application in Year 3. Plant N uptake increased with N fertilizer rate, except in the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost treatments in Year 1. Over the 3-yr period, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching with the 270 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} compost application was 1.8 times greater compared to that with the annual application. The estimated N mineralization ranged from 0 to 12% and 3 to 6% in the annual and single compost addition, respectively. Under the conditions of this study, annual compost application with reduced supplemental N fertilizer was the best management strategy to reach optimum crop yield while minimizing NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-N leaching losses.

  5. Structural characterization of bagasse-derived composts with different maturities and their solubility enhancing effect on PCE and toluene.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chihhao; Tsai, Minzhe; Tsui, Lo

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the structure variation of bagasse-derived composts during their maturation process. The surface tension and dissolved carbon content of their extract (compost tea) were measured, and the compost structure was analyzed using FTIR and (13)C NMR. The FTIR and (13)C NMR analyses showed that the alkyl and aromatic contents of the investigated composts increased as the composting time increased from 0 to 6 months. The aqueous solubility enhancements of tetrachloroethene (PCE) and toluene by bagasse-derived compost tea with different maturities were investigated. The PCE and toluene solubility enhancement experiments were conducted at various compost concentrations. The most PCE and toluene solubility were enhanced by 3 and 6-month bagasse-derived composts, respectively. This observation was due to the structural transformation from alkyl to aromatic functional groups in the composting process.

  6. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  7. Composting of biochars improves their sorption properties, retains nutrients during composting and affects greenhouse gas emissions after soil application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar application to soils has been suggested to elevate nutrient sorption, improve soil fertility and reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We examined the impact of composting biochar together with a biologically active substrate (i.e., livestock manure-straw mixture). We hypothesized that ...

  8. Using mortality compost in vegetable production: A comparison between summer and winter composting and its use in cabbage production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of composting to breakdown the carcasses of daily poultry mortality and in the process destroy pathogenic microorganisms that may be present. The study was conducted during the summer and repeated in the winter to determine whether the time of yea...

  9. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: fertilizer effect and application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping; Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-01

    Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55°C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  10. Analysis of the presence of improper materials in the composting process performed in ten MBT plants.

    PubMed

    Montejo, C; Ramos, P; Costa, C; Márquez, M C

    2010-11-01

    Composting of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) reduces the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. However, the final product or compost used as organic soil amendment shows a large presence of improper materials and alarming concentrations of heavy metals. In this work, 30 samples of OFMSW before and after composting have been characterized to determine qualitatively and quantitatively this contamination and its origin. In addition, technical features of the equipment installed in 10 waste treatment plants have been assessed because of their influence on the streams involved in the composting process. Results show 78.2% of the samples stabilized by composting to be organic matter and the rest corresponds to improper materials, mainly paper, plastic and glass. Origin is due to the composting feedstocks, the OFMSW obtained by size separation in trommels which, due to non-source separation and poor selectivity, contains one third of impurities. In seven of the 30 samples household batteries were found.

  11. Biochar influences the microbial community structure during tomato stalk composting with chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Liu; Shutao, Wang; Jin, Zhang; Tong, Xu

    2014-02-01

    A batch composting study was performed to evaluate effects of biochar addition on dynamics of microbial community and changes of key physic-chemical properties during composting of tomato stalk and chicken manure. As a comparison, two amendments of peat bog and zeolite were selected. The results indicated that biochar addition for composting showed a shorter time to enter thermophilic phase (3 d) and a higher temperature (56°C) and longer duration of thermophilic phase compared to that of peat bog addition, zeolite addition and raw composts. The highest C/N ratio and volatile fatty acids' concentration with biochar addition were obtained. Biochar addition also showed more influence on bacterial community changes than that of peat bog and zeolite. Thus, biochar addition could significantly affect physic-chemical process and microbial community diversity on tomato stalk and chicken manure composting. This study provides valuable information for improving composting and a better understanding of biodegradation processes.

  12. Biochemical characterization of consortium compost of toxic weeds Parthenium hysterophorus and Eichhornia crassipe.

    PubMed

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Singh, Mangal; Dhanda, Suman; Singh, Talwinder; Singh, Jasbir

    2012-11-01

    Parthenium hysterophorus and Eichhornia crassipes are two uncontrolled weeds with high concentration of N, P, K, Zn and Fe that makes them suitable for composting. Three types of compost viz. Parthenium and Eichhornia each alone as well as combined were prepared. Biochemical and enzymatic analysis of the compost in addition to seed germination was performed. Phenols, organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios were found to decrease significantly while N, P, K, polyphenol oxidase increased significantly in combined compost. Furthermore, seed germination test of Vigna radiata and Triticum seeds, revealed a significant increase in root, shoot length and germination index in 60days old combined compost. It can be concluded that combined composting of Parthenium with Eichhornia not only reduces the allelopathic effect but also increases its nutrient quality and thus could be promising for organic farming and bioremediation.

  13. Changes of microbial population structure related to lignin degradation during lignocellulosic waste composting.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dan-Lian; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Feng, Chong-Ling; Hu, Shuang; Lai, Cui; Zhao, Mei-Hua; Su, Feng-Feng; Tang, Lin; Liu, Hong-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Microbial populations and their relationship to bioconversion during lignocellulosic waste composting were studied by quinone profiling. Nine quinones were observed in the initial composting materials, and 15 quinones were found in compost after 50days of composting. The quinone species Q-9(H2), Q-10 and Q-10(H2) which are indicative of certain fungi appeared at the thermophilic stage but disappeared at the cooling stage. Q-10, indicative of certain fungi, and MK-7, characteristic of certain bacteria, were the predominant quinones during the thermophilic stage and were correlated with lignin degradation at the thermophilic stage. The highest lignin degradation ratio (26%) and good cellulose degradation were found at the cooling stage and were correlated with quinones Q-9, MK-7 and long-chain menaquinones attributed to mesophilic fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes, respectively. The present findings will improve the understandings of microbial dynamics and roles in composting, which could provide useful references for development of composting technology.

  14. Changes in functional abilities of the microbial community during composting of manure.

    PubMed

    Insam, H; Amor, K; Renner, M; Crepaz, C

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was (a) to detect changes of the functional abilities of the microflora during composting of manure as a result of windrow turning frequency and (b) to detect differences between distinct zones within the windrows. Biolog GN microtiter plates containing 95 different carbon sources were inoculated with diluted suspensions of compost material containing 15,000 microorganisms per well (120 μl). We found a dramatic shift in functional microbial community structure during the 8-week composting process. The shift was more rapid when the compost windrows were turned. The substrate use pattern in the outer, well-aerated zone of the unturned windrow was similar to that of the turned windrows. Microbial biomass and respiration decreased more rapidly in the turned than in the unturned windrows, indicating a different pace of compost maturation. The data suggest that the Biolog assay may be a suitable approach to determine compost maturity.

  15. Influence of biochar addition on the humic substances of composting manures.

    PubMed

    Jindo, Keiji; Sonoki, Tomonori; Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Canellas, Luciano; Roig, Asunción; Sanchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2016-03-01

    Application of biochar (10% v/v) to a manure composting matrix was investigated to evaluate its effect on the chemical composition of humic substances during the composting process. The characteristics of the humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) fractions were analyzed in compost mixtures originating from two different manures (poultry manure (PM) and cow manure (CM)). The C contents of HA and FA from the manure compost/biochar blends (PM+B and CM+B) were higher than those from PM and CM, with an enhanced recalcitrant fraction, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Spectroscopic analysis showed that enrichment of aromatic-C and carboxylic-C occurred in the FA fractions of PM+B and CM+B to a greater extent than in PM and CM. Biochar addition into the composting mixture improved the final compost quality, especially for the light humified fraction (FA).

  16. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during composting of oily sludge.

    PubMed

    Kriipsalu, M; Marques, M; Hogland, W; Nammari, D R

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess the effectiveness of aerobic degradation with emphasis on the 16 U.S. EPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), oily sludge generated by a dissolved air flotation flocculation unit of a wastewater treatment plant in a petroleum refinery was amended with remediated oil-contaminated soil and non-mature garden waste compost 40:40:20 (wet weight) respectively. About 21 t of the mixture with a top-layer formed by 30 cm of remediated soil was treated in a 28 m3 air-forced reactor. The PAH concentration was monitored for 370 days. In the top-layer, a reduction of 88 % of the total extractable PAH was measured at day 62 and a final reduction of 93% at day 370. In the mixture, a reduction of 72% in total PAH was measured at day 62, followed by fluctuation in concentration with a final measured reduction of 53% at day 370. The analysis of individual PAH in the mixture suggested that volatilization and biodegradation are the main mechanisms responsible for the reduction of 2 ring PAH and 3-4 ring PAH, respectively. Fluctuation of 5-6 ring PAH concentrations with increase observed at the end of the period might result from a combination of the following: (i) sequestration of large PAH in the organic matrix (reducing bioavailability, biodegradability and eventually, extractability) and desorption as composting progresses; (ii) heterogeneous distribution of the stable large PAH in the mixture, thus affecting sampling. It was concluded that one-time composting in static-aerated biopiles with organic amendments as the sole strategy to treat oily sludge is very effective in reducing the content of 2-4 ring PAH, but it is not effective in reducing the content of 5-6 ring PAHs, even after a relatively long time span (370 d). The concentrations measured in the remediated soil that formed the top layer after 62 days of composting suggests that further relevant reduction of residual PAH (89% of total PAH and 69% of 5-6 ring PAH) can be obtained if the

  17. The release of cytokinin-like compounds from Gingko biloba leaf material during composting.

    PubMed

    Arthur, G D.; Jäger, A K.; Van Staden, J

    2001-02-01

    Leachate extracts from senescent Gingko biloba leaf compost, separated by paper chromatography, and analyzed for biological activity using the soybean callus bioassay indicated that cytokinin-like compounds which co-eluted with zeatin and/or dihydrozeatin are released from decomposing leaves. Both leachate and leaf compost extracts obtained in the 5th month of composting were fractionated using HPLC. A cytokinin-like compound, which co-eluted with iso-pentenyladenosine was detected.

  18. Recycling of organic wastes through composting for land applications: a Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Adekunle, Iheoma M; Adekunle, Adebola A; Akintokun, Aderonke K; Akintokun, Pius O; Arowolo, Toyin A

    2011-06-01

    In-vessel composting, a contribution to sustainable solid waste management, was conducted on source-separated waste materials generated in Abeokuta city, south-west Nigeria. Feedstock (household, agricultural and municipal waste) and the resultant composts were chemically characterized using standard procedures. Identification and changes in the microbial population during composting, the effects of composting on waste volume reduction (WVR) and elemental composition of composts were evaluated. Product performance on plant growth and metal uptake were then assessed using African spinach (Amaranthus hybridus) in a screen house for 8 weeks. Metals were determined in acid digest using atomic absorption spectrometry. Compost yields and WVR ranged from 35.28 to 48.68% and 51.66 to 64.72%, respectively. Compost heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) concentrations (mg kg( -1)), ranging from 0.67-0.82; 0.13-7.5; 0.001-0.22; 1.67-18.33; 6.50-17.67; and 0.83-6.00 for Cu, Pb, Cd, Ni, Cr and Zn, respectively, were within limits for class A+ composts. The effect of composting varied with element type and significantly (p < 0.05) reduced microbial population by 44.44 to 88.46%. Plant height, leaf number and biomass yield gave positive correlations (r = 0.950 to 0.977; 0.978 to 0.989 and 0.99, respectively; p < 0.05) with applied compost rate. Low-metal composts were produced but the presence of Cd and Pb in plant tissues calls for further research on the long-term effect of products on plant metal uptake in amended soils. The study is a contribution to the data bank of composting as a low technology waste management option in the developing countries.

  19. Copper and Zinc Runoff from Land Application of Composted Poultry Litter.

    PubMed

    DeLaune, P B; Moore, P A

    2016-09-01

    Regions with long-term animal manure applications based on nitrogen (N) requirements have concerns regarding elevated nutrient levels. Most attention has focused on phosphorus (P), but heavy metal accumulation has received attention due to perceived environmental concerns. Composting is a potential management practice that can reduce total manure mass and volume while creating a stabilized product that has less odor and fewer pathogens. However, composting animal manures can lead to high N loss via ammonia volatilization and increased concentrations of nonvolatile nutrients. The objective of this study was to measure copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) concentrations in runoff water from plots fertilized with composted and fresh poultry litter. Seven treatments were evaluated in the first year: (i) unfertilized control, (ii) fresh poultry litter, (iii) normal compost (no amendment), (iv) composted litter with alum, (v) composted litter with phosphoric acid, (vi) composted litter with a microbial mixture, and (vii) composted litter with alum + microbial mixture. Six of these treatments were evaluated in Year 2 (alum + microbial mixture was not evaluated in Year 2). Rainfall simulators were used to produce a 5 cm h storm event sufficient in length to cause 30 min of continuous runoff. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were elevated in compost compared with fresh poultry litter. However, metal concentrations in compost did not correlate well with metal concentrations in runoff water and may have been affected by compost maturity and amendment. Total Cu and Zn concentrations in runoff water did not differ between alum-amended compost and fresh poultry litter in each year.

  20. Compost product optimization for surface water nitrate treatment in biofiltration applications.

    PubMed

    Alcala, Martin; Jones, Kim D; Ren, Jianhong; Andreassen, Thomas E

    2009-09-01

    Compost based material has been proposed for use as media for biofiltration for environmental restoration in many areas to remediate contaminated water and soil. The objective of this project was to develop techniques to produce compost products for nitrate removal in storm water biofiltration applications, from typical solid waste materials. Compost products were manufactured from different feedstocks and evaluated for their nitrate removal efficiencies. Three different compost products manufactured from varying feedstock amounts of wood chips and grass clippings, along with some dry compost material from the City of Brownsville Municipal Landfill Facility (BMLF), were evaluated using column studies. Indicators of the compost product's quality included moisture % content, pH, and conductivity measurements. The columns were loaded with water containing at least 13.5mg/L nitrate-nitrogen and effluent water from the columns was tested to determine the nitrate reduction for the different products. All of the manufactured compost products and the BMLF material removed some nitrate. The project demonstrated that compost product materials can be effectively used for some nitrate removal for surface water quality improvement and that compost product feedstocks and blends can influence the materials capability for nitrate removal.

  1. Carbonyl sulfide removal with compost and wood chip biofilters, and in the presence of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melanie L; Garrepalli, Divya R; Nawal, Chandraprakash S

    2009-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is an odor-causing compound and hazardous air pollutant emitted frequently from wastewater treatment facilities and chemical and primary metals industries. This study examined the effectiveness of biofiltration in removing COS. Specific objectives were to compare COS removal efficiency for various biofilter media; to determine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is frequently produced along with COS under anaerobic conditions, adversely impacts COS removal; and to determine the maximum elimination capacity of COS for use in biofilter design. Three laboratory-scale polyvinyl chloride biofilter columns were filled with up to 28 in. of biofilter media (aged compost, fresh compost, wood chips, or a compost/wood chip mixture). Inlet COS ranged from 5 to 46 parts per million (ppm) (0.10-9.0 g/m3 hr). Compost and the compost/wood chip mixture produced higher COS removal efficiencies than wood chips alone. The compost and compost/wood chip mixture had a shorter stabilization times compared with wood chips alone. Fresh versus aged compost did not impact COS removal efficiency. The presence of H2S did not adversely impact COS removal for the concentration ratios tested. The maximum elimination capacity is at least 9 g/m3 hr for COS with compost media.

  2. Struvite for composting of agricultural wastes with termite mound: Utilizing the unutilized.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Das, Kuntal

    2015-01-01

    Although, compost is the store house of different plant nutrients, there is a concern for low amount of major nutrients especially nitrogen content in prepared compost. The present study deals with preparation of compost by using agricultural wastes with struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) along with termite mound. Among four composting mixtures, 50kg termite mound and 2.5kg struvite with crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65kg; soybean: 354.59kg; potato: 357.67kg and mustard: 373.19kg) and cow dung (84.90kg) formed a good quality compost within 70days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 21.59, 3.98 and 34.6gkg(-1), respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the composts. The four composts formed two (pit 1, pit 2 and pit 3, pit 4) different groups. Two principal components expressed more than 97% of the total variability. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted two homogeneous groups of composts.

  3. Ambient air temperature effects on the temperature of sewage sludge composting process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qi-fei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Huang, Ze-chun

    2005-01-01

    Using data obtained with a full-scale sewage sludge composting facility, this paper studied the effects of ambient air temperature on the composting temperature with varying volume ratios of sewage sludge and recycled compost to bulking agent. Two volume ratios were examined experimentally, 1: 0: 1 and 3: 1: 2. The results show that composting temperature was influenced by ambient air temperature and the influence was more significant when composting was in the temperature rising process: composting temperature changed 2.4-6.5 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 13 degrees C. On the other hand, the influence was not significant when composting was in the high-temperature and/or temperature falling process: composting temperature changed 0.75-1.3 degrees C when ambient air temperature changed 8-15 degrees C. Hysteresis effect was observed in composting temperature's responses to ambient air temperature. When the ventilation capability of pile was excellent (at a volume ratio of 1:0:1), the hysteresis time was short and ranging 1.1-1.2 h. On the contrary, when the proportion of added bulking agent was low, therefore less porosity in the substrate (at a volume ratio of 3:1:2), the hysteresis time was long and ranging 1.9-3.1 h.

  4. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Oberlin, Aisa S; Szántó, Gábor L

    2011-10-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal level for viable compost production. This paper presents a multidisciplinary analysis of factors influencing the success and failure of the composting initiative of KIWODET, a community based organization in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The results show that despite the ready availability and good compostability of the waste stream, not all fractions of municipal organic wastes qualify as feedstock. Negative consumer attitude hindered the acceptance of compost produced from residential wastes. KIWODET did manage to successfully implement a composting operation for commercial organic wastes. Their additional waste collection and sorting activities also contributed to an increased feedstock control as well as the integration of informal waste collecting activities. When KIWODET was forced to suspend its composting activities because of land use issues, their diversified waste sector activities proved crucial in reducing the negative financial impact on their overall performance. This paper emphasizes that successful composting initiatives can arise from local capacity in developing countries. However, the lack of municipal integration and support leaves such technically viable initiatives strongly vulnerable to external factors.

  5. Carbon decomposition by inoculating Phanerochaete chrysosporium during drum composting of agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Varma, V Sudharsan; Ramu, Kamma; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2015-05-01

    The effect of Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation during drum composting of agricultural waste was performed at different composting stages. Three trials were carried out with (5:4:1) combination of vegetable waste, cattle manure, and sawdust along with 10 kg of dried leaves with a total mass of 100 kg in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Trial 1 was a control without inoculation of fungus, while trial 2 was inoculated during the initial day (0th day of composting), and trial 3 was inoculated after the thermophilic phase, i.e., on the 8th day of composting period. The inoculation of fungus increased the volatile solids reduction by 1.45-fold in trial 2 and 1.7-fold in trial 3 as compared to trial 1 without any fungal inoculation. Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) was observed with 2.31, 2.62, and 2.59% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively, at the end of 20 days of composting period. Hence, it can be concluded that inoculation of white-rot fungus increased the decomposition rate of agricultural waste within shorter time in drum composting. However, inoculation after the thermophilic phase was found more effective than inoculation during initial days of composting for producing more stabilized and nutrient-rich compost.

  6. Co-composting solid biowastes with alkaline materials to enhance carbon stabilization and revegetation potential.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Saikat; Bolan, Nanthi S; Seshadri, Balaji; Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Wijesekara, Hasintha; Xu, Yilu; Yang, Jianjun; Kim, Geon-Ha; Sparks, Donald; Rumpel, Cornelia

    2016-04-01

    Co-composting biowastes such as manures and biosolids can be used to stabilize carbon (C) without impacting the quality of these biowastes. This study investigated the effect of co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials on C stabilization and monitored the fertilization and revegetation values of these co-composts. The stabilization of C in biowastes (poultry manure and biosolids) was examined by their composting in the presence of various alkaline amendments (lime, fluidized bed boiler ash, flue gas desulphurization gypsum, and red mud) for 6 months in a controlled environment. The effects of co-composting on the biowastes' properties were assessed for different physical C fractions, microbial biomass C, priming effect, potentially mineralizable nitrogen, bioavailable phosphorus, and revegetation of an urban landfill soil. Co-composting biowastes with alkaline materials increased C stabilization, attributed to interaction with alkaline materials, thereby protecting it from microbial decomposition. The co-composted biowastes also increased the fertility of the landfill soil, thereby enhancing its revegetation potential. Stabilization of biowastes using alkaline materials through co-composting maintains their fertilization value in terms of improving plant growth. The co-composted biowastes also contribute to long-term soil C sequestration and reduction of bioavailability of heavy metals.

  7. Legionella spp. in UK composts--a potential public health issue?

    PubMed

    Currie, S L; Beattie, T K; Knapp, C W; Lindsay, D S J

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 5 years, a number of cases of legionellosis in Scotland have been associated with compost use; however, studies investigating sources of infection other than water systems remain limited. This study delivers the first comprehensive survey of composts commonly available in the UK for the presence of Legionella species. Twenty-two store-bought composts, one green-waste compost and one home-made compost were tested for Legionella by culture methods on BCYE-α medium, and the findings were confirmed by macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) speciation. Twenty-two of the samples were retested after an enrichment period of 8 weeks. In total, 15 of 24 composts tested positive for Legionella species, a higher level of contamination than previously seen in Europe. Two isolates of Legionella pneumophila were identified, and Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 was found to be one of the most commonly isolated species. L. longbeachae infection would not be detected by routine Legionella urinary antigen assay, so such testing should not be used as the sole diagnostic technique in atypical pneumonia cases, particularly where there is an association with compost use. The occurrence of Legionella in over half of the samples tested indicates that compost could pose a public health risk. The addition of general hygiene warnings to compost packages may be beneficial in protecting public health.

  8. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  9. Development of models for predicting carbon mineralization and associated phytotoxicity in compost-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Danielle N; Vandergheynst, Jean S; Rumsey, Thomas R

    2008-12-01

    Phytotoxicity of compost-amended soil is related to carbon mineralization associated with compost decomposition. The objective of this research was to determine if compost carbon mineralization potential, estimated using compost respiration rate measurements, could be combined with carbon mineralization kinetic models to predict phytotoxicity of compost-amended soil. First-order, second-order, and Monod kinetic models that include compost carbon mineralization potential, compost amendment rate, incubation time, and temperature were developed and compared for their ability to predict carbon mineralization kinetics. Experiments utilized two soil types amended with 0%, 5%, and 50% (v/v) food waste and green waste composts, incubated at 20 degrees C, 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 45 degrees C for model development and under a diurnal temperature cycle from 20 degrees C to 30 degrees C for model validation. For most cases, a first-order model had an equivalent or better fit to the data than the other models. Mineralizable carbon estimated using the first-order model was significantly correlated to the probability of phytotoxicity in compost-amended soil.

  10. Antibiotic resistome and its association with bacterial communities during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Bei; Ou-Yang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Fu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Composting is widely used for recycling of urban sewage sludge to improve soil properties, which represents a potential pathway of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes to soils. However, the dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the underlying mechanisms during sewage sludge composting were not fully explored. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene based illumina sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during a lab-scale in-vessel composting of sewage sludge. A total of 156 unique ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected encoding resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. ARGs were detected with significantly increased abundance and diversity, and distinct patterns, and were enriched during composting. Marked shifts in bacterial community structures and compositions were observed during composting, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum at the late phase of composting. The large proportion of Actinobacteria may partially explain the increase of ARGs during composting. ARGs patterns were significantly correlated with bacterial community structures, suggesting that the dynamic of ARGs was strongly affected by bacterial phylogenetic compositions during composting. These results imply that direct application of sewage sludge compost on field may lead to the spread of abundant ARGs in soils.

  11. Evidence for degradation of abnormal prion protein in tissues from sheep with scrapie during composting

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hongsheng; Spencer, J. Lloyd; Soutyrine, Andrei; Guan, Jeiwen; Rendulich, Jasmine; Balachandran, Aru

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether the abnormal prion protein (PrPSc) in tissues from sheep with scrapie would be destroyed by composting. Tissues from sheep naturally infected with scrapie were placed within fiberglass mesh bags and buried in compost piles for 108 d in experiment 1 or 148 d in experiment 2. The temperature in the compost piles rose quickly; it was above 60°C for about 2 wk and then slowly declined to the ambient temperature. Before composting, PrPSc was detected in all the tissues by Western blotting. In experiment 1, PrPSc was not detected after composting in the tissue remnants or the surrounding sawdust. In experiment 2, 1 of 5 specimens tested negative after composting, whereas PrPSc was detected in the other 4 bags, though in reduced amounts compared with those before composting. Tissue weights were reduced during composting. Analysis of the tissue remnants for microbial 16S ribosomal DNA demonstrated that there were more diverse microbes involved in experiment 1 than in experiment 2 and that the guanine and cytosine content of the microbial 16S DNA was higher in the specimens of experiment 1 than in those of experiment 2, which suggests greater dominance of thermophilic microbes in experiment 1. These results indicate that composting may have value as a means for degrading PrPSc in carcasses and other wastes. PMID:17193880

  12. Critical factors and their effects on product maturity in food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Huang, Guohe; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Wendy

    2015-04-01

    Product maturity represents the efficiency of composting performance, and it calls for high attention in food waste composting. In this study, a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design method combined with well-controlled experiments was introduced to characterize the effects of system factors (i.e., C/N ratio, aeration rate, starting culture amount, and coal ash amendment) on product maturity of food waste composting. The compost maturity was synthetically evaluated by developing a Mamdani fuzzy rule-based inference system. Temperature index, O2 uptake rate, ammonium, OM loss, C/N ratio, and ash content were chosen as indicators of the fuzzy multicriterion maturity evaluation. Evaluation results of compost maturity for the eight experiment runs demonstrated that the proposed method is capable of evaluating the compost maturity in food waste composting. The effect analyses indicated that the starting culture amount and aeration rate contributed the most to the compost maturity in this study. The results could provide decision support for the process control in food waste composting management.

  13. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Hlavsová, Adéla; Raclavská, Helena; Juchelková, Dagmar; Škrobánková, Hana; Frydrych, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial) grasses (NHG) and hybrid (perennial) grasses (HG). Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i) H2 yield and lignin content, (ii) H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii) CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs) of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg), hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg), and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg). The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3. PMID:25101320

  14. Windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Makan, Abdelhadi

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Waste management opportunities in small and medium companies were highlighted. • Pilot scale program for windrow co-composting of natural casings was investigated. • Compost preparation, characterization and application phases were discussed. • Natural casings co-composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution. - Abstract: After studying the waste management opportunities in small and medium companies of natural casings, composting has proved more viable and cost effective solution for the valorization of these types of waste, but its feasibility depends on the final product value. This paper investigated a pilot scale program for the windrow co-composting of natural casings waste with sheep manure and dead leaves incorporation. Processing, characterization and application of the final compost were described and the final compost was analyzed for pathogens, metals, nutrients, maturity, and agronomic parameters. The results showed that all test result levels were below the limits specified in the EPA regulations published in Title 40, Section 503, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 503). Moreover, the agronomic value tests which include nutrients, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, etc. showed that the compost had high organic-matter content and low salt content, all of which indicate good compost characteristics. The ratio of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), or NPK ratio, was measured at 1.6–0.9–0.7. Reported units are consistent with those found on fertilizer formulations.

  15. Characters of compost teas from different sources and their suppressive effect on fungal phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Marín, Francisco; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Carretero, Francisco; Gea, Francisco J; Yau, José A; Navarro, María J

    2013-08-01

    Compost teas (CT) are fermented watery extracts of composted materials that are used to control plant diseases and on crop fertilization. In this work, aerated (ACT) and non-aerated compost teas (NCT) were obtained from four different composts: spent mushroom substrate compost, grape marc compost, greenhouse horticultural crop residues compost, and vermicompost. Physico-chemical and microbiological analysis were carried out to determine their properties. In vitro assays were performed to assess their suppressive effect on the mycelial growth of eight fungal phytopathogens. In vivo trials aimed to assess their effect on gummy stem blight (Didymella bryonae) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera fusca) in melon plants. Results showed that ACT and NCT filtrates inhibited the in vitro growth of all tested pathogens while autoclaved CT did not completely lose their inhibitory effect, and CT sterilized by microfiltration had no effect on the pathogen growth. The severity of powdery mildew was highly reduced by ACT and NCT from all sources, though in gummy stem blight assay only a delay in disease development was observed. In general, all compost teas showed a high level of microbial populations and nutrients. Results suggest that the efficacy of ACT and NCT firstly depend on the microbiota present in them. We consider compost teas from the four tested sources as a viable way to manage plant diseases and crop fertilization, throughout its integration in pest management programs and fertirrigation systems under different dilution rates.

  16. Vienna's biowaste compost--quality development and effects of input materials.

    PubMed

    Plahl, F; Rogalski, W; Gilnreiner, G; Erhart, E

    2002-04-01

    Extensive chemical analyses were conducted during the last decade to assess the heavy metal content of the finished compost as well as of biowaste and other input materials. Twenty six percent of the compost lots were class I according to ONORM S2200, 70% class II and 4% did not reach class II. If the compost lots were classified according to the new Austrian compost ordinance, 22% would conform to class A+ and 78% to class A. These data are put into relation with heavy metal contents of soil, of yard wastes and of biowastes without contaminants. In the soil samples particularly nickel and lead exceeded the limits for class A+ (compost ordinance). In the yard wastes, more than 90% of the samples met the limits for all heavy metals. Biowaste without contaminants conformed to class A+ on average. In biowaste without contaminants no influence of the housing structure on the heavy metal content was observed. The compost produced only from biowaste from areas with high building density, after undergoing the normal process of metal removal, however, was significantly higher contaminated than that of compost of the whole city of Vienna. The impact of specific input materials, such as Christmas trees or wooden crates, was investigated by chemical analyses before and after controlled composting experiments with those materials. In both experiments the compost quality did not reach the limits for heavy metals of class I (ONORM S2200).

  17. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council microbial detection methods in finished compost and regrowth potential of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost.

    PubMed

    Reynnells, Russell; Ingram, David T; Roberts, Cheryl; Stonebraker, Richard; Handy, Eric T; Felton, Gary; Vinyard, Bryan T; Millner, Patricia D; Sharma, Manan

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial pathogens may survive and regrow in finished compost due to incomplete thermal inactivation during or recontamination after composting. Twenty-nine finished composts were obtained from 19 U.S. states and were separated into three broad feedstock categories: biosolids (n=10), manure (n=4), and yard waste (n=15). Three replicates of each compost were inoculated with ≈ 1-2 log CFU/g of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) protocols and U.S. Composting Council's (USCC) Test Methods for the Examination of Composting and Compost (TMECC) were compared to determine which method recovered higher percentages of inoculated E. coli (representing fecal coliforms) and Salmonella spp. from 400-g samples of finished composts. Populations of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were determined over 3 days while stored at 25°C and compared to physicochemical parameters to predict their respective regrowth potentials. EPA Method 1680 recovered significantly (p=0.0003) more inoculated E. coli (68.7%) than TMECC 07.01 (48.1%) due to the EPA method using more compost in the initial homogenate, larger transfer dilutions, and a larger most probable number scheme compared to TMECC 07.01. The recoveries of inoculated Salmonella spp. by Environmental Protection Agency Method 1682 (89.1%) and TMECC 07.02 (72.4%) were not statistically significant (p=0.44). The statistically similar recovery percentages may be explained by the use of a nonselective pre-enrichment step used in both methods. No physicochemical parameter (C:N, moisture content, total organic carbon) was able to serve as a sole predictor of regrowth of Salmonella spp. or E. coli O157:H7 in finished compost. However, statistical analysis revealed that the C:N ratio, total organic carbon, and moisture content all contributed to pathogen regrowth potential in finished composts. It is recommended that the USCC modify TMECC protocols to test

  18. Modeling organic matter stabilization during windrow composting of livestock effluents.

    PubMed

    Oudart, D; Paul, E; Robin, P; Paillat, J M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is a complex bioprocess, requiring a lot of empirical experiments to optimize the process. A dynamical mathematical model for the biodegradation of the organic matter during the composting process has been developed. The initial organic matter expressed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) is decomposed into rapidly and slowly degraded compartments and an inert one. The biodegradable COD is hydrolysed and consumed by microorganisms and produces metabolic water and carbon dioxide. This model links a biochemical characterization of the organic matter by Van Soest fractionating with COD. The comparison of experimental and simulation results for carbon dioxide emission, dry matter and carbon content balance showed good correlation. The initial sizes of the biodegradable COD compartments are explained by the soluble, hemicellulose-like and lignin fraction. Their sizes influence the amplitude of the carbon dioxide emission peak. The initial biomass is a sensitive variable too, influencing the time at which the emission peak occurs.

  19. Comparison of methods for leaching heavy metals from composts

    SciTech Connect

    Ciba, Jerzy; Zolotajkin, Maria; Kluczka, Joanna; Loska, Krzysztof; Cebula, Jan

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the determination of total iron, copper, zinc, chromium, nickel, lead, cadmium and mercury contents in the compost obtained from sorted municipal organic solid waste applying the following methods of sample mineralization: 40% hydrofluoric acid with preliminary incineration of a sample, a mixture of concentrated nitric(V) and chloric(VII) acids with preliminary incineration of organic matter and a mixture of nitric(V) and chloric(VII) acids without sample incineration. The speciation analysis of Tessier was used to estimate the bioavailability of the metals. Elution degrees of the mobile forms of the metals from the compost with 10% nitric(V) acid and 1 mol/dm{sup 3} hydrochloric acid were compared. The contents of the elements in the eluates were determined applying atomic absorption spectrometry.

  20. Biodegradation of vapor phase trichloroethylene (TCE) in compost packed biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Sukesan, S.; Watwood, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    Batch and column scale biofiltration experiments were performed to measure biodegradation of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE) in finished compost. Compost was amended with hydrocarbon gas (methane or propane) as primary substrate to support microorganisms capable of cometabolic TCE degradation. In column biofilter experiments hydrocarbon utilization was observed within 10-15 days; gaseous TCE (50 ppmv) was then introduced continuously into the biofilter at approximately 1 L min{sup -1}. Columns supplied with 0.5% v/v methane removed 73% TCE after 8 days of continuous column operation, whereas amendment with 0.25% v/v methane corresponded with TCE removal of 93%, which was observed after 1.5 h of column operation. Similar results were obtained for propane amendment. Biofilters without hydrocarbon amendment exhibited no TCE biodegradation over 35 days. These results, analyzed together with those obtained in batch experiments, indicate that hydrocarbon identity and concentration and other related parameters influence the extent of ICE breakdown.

  1. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    PubMed Central

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  2. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    PubMed

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation.

  3. Composting Assessment for Organic Solid Waste at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Nearby Sabine Parish has numerous poultry operations which could be a great source of nutrients for a composting operation. Incorporating these and...the material is important in determining suitability. Poultry litter, biosolids, and manures have C:N ratios less than 30, which results in an...replacement for EPS foam trays. Apack meat trays have a base similar to that of the produce tray. Their packaging is being tested for poultry in the US

  4. A Study of Rapid Biodegradation of Oily Wastes through Composting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    carried out primarily by three groups-bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes . Over 75 different species have been identified in various com- posting materials...40 to 60* C range, Spohn (1970) reported that thermo- philic fungi and actinomycetes were present at temperature exceeding 800 C. The primary...microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes , etc) in a particular substance (in this case compost). The- analyses in this study served to quantify the

  5. The Biodegradation of TNT in Enhanced Soil and Compost Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    WN"a Dat& Mdtteted) INCUPUIY CLASIICATION OF THIS PA*S5WbmDole nff* 20, (Cont’d) resulted. The composting process was examined in bench scale...parti- culates, NO x , and other noxious products which result as air pollutants from this process . The practice of detonation of quantities of... processes (at least in part) Is sanitary landfilling. It was therefore decided to design a series of experiments to simulate the conditions In a

  6. Greenhouse gas emission from covered windrow composting with controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Pell, Mikael; Smårs, Sven; Sundberg, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from full-scale composting of municipal solid waste, investigating the effects of process temperature and aeration combinations, is scarce. Oxygen availability affects the composition of gases emitted during composting. In the present study, two experiments with three covered windrows were set up, treating a mixture of source separated biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions from Uppsala, Sweden, and structural amendment (woodchips, garden waste and re-used compost) in the volume proportion 1:2. The effects of different aeration and temperature settings on the emission of methane (CH(4)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) during windrow composting with forced aeration following three different control schemes were studied. For one windrow, the controller was set to keep the temperature below 40 °C until the pH increased, another windrow had minimal aeration at the beginning of the process and the third one had constant aeration. In the first experiment, CH(4) concentrations (CH(4):CO(2) ratio) increased, from around 0.1% initially to between 1 and 2% in all windrows. In the second experiment, the initial concentrations of CH(4) displayed similar patterns of increase between windrows until day 12, when concentration peaked at 3 and 6%, respectively, in two of the windrows. In general, the N(2)O fluxes remained low (0.46 ± 0.02 ppm) in the experiments and were two to three times the ambient concentrations. In conclusion, the emissions of CH(4) and N(2)O were low regardless of the amount of ventilation. The data indicates a need to perform longer experiments in order to observe further emission dynamics.

  7. Mathematical modeling of olive mill waste composting process.

    PubMed

    Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water.

  8. A review of composting as a management alternative for beef cattle feedlot manure in southern Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Hao, Xiying

    2007-12-01

    Composting is gaining increased acceptance as a management alternative for the large volumes of manure produced by southern Alberta's beef cattle feedlots. Research on windrow composting of feedlot manure was initiated at the Lethbridge Research Centre of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in 1996. Early studies looked at physical and chemical changes during composting. Studies have also been conducted on greenhouse gas emissions during composting and the effect of composting on reduction of pathogens, parasites and weed seed viability. The quality of commercially-produced composts at southern Alberta feedlots has been examined as has the mineralization rates of soil-applied composts. This paper reviews results from our feedlot manure composting research program.

  9. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    PubMed

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils.

  10. Composting for management and resource recovery of invasive Acacia species.

    PubMed

    Brito, Luis Miguel; Mourão, Isabel; Coutinho, João; Smith, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    The feasibility of commercial-scale composting of waste biomass from the control of invasive Acacia species was investigated. Pile temperatures exceeded 65ºC for several months, indicating that the composting process was effective at pathogen inactivation and seed destruction. Mineralisation of Acacia biomass was described by a two-component, first-order exponential model; the pool sizes for labile and recalcitrant organic matter (OM) were similar and in the approximate ranges: 360-410 g kg(-1) and 350-390 g kg(-1) of initial OM, respectively. Concentrations of conservative nutrients increased proportionally to OM mineralisation, enriching the compost as an agricultural nutrient source. Nitrogen concentrations also increased, but were more dynamic as nitrogen losses were difficult to control, although we suggest that they may be potentially minimised by restricting the turning frequency. The physicochemical characteristics of the stabilised end-product, and the high OM content and low electrical conductivity (<1.2 dS m(-1)), in particular, were suitable for soil improvement or as substrate components.

  11. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jun; Gao Ding; Chen Tongbin; Zheng Guodi; Chen Jun; Ma Chuang; Guo Songlin; Du Wei

    2010-10-15

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k{sub 20} (the first-order rate constant at 20 {sup o}C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k{sub 20}, k{sub 20s} (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 {sup o}C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d{sup -1}, respectively.

  12. Simulation of substrate degradation in composting of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Zheng, Guo-Di; Chen, Jun; Ma, Chuang; Guo, Song-Lin; Du, Wei

    2010-10-01

    To simulate the substrate degradation kinetics of the composting process, this paper develops a mathematical model with a first-order reaction assumption and heat/mass balance equations. A pilot-scale composting test with a mixture of sewage sludge and wheat straw was conducted in an insulated reactor. The BVS (biodegradable volatile solids) degradation process, matrix mass, MC (moisture content), DM (dry matter) and VS (volatile solid) were simulated numerically by the model and experimental data. The numerical simulation offered a method for simulating k (the first-order rate constant) and estimating k(20) (the first-order rate constant at 20 degrees C). After comparison with experimental values, the relative error of the simulation value of the mass of the compost at maturity was 0.22%, MC 2.9%, DM 4.9% and VS 5.2%, which mean that the simulation is a good fit. The k of sewage sludge was simulated, and k(20), k(20s) (first-order rate coefficient of slow fraction of BVS at 20 degrees C) of the sewage sludge were estimated as 0.082 and 0.015 d(-1), respectively.

  13. Fungal community dynamics and driving factors during agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Yu, Man; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Yuxin; Xiao, Hua; An, Wenhao; Xi, Hui; Xue, Zhiyong; Huang, Hongli; Chen, Xiaoyang; Shen, Alin

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the driving factors behind fungal community dynamics during agricultural waste composting. Fungal community abundance and structure were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis combined with DNA sequencing. The effects of physico-chemical parameters on fungal community abundance and structure were evaluated by least significant difference tests and redundancy analysis. The results showed that Cladosporium bruhnei, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Scytalidium thermophilum, Tilletiopsis penniseti, and Coprinopsis altramentaria were prominent during the composting process. The greatest variation in the distribution of fungal community structure was statistically explained by pile temperature and total organic carbon (TOC) (P < 0.05). A significant amount of the variation (74.6 %) was explained by these two parameters alone. Fungal community abundance was found to be significantly related to pH, while pH was significantly influenced by pile temperature and nitrate levels (P < 0.05), and these parameters were found to be the most likely to influence or be influenced by the fungal community during composting.

  14. Effect of aeration rate on composting of penicillin mycelial dreg.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shihua; Wen, Qinxue; Zheng, Jun

    2015-11-01

    Pilot scale experiments with forced aeration were conducted to estimate effects of aeration rates on the performance of composting penicillin mycelial dreg using sewage sludge as inoculation. Three aeration rates of 0.15, 0.50 and 0.90L/(min·kg) organic matter (OM) were examined. The principal physicochemical parameters were monitored during the 32day composting period. Results showed that the higher aeration rate of 0.90L/(min·kg) did not corresponded to a longer thermophilic duration and higher rates of OM degradation; but the lower aeration rate of 0.15L/(min·kg) did induce an accumulation of NH4(+)-N contents due to the inhibition of nitrification. On the other hand, aeration rate has little effect on degradation of penicillin. The results show that the longest phase of thermophilic temperatures≥55°C, the maximum NO3(-)-N content and seed germination, and the minimum C/N ratio were obtained with 0.50L/(min·kg) OM. Therefore, aeration rates of 0.50L/(min·kg) OM can be recommended for composting penicillin mycelial dreg.

  15. Usage of pumice as bulking agent in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chuandong; Li, Weiguang; Wang, Ke; Li, Yunbei

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the impacts of reused and sucrose-decorated pumice as bulking agents on the composting of sewage sludge were evaluated in the lab-scale reactor. The variations of temperature, pH, NH3 and CO2 emission rate, moisture content (MC), volatile solid, dissolved organic carbon, C/N and the water absorption characteristics of pumice were detected during the 25days composting. The MC of pumice achieved 65.23% of the 24h water absorptivity within the first 2h at the mass ratio of 0.6:1 (pumice:sewage sludge). Reused pumice increased 23.68% of CO2 production and reduced 21.25% of NH3 emission. The sucrose-decorated pumice reduced 43.37% of nitrogen loss. These results suggested that adding pumice and sucrose-decorated pumice in sludge composting matrix could not only adjust the MC of materials, but also improve the degradation of organic matters and reduce nitrogen loss.

  16. Biofiltration of isopentane in peat and compost packed beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Govind, R.

    1997-05-01

    Commercially available biofiltration systems have used natural bioactive materials in packed beds due to low media cost and easy availability. Detailed understanding and modeling of biofiltration systems are lacking in existing literature. Experimental studies on the isopentane treatment in air using peat- and compost-packed beds were conducted with inlet isopentane concentrations of 360 to 960 ppmv, and empty-bed gas-phase residence times of 2 to 10 min. High removal efficiencies (>90%) were achieved at low contaminant concentrations (<500 ppmv) and large empty-bed gas-phase residence times (>8 min). For both peat and compost biofilters, there was an optimal water content that gave the highest removal efficiency. For higher water content, mass transfer of isopentane through the liquid phase controlled the biofiltration removal efficiency. At low water content, irreversible changes in the bioactivity of peat and compost occurred, resulting in an irrecoverable loss of removal efficiency. Increases in biofilter bed temperature from 25 to 40 C improved the removal efficiency. A mathematical model incorporating the effect of water content and temperature was developed to describe the packed-bed biofilter performance. Model predictions agreed closely with experimental data.

  17. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost

    PubMed Central

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M.; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A.; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus’ mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained. PMID:26436656

  18. Fate of Carbohydrates and Lignin during Composting and Mycelium Growth of Agaricus bisporus on Wheat Straw Based Compost.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Edita; Punt, Arjen M; Arts, Wim; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2015-01-01

    In wheat straw based composting, enabling growth of Agaricus bisporus mushrooms, it is unknown to which extent the carbohydrate-lignin matrix changes and how much is metabolized. In this paper we report yields and remaining structures of the major components. During the Phase II of composting 50% of both xylan and cellulose were metabolized by microbial activity, while lignin structures were unaltered. During A. bisporus' mycelium growth (Phase III) carbohydrates were only slightly consumed and xylan was found to be partially degraded. At the same time, lignin was metabolized for 45% based on pyrolysis GC/MS. Remaining lignin was found to be modified by an increase in the ratio of syringyl (S) to guaiacyl (G) units from 0.5 to 0.7 during mycelium growth, while fewer decorations on the phenolic skeleton of both S and G units remained.

  19. Biochar lowers ammonia emission and improves nitrogen retention in poultry litter composting.

    PubMed

    Agyarko-Mintah, Eunice; Cowie, Annette; Van Zwieten, Lukas; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Smillie, Robert; Harden, Steven; Fornasier, Flavio

    2017-03-01

    The poultry industry produces abundant quantities of nutrient-rich litter, much of which is composted before use as a soil amendment. However, a large proportion of nitrogen (N) in poultry litter is lost via volatilisation during composting, with negative environmental and economic consequences. This study examined the effect of incorporating biochar during composting of poultry litter on ammonia (NH3) volatilisation and N retention. Biochars produced at 550°C from greenwaste (GWB) and poultry litter (PLB) feedstocks were co-composted with a mixture of raw poultry litter and sugarcane straw [carbon (C):N ratio 10:1] in compost bins. Ammonia emissions accounted for 17% of the total N (TN) lost from the control and 12-14% from the biochar-amended compost. The TN emitted as NH3, as a percentage of initial TN, was significantly lower (P<0.05) i.e. by 60% and 55% in the compost amended with GWB and PLB, respectively, relative to the control. The proportion of N retained in the finished compost, as a percentage of initial TN, was 84%, 78% and 67% for the GWB, PLB and nil biochar control, respectively. Lower concentration of dissolved organic C (DOC) together with higher activity of beta-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase were found in the GWB-amended compost (cf. control). It is hypothesized that lower NH3 emission in the GWB-amended compost was caused not just by the higher surface area of this biochar but could also be related to greater incorporation of ammonium (NH4(+)) in organic compounds during microbial utilisation of DOC. Furthermore, the GWB-amended compost retained more NH4(+) at the end of composting than the PLB-amended compost. Results showed that addition of biochar, especially GWB, generated multiple benefits in composting of poultry litter: decrease of NH3 volatilisation, decrease in NH3 toxicity towards microorganisms, and improved N retention, thus enhancing the fertiliser value of the composted litter. It is suggested that the latter benefit is

  20. Closing the natural cycles - using biowaste compost in organic farming in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erhart, Eva; Rogalski, Wojciech; Maurer, Ludwig; Hartl, Wilfried

    2014-05-01

    One of the basic principles of organic farming - that organic management should fit the cycles and ecological balances in nature - is put into practice in Vienna on a large scale. In Vienna, compost produced from separately collected biowaste and greenwaste is used on more than 1000 ha of organic farmland. These municipally owned farms are managed organically, but are stockless, like the vast majority of farms in the region. The apparent need for a substitute for animal manure triggered the development of an innovative biowaste management. Together with the Municipal Department 48 responsible for waste management, which was keen for the reduction of residual waste, the Municipal Department 49 - Forestry Office and Urban Agriculture and Bio Forschung Austria developed Vienna's biowaste management model. Organic household wastes and greenwastes are source-separated by the urban population and collected in a closely monitored system to ensure high compost quality. A composting plant was constructed which today produces a total of 43000 t compost per year in a monitored open windrow process. The quality of the compost produced conforms to the EU regulation 834/2007. A large part of the compost is used as organic fertilizer on the organic farmland in Vienna, and the remainder is used in arable farming and in viticulture in the region around Vienna and for substrate production. Vienna`s biowaste management-model is operating successfully since the 1980s and has gained international recognition in form of the Best Practice-Award of the United Nations Development Programme. In order to assess the effects of biowaste compost fertilization on crop yield and on the environment, a field experiment was set up near Vienna in 1992, which is now one of the longest standing compost experiments in Europe. The results showed, that the yields increased for 7 - 10 % with compost fertilization compared to the unfertilized control and the nitrogen recovery by crops was between 4 and 6

  1. Degradation of Tetracyclines in Pig Manure by Composting with Rice Straw

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Rushan; Huang, Lidong; Li, Lingling; Gielen, Gerty; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    A holistic approach was followed for utilizing tetracyclines (TCs)-contaminated pig manure, by composting this with rice straw in a greenhouse for CO2 fertilization and composted residue application. After composting, the composted residues can be applied to cropland as a supplemental source of synthetic fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pig manure-rice straw composting on the degradation of TCs in pig manure. The results showed that greenhouse composting significantly accelerated the degradation of TCs. Contents (150 mg·kg−1) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in the composting feedstock could be completely removed within 42 days for OTC and TC, and 14 days for CTC. However, in the control samples incubated at 25 °C in the dark, concentrations of OTC, TC and CTC only decreased 64.7%, 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, after 49 days. The degradation rates of TCs in the composting feedstock were in the order of CTC > TC > OTC. During the composting process, CTC dissipated rapidly with the time required for 50% degradation (DT50) and 90% degradation (DT90) of 2.4 and 7.9 days, but OTC was more persistent with DT50 and DT90 values of 5.5 and 18.4 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that pig manure-rice straw composting in a greenhouse can help to accelerate the degradation of TCs in pig manure and make composted residues safer for field application. This technology could be an acceptable practice for greenhouse farmers to utilize TCs-contaminated pig manure. PMID:26927136

  2. Substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening: user surveys and case studies.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jacob K; Christensen, Thomas H; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Four user surveys were performed at recycle centres (RCs) in the Municipalities of Aarhus and Copenhagen, Denmark, to get general information on compost use and to examine the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure by compost in hobby gardening. The average driving distance between the users' households and the RCs was found to be 4.3 km and the average amount of compost picked up was estimated at 800 kg per compost user per year. The application layer of the compost varied (between 1 and 50 cm) depending on the type of use. The estimated substitution (given as a fraction of the compost users that substitute peat, fertiliser and manure with compost) was 22% for peat, 12% for fertiliser and 7% for manure (41% in total) from the survey in Aarhus (n=74). The estimate from the survey in Copenhagen (n=1832) was 19% for peat, 24% for fertiliser and 15% for manure (58% in total). This is the first time, to the authors' knowledge, that the substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure with compost has been assessed for application in hobby gardening. Six case studies were performed as home visits in addition to the Aarhus surveys. From the user surveys and the case studies it was obvious that the total substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure was not 100%, as is often assumed when assigning environmental credits to compost. It was more likely around 50% and thus there is great potential for improvement. It was indicated that compost was used for a lot of purposes in hobby gardening. Apart from substitution of peat, fertiliser and manure, compost was used to improve soil quality and as a filling material (as a substitute for soil). Benefits from these types of application are, however, difficult to assess and thereby quantify.

  3. Degradation of Tetracyclines in Pig Manure by Composting with Rice Straw.

    PubMed

    Chai, Rushan; Huang, Lidong; Li, Lingling; Gielen, Gerty; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-02-24

    A holistic approach was followed for utilizing tetracyclines (TCs)-contaminated pig manure, by composting this with rice straw in a greenhouse for CO₂ fertilization and composted residue application. After composting, the composted residues can be applied to cropland as a supplemental source of synthetic fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pig manure-rice straw composting on the degradation of TCs in pig manure. The results showed that greenhouse composting significantly accelerated the degradation of TCs. Contents (150 mg·kg(-1)) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in the composting feedstock could be completely removed within 42 days for OTC and TC, and 14 days for CTC. However, in the control samples incubated at 25 °C in the dark, concentrations of OTC, TC and CTC only decreased 64.7%, 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, after 49 days. The degradation rates of TCs in the composting feedstock were in the order of CTC > TC > OTC. During the composting process, CTC dissipated rapidly with the time required for 50% degradation (DT50) and 90% degradation (DT90) of 2.4 and 7.9 days, but OTC was more persistent with DT50 and DT90 values of 5.5 and 18.4 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that pig manure-rice straw composting in a greenhouse can help to accelerate the degradation of TCs in pig manure and make composted residues safer for field application. This technology could be an acceptable practice for greenhouse farmers to utilize TCs-contaminated pig manure.

  4. Effect of turning frequency and season on composting materials from swine high-rise facilities.

    PubMed

    Cook, K L; Ritchey, E L; Loughrin, J H; Haley, M; Sistani, K R; Bolster, C H

    2015-05-01

    Composting swine slurries has several advantages, liquid slurries are converted to solids at lower moisture, the total volume and weight of material is reduced and the stabilized product is more easily transported off-site. Despite this, swine waste is generally stored, treated and applied in its liquid form. High-rise finishing facilities (HRFF) permit liquid slurries to be converted to solids which are partially decomposed underneath the HRFF and then finished in compost windrows. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of turning frequency and ambient weather conditions on biological, physical and chemical properties of composted slurry-woodchip mixtures from HRFF. Compost trials were conducted in either fall (FT) or spring (ST) and piles were turned once or three times per week or upon compost temperature reaching 65°C. Physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics were measured over the course of 112 (FT) or 143 (ST) days of composting. Total carbon, total nitrogen (N) and inorganic N decreased in all piles. Ammonium decreased while nitrate increased in all piles (including unturned), but total N losses were greatest in piles turned more frequently during the ST. Microbial populations of nitrifiers were dominated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (3.0×10(3)-4.2×10(6)cellsg(-1) compost) but ammonia oxidizing bacteria (below detection to 6.0×10(5)cellsg(-1) compost) varied in response to turning and compost temperature; denitrifiers were present in high concentrations throughout the process. Swine HRFF materials composted well in windrows regardless of turning frequency and despite significant differences in starting materials and low initial C/N. Volume reduction, low moisture and low readily degradable organic matter suggest that the finished compost would have lower transportation costs and should provide value as a soil conditioner.

  5. A statistical analysis to assess the maturity and stability of six composts.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios P; Tziouvaras, Ioannis S

    2009-05-01

    Despite the long-time application of organic waste derived composts to crops, there is still no universally accepted index to assess compost maturity and stability. The research presented in this article investigated the suitability of seven types of seeds for use in germination bioassays to assess the maturity and phytotoxicity of six composts. The composts used in the study were derived from cow manure, sea weeds, olive pulp, poultry manure and municipal solid waste. The seeds used in the germination bioassays were radish, pepper, spinach, tomato, cress, cucumber and lettuce. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance at two levels and with pair-wise comparisons. The analysis revealed that composts rendered as phytotoxic to one type of seed could enhance the growth of another type of seed. Therefore, germination indices, which ranged from 0% to 262%, were highly dependent on the type of seed used in the germination bioassay. The poultry manure compost was highly phytotoxic to all seeds. At the 99% confidence level, the type of seed and the interaction between the seeds and the composts were found to significantly affect germination. In addition, the stability of composts was assessed by their microbial respiration, which ranged from approximately 4 to 16g O(2)/kg organic matter and from 2.6 to approximately 11g CO(2)-C/kg C, after seven days. Initial average oxygen uptake rates were all less than approximately 0.35g O(2)/kg organic matter/h for all six composts. A high statistically significant correlation coefficient was calculated between the cumulative carbon dioxide production, over a 7-day period, and the radish seed germination index. It appears that a germination bioassay with radish can be a valid test to assess both compost stability and compost phytotoxicity.

  6. Data summary of municipal solid waste management alternatives. Volume 9, Appendix G: Composting

    SciTech Connect

    1992-10-01

    Composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) is experiencing a dramatic resurgence in the US. Several factors are driving this interest in composting including landfill closures, resistance to siting of new landfills and combustion facilities, public support for recycling, and, in general, the overall costs of waste disposal. Starting with only one demonstration project operating in 1980, the total number of projects in the US has increased to sixteen by July 1991. There are approximately 100 projects in some form of planning or development. One reason some communities are sekniing composting as a waste management option is that sewage sludge and MSW can be co-composted thereby recycling a major portion of the overall municipal waste stream. In 1991, five of the operating facilities have incorporated sludge, with a number of new plants also developing systems with this capability. Generic composting technologies are described followed by a comprehensive discussion of operating facilities. Information is presented on the type of processing system, capital and operating costs, and the status of compost markets. A discussion is also included on the operational problems and challenges faced by composting facility developers and operators. Also presented are facility energy usage and a discussion of the energy implications from the use of compost as a soil and fertilizer replacement. A discussion of cost sensitivity shows how facility costs are impacted by waste handling procedures, regulations, reject disposal, and finance charges. The status of, and potential for, integrating composting into the overall waste management strategy is also discussed, including composting`s contribution to municipal recycling goals, and the status of public acceptance of the technology. Finally information and research needs are summarized.

  7. Efficacy of sludge and manure compost amendments against Fusarium wilt of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Shi, Dezhi; Sun, Faqian; Lu, Haohao; Liu, Jingjing; Wu, Weixiang

    2012-11-01

    Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by the fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, is one of the most destructive soilborne diseases and can result in serious economic loss. No efficient fungicide is currently available to control the disease. The aim of this study was to examine the disease suppression ability of pig manure and sludge composts in peat-based container media and explore the possible disease suppression mechanisms. Pig manure and sewage sludge compost were made in laboratory-scale tanks. Plant growth media were formulated with peat mixture and compost (or 60 °C heated compost) in a 4:1 ratio (v/v). Cucumber seedlings were artificially inoculated with F. oxysporum conidia (5 × 10(5) conidia mL(-1)) by the root-dip method. Cucumber Fusarium wilt was effectively suppressed in sludge compost-amended media, while the disease suppression effect of pig manure compost was limited. The ammonia levels in the manure compost-amended media were significantly higher than those of sludge compost-amended media, which could explain its lower disease suppression ability. Heated composts behaved similarly with respect to disease suppression. Adding composts increased microbial biomass, microbial activity, and the microbial diversity of the growth media. PCR-DGGE results indicated that the fungal community had a significant correlation to the disease severity. The artificially inoculated pathogen was retrieved in all treatments and one possible biocontrol agent was identified as a strain of F. oxysporum by phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the sludge compost used in this study could be applied as a method for biocontrol of cucumber Fusarium wilt.

  8. The Utilization of Banana Peel in the Fermentation Liquid in Food Waste Composting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, A. A.; Rahman, N. A.; Azhari, N. W.

    2016-07-01

    Municipal solid waste in Malaysia contains a high amount of organic matters, particularly food waste. Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Food waste can be converted into useful materials such as compost. However, source separation of food waste for recycling is not commonly practiced in Malaysia due to various constraints. These constraints include low awareness among the waste generators and low demand of the products produced from the food waste such as composts. Composting is one of the alternatives that can be used in food waste disposal from Makanan Ringan Mas. The aim of the study is to convert food waste generated from Makanan Ringan Mas which is a medium sale industry located at Parit Kuari Darat, Batu Pahat by using composting method. The parameters which include temperature, pH value, NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium) values has been examined. Banana peel is being used as the fermentation liquid whilst soil and coconut husk were used as the composting medium. Based on the results during the composting process, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the well controlled composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. On the other hand, during the period of composting, the overall temperature range from 25 °C to 47 °C which shown the active phase for composting will occoured. As for NPK content Nitrogen value range is 35325 mg/L to 78775 mg/L, Phosphorus, 195.83 mg/L to 471 mg/L and potassium is 422.3 mg/L to 2046 mg/L which is sufficient to use for agricultural purpose. The comparison was made with available organic compost in the market and only showed slightly difference. Nevertheless, in comparison with common fertilizer, the NPK value of organic compost are considerably very low.

  9. Chestnut green waste composting for sustainable forest management: Microbiota dynamics and impact on plant disease control.

    PubMed

    Ventorino, Valeria; Parillo, Rita; Testa, Antonino; Viscardi, Sharon; Espresso, Francesco; Pepe, Olimpia

    2016-01-15

    Making compost from chestnut lignocellulosic waste is a possible sustainable management strategy for forests that employs a high-quality renewable organic resource. Characterization of the microbiota involved in composting is essential to better understand the entire process as well as the properties of the final product. Therefore, this study investigated the microbial communities involved in the composting of chestnut residues obtained from tree cleaning and pruning. The culture-independent approach taken highlighted the fact that the microbiota varied only slightly during the process, with the exception of those of the starting substrate and mature compost. The statistical analysis indicated that most of the bacterial and fungal species in the chestnut compost persisted during composting. The dominant microbial population detected during the process belonged to genera known to degrade recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. Specifically, we identified fungal genera, such as Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus and Mucor, and prokaryotic species affiliated with Bacilli, Actinobacteria, Flavobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria. The suppressive properties of compost supplements for the biocontrol of Sclerotinia minor and Rhizoctonia solani were also investigated. Compared to pure substrate, the addition of compost to the peat-based growth substrates resulted in a significant reduction of disease in tomato plants of up to 70 % or 51 % in the presence of Sclerotinia minor or Rhizoctonia solani, respectively. The obtained results were related to the presence of putative bio-control agents and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria belonging to the genera Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Flavobacterium, Streptomyces and Actinomyces in the chestnut compost. The composting of chestnut waste may represent a sustainable agricultural practice for disposing of lignocellulosic waste by transforming it into green waste compost that can be used to

  10. Citrus compost and its water extract for cultivation of melon plants in greenhouse nurseries. Evaluation of nutriactive and biocontrol effects.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Vicente, A; Ros, M; Tittarelli, F; Intrigliolo, F; Pascual, J A

    2008-12-01

    Two different types of citrus composts, and their water extracts, were tested with regard to their utilisations as partial substitutes for peat in growing media for melon seedlings in greenhouse nurseries. Both compost showed higher plant growth than peat. Compost composed by citrus waste and green residue (C2) showed greater plant growth than compost obtained from the same organic matrices mentioned above further the addition of sludge obtained from citrus industry (C1). Compost C2 showed a greater auxinic effect than C1 and it was the only one that showed cytokinic effect. Both composts also demonstrated a biocontrol effect against Fusarium oxysporum for melon plants: the effects were also higher in C2 than in C1. Higher number of isolated fungi was active against F. oxysporum in compost C2, than compost C1. No different bacterial biocontrol efficacy was observed between both composts. The water extracts of both composts gave lower plant yields than their solid matrices, their relative effects being similar to those of the solid composts (C2 extract gave higher plant yields than the extract from C1). The biocontrol effects of compost water extracts followed the same trend.

  11. Heterogeneity of the electron exchange capacity of kitchen waste compost-derived humic acids based on fluorescence components.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Tan, Wen-Bing; He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Gao, Ru-Tai; Zhang, Hui; Dang, Qiu-Ling; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Composting is widely used for recycling of kitchen waste to improve soil properties, which is mainly attributed to the nutrient and structural functions of compost-derived humic acids (HAs). However, the redox properties of compost-derived HAs are not fully explored. Here, a unique framework is employed to investigate the electron exchange capacity (EEC) of HAs during kitchen waste composting. Most components of compost-derived HAs hold EEC, but nearly two-thirds of them are found to be easily destroyed by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and thus result in an EEC lower than the electron - donating capacity in compost-derived HAs. Fortunately, a refractory component also existed within compost-derived HAs and could serve as a stable and effective electron shuttle to promote the MR-1 involved in Fe(III) reduction, and its EEC was significantly correlated with the aromaticity and the amount of quinones. Nevertheless, with the increase of composting time, the EEC of the refractory component did not show an increasing trend. These results implied that there was an optimal composting time to maximize the production of HAs with more refractory and redox molecules. Recognition of the heterogeneity of EEC of the compost-derived HAs enables an efficient utilization of the composts for a variety of environmental applications. Graphical abstract Microbial reduction of compost-derived HAs.

  12. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  13. Pilot-scale tests of an innovative 'serial self-turning reactor' composting technology in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Sungsomboon, Praj-ya; Chaisomphob, Taweep; Bongochgetsakul, Nattakorn; Ishida, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Composting facilities in Thailand have faced various operational problems, resulting in the emission of odours, incomplete digestion of waste organics, and higher than desired costs. Composting technologies imported from developed countries tend to be sized for larger communities and are otherwise not suited for the rural communities that comprise more than 80% of all communities in Thailand. This article addresses the research and development of a novel composting technology aimed at filling this observed need. The study was divided into two parts: (1) the development of a new composting technology and fabrication of a prototype configuration of equipment; and (2) scale-up and study on a pilot-scale using real rubbish. The proposed technology, called 'serial self-turning reactor (STR)', entailed a vertical flow composting system that consisted of a set of aerobic reactors stacked on a set of gravity fed turning units. In-vessel bioreactor technology enables the operator to control composting conditions. The researchers found that a tower-like STR results in flexibility in size scale and waste processing residence time. The pilot-scale experiments showed that the proposed system can produce good quality compost while consuming comparatively little energy and occupying a compact space, compared to traditional land-intensive windrow composting facilities.

  14. Effect of light Sphagnum peat on odour formation in the early stages of biowaste composting.

    PubMed

    Kurola, Jukka M; Arnold, Mona; Kontro, Merja H; Talves, Matti; Romantschuk, Martin

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of two bulking materials, Sphagnum peat and pine wood chips, on the early stages of biowaste composting in two pilot-scale processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the formation conditions of malodorous compost gases in the initial phases of the processes. The results showed that gas emission leaving an open windrow and a closed drum composting system contained elevated concentrations of fermentative microbial metabolites when acid Sphagnum peat (pH 3.2) was used as a bulking material. Moreover, the gas emission of the peat amended drum composter contained a high concentration of odour (up to 450,000oum(-3) of air). The highest odour values in the outlet gas of peat amended composts coincided with the elevated concentrations of volatile organic compounds such as acetoin and buthanedion. We conclude that the acidifying qualities of composting substrates or bulking material may intensify odour emission from biowaste composts and prolong the early stages of the composting process.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF THE BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF COMPOST FROM A YARD WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Citizen concern over possible pathogenic microorganism contamination in compost and in a runoff collection pond prompted a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) investigation. One out of eight samples collected from the distribution pile at a yard waste compost processing f...

  16. The potential applications of using compost chars for removing the hydrophobic herbicide atrazine from solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.; Roy, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    One commercial compost sample was pyrolyzed to produce chars as a sorbent for removing the herbicide atrazine from solution. The sorption behavior of compost-based char was compared with that of an activated carbon derived from corn stillage. When compost was pyrolyzed, the char yield was greater than 45% when heated under air, and 52% when heated under N2. In contrast, when the corn stillage was pyrolyzed under N2, the yield was only 22%. The N2-BET surface area of corn stillage activated carbon was 439 m2/g, which was much greater than the maximum compost char surface area of 72 m2/g. However, the sorption affinity of the compost char for dissolved atrazine was comparable to that of the corn stillage activated carbon. This similarity could have resulted from the initial organic waste being subjected to a relatively long period of thermal processes during composting, and thus, the compost was more thermally stable when compared with the raw materials. In addition, microorganisms transformed the organic wastes into amorphous humic substances, and thus, it was likely that the microporisity was enhanced. Although this micropore structure could not be detected by the N2-BET method, it was apparent in the atrazine sorption experiment. Overall, the experimental results suggested that the compost sample in current study was a relatively stable material thermally for producing char, and that it has the potential as a feed stock for making high-quality activated carbon. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-remediation use of macrophytes as composting materials for sustainable management of a sanitary landfill.

    PubMed

    Song, Uhram

    2017-04-03

    To increase the remediation ability and life expectancy of a leachate channel in a sanitary landfill, the plants used for remediation were composted as a post-remediation management technique. Phragmites australis or Typha angustifolia used for phytoremediation in a landfill leachate channel was harvested and used as a co-composting material with sewage sludge. The macrophyte compost was applied to the slope of a landfill on which plants were introduced for revegetation and to plants grown in pots to test for acute effects of the compost. The compost of the macrophytes successfully increased soil moisture and nutrient contents both on the landfill slope and in the soil of the pot experiment. Additionally, the rates of photosynthesis and the nutrient contents increased for plants grown in macrophyte compost. Thus, the revegetation or restoration management of the landfill would improve with the macrophyte compost used as a soil conditioner. The harvest of the macrophytes has the additional benefit of improving the remediation function of the leachate channel. Therefore, to sustainably manage both the leachate channel and the landfill, the composting of post-remediation macrophytes is an environmentally friendly and economically affordable method.

  18. Optimization and enhancement of soil bioremediation by composting using the experimental design technique.

    PubMed

    Sayara, Tahseen; Sarrà, Montserrat; Sánchez, Antoni

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was the application of the experimental design technique to optimize the conditions for the bioremediation of contaminated soil by means of composting. A low-cost material such as compost from the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste as amendment and pyrene as model pollutant were used. The effect of three factors was considered: pollutant concentration (0.1-2 g/kg), soil:compost mixing ratio (1:0.5-1:2 w/w) and compost stability measured as respiration index (0.78, 2.69 and 4.52 mg O2 g(-1) Organic Matter h(-1)). Stable compost permitted to achieve an almost complete degradation of pyrene in a short time (10 days). Results indicated that compost stability is a key parameter to optimize PAHs biodegradation. A factor analysis indicated that the optimal conditions for bioremediation after 10, 20 and 30 days of process were (1.4, 0.78, 1:1.4), (1.4, 2.18. 1:1.3) and (1.3, 2.18, 1:1.3) for concentration (g/kg), compost stability (mg O2 g(-1) Organic Matter h(-1)) and soil:compost mixing ratio, respectively.

  19. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relative to fresh broiler litter, little is known about the dynamics of composted litter derived-nutrient in the ecosystem. In this study, the potential leaching losses of nutrients from compost relative to fresh broiler litter along with flue gas desulfurization (FGD gypsum), as a nutrient immobil...

  20. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  1. Changes in physical properties of sandy soil after long-term compost treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranyos, József Tibor; Tomócsik, Attila; Makádi, Marianna; Mészáros, József; Blaskó, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    Studying the long-term effect of composted sewage sludge application on chemical, physical and biological properties of soil, an experiment was established in 2003 at the Research Institute of Nyíregyháza in Hungary. The applied compost was prepared from sewage sludge (40%), straw (25%), bentonite (5%) and rhyolite (30%). The compost was ploughed into the 0-25 cm soil layer every 3rd year in the following amounts: 0, 9, 18 and 27 Mg ha-1 of dry matter. As expected, the compost application improved the structure of sandy soil, which is related with an increase in the organic matter content of soil. The infiltration into soil was improved significantly, reducing the water erosion under simulated high intensity rainfall. The soil compaction level was reduced in the first year after compost re-treatment. In accordance with the decrease in bulk density, the air permeability of soil increased tendentially. However, in the second year the positive effects of compost application were observed only in the plots treated with the highest compost dose because of quick degradation of the organic matter. According to the results, the sewage sludge compost seems to be an effective soil improving material for acidic sandy soils, but the beneficial effect of application lasts only for two years.

  2. A systematic study of the gaseous emissions from biosolids composting: raw sludge versus anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-11-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) and ammonia, that contribute to odor pollution, and methane and nitrous oxide, with an important greenhouse effect, are compounds present in gaseous emission from waste treatment installations, including composting plants. In this work, gaseous emissions from the composting of raw (RS) and anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) have been investigated and compared at pilot scale aiming to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present. CH4 and N2O emissions were higher in ADS composting (0.73 and 0.55 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in RS composting (0.01 kg Mg(-1) sludge for both CH4 and N2O). NH3 and VOCs emitted were higher during the RS composting process (19.37 and 0.21 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in ADS composting (0.16 and 0.04 kg Mg(-1) sludge). Significant differences were found in the VOC compositions emitted in ADS and RS composting, being more diverse in RS than ADS composting.

  3. The potential applications of using compost chars for removing the hydrophobic herbicide atrazine from solution.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Lo; Roy, William R

    2008-09-01

    One commercial compost sample was pyrolyzed to produce chars as a sorbent for removing the herbicide atrazine from solution. The sorption behavior of compost-based char was compared with that of an activated carbon derived from corn stillage. When compost was pyrolyzed, the char yield was greater than 45% when heated under air, and 52% when heated under N(2). In contrast, when the corn stillage was pyrolyzed under N(2), the yield was only 22%. The N(2)-BET surface area of corn stillage activated carbon was 439 m(2)/g, which was much greater than the maximum compost char surface area of 72 m(2)/g. However, the sorption affinity of the compost char for dissolved atrazine was comparable to that of the corn stillage activated carbon. This similarity could have resulted from the initial organic waste being subjected to a relatively long period of thermal processes during composting, and thus, the compost was more thermally stable when compared with the raw materials. In addition, microorganisms transformed the organic wastes into amorphous humic substances, and thus, it was likely that the microporisity was enhanced. Although this micropore structure could not be detected by the N(2)-BET method, it was apparent in the atrazine sorption experiment. Overall, the experimental results suggested that the compost sample in current study was a relatively stable material thermally for producing char, and that it has the potential as a feed stock for making high-quality activated carbon.

  4. Microbial diversity in a bagasse-based compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Azevedo, Raquel Santos; Braga, Claudia; da Silva, Romildo; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Edible mushrooms are renowned for their nutritional and medicinal properties and are thus of considerable commercial importance. Mushroom production depends on the chemical composition of the basic substrates and additional supplements employed in the compost as well as on the method of composting. In order to minimise the cost of mushroom production, considerable interest has been shown in the use of agro-industrial residues in the preparation of alternative compost mixtures. However, the interaction of the natural microbiota present in agricultural residues during the composting process greatly influences the subsequent colonisation by the mushroom. The aim of the present study was to isolate and identify the microbiota present in a sugar cane bagasse and coast-cross straw compost prepared for the production of Agaricus brasilienses. Composting lasted for 14 days, during which time the substrates and additives were mixed every 2 days, and this was followed by a two-step steam pasteurisation (55 - 65°C; 15 h each step). Bacteria, (mainly Bacillus and Paenibacillus spp. and members of the Enterobacteriaceae) were the predominant micro-organisms present throughout the composting process with an average population density of 3 x 108 CFU/g. Actinomycetes, and especially members of the genus Streptomyces, were well represented with a population density of 2 - 3 x 108 CFU/g. The filamentous fungi, however, exhibited much lower population densities and were less diverse than the other micro-organisms, although Aspergillus fumigatus was present during the whole composting process and after pasteurisation. PMID:24031404

  5. Investigation and optimization of composting processes--test systems and practical examples

    SciTech Connect

    Koerner, I.; Braukmeier, J.; Herrenklage, J.; Leikam, K.; Ritzkowski, M.; Schlegelmilch, M.; Stegmann, R

    2003-07-01

    To determine the optimal course of composting it is useful to carry out experiments. The selection of the right experimental set-up depends on the question of concern. Each set-up is useful for a particular application and has its limits. Two test systems of different scales (up to 1500 ml; up to 100 l) are introduced. The purpose and importance of each system design shall be highlighted by application examples: (1) Suitability of a liquid industrial residue as composting accelerator; (2) Determination of the compost maturity; (3) Behaviour of odor-reducing additives during waste collection and composting; (4) Production of tailor-made compost with respect to Nitrogen (5) Suitability of O{sub 2}-enriched air for acceleration of composting. Small-scale respiration experiments are useful to optimize parameters which have to be adjusted during substrate pre-treatment and composting, with the exception of particle size and temperature, and to reduce the number of variants which have to be investigated in greater detail in larger scale experiments. As all regulation possibilities such as aeration, moistening, turning can be simulated with the technical scale set-up, their complex cooperation can be taken into consideration. Encouraging composting variants can be tested, compared and optimized.

  6. Effect of inoculating microbes in municipal solid waste composting on characteristics of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zimin; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Shiping; Liu, Hongliang; Jiang, Youhai

    2007-06-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) compost contains a significant amount of humic substances. In this study, the compost consisted of residual MSW with the metal, plastic and glass removed. In order to enhance degradation processes and the degree of composting humification, complex microorganisms (Bacillus casei, Lactobacillus buchneri and Candida rugopelliculosa) and ligno-cellulolytic (Trichoderma and White-rot fungi) microorganisms were respectively inoculated in the composting process. During the MSW composting, humic acid (HA) was extracted and purified. Elements (C, N, H, O) and spectroscopic characteristics of the HA were determined using elementary analyzer, UV, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and fluorescence spectroscopy. The elements analysis, UV, FTIR and fluorescence spectra all led to the same conclusion, that is inoculations with microbes led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control process (CK) with no inoculation microbes. This indicated that inoculation with microbes in composting would improve the degree humification and maturation processes, in the following order: lingo-cellulolytic>complex microorganisms>CK. And mixed inoculation of MSW with complex microorganisms and lingo-cellulolytic during composting gave a greater degree of HA aromatization than inoculation with complex microorganisms or lingo-cellulolytic alone. But comparing with the HA of soil, the HA of MSW compost revealed a lower degree of aromatization.

  7. NITRATE REDUCTION AND TRANSFORMATION IN ORGANIC COMPOST MEDIA: LABORATORY BATCH STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the effectiveness of three organic solid reactive media (cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and Canadian sphagnum peat) that may be potentially used in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) for groundwater nitrate removal. We aimed at answering the question about the na...

  8. Biochar-compost mixtures added to simulated golf greens increase creeping bentgrass growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mixtures of 85% sand and 15% mixtures of peat (control), a commercial biochar, a commercial biochar-compost product (CarbonizPN), and seven biochar-commercial compost mixtures were tested on the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. "007") in simulated golf greens. Physical properti...

  9. Effect of composting on the removal of semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Ying; Mo, Ce-Hui; Lü, Huixiong; Zeng, Qiao-Yun; Wu, Qi-Tang; Li, Yan-Wen

    2012-12-01

    In order to investigate the occurrence and removal of semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) in the compost of sewage sludge, three different composting treatments, including manual turned compost (MTC), intermittent aerated compost (IAC), and naturally aerated compost (NAC) were conducted. Thirty SVOCs in composts were Soxhlet-extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. After 56 days of composting, the total concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (∑PAHs) ranged from 0.55 to 8.20 mg kg(-1) dry weight, decreasing in order of IAC>MTC>NAC. The total concentrations of six phthalic acid esters (∑PAEs), five chlorobenzenes or three nitroaromatic compounds were less than 5.0 mg kg(-1). Compared with the initial concentrations in sewage sludge, a significant reduction of ∑PAHs, ∑PAEs and chlorobenzenes was observed. The removal rates of ∑PAHs and ∑PAEs ranged from 54.6% to 75.9% and from 58.3% to 90.6%, respectively. Compared with different composting processes, MTC showed the highest potential for removal of SVOCs.

  10. Degradation of tetracycline and sulfadiazine during continuous thermophilic composting of pig manure and sawdust.

    PubMed

    Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Zhao, Zhenyong; Li, Yunchun; Chen, Yumei; Leung, Kelvin S-Y; Wong, Jonathan W-C

    2013-01-01

    During composting, the thermophilic phase resulted in high degradation of antibiotics in the composting mass; thus temperature is considered as the major factor for degradation of antibiotics. Therefore, to achieve complete removal of antibiotics, the effect of continuous thermophilic composting on the degradation of antibiotics and their effect on antibiotic resistant bacteria in the pig manure were evaluated. Pig manure was mixed with sawdust, spiked with tetracycline (10 and 100 mg/kg) and sulfadiazine (2 and 20mg/kg) on dry weight (DW) basis and composted at 55 degrees C for six weeks. Based on the organic decomposition, the antibiotics did not affect the composting process significantly, but negatively influenced the bacterial population. Tetracycline clearly exhibited a negative but marginal influence on carbon decomposition at 100 mg/kg level. The bacterial population initially decreased steeply approximately 2 logs and slowly increased thereafter. Sulfadiazine and tetracycline resistant bacterial populations were stable/marginally increased after an initial decrease of about 2 or 3-5 logs, respectively. Sulfadiazine was not detectable after three days; whereas, approximately 8% of tetracycline was detected after 42 days of composting with a t(1/2) of approximately 11 days, irrespective of the initial concentration. The presence of tetracycline in the compost after 42 days of thermophilic composting indicates the involvement of a mesophilic microbial-mediated degradation; however, further studies are required to confirm the direct microbial involvement in the degradation of antibiotics.

  11. Modeling of carbon and nitrogen gaseous emissions from cattle manure compost windrows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Windrow composting of cattle manure is a significant source of gaseous emissions, which include ammonia (NH3) and the greenhouse gases (GHGs) of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). A manure compost model was developed to simulate carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) processes includ...

  12. Effects of pH and microbial composition on odour in food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Cecilia; Yu, Dan; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid; Kauppi, Sari; Smårs, Sven; Insam, Heribert; Romantschuk, Martin; Jönsson, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    A major problem for composting plants is odour emission. Slow decomposition during prolonged low-pH conditions is a frequent process problem in food waste composting. The aim was to investigate correlations between low pH, odour and microbial composition during food waste composting. Samples from laboratory composting experiments and two large scale composting plants were analysed for odour by olfactometry, as well as physico-chemical and microbial composition. There was large variation in odour, and samples clustered in two groups, one with low odour and high pH (above 6.5), the other with high odour and low pH (below 6.0). The low-odour samples were significantly drier, had lower nitrate and TVOC concentrations and no detectable organic acids. Samples of both groups were dominated by Bacillales or Actinobacteria, organisms which are often indicative of well-functioning composting processes, but the high-odour group DNA sequences were similar to those of anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic species, not to typical thermophilic composting species. High-odour samples also contained Lactobacteria and Clostridia, known to produce odorous substances. A proposed odour reduction strategy is to rapidly overcome the low pH phase, through high initial aeration rates and the use of additives such as recycled compost.

  13. Effects of pulp mill solids and three composts on early growth of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Levy, J Simone; Taylor, Barry R

    2003-09-01

    Compost has been proposed as a means of simultaneously diverting organic materials from landfills while producing a valuable product that improves tilth, organic matter content and nutrient supply of agricultural soils. Composts manufactured from different source materials may have markedly different properties however, even if they meet all regulatory requirements. We compared the capacity of composts made from three different combinations of organic wastes (horse manure and bedding, mink farm wastes, municipal solid waste (MSW) and sewage sludge) along with clarifier solids from a chemo-thermomechanical pulp mill, to enhance the growth of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seedlings grown in nutrient-poor organic potting soil. Germination and seedling emergence of tomatoes, cress (Lapidium sativum L.) or radish (Raphanus sativus L.) were tested to assess phytotoxicity of the four amendments. Mink farm compost and horse manure compost stimulated root and shoot growth of tomato seedlings but MSW compost and pulp mill solids were strongly inhibitory. MSW compost and unamended potting soil also inhibited seedling emergence and pulp mill solids produced stunting and deformities in radish and cress seedlings. Both toxic constituents and nutrient imbalances may be responsible for the growth-inhibiting effects of these amendments. Application of pulp mill solids to agricultural soil without composting may lead to deleterious effects on vegetable crops.

  14. Utilization of solar energy in sewage sludge composting: Fertilizer effect and application

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yiqun; Yu, Fang; Liang, Shengwen; Wang, Zongping Liu, Zizheng; Xiong, Ya

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Solar energy technologies were utilized in aerobic sewage sludge composting. • Greenhouse and solar reactors were constructed to compare impacts on the composting. • Impatiens balsamina was planted in pot experiments to evaluate fertilizer effect. - Abstract: Three reactors, ordinary, greenhouse, and solar, were constructed and tested to compare their impacts on the composting of municipal sewage sludge. Greenhouse and solar reactors were designed to evaluate the use of solar energy in sludge composting, including their effects on temperature and compost quality. After 40 days of composting, it was found that the solar reactor could provide more stable heat for the composting process. The average temperature of the solar reactor was higher than that of the other two systems, and only the solar reactor could maintain the temperature above 55 °C for more than 3 days. Composting with the solar reactor resulted in 31.3% decrease in the total organic carbon, increased the germination index to 91%, decreased the total nitrogen loss, and produced a good effect on pot experiments.

  15. Oxygen respirometry to assess stability and maturity of composted municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Iannotti, D.A.; Grebus, M.E.; Toth, B.L.; Madden, L.V.; Hoitink, A.J.

    1994-11-01

    The stability and maturity of compost prepared from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a full-scale composting plant was assessed through chemical, physical, and biological assays. Respiration bioassays used to determine stability (O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} respirometry) were sensitive to process control problems at the composting plant and indicated increasing stability with time. Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth bioassays revealed that immature compost samples inhibited growth. Growth of ryegrass in potting mix prepared with cured compost not amended with fertilizer was enhanced as compared to a pest control. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) seed germination, used as an indicator of phytotoxicity, revealed inhibition of germination at all compost maturity levels. The phytotoxicity was though to be salt-related. Spearman rank-order correlations demonstrated that O{sub 2} respirometry, water-soluble organic C, and the water extract organic C to organic N ratio, significantly correlated with compost age and best indicated an acceptable level of stability. Oxygen respirometry also best predicted the potential for ryegrass growth, and an acceptable level of compost maturity. 31 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Nitrogen conservation and acidity control during food wastes composting through struvite formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Chan, Manting; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2013-11-01

    One of the main problems of food waste composting is the intensive acidification due to initial rapid fermentation that retards decomposition efficiency. Lime addition overcame this problem, but resulted in significant loss of nitrogen as ammonia that reduces the nutrient contents of composts. Therefore, this study investigated the feasibility of struvite formation as a strategy to control pH and reduce nitrogen loss during food waste composting. MgO and K2HPO4 were added to food waste in different molar ratios (P1, 1:1; P2, 1:2), and composted in 20-L composters. Results indicate that K2HPO4 buffered the pH in treatment P2 besides supplementing phosphate into the compost. In P2, organic decomposition reached 64% while the formation of struvite effectively reduced the nitrogen loss from 40.8% to 23.3% during composting. However, electrical conductivity of the compost increased due to the addition of Mg and P salts that requires further investigation to improve this technology.

  17. Effect of vermiculite addition on compost produced from Korean food wastes.

    PubMed

    Seo, J Y; Heo, J S; Kim, T H; Joo, W H; Crohn, D M

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of vermiculite addition on composting food wastes from Korean households, food wastes were composted in three small bins to which different additives were added. The following three bins were employed: in Case I, only recycled compost was composted; in Case II, food wastes with recycled compost; and in Case III, food wastes with recycled compost and vermiculite. In the experiment performed for 30 days, it was confirmed that the supplementary addition of vermiculite to the composting mixture did not significantly improve the weight loss rate and the decomposition rate of food wastes. Due to dilution through the use of inorganic vermiculite, the vermiculite addition reduced the organic matter concentration of the composting mixtures. Vermiculite addition did not raise the pH value. Weight losses of roughly 70% were observed based on calculating moisture loss as well as dry food waste loss and not considering additives, while dry food waste loss was 29.4% and 35.8% with and without the addition of vermiculite, respectively. For these experiments, the major portion of the weight loss was the loss of water. The results indicate a need to differentiate between weight loss percentages and decomposition percentages, and a need to indicate if either of these percentages includes or excludes the mass of additives.

  18. Effects of raw materials and bulking agents on the thermophilic composting process.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jing-Chun; Zhou, Qixing; Katayama, Arata

    2010-05-01

    Three typical biological solid wastes, animal manure, garbage, and sewage sludge, were compared with regard for the composting process and the changes in microbial community structure. The effect of different bulking agents such as rice straw, vermiculite, sawdust, and waste paper were compared in manure compost. The differences in the microbial community were characterized by the quinone profile method. The highest mass reduction was found in garbage composting (56.8%), compared to manure and sludge at 25% and 20.2%, respectively. A quinone content of 305.2 micromol/kg was observed in the late stage of garbage composting, although the diversity index of quinone profile was 9.7, lower than that in manure composting. The predominant quinone species were found to be MK-7, which corresponds to gram positive bacteria with low G+C content such as Bacillus. The predominance of MK-7 was especially found in garbage and sludge composting process, while the increase in quinones with partially saturated long side chain was shown in late composting process of manure, which corresponded to the proliferation of Actinobacteria. The effect of different bulking agents on the composting process was much smaller than the effect of different raw materials. High organic matter content in the raw materials results in a higher microbial biomass and activity, which was connected to the high mass reduction rate.

  19. Co-composting of filter cake and bagasse; by-products from a sugar mill.

    PubMed

    Meunchang, Sompong; Panichsakpatana, Supamard; Weaver, Richard W

    2005-03-01

    Thailand has nearly 2 million tonnes of filter cake waste containing 1.8% total N from the sugar cane industry to dispose of annually. Compost studies were conducted to determine how rapidly this material can be converted to a stable product that may be useful in crop production, and to characterize the N transformations. Two kinds of sugar mill by-products were composted, filter cake and filter cake mixed with bagasse, at a 2:1 ratio to reduce the C:N ratio in an attempt to reduce N loss during composting. Materials were mixed manually at 3-5 day intervals during the composting process. Both composts were analyzed at least weekly to measure temperature, pH, NH4+, NO3-, total N content, C loss, and germination index. For both mixtures, the thermophilic stage lasted 15-20 days and was higher than ambient for nearly 80 days. The degradation of organic matter (OM) was rapid in both mixtures to approximately 40 days, after which it began to stabilize. Both mixtures achieved maturity at approximately 90 days as indicated by a stable C/N, low NH4+/NO3-, lack of heat production and a germination index higher than 80%. Mixing filter cake with bagasse helped conserve N during composting. Because N was in excess, approximately 12-15% was lost from the composts. Mixing more bagasse with the filter cake may result in further reduction in N losses. Both composts have potential for use in crop production.

  20. A New Operation for Producing Disease-Suppressive Compost from Grass Clippings

    PubMed Central

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hiraoka, Sachiko; Nagata, Hiroyuki

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of grass clippings discharged from golf courses as the raw material for production of a suppressive compost to control Rhizoctonia large-patch disease in mascarene grass. Bacillus subtilis N4, a mesophilic bacterium with suppressive effects on the pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2, was used as an inoculum in a procedure developed with the aim of controlling composting temperatures and inoculation timing. The population density of mesophilic bacteria in the raw material was reduced to around 5 log10 CFU/g (dry weight) of composting material in the self-heating reaction at the initial stage of composting by maintaining a temperature of 80°C for 1 day. The inoculum was applied immediately, and the composting material was maintained at 40°C for 3 days. This served both to highly concentrate the suppressive bacterium and to achieve sporulation. The temperature was then raised to 60°C and maintained, enabling hygienic, high-speed composting while maintaining the population density of the suppressive bacterium as high as 8 log10 CFU/g (dry weight) in the compost. The suppressiveness of compost made in this way was confirmed in a turf grass disease prevention assay. PMID:9758834

  1. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting.

    PubMed Central

    Strom, P F

    1985-01-01

    Continuously thermophilic composting was examined with a 4.5-liter reactor placed in an incubator maintained at representative temperatures. Feed was a mixture of dried table scraps and shredded newspaper wetted to 55% moisture. One run at 49 degrees C (run A) employed a 1:4 feed-to-compost ratio, while the other runs used a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 50, 55, 60, or 65 degrees C. Due to self-heating, internal temperatures of the composting mass were 0 to 7 degrees C hotter than the incubator. Two full-scale composting plants (at Altoona, Pa., and Leicester, England) were also examined. Plate counts per gram (dry weight) on Trypticase soy broth (BBL Microbiology Systems) with 2% agar ranged from 0.7 X 10(9) to 5.3 X 10(9) for laboratory composting and 0.02 X 10(9) to 7.4 X 10(9) for field composting. Fifteen taxa were isolated, including 10 of genus Bacillus, which dominated all samples except that from run A. Species diversity decreased markedly in laboratory composting at 60 degrees C and above, but was similar for the three runs incubated at 49, 50, and 55 degrees C. The maximum desirable composting temperature based on species diversity is thus 60 degrees C, the same as that previously recommended based on measures of the rate of decomposition. PMID:4083885

  2. Denitrification in soil amended with thermophile-fermented compost suppresses nitrate accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Kazuto; Ohmori, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Ito, Toshiyuki; Kumagai, Yoshifumi; Sonoda, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Jirou; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2013-02-01

    NO (3) (-) is a major nitrogen source for plant nutrition, and plant cells store NO (3) (-) in their vacuoles. Here, we report that a unique compost made from marine animal resources by thermophiles represses NO (3) (-) accumulation in plants. A decrease in the leaf NO (3) (-) content occurred in parallel with a decrease in the soil NO (3) (-) level, and the degree of the soil NO (3) (-) decrease was proportional to the compost concentration in the soil. The compost-induced reduction of the soil NO (3) (-) level was blocked by incubation with chloramphenicol, indicating that the soil NO (3) (-) was reduced by chloramphenicol-sensitive microbes. The compost-induced denitrification activity was assessed by the acetylene block method. To eliminate denitrification by the soil bacterial habitants, soil was sterilized with γ irradiation and then compost was amended. After the 24-h incubation, the N(2)O level in the compost soil with presence of acetylene was approximately fourfold higher than that in the compost soil with absence of acetylene. These results indicate that the low NO (3) (-) levels that are often found in the leaves of organic vegetables can be explained by compost-mediated denitrification in the soil.

  3. Biological nutrient transformation during composting of pig manure and paper waste.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Karthikeyan, Obulisamy P; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2017-03-01

    Composting of pig manure is a challenging task that requires appropriate co-substrate and bulking agent to provide optimum composting conditions and reduce nitrogen loss. In this study, paper waste is co-composted with pig manure as well as wood chips as the bulking agents. These raw materials were mixed at three different ratios of paper: pig manure: wood chips = 1:1:0 (pile 1), 3:2:1 (pile 2) and 3:1:1(pile 3), respectively. Each composting pile was about 11 m(3) in size equipped with negative-pressure forced aeration. The temperature of all the three piles ranged between 43 and 76°C and therefore produced pathogen-free compost. The overall total carbon reduction of 39%, 36% and 36% were achieved from pile 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The [Formula: see text] increased with the composting period, indicating the transformation of ammoniacal-N into nitrate by nitrification activity. However, all three piles showed significant variations in soluble [Formula: see text] at different stages of composting, which could be due to the microbial assimilation and mineralization. The results revealed that the co-composting of pig manure, paper along with wood chips was optimum under the mixing ratio of 3:2:1 (pile 2).

  4. Windrow composting as horticultural waste management strategy - A case study in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Gavilanes-Terán, Irene; Jara-Samaniego, Janneth; Idrovo-Novillo, Julio; Bustamante, Ma Angeles; Moral, Raúl; Paredes, Concepción

    2016-02-01

    In Ecuador, enormous quantities of vegetable wastes are produced annually from the horticultural industries. Composting can be a feasible treatment to stabilise horticultural wastes and, thus, to improve their properties for use as organic fertilisers. In this study, two different piles were prepared, using laying hen manure and sawdust mixed with broccoli or tomato waste, respectively, and composted by the turned windrow composting system. Throughout the composting process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and physico-chemical and chemical properties and the degree of maturity were determined. Also, principal component analysis was used to interpret the data set of compost characteristics. In both piles, the temperature exceeded 55°C for more than 2weeks, which ensured maximum pathogen reduction. Organic matter (OM) losses followed a first-order kinetic equation in both piles. The final composts showed a suitable degree of stability and maturity and an absence of phytotoxins, as observed in the evolution and final values of the total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (Corg/NT<20), water-soluble organic carbon (Cw<1.7%), germination index (GI>50%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC>67meq (100g OM)(-1)). As well, the evolution of different humification indexes during composting was a good indicator of the OM humification process. The type of vegetable waste used influenced OM and NT mineralisation and the final properties of the composts, showing the mixture with tomato waste a higher fertilising capacity and less environmental problems.

  5. Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system.

    PubMed

    Hua, Li; Chen, Yingxu; Wu, Weixiang; Ma, Hongrui

    2011-04-01

    Microorganism communities and chemical characteristics in sludge-bamboo charcoal composting system were investigated to find the effect of bamboo charcoal on composting. According to a plate count test, abundances of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes in the treatment with bamboo charcoal were several times higher than those in treatment without bamboo charcoal. In addition, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis indicated that the bacterial community diversity in treatment with bamboo charcoal was greater than that of the control. Both results demonstrated that amendment with bamboo charcoal can increase microorganism population and microorganism community diversity in a sludge composting system. Moreover, the results of FTIR spectroscopy disclosed that aerobic composting can promote the formation of surface acid groups on bamboo charcoal. These surface acid groups may deprotonate and react with NH4+ to form stable complexes. Therefore, the increase of functional groups accompanied with greater assimilation of nitrogen by microorganisms could reduce nitrogen loss in sludge composting.

  6. Composting domestic sewage sludge with natural zeolites in a rotary drum reactor.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, J; Rodríguez, L; Fernández, F J

    2011-01-01

    This work aimed the influence of zeolites addition on a sludge-straw composting process using a pilot-scale rotary drum reactor. The type and concentration of three commercial natural zeolites were considered: a mordenite and two clinoptilolites (Klinolith and Zeocat). Mordenite caused the greatest carbon removal (58%), while the clinoptilolites halved losses of ammonium. All zeolites removed 100% of Ni, Cr, Pb, and significant amounts (more than 60%) of Cu, Zn and Hg. Zeocat displayed the greatest retention of ammonium and metals, and retention efficiencies increased as Zeocat concentration increased. The addition of 10% Zeocat produced compost compliant with Spanish regulations. Zeolites were separated from the final compost, and leaching studies suggested that zeolites leachates contained very low metals concentrations (<1 mg/kg). Thus, the final compost could be applied directly to soil, or metal-polluted zeolites could be separated from the compost prior to application. The different options have been discussed.

  7. Involvement of microbial populations during the composting of olive mill wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Abid, N; Chamkha, M; Godon, J J; Sayadi, S

    2007-07-01

    Olive mill waste water sludge obtained by the electro-Fenton oxidation of olive mill waste water was composted in a bench scale reactor. The evolution of microbial species within the composter was investigated using a respirometric test and by means of both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism, PCR SSCP). During the period of high respiration rate (7-24 days), cultivation method showed that thermophilic bacteria as well as actinomycetes dominated over eumycetes. During the composting process, the PCR-SSCP method showed a higher diversity of the bacterial community than the eukaryotic one. After 60 days of composting, the compost exhibited a microbial stability and a clear absence of phytotoxicity.

  8. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-12-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey's test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06.

  9. Dynamics of the chemical composition and productivity of composts for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus strains

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Meire Cristina Nogueira; de Jesus, João Paulo Furlan; Vieira, Fabrício Rocha; Viana, Sthefany Rodrigues Fernandes; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet; de Almeida Minhoni, Marli Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Two compost formulations based on oat straw (Avena sativa) and brachiaria (Brachiaria sp.) were tested for the cultivation of three Agaricus bisporus strains (ABI-07/06, ABI-05/03, and PB-1). The experimental design was a 2 × 3 factorial scheme (composts × strains) with 6 treatments and 8 repetitions (boxes containing 12 kg of compost). The chemical characterization of the compost (humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, pH, raw protein, ethereal extract, fibers, ash, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin) before and after the cultivation of A. bisporus and the production (basidiomata mass, productivity, and biological efficiency) were evaluated. Data were submitted to variance analysis, and averages were compared by means of the Tukey’s test. According to the results obtained, the chemical and production characteristics showed that the best performances for the cultivation of A. bisporus were presented by the compost based on oat and the strain ABI-07/06. PMID:24688503

  10. Transgene and mitochondrial DNA are indicators of efficient composting of transgenic pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Murray, Dave; Meidinger, Roy G; Golovan, Serguei P; Phillips, John P; O'Halloran, Ivan P; Fan, Ming Z; Hacker, Roger R; Forsberg, Cecil W

    2007-07-01

    Composting is an environmentally sound method for the disposal of on-farm livestock mortalities that generates material suitable for use as fertilizer; however, this method is not generally permitted for disposal of transgenic livestock mortalities during the research and development phase. This study has explored the application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a method for assessing the persistence of transgene and mitochondrial DNA markers during the composting of euthanized transgenic pig. There was at least a 10(7) fold reduction of genetic material to a level that not either transgene or mitochondrion markers were detectable. At the end of the composting period, only bone fragments that were completely demineralised and chalky were detected. Chemically the compost was similar to that from pig litter and poultry mortalities, except the copper content was lower. Based on these data, composting appears to be an appropriate method for the disposal of transgenic animals.

  11. Composting of cow dung and crop residues using termite mounds as bulking agent.

    PubMed

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Paul, Ranjit K; Das, Sampa; Boruah, R K; Dutta, Amrit K; Das, Dilip K

    2014-10-01

    The present study reports the suitability of termite mounds as a bulking agent for composting with crop residues and cow dung in pit method. Use of 50 kg termite mound with the crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65 kg; soybean: 354.59 kg; potato: 357.67 kg and mustard: 373.19 kg) and cow dung (84.90 kg) formed a good quality compost within 70 days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 20.19, 3.78 and 32.77 g kg(-1) respectively with a bulk density of 0.85 g cm(-3). Other physico-chemical and germination parameters of the compost were within Indian standard, which had been confirmed by the application of multivariate analysis of variance and multivariate contrast analysis. Principal component analysis was applied in order to gain insight into the characteristic variables. Four composting treatments formed two different groups when hierarchical cluster analysis was applied.

  12. Impact of biodegradation of organic matters on ammonia oxidation in compost.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yang; De Guardia, Amaury; Ziebal, Christine; De Macedo, Flávia Junqueira; Dabert, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Nitrification plays an important role in nitrogen turnover in composting process. It has been believed that nitrification occurs mainly during the maturation phase due to the elevated temperature during the active phase of composting. In this work, the intense biodegradation of organic matters is demonstrated to be another negative impact on the ammonia oxidation, the first step of nitrification. We investigated the ammonia oxidation in compost following organic matters addition at intermediate temperature. Different indicators of ammonia oxidation were studied, respectively. The accumulation of nitrite and nitrate was 10(2)-10(3) lower in composts with organic matters addition. The nitrous oxide emissions were absent or 40-fold inferior in these composts. The nitrogen mass balance indicated a less amount of oxidized ammonia after the addition. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria declined following the organic matters addition. In contrast, the ammonia-oxidizing archaea were supported by the organic matters. Possible mechanisms of this impact were also discussed.

  13. Compost: its role, mechanism and impact on reducing soil-borne plant diseases.

    PubMed

    Mehta, C M; Palni, Uma; Franke-Whittle, I H; Sharma, A K

    2014-03-01

    Soil-borne plant pathogens are responsible for causing many crop plant diseases, resulting in significant economic losses. Compost application to agricultural fields is an excellent natural approach, which can be taken to fight against plant pathogens. The application of organic waste products is also an environmentally friendly alternative to chemical use, which unfortunately is the most common approach in agriculture today. This review analyses pioneering and recent compost research, and also the mechanisms and mode of action of compost microbial communities for reducing the activity of plant pathogens in agricultural crops. In addition, an approach for improving the quality of composts through the microbial communities already present in the compost is presented. Future agricultural practices will almost definitely require integrated research strategies to help combat plant diseases.

  14. Influence of lime on struvite formation and nitrogen conservation during food waste composting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at investigating the feasibility of supplementing lime with struvite salts to reduce ammonia emission and salinity consequently to accelerate the compost maturity. Composting was performed in 20-L bench-scale reactors for 35days using artificial food waste mixed with sawdust at 1.2:1 (w/w dry basis), and Mg and P salts (MgO and K2HPO4, respectively). Nitrogen loss was significantly reduced from 44.3% to 27.4% during composting through struvite formation even with the addition of lime. Lime addition significantly reduced the salinity to less than 4mS/cm with a positive effect on improving compost maturity. Thus addition of both lime and struvite salts synergistically provide advantages to buffer the pH, reduce ammonia emission and salinity, and accelerate food waste composting.

  15. Date palm and the activated sludge co-composting actinobacteria sanitization potential.

    PubMed

    El Fels, Loubna; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhdouch, Yedir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find a connection between the development of the compost actinobacteria and the potential involvement of antagonistic thermophilic actinomycetes in compost sanitization as high temperature additional role. An abundance of actinobacteria and coliforms during the activated sludge and date palm co-composting is determined. Hundred actinomycete isolates were isolated from the sample collected at different composting times. To evaluate the antagonistic effects of the different recovered actinomycete isolates, several wastewater-linked microorganisms known as human and plant potential pathogens were used. The results showed that 12 isolates have an in vitro inhibitory effect on at least 9 of the indicator microorganisms while only 4 active strains inhibit all these pathogens. The antimicrobial activities of sterilized composting time extracts are also investigated.

  16. Effects of Cu on metabolisms and enzyme activities of microbial communities in the process of composting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xingliang; Gu, Jie; Gao, Hua; Qin, Qingjun; Chen, Zhixue; Shao, Li; Chen, Lin; Li, Hailong; Zhang, Weijuan; Chen, Shengnan; Liu, Jiang

    2012-03-01

    With the compost matrix of pig manure, wheat straw, and spent mushroom substrate, and then inoculated with the Compound Microbe Preparation, the study investigated the effects of the heavy metal Cu on the process of composting. Biolog EcoPlate™ test revealed that at a low content, Cu could improve the capacities of microbial communities to transform and exploit carbon sources in the form of polymer, thus speeding up the decomposition of agricultural wastes, and at a high content, Cu presented inhibiting effect on microbial communities to exploit complex macromolecular carbon sources, thus extending the decomposition of agricultural wastes. Enzyme activity testing showed that at a low content, Cu presented enzyme activity-activating effect at the early period of composting and inhibiting effect in the late period of composting, and at a high content, Cu presented enzyme activity-inhibiting effects through the process of composting.

  17. Dynamics of bacterial microbiota during lignocellulosic waste composting: Studies upon its structure, functionality and biodiversity.

    PubMed

    López-González, J A; Suárez-Estrella, F; Vargas-García, M C; López, M J; Jurado, M M; Moreno, J

    2015-01-01

    An intensive isolation program carried out in three replicated composting piles allowed the identification of the resident and transient components of the composting microbiome. More than 4000 bacterial strains were isolated, enzymatically characterized and identified by partial sequencing of their 16S rRNA gene. While microorganisms isolated under mesophilic conditions were prominent throughout the process, thermophilic stages gathered the highest total counts and spore-forming bacteria prevailed at the bio-oxidative phase of composting. Enzymatic capabilities related to the degradation of polymeric materials were exhibited by most of the isolates and as a result of these activities, more soluble compounds could be made available to the entire composting microbiota. A high proportion of isolates showed to be thermotolerant as they were detected at mesophilic and thermophilic phases. Isolated strains belonged to 187 bacterial species. Biodiversity was greater at the central stages of composting and mesophilic, thermophilic and cooling phases shared 50% of species.

  18. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  19. Reduction of cadmium uptake in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) by soil amendment with animal waste compost.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroyuki; Oyanagi, Wataru; Nishihara, Eiji; Murakami, Masaharu

    2010-09-15

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of animal waste compost (AWC) in reducing Cd uptake by spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Spinach was grown in a field that had been treated by having cattle, swine, or poultry waste compost incorporated into the soil before each crop throughout 4 years of rotational vegetable production. Cadmium concentration was 34-38% lower in spinach harvested from the AWC-treated soils than in the chemical fertilizer-treated soil. Although the repeated application of swine and poultry compost caused significant P accumulation in the cropped soils, that of cattle compost did not. These results indicate that cattle compost with high affinity for Cd and low P content should be the preferred soil amendment when used to reduce Cd uptake by spinach.

  20. Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants

    PubMed Central

    García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

  1. [Corn straw composting in the field and in situ fertilizer effect].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Zhang, Chang-hua; Liang, Yong-jiang; Chen, Qi-di; Shi, Jun-xiong; Du, Ru-wan; Luo, Jian-jun; Yuan, Ling

    2014-12-01

    According to the fact that corn straws remain or burned in the field in hilly and mountainous areas of Southwest China, which causes organic matter waste and serious atmospheric pollution, it is necessary to develop an efficient method to compost the corn straws. In the present experiment, corn straws were placed on the landside and land corner for composting with thermophilic cellulous bacteria inoculated, chemical nitrogen and nitrogen absorption agent added, and then covered with polyethylene film (bio-composting). Thereafter, flue-cured tobacco grown in the same land was fertilized with the compost to study the fertilizer effect. The results showed that the temperature in bio-compost increased quickly (over than 35 degrees C within 2 to 3 days) but decreased slowly compared to natural composting (control). In the bio-compost, temperature over than 50 degrees C lasted for about 15 days and the number of bacteria was 100 to 1000 times higher than in the control de- spite that microbial groups decreased in the high temperature period. After 90 days of bio-composting, corn straws contained water less than 25% with pH 6. 14 and showed brown or black color and fragmental or farinose physical state, indicating good decomposition and humification. Meanwhile, the active organic matter and nutrients, including N, P and K, were significantly increased. The yield, mean price, economical output of flue-cured tobacco leaves were increased and the leaf quality was improved by application of chemical fertilizers plus the compost at the ratio of 1:1. Therefore, bio-composting could utilize efficiently corn straws and eliminate air pollution, which is worth popularization in hilly and mountain areas.

  2. [Degradation of oxytetracycline in chicken feces aerobic-composting and its effects on their related parameters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Gui-Zhen; Li, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Qing; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Liang, Yong-Chao

    2013-02-01

    In order to illustrate the degradation of tetracyclines (TCs) and their influences on process parameters during the period of chicken feces aerobic-composting, the degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), a kind of TCs and its effects on parameters during the period of chick feces aerobic-composting including temperature, pH, and germination index were investigated using the method of aerobic-composting. The contents of OTC decreased gradually with composting time. The degradation rate was high before 10 d, and then decreased gradually. The differences in OTC degradation among the OTC treatments were also found. The degradation rate of OTC was higher at the level of 25 mg.kg-1, than that of other levels. The degradation curve of OTC could be described by the first-order kinetic model, and the correlation coefficients ranged from 0. 911 1 to 0. 9913. The impacts of OTC on chick feces composting were found. OTC could decrease the rising rate of composting temperature and make the high temperature (> or =50 degrees C) period shorter than that of the control. The values of pH, TN, WSC, and the content of NH: -N of composting were 4.58%, 12.62%, 49.06%, and 35.30% higher than those of the control. The impacts of OTC on maturity of chicken feces composting was not found when the OTC addition contents were lower than 50 mg.kg-1. However, the strong impacts of OTC on maturity of chicken feces composting were found when the OTC addition contents were higher than 50 mg.kg-1. The rates of NH+4 -N to NO-3 -N, and GI were much higher than 0. 5 and lower than 80% , respectively. Theses results suggest that OTC have strong impacts on chicken feces composting when the contents of TOC was higher than 50 mg.kg-1, although OTC have the short half-life period ranged from 1.79-4.88 d.

  3. Evolution of enzymatic activities and carbon fractions throughout composting of plant waste.

    PubMed

    Jurado, M M; Suárez-Estrella, F; Vargas-García, M C; López, M J; López-González, J A; Moreno, J

    2014-01-15

    Many alternatives for the proper disposal of horticultural plant wastes have been studied, and composting is one of the most attractive due to its insignificant environmental impact and low cost. The quality of compost for agronomical use is related to the degree of organic matter maturation and stabilization. Traditional parameters as well as temperature, ratio C/N, cationic exchange capacity, extractable carbon, or evolution of humificated substances have been successfully used to assess compost maturity and stability. However, microorganisms frequently isolated during composting release a wide range of hydrolytic enzymes, whose activity could apparently give interesting information on the rate of decomposition of organic matter and, therefore, on the product stability. The aim of this work was to study the evolution of some important enzymatic activities during composting of agricultural wastes and their comparison with other chemical parameters commonly employed as quality and maturity indexes, to establish a relationship between the degradation intensity of specific organic carbon fractions throughout the process. In this work, the chemical and biochemical parameters of plant wastes were studied along a composting process of 189 days to evaluate their importance as tools for compost characterization. Results showed an intense enzymatic activity during the first 2-3 weeks of composting (bio-oxidative phase), because of the availability of easily decomposable organic compounds. From a biological point of view, a less intense phase was observed between second and third month of composting (mesophilic or cooling phase). Finally, chemical humification parameters were more closely associated with the period between 119 and 189 days (maturation phase). Significant correlations between the enzymatic activities as well as between enzyme activities and other more traditional parameters were also highlighted, indicating that both kind of indexes can be a reliable tool to

  4. Housefly maggot-treated composting as sustainable option for pig manure management.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Wang, Su-Juan; Du, Rong-Guang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Hong, Chun-Lai; Qi, Bing; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Yang, Hong-Quan

    2015-01-01

    In traditional composting, large amounts of bulking agents must be added to reduce the moisture of pig manure, which increases the cost of composting and dilutes the N, P and K content in organic fertilizers. In this study, maggot treatment was used in composting instead of bulking agents. In experiment of selecting an optimal inoculum level for composting, the treatment of 0.5% maggot inoculum resulted in the maximum yield of late instar maggots, 11.6% (maggots weight/manure weight). The manure residue became noticeably granular by day 6 and its moisture content was below 60%, which was suitable for further composting without bulking agents. Moreover, in composting experiment with a natural compost without maggot inoculum and maggot-treated compost at 0.5% inoculum level, there were no significant differences in nutrient content between the two organic fertilizers from the two treatments (paired Student's t15=1.0032, P=0.3317). Therefore, maggot culturing did not affect the characteristics of the organic fertilizer. The content of TNPK (total nitrogen+total phosphorus+total potassium) in organic fertilizer from maggot treatment was 10.72% (dry weight), which was far more than that of organic fertilizer made by conventional composting with bulking agents (about 8.0%). Dried maggots as feed meet the national standard (GB/T19164-2003) for commercial fish meal in China, which contained 55.32 ± 1.09% protein; 1.34 ± 0.02% methionine; 4.15 ± 0.10% lysine. This study highlights housefly maggot-treated composting can be considered sustainable alternatives for pig manure management to achieve high-quality organic fertilizer and maggots as feed without bulking agents.

  5. Prediction of changes in important physical parameters during composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Md Albarune; de Neergaard, Andreas; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-01-01

    Solid-liquid separation of animal slurry, with solid fractions used for composting, has gained interest recently. However, efficient composting of separated animal slurry solid fractions (SSFs) requires a better understanding of the process dynamics in terms of important physical parameters and their interacting physical relationships in the composting matrix. Here we monitored moisture content, bulk density, particle density and air-filled porosity (AFP) during composting of SSF collected from four commercially available solid-liquid separators. Composting was performed in laboratory-scale reactors for 30 days (d) under forced aeration and measurements were conducted on the solid samples at the beginning of composting and at 10-d intervals during composting. The results suggest that differences in initial physical properties of SSF influence the development of compost maximum temperatures (40-70 degreeC). Depending on SSF, total wet mass and volume losses (expressed as % of initial value) were up to 37% and 34%, respectively. After 30 d of composting, relative losses of total solids varied from 17.9% to 21.7% and of volatile solids (VS) from 21.3% to 27.5%, depending on SSF. VS losses in all composts showed different dynamics as described by the first-order kinetic equation. The estimated component particle density of 1441 kg m-3 for VS and 2625 kg m-3 for fixed solids can be used to improve estimates of AFP for SSF within the range tested. The linear relationship between wet bulk density and AFP reported by previous researchers held true for SSF.

  6. Phytoavailability and fractions of iron and manganese in calcareous soil amended with composted urban wastes.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Lara, Francisco; Azcón, Mariano; Polo, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of applying composted urban wastes on the phytoavailability and distribution of iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) among chemical fractions in soil. In order to study this concern several experiments in pots containing calcareous soil were carried out. The received treatments by adding separately two rates (20 and 80 Mg ha-1) of municipal solid waste (MSW) compost and/or municipal solid waste and sewage sludge (MSW-SS) co-compost. The cropping sequence was a lettuce crop followed by a barley crop. It was observed that treatments amended with composted urban wastes tended to promote slight increases in lettuce yield compared to the control. The highest Fe levels in lettuce were found when higher rates of MSW-SS co-compost were applied; these values were significant compared to those obtained in the other treatments. In all cases, the application of organic materials increased the concentration and uptake of Mn in lettuce compared to the control; however, these increases were significant only when higher rates of MSW compost were applied. The organic amendments had beneficial delayed effects on barley yields, showing, in most cases, significant increases compared to the control. In this context, treatments with MSW compost were found to be more effective than the equivalent treatments amended with MSW-SS co-compost. Compared to the control, composted urban wastes increased Fe concentration in straw and rachis, and decreased Fe concentration in barley grain. Similarly, a decreased concentration of Mn in the dry matter of barley crop grown in soils treated with composted urban wastes was observed.

  7. Chemical and physical changes following co-composting of beef cattle feedlot manure with phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Zvomuya, Francis; Larney, Francis J; Nichol, Connie K; Olson, Andrew F; Miller, Jim J; Demaere, Paul R

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss during beef cattle (Bos taurus) feedlot manure composting may contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and increase ammonia (NH(3)) in the atmosphere while decreasing the fertilizer value of the final compost. Phosphogypsum (PG) is an acidic by-product of phosphorus (P) fertilizer manufacture and large stockpiles currently exist in Alberta. This experiment examined co-composting of PG (at rates of 0, 40, 70, and 140 kg PG Mg(-1) manure plus PG dry weight) with manure from feedlot pens bedded with straw or wood chips. During the 99-d composting period, PG addition reduced total nitrogen (TN) loss by 0.11% for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate. Available N at the end of composting was significantly higher for wood chip-bedded (2180 mg kg(-1)) than straw-bedded manure treatments (1820 mg kg(-1)). Total sulfur (TS) concentration in the final compost increased by 0.19 g kg(-1) for each 1 kg Mg(-1) increment in PG rate from 5.2 g TS kg(-1) without PG addition. Phosphogypsum (1.6 g kg(-1) P) addition had no significant effect on total phosphorus (TP) concentration of the final composts. Results from this study demonstrate the potential of PG addition to reduce overall N losses during composting. The accompanying increase in TS content has implications for use of the end-product on sulfur-deficient soils. Co-composting feedlot manure with PG may provide an inexpensive and technologically straightforward solution for managing and improving the nutrient composition of composted cattle manure.

  8. Composting for Biocontained Cattle Mortality Disposal and Associated Greenhouse Gas and Leachate Emissions.

    PubMed

    Gilroyed, Brandon H; Conrad, Cheyenne; Hao, Xiying; McAllister, Tim A; Stanford, Kim; Reuter, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Composting can be an effective means of biodegrading livestock mortalities in emergency disposal situations, such as disease outbreaks. Within the past decade, our knowledge detailing composting has increased substantially. However, research data linking the environmental impact of composting to atmospheric and terrestrial systems are limited. We investigated composting efficacy, greenhouse gas emissions, and leachate properties from two static compost piles, each containing 16 cattle mortalities, built with either beef manure (BM) or wood shavings (WS) as envelope material. Wood shavings achieved a greater maximum temperature than BM (60 vs. 50°C) and maintained higher temperatures over 200 d ( < 0.001). Greenhouse gas emissions were evaluated using a static chamber and gas chromatography. Emissions of NO ( < 0.001), CH ( < 0.01), and CO ( < 0.05) were lower from WS than BM, resulting in 3-fold lower total CO equivalent emissions. After 250 d of composting, piles were relocated, and soil cores were taken (i) from beneath the piles, (ii) adjacent to the piles where leachate had accumulated, and (iii) in a control zone without compost exposure. Elevated concentrations of ammonium ( < 0.05) and chloride ( < 0.05) were found in soil beneath both BM and WS. Microbial DNA profiles suggested that leachate from BM compost increased bacterial diversity in soil, maintaining a biological soil impact after pile removal. Degradation of bovine mitochondrial DNA fragments was monitored by polymerase chain reaction. Limited migration of genetic bovine material from compost into soil was observed. Based on the mortalities decomposition and leachate contents, both BM and WS are suitable envelope materials for composting.

  9. Influence of organic matter transformations on the bioavailability of heavy metals in a sludge based compost.

    PubMed

    Ingelmo, Florencio; Molina, Maria José; Soriano, Maria Desamparados; Gallardo, Antonio; Lapeña, Leonor

    2012-03-01

    The agricultural use of anaerobically digested sewage sludge (ADSS) as stable, mature compost implies knowing its total content in heavy metals and their bioavailability. This depends not only on the initial characteristics of the composted substrates but also on the organic matter transformations during composting which may influence the chemical form of the metals and their bioavailability. The objective of this work was to examine the relationships between the changes in the organic matter content and humus fractions, and the bioavailability of heavy metals. A detailed sampling at 0, 14, 84, and 140 days of the composting process was performed to measure C contents in humic acids (HAs), fulvic acids, (FAs) and humin, the total content of Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Cd, and also their distribution into mobile and mobilisable (MB), and low bioavailability (LB) forms. Significant changes of C contents in HA, FA, and Humin, and in the FA/HA, HA/Humin and C(humus)/TOC ratios were observed during composting. The MB and LB fractions of each metal also varied significantly during composting. The MB fraction increased for Zn, Cu, Ni, and Cd, and the LB fraction increased for Pb. Stepwise linear regressions and quadratic curve estimation conducted on the MB and LB fractions of each metal as dependent on the measured organic variables suggested that Zn bioavailability was mainly associated to percentage of C in FAs. Bioavailability of Cu, Ni and Cd during composting was associated to humin and HAs. Pb concentration increased in the LB form, and its variations followed a quadratic function with the C(humus)/TOC ratio. Our results suggest that the composting process renders the metals in more available forms. The main forms of metal binding in the sludge and their availability in the final compost may be better described when metal fractionation obtained in sequential extraction and humus fractionation during composting are considered together.

  10. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization.

  11. New specific indicators for qPCR monitoring of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Olivier; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2011-09-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants are an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants and the consequent potential exposure of nearby residents. This inadequate knowledge is partly due to the fact that there is currently no method for specifically tracing these microorganisms in the air. The objective of this study was to validate the use of microbial groups as indicators of composting bioaerosols by comparing their concentration in air samples, whether impacted by composting activity or not. Three potential microbial indicators were chosen among the core species of composting bioaerosols. They belong to the genus Saccharopolyspora, to the Thermoactinomycetaceae and to the fungus Thermomyces. Quantitative PCR systems using TaqMan probes were designed to quantify each of the three phylotypes in air samples collected outdoors in natural environments and at composting plants. Compost-turning operations at industrial plants resulted in an increase in the concentration of the three phylotypes of at least 2 orders of magnitude when compared to the concentration measured in control samples collected upwind, and of at least 1 order of magnitude compared to the background concentration measured in natural environments unaffected by industrial activity. In conclusion, these three thermophilic phylotypes can be used as indicators of airborne microorganisms emitted by industrial composting plants. They may be particularly relevant in studying the dispersal of bioaerosols around composting plants and the exposure of nearby residents. This is the first time that indicators of compost bioaerosols have been validated by comparing their concentrations in impacted samples to their background levels in natural environments.

  12. Heavy metals and toxic organic pollutants in MSW-composts: Research results on phytoavailability, bioavailability, fate, etc

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.A.; Chaney, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The paper is a review and interpretation of research which has been conducted to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of heavy metals and toxic organic compounds in Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)-composts and sewage sludges. Evaluation of research findings identified a number of pathways by which these contaminants can be transferred from MSW-compost or compost-amended soils to humans, livestock, or wildlife. The pathways consider direct ingestion of compost or compost-amended soil by livestock and children, plant uptake by food or feed crops, and exposure to dust, vapor, and water to which metals and organics have migrated.

  13. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-02-21

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  14. Influence of bulking agents on physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage composting of green waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    A recyclable organic bulking agent (BA) that can be screened and was developed to optimize green waste (GW) composting. This study investigated the use of wood chips (WC) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) and/or composted green waste (CGW) (at 0%, 25%, and 35%) as the BAs in the two-stage composting of GW. The combined addition of WC and CGW improved the conditions of composting process and the quality of compost product in terms of composting temperature, porosity, water retention, particle-size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nitrogen losses, humification indices, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, macro- and micro-nutrient contents, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The compost matured in only 22days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days typically required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting process and the best quality of compost product were obtained with the combined addition of 15% WC and 35% CGW.

  15. Characterization of food waste and bulking agents for composting.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, José; King, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of food waste (FW) and locally available bulking agents (BA) are a prerequisite to optimizing compost recipes. This study measured the variation in FW characteristics (pH, dry matter (DM), carbon (C), wet bulk density and Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)) produced by a restaurant and a community kitchen in downtown Montreal, Canada from May to August 2004. The project also measured the mass of FW produced by another restaurant and a group of 20-48 households, from June to August 2004. Locally available BA (hay, straw, pine wood shavings, cardboard, left over cattle feed and wheat residue pellets) were also characterized to formulate composting recipes based on the FW characteristics observed during a period representative of winter and summer conditions. Residential and restaurant FW characteristics varied significantly over the summer months, although the mass produced remained constant at 0.61 and 0.56 kg capita(-1)day(-1), respectively. In addition, the number of customers served by the restaurant increased by nearly 50% from June to August. The BA with the highest moisture adsorption capacity was found to be the wheat residue pellets, followed by chopped straw. Wheat residue pellets, chopped hay and left over cattle feed all presented a balanced C/N ratio. Wheat residue pellets and wheat straw, chopped hay and cardboard demonstrated neutral pH values. Based on the variable FW characteristics and monthly production rates, the formulation of recipes indicates that compost facilities must be flexible enough to handle seasonal variations of as much as 50% by volume.

  16. Field evaluation of nitrogen availability from fresh and composted manure.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela R; Kelling, Keith A; Rylant, Karen E; Zhu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of manure nitrogen availability to crops is key to ensuring adequate production while minimizing potential adverse environmental impacts. This field study estimated first-year and residual N availability from several manures subjected to various levels of processing, and evaluated the applicability of the pre-sidedress soil N test (PSNT) in fields receiving the different manures using corn (Zea mays L.) as the test crop. Plots received several rates of fresh (FP), dried (DP), or composted (CP) poultry (Gallus gallus domesticus) manure, composted cow (Bos taurus) (CC) manure, ammonium nitrate (AN), or no N. Crop yields and N uptake from plots where CC was applied were undistinguishable from controls in most years, whereas poultry manures significantly increased corn production. Average apparent first-year N availability, as measured by fertilizer equivalence, was 57, 53, 14, and 4% for FP, DP, CP, and CC respectively. Apparent second-year N availability, as measured by relative effectiveness, was 18, 19, 12, and 7% for FP, DP, CP, and CC; however, for CC both first- and second-year estimates of apparent N recovery (ANR) could statistically not be separated from the controls. Apparent nitrogen avail-ability was greater for less processed manures and for CP compared to CC, emphasizing that producers should know the source and level of compost stability when these materials are used as a primary nutrient source. The PSNT successfully (87% correct) identified sites with a critical value of 24 mg kg(-1) that were N sufficient across a variety of N amendments from those that would have benefitted from additional N input.

  17. Composting of waste paint sludge containing melamine resin as affected by nutrients and gypsum addition and microbial inoculation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Chen, Liming; Gao, Lihong; Michel, Frederick C; Wan, Caixia; Li, Yebo; Dick, Warren A

    2012-03-01

    Melamine formaldehyde resins have hard and durable properties and are found in many products, including automobile paints. These resins contain high concentrations of nitrogen and, if properly composted, can yield valuable products. We evaluated the effects of starter compost, nutrients, gypsum and microbial inoculation on composting of paint sludge containing melamine resin. A bench-scale composting experiment was conducted at 55 °C for 91 days and then at 30 °C for an additional 56 days. After 91 days, the composts were inoculated with a mixed population of melamine-degrading microorganisms. Melamine resin degradation after the entire 147 days of composting varied between 73 and 95% for the treatments with inoculation of microorganisms compared to 55-74% for the treatments without inoculation. Degradation was also enhanced by nutrients and gypsum additions. Our results infer that large scale composting of melamine resins in paint sludge is possible.

  18. Microbial inoculum with leachate recirculated cultivation for the enhancement of OFMSW composting.

    PubMed

    Ming, Li; Xuya, Peng; Youcai, Zhao; Wenchuan, Ding; Huashuai, Cai; Guotao, Liu; Zhengsong, Wu

    2008-05-01

    Traditional composting operation may take over 2 weeks for the primary stage. The enhancement of the composting process will shorten the operation time and thus reduce the composting space and production costs. In this work, a microbial inoculum originated from the MSW leachate was used for the enhancement of the biodegradation of organic fractions of MSW (namely OFMSW hereinafter) in the composting process. The leachate generated from OFMSW composting was cultivated in the presence of foreign nutritions of beef extract, peptone, K(2)HPO(4) and CaCO(3), respectively. The rough microbial inoculum was then harvested from the cultivated leachate and employed for the enhancement of OFMSW composting. One percent of the rough inoculum was mixed with 99% of the organic wastes (on wet basis). When the composting process proceeded at Day 7, the leachate thus generated was re-cultivated with the said nutrition and introduced into fresh organic wastes for another 7-day composting; repeating this step and the final generated leachate (namely final inoculum) was used for the fresh organic waste composting process. Seeding effects in terms of composting parameters (temperature, oxygen uptake rate, pH, cellulase, microbial numbers, moisture content, and nitrogen concentrations) were tested and the data were collected as reported in this paper. It was found that the temperature in the composting system seeded with the final inoculum could reach over 55 degrees C for the duration of over 96 h, and the numbers of thermophilic bacteria, actinomyces and molds in the refuse, increased by approximately 100%, 70% and 50%, respectively, after a 20-day primary composting. pH maintained at 7.0 with slight fluctuation, thus facilitating the microbial behaviors of cellulose depletion. Meanwhile, the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and cellulase activity was observed to increase by some 50% and 26%, respectively. The development trend of nitrogen concentrations also indicated that the microorganisms

  19. Composting toilets as a sustainable alternative to urban sanitation – A review

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Chirjiv K. Apul, Defne S.

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: • Composting toilets can be an alternative to flush based sanitation. • Many different composting toilet designs are available. • Composting is affected by moisture content, temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio. • There are many barriers to composting toilets. • Research is needed in science based design of composting toilets. - Abstract: In today’s flush based urban sanitation systems, toilets are connected to both the centralized water and wastewater infrastructures. This approach is not a sustainable use of our water and energy resources. In addition, in the U.S., there is a shortfall in funding for maintenance and upgrade of the water and wastewater infrastructures. The goal of this paper was to review the current knowledge on composting toilets since this technology is decentralized, requires no water, creates a value product (fertilizer) and can possibly reduce the burden on the current infrastructure as a sustainable sanitation approach. We found a large variety of composting toilet designs and categorized the different types of toilets as being self contained or central; single or multi chamber; waterless or with water/foam flush, electric or non-electric, and no-mix or combined collection. Factors reported as affecting the composting process and their optimum values were identified as; aeration, moisture content (50–60%), temperature (40–65 °C), carbon to nitrogen ratio (25–35), pH (5.5–8.0), and porosity (35–50%). Mass and energy balance models have been created for the composting process. However there is a literature gap in the use of this knowledge in design and operation of composting toilets. To evaluate the stability and safety of compost for use as fertilizer, various methods are available and the temperature–time criterion approach is the most common one used. There are many barriers to the use of composting toilets in urban settings including public acceptance, regulations, and lack of knowledge and

  20. In-Vessel Composting of Simulated Long-Term Missions Space-Related Solid Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez-Carias, Abner A.; Sager, John; Krumins, Valdis; Strayer, Richard; Hummerick, Mary; Roberts, Michael S.

    2002-01-01

    Reduction and stabilization of solid wastes generated during space missions is a major concern for the Advanced Life Support - Resource Recovery program at the NASA, Kennedy Space Center. Solid wastes provide substrates for pathogen proliferation, produce strong odor, and increase storage requirements during space missions. A five periods experiment was conducted to evaluate the Space Operation Bioconverter (SOB), an in vessel composting system, as a biological processing technology to reduce and stabilize simulated long-term missions space related solid-wastes (SRSW). For all periods, SRSW were sorted into components with fast (FBD) and slow (SBD) biodegradability. Uneaten food and plastic were used as a major FBD and SBD components, respectively. Compost temperature (C), CO2 production (%), mass reduction (%), and final pH were utilized as criteria to determine compost quality. In period 1, SOB was loaded with a 55% FBD: 45% SBD mixture and was allowed to compost for 7 days. An eleven day second composting period was conducted loading the SOB with 45% pre-composted SRSW and 55% FBD. Period 3 and 4 evaluated the use of styrofoam as a bulking agent and the substitution of regular by degradable plastic on the composting characteristics of SRSW, respectively. The use of ceramic as a bulking agent and the relationship between initial FBD mass and heat production was investigated in period 5. Composting SRSW resulted in an acidic fermentation with a minor increase in compost temperature, low CO2 production, and slightly mass reduction. Addition of styrofoam as a bulking agent and substitution of regular by biodegradable plastic improved the composting characteristics of SRSW, as evidenced by higher pH, CO2 production, compost temperature and mass reduction. Ceramic as a bulking agent and increase the initial FBD mass (4.4 kg) did not improve the composting process. In summary, the SOB is a potential biological technology for reduction and stabilization of mission space

  1. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Brito, L.M.; Mourao, I.; Coutinho, J.; Smith, S.R.

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  2. Recycling and composting demonstration projects for the Memphis region

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D.

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the development and implementation of the project entitled ``Recycling and Composting Demonstration Projects for the Memphis Region.`` The project was funded by the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives. This Project was implemented by the staff of the Special Programs Section of the Memphis and Shelby County Division of Planning and Development. The project began November 1, 1990, and was completed December 31, 1991. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of a variety of solid waste disposal alternatives.

  3. Recycling and composting demonstration projects for the Memphis region

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, D. )

    1992-05-01

    This report documents the development and implementation of the project entitled Recycling and Composting Demonstration Projects for the Memphis Region.'' The project was funded by the Energy Task Force of the Urban Consortium for Technology Initiatives. This Project was implemented by the staff of the Special Programs Section of the Memphis and Shelby County Division of Planning and Development. The project began November 1, 1990, and was completed December 31, 1991. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of a variety of solid waste disposal alternatives.

  4. Predicting biodegradable volatile solids degradation profiles in the composting process.

    PubMed

    Mason, I G

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for the prediction of the pattern of biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) degradation in the composting process. The procedure is based on a re-arrangement of the heat balance around a composting system to numerically solve for the rate of BVS carbon (BVS-C) disappearance. Input data for the model was obtained from composting experiments conducted in a laboratory-scale, constant temperature difference (CTD) reactor simulating a section of an aerated static pile, and using a simulated feedstock comprising ostrich feed, shredded paper, finished compost and woodchips. These experiments also provided validation data in the form of exit gas CO(2) carbon (CO(2)-C) profiles. The model successfully predicted the generic shape of experimental substrate degradation profiles obtained from CO(2) measurements, but under the conditions and assumptions of the experiment, the profiles were quantitatively different, giving an over-estimate of BVS-C. Both measured CO(2)-C and predicted BVS-C profiles were moderately to well fitted by a single exponential function, with replicated rate coefficient values of 0.08 and 0.09 d(-1), and 0.06 and 0.07 d(-1), respectively. In order to explore the underlying shape of the profiles, measured and predicted data at varying temperature were corrected to a constant temperature of 40 degrees C, using the temperature correction function of Rosso et al. [Rosso, L., Lobry, J.R., and Flandrois, J.P., 1993. An unexpected correlation between cardinal temperatures of microbial growth highlighted by a new model. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 162, 447-463], with cardinal temperatures of 5, 59 and 85 degrees C. Multi-phase profiles were generated for both the measured CO(2)-C and the predicted BVS-C data in this case. However, when alternative cardinal temperatures of 5, 55 and 80 degrees C, or 5, 50 and 80 degrees C, were used, the predicted profiles assumed an exponential shape, and excellent fits were obtained using a

  5. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth.

    PubMed

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (<3 MPN g(-1)) and the helminths were reduced to ≤5 eggs/2 g during the process. The competition for nutrients and the presence of suppressive fungi of the genera Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class

  6. Feasibility study of recycling cephalosporin C fermentation dregs using co-composting process with activated sludge as co-substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yao; Wen, Qinxue; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Lian

    2016-09-01

    Composting is a potential alternative for cephalosporin C fermentation dregs (CCFDs) compared with incineration process or landfill because of its advantage of recovering nutrients. In this research, CCFDs and activated sludge (AS) were co-composted to analyze the feasibility of recycling the nutrients in CCFDs. A pilot-scale aerobic composting system with an auto-control system was used in this research, and the maturity and security of the compost product were evaluated. The temperature of the composting mixtures was maintained above 55°C for more than 3 days during the composting, indicating that co-composting of CCFDs and AS could reach the compost maturity standard, and the seeds germination index (GI) increased from 17.61% to 68.93% by the end of the composting process (28 days). However, the degradation rate of cephalosporin C (CPC) was only 6.58% during the composting process. Monitoring the quality of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the composts showed that the log copy of blaTEM in the composts increased from 2.15 in the initial phase to 6.37 after 28 days. Long-term investigation of CPC degradation and ARGs variation was conducted for the composts; CPC could still be detected after the maturity phases. A removal efficiency of 49.10% could be achieved in 110 days, while the log copy of ARGs increased to 7.93. Although a higher GI value (>80.00%) was observed, the risk of recycling the CCFDs compost product into land is still high.

  7. Speciation of Cu and Zn during composting of pig manure amended with rock phosphate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Duian; Wang, Lixia; Yan, Baixing; Ou, Yang; Guan, Jiunian; Bian, Yu; Zhang, Yubin

    2014-08-01

    Pig manure usually contains a large amount of metals, especially Cu and Zn, which may limit its land application. Rock phosphate has been shown to be effective for immobilizing toxic metals in toxic metals contaminated soils. The aim of this study work was to investigate the effect of rock phosphate on the speciation of Cu and Zn during co-composting of pig manure with rice straw. The results showed that composting process and rock phosphate addition significantly affected the changes of metal species. During co-composting, the exchangeable and reducible fractions of Cu were transformed to organic and residue fractions, thus the bioavailable Cu fractions were decreased. The rock phosphate addition enhanced the metal transformation depending on the level of rock phosphate amendment. Zinc was found in the exchangeable and reducible fractions in the compost. The bioavailable Zn fraction changed a little during the composting process. The composting process converted the exchangeable Zn fraction into reducible fraction. Addition of an appropriate amount (5.0%) of rock phosphate could advance the conversion. Rock phosphate could reduce metal availability through adsorption and complexation of the metal ions on inorganic components. The increase in pH and organic matter degradation could be responsible for the reduction in exchangeable and bioavailable Cu fractions and exchangeable Zn fraction in rock phosphate amended compost.

  8. Composting and gypsum amendment of broiler litter to reduce nutrient leaching loss.

    PubMed

    Adeli, Ardeshir; Sheng, J; Jenkins, J N; Feng, G

    2015-03-01

    The effect of composted litter relative to fresh litter on leaching losses of nutrients has not been well documented. Fresh and composted broiler litter was surface-applied to bermudagrass (hay) [ (L.) Pers.] established in undisturbed soil columns based on N need of the grass in the presence or absence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to evaluate an approach to reduce broiler litter nutrient leaching potential. Columns were periodically leached and biomass was harvested during the 60-d experiment. Total N applied to bermudagrass from broiler litter was 320 kg ha. Gypsum was mixed with fresh and composted litter at the rate based on 20% of litter weight. For composted broiler litter, NO-N, P, K, Cu, and Zn contents in the leachate obtained from the first leaching event were 58, 50, 40, 32, and 38% less than fresh broiler litter, respectively. Significant decreases in NO-N (13%), P (53%), Cu (17%), and Zn (28%) in leachate were obtained when gypsum was mixed with fresh broiler litter. Fresh broiler litter and composted broiler litter applications increased bermudagrass growth compared with the control and gypsum significantly increased yields when mixed with broiler litter. Composted broiler litter application significantly increased N and organic C in the soil compared with fresh litter. Results demonstrate that coapplication of composted broiler litter with FGD gypsum provide the most effective management option for minimizing leaching losses of nutrients while sustaining crop productivity.

  9. Effect of spent mushroom compost tea on mycelial growth and yield of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Gea, Francisco J; Santos, Mila; Diánez, Fernando; Tello, Julio C; Navarro, María J

    2012-08-01

    Preliminary studies suggested that the use of compost tea made from spent mushroom substrate (SMS) may be regarded as a potential method for biologically controlling dry bubble disease in button mushroom. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of SMS compost tea on the host, the button mushroom, to ascertain whether the addition of these water extracts has a toxic effect on Agaricus bisporus mycelium growth and on mushroom yield. In vitro experiments showed that the addition of SMS compost tea to the culture medium inoculated with a mushroom spawn grain did not have an inhibitory effect on A. bisporus mycelial growth. The effect of compost teas on the quantitative production parameters of A. bisporus (yield, unitary weight, biological efficiency and earliness) was tested in a cropping trial, applying the compost teas to the casing in three different drench applications. Quantitative production parameters were not significantly affected by the compost tea treatments although there was a slight delay of 0.8-1.4 days in the harvest time of the first flush. These results suggest that compost teas have no fungitoxic effect on A. bisporus so that they can be considered a suitable biocontrol substance for the control of dry bubble disease.

  10. Co-composting of eggshell waste in self-heating reactors: monitoring and end product quality.

    PubMed

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida M J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2013-11-01

    Industrial eggshell waste (ES) is classified as an animal by-product not intended to human consumption. For reducing pathogen spreading risk due to soil incorporation of ES, sanitation by composting is a pre-treatment option. This work aims to evaluate eggshell waste recycling in self-heating composting reactors and investigate ES effect on process evolution and end product quality. Potato peel, grass clippings and rice husks were the starting organic materials considered. The incorporation of 30% (w/w) ES in a composting mixture did not affect mixture biodegradability, nor its capacity to reach sanitizing temperatures. After 25 days of composting, ES addition caused a nitrogen loss of about 10 g N kg(-1) of initial volatile solids, thus reducing nitrogen nutritional potential of the finished compost. This study showed that a composting mixture with a significant proportion of ES (30% w/w) may be converted into calcium-rich marketable compost to neutralize soil acidity and/or calcium deficiencies.

  11. Co-composting of horticultural waste with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues.

    PubMed

    Choy, Sing Ying; Wang, Ke; Qi, Wei; Wang, Ben; Chen, Chia-Lung; Wang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Horticultural waste was co-composted with fruit peels, food waste, and soybean residues individually to evaluate the effects of these easily available organic wastes in Singapore on the composting process and product quality. Each co-composting material was mixed with horticultural waste in the wet weight ratio of 1:1 and composted for 46 days. Results showed that all co-composting materials accelerated the degradation of total carbon and resulted in higher nutrients of nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) in the final product compared with horticultural waste alone. Mixture with fruit peels achieved the fastest total carbon loss; however, did not reach the minimum required temperature for pathogen destruction. The end product was found to be the best source for K and had a higher pH that could be used for the remediation of acidic soil. Food waste resulted in the highest available nitrate (NO3-N) content in the end product, but caused high salt content, total coliforms, and slower total carbon loss initially. Soybean residues were found to be the best co-composting material to produce compost with high N, P, and K when compared with other materials due to the highest temperature, fastest total carbon loss, fastest reduction in C/N ratio, and best conservation of nutrients.

  12. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts.

  13. [Effects of Thermophilic Composting on Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARGs) of Swine Manure Source].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning-guo; Huang, Nan; Wang, Wei-wei; Yu, Man; Chen, Xiao-yang; Yao, Yan-lai; Wang, Wei-ping; Hong, Chun-lai

    2016-05-15

    To investigate the effects of thermophilic composting process on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of swine manure source at a field scale, the abundance of four erythromycin resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC and ermF), three β-lactam resistance genes (blaTEM, blaCTX and blaSHV) and two quinolone resistance genes (qnrA and qnrS) were quantified by quantitative PCR ( qPCR) during the composting process. The results suggested that the erm genes' copy numbers were significantly higher than those of the bla and qnr genes in the early stage of composting (P < 0.01). The maximum abundance of erm genes was ermB (9.88 x 10⁸ copies · g⁻¹), following by ermF (9.4 x 10⁸ copies · g⁻¹). At the end of the composting process, bla and qnr genes were at low levels, while erm genes were still at high levels. Even through ermF was proliferated comparing with the initial copies. These results indicated that thermophilic composting process could not effectively remove all ARGs. For some ARGs, compost may be a good bioreactor resulting in their proliferation. Application of composting products on farmland may cause transference of ARGs.

  14. Evaluation of laboratory-scale in-vessel co-composting of tobacco and apple waste.

    PubMed

    Kopčić, Nina; Vuković Domanovac, Marija; Kučić, Dajana; Briški, Felicita

    2014-02-01

    Efficient composting process requires set of adequate parameters among which physical-chemical properties of the composting substrate play the key-role. Combining different types of biodegradable solid waste it is possible to obtain a substrate eligible to microorganisms in the composting process. In this work the composting of apple and tobacco solid waste mixture (1:7, dry weight) was explored. The aim of the work was to investigate an efficiency of biodegradation of the given mixture and to characterize incurred raw compost. Composting was conducted in 24 L thermally insulated column reactor at airflow rate of 1.1 L min(-1). During 22 days several parameters were closely monitored: temperature and mass of the substrate, volatile solids content, C/N ratio and pH-value of the mixture and oxygen consumption. The composting of the apple and tobacco waste resulted with high degradation of the volatile solids (53.1%). During the experiment 1.76 kg of oxygen was consumed and the C/N ratio of the product was 11.6. The obtained temperature curve was almost a "mirror image" of the oxygen concentration curve while the peak values of the temperature were occurred 9.5h after the peak oxygen consumption.

  15. Hazard to man and the environment posed by the use of urban waste compost: a review.

    PubMed

    Déportes, I; Benoit-Guyod, J L; Zmirou, D

    1995-11-30

    This review presents the current state of knowledge on the relationship between the environment and the use of municipal waste compost in terms of health risk assessment. The hazards stem from chemical and microbiological agents whose nature and magnitude depend heavily on the degree of sorting and on the composting methods. Three main routes of exposure can be determined and are quantified in the literature: (i) The ingestion of soil/compost mixtures by children, mostly in cases of pica, can be a threat because of the amount of lead, chromium, cadmium, PCDD/F and fecal streptococci that can be absorbed. (ii) Though concern about contamination through the food chain is weak when compost is used in agriculture, some authors anticipate accumulation of pollutants after several years of disposal, which might lead to future hazards. (iii) Exposure is also associated with atmospheric dispersion of compost organic dust that convey microorganisms and toxicants. Data on hazard posed by organic dust from municipal composts to the farmer or the private user is scarce. To date, microorganisms are only measured at composting plants, thus raising the issue of extrapolation to environmental situations. Lung damage and allergies may occur because of organic dust, Gram negative bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi. Further research is needed on the risk related to inhalation of chemical compounds.

  16. Composting of anaerobic sludge: an economically feasible element of a sustainable sewage sludge management.

    PubMed

    Cukjati, N; Zupančič, G D; Roš, M; Grilc, V

    2012-09-15

    An investigation into the feasibility of anaerobic sludge composting, as a sustainable treatment of sewage sludge management, was carried out under actual Slovenian environmental conditions. In order to demonstrate successful composting, five pilot plant experiments were performed during the summer and winter conditions. The first three experiments were performed with pile aeration, while experiments 4 and 5 were carried out by pile turning. Anaerobic sludge to bulking agent ratios were set at 1-6.4:1. The composting was successful and thermophilic temperature being achieved in all cases. In winter conditions, the composting process was prolonged; and low ambient temperatures had a significant impact in pile turning experiments. During winter, a temperature drop of 30 °C during turning of the material doubled the necessary time for an adequate composting process. Five scenarios were considered within an economic feasibility study and in the most favourable scenario, where 60% of compost was commercialised and 40% was used as landfill cover. The payback period in this scenario was 2.9 years. The study of compost quality showed that it can be used in variety of civil engineering applications, especially as a landfill cover and for recultivation of degraded areas.

  17. Optimization of treatment parameters for the use of FLYASH amended composts for plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Bacon, B.B.; Menon, M.P.; Ghuman, G.S.; James, J.; Adriano, D.C.; Chandra, K. )

    1990-01-01

    In continuation of the authors efforts to utilize coal fly ash as an amendment to organic manure for vegetation, four parameters such as the nature of the manure, plant-type, ash to manure and soil to amended compost ratios were investigated. a high grade organic manure, Gotta Grow, and a low grade manure, compost-manure, compost-toast, (Bricko Farm products) along with a home-made composed were used to make fly ash-amended composts. Four plants, collard green, mustard green, corn and sorghum were selected for study under greenhouse conditions. Keeping other variables constant, the fly ash to manure ratio was changed from 0 to 60% FA, and compost to soil ratio from 0 to 25%. The plants were grown for approximately 8 weeks and harvested. The plant yield was measured both before and after drying. It was found that out of four plants, yield from corn is the highest when fly ash-amended compost-toast (20% FA) was used at a compost to soil ratio of 1:3. The plant samples are being analyzed for major and minor elements including boron which is detrimental to the growth of plants.

  18. Leaching of Particulate and Dissolved Organic Carbon from Compost Applied to Bioretention Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Hamid; Flury, Markus; Mullane, Jessica; Baig, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    Compost is used in bioretention systems to improve soil quality, to promote plant growth, and to remove metal contaminants from stormwater. However, compost itself, particularly when applied freshly, can be a source of contamination of the stormwater. To test the potential contamination caused by compost when applied to bioretention systems, we continuously leached a compost column with water under unsaturated conditions and characterized dissolved and particulate organic matter in the leachate. Freshly applied, mature compost leached up to 400 mg/L of dissolved organic carbon and 2,000 mg/L of suspended particulate organic carbon. It required a cumulative water flux of 4,000 mm until concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon declined to levels typical for surface waters. Although, dissolved and particulate organic carbon are not contaminants per se, they can facilitate the movement of metals, thereby enhancing the mobility of toxic metals present in stormwater. Therefore, we recommended that compost is washed before it is applied to bioretention systems. Keywords compost; leachate; alkali extract; dissolved organic carbon; flux

  19. Assessment of maturity indices of rock phosphate enriched composts using variable crop residues.

    PubMed

    Moharana, P C; Biswas, D R

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to asses maturity indices of rock phosphate enriched composts using crop residues having variable C/N ratios. There were distinct differences in concentration of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, Olsen-P and NH4OAc-K for composts generated from different crop residues, the highest being in rice straw. Water soluble P varied from 3.47-4.45% of total P, while citrate soluble P varied from 32.7-54.0% of total P. Rice straw composts showed lower C/N, WSC/Org-N and E4/E6 ratio and higher germination index indicating that they are well-matured and stabilized compost. The relative order of performance of crop residues in aggrading compost quality was chickpea stover>rice straw>mustard stover>wheat straw>tree leaves. The results demonstrated that all the enriched composts had higher contents of available nutrients and quality indices, indicating that enriched composts could be used to substitute costly chemical fertilizers for crop production.

  20. Effect of granular porous media on the composting of swine manure

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ku-Yong; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Han, Sun-Kee; Hwang, Eung-Ju; Lee, Chae-Young; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2008-11-15

    This study investigated the feasibility of a bulking agent of granular porous media (GPM) for the composting of swine manure. Two lab-scale composting reactors were operated to evaluate the general performances and maturity parameters using GPM made of wastes from the Portland cement manufacturing processes as an alternative bulking agent. The overall volatile solid (VS) removal was 38.5% (dry basis). During the experiments, moisture content ranged between 41% and 53%, ensuring feasibility of microbial activity in composting. Cured compost showed proper maturity and low phytotoxicity, despite the slight decreases of CO{sub 2} production and VS removal at the second batch operation. Various physico-chemical parameters of the cured compost met the regulatory standards reported elsewhere. The pH, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, ammonia nitrogen and soluble organic carbon (SOC) of the cured compost were significantly correlated to the germination index (GI) using the seeds of Chinese cabbage and lettuce, indicating the progressive biodegradation of phytotoxins as well as organic matter. Consequently, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that GPM could contribute to the environmentally friendly and economical composting of problematic swine manure as a recyclable bulking agent.

  1. Speciation of heavy metals during co-composting of sewage sludge with lime.

    PubMed

    Wong, J W C; Selvam, A

    2006-05-01

    During composting the humification of organic matter will have a significant effect on the physicochemical form of existence of heavy metals. Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of co-composting sewage sludge with lime on heavy metal speciation and the changes in DTPA extractable metals. Metal speciation was conducted to evaluate the redistribution of Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in sewage sludge composted with lime. Sewage sludge was mixed with sawdust in 2:1 (w/w fresh weight) and then composted with lime at 0%, 0.63%, 1% or 1.63% (dry weight) for 100 days. The lime addition did not cause any changes in the different forms of Cu and Mn, but the composting process caused transformations of residual form of Cu and Mn into oxidizable and reducible form, respectively. For Ni, the reducible form was mainly transformed into residual form and lime addition decreased this transformation. Major transformation of different forms of Pb was not found, however the residual form of Pb increased with lime addition. The predominant residual form of Zn was mainly transformed into oxidizable form and the lime addition reduced this transformation. Addition of lime to sewage sludge during composting resulted in lower DTPA extractable metal contents. Therefore, lime is a suitable material to co-compost with sewage sludge to reduce the availability of heavy metals.

  2. Improving Ammonium and Nitrate Release from Urea Using Clinoptilolite Zeolite and Compost Produced from Agricultural Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Latifah; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Majid, Nik Muhamad Ab.

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3− leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4+ and NO3− release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4+ and NO3− losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4+ and NO3− release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3− leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4+ retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4+ and NO3− release from urea. PMID:25793220

  3. Improving ammonium and nitrate release from urea using clinoptilolite zeolite and compost produced from agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Omar, Latifah; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Ab Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    Improper use of urea may cause environmental pollution through NH3 volatilization and NO3 (-) leaching from urea. Clinoptilolite zeolite and compost could be used to control N loss from urea by controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea. Soil incubation and leaching experiments were conducted to determine the effects of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost on controlling NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) losses from urea. Bekenu Series soil (Typic Paleudults) was incubated for 30, 60, and 90 days. A soil leaching experiment was conducted for 30 days. Urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost significantly reduced NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea (soil incubation study) compared with urea alone, thus reducing leaching of these ions. Ammonium and NO3 (-) leaching losses during the 30 days of the leaching experiment were highest in urea alone compared with urea with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost treatments. At 30 days of the leaching experiment, NH4 (+) retention in soil with urea amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost was better than that with urea alone. These observations were because of the high pH, CEC, and other chemical properties of clinoptilolite zeolite and compost. Urea can be amended with clinoptilolite zeolite and compost to improve NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) release from urea.

  4. Household, hotel and market waste audits for composting in Vietnam and Laos.

    PubMed

    Byer, Philip H; Hoang, Chi Phuong; Nguyen, Thi Thuc Thuy; Chopra, Sangeeta; Maclaren, Virginia; Haight, Murray

    2006-10-01

    In Da Nang and Ha Long, Vietnam and in Vientiane, Laos, there was interest by local authorities in separating and composting waste in order to reduce environmental and health problems at the local landfills and to produce a soil conditioner for local agricultural use. To assist in the planning of composting projects, three studies were carried out to estimate waste quantities and composition. 1. A 9-day audit of waste from 45 vendors in a market in Vientiane, the capital of Laos. The total quantity of waste and the quantity in each of nine categories were estimated for each of six different types of vendors. 2. A 7-day audit of waste disposed by three hotels in the tourist area of Ha Long, Vietnam. Waste quantities were estimated in total, on a per guest basis, and in three main categories: compostables, recyclables and miscellaneous. 3. A 7-day audit of waste collected from 74 households in Da Nang, the fourth largest city in Vietnam. Waste from each household was separated into compostable and non-compostable waste. Over 60% of each waste source comprised compostable waste and this was considered significant enough to warrant further planning of composting operations.

  5. Intermittent rainstorms cause pulses of nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper in leachate from compost in bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Mullane, Jessica M; Flury, Markus; Iqbal, Hamid; Freeze, Patrick M; Hinman, Curtis; Cogger, Craig G; Shi, Zhenqing

    2015-12-15

    Bioretention systems rely on vegetation and mixtures of soil, sand, and compost to filter stormwater runoff. However, bioretention systems can also leach metals and nutrients, and compost may be a major contributor to this leaching. To safely implement bioretention systems, it is crucial to determine the composition of compost leachate. We characterized and quantified the leachate composition of compost following intermittent, simulated storm events. Columns of municipal compost were irrigated to simulate 6-month, 24-hour rain storms in the Seattle-Tacoma region. Outflow was analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), particulate concentration, surface tension, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen, phosphorus, and copper. Results indicate a decrease of chemical concentrations over the course of individual storms and following repeated storms, but each new storm released another peak of constituents. The decrease in phosphorus, copper, and DOC concentrations with repeated storms was slower than for nitrate and EC. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that the DOC consisted mainly of aliphatic and aromatic components typical of fulvic and humic acids. Less than 3% of the original copper content from the compost leached out even after nine storm events. Nonetheless, copper concentrations in the leachate exceeded regulatory discharge standards. Our results show that compost can serve as a sustained source of leaching of nutrients and metals.

  6. Changes of parameters during composting of bio-waste collected over four seasons.

    PubMed

    Hanc, Ales; Ochecova, Pavla; Vasak, Filip

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the evolution of several main parameters during the composting of separately collected household bio-waste originating from urban settlements (U-bio-waste) and family houses (F-bio-waste) from four climate seasons. When comparing both types of composts, U-bio-waste compost contained a higher amount of nutrients, however F-bio-waste compost was characterized by greater yield, greater availability of phosphorus and magnesium, and faster stability. In terms of seasons, compost from bio-waste collected in spring contained the highest amount of nutrients, reflecting the high content of nutrients in plant feedstock. Dissolved organic carbon and pH in U- and F-bio-waste compost, respectively, frequently showed close relationships with other parameters. The seasonal variations of most of the parameters in the composts were found to be lower compared to the variations observed in the feedstocks. The greatest seasonal variation was found in nitrate nitrogen, which is the reason for the more frequent analysis of this parameter.

  7. Evolution of heavy metal speciation during the aerobic composting process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangsheng; Ma, Lanlan; Li, Yaqiong; Zheng, Liting

    2007-03-01

    The contents of heavy metals and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system were the major limitation to the application of sewage sludge compost in soil. This study was conducted to determine the evolution of heavy metal speciation in the course of an aerobic composting, and investigate the influence of changes of composting process parameters including pH, temperature and organic matter (OM) content on distribution of heavy metal speciation in composted sludge. The sequential extraction procedure developed by Tessier et al. was used in sludge compost to determine the heavy metal speciation. Results showed that, during composting, (1) the contents of the residue fraction for Pb, Zn and Cd were decreased but those for Ni and Cr were increased; the Cu residue fraction was almost constant; (2) the contents of the total mobile fractions (including fractions 1-4) for Zn and Pb were significantly increased, but the increase of those for Cu and Ni were not so remarkable; (3) there were significant degrees of correlation between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected parameters (for example, pH, composting temperature, and OM content). Only the content of the total mobile fractions for Cu could be predictable from its total content. For the prediction of the total mobile fractions of Zn, Ni, Cd and Cr, the R(2) value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as pH, temperature and OM content.

  8. An airborne actinobacteria Nocardiopsis alba isolated from bioaerosol of a mushroom compost facility.

    PubMed

    Paściak, Mariola; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Gamian, Andrzej; Szponar, Bogumiła; Skóra, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    Actinobacteria are widely distributed in many environments and represent the most important trigger to the occupant respiratory health. Health complaints, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis of the workers, were recorded in a mushroom compost facility (MCF). The studies on the airborne bacteria were carried out to find a possible microbiological source of these symptoms. Culture analysis of compost bioaerosols collected in different location of the MCF was performed. An assessment of the indoor microbial exposure revealed bacterial flora of bioaerosol in the mushroom compost facility represented by Bacillus, Geobacillus, Micrococcus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus spp., and actinobacterial strain with white aerial mycelium. The thermotolerant actinobacterial strain of the same morphology was repeatedly isolated from many locations in MCF: air, compost sample, and solid surface in production hall. On the base of complex morphological, chemotaxonomic, and phylogenetic characteristics, the isolate has been classified as Nocardiopsis alba. Dominant position of N. alba in microbial environment of the mushroom compost facility may represent an indicator microorganism in compost bioaerosol. The bioavailability of N. alba in mushroom compost facility creates potential risk for the health of workers, and the protection of respiratory tract and/or skin is strongly recommended.

  9. Effects of combined composting and vermicomposting of waste sludge on arsenic fate and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Maňáková, Blanka; Kuta, Jan; Svobodová, Markéta; Hofman, Jakub

    2014-09-15

    Composting and vermicomposting are traditional processes for the treatment of sludge. During these processes, the humification of organic matter has a significant effect on the physicochemical form and distribution of heavy metals. In this study, industrial sludge (groundwater treatment waste) contaminated by arsenic (396 ± 1 mg kg(-1)) was used. Such sludge poses a significant challenge with respect to effective treatment. Composting, vermicomposting (with Eisenia fetida), and the combined approach of composting and vermicomposting were performed to determine the evolution of arsenic speciation, mobility and bioavailability. The composting/vermicomposting was done with sludge, horse manure, and grass in the ratios of 3:6:1. A solution of 0.1M NH4COOCH3 was used as a single extraction solvent for determination of the mobile arsenic pool and targeted arsenic species (As(III), As(V), monomethylarsenic acid - MMA(V), dimethylarsenic acid - DMA(V)). The analysis of arsenic in the extracts was carried out by means of HPLC-ICP-MS spectrometry. In addition, the earthworm species E. fetida was used for bioaccumulation tests that followed the compost and vermicompost processes. The obtained results indicate a reduction in arsenic mobility and bioavailability in all matured composts and vermicomposts. The combined process exhibited a greater effect than compost or vermicompost alone.

  10. From rags to riches: the story of carbon, nutrients and pasture with dairy compost application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jess; Cavagnaro, Tim; Patti, Tony; Wilkinson, Kevin; McDonald, Declan; Johnston, Priscilla; Wilson, Katrina; Rose, Mick; Jackson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Around the world, dairy farmers are transforming dairy waste to compost for land application. In southeastern Australia, farmers are using composted dairy waste to increase production and reduce costs. In addition, the farmers are considering the benefits of compost for increasing sequestration of soil carbon, and on-farm nutrient retention. The "Carbon Farming Initative" in Australia is exploring the option to allow farmers to trade Carbon Credits for carbon stored in the soil. Compost also retains vital nutrients, such as N, on farm rather than importing N in the form of mineral fertilisers. Composting also reduces greenhouse gas emissions, such as CH4, compared to when stored in effluent ponds. This project will investigate if dairy compost applied to pasture improves carbon sequestration, nutrient retention and pasture production. In this project dairy compost, made from dairy effluent, feedpad waste, spoilt sillage and wood mulch, was applied onto a 1Ha field and companion plots at a rate of 0, 3, 6 and 12 t/ha. The field plot is open to grazing and normal farm management practices. The companion plots are being subjected to simulated grazing (mowing). The trials, currently underway will run for 18 months. Along with preliminary soil carbon results, this work will also include preliminary data for total and plant available nutrients, and farm biomass production. The outcomes of this research, and benefits it finds for "Carbon Farming" and nutrient retention has practical, policy and economic applications for world wide markets.

  11. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores during Laboratory-Scale Composting of Feedlot Cattle Manure

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shanwei; Harvey, Amanda; Barbieri, Ruth; Reuter, Tim; Stanford, Kim; Amoako, Kingsley K.; Selinger, Leonard B.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in livestock have social, economic and health implications, altering farmer’s livelihoods, impacting trade and posing a zoonotic risk. Our study investigated the survival of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. anthracis spores sporulated at 15, 20, or 37°C, over 33 days of composting. Spores (∼7.5 log10 CFU g-1) were mixed with manure and composted in laboratory scale composters. After 15 days, the compost was mixed and returned to the composter for a second cycle. Temperatures peaked at 71°C on day 2 and remained ≥55°C for an average of 7 days in the first cycle, but did not exceed 55°C in the second. For B. thuringiensis, spores generated at 15 and 21°C exhibited reduced (P < 0.05) viability of 2.7 and 2.6 log10 CFU g-1 respectively, as compared to a 0.6 log10 CFU g-1 reduction for those generated at 37°C. For B. anthracis, sporulation temperature did not impact spore survival as there was a 2.5, 2.2, and 2.8 log10 CFU g-1 reduction after composting for spores generated at 15, 21, and 37°C, respectively. For both species, spore viability declined more rapidly (P < 0.05) in the first as compared to the second composting cycle. Our findings suggest that the duration of thermophilic exposure (≥55°C) is the main factor influencing survival of B. anthracis spores in compost. As sporulation temperature did not influence survival of B. anthracis, composting may lower the viability of spores associated with carcasses infected with B. anthracis over a range of sporulation temperatures. PMID:27303388

  12. Symptoms, spirometry, and serum antibody concentrations among compost workers exposed to organic dust.

    PubMed

    van Kampen, Vera; Deckert, Anja; Hoffmeyer, Frank; Taeger, Dirk; Brinkmann, Elmar; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Bünger, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Work-related symptoms and diseases of 190 currently exposed compost workers, 59 former compost workers, and 38 nonexposed control subjects were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Using a standardized questionnaire, participants were asked for work-related symptoms, exposures to bioaerosols, atopic diseases, and smoking habits. The subjects underwent a physical examination and a lung function test. In addition, total immunoglobulin (Ig) E, IgE specific to environmental allergens and moulds, and IgG specific to molds and actinomycetes were quantified. Compared to controls, compost workers suffered more often from cough and irritation of the eyes in terms of mucosal membrane irritation (MMI). Former compost workers reported similar work-related complaints, but most MMI symptoms had improved after termination of bioaerosol exposure. In contrast, cough and dyspnea persisted, indicating a chronic process. Lung function parameters of compost workers were within the reference ranges. Nevertheless, forced vital capacity (FVC) was significantly lower than for controls. Specific IgE to environmental allergens and molds was positive in 25.3% and 7.4%, respectively, of currently exposed compost workers. There were no marked differences in IgE and IgG concentrations among the three groups. Compost workers suffered with a higher frequency from cough and MMI symptoms. The findings that MMI symptoms improved in former compost workers after leaving the job confirmed the association with bioaerosol exposure. Further, the reduced FVC may be produced by this exposure. There was no higher frequency of mold sensitization in the group of compost workers compared to controls, which may be an indication of a healthy worker survivor effect.

  13. Utilization of composted sugar industry waste (pressmud) to improve properties of sodic soil for rice cultivation.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rashi; Chandra, R; Kumar, Narendra; Tyagi, A K

    2005-07-01

    Sulphitation pressmud (SPM) and its composts were prepared by heap, pit, NADEP and vermicomposting methods and their effects were compared with soil properties and growth, yield and nutrient uptake by rice in a sodic soil under pot conditions. Application of 15 t ha(-1) SPM and its different composts significantly increased the plant height and dry matter accumulation at different intervals, grain and straw yields and N, P and K uptake by the crop over the control. NADEP compost of SPM alone recorded the maximum and significant plant height by 8.5 to 19.3% and plant dry matter by 14.6 to 32.8% over the raw SPM at different intervals. NADEP composts of SPM alone and SPM + rice straw were also found to be superior than raw SPM by recording 34.8 and 27.8% more grain yield respectively. The SPM composts prepared by NADEP and SPM by vermicomposting methods significantly accumulated higher N and K in rice grains and straw, while NADEP compost of SPM and SPM + rice straw recorded more P in grains and straw than raw SPM. Application of SPM and its composts reduced the pH, EC and bulk density of the soil after rice harvesting, though the reductions were not significant in comparison to the control. However, these treatments increased the soil organic C by 33.33 to 69.0%, available N by 41.4 to 74.8%, available P by 47.1 to 97.8%, available K by 11.8 to 59.2% and available S by 10.3 to 90.7% over the control. NADEP composts, in general, were found to be superior than the raw SPM and other composts in residual soil nutrient content after rice crop.

  14. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter.