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Sample records for del hantavirus andes

  1. Andes Hantavirus Variant in Rodents, Southern Amazon Basin, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M. Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A. Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O.; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T.; Hirschberg, David L.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Bausch, Daniel G.; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted. PMID:24447689

  2. Andes hantavirus variant in rodents, southern Amazon Basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Razuri, Hugo; Tokarz, Rafal; Ghersi, Bruno M; Salmon-Mulanovich, Gabriela; Guezala, M Claudia; Albujar, Christian; Mendoza, A Patricia; Tinoco, Yeny O; Cruz, Christopher; Silva, Maria; Vasquez, Alicia; Pacheco, Víctor; Ströher, Ute; Guerrero, Lisa Wiggleton; Cannon, Deborah; Nichol, Stuart T; Hirschberg, David L; Lipkin, W Ian; Bausch, Daniel G; Montgomery, Joel M

    2014-02-01

    We investigated hantaviruses in rodents in the southern Amazon Basin of Peru and identified an Andes virus variant from Neacomys spinosus mice. This finding extends the known range of this virus in South America and the range of recognized hantaviruses in Peru. Further studies of the epizoology of hantaviruses in this region are warranted.

  3. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Anti-hantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of RTqPCR as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RTqPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients and improve other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission. PMID:26508102

  4. Development of a minigenome system for Andes virus, a New World hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kyle S; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-11-01

    The development of reverse genetics systems for negative-stranded RNA viruses is a rapidly evolving field that has greatly advanced the study of the many different aspects of the viral life cycle. Andes virus (ANDV) is a highly pathogenic hantavirus found in South America that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome but to date remains poorly characterized due to the lack of a reverse genetics system for genetic manipulation. Here, we describe the first successful minigenome system for a New World hantavirus, as well as many of the obstacles that still exist in the development of such a system.

  5. Andes Virus Antigens Are Shed in Urine of Patients with Acute Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Godoy, Paula; Marsac, Delphine; Stefas, Elias; Ferrer, Pablo; Tischler, Nicole D.; Pino, Karla; Ramdohr, Pablo; Vial, Pablo; Valenzuela, Pablo D. T.; Ferrés, Marcela; Veas, Francisco; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a highly pathogenic emerging disease (40% case fatality rate) caused by New World hantaviruses. Hantavirus infections are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosol particles of rodent excreta and secretions. At present, there are no antiviral drugs or immunotherapeutic agents available for the treatment of hantaviral infection, and the survival rates for infected patients hinge largely on early virus recognition and hospital admission and aggressive pulmonary and hemodynamic support. In this study, we show that Andes virus (ANDV) interacts with human apolipoprotein H (ApoH) and that ApoH-coated magnetic beads or ApoH-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates can be used to capture and concentrate the virus from complex biological mixtures, such as serum and urine, allowing it to be detected by both immunological and molecular approaches. In addition, we report that ANDV-antigens and infectious virus are shed in urine of HCPS patients. PMID:19279096

  6. Truncated Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins for Serotyping Sin Nombre, Andes, and Laguna Negra Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Rodents▿

    PubMed Central

    Koma, Takaaki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Pini, Noemi; Safronetz, David; Taruishi, Midori; Levis, Silvana; Endo, Rika; Shimizu, Kenta; Yasuda, Shumpei P.; Ebihara, Hideki; Feldmann, Heinz; Enria, Delia; Arikawa, Jiro

    2010-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), Andes virus (ANDV), and Laguna Negra virus (LANV) have been known as the dominant causative agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). ANDV and LANV, with different patterns of pathogenicity, exist in a sympatric relationship. Moreover, there is documented evidence of person-to-person transmission of ANDV. Therefore, it is important in clinical medicine and epidemiology to know the serotype of a hantavirus causing infection. Truncated SNV, ANDV, and LANV recombinant nucleocapsid proteins (trNs) missing 99 N-terminal amino acids (trN100) were expressed using a baculovirus system, and their applicability for serotyping SNV, ANDV, and LANV infection by the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) was examined. HPS patient sera and natural-reservoir rodent sera infected with SNV, ANDV, and LANV showed the highest optical density (OD) values for homologous trN100 antigens. Since even patient sera with lower IgM and IgG antibody titers were serotyped, the trN100s are therefore considered useful for serotyping with early-acute-phase sera. In contrast, assays testing whole recombinant nucleocapsid protein antigens of SNV, ANDV, and LANV expressed in Escherichia coli detected homologous and heterologous antibodies equally. These results indicated that a screening ELISA using an E. coli-expressed antigen followed by a serotyping ELISA using trN100s is useful for epidemiological surveillance in regions where two or more hantavirus species cocirculate. PMID:20335425

  7. Hantavirus

    MedlinePlus

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ... DA. California encephalitis, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, and bunyavirus hemorrhagic fevers. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  8. Molecular method for the detection of Andes hantavirus infection: validation for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Vial, Cecilia; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Rios, Susana; Martinez, Jessica; Vial, Pablo A; Ferres, Marcela; Rivera, Juan C; Perez, Ruth; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is a severe disease caused by exposure to New World hantaviruses. Early diagnosis is difficult due to the lack of specific initial symptoms. Antihantavirus antibodies are usually negative until late in the febrile prodrome or the beginning of cardiopulmonary phase, while Andes hantavirus (ANDV) RNA genome can be detected before symptoms onset. We analyzed the effectiveness of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) as a diagnostic tool detecting ANDV-Sout genome in peripheral blood cells from 78 confirmed hantavirus patients and 166 negative controls. Our results indicate that RT-qPCR had a low detection limit (~10 copies), with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 94.9%. This suggests the potential for establishing RT-qPCR as the assay of choice for early diagnosis, promoting early effective care of patients, and improving other important aspects of ANDV infection management, such as compliance of biosafety recommendations for health personnel in order to avoid nosocomial transmission.

  9. The Andes hantavirus NSs protein is expressed from the viral small mRNA by a leaky scanning mechanism.

    PubMed

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2012-02-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism.

  10. The Andes Hantavirus NSs Protein Is Expressed from the Viral Small mRNA by a Leaky Scanning Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Solis, Loretto; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Pino, Karla; Tischler, Nicole D.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    The small mRNA (SmRNA) of all Bunyaviridae encodes the nucleocapsid (N) protein. In 4 out of 5 genera in the Bunyaviridae, the smRNA encodes an additional nonstructural protein denominated NSs. In this study, we show that Andes hantavirus (ANDV) SmRNA encodes an NSs protein. Data show that the NSs protein is expressed in the context of an ANDV infection. Additionally, our results suggest that translation initiation from the NSs initiation codon is mediated by ribosomal subunits that have bypassed the upstream N protein initiation codon through a leaky scanning mechanism. PMID:22156529

  11. Andes virus associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Argentina and determination of the precise site of infection.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Della Valle, M; Edelstein, A; Miguel, S; Martinez, V; Cortez, J; Cacace, M L; Jurgelenas, G; Sosa Estani, S; Padula, P

    2002-06-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) has been documented in the Salta and Jujuy provinces of northern Argentina since 1991 and 1997, respectively, accounting for almost 50% of the cases of HPS reported in this country. Andes (AND) virus, specifically the AND virus Nort lineage, was previously associated with human disease in this region. Genetic analysis of viral medium RNA segments obtained from 18 HPS cases showed the existence of three AND virus Nort sublineages co-circulating in these two provinces. They showed a nucleotide sequence diversity of up to 11.1% between the sublineages. The putative site of infection of one of these cases (Sal3/97) was determined. A 100% nucleotide sequence identity was observed between the viral sequence found in patient Sal3/97 and in two virus-positive Oligoryzomys chacoensis captured in the same place where the case lived and worked. These results indicated the putative site of infection and identified this rodent species as the source of infection.

  12. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Macneil, Adam; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2011-12-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe disease characterized by a rapid onset of pulmonary edema followed by respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock. The HPS associated viruses are members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Hantaviruses have a worldwide distribution and are broadly split into the New World hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the Old World hantaviruses [including the prototype Hantaan virus (HTNV)], which are associated with a different disease, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. Case fatality of HPS is approximately 40%. Pathogenic New World hantaviruses infect the lung microvascular endothelium without causing any virus induced cytopathic effect. However, virus infection results in microvascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. This article briefly reviews the knowledge on HPS-associated hantaviruses accumulated since their discovery, less than 20 years ago.

  13. Infection of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by ANDES Hantavirus enhances pro-inflammatory state, the secretion of active MMP-9 and indirectly enhances endothelial permeability

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Andes virus (ANDV), a rodent-borne Hantavirus, is the major etiological agent of Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in South America, which is mainly characterized by a vascular leakage with high rate of fatal outcomes for infected patients. Currently, neither specific therapy nor vaccines are available against this pathogen. ANDV infects both dendritic and epithelial cells, but in despite that the severity of the disease directly correlates with the viral RNA load, considerable evidence suggests that immune mechanisms rather than direct viral cytopathology are responsible for plasma leakage in HCPS. Here, we assessed the possible effect of soluble factors, induced in viral-activated DCs, on endothelial permeability. Activated immune cells, including DC, secrete gelatinolytic matrix metalloproteases (gMMP-2 and -9) that modulate the vascular permeability for their trafficking. Methods A clinical ANDES isolate was used to infect DC derived from primary PBMC. Maturation and pro-inflammatory phenotypes of ANDES-infected DC were assessed by studying the expression of receptors, cytokines and active gMMP-9, as well as some of their functional status. The ANDES-infected DC supernatants were assessed for their capacity to enhance a monolayer endothelial permeability using primary human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Results Here, we show that in vitro primary DCs infected by a clinical isolate of ANDV shed virus RNA and proteins, suggesting a competent viral replication in these cells. Moreover, this infection induces an enhanced expression of soluble pro-inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and the active gMMP-9, as well as a decreased expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10 and TGF-β. These viral activated cells are less sensitive to apoptosis. Moreover, supernatants from ANDV-infected DCs were able to indirectly enhance the permeability of a monolayer of primary HUVEC. Conclusions Primary human DCs, that are primarily

  14. Andes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    article title:  The Andes in True Color, Stereo, and Relief     Left: True Color Image View true color full resolution image in JPEG format ... view afforded by the stereo anaglyph image (viewed with red/blue glasses, with the red lens over the left eye), it is possible to ...

  15. Acidification triggers Andes hantavirus membrane fusion and rearrangement of Gc into a stable post-fusion homotrimer.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Bignon, Eduardo A; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2015-11-01

    The hantavirus membrane fusion process is mediated by the Gc envelope glycoprotein from within endosomes. However, little is known about the specific mechanism that triggers Gc fusion activation, and its pre- and post-fusion conformations. We established cell-free in vitro systems to characterize hantavirus fusion activation. Low pH was sufficient to trigger the interaction of virus-like particles with liposomes. This interaction was dependent on a pre-fusion glycoprotein arrangement. Further, low pH induced Gc multimerization changes leading to non-reversible Gc homotrimers. These trimers were resistant to detergent, heat and protease digestion, suggesting characteristics of a stable post-fusion structure. No acid-dependent oligomerization rearrangement was detected for the trypsin-sensitive Gn envelope glycoprotein. Finally, acidification induced fusion of glycoprotein-expressing effector cells with non-susceptible CHO cells. Together, the data provide novel information on the Gc fusion trigger and its non-reversible activation involving lipid interaction, multimerization changes and membrane fusion which ultimately allow hantavirus entry into cells.

  16. Pathogenic Hantaviruses, Northeastern Argentina and Eastern Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Valeria P.; Bellomo, Carla; Maidana, Silvina; San Juan, Jorge; Tagliaferri, Paulina; Bargardi, Severino; Vazquez, Cynthia; Colucci, Norma; Estévez, Julio; Almiron, María

    2007-01-01

    We describe the first, to our knowledge, cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northeastern Argentina and eastern Paraguay. Andes and Juquitiba (JUQ) viruses were characterized. JUQV was also confirmed in 5 Oligoryzomys nigripes reservoir species from Misiones. A novel Akodon-borne genetic hantavirus lineage was detected in 1 rodent from the Biologic Reserve of Limoy. PMID:17953094

  17. [Hantaviruses and hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Dekonenko, A E; Tkachenko, E A

    2004-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HVRS) has been for decades a topical problem for healthcare systems of many countries in the Eurasian continent. Viruses triggering HVRS alongside with other related viruses (but not pathogenic to man) were discovered in 70-80-ies and formed a new genus Hantavirus of the Bunyaviridae family. The study results of a severe outbreak of the respiratory disease with the mortality rate of 60% (South-West of the USA, 1933) showed that hantaviruses were also among the causative agents. Later, the disease was designated as hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome. By now, it has been established that hantaviruses are wide spread with different rodents being their carriers. The discussed viruses cause, in rodents, a chronic asymptomatic infection and are transferred, later, to man by the aerogenic path through excretions of infected animals. Studies of hantaviruses have been restricted for a long time due to their high pathogenicity (protection equipment not below than the P-3 level is needed), because of a lack of a laboratory model of infected animals and because of a low growth in cell cultures. With the rapid development and application of molecular biological techniques of the recent years, substantial progress has been made in studies of hantaviruses. Different aspects of hantavirus ecology, molecular biology, morphology, pathogenesis and diagnostics are discussed in the offered survey.

  18. Analysis of the nucleocapsid gene brings new insights to the classification of Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Souza, William M; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu M

    2014-09-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the family Bunyaviridae, are the causative agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America. Hantaviruses are currently classified into species based on the guidelines provided by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. However, a new taxonomic system was proposed recently to classify Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses, which are divided currently into three phylogenetic clades corresponding to Andes, Laguna Negra, and Rio Mamore. Analyzing complete nucleocapsid gene sequences of all Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses, we propose the addition of a new clade and a fourth group to the already established Andes clade, allowing a better classification of the Sigmodontinae-borne hantaviruses.

  19. Detection of different South American hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Guterres, Alexandro; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Fernandes, Jorlan; Schrago, Carlos Guerra; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-12-02

    Hantaviruses are the etiologic agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) in Old World, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)/Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome (HCPS), in the New World. Serological methods are the most common approach used for laboratory diagnosis of HCPS, however theses methods do not allow the characterization of viral genotypes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been extensively used for diagnosis of viral infections, including those caused by hantaviruses, enabling detection of few target sequence copies in the sample. However, most studies proposed methods of PCR with species-specific primers. This study developed a simple and reliable diagnostic system by RT-PCR for different hantavirus detection. Using new primers set, we evaluated human and rodent hantavirus positive samples of various regions from Brazil. Besides, we performed computational analyzes to evaluate the detection of other South American hantaviruses. The diagnostic system by PCR proved to be a sensible and simple assay, allowing amplification of Juquitiba virus, Araraquara virus, Laguna Negra virus, Rio Mamore virus and Jabora virus, beyond of the possibility of the detecting Andes, Anajatuba, Bermejo, Choclo, Cano Delgadito, Lechiguanas, Maciel, Oran, Pergamino and Rio Mearim viruses. The primers sets designed in this study can detect hantaviruses from almost all known genetics lineages in Brazil and from others South America countries and also increases the possibility to detect new hantaviruses. These primers could easily be used both in diagnosis of suspected hantavirus infections in humans and also in studies with animals reservoirs.

  20. The 3' untranslated region of the Andes hantavirus small mRNA functionally replaces the poly(A) tail and stimulates cap-dependent translation initiation from the viral mRNA.

    PubMed

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-10-01

    In the process of translation of eukaryotic mRNAs, the 5' cap and the 3' poly(A) tail interact synergistically to stimulate protein synthesis. Unlike its cellular counterparts, the small mRNA (SmRNA) of Andes hantavirus (ANDV), a member of the Bunyaviridae, lacks a 3' poly(A) tail. Here we report that the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the ANDV SmRNA functionally replaces a poly(A) tail and synergistically stimulates cap-dependent translation initiation from the viral mRNA. Stimulation of translation by the 3'UTR of the ANDV SmRNA was found to be independent of viral proteins and of host poly(A)-binding protein.

  1. The 3′ Untranslated Region of the Andes Hantavirus Small mRNA Functionally Replaces the Poly(A) Tail and Stimulates Cap-Dependent Translation Initiation from the Viral mRNA ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In the process of translation of eukaryotic mRNAs, the 5′ cap and the 3′ poly(A) tail interact synergistically to stimulate protein synthesis. Unlike its cellular counterparts, the small mRNA (SmRNA) of Andes hantavirus (ANDV), a member of the Bunyaviridae, lacks a 3′ poly(A) tail. Here we report that the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the ANDV SmRNA functionally replaces a poly(A) tail and synergistically stimulates cap-dependent translation initiation from the viral mRNA. Stimulation of translation by the 3′UTR of the ANDV SmRNA was found to be independent of viral proteins and of host poly(A)-binding protein. PMID:20660206

  2. Hantaan/Andes virus DNA Vaccine Elicits a Broadly Cross-Reactive Neutralizing Antibody Response in Nonhuman Primates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The most prevalent and lethal hantaviruses associated with HFRS and HPS are Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Andes virus (ANDV...Published by Elsevier Inc.Keywords: Hantavirus; DNA vaccine; Hantaan virus; Andes virus; Neutralizing antibodiesIntroduction Hantaviruses are rodent...borne viruses that cause hemor- rhagic fever in humans. Different hantaviruses are associated with different disease syndromes with varying degrees of

  3. Andes Hantavirus-Infection of a 3D Human Lung Tissue Model Reveals a Late Peak in Progeny Virus Production Followed by Increased Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and VEGF-A.

    PubMed

    Sundström, Karin B; Nguyen Hoang, Anh Thu; Gupta, Shawon; Ahlm, Clas; Svensson, Mattias; Klingström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), a severe acute disease with a 40% case fatality rate. Humans are infected via inhalation, and the lungs are severely affected during HPS, but little is known regarding the effects of ANDV-infection of the lung. Using a 3-dimensional air-exposed organotypic human lung tissue model, we analyzed progeny virus production and cytokine-responses after ANDV-infection. After a 7-10 day period of low progeny virus production, a sudden peak in progeny virus levels was observed during approximately one week. This peak in ANDV-production coincided in time with activation of innate immune responses, as shown by induction of type I and III interferons and ISG56. After the peak in ANDV production a low, but stable, level of ANDV progeny was observed until 39 days after infection. Compared to uninfected models, ANDV caused long-term elevated levels of eotaxin-1, IL-6, IL-8, IP-10, and VEGF-A that peaked 20-25 days after infection, i.e., after the observed peak in progeny virus production. Notably, eotaxin-1 was only detected in supernatants from infected models. In conclusion, these findings suggest that ANDV replication in lung tissue elicits a late proinflammatory immune response with possible long-term effects on the local lung cytokine milieu. The change from an innate to a proinflammatory response might be important for the transition from initial asymptomatic infection to severe clinical disease, HPS.

  4. Hantaviruses direct endothelial cell permeability by sensitizing cells to the vascular permeability factor VEGF, while angiopoietin 1 and sphingosine 1-phosphate inhibit hantavirus-directed permeability.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Natalie A; Mackow, Erich R

    2008-06-01

    Hantaviruses infect human endothelial cells and cause two vascular permeability-based diseases: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infection alone does not permeabilize endothelial cell monolayers. However, pathogenic hantaviruses inhibit the function of alphav beta3 integrins on endothelial cells, and hemorrhagic disease and vascular permeability deficits are consequences of dysfunctional beta3 integrins that normally regulate permeabilizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) responses. Here we show that pathogenic Hantaan, Andes, and New York-1 hantaviruses dramatically enhance the permeability of endothelial cells in response to VEGF, while the nonpathogenic hantaviruses Prospect Hill and Tula have no effect on endothelial cell permeability. Pathogenic hantaviruses directed endothelial cell permeability 2 to 3 days postinfection, coincident with pathogenic hantavirus inhibition of alphav beta3 integrin functions, and hantavirus-directed permeability was inhibited by antibodies to VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). These studies demonstrate that pathogenic hantaviruses, similar to alphav beta3 integrin-deficient cells, specifically enhance VEGF-directed permeabilizing responses. Using the hantavirus permeability assay we further demonstrate that the endothelial-cell-specific growth factor angiopoietin 1 (Ang-1) and the platelet-derived lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) inhibit hantavirus directed endothelial cell permeability at physiologic concentrations. These results demonstrate the utility of a hantavirus permeability assay and rationalize the testing of Ang-1, S1P, and antibodies to VEGFR2 as potential hantavirus therapeutics. The central importance of beta3 integrins and VEGF responses in vascular leak and hemorrhagic disease further suggest that altering beta3 or VEGF responses may be a common feature of additional viral hemorrhagic diseases. As a result, our findings provide a potential mechanism

  5. Hantaviruses and cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Souza, William Marciel de; Ferrés, Marcela; Enria, Delia Alcira

    2014-07-17

    Hantavirus (Bunyaviridae) cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an emerging health problem in South America due to urban growth and to the expansion of agriculture and cattle-raising areas into ecosystems containing most of the species of Sigmodontinae rodents that act as hantavirus reservoirs. About 4000 HCPS cases have been reported in South America up to 2013, associated with the following hantaviruses: Andes, Anajatuba, Araraquara (ARQV), Paranoá, Bermejo, Castelo dos Sonhos, Juquitiba, Araucária, Laguna Negra, Lechiguanas, Maripa, Oran, Rio Mamore and Tunari. The transmission of hantavirus to man occurs by contact with or through aerosols of excreta and secretions of infected rodents. Person-to-person transmission of hantavirus has also been reported in Argentina and Chile. HCPS courses with a capillary leaking syndrome produced by the hantavirus infecting lung endothelial cells and mostly with a severe inflammatory process associated with a cytokine storm. HCPS starts as a dengue-like acute febrile illness but after about 3 days progresses to respiratory failure and cardiogenic shock, leading to a high fatality rate that reaches 50% for patients infected with ARQV.

  6. Diversity and Distribution of Hantaviruses in South America

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Rafal; Simith, Darlene B.; Nunes, Marcio R. T.; Bhat, Meera; Rosa, Elizabeth S. T.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important contributors to disease burden in the New World, yet many aspects of their distribution and dynamics remain uncharacterized. To examine the patterns and processes that influence the diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in South America, we performed genetic and phylogeographic analyses of all available South American hantavirus sequences. We sequenced multiple novel and previously described viruses (Anajatuba, Laguna Negra-like, two genotypes of Castelo dos Sonhos, and two genotypes of Rio Mamore) from Brazilian Oligoryzomys rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and identified a previously uncharacterized species of Oligoryzomys associated with a new genotype of Rio Mamore virus. Our analysis indicates that the majority of South American hantaviruses fall into three phylogenetic clades, corresponding to Andes and Andes-like viruses, Laguna Negra and Laguna Negra-like viruses, and Rio Mamore and Rio Mamore-like viruses. In addition, the dynamics and distribution of these viruses appear to be shaped by both the geographic proximity and phylogenetic relatedness of their rodent hosts. The current system of nomenclature used in the hantavirus community is a significant impediment to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of hantaviruses; here, we suggest strict adherence to a modified taxonomic system, with species and strain designations resembling the numerical system of the enterovirus genus. PMID:23055565

  7. Diversity and distribution of hantaviruses in South America.

    PubMed

    Firth, Cadhla; Tokarz, Rafal; Simith, Darlene B; Nunes, Marcio R T; Bhat, Meera; Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Medeiros, Daniele B A; Palacios, Gustavo; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Lipkin, W Ian

    2012-12-01

    Hantaviruses are important contributors to disease burden in the New World, yet many aspects of their distribution and dynamics remain uncharacterized. To examine the patterns and processes that influence the diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in South America, we performed genetic and phylogeographic analyses of all available South American hantavirus sequences. We sequenced multiple novel and previously described viruses (Anajatuba, Laguna Negra-like, two genotypes of Castelo dos Sonhos, and two genotypes of Rio Mamore) from Brazilian Oligoryzomys rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases and identified a previously uncharacterized species of Oligoryzomys associated with a new genotype of Rio Mamore virus. Our analysis indicates that the majority of South American hantaviruses fall into three phylogenetic clades, corresponding to Andes and Andes-like viruses, Laguna Negra and Laguna Negra-like viruses, and Rio Mamore and Rio Mamore-like viruses. In addition, the dynamics and distribution of these viruses appear to be shaped by both the geographic proximity and phylogenetic relatedness of their rodent hosts. The current system of nomenclature used in the hantavirus community is a significant impediment to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of hantaviruses; here, we suggest strict adherence to a modified taxonomic system, with species and strain designations resembling the numerical system of the enterovirus genus.

  8. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Maranhao, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R; de Almeida Medeiros, Daniele B; Simith, Darlene B; de Souza Pereira, Armando; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Mendes, Wellington S; Vidigal, José R B; de Oliveira, Renata C; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Cruz, Ana C R; Nunes, Márcio R T; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F

    2010-12-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhao, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region.

  9. Serologic evidence for human hantavirus infection in Peru.

    PubMed

    Castillo Oré, Roger M; Forshey, Brett M; Huaman, Alfredo; Villaran, Manuel V; Long, Kanya C; Kochel, Tadeusz J; Guevara, Carolina; Montgomery, Joel M; Alvarez, Carlos A; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Morrison, Amy C; Halsey, Eric S

    2012-08-01

    While human illness associated with hantavirus infection has been documented in many countries of South America, evidence for hantavirus transmission in Peru has been limited to the isolation of Rio Mamore virus from a pigmy mouse rat (Oligoryzomys microtis) in the Amazon city of Iquitos. To address the possibility of human hantavirus exposure in the region, we screened febrile patients reporting to health clinics in Iquitos from 2007 to 2010 for serological evidence of recent hantavirus infection. In addition, we conducted a serological survey for hantavirus-reactive IgG among healthy participants residing in Iquitos and rural areas surrounding the city. Through the febrile surveillance study, we identified 15 participants (0.3%; 15/5174) with IgM reactive to hantavirus (Andes virus) antigen, all with relatively mild, self-limited illness. From the cross-sectional serosurvey we found that 1.7% (36/2063) of residents of the Iquitos area had serum IgG reactive to one or more hantaviruses, with a higher prevalence in the urban population (2.2%, compared to 1.1% in rural areas). These results suggest that human infection with hantavirus has occurred in Peru.

  10. Prediction of Pan-Specific B-Cell Epitopes From Nucleocapsid Protein of Hantaviruses Causing Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalaiselvan, Sagadevan; Sankar, Sathish; Ramamurthy, Mageshbabu; Ghosh, Asit Ranjan; Nandagopal, Balaji; Sridharan, Gopalan

    2017-01-20

    Hantaviruses are emerging viral pathogens that causes hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas, a severe, sometimes fatal, respiratory disease in humans with a case fatality rate of ≥50%. IgM and IgG-based serological detection methods are the most common approaches used for laboratory diagnosis of hantaviruses. Such emerging viral pathogens emphasizes the need for improved rapid diagnostic devices and vaccines incorporating pan-specific epitopes of genotypes. We predicted linear B-cell epitopes for hantaviruses that are specific to genotypes causing HCPS in humans using in silico prediction servers. We modeled the Andes and Sin Nombre hantavirus nucleocapsid protein to locate the identified epitopes. Based on the mean percent prediction probability score, epitope IMASKSVGS/TAEEKLKKKSAF was identified as the best candidate B-cell epitope specific for hantaviruses causing HCPS. Promiscuous epitopes were identified in the C-terminal of the protein. Our study for the first time has reported pan-specific B-cell epitopes for developing immunoassays in the detection of antibodies to hantaviruses causing HCPS. Identification of epitopes with pan-specific recognition of all genotypes causing HCPS could be valuable for the development of immunodiagnositic tools toward pan-detection of hantavirus antibodies in ELISA. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-5, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Haploid Genetic Screen Reveals a Profound and Direct Dependence on Cholesterol for Hantavirus Membrane Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kleinfelter, Lara M.; Jangra, Rohit K.; Jae, Lucas T.; Herbert, Andrew S.; Mittler, Eva; Stiles, Katie M.; Wirchnianski, Ariel S.; Kielian, Margaret; Brummelkamp, Thijn R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and a highly fatal hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the New World. No vaccines or antiviral therapies are currently available to prevent or treat hantavirus disease, and gaps in our understanding of how hantaviruses enter cells challenge the search for therapeutics. We performed a haploid genetic screen in human cells to identify host factors required for entry by Andes virus, a highly virulent New World hantavirus. We found that multiple genes involved in cholesterol sensing, regulation, and biosynthesis, including key components of the sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP) pathway, are critical for Andes virus entry. Genetic or pharmacological disruption of the membrane-bound transcription factor peptidase/site-1 protease (MBTPS1/S1P), an SREBP control element, dramatically reduced infection by virulent hantaviruses of both the Old World and New World clades but not by rhabdoviruses or alphaviruses, indicating that this pathway is broadly, but selectively, required by hantaviruses. These results could be fully explained as arising from the modest depletion of cellular membrane cholesterol that accompanied S1P disruption. Mechanistic studies of cells and with protein-free liposomes suggested that high levels of cholesterol are specifically needed for hantavirus membrane fusion. Taken together, our results indicate that the profound dependence on target membrane cholesterol is a fundamental, and unusual, biophysical property of hantavirus glycoprotein-membrane interactions during entry. PMID:26126854

  12. Hantavirus Prevalence in the IX Region of Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo C.; Castillo, Constanza H.; Godoy, Paula M.; Hjelle, Brian; Ferrés, Marcela G.

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiologic and seroprevalence survey was conducted (n=830) to assess proportion of persons exposed to hantavirus in IX Region Chile, which accounts for 25% of reported cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. This region has three geographic areas with different disease incidences and a high proportion of aboriginals. Serum samples were tested for immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against Sin Nombre virus N antigen by strip immunoblot assay against Sin Nombre, Puumala, Río Mamoré, and Seoul N antigens. Samples from six patients were positive for IgG antibodies reactive with Andes virus; all patients lived in the Andes Mountains. Foresting was also associated with seropositivity; but not sex, age, race, rodent exposure, or farming activities. Exposure to hantavirus varies in different communities of IX Region. Absence of history of pneumonia or hospital admission in persons with specific IgG antibodies suggests that infection is clinically inapparent. PMID:12890323

  13. Hantavirus reservoir hosts associated with peridomestic habitats in Argentina.

    PubMed Central

    Calderón, G.; Pini, N.; Bolpe, J.; Levis, S.; Mills, J.; Segura, E.; Guthmann, N.; Cantoni, G.; Becker, J.; Fonollat, A.; Ripoll, C.; Bortman, M.; Benedetti, R.; Enria, D.

    1999-01-01

    Five species of sigmodontine rodents have been identified in Argentina as the putative reservoirs of six circulating hantavirus genotypes. Two species of Oligoryzomys are associated with the genotypes causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Oligoryzomys flavescens for Lechiguanas and O. longicaudatus for Andes and Oran genotypes. Reports of human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome prompted rodent trapping (2,299 rodents of 32 species during 27,780 trap nights) at potential exposure sites in three disease-endemic areas. Antibody reactive to Sin Nombre virus was found in six species, including the known hantavirus reservoir species. Risk for peridomestic exposure to host species that carry recognized human pathogens was high in all three major disease-endemic areas. PMID:10603213

  14. Pathogenic hantaviruses direct the adherence of quiescent platelets to infected endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Gorbunova, Elena E; Mackow, Erich R

    2010-05-01

    Hantavirus infections are noted for their ability to infect endothelial cells, cause acute thrombocytopenia, and trigger 2 vascular-permeability-based diseases. However, hantavirus infections are not lytic, and the mechanisms by which hantaviruses cause capillary permeability and thrombocytopenia are only partially understood. The role of beta(3) integrins in hemostasis and the inactivation of beta(3) integrin receptors by pathogenic hantaviruses suggest the involvement of hantaviruses in altered platelet and endothelial cell functions that regulate permeability. Here, we determined that pathogenic hantaviruses bind to quiescent platelets via a beta(3) integrin-dependent mechanism. This suggests that platelets may contribute to hantavirus dissemination within infected patients and provides a means by which hantavirus binding to beta(3) integrin receptors prevents platelet activation. The ability of hantaviruses to bind platelets further suggested that cell-associated hantaviruses might recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Our findings indicate that Andes virus (ANDV)- or Hantaan virus (HTNV)-infected endothelial cells specifically direct the adherence of calcein-labeled platelets. In contrast, cells comparably infected with nonpathogenic Tula virus (TULV) failed to recruit platelets to the endothelial cell surface. Platelet adherence was dependent on endothelial cell beta(3) integrins and neutralized by the addition of the anti-beta(3) Fab fragment, c7E3, or specific ANDV- or HTNV-neutralizing antibodies. These findings indicate that pathogenic hantaviruses displayed on the surface of infected endothelial cells bind platelets and that a platelet layer covers the surface of infected endothelial cells. This fundamentally changes the appearance of endothelial cells and has the potential to alter cellular immune responses, platelet activation, and endothelial cell functions that affect vascular permeability. Hantavirus-directed platelet quiescence and

  15. Late Tertiary northwestward-vergent thrusting in Valle del Cauca, Colombian Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, C.A.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr.; Cordoba, F.

    1989-03-01

    The Valle del Cauca is a topographic basin situated between the Cordillera Central and the Cordillera Occidental in the Colombian Andes. The basement is Mesozoic mafic igneous rock of the Volcanic and Amaime Formations and clastic sediments and chert of the Espinal and Cisneros Formations. The basement was intruded by middle Cretaceous granodiorites (including the Batolito de Buga) and was deformed and metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The Mesozoic rocks originated in an oceanic setting and were accreted to northwestern South America during the Cretaceous or early Tertiary. Unconformably overlying the Mesozoic basement are the Eocene and Oligocene Vijes (marine limestone) and Guachinte and Cinta de Piedra (fluvial and deltaic sandstone and mudstone). In the Cordillera Central, the Cinta de Piedra is unconformably overlain by fanglomerate of the Miocene La Paila Formation. These clastics coarsen and thicken eastward. Geologic mapping and structural analyses show that the Mesozoic basement and its Tertiary cover are faulted and folded. Folds are asymmetric and overturned westward. Faults dip at shallow to moderate angles to the east and carry older sedimentary or basement rocks westward over younger rocks.

  16. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (<90% nt identity) from reported strains. A survey for IgG against hantaviruses among residents of Chapare Province indicated that 12.2% of the population had past exposure to >1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  17. Clusters of Hantavirus Infection, Southern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cantoni, Gustavo E.; Calanni, Liliana M.; Resa, Amanda J.; Herrero, Eduardo R.; Iacono, Marisa A.; Enria, Delia A.; Cappa, Stella M. González

    2007-01-01

    Person-to-person transmission of a hantavirus was first confirmed during a 1996 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina, where Andes virus is endemic. To identify other episodes of secondary transmission, we reviewed reports of 51 hantavirus infection cases from this region (November 1993–June 2005). Nine clusters involving 20 cases (39.2%) were found. Two patients, who had symptoms 3 weeks after they shared risks for rodent exposure, were considered a cluster. The other 8 clusters each began with an index case, which was almost always fatal, followed 19–40 days later by the illness of >1 person who had close and prolonged contact with the index case-patient. Person-to-person transmission was considered the probable source of these 8 clusters. The probability of initiating secondary cases was 41% for patients who died versus 4% for those who survived (p = 0.005). Interpersonal transmission of Andes virus infection should be considered even when rodent exposure cannot be definitively excluded. PMID:17370522

  18. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  19. Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: About CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Preventing Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Eliminate or minimize contact with ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  20. Hantavirus Gn and Gc glycoproteins self-assemble into virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2014-02-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera.

  1. Hantavirus Gn and Gc Glycoproteins Self-Assemble into Virus-Like Particles

    PubMed Central

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Márquez, Chantal L.; Bulling, Manuela; Klingström, Jonas; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves

    2014-01-01

    How hantaviruses assemble and exit infected cells remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the expression of Andes (ANDV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantavirus Gn and Gc envelope glycoproteins lead to their self-assembly into virus-like particles (VLPs) which were released to cell supernatants. The viral nucleoprotein was not required for particle formation. Further, a Gc endodomain deletion mutant did not abrogate VLP formation. The VLPs were pleomorphic, exposed protrusions and reacted with patient sera. PMID:24335294

  2. [Hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Strady, C; Jaussaud, R; Remy, G; Penalba, C

    2005-03-12

    Hantaviruses are cosmopolite anthropozoonosis considered as an emerging disease. Four pathogenic types for humans and part of the Bunyaviridae species are hosted by rodents and have been isolated: the Sin nombre virus responsible for the severe American respiratory form; the Hantaan and Seoul viruses responsible for hemorrhagic fevers with renal syndrome (HFRS) of severe to moderate expression in Asia and also in the Balkans; the Puumala virus responsible for HFRS of moderate expression or the socalled nephropathia epidemica in Europe. The Puumala virus is responsible for a minor form of the disease that is observed in areas of the Occidental sector of the ex-URSS, in Scandinavia and in the rest of Europe, notably in the North-East of France. The epidemic episodes occur every three years. They follow the proliferation of rodents, notably russet voles, the reservoir hosts, and their degree of infection. The concept of an occupation at risk in 20 to 49 year-old men (working in forests, agriculture, living near a forest, contact with wood) in an endemic area has not always been found. Its clinical form can vary greatly in its presentation. Basically it is a severe algic influenza syndrome accompanied by acute myopia in 38% of cases, but is nearly pathognomonic in the context. Respiratory involvement is frequent but benign. The initial syndrome can suggest an abdominal or urological surgical emergency, which is source of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. Early biological examination reveals thrombopenia and proteinuria. Then more or less severe acute kidney failure appears in slightly more than 50% of cases. Although it usually regresses with symptomatic treatment, after effects remain in some patients. The environmental changes, the geographical distribution depending on the biotope, the dynamics and behaviour of rodents and the viral circulation between them and its transmission to human beings and its risk factors must continue to be studied in order to gain

  3. Andes virus and first case report of Bermejo virus causing fatal pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Padula, Paula; Della Valle, Marcelo González; Alai, María Garcia; Cortada, Pedro; Villagra, Mario; Gianella, Alberto

    2002-04-01

    Two suspected hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases from Bolivia occurred in May and July 2000 and were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-ANDES using N-Andes recombinant antigen serology. Clot RNAs from the two patients were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing. We describe two characterized cases of HPS. One was caused by infection with Bermejo virus and the other with Andes Nort viral lineage, both previously obtained from Oligoryzomys species. This is the first report of molecular identification of a human hantavirus associated with Bermejo virus.

  4. Treatment of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-14

    r ( u h eywords: Hantavirus ; HPS; HFRS; Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome; Bunyav . Introduction Hantaviruses cause two types of serious illness when...Treatment of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome,Antiviral Research 78:162-169 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR (S...shock ith lactic acidosis, a low cardiac index and elevated sys- emic vascular resistance (Enria et al., 2001). Many authors refer the term hantavirus

  5. An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Chile, 1997.

    PubMed Central

    Toro, J.; Vega, J. D.; Khan, A. S.; Mills, J. N.; Padula, P.; Terry, W.; Yadón, Z.; Valderrama, R.; Ellis, B. A.; Pavletic, C.; Cerda, R.; Zaki, S.; Shieh, W. J.; Meyer, R.; Tapia, M.; Mansilla, C.; Baro, M.; Vergara, J. A.; Concha, M.; Calderon, G.; Enria, D.; Peters, C. J.; Ksiazek, T. G.

    1998-01-01

    An outbreak of 25 cases of Andes virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was recognized in southern Chile from July 1997 through January 1998. In addition to the HPS patients, three persons with mild hantaviral disease and one person with asymptomatic acute infection were identified. Epidemiologic studies suggested person-to-person transmission in two of three family clusters. Ecologic studies showed very high densities of several species of sigmodontine rodents in the area. PMID:9866751

  6. Hantaviruses and climate change.

    PubMed

    Klempa, B

    2009-06-01

    Most hantaviruses are rodent-borne emerging viruses. They cause two significant human diseases, haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Asia and Europe, and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. Very recently, several novel hantaviruses with unknown pathogenic potential have been identified in Africa and in a variety of insectivores (shrews and a mole). Because there is very limited information available on the possible impact of climate change on all of these highly dangerous pathogens, it is timely to review this aspect of their epidemiology. It can reasonably be concluded that climate change should influence hantaviruses through impacts on the hantavirus reservoir host populations. We can anticipate changes in the size and frequency of hantavirus outbreaks, the spectrum of hantavirus species and geographical distribution (mediated by changes in population densities), and species composition and geographical distribution of their reservoir hosts. The early effects of global warming have already been observed in different geographical areas of Europe. Elevated average temperatures in West-Central Europe have been associated with more frequent Puumala hantavirus outbreaks, through high seed production (mast year) and high bank vole densities. On the other hand, warm winters in Scandinavia have led to a decline in vole populations as a result of the missing protective snow cover. Additional effects can be caused by increased intensity and frequency of extreme climatic events, or by changes in human behaviour leading to higher risk of human virus exposure. Regardless of the extent of climate change, it is difficult to predict the impact on hantavirus survival, emergence and epidemiology. Nevertheless, hantaviruses will undoubtedly remain a significant public health threat for several decades to come.

  7. Evolution of Rhyolite at Laguna del Maule, a Rapidly Inflating Volcanic Field in the Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, N. L.; Singer, B. S.; Jicha, B. R.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Rogers, N. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (LdM) is host to both the foremost example of post-glacial rhyolitic volcanism in the southern Andes and rapid, ongoing crustal deformation. The flare-up of high-silica eruptions was coeval with deglaciation at 24 ka. Rhyolite and rhyodacite domes and coulees totaling 6.5 km3 form a 20 km ring around the central lake basin. This spatial and temporal concentration of rhyolite is unprecedented in the history of the volcanic field. Colinear major and trace element variation suggests these lavas share a common evolutionary history (Hildreth et al., 2010). Moreover, geodetic observations (InSAR & GPS) have identified rapid inflation centered in the western side of the rhyolite dome ring at a rate of 17 cm/year for five years, which has accelerated to 30 cm/yr since April 2012. The best fit to the geodetic data is an expanding magma body located at 5 km depth (Fournier et al., 2010; Le Mevel, 2012). The distribution of high-silica volcanism, most notably geochemically similar high-silica rhyolite lavas erupted 12 km apart of opposite sides of the lake within a few kyr of each other, raises the possibility that the shallow magma intrusion represents only a portion of a larger rhyolitic body, potentially of caldera forming dimensions. We aim to combine petrologic models with a precise geochronology to formulate a model of the evolution of the LdM magma system to its current state. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show rhyolitic volcanism beginning at 23 ka with the eruption of the Espejos rhyolite, followed by the Cari Launa Rhyolite at 14.5 ka, two flows of the Barrancas complex at 6.4 and 3.9 ka, and the Divisoria rhyolite at 2.2 ka. In contrast, significant andesitic and dacitic volcanism is largely absent from the central basin of LdM since the early post-glacial period suggesting a coincident basin-wide evolution from andesite to dacite to rhyolite and is consistent with a shallow body of low-density rhyolite blocking the eruption

  8. [Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Martínez, Valeria P; González Della Valle, Marcelo; Edelstein, Alexis; Miguel, Sergio; Padula, Paula J; Cacase, María L; Segura, Elsa L

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyzed the prevalence and distribution of serological reactivity to hantavirus (antibody against ANDES virus) of human population exposed to hantavirus and rodents trapped in the studied area. This study was developed in Salta (Orán and San Martín Departments), area with the highest incidence for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in Argentina. In December 1997, 453 healthy people were studied by serology and 39 rodents by serology and PCR. The studied individuals were distributed as: 145 farm inhabitants (FI), 212 people living in the same dwelling with healthy individuals (controls) (Cco), 87 people living in the same dwelling with persons undergoing SPH in 1997 (cases) (Cca). Moreover, 19 physicians and nurses who cared for patients with SPH in 1997 were also studied. The prevalence of hantavirus infection among the studied population was 6.3%. The prevalence was 10.3% among FI, 6.9% among Cca and 3.3% among Cco (p < 0.02). There was no serological reactivity among PS. The prevalence in 39 trapped rodents was 10.2%, with infection only for Oligoryzomys chacoensis, O. flavescens and Akodon varius species. The prevalence of human cases with asymptomatic infection in Salta is higher than in other regions of the country, and we are presenting a hypothesis to explain these differences. The analyzed data suggest that in this region up to the time this study was performed, there would not have been person to person transmission of hantavirus. The transmission would be from rodent contact exclusively and mainly in ongoing deforestation areas and domestic habitat surrounding rural dwellings.

  9. Analysis of hantavirus genetic diversity in Argentina: S segment-derived phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Bohlman, Marlene C; Morzunov, Sergey P; Meissner, John; Taylor, Mary Beth; Ishibashi, Kimiko; Rowe, Joan; Levis, Silvana; Enria, Delia; St Jeor, Stephen C

    2002-04-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for the complete S genome segments of the six distinct hantavirus genotypes from Argentina and for two cell culture-isolated Andes virus strains from Chile. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, although divergent from each other, all Argentinian hantavirus genotypes group together and form a novel phylogenetic clade with the Andes virus. The previously characterized South American hantaviruses Laguna Negra virus and Rio Mamore virus make up another clade that originates from the same ancestral node as the Argentinian/Chilean viruses. Within the clade of Argentinian/Chilean viruses, three subclades can be defined, although the branching order is somewhat obscure. These are made of (i) "Lechiguanas-like" virus genotypes, (ii) Maciel virus and Pergamino virus genotypes, and (iii) strains of the Andes virus. Two hantavirus genotypes from Brazil, Araraquara and Castello dos Sonhos, were found to group with Maciel virus and Andes virus, respectively. The nucleocapsid protein amino acid sequence variability among the members of the Argentinian/Chilean clade does not exceed 5.8%. It is especially low (3.5%) among oryzomyine species-associated virus genotypes, suggesting recent divergence from the common ancestor. Interestingly, the Maciel and Pergamino viruses fit well with the rest of the clade although their hosts are akodontine rodents. Taken together, these data suggest that under conditions in which potential hosts display a high level of genetic diversity and are sympatric, host switching may play a prominent role in establishing hantavirus genetic diversity. However, cospeciation still remains the dominant factor in the evolution of hantaviruses.

  10. Hantaviruses and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Maranhão, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.; Medeiros, Daniele B. de Almeida; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Mendes, Wellington S.; Vidigal, José R.B.; de Oliveira, Renata C.; D’Andrea, Paulo S.; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Cruz, Ana C.R.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.

    2010-01-01

    To confirm circulation of Anajatuba virus in Maranhão, Brazil, we conducted a serologic survey (immunoglobulin G ELISA) and phylogenetic studies (nucleocapsid gene sequences) of hantaviruses from wild rodents and persons with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. This virus is transmitted by Oligoryzomys fornesi rodents and is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in this region. PMID:21122229

  11. Hantavirus Prevention: Cleanup of Rodent Contamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Hantaviruses in the Americas may cause human disease involving the lungs, hence the name " hantavirus pulmonary syndrome" (HPS). Since May 1993, a...humans are also found in other rodents, but the number of cases stemming from these hantaviruses is small when compared to SNV. Hantavirus is shed in... HANTAVIRUS PREVENTION: CLEANUP OF RODENT CONTAMINATION Technical Information Paper 18-001-0306

  12. Hantaviruses: a global disease problem.

    PubMed Central

    Schmaljohn, C.; Hjelle, B.

    1997-01-01

    Hantaviruses are carried by numerous rodent species throughout the world. In 1993, a previously unknown group of hantaviruses emerged in the United States as the cause of an acute respiratory disease now termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Before than, hantaviruses were known as the etiologic agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a disease that occurs almost entirely in the Eastern Hemisphere. Since the discovery of the HPS-causing hantaviruses, intense investigation of the ecology and epidemiology of hantaviruses has led to the discovery of many other novel hantaviruses. Their ubiquity and potential for causing severe human illness make these viruses an important public health concern; we reviewed the distribution, ecology, disease potential, and genetic spectrum. PMID:9204290

  13. Shrinking forests under warming: evidence of Podocarpus parlatorei (pino del cerro) from the subtropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Quiroga, María Paula; Pacheco, Silvia; Malizia, Lucio R; Premoli, Andrea C

    2012-01-01

    Phylogeography in combination with ecological niche modeling (ENM) is a robust tool to analyze hypotheses on range shifts under changing climates particularly of taxa and areas with scant fossil records. We combined phylogeographic analysis and ENM techniques to study the effects of alternate cold and warm (i.e., glacial and interglacial) periods on the subtropical montane cold-tolerant conifer Podocarpus parlatorei from Yungas forests of the central Andes. Twenty-one populations, comprising 208 individuals, were analyzed by sequences of the trnL -trnF cpDNA region, and 78 sites were included in the ENM. Eight haplotypes were detected, most of which were widespread while 3 of them were exclusive of latitudinally marginal areas. Haplotype diversity was mostly even throughout the latitudinal range. Two distribution models based on 8 bioclimatic variables indicate a rather continuous distribution during cooling, while under warming remained within stable, yet increasingly fragmented, areas. Although no major range shifts are expected with warming, long-lasting persistence of cold-hardy taxa inhabiting subtropical mountains may include in situ and ex situ conservation actions particularly toward southern (colder) areas.

  14. Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Diagnosing and Treating Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Diagnosing HPS Diagnosing HPS in ... of patients that develop HPS from New World Hantaviruses recover completely. No chronic infection has been detected ...

  15. Vaccines for Hantaviruses: Progress and Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    511ISSN 1476-058410.1586/ERV.12.15www.expert-reviews.com Editorial Hantaviruses , hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome & hantavirus pulmonary...syndrome The Hantavirus genus of the fam- ily Bunyaviridae comprises more than 20 viruses, including several human patho- gens. Hantaviruses are...issues Expert Rev. Vaccines 11(5), 511–513 (2012) Keywords: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome • hantaviruses • hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

  16. Hantavirus Fever without Pulmonary Syndrome in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Armien, Blas; Pascale, Juan M.; Muñoz, Carlos; Mariñas, Jamileth; Núñez, Heydy; Herrera, Milagro; Trujillo, José; Sánchez, Deyanira; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Hjelle, Brian; Koster, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    In Panama, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by Choclo virus, a species phylogenetically related to Andes and Maporal viruses. Up to 60% of the population has been positive for specific serum antibody in community-based surveys, but mortality is very uncommon. In four western Panama clinics, we tested individuals presenting with a severe febrile prodrome for acute hantavirus (HV) infection by immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as well as clinically similar infections, such as dengue and leptospirosis. From 2006 to 2009, at least 21% of 117 patients diagnosed with HV infection had HV Fever (HF) with no evidence of pulmonary edema (no respiratory distress or radiographic lung infiltrates), and 44% of patients had very mild HPS (radiographic pulmonary edema but no respiratory insufficiency). HV infection caused by Choclo virus in Panama presents often as HF, which contrasts with HV in the Americas but is consistent with the high seroprevalence in endemic regions. PMID:23836565

  17. Hantaviruses: rediscovery and new beginnings.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-07-17

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater(®)-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1546 shrews (9 genera and 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera and 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980-2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  18. Hantaviruses: Rediscovery and New Beginnings

    PubMed Central

    Yanagihara, Richard; Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Kang, Hae Ji; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-01-01

    Virus and host gene phylogenies, indicating that antigenically distinct hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) segregate into clades, which parallel the molecular evolution of rodents belonging to the Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae and Sigmodontinae subfamilies, suggested co-divergence of hantaviruses and their rodent reservoirs. Lately, this concept has been vigorously contested in favor of preferential host switching and local host-specific adaptation. To gain insights into the host range, spatial and temporal distribution, genetic diversity and evolutionary origins of hantaviruses, we employed reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction to analyze frozen, RNAlater®-preserved and ethanol-fixed tissues from 1,546 shrews (9 genera, 47 species), 281 moles (8 genera, 10 species) and 520 bats (26 genera and 53 species), collected in Europe, Asia, Africa and North America during 1980–2012. Thus far, we have identified 24 novel hantaviruses in shrews, moles and bats. That these newfound hantaviruses are geographically widespread and genetically more diverse than those harbored by rodents suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously conjectured. Phylogenetic analyses indicate four distinct clades, with the most divergent comprising hantaviruses harbored by the European mole and insectivorous bats, with evidence for both co-divergence and host switching. Future studies will provide new knowledge about the transmission dynamics and pathogenic potential of these newly discovered, still-orphan, non-rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:24412714

  19. Newly recognized hantaviruses associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northern Brazil: partial genetic characterization of viruses and serologic implication of likely reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Elizabeth S T; Mills, James N; Padula, Paula J; Elkhoury, Mauro R; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Mendes, Wellington S; Santos, Elizabeth D; Araújo, Gisele C B; Martinez, Valeria P; Rosa, Jorge F S T; Edelstein, Alexis; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C

    2005-01-01

    Following the occurrence of the first laboratory-confirmed cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Maranhao State, Brazil, rodents were trapped and rodent materials screened by ELISA for antibodies to Sin Nombre and Andes hantaviruses. Antibody-positive samples were tested by RT-PCR, amplified products were sequenced, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for comparison with known hantaviruses. From 104 rodent blood samples collected (40 Bolomys lasiurus, 52 Holochilus sciureus, 12 Oligoryzomys fornesi, and one Proechimys guyannensis), 21 (20.2%) were antibody-positive (one B. lasiurus, five O. fornesi, and 15 H. sciureus). Hantavirus RNA was amplified by PCR from two O. fornesi and four H. sciureus. Viral sequencing identified two hantavirus genotypes. The genotype recovered from O. fornesi, is designated herein as Anajatuba (ANAJ) and the genotype recovered from H. sciureus is designated Rio Mearim (RIME). Phylogenetic analysis of a 643-nucleotide region of the N segment showed both viruses to be most closely related (94-96% nucleotide homology) to Río Mamoré virus, a virus associated with Oligoryzomys microtis in Bolivia and Peru, but not found in northern Brazil. O. fornesi was frequently captured in and around human dwellings. H. sciureus, is a semi-aquatic rodent captured only in remote areas rarely frequented by humans.

  20. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in Baltimore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-09

    hantaviruses . By these criteria, exposure to hantaviruses in the human samples was 13/1000. Among this group a disproportionate number of individuals...of Various Serological Assays for Hantaviruses as Compared to the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Assay... Hantaviruses (Family Bunyaviridae) are the etiological agents responsible for a spectrum of illnesses referred to collectively as hemorrhagic fever with

  1. Crystal Structure of the Core Region of Hantavirus Nucleocapsid Protein Reveals the Mechanism for Ribonucleoprotein Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yu; Wang, Wenming; Sun, Yuna; Ma, Chao; Wang, Xu; Wang, Xin; Liu, Pi; Shen, Shu; Li, Baobin; Lin, Jianping; Deng, Fei

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hantaviruses, which belong to the genus Hantavirus in the family Bunyaviridae, infect mammals, including humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in humans with high mortality. Hantavirus encodes a nucleocapsid protein (NP) to encapsidate the genome and form a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together with viral polymerase. Here, we report the crystal structure of the core domains of NP (NPcore) encoded by Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV), which are two representative members that cause HCPS in the New World. The constructs of SNV and ANDV NPcore exclude the N- and C-terminal portions of full polypeptide to obtain stable proteins for crystallographic study. The structure features an N lobe and a C lobe to clamp RNA-binding crevice and exhibits two protruding extensions in both lobes. The positively charged residues located in the RNA-binding crevice play a key role in RNA binding and virus replication. We further demonstrated that the C-terminal helix and the linker region connecting the N-terminal coiled-coil domain and NPcore are essential for hantavirus NP oligomerization through contacts made with two adjacent protomers. Moreover, electron microscopy (EM) visualization of native RNPs extracted from the virions revealed that a monomer-sized NP-RNA complex is the building block of viral RNP. This work provides insight into the formation of hantavirus RNP and provides an understanding of the evolutionary connections that exist among bunyaviruses. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses are distributed across a wide and increasing range of host reservoirs throughout the world. In particular, hantaviruses can be transmitted via aerosols of rodent excreta to humans or from human to human and cause HFRS and HCPS, with mortalities of 15% and 50%, respectively. Hantavirus is therefore listed as a category C pathogen. Hantavirus encodes an NP that plays essential roles both in RNP formation and

  2. Hantaviruses--globally emerging pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Song, Jin-Won; Klempa, Boris

    2015-03-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic viruses which cause human disease in Africa, America, Asia, and Europe. This review summarizes the progress in hantavirus epidemiology and diagnostics during the previous decade. Moreover, we discuss the influence of ecological factors on the worldwide virus distribution and give an outlook on research perspectives for the next years.

  3. Dynamics of a large, restless, rhyolitic magma system at Laguna del Maule, southern Andes, Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Brad S.; Andersen, Nathan L.; Le Mével, Hélène; Feigl, Kurt L.; DeMets, Charles; Tikoff, Basil; Thurber, Clifford H.; Jicha, Brian R.; Cardonna, Carlos; Córdova, Loreto; Gil, Fernando; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Miller, Craig W.; Fierstein, Judith; Hildreth, Edward; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    Explosive eruptions of large-volume rhyolitic magma systems are common in the geologic record and pose a major potential threat to society. Unlike other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and tsunamis, a large rhyolitic volcano may provide warning signs long before a caldera-forming eruption occurs. Yet, these signs—and what they imply about magma-crust dynamics—are not well known. This is because we have learned how these systems form, grow, and erupt mainly from the study of ash flow tuffs deposited tens to hundreds of thousands of years ago or more, or from the geophysical imaging of the unerupted portions of the reservoirs beneath the associated calderas. The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chile, includes an unusually large and recent concentration of silicic eruptions. Since 2007, the crust there has been inflating at an astonishing rate of at least 25 cm/yr. This unique opportunity to investigate the dynamics of a large rhyolitic system while magma migration, reservoir growth, and crustal deformation are actively under way is stimulating a new international collaboration. Findings thus far lead to the hypothesis that the silicic vents have tapped an extensive layer of crystal-poor, rhyolitic melt that began to form atop a magmatic mush zone that was established by ca. 20 ka with a renewed phase of rhyolite eruptions during the Holocene. Modeling of surface deformation, magnetotelluric data, and gravity changes suggest that magma is currently intruding at a depth of ~5 km. The next phase of this investigation seeks to enlarge the sets of geophysical and geochemical data and to use these observations in numerical models of system dynamics.

  4. The adaptive immune response does not influence hantavirus disease or persistence in the Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Joseph; Safronetz, David; Haddock, Elaine; Robertson, Shelly; Scott, Dana; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Pathogenic New World hantaviruses cause severe disease in humans characterized by a vascular leak syndrome, leading to pulmonary oedema and respiratory distress with case fatality rates approaching 40%. Hantaviruses infect microvascular endothelial cells without conspicuous cytopathic effects, indicating that destruction of the endothelium is not a mechanism of disease. In humans, high levels of inflammatory cytokines are present in the lungs of patients that succumb to infection. This, along with other observations, suggests that disease has an immunopathogenic component. Currently the only animal model available to study hantavirus disease is the Syrian hamster, where infection with Andes virus (ANDV), the primary agent of disease in South America, results in disease that closely mimics that seen in humans. Conversely, inoculation of hamsters with a passaged Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the virus responsible for most cases of disease in North America, results in persistent infection with high levels of viral replication. We found that ANDV elicited a stronger innate immune response, whereas SNV elicited a more robust adaptive response in the lung. Additionally, ANDV infection resulted in significant changes in the blood lymphocyte populations. To determine whether the adaptive immune response influences infection outcome, we depleted hamsters of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells before infection with hantaviruses. Depletion resulted in inhibition of virus-specific antibody responses, although the pathogenesis and replication of these viruses were unaltered. These data show that neither hantavirus replication, nor pathogenesis caused by these viruses, is influenced by the adaptive immune response in the Syrian hamster.

  5. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Buenos Aires, 2009-2014].

    PubMed

    Iglesias, Ayelén A; Bellomo, Carla M; Martínez, Valeria P

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus is the causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in Argentina and neighboring countries. In our country four different areas are affected: Northwest, Southwest, Central and Northeast, where distinct Andes virus genotypes were characterized. Three genotypes were described in Buenos Aires province (Central area): AND-Buenos Aires, AND-Lechiguanas and AND-Plata. In this work, we considered all HPS cases confirmed by ELISA and real time RT-PCR during the period 2009-2014 in Buenos Aires province. The annual distribution, fatality rate and geographic distribution were analyzed. We also analyzed the genotypes involved by RT-PCR and nucleotide sequencing. Finally we evaluated epidemiological data in order to establish the route of transmission. We analyzed 1386 suspect cases of hantavirus infection from Buenos Aires province and we confirmed 88 cases of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome during 2009-2014. The overall average was 14.3 cases per year. The occurrence of a HPS outbreak was confirmed in Buenos Aires province during 2013, showing a 3 fold increase in case number compared to the annual average between 2009 and 2012, tending to normalize during 2014. The overall lethality was 25.6%, with a maximum value of 45.5% in 2011. Genotype analysis was performed in 30.7% of confirmed cases, AND-BsAs show the highest incidence, it was characterized in 72% of the studied cases. Epidemiological data and results of viral genome comparison strongly suggest person-to-person transmission in the three clusters of two cases described in our study.

  6. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses.

  7. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc

    PubMed Central

    Barriga, Gonzalo P.; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L.; Bignon, Eduardo A.; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H.; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Vidal, Simon E.; Tischler, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses

  8. Diagnosis of hantavirus infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Guzmán, Camilo; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu

    2015-08-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. The viruses are transmitted to humans mainly by inhalation of virus-contaminated aerosols of rodent excreta and secreta. Classic clinical hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurs in five phases: fever, hypotension, oliguria, polyuria, and convalescence. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe acute disease that is associated with respiratory failure, pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. The diagnosis of hantavirus infections in humans is based on clinical and epidemiological information as well as laboratory tests. We review diagnosis for hantavirus infections based on serology, PCR, immunochemistry and virus culture.

  9. Hantaviruses in Serbia and Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Bojovic, Bojana; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2006-06-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkan Peninsula. An outbreak of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome occurred in 2002 in Serbia and Montenegro. The epidemiologic characteristics and genetic relatedness of Dobrava/Belgrade virus strains responsible for most cases are described.

  10. Uncovering the mysteries of hantavirus infections.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Strandin, Tomas; Hepojoki, Jussi; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2013-08-01

    Hantaviruses are negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses that infect many species of rodents, shrews, moles and bats. Infection in these reservoir hosts is almost asymptomatic, but some rodent-borne hantaviruses also infect humans, causing either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS). In this Review, we discuss the basic molecular properties and cell biology of hantaviruses and offer an overview of virus-induced pathology, in particular vascular leakage and immunopathology.

  11. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Brocato, Rebecca L.; Bell, Todd M.; Schellhase, Christopher W.; Mraz, Steven R.; Queen, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract

  12. Prevalence of infection with hantavirus in rodent populations of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Olga V; Cueto, Gerardo R; Cavia, Regino; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel E; Bilenca, David N; Edelstein, Alexis; Martínez, Paula; Miguel, Sergio; Bellomo, Carla; Hodara, Karina; Padula, Paula J; Busch, María

    2003-09-01

    We studied hantavirus seroprevalence and virus variability in rodent populations in Diego Gaynor, northwest of Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Rodent samplings were conducted in railroads and cropfield borders in March and July 1999, September and December 2000, and March 2001. Antibody detection was performed by an enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using the recombinant nucleoprotein of Andes (AND) virus as antigen. Tissue samples were taken from positive antibody individuals in order to confirm the presence of hantavirus genomic material and to identify virus genotypes. Akodon azarae was the most abundant species, followed by Oligoryzomys flavescens, while Calomys laucha and C. musculinus were rarely caught. We found a rate of seroprevalence of 9.3% for a total sample of 291 A. azarae and 13.5% for 37 O. flavescens. After molecular analyses of hantavirus, we confirmed the presence of hantavirus genomic material in 16 individuals with ELISA (+) results and two individuals with ELISA (-). Four amplimers for each species were sequenced and compared to the corresponding sequences of representative hantaviruses. We identified the AND Cent Lec from three O. flavescens, and the Pergamino virus from four A. azarae and from one O. flavescens. A. azarae males had higher seroprevalence than females, and heavier individuals showed higher seroprevalence than lighter ones. We did not find seroprevalence differences according to sex in O. flavescens, although this result may have been produced by the low sample size. The lowest seroprevalence was found in a period of high rodent density, when juveniles prevailed in the population. We found higher seroprevalences than those detected in previous studies for other localities of central Argentina where cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have been reported. The presence of AND Cent Lec virus in rodent populations of the study area, which is responsible of HPS cases in central Argentina, suggests that human

  13. [Emerging viral zoonoses: hantavirus infections].

    PubMed

    Enria, D A M; Levis, S C

    2004-08-01

    Hantaviruses are rodent-borne agents belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. These viruses, which are found throughout Europe, Asia and the Americas, are maintained by different species of rodents, in which they produce chronic, inapparent infections. Humans become infected through contact with urine, saliva or faeces from infected rodents, mainly via the aerosol route. In humans, clinical disease occurs in the form of two major syndromes: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome mainly occurs in Europe and Asia and HPS has only ever been reported in the Americas. Person-to-person transmission of hantaviruses, although uncommon, was described during an outbreak of HPS in southern Argentina. Most epidemics of HFRS and HPS occur in areas with large populations of rodents that have a relatively high prevalence of infection.

  14. Signs and Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Hantavirus Share Compartir Signs & Symptoms for Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Due to the small number ... Pathogens Branch 1600 Clifton Rd Atlanta, GA 30333 Hantavirus Hotline (877) 232-3322 (404) 639-1510 800- ...

  15. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for the simultaneous detection of antibodies against clinically important old and new world hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lederer, Sabine; Lattwein, Erik; Hanke, Merle; Sonnenberg, Karen; Stoecker, Winfried; Lundkvist, Åke; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Chan, Paul K S; Feldmann, Heinz; Dick, Daryl; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Padula, Paula; Vial, Pablo A; Panculescu-Gatej, Raluca; Ceianu, Cornelia; Heyman, Paul; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In order to detect serum antibodies against clinically important Old and New World hantaviruses simultaneously, multiparametric indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) based on biochip mosaics were developed. Each of the mosaic substrates consisted of cells infected with one of the virus types Hantaan (HTNV), Puumala (PUUV), Seoul (SEOV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Dobrava (DOBV), Sin Nombre (SNV) or Andes (ANDV). For assay evaluation, serum IgG and IgM antibodies were analyzed using 184 laboratory-confirmed hantavirus-positive sera collected at six diagnostic centers from patients actively or previously infected with the following hantavirus serotypes: PUUV (Finland, n=97); SEOV (China, n=5); DOBV (Romania, n=7); SNV (Canada, n=23); ANDV (Argentina and Chile, n=52). The control panel comprised 89 sera from healthy blood donors. According to the reference tests, all 184 patient samples were seropositive for hantavirus-specific IgG (n=177; 96%) and/or IgM (n=131; 72%), while all control samples were tested negative. In the multiparametric IFA applied in this study, 183 (99%) of the patient sera were IgG and 131 (71%) IgM positive (accordance with the reference tests: IgG, 96%; IgM, 93%). Overall IFA sensitivity for combined IgG and IgM analysis amounted to 100% for all serotypes, except for SNV (96%). Of the 89 control sera, 2 (2%) showed IgG reactivity against the HTNV substrate, but not against any other hantavirus. Due to the high cross-reactivity of hantaviral nucleocapsid proteins, endpoint titrations were conducted, allowing serotype determination in >90% of PUUV- and ANDV-infected patients. Thus, multiparametric IFA enables highly sensitive and specific serological diagnosis of hantavirus infections and can be used to differentiate PUUV and ANDV infection from infections with Murinae-borne hantaviruses (e.g. DOBV and SEOV).

  16. Hantavirus Strains in East Africa Related to Western African Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Těšíková, Jana; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, Josef; Lavrenchenko, Leonid A; Goüy de Bellocq, Joëlle

    2017-04-01

    Hantaviruses are RNA viruses primarily carried by rodents, soricomorphs, and bats. The data about the distribution and genetic diversity of these viruses are often limited, especially in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the majority of representatives were identified in western African localities, while only three hantaviruses have been reported in East Africa to date. In this study, a total of 1866 small mammals captured between 2009 and 2014 in various countries of Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, and Tanzania) were molecularly screened for the presence of hantaviruses. Hantavirus RNA was detected in dried blood samples of the Cape pipistrelle bat (Neoromicia capensis) captured in Ethiopia and the African wood mouse (Hylomyscus endorobae) from Kenya. Phylogenetic analysis of partial genomic segments revealed that the Ethiopian sample represents a sister lineage of the Mouyassué virus (reported previously from the congeneric bat in Côte d'Ivoire), and the Kenyan sample is a sister lineage of the Sangassou virus (described from the same mouse genus in Guinea).

  17. Conserved Endonuclease Function of Hantavirus L Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberger, Sylvia; Torriani, Giulia; Johansson, Maria U.; Kunz, Stefan; Engler, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging pathogens belonging to the Bunyaviridae family. Like other segmented negative strand RNA viruses, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) also known as L protein of hantaviruses lacks an intrinsic “capping activity”. Hantaviruses therefore employ a “cap snatching” strategy acquiring short 5′ RNA sequences bearing 5′cap structures by endonucleolytic cleavage from host cell transcripts. The viral endonuclease activity implicated in cap snatching of hantaviruses has been mapped to the N-terminal domain of the L protein. Using a combination of molecular modeling and structure–function analysis we confirm and extend these findings providing evidence for high conservation of the L endonuclease between Old and New World hantaviruses. Recombinant hantavirus L endonuclease showed catalytic activity and a defined cation preference shared by other viral endonucleases. Based on the previously reported remarkably high activity of hantavirus L endonuclease, we established a cell-based assay for the hantavirus endonuclase function. The robustness of the assay and its high-throughput compatible format makes it suitable for small molecule drug screens to identify novel inhibitors of hantavirus endonuclease. Based on the high degree of similarity to RdRp endonucleases, some candidate inhibitors may be broadly active against hantaviruses and other emerging human pathogenic Bunyaviruses. PMID:27144576

  18. The evolution and emergence of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Hantaviruses are a major class of zoonotic pathogens and cause a variety of severe diseases in humans. For most of the last 50 years rodents have been considered to be the primary hosts of hantaviruses, with hantavirus evolution thought to reflect a process of virus-rodent co-divergence over a time-scale of millions of years, with occasional spill-over into humans. However, recent discoveries have revealed that hantaviruses infect a more diverse range of mammalian hosts, particularly Chiroptera (bats) and Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), and that cross-species transmission at multiple scales has played an important role in hantavirus evolution. As a consequence, the evolution and emergence of hantaviruses is more complex than previously anticipated, and may serve as a realistic model for other viral groups.

  19. ASTER Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this image of the Andes along the Chile-Bolivia border, the visible and infrared data have been computer enhanced to exaggerate the color differences of the different materials. The scene is dominated by the Pampa Luxsar lava complex, occupying the upper right two-thirds of the scene. Lava flows are distributed around remnants of large dissected cones, the largest of which is Cerro Luxsar. On the middle left edge of the image are the Olca and Parumastrato volcanoes, which appear in blue due to a lack of vegetation (colored red in this composite). This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 60 kilometers (37 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. It was acquired on April 7, 2000.

    The image is located at 21 degrees south latitude, 68.3 degrees west longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Examples of applications include monitoring glacial

  20. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Manitoba

    PubMed Central

    Robbin Lindsay, L; A Drebot, Michael; Weiss, Elise; Artsob, Harvey

    2001-01-01

    The first confirmed case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Manitoba was diagnosed in 1999. To define better the risk of exposure to hantaviruses in this area, the clinical features and epidemiological factors pertaining to this case were described, and a serological survey of rodents collected near the patient's residence was undertaken. Small mammals were collected using live traps, were anesthetized via inhalation of isoflurane and were bled. Human and mouse serologies were undertaken using an ELISA to detect hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin G and/or immunoglobulin M antibodies. In addition, a full medical and epidemiological assessment, as well as individual risk factor and exposure analysis, were conducted. A 27-year-old Manitoba woman presented with severe respiratory distress and diffuse bilateral air space disease radiologically. Despite extremely aggressive measures, including mechanical ventilation, antibiotics, fluid management and inotropic support, the patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, and she died 8 h after admission. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome was confirmed by the detection of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies to the Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in her sera and by the demonstration of SNV genomic sequences in her lung tissue. Exposure to hantavirus likely occurred in and around the home or in the rural area in which she resided. A total of 252 small mammals, primarily deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), were collected from 17 different sites at or near where the patient lived. Antibodies to SNV were detected in 28 of 244 (11.5%) deer mice, which were collected within 9 km of the residence of the fatal case, indicating that these rodents are a significant reservoir for SNV in this area. PMID:18159335

  1. Hantavirus in new geographic regions, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Borg, Oliva; Albihn, Ann; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    In Sweden, human cases of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infections are reported from the northern endemic regions. We found hantavirus-specific antibodies in yellow-necked mice (Apodemus flavicollis) trapped in human dwellings in the surroundings of the cities of Uppsala and Stockholm, which are situated far south from the traditional endemic areas of PUUV. Because the yellow-necked mouse is the most common rodent in human dwellings, hantaviruses in this rodent species may be important for the public health. PMID:27258208

  2. Study of Andes virus entry and neutralization using a pseudovirion system.

    PubMed

    Ray, Neelanjana; Whidby, Jillian; Stewart, Shaun; Hooper, Jay W; Bertolotti-Ciarlet, Andrea

    2010-02-01

    Andes virus (ANDV), a member of the Hantavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes an acute disease characteristic of New-World hantaviruses called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HPS is a highly pathogenic disease with a case-fatality rate of 40%. ANDV is the only hantavirus reported to spread directly from human-to-human. The aim of the present study was to develop a quantitative and high-throughput pseudovirion assay to study ANDV infection and neutralization in biosafety level 2 facilities (BSL-2). This pseudovirion assay is based on incorporation of ANDV glycoproteins onto replication-defective vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) cores in which the gene for the surface G protein has been replaced by that encoding Renilla luciferase. Infection by the pseudovirions can be quantified by luciferase activity of infected cell lysates. ANDV pseudovirions were neutralized by ANDV-specific antisera, and there was good concordance between specificity and neutralization titers of ANDV hamster sera as determined by our pseudovirion assay and a commonly used plaque reduction neutralization titer (PRNT) assay. In addition, the pseudovirions were used to evaluate the requirements for ANDV entry, like pH dependency and the role of beta3 integrin, the reported receptor for other pathogenic hantaviruses, on entry.

  3. Development of an immunochromatography strip test based on truncated nucleocapsid antigens of three representative hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses are causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. There is a need for time-saving diagnostic methods. In the present study, recombinant N antigens were used as antigens in an immunochromatography strip (ICG) test to detect specific IgG antibodies. Methods The N-terminal 103 amino acids (aa) of Hantaan virus (HTNV), Puumala virus (PUUV) and Andes virus (ANDV) nucleocapsid (N) protein were expressed in E. coli as representative antigens of three groups (HFRS, NE and HPS-causing viruses) of hantavirus. Five different types of ICG test strips, one antigen line on one strip for each of the three selected hantaviruses (HTNV, PUUV and ANDV), three antigen lines on one strip and a mixed antigen line on one strip, were developed and sensitivities were compared. Results A total of 87 convalescent-phase patient sera, including sera from 35 HFRS patients, 36 NE patients and 16 HPS patients, and 25 sera from healthy seronegative people as negative controls were used to evaluate the ICG test. Sensitivities of the three-line strip and mixed-line strip were similar to those of the single antigen strip (97.2 to 100%). On the other hand, all of the ICG test strips showed high specificities to healthy donors. Conclusion These results indicated that the ICG test with the three representative antigens is an effective serodiagnostic tool for screening and typing of hantavirus infection in humans. PMID:24885901

  4. Hantavirus antibodies in rodents and human cases with pulmonary syndrome, Rio Negro, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Larrieu, Edmundo; Cantoni, Gustavo; Herrero, Eduardo; Pérez, Alicia; Talmon, Gabriel; Vázquez, Gabriela; Arellano, Odila; Padula, Paula

    2008-01-01

    In Río Negro Province, Argentina, human cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) appeared in the region of subantarctic forests. The Andes virus (ANDV) has been identified in the region both in Oligoryzomys longicaudatus rodents and in humans, with the main transmission being from rodents to humans but also showing the possibility of human to human transmission. Between 1996 and 2004, in 40 campaigns, 29.960 night-traps for capturing live rodents were set up. Blood samples were obtained from the rodents and processed using enzyme immunoassay with recombinant antigens made from ANDV. A total of 1767 rodents were captured, with a capture success of 5.9% and an antibody prevalence of 2.1%. Important differences were observed among the species captured from Andes and Steppe regions. Seropositive Oligoryzomys longicaudatus, Abrotrix olivaceus, Abrotrix xanhtothinus and Loxodontomus microtus were captured. During the 1993-2004 period, 40 HPS cases were registered.

  5. Mechanistic Insight into Bunyavirus-Induced Membrane Fusion from Structure-Function Analyses of the Hantavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Gc

    PubMed Central

    Stettner, Eva; Jeffers, Scott Allen; Pérez-Vargas, Jimena; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard; Tortorici, M. Alejandra; Jestin, Jean-Luc; England, Patrick; Tischler, Nicole D.; Rey, Félix A.

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single “fusion loop”. We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal “tail” that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:27783711

  6. Mechanistic Insight into Bunyavirus-Induced Membrane Fusion from Structure-Function Analyses of the Hantavirus Envelope Glycoprotein Gc.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Calvo, Pablo; Bignon, Eduardo A; Stettner, Eva; Jeffers, Scott Allen; Pérez-Vargas, Jimena; Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard; Tortorici, M Alejandra; Jestin, Jean-Luc; England, Patrick; Tischler, Nicole D; Rey, Félix A

    2016-10-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses transmitted to humans by persistently infected rodents, giving rise to serious outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), depending on the virus, which are associated with high case fatality rates. There is only limited knowledge about the organization of the viral particles and in particular, about the hantavirus membrane fusion glycoprotein Gc, the function of which is essential for virus entry. We describe here the X-ray structures of Gc from Hantaan virus, the type species hantavirus and responsible for HFRS, both in its neutral pH, monomeric pre-fusion conformation, and in its acidic pH, trimeric post-fusion form. The structures confirm the prediction that Gc is a class II fusion protein, containing the characteristic β-sheet rich domains termed I, II and III as initially identified in the fusion proteins of arboviruses such as alpha- and flaviviruses. The structures also show a number of features of Gc that are distinct from arbovirus class II proteins. In particular, hantavirus Gc inserts residues from three different loops into the target membrane to drive fusion, as confirmed functionally by structure-guided mutagenesis on the HPS-inducing Andes virus, instead of having a single "fusion loop". We further show that the membrane interacting region of Gc becomes structured only at acidic pH via a set of polar and electrostatic interactions. Furthermore, the structure reveals that hantavirus Gc has an additional N-terminal "tail" that is crucial in stabilizing the post-fusion trimer, accompanying the swapping of domain III in the quaternary arrangement of the trimer as compared to the standard class II fusion proteins. The mechanistic understandings derived from these data are likely to provide a unique handle for devising treatments against these human pathogens.

  7. Discovery of hantaviruses in bats and insectivores and the evolution of the genus Hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans, causing either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). From the period 1964-2006 almost all hantaviruses had been identified in rodents, with the exception of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV) isolated from shrews sampled in India. As a consequence, rodents were considered as the natural reservoir hosts. However, over the past seven years, most of the newly found hantavirus genotypes have been from either shrews or moles. Remarkably, in recent years divergent hantaviruses have also been identified in bats sampled from both Africa and Asia. All these data indicate that hantaviruses have a broad range of natural reservoir hosts. Phylogenetic analyses of the available sequences of hantaviruses suggest that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Although rodent hantaviruses cluster according to whether their hosts are members of the Murinae and Cricetidae, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, indicating that cross-species transmission events have occurred at all taxonomic levels. In sum, both cross-species transmission and co-divergence have produced the high genetic diversity of hantaviruses described to date.

  8. Massive plasmablast response elicited in the acute phase of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    García, Marina; Iglesias, Ayelén; Landoni, Verónica I; Bellomo, Carla; Bruno, Agostina; Córdoba, María Teresa; Balboa, Luciana; Fernández, Gabriela C; Sasiain, María Del Carmen; Martínez, Valeria P; Schierloh, Pablo

    2017-05-01

    Beside its key diagnostic value, the humoral immune response is thought to play a protective role in hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. However, little is known about the cell source of these antibodies during ongoing human infection. Herein we characterized B-cell subsets circulating in Andes-virus-infected patients. A notable potent plasmablast (PB) response that increased 100-fold over the baseline levels was observed around 1 week after the onset of symptoms. These PB present a CD3(neg) CD19(low) CD20(neg) CD38(hi) CD27(hi) CD138(+/-) IgA(+/-) surface phenotype together with the presence of cytoplasmic functional immunoglobulins. They are large lymphocytes (lymphoblasts) morphologically coincident with the 'immunoblast-like' cells that have been previously described during blood cytology examinations of hantavirus-infected patients. Immunoreactivity analysis of white blood cell lysates suggests that some circulating PB are virus-specific but we also observed a significant increase of reactivity against virus-unrelated antigens, which suggests a possible bystander effect by polyclonal B-cell activation. The presence of this large and transient PB response raises the question as to whether these cells might have a protective or pathological role during the ongoing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and suggest their practical application as a diagnostic/prognostic biomarker.

  9. Hantavirus interferon regulation and virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Mackow, Erich R; Dalrymple, Nadine A; Cimica, Velasco; Matthys, Valery; Gorbunova, Elena; Gavrilovskaya, Irina

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses predominantly replicate in primary human endothelial cells and cause 2 diseases characterized by altered barrier functions of vascular endothelium. Most hantaviruses restrict the early induction of interferon-β (IFNβ) and interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) within human endothelial cells to permit their successful replication. PHV fails to regulate IFN induction within human endothelial cells which self-limits PHV replication and its potential as a human pathogen. These findings, and the altered regulation of endothelial cell barrier functions by pathogenic hantaviruses, suggest that virulence is determined by the ability of hantaviruses to alter key signaling pathways within human endothelial cells. Our findings indicate that the Gn protein from ANDV, but not PHV, inhibits TBK1 directed ISRE, kB and IFNβ induction through virulence determinants in the Gn cytoplasmic tail (GnT) that inhibit TBK1 directed IRF3 phosphorylation. Further studies indicate that in response to hypoxia induced VEGF, ANDV infection enhances the permeability and adherens junction internalization of microvascular and lymphatic endothelial cells. These hypoxia/VEGF directed responses are rapamycin sensitive and directed by mTOR signaling pathways. These results demonstrate the presence of at least two hantavirus virulence determinants that act on endothelial cell signaling pathways: one that regulates antiviral IFN signaling responses, and a second that enhances normal hypoxia-VEGF-mTOR signaling pathways to facilitate endothelial cell permeability. These findings suggest signaling pathways as potential targets for therapeutic regulation of vascular deficits that contribute to hantavirus diseases and viral protein targets for attenuating pathogenic hantaviruses.

  10. Genetic diversity of hantaviruses in Mexico: identification of three novel hantaviruses from Neotominae rodents.

    PubMed

    Kariwa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Haruka; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; Romero-Almaraz, María de Lourdes; Almazán-Catalán, José Alberto; Ramos, Celso; Miyashita, Daisuke; Seto, Takahiro; Takano, Ayako; Totani, Masashi; Murata, Ryo; Saasa, Ngonda; Ishizuka, Mariko; Sanada, Takahiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2012-02-01

    A variety of hantaviruses are harbored by rodents in North and South America, some of which can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. To obtain greater evolutionary insight into hantaviruses in the Americas, a total of 211 rodents were captured in the Mexican states of Guerrero and Morelos in 2006. Anti-hantavirus antibodies were detected in 27 of 211 serum samples (12.8%) by ELISA. The distribution of seropositive rodents was: 17 Peromyscus beatae, 1 Megadontomys thomasi, 1 Neotoma picta, 6 Reithrodontomys sumichrasti, and 2 Reithrodontomys megalotis. The hantavirus small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments from P. beatae, R. sumichrasti, and R. megalotis were amplified and the sequences covering the open reading frames were determined. The hantaviruses from P. beatae, R. sumichrasti, and R. megalotis were provisionally designated Montano (MTN), Carrizal (CAR), and Huitzilac (HUI), respectively. The M segment amino acid identities among the Mexican hantaviruses were 80.8-93.0%. When these M segments were compared to those of known hantaviruses, MTN virus was most closely related to Limestone Canyon (LSC) virus (88.9% amino acid identity), while the CAR and HUI viruses were most closely related to El Moro Canyon (ELMC) virus (90-91% identity). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MTN, CAR, and HUI viruses occupy a monophyletic clade with the LSC, ELMC, and Rio Segundo viruses, which are harbored by Peromyscus boylii, R. megalotis, and Reithrodontomys mexicanus, respectively. The data obtained in this study provide important information for understanding the evolution of hantaviruses in the Americas.

  11. Hantavirus infection in children in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pini, N C; Resa, A; del Jesús Laime, G; Lecot, G; Ksiazek, T G; Levis, S; Enria, D A

    1998-01-01

    Clinical hantavirus infection was diagnosed in five Argentine children ages 5 to 11 years by immunoglobulin M (IgM)- capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Sin Nombre virus (SNV) antigens. Death in three of the children was associated with absence of detectable IgG to SNV antigens. An additional two cases in healthy children were studied: one, a breast-fed 15-month-old whose mother died of suspected hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) 8 months previously, had hantavirus IgG (> 1:6400); a second, whose mother survived HPS during month three of pregnancy, apparently had maternal antibodies no longer detectable 1 year after birth.

  12. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon N; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-08-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses.

  13. Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Shannon N.; Gu, Se Hun; Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses. PMID:24852723

  14. Expanding Geophysical and Geochemical Investigation of Causes of Extraordinary Unrest at the Laguna del Maule (Rhyolitic) Volcanic Field, Southern Andes, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field, Chile, includes an unusually large and recent concentration of silicic eruptions. Since 2007 the crust here has been inflating at an astonishing rate of 25 cm/yr. Findings thus far lead to the hypothesis that the silicic vents have tapped an extensive layer of crystal-poor, rhyolitic melt that began to form atop a magmatic mush zone that was established by ~20 ka with a renewed phase of rhyolite eruptions during the Holocene. Modeling of surface deformation, magnetotelluric data, and gravity changes suggest that magma is currently intruding at a depth of ~5 km. Swarms of volcano-tectonic and long period earthquakes, mostly of M < 2, have occurred beneath the most recent rhyolite coulees on the southwestern and southern margins of the 20 km diameter ring of silicic vents. With support from the US NSF and the Chilean government (SERNAGEOMIN and OVDAS) we are seizing the unique opportunity to investigate, over the next 5 years, the dynamics of this large rhyolitic system while magma migration, reservoir growth, and crustal deformation are actively underway. This collaboration involves scientists and students at: University of Wisconsin-Madison, Georgia Tech, Cornell, University of Alberta, Simon Fraser University, University of Chile-Santiago, CONICET/University of San Juan-Argentina, Nanyang Technological University-Singapore, SERNAGEOMIN, OVDAS, USGS, and SEGEMAR-Argentina. Team members will be introduced in this presentation. Our approach includes augmenting the OVDAS array of 6 permanent seisic stations with 40 additional instruments to conduct tomographic, receiver function and ambient noise studies. We continue to collect 4-D gravity data from 37 stations. Surface deformation is monitored via cGPS at 5 permanent receivers and InSAR data. A magnetotelluric survey across the Andes at 36o S is planned. Geochemical studies include mineral zoning and U-Th disequilibrium of zircons to constrain the timing of magma intrusion and

  15. How People Get Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... areas where forests, fields, and farms offer suitable habitat for the virus's rodent hosts. The peridomestic setting ( ... infested trail shelters or camp in other rodent habitats. The chance of being exposed to hantavirus is ...

  16. [Human hantavirus diseases - still neglected zoonoses?].

    PubMed

    Vrbovská, V; Chalupa, P; Straková, P; Hubálek, Z; Rudolf, I

    2015-10-01

    Hantavirus disease is the most common rodent-borne viral infection in the Czech Republic, with a mean annual incidence of 0.02 cases per 100 000 population and specific antibodies detected in 1% of the human population. Four hantaviruses (Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade, Tula, and Seewis) circulate in this country, of which Puumala virus (responsible for a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome) have been proven to cause human disease. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the hantaviruses occurring in the Czech Republic, based on the literature published during the past three decades, including their geographical distribution and clinical symptoms. The recent detection of Tula virus in an immunocompromised person as well as reports of Seoul virus infections in Europe highlight the possible emergence of neglected hantavirus infections in the foreseeable future.

  17. A novel Sin Nombre virus DNA vaccine and its inclusion in a candidate pan-hantavirus vaccine against hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS).

    PubMed

    Hooper, Jay W; Josleyn, Matthew; Ballantyne, John; Brocato, Rebecca

    2013-09-13

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV; family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) causes a hemorrhagic fever known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. There have been approximately 200 fatal cases of HPS in the United States since 1993, predominantly in healthy working-age males (case fatality rate 35%). There are no FDA-approved vaccines or drugs to prevent or treat HPS. Previously, we reported that hantavirus vaccines based on the full-length M gene segment of Andes virus (ANDV) for HPS in South America, and Hantaan virus (HTNV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) for hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia, all elicited high-titer neutralizing antibodies in animal models. HFRS is more prevalent than HPS (>20,000 cases per year) but less pathogenic (case fatality rate 1-15%). Here, we report the construction and testing of a SNV full-length M gene-based DNA vaccine to prevent HPS. Rabbits vaccinated with the SNV DNA vaccine by muscle electroporation (mEP) developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, hamsters vaccinated three times with the SNV DNA vaccine using a gene gun were completely protected against SNV infection. This is the first vaccine of any kind that specifically elicits high-titer neutralizing antibodies against SNV. To test the possibility of producing a pan-hantavirus vaccine, rabbits were vaccinated by mEP with an HPS mix (ANDV and SNV plasmids), or HFRS mix (HTNV and PUUV plasmids), or HPS/HFRS mix (all four plasmids). The HPS mix and HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies predominantly against ANDV/SNV and HTNV/PUUV, respectively. Furthermore, the HPS/HFRS mix elicited neutralizing antibodies against all four viruses. These findings demonstrate a pan-hantavirus vaccine using a mixed-plasmid DNA vaccine approach is feasible and warrants further development.

  18. Meeting report: Tenth International Conference on Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Vaheri, Antti; LeDuc, James W; Krüger, Detlev H; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Arikawa, Jiro; Song, Jin-Won; Markotić, Alemka; Clement, Jan; Liang, Mifang; Li, Dexin; Yashina, Liudmila N; Jonsson, Colleen B; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2016-09-01

    The 10th International Conference on Hantaviruses, organized by the International Society on Hantaviruses, was held from May 31-June 3, 2016 at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA. These conferences have been held every three years since 1980. The current report summarizes research presented on all aspects of hantavirology: ecology and epidemiology, virus replication, phylogeny, pathogenesis, immune response, clinical studies, vaccines and therapeutics.

  19. The major cellular sterol regulatory pathway is required for Andes virus infection.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Josiah; Drake, Mary Jane; Bruce, Emily A; Riblett, Amber M; Didigu, Chukwuka A; Wilen, Craig B; Malani, Nirav; Male, Frances; Lee, Fang-Hua; Bushman, Frederic D; Cherry, Sara; Doms, Robert W; Bates, Paul; Briley, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    The Bunyaviridae comprise a large family of RNA viruses with worldwide distribution and includes the pathogenic New World hantavirus, Andes virus (ANDV). Host factors needed for hantavirus entry remain largely enigmatic and therapeutics are unavailable. To identify cellular requirements for ANDV infection, we performed two parallel genetic screens. Analysis of a large library of insertionally mutagenized human haploid cells and a siRNA genomic screen converged on components (SREBP-2, SCAP, S1P and S2P) of the sterol regulatory pathway as critically important for infection by ANDV. The significance of this pathway was confirmed using functionally deficient cells, TALEN-mediated gene disruption, RNA interference and pharmacologic inhibition. Disruption of sterol regulatory complex function impaired ANDV internalization without affecting virus binding. Pharmacologic manipulation of cholesterol levels demonstrated that ANDV entry is sensitive to changes in cellular cholesterol and raises the possibility that clinically approved regulators of sterol synthesis may prove useful for combating ANDV infection.

  20. Novel hantavirus identified in black-bearded tomb bats, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Wu, Jianmin; He, Biao; Qin, Shaomin; Xia, Lele; Qin, Minchao; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-04-01

    Hantaviruses cause life-threatening diseases in human worldwide. Rodents, insectivores and bats are known hantaviral reservoirs, but lack of complete genomic sequences of bat-borne hantaviruses impedes phylogenetic and evolutionary comparison with those of rodents and insectivores. Here, a novel bat-borne hantavirus, Laibin virus (LBV), has been identified in a black-bearded tomb bat in China. The complete genomic sequence shows that LBV is only distantly related to all previously known bat-borne hantaviruses.

  1. Serological diagnosis with recombinant N antigen for hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are causative agents of two rodent-borne zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Serological examinations to detect hantavirus antibodies have been most widely used for surveillance among humans and rodent reservoirs. Here, we will review antigenic structure of nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses and application of recombinant N protein as diagnostic antigen for screening and serotyping.

  2. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bisordi, Ivani; Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pereira, Luiz E.; Souza, Renato P.; Sugahara, Teresa K.N.; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Souza, Luiza T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat). PMID:15663849

  3. Shared ancestry between a newfound mole-borne hantavirus and hantaviruses harbored by cricetid rodents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Bennett, Shannon N; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-08-01

    Discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae) and moles (family Talpidae) contests the conventional view that rodents (order Rodentia, families Muridae and Cricetidae) are the principal reservoir hosts and suggests that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses is far more complex than previously hypothesized. We now report on Rockport virus (RKPV), a hantavirus identified in archival tissues of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) collected in Rockport, TX, in 1986. Pairwise comparison of the full-length S, M, and L genomic segments indicated moderately low sequence similarity between RKPV and other soricomorph-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that RKPV shared a most recent common ancestor with cricetid-rodent-borne hantaviruses. Distributed widely across the eastern United States, the fossorial eastern mole is sympatric and syntopic with cricetid rodents known to harbor hantaviruses, raising the possibility of host-switching events in the distant past. Our findings warrant more-detailed investigations on the dynamics of spillover and cross-species transmission of present-day hantaviruses within communities of rodents and moles.

  4. Evidence of Hantavirus Infection Among Bats in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sabino-Santos, Gilberto; Maia, Felipe Gonçalves Motta; Vieira, Thallyta Maria; de Lara Muylaert, Renata; Lima, Sabrina Miranda; Gonçalves, Cristieli Barros; Barroso, Patricia Doerl; Melo, Maria Norma; Jonsson, Colleen B; Goodin, Douglas; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    Hantaviruses are zoonotic viruses harbored by rodents, bats, and shrews. At present, only rodent-borne hantaviruses are associated with severe illness in humans. New species of hantaviruses have been recently identified in bats and shrews greatly expanding the potential reservoirs and ranges of these viruses. Brazil has one of the highest incidences of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in South America, hence it is critical to know what is the prevalence of hantaviruses in Brazil. Although much is known about rodent reservoirs, little is known regarding bats. We captured 270 bats from February 2012 to April 2014. Serum was screened for the presence of antibodies against a recombinant nucleoprotein (rN) of Araraquara virus (ARAQV). The prevalence of antibody to hantavirus was 9/53 with an overall seroprevalence of 17%. Previous studies have shown only insectivorous bats to harbor hantavirus; however, in our study, of the nine seropositive bats, five were frugivorous, one was carnivorous, and three were sanguivorous phyllostomid bats.

  5. A lethal disease model for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in immunosuppressed Syrian hamsters infected with Sin Nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Brocato, Rebecca L; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Bell, Todd M; Wells, Jay B; Queen, Laurie A; Hooper, Jay W

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is a rodent-borne hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) predominantly in North America. SNV infection of immunocompetent hamsters results in an asymptomatic infection; the only lethal disease model for a pathogenic hantavirus is Andes virus (ANDV) infection of Syrian hamsters. Efforts to create a lethal SNV disease model in hamsters by repeatedly passaging virus through the hamster have demonstrated increased dissemination of the virus but no signs of disease. In this study, we demonstrate that immunosuppression of hamsters through the administration of a combination of dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide, followed by infection with SNV, results in a vascular leak syndrome that accurately mimics both HPS disease in humans and ANDV infection of hamsters. Immunosuppressed hamsters infected with SNV have a mean number of days to death of 13 and display clinical signs associated with HPS, including pulmonary edema. Viral antigen was widely detectable throughout the pulmonary endothelium. Histologic analysis of lung sections showed marked inflammation and edema within the alveolar septa of SNV-infected hamsters, results which are similar to what is exhibited by hamsters infected with ANDV. Importantly, SNV-specific neutralizing polyclonal antibody administered 5 days after SNV infection conferred significant protection against disease. This experiment not only demonstrated that the disease was caused by SNV, it also demonstrated the utility of this animal model for testing candidate medical countermeasures. This is the first report of lethal disease caused by SNV in an adult small-animal model.

  6. Discovery of hantaviruses and of the Hantavirus genus: personal and historical perspectives of the Presidents of the International Society of Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Wang; Vaheri, Antti; Schmaljohn, Connie S

    2014-07-17

    We three authors, the two past presidents (HWL and AV) and the current president (CSS) of the International Society for Hantaviruses (ISH) have attended most of the nine International Conferences on HFRS, HPS and Hantaviruses (Table 1). These conferences have provided a forum for a synergistic group of clinicians, basic researchers, mammalogists, epidemiologists and ecologists to share their expertise and interests in all aspects of hantavirus research. Much of what is now hantavirus dogma was only conjecture when HWL organized the first conference in Seoul, Korea in 1989. Herein, we provide our reflections on key events in hantavirus research. As we come from distinct areas of the world and have had individual historical experiences, we certainly have our own geocentric opinions about the key events. Nevertheless, we agree that the discovery of hantaviruses has taken an interesting and unpredictable track to where we are today.

  7. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Pooja R.; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27688634

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of a newfound bat-borne hantavirus supports a laurasiatherian host association for ancestral mammalian hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Peter T; Drexler, Jan F; Kallies, René; Ličková, Martina; Bokorová, Silvia; Mananga, Gael D; Szemes, Tomáš; Leroy, Eric M; Krüger, Detlev H; Drosten, Christian; Klempa, Boris

    2016-07-01

    Until recently, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) were believed to originate from rodent reservoirs. However, genetically distinct hantaviruses were lately found in shrews and moles, as well as in bats from Africa and Asia. Bats (order Chiroptera) are considered important reservoir hosts for emerging human pathogens. Here, we report on the identification of a novel hantavirus, provisionally named Makokou virus (MAKV), in Noack's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ruber) in Gabon, Central Africa. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic l-segment showed that MAKV was the most closely related to other bat-borne hantaviruses and shared a most recent common ancestor with the Asian hantaviruses Xuan Son and Laibin. Breakdown of the virus load in a bat animal showed that MAKV resembles rodent-borne hantaviruses in its organ distribution in that it predominantly occurred in the spleen and kidney; this provides a first insight into the infection pattern of bat-borne hantaviruses. Ancestral state reconstruction based on a tree of l gene sequences of all relevant hantavirus lineages was combined with phylogenetic fossil host hypothesis testing, leading to a statistically significant rejection of the mammalian superorder Euarchontoglires (including rodents) but not the superorder Laurasiatheria (including shrews, moles, and bats) as potential hosts of ancestral hantaviruses at most basal tree nodes. Our data supports the emerging concept of bats as previously overlooked hantavirus reservoir hosts.

  9. Hantavirus Infection in the Republic of Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    diagnosis of acute renal failure. Patient’s fluid input and output were closely regulated, and his con- dition improved gradually without dialysis...Vizjak A. Hantavirus nephropathy . J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:1653–8. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2007091022 Address for correspondence: Tinatin Kuchuloria

  10. Hantaviral Proteins: Structure, Functions, and Role in Hantavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muyangwa, Musalwa; Martynova, Ekaterina V.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Morzunov, Sergey P.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are the members of the family Bunyaviridae that are naturally maintained in the populations of small mammals, mostly rodents. Most of these viruses can easily infect humans through contact with aerosols or dust generated by contaminated animal waste products. Depending on the particular Hantavirus involved, human infection could result in either hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or in Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. In the past few years, clinical cases of the Hantavirus caused diseases have been on the rise. Understanding structure of the Hantavirus genome and the functions of the key viral proteins are critical for the therapeutic agents’ research. This paper gives a brief overview of the current knowledge on the structure and properties of the Hantavirus nucleoprotein and the glycoproteins. PMID:26640463

  11. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-09

    methodology has been adapted for use with hantaviruses , and has been utilized to identify virus in naturally infected animals. This provides a method...exposure to hantaviruses , by ELISA. None were found to be positive. In addition, another 64 patients from the dialysis populations at JHH, Bon Secours, and...primary diagnoses of hypertensive renal disease. Thus, infection with hantaviruses is associated with 8.6% of the cases of patients with end stage renal

  12. Phylogenetic characterization of hantaviruses from wild rodents and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the state of Parana (southern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Raboni, Sonia Mara; Hoffmann, Federico G; Oliveira, Renata C; Teixeira, Bernardo R; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Stella, Vanessa; Carstensen, Suzana; Bordignon, Juliano; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Lemos, Elba R S; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2009-09-01

    Over 1,100 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have occurred in Brazil since 1993, but little is known about Brazilian hantaviruses, and many of their rodent hosts remain unknown. The Araucaria hantavirus (ARAUV) was described recently from HPS patients from Paraná, in southern Brazil, but its host could not be identified. In this study, rodents were captured from regions with high HPS prevalence to address this issue. ARAUV RNA was detected in three distantly related rodent species: Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex and Akodon montensis. Furthermore, a specimen of A. montensis was infected with a Jaborá-like virus, implying that A. montensis can be infected by at least two different hantaviruses. The presence of the same hantavirus strain in three different rodent species and the co-circulation of two different strains in the same rodent species highlight the potential for genomic reassortment, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and on human epidemiology.

  13. Phylogeography and evolutionary history of rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Souza, W M; Bello, G; Amarilla, A A; Alfonso, H L; Aquino, V H; Figueiredo, L T M

    2014-01-01

    Hantavirus (Family Bunyaviridae) are mostly associated to rodents and transmitted to man by inhalation of aerosolized infected excreta of these animals. The human infection by hantaviruses can lead to severe diseases such as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Asia and Europe, and pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the Americas. To determine the origin, spreading and evolutionary dynamics of rodent-borne hantaviruses, 190 sequences of nucleoprotein (N) of hantaviruses identified in 30 countries, from 1985 to 2010, were retrieved from the GenBank and analyzed using the BEAST program. Our evolutionary analysis indicates that current genetic diversity of N gene of rodent-borne hantaviruses probably was originated around 2000 years ago. Hantavirus harbored by Murinae and Arvicolinae subfamilies, probably, were originated in Asia 500-700 years ago and later spread toward Siberia, Europe, Africa and North America. Hantavirus carried by Neotominae subfamily, probably, emerged 500-600 years ago in Central America and spread toward North America. Finally, hantaviruses associated to Sigmodontinae occurred in Brazil 400 years ago and were, probably, originated from Neotominae-associated virus from northern South America. These data offer subsidies to understand the time-scale and worldwide dissemination dynamics of rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  14. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N B; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific.

  15. Phylogenetic Relationship of Necoclí Virus to Other South American Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus)

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Cajimat, Maria N. B.; Milazzo, Mary Louise; Diaz, Francisco J.; Rodas, Juan David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The results of a previous study suggested that Cherrie's cane rat (Zygodontomys cherriei) is the principal host of Necoclí virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) in Colombia. Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences in this study confirmed that Necoclí virus is phylogenetically closely related to Maporal virus, which is principally associated with the delicate pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys delicatus) in western Venezuela. In pairwise comparisons, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the nucleocapsid protein of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid proteins of other hantaviruses were ≥8.7%. Likewise, nonidentities between the complete amino acid sequence of the glycoprotein precursor of Necoclí virus and the complete amino acid sequences of the glycoprotein precursors of other hantaviruses were ≥11.7%. Collectively, the unique association of Necoclí virus with Z. cherriei in Colombia, results of the Bayesian analyses of complete nucleocapsid protein gene sequences and complete glycoprotein precursor gene sequences, and results of the pairwise comparisons of amino acid sequences strongly support the notion that Necoclí virus represents a novel species in the genus Hantavirus. Further work is needed to determine whether Calabazo virus (a hantavirus associated with Z. brevicauda cherriei in Panama) and Necoclí virus are conspecific. PMID:26186516

  16. Hantaviruses in Finnish soricomorphs: evidence for two distinct hantaviruses carried by Sorex araneus suggesting ancient host-switch.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiaxin; Sironen, Tarja; Voutilainen, Liina; Hepojoki, Satu; Niemimaa, Jukka; Isoviita, Veli-Matti; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-10-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging viruses carried by rodents, soricomorphs (shrews and moles) and bats. In Finland, Puumala virus (PUUV) was for years the only hantavirus detected. In 2009, however, Seewis virus (SWSV) was reported from archival common shrew (Sorex araneus) samples collected in 1982 in Finland. To elucidate the diversity of hantaviruses in soricomorphs in Finland, 180 individuals were screened, representing seven species captured from 2001 to 2012: hantavirus RNA was screened using RT-PCR, and hantaviral antigen using immunoblotting with polyclonal antibodies raised against truncated SWSV nucleocapsid protein. The overall hantavirus RNA prevalence was 14% (26/180), antigen could be demonstrated in 9 of 20 SWSV RT-PCR positive common shrews. Genetic analyses revealed that four soricomorph-borne hantaviruses circulate in Finland, including Boginia virus (BOGV) in water shrew (Neomys fodiens) and Asikkala virus (ASIV) in pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus). Interestingly, on two study sites, common shrews harbored strains of two different hantaviruses: Seewis virus and a new distinct, genetically distant (identity 57% at amino acid level) virus (Altai-like virus) which clusters together with viruses in the basal phylogroup I of hantaviruses with 62-67% identity at amino acid level. This is the first evidence of coexistence of two clearly distinct hantavirus species circulating simultaneously in one host species population. The findings suggest an ancient host-switching event from a yet unknown host to S. araneus. In addition, phylogenetic analyses of partial S and M segment sequences showed that SWSV in Finland represents a unique genotype in Europe.

  17. Genetic identification of a novel hantavirus of the harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, B; Chavez-Giles, F; Torrez-Martinez, N; Yates, T; Sarisky, J; Webb, J; Ascher, M

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned the S genomic segment of a novel hantavirus of the harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis. The virus is phylogenetically distinct from other hantaviruses. The new hantavirus was identified in harvest mice separated by approximately 1,000 km. A wood rat (Neotoma mexicana) was found to be infected with the harvest mouse hantavirus. PMID:8084007

  18. Rise of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Garzione, Carmala N; Hoke, Gregory D; Libarkin, Julie C; Withers, Saunia; MacFadden, Bruce; Eiler, John; Ghosh, Prosenjit; Mulch, Andreas

    2008-06-06

    The surface uplift of mountain belts is generally assumed to reflect progressive shortening and crustal thickening, leading to their gradual rise. Recent studies of the Andes indicate that their elevation remained relatively stable for long periods (tens of millions of years), separated by rapid (1 to 4 million years) changes of 1.5 kilometers or more. Periodic punctuated surface uplift of mountain belts probably reflects the rapid removal of unstable, dense lower lithosphere after long-term thickening of the crust and lithospheric mantle.

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns in the Hantavirus infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramson, G.; Kenkre, V. M.

    2002-07-01

    We present a model of the infection of Hantavirus in deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, based on biological observations of the system in the North American Southwest. The results of the analysis shed light on relevant observations of the biological system, such as the sporadical disappearance of the infection, and the existence of foci or ``refugia'' that perform as reservoirs of the virus when environmental conditions are less than optimal.

  20. Sympatry of 2 Hantavirus Strains, Paraguay, 2003–2007

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yong-Kyu; Goodin, Douglas; Owen, Robert D.; Koch, David

    2009-01-01

    To explore geographic and host-taxonomic patterns of hantaviruses in Paraguay, we established sampling sites in the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve. We detected Jaborá virus and Itapúa37/Juquitiba–related virus in locations ≈20 m apart in different years, which suggested sympatry of 2 distinct hantaviruses. PMID:19961679

  1. Juquitiba-like Hantavirus from 2 Nonrelated Rodent Species, Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Delfraro, Adriana; Tomé, Lorena; D’Elía, Guillermo; Clara, Mario; Achával, Federico; Russi, José C.

    2008-01-01

    Serologic and genetic analyses indicate that a Juquitiba-like hantavirus circulates in Maldonado, Uruguay. This virus is carried by 2 rodent species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Oxymycterus nasutus. The same hantavirus in 2 nonrelated species can be explained by a spillover infection or a host-switching event. PMID:18760017

  2. Hantavirus in Indian Country: The First Decade in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pottinger, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Hantavirus, caused due to close contact with mice in a dwelling, first emerged in the spring of 1993 on the Navajo Reservation and although it is by no means an Indian disease, there are four times as many cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) among non-Indians. Inadequate rural housing, especially common in western Indian Country,…

  3. Expanded host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Stanley, William T; Esselstyn, Jacob A; Gu, Se Hun; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-07-01

    The recent discovery of hantaviruses in shrews and bats in West Africa suggests that other genetically distinct hantaviruses exist in East Africa. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of newfound hantaviruses, detected in archival tissues from the Geata mouse shrew (Myosorex geata) and Kilimanjaro mouse shrew ( Myosorex zinki) captured in Tanzania, expands the host diversity and geographic distribution of hantaviruses and suggests that ancestral shrews and/or bats may have served as the original mammalian hosts of primordial hantaviruses.

  4. Hantavirus immunology of rodent reservoirs: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Schountz, Tony; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-03-14

    Hantaviruses are hosted by rodents, insectivores and bats. Several rodent-borne hantaviruses cause two diseases that share many features in humans, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome in the Americas. It is thought that the immune response plays a significant contributory role in these diseases. However, in reservoir hosts that have been closely examined, little or no pathology occurs and infection is persistent despite evidence of adaptive immune responses. Because most hantavirus reservoirs are not model organisms, it is difficult to conduct meaningful experiments that might shed light on how the viruses evade sterilizing immune responses and why immunopathology does not occur. Despite these limitations, recent advances in instrumentation and bioinformatics will have a dramatic impact on understanding reservoir host responses to hantaviruses by employing a systems biology approach to identify important pathways that mediate virus/reservoir relationships.

  5. Survey for antibody to hantaviruses in Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Castro-Arellano, Iván; Suzán, Gerardo; León, Rita Flores; Jiménez, Ricardo Morales; Lacher, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Wild rodents (n=248) were trapped in two ecologically distinct sites at El Cielo Biosphere Reserve in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, during the summer of 2003. Samples from 199 individuals were tested for Hantavirus antibodies by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hantavirus antibodies to recombinant Sin Nombre virus nucleocapsid protein were found in seven rodents (3.5%) of a single species, Peromyscus levipes. Antibody-positive rodents were found only in the Cloud Forest site, which had lower rodent species diversity than the Tropical Subdecidous Forest site. Although the identity of the virus in P. levipes remains to be determined, our study provides further evidence that Hantavirus antibody-positive individuals are prevalent in the rodent fauna of Mexico. This is the first survey for Hantavirus antibodies in the rodent fauna of Tamaulipas and the first report of P. levipes as a potential host for a Hantavirus.

  6. Evidence of human hantavirus infection and zoonotic investigation of hantavirus prevalence in rodents in western Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kosasih, Herman; Ibrahim, Ima Nurisa; Wicaksana, Rudi; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hoo, Yumilia; Yo, Iing H; Antonjaya, Ungke; Widjaja, Susana; Winoto, Imelda; Williams, Maya; Blair, Patrick J

    2011-06-01

    During febrile surveillance in the western Java City of Bandung, Indonesia, a patient with clinical symptoms consistent with hantavirus infection was found to have elevated titers of hantavirus-specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies. A subsequent epizoological investigation demonstrated a higher prevalence of hantavirus IgG antibodies in rodents trapped in the vicinity of the patient's home compared with rodents from a control area (13.2% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.036). The Old World Seoul hantavirus was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the organs of 71% of the seropositive rodents tested. This is the first report of a Seoul virus infection in Indonesia supported by clinical, serological, and epizoological evidences. These findings suggest that hantavirus infection should be on the clinical differential diagnosis when acutely ill febrile patients report for care in western Java.

  7. A Holocene Lake Record from Laguna Del Maule (LdM) in the Chilean Andes: Climatic and Volcanic Controls on Lake Depositional Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero-Garces, B. L.; Frugone Alvarez, M.; Barreiro-Lostres, F.; Carrevedo, M. L.; Latorre Hidalgo, C.; Giralt, S.; Maldonado, A.; Bernárdez, P.; Prego, R.; Moreno-Caballud, A.

    2014-12-01

    Central Chile is a tectonically active, drought-prone region sensitive to latitudinal variations in large-scale cold fronts associated with fluctuations of the Pacific subtropical high. Holocene high-resolution records of climate and volcanic events could help inform more on the frequency of extensive droughts as well as volcanic and seismic hazards. LdM is a high altitude, volcanic lake located in the Transition Southern Volcanic Zone (~36°S, 2200 m.a.s.l). The LdM volcanic field is a very seismically and volcanically active zone in the Andes, with several caldera-forming eruptions over the last 1.5 Ma, and intense postglacial activity. In 2013, we recovered over 40 m of sediment cores at four sites of LdM and collected > 20 km of seismic lines. The cores were imaged, their physical and geochemical properties analysed with a Geotek MSCL and XRF scanner respectively, and sampled for TOC, TIC, TS, TN, BioSi, and bulk mineralogy. The chronology was constructed with a Bayesian age-depth model including 210Pb-137Cs, the Quizapú volcanic ash (1932 AD) and 17 AMS 14C dates. The 4.8 m long composite sequence spans the Late glacial and Holocene.Sediments are massive to banded, quartz and plagioclase-rich silts with variable diatom (BioSi, 15- 30 %) and organic matter content (TOC, 1-5 %). Four main units have been defined based on sedimentological and geochemical composition. The transition from Unit 4 to 3 is ascribed to the onset of the Holocene; Unit 2 spans the mid Holocene, and Unit 1 the last 4 ka. Higher (lower) TOC, Br/Ti and Fe/Mn ratios in units 1 and 3 (2 and 4) suggest higher (lower) organic productivity in the lake and dominant oxic (anoxic) conditions at the bottom of the lake. Up to 17 ash and lapilli layers mark volcanic events, mostly grouped in units 1 and 3. Periods of higher lake productivity (units 1 and 3) are synchronous to higher frequency of volcanic events. Some climate transitions (LIA, 4ka, 8ka and 11ka) are evident in the LdM sequence

  8. Surveillance of hantaviruses in Poland: a study of animal reservoirs and human hantavirus disease in Subcarpathia.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Aleksander; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Nowakowska, Anna; Gaweł, Jerzy; Pitucha, Grzegorz; Joniec, Justyna; Zielonka, Katarzyna; Marciniak-Niemcewicz, Anna; Kocik, Janusz

    2014-07-01

    The first cluster of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Poland was identified in 2007 in the Subcarpathian region. The natural environment of this area is a key habitat for hantavirus vectors. The animal reservoir of existing human HFRS clusters was studied to assess the occurrence of viruses (including Tula virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus) among rodents. We examined 70 suspected human cases with symptoms corresponding to the clinical picture of HFRS. Serological analysis (indirect immunofluorescence assay and immunoblot) confirmed the presence of anti-hantavirus antibodies in 18 patients, which were surveyed with regard to developed symptoms and presumed rodent contact. Seroepidemiological analysis of newly confirmed human cases was performed, putative areas of human exposure were studied, and 194 rodents were subsequently captured from identified areas. Internal organs (lungs, heart, spleen, bladder, and kidneys) were collected from 64 Apodemus flavicollis, 55 Apodemus agrarius, 40 Myodes glareolus, 21 Mus musculus, and 14 Microtus arvalis and tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription and subsequent real-time PCR. Positive samples were also tested by indirect immunofluorescence. Animal reservoir surveillance enabled the first detection of Puumala virus and Dobrava-Belgrade virus among animals in Poland. Furthermore, some places where rodents were captured correlated with areas of residence of laboratory-confirmed human cases and likely detected virus species. Moreover, three species of hantaviruses coexisting in a relatively small area were identified.

  9. Antiviral Efficacy of Favipiravir against Two Prominent Etiological Agents of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Falzarano, Darryl; Scott, Dana P.; Furuta, Yousuke; Feldmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is caused by infection with several Sigmodontinae- and Neotominae-borne hantaviruses and has a case fatality rate of 30 to 50%. Humans often become infected by inhalation of materials contaminated with virus-laden rodent urine or saliva, although human-to-human transmission has also been documented for Andes virus (ANDV). The ability to transmit via aerosolization, coupled with the high mortality rates and lack of therapeutic options, makes the development of medical countermeasures against HPS imperative. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the broad-spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (T-705) against Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and ANDV, the predominant causes of HPS in North and South America, respectively. In vitro, T-705 potently inhibited SNV and ANDV, as evidenced by decreased detection of viral RNA and reduced infectious titers. For both viruses, the 90% effective concentration was estimated at ≤5 μg/ml (≤31.8 μM). In the lethal ANDV hamster model, daily administration of oral T-705 at 50 or 100 mg/kg of body weight diminished the detection of viral RNA and antigen in tissue specimens and significantly improved survival rates. Oral T-705 therapy remained protective against HPS when treatment was initiated prior to the onset of viremia. No disease model for SNV exists; however, using a hamster-adapted SNV, we found that daily administration of oral T-705 significantly reduced the detection of SNV RNA and antigen in tissue specimens, suggesting that the compound would also be effective against HPS in North America. Combined, these results suggest that T-705 treatment is beneficial for postexposure prophylaxis against HPS-causing viruses and should be considered for probable exposures. PMID:23856782

  10. Elevated Generation of Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen Species in Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ian C.; Zajac, Allan J.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Botten, Jason; Hjelle, Brian; Matalon, Sadis

    2002-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a life-threatening respiratory disease characterized by profound pulmonary edema and myocardial depression. Most cases of HCPS in North America are caused by Sin Nombre virus (SNV), which is carried asymptomatically by deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). The underlying pathophysiology of HCPS is poorly understood. We hypothesized that pathogenic SNV infection results in increased generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS), which contribute to the morbidity and mortality of HCPS. Human disease following infection with SNV or Andes virus was associated with increased nitrotyrosine (NT) adduct formation in the lungs, heart, and plasma and increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the lungs compared to the results obtained for normal human volunteers. In contrast, NT formation was not increased in the lungs or cardiac tissue from SNV-infected deer mice, even at the time of peak viral antigen expression. In a murine (Mus musculus) model of HCPS (infection of NZB/BLNJ mice with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13), HCPS-like disease was associated with elevated expression of iNOS in the lungs and NT formation in plasma, cardiac tissue, and the lungs. In this model, intraperitoneal injection of 1400W, a specific iNOS inhibitor, every 12 h during infection significantly improved survival without affecting intrapulmonary fluid accumulation or viral replication, suggesting that cardiac damage may instead be the cause of mortality. These data indicate that elevated production of RONS is a feature of pathogenic New World hantavirus infection and that pharmacologic blockade of iNOS activity may be of therapeutic benefit in HCPS cases, possibly by ameliorating the myocardial suppressant effects of RONS. PMID:12134039

  11. Potential Geographic Distribution of Hantavirus Reservoirs in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Escobar, Luis E.; Peterson, A. Townsend; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Brazil. Human infections occur via inhalation of aerosolized viral particles from excreta of infected wild rodents. Necromys lasiurus and Oligoryzomys nigripes appear to be the main reservoirs of hantavirus in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado biomes. We estimated and compared ecological niches of the two rodent species, and analyzed environmental factors influencing their occurrence, to understand the geography of hantavirus transmission. N. lasiurus showed a wide potential distribution in Brazil, in the Cerrado, Caatinga, and Atlantic Forest biomes. Highest climate suitability for O. nigripes was observed along the Brazilian Atlantic coast. Maximum temperature in the warmest months and annual precipitation were the variables that most influence the distributions of N. lasiurus and O. nigripes, respectively. Models based on occurrences of infected rodents estimated a broader area of risk for hantavirus transmission in southeastern and southern Brazil, coinciding with the distribution of human cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. We found no demonstrable environmental differences among occurrence sites for the rodents and for human cases of hantavirus. However, areas of northern and northeastern Brazil are also apparently suitable for the two species, without broad coincidence with human cases. Modeling of niches and distributions of rodent reservoirs indicates potential for transmission of hantavirus across virtually all of Brazil outside the Amazon Basin. PMID:24391989

  12. Hantaviruses: an emerging public health threat in India? A review.

    PubMed

    Chandy, S; Abraham, S; Sridharan, G

    2008-11-01

    The emerging viral diseases haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are a cause of global concern as they are increasingly reported from newer regions of the world. The hantavirus species causing HFRS include Hantaan virus,Seoul virus, Puumala virus, and Dobrava-Belgrade virus while Sin Nombre virus was responsible for the 1993 outbreak of HCPS in the Four Corners Region of the US. Humans are accidental hosts and get infected by aerosols generated from contaminated urine,feces and saliva of infected rodents. Rodents are the natural hosts of these viruses and develop persistent infection. Human to human infections are rare and the evolution of the virus depends largely on that of the rodent host. The first hantavirus isolate to be cultured, Thottapalayam virus,is the only indigenous isolate from India,isolated from an insectivore in 1964 in Vellore, South India. Research on hantaviruses in India has been slow but steady since 2005. Serological investigation of patients with pyrexic illness revealed presence of anti-hantavirus IgM antibodies in 14.7% of them. The seropositivity of hantavirus infections in the general population is about 4% and people who live and work in close proximity with rodents have a greater risk of acquiring hantavirus infections. Molecular and serological evidence of hantavirus infections in rodents and man has also been documented in this country. The present review on hantaviruses is to increase awareness of these emerging pathogens and the threats they pose to the public health system.

  13. Diversity of extremophilic bacteria in the sediment of high-altitude lakes located in the mountain desert of Ojos del Salado volcano, Dry-Andes.

    PubMed

    Aszalós, Júlia Margit; Krett, Gergely; Anda, Dóra; Márialigeti, Károly; Nagy, Balázs; Borsodi, Andrea K

    2016-09-01

    Ojos del Salado, the highest volcano on Earth is surrounded by a special mountain desert with extreme aridity, great daily temperature range, intense solar radiation, and permafrost from 5000 meters above sea level. Several saline lakes and permafrost derived high-altitude lakes can be found in this area, often surrounded by fumaroles and hot springs. The aim of this study was to gain information about the bacterial communities inhabiting the sediment of high-altitude lakes of the Ojos del Salado region located between 3770 and 6500 m. Altogether 11 sediment samples from 4 different altitudes were examined with 16S rRNA gene based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone libraries. Members of 17 phyla or candidate divisions were detected with the dominance of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The bacterial community composition was determined mainly by the altitude of the sampling sites; nevertheless, the extreme aridity and the active volcanism had a strong influence on it. Most of the sequences showed the highest relation to bacterial species or uncultured clones from similar extreme environments.

  14. Biological control agents elevate hantavirus by subsidizing deer mouse populations.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Dean E; Callaway, Ragan M

    2006-04-01

    Biological control of exotic invasive plants using exotic insects is practiced under the assumption that biological control agents are safe if they do not directly attack non-target species. We tested this assumption by evaluating the potential for two host-specific biological control agents (Urophora spp.), widely established in North America for spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) control, to indirectly elevate Sin Nombre hantavirus by providing food subsidies to populations of deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), the primary reservoir for the virus. We show that seropositive deer mice (mice testing positive for hantavirus) were over three times more abundant in the presence of the biocontrol food subsidy. Elevating densities of seropositive mice may increase risk of hantavirus infection in humans and significantly alter hantavirus ecology. Host specificity alone does not ensure safe biological control. To minimize indirect risks to non-target species, biological control agents must suppress pest populations enough to reduce their own numbers.

  15. Hantavirus infection in humans and rodents, northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pini, Noemi; Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Barquez, Ruben M; Enria, Delia

    2003-09-01

    We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)-endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats.

  16. Novel hantavirus in the flat-skulled shrew (Sorex roboratus).

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Arai, Satoru; Hope, Andrew G; Cook, Joseph A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2010-08-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified recently in multiple species of shrews (Order Soricomorpha, Family Soricidae) in Eurasia and North America. To corroborate decades-old reports of hantaviral antigens in shrews from Russia, archival liver and lung tissues from 4 Siberian large-toothed shrews (Sorex daphaenodon), 5 Eurasian least shrews (Sorex minutissimus), 12 flat-skulled shrews (Sorex roboratus), and 18 tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis), captured in the Sakha Republic in northeastern Siberia during July and August 2006, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A novel hantavirus, named Kenkeme virus, was detected in a flat-skulled shrew. Sequence analysis of the full-length S and partial M and L segments indicated that Kenkeme virus was genetically and phylogenetically distinct from Seewis virus harbored by the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), as well as all other rodent-, soricid-, and talpid-borne hantaviruses.

  17. Hantavirus Infection in Humans and Rodents, Northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Ramirez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; Lozano, Elena; Ripoll, Carlos; St. Jeor, Stephen; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Barquez, Ruben M.; Enria, Delia

    2003-01-01

    We initiated a study to elucidate the ecology and epidemiology of hantavirus infections in northern Argentina. The northwestern hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)–endemic area of Argentina comprises Salta and Jujuy Provinces. Between 1997 and 2000, 30 HPS cases were diagnosed in Jujuy Province (population 512,329). Most patients had a mild clinical course, and the death rate (13.3%) was low. We performed a serologic and epidemiologic survey in residents of the area, in conjunction with a serologic study in rodents. The prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in the general human population was 6.5%, one of the highest reported in the literature. No evidence of interhuman transmission was found, and the high prevalence of hantavirus antibody seemed to be associated with the high infestation of rodents detected in domestic and peridomestic habitats. PMID:14519242

  18. Atomic Structure and Biochemical Characterization of an RNA Endonuclease in the N Terminus of Andes Virus L Protein

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-García, Yaiza; Reguera, Juan; Busch, Carola; Witte, Gregor; Sánchez-Ramos, Oliberto; Betzel, Christian; Cusack, Stephen; Günther, Stephan; Reindl, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is a human-pathogenic hantavirus. Hantaviruses presumably initiate their mRNA synthesis by using cap structures derived from host cell mRNAs, a mechanism called cap-snatching. A signature for a cap-snatching endonuclease is present in the N terminus of hantavirus L proteins. In this study, we aimed to solve the atomic structure of the ANDV endonuclease and characterize its biochemical features. However, the wild-type protein was refractory to expression in Escherichia coli, presumably due to toxic enzyme activity. To circumvent this problem, we introduced attenuating mutations in the domain that were previously shown to enhance L protein expression in mammalian cells. Using this approach, 13 mutant proteins encompassing ANDV L protein residues 1–200 were successfully expressed and purified. Protein stability and nuclease activity of the mutants was analyzed and the crystal structure of one mutant was solved to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Shape in solution was determined by small angle X-ray scattering. The ANDV endonuclease showed structural similarities to related enzymes of orthobunya-, arena-, and orthomyxoviruses, but also differences such as elongated shape and positively charged patches surrounding the active site. The enzyme was dependent on manganese, which is bound to the active site, most efficiently cleaved single-stranded RNA substrates, did not cleave DNA, and could be inhibited by known endonuclease inhibitors. The atomic structure in conjunction with stability and activity data for the 13 mutant enzymes facilitated inference of structure–function relationships in the protein. In conclusion, we solved the structure of a hantavirus cap-snatching endonuclease, elucidated its catalytic properties, and present a highly active mutant form, which allows for inhibitor screening. PMID:27300328

  19. Atomic Structure and Biochemical Characterization of an RNA Endonuclease in the N Terminus of Andes Virus L Protein.

    PubMed

    Fernández-García, Yaiza; Reguera, Juan; Busch, Carola; Witte, Gregor; Sánchez-Ramos, Oliberto; Betzel, Christian; Cusack, Stephen; Günther, Stephan; Reindl, Sophia

    2016-06-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is a human-pathogenic hantavirus. Hantaviruses presumably initiate their mRNA synthesis by using cap structures derived from host cell mRNAs, a mechanism called cap-snatching. A signature for a cap-snatching endonuclease is present in the N terminus of hantavirus L proteins. In this study, we aimed to solve the atomic structure of the ANDV endonuclease and characterize its biochemical features. However, the wild-type protein was refractory to expression in Escherichia coli, presumably due to toxic enzyme activity. To circumvent this problem, we introduced attenuating mutations in the domain that were previously shown to enhance L protein expression in mammalian cells. Using this approach, 13 mutant proteins encompassing ANDV L protein residues 1-200 were successfully expressed and purified. Protein stability and nuclease activity of the mutants was analyzed and the crystal structure of one mutant was solved to a resolution of 2.4 Å. Shape in solution was determined by small angle X-ray scattering. The ANDV endonuclease showed structural similarities to related enzymes of orthobunya-, arena-, and orthomyxoviruses, but also differences such as elongated shape and positively charged patches surrounding the active site. The enzyme was dependent on manganese, which is bound to the active site, most efficiently cleaved single-stranded RNA substrates, did not cleave DNA, and could be inhibited by known endonuclease inhibitors. The atomic structure in conjunction with stability and activity data for the 13 mutant enzymes facilitated inference of structure-function relationships in the protein. In conclusion, we solved the structure of a hantavirus cap-snatching endonuclease, elucidated its catalytic properties, and present a highly active mutant form, which allows for inhibitor screening.

  20. The Andes Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Directs Basal Endothelial Cell Permeability by Activating RhoA

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunova, Elena E.; Simons, Matthew J.; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Andes virus (ANDV) predominantly infects microvascular endothelial cells (MECs) and nonlytically causes an acute pulmonary edema termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). In HPS patients, virtually every pulmonary MEC is infected, MECs are enlarged, and infection results in vascular leakage and highly lethal pulmonary edema. We observed that MECs infected with the ANDV hantavirus or expressing the ANDV nucleocapsid (N) protein showed increased size and permeability by activating the Rheb and RhoA GTPases. Expression of ANDV N in MECs increased cell size by preventing tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) repression of Rheb-mTOR-pS6K. N selectively bound the TSC2 N terminus (1 to 1403) within a complex containing TSC2/TSC1/TBC1D7, and endogenous TSC2 reciprocally coprecipitated N protein from ANDV-infected MECs. TSCs normally restrict RhoA-induced MEC permeability, and we found that ANDV infection or N protein expression constitutively activated RhoA. This suggests that the ANDV N protein alone is sufficient to activate signaling pathways that control MEC size and permeability. Further, RhoA small interfering RNA, dominant-negative RhoA(N19), and the RhoA/Rho kinase inhibitors fasudil and Y27632 dramatically reduced the permeability of ANDV-infected MECs by 80 to 90%. Fasudil also reduced the bradykinin-directed permeability of ANDV and Hantaan virus-infected MECs to control levels. These findings demonstrate that ANDV activation of RhoA causes MEC permeability and reveal a potential edemagenic mechanism for ANDV to constitutively inhibit the basal barrier integrity of infected MECs. The central importance of RhoA activation in MEC permeability further suggests therapeutically targeting RhoA, TSCs, and Rac1 as potential means of resolving capillary leakage during hantavirus infections. PMID:27795403

  1. Recent Evidence of Hantavirus Circulation in the American Tropic

    PubMed Central

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Diaz, Francisco J.; Rodas, Juan D.

    2014-01-01

    Hantaan virus was discovered in Korea during the 1970s while other similar viruses were later reported in Asia and Europe. There was no information about hantavirus human infection in the Americas until 1993 when an outbreak was described in the United States. This event promoted new studies to find hantaviruses in the Americas. At first, many studies were conducted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay, while other Latin American countries began to report the presence of these agents towards the end of the 20th century. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil). However there was an important outbreak in 2000 in Panama and some rare events have been described in Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. Since hantaviruses have only recently emerged as a potential threat in the tropical zones of the Americas, this review compiles recent hantavirus reports in Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern region of South America. These studies have generated the discovery of new hantaviruses and could help to anticipate the presentation of possible future outbreaks in the region. PMID:24638203

  2. Recent evidence of hantavirus circulation in the American tropic.

    PubMed

    Montoya-Ruiz, Carolina; Diaz, Francisco J; Rodas, Juan D

    2014-03-14

    Hantaan virus was discovered in Korea during the 1970s while other similar viruses were later reported in Asia and Europe. There was no information about hantavirus human infection in the Americas until 1993 when an outbreak was described in the United States. This event promoted new studies to find hantaviruses in the Americas. At first, many studies were conducted in Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay, while other Latin American countries began to report the presence of these agents towards the end of the 20th century. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil). However there was an important outbreak in 2000 in Panama and some rare events have been described in Peru, Venezuela and French Guiana. Since hantaviruses have only recently emerged as a potential threat in the tropical zones of the Americas, this review compiles recent hantavirus reports in Central America, the Caribbean islands and the northern region of South America. These studies have generated the discovery of new hantaviruses and could help to anticipate the presentation of possible future outbreaks in the region.

  3. How to diagnose hantavirus infections and detect them in rodents and insectivores.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses are carried by rodents and insectivores in which they cause persistent and generally asymptomatic infections. Several hantaviruses can infect humans and many of them cause either haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. In humans hantavirus infections are diagnosed using IgM-capture tests but also by RT-PCR detection of viral RNA. For detection of hantavirus infections in rodents and insectivores, serology followed by immunoblotting of, for example, lung tissue, and RT-PCR detection of viral RNA may be used, and if of interest followed by sequencing and virus isolation. For sero/genotyping of hantavirus infections in humans and carrier animals neutralisation tests/RNA sequencing are required. Hantaviruses are prime examples of emerging and re-emerging infections and it seems likely that many new hantaviruses will be detected in the near future.

  4. Hantavirus Infection Prevalence in Wild Rodents and Human Anti-Hantavirus Serological Profiles from Different Geographic Areas of South Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Raboni, Sonia M.; Delfraro, Adriana; de Borba, Luana; Teixeira, Bernardo R.; Stella, Vanessa; de Araujo, Marina R.; Carstensen, Suzana; Rubio, Giselia; Maron, Angela; Lemos, Elba R. S.; D'Andrea, Paulo S.; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N.

    2012-01-01

    Paraná state presents the fourth highest number of accumulated cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Brazil. To map the risk areas for hantavirus transmission we carried out a study based on rodent trapping and determined the anti-hantavirus seroprevalence in these animals and in the inhabitants of these localities. Overall seroprevalence in rodents and humans were 2.5% and 2.4%, respectively. Eighty-two percent of the seropositive rodents were genetically analyzed. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that hantaviruses from rodent samples cluster with Araucária (Juquitiba-like) or Jaborá hantavirus genotypes. The Jaborá strain was identified in Akodon serrensis and Akodon montensis, whereas the Araucária strain was detected in Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, A. montensis, and Akodon paranaensis, with the latter species being identified for the first time as a natural host. These findings expose the complex relationships between virus and reservoirs in Brazil, which could have an impact on hantavirus transmission dynamics in nature and human epidemiology. PMID:22855773

  5. Structure and tectonic evolution of the Fuegian Andes (southernmost South America) in the framework of the Scotia Arc development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Carbonell, Pablo J.; Dimieri, Luis V.; Olivero, Eduardo B.; Bohoyo, Fernando; Galindo-Zaldívar, Jesús

    2014-12-01

    The major structural and tectonic features of the Fuegian Andes provide an outstanding onshore geological framework that aids in the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Scotia Arc, mainly known from offshore studies. The orogenic history of the Fuegian Andes (Late Cretaceous-Miocene) is thus compared and integrated with the tectonic history of the Scotia Sea. Late Cretaceous-Paleocene structures in the Fuegian Andes suggest a N-directed contraction consistent with an oroclinal bending of the southernmost South America-Antarctic Peninsula continental bridge. This N-directed contraction in the Fuegian Andes continued during the spreading of the West Scotia Ridge, between 40-50 and 10 Ma ago. The onset of major strike-slip faulting in Tierra del Fuego is considered here to be not older than the late Miocene, consistent with the recent history of the North Scotia Ridge; thus forming part of a tectonic regime superposed to the prior contraction in the Fuegian Andes.

  6. Evidence of Human Infection with a Rat-Associated Hantavirus in Baltimore, Maryland

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    States were antigenically distinct hantaviruses have documented and shown by virologic and been isolated from different rodent reser- serologic...40) (12). Differences greater locations endemic for the disease. than fourfold in 80 per cent neutralization titers to the three hantaviruses were...naturally infected rats and humans neutralizing antibody were detected to Bal- infected with various hantaviruses (8, 10). timore rat virus, with titers

  7. [Geographic expansion of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. The southernest case report].

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Carla; Nudelman, Julio; Kwaszka, Roberto; Vazquez, Gabriela; Cantoni, Gustavo; Weinzettel, Barbara; Larrieu, Edmundo G; Padula, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Since 1995 more than 1000 cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) were reported in Argentina, a severe disease and often fatal to humans. Most cases were associated with Andes virus (AND) that caused few events of person-to-person transmission. Several lineages of pathogenic AND viruses have been described, including AND South, hosted by the rodent Oligoryzomys longicaudatus which affects the Patagonian region of Argentina and Chile. We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a HPS case. The objective was to describe the clinical presentation of the case, its epidemiology, the likely site of infection, the viral variant implicated and its relationship with the closest reported cases. We carried out the clinical follow up, serological and molecular diagnosis and the epidemiological research, including a rodent reservoir study. The clinical presentation of the case was the classical and moderate, caused by AND South virus. Its viral nucleotide sequence was compared with cases from Southern Argentina and Chile. This case was found to be the most Southern (48 degrees 46' 1.2'' S; 70 degrees 15' O) case reported and involved a new Argentinean province.

  8. Charles Darwin in the Andes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli

    2006-01-01

    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in…

  9. [Retrospective detection of hantavirus clinical infections in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Nieves Parisi, M D; Enria, D A; Pini, N C; Sabattini, M S

    1996-01-01

    Hantavirus activity in rodents and human beings in Argentina has been known since the 1980's. In this study, we retrospectively investigated hantavirus infections among Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever (AHF) cases notified between 1987 and 1994, without virological confirmation. IgG and IgM antibodies to hantavirus were tested by ELISA. Among 1028 patients included in the study, we found 13 recent infections (1.26%) and 13 remote infections (1.26%). IgG antibodies determined in 745 healthy persons living in the same localities of recent infection cases, gave only one positive result (0.13%). Nine of the 13 recent infections had the clinical presentation of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) while the other four were in the form of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS). We performed a clinical and epidemiological comparison between the nine patients with FHSR and two paired control groups: one with confirmed AHF and the other with Febrile Syndrome of Undetermined Etiology (FSUE), which were negative for hantavirus, Junin and LCM. There were no differences between clinical signs or symptoms. Nevertheless, normal or high leucocyte counts, with thrombocytopenia, hemoconcentration, high creatinine levels and proteinuria in HFRS cases resulted useful for differential diagnosis. These results showed the coexistence of Junin virus and hantaviruses in the endemic area of AHF, and indicate the importance of including the infection with these viruses in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic fevers and respiratory distress syndromes of unknown etiology. The clinical variability found could be related to the presence of more than one hantavirus serotype in our country.

  10. Immunological Mechanisms Mediating Hantavirus Persistence in Rodent Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Easterbrook, Judith D.; Klein, Sabra L.

    2008-01-01

    Hantaviruses, similar to several emerging zoonotic viruses, persistently infect their natural reservoir hosts, without causing overt signs of disease. Spillover to incidental human hosts results in morbidity and mortality mediated by excessive proinflammatory and cellular immune responses. The mechanisms mediating the persistence of hantaviruses and the absence of clinical symptoms in rodent reservoirs are only starting to be uncovered. Recent studies indicate that during hantavirus infection, proinflammatory and antiviral responses are reduced and regulatory responses are elevated at sites of increased virus replication in rodents. The recent discovery of structural and non-structural proteins that suppress type I interferon responses in humans suggests that immune responses in rodent hosts could be mediated directly by the virus. Alternatively, several host factors, including sex steroids, glucocorticoids, and genetic factors, are reported to alter host susceptibility and may contribute to persistence of hantaviruses in rodents. Humans and reservoir hosts differ in infection outcomes and in immune responses to hantavirus infection; thus, understanding the mechanisms mediating viral persistence and the absence of disease in rodents may provide insight into the prevention and treatment of disease in humans. Consideration of the coevolutionary mechanisms mediating hantaviral persistence and rodent host survival is providing insight into the mechanisms by which zoonotic viruses have remained in the environment for millions of years and continue to be transmitted to humans. PMID:19043585

  11. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  12. Tectonics of the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, Arthur L.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Fielding, Eric J.; Fox, Andrew N.; Gubbels, Timothy L.

    1989-01-01

    Acquisition of nearly complete coverage of Thematic Mapper data for the central Andes between about 15 to 34 degrees S has stimulated a comprehensive and unprecedented study of the interaction of tectonics and climate in a young and actively developing major continental mountain belt. The current state of the synoptic mapping of key physiographic, tectonic, and climatic indicators of the dynamics of the mountain/climate system are briefly reviewed.

  13. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    PubMed

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-10-18

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7-14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir.

  14. Maporal Hantavirus Causes Mild Pathology in Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus)

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Amanda; Miedema, Kaitlyn; Fauver, Joseph R.; Rico, Amber; Aboellail, Tawfik; Quackenbush, Sandra L.; Hawkinson, Ann; Schountz, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses can cause two human diseases with many pathological similarities: hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the western hemisphere and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the eastern hemisphere. Each virus is hosted by specific reservoir species without conspicuous disease. HCPS-causing hantaviruses require animal biosafety level-4 (ABSL-4) containment, which substantially limits experimental research of interactions between the viruses and their reservoir hosts. Maporal virus (MAPV) is a South American hantavirus not known to cause disease in humans, thus it can be manipulated under ABSL-3 conditions. The aim of this study was to develop an ABSL-3 hantavirus infection model using the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the natural reservoir host of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), and a virus that is pathogenic in another animal model to examine immune response of a reservoir host species. Deer mice were inoculated with MAPV, and viral RNA was detected in several organs of all deer mice during the 56 day experiment. Infected animals generated both nucleocapsid-specific and neutralizing antibodies. Histopathological lesions were minimal to mild with the peak of the lesions detected at 7–14 days postinfection, mainly in the lungs, heart, and liver. Low to modest levels of cytokine gene expression were detected in spleens and lungs of infected deer mice, and deer mouse primary pulmonary cells generated with endothelial cell growth factors were susceptible to MAPV with viral RNA accumulating in the cellular fraction compared to infected Vero cells. Most features resembled that of SNV infection of deer mice, suggesting this model may be an ABSL-3 surrogate for studying the host response of a New World hantavirus reservoir. PMID:27763552

  15. Isolation and Characterization of a Hantavirus from Lemmus sibiricus: Evidence for Host Switch during Hantavirus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Vapalahti, Olli; Lundkvist, Åke; Fedorov, Vadim; Conroy, Christopher J.; Hirvonen, Sirpa; Plyusnina, Angelina; Nemirov, Kirill; Fredga, Karl; Cook, Joseph A.; Niemimaa, Jukka; Kaikusalo, Asko; Henttonen, Heikki; Vaheri, Antti; Plyusnin, Alexander

    1999-01-01

    A novel hantavirus, first detected in Siberian lemmings (Lemmus sibiricus) collected near the Topografov River in the Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia (A. Plyusnin et al., Lancet 347:1835–1836, 1996), was isolated in Vero E6 cells and in laboratory-bred Norwegian lemmings (Lemmus lemmus). The virus, named Topografov virus (TOP), was most closely related to Khabarovsk virus (KBR) and Puumala viruses (PUU). In a cross focus reduction neutralization test, anti-TOP Lemmus antisera showed titers at least fourfold higher with TOP than with other hantaviruses; however, a rabbit anti-KBR antiserum neutralized TOP and KBR at the same titer. The TOP M segment showed 77% nucleotide and 88% amino acid identity with KBR and 76% nucleotide and 82% amino acid identity with PUU. However, the homology between TOP and the KBR S segment was disproportionately higher: 88% at the nucleotide level and 96% at the amino acid level. The 3′ noncoding regions of KBR and the TOP S and M segments were alignable except for 113- and 58-nucleotide deletions in KBR. The phylogenetic relationships of TOP, KBR, and PUU and their respective rodent carriers suggest that an exceptional host switch took place during the evolution of these viruses; while TOP and KBR are monophyletic, the respective rodent host species are only distantly related. PMID:10364307

  16. Experimental infection of Rio Mamore hantavirus in Sigmodontinae rodents

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, William Marciel; Machado, Alex Martins; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2016-01-01

    This study shows an experimental spillover infection ofSigmodontinae rodents with Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV).Necromys lasiurus and Akodon sp were infected with 103 RNA copies of RIOMV by intraperitoneal administration. The viral genome was detected in heart, lung, and kidney tissues 18 days after infection (ai), and viral excretion in urine and faeces began at four and six ai, respectively. These results reveal that urine and faeces of infected rodents contain the virus for at least 18 days. It is possible that inhaled aerosols of these excreta could transmit hantavirus to humans and other animals. PMID:27223653

  17. Genetic characterization of hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Padula, Paula J; Gomes, Raphael; Martinez, Valeria P; Bellomo, Carla; Bonvicino, Cibele R; Freire e Lima, Danúbia Inês; Bragagnolo, Camila; Caldas, Antônio C S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; de Lemos, Elba R S

    2011-03-01

    An ecological assessment of reservoir species was conducted in a rural area (Jaborá) in the mid-west of the state of Santa Catarina in southern Brazil, where hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is endemic, to evaluate the prevalence of hantavirus infection in wild rodents. Blood and tissue samples were collected from 507 rodents during seven field trips from March 2004 to April 2006. Some of the animals were karyotyped to confirm morphological identification. Phylogenetic reconstructions of rodent specimens, based on the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b gene sequences, were also obtained. Hantavirus antibody was found in 22 (4.3%) of the 507 rodents: 5 Akodon montensis, 2 Akodon paranaensis, 14 Oligoryzomys nigripes, and 1 Sooretamys angouya. Viral RNAs detected in O. nigripes and A. montensis were amplified and sequenced. O. nigripes virus genome was 97.5% (nt) and 98.4% (nt) identical to sequences published for Araucaria (Juquitiba-like) virus based on N and G2 fragment sequences. Viral sequences from A. montensis strain showed 89% and 88% nucleotide identities in a 905-nt fragment of the nucleocapsid (N) protein-coding region of the S segment when it was compared with two other Akodontine rodent-associated viruses from Paraguay, A. montensis and Akodon cursor, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the cocirculation of two genetic hantavirus lineages in the state of Santa Catarina, one from O. nigripes and the other from A. montensis, previously characterized in Brazil and Paraguay, respectively. The hantavirus associated with A. montensis, designed Jaborá virus, represents a distinct phylogenetic lineage among the Brazilian hantaviruses.

  18. Reporting Hantavirus: A Study of Intercultural Environmental Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, JoAnn M.

    A study examined media coverage of hantavirus in three Southwestern regional newspapers, including interviews with journalists and sources involved in the coverage, and implications of the media's portrayal of Navajo culture. Content review of regional coverage--67 articles in three regional newspapers were reviewed in the first year of a new…

  19. Rodent-borne hantaviruses in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Cosson, Jean François; Chaval, Yannick; Herbreteau, Vincent; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Lundqvist, Ake; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Morand, Serge; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate the circulation of hantaviruses present in southeast Asia, a large scale survey of small mammal species was carried out at seven main sites in the region (Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand). Small scale opportunistic trapping was also performed at an eighth site (Cambodia). Using a standard IFA test, IgG antibodies reacting to Hantaan virus antigens were detected at six sites. Antibody prevalence at each site varied from 0 to 5.6% with antibodies detected in several rodent species (Bandicota indica, B. savilei, Maxomys surifer, Mus caroli, M. cookii, Rattus exulans, R. nitidius, R. norvegicus, and R. tanezumi). When site seroprevalence was compared with site species richness, seropositive animals were found more frequently at sites with lower species richness. In order to confirm which hantavirus species were present, a subset of samples was also subjected to RT-PCR. Hantaviral RNA was detected at a single site from each country. Sequencing confirmed the presence of two hantavirus species, Thailand and Seoul viruses, including one sample (from Lao PDR) representing a highly divergent strain of Seoul virus. This is the first molecular evidence of hantavirus in Lao PDR and the first reported L segment sequence data for Thailand virus.

  20. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Central Plateau, Southeastern, and Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Marcos L.; de Sousa, Ricardo L.M.; Borges, Alessandra A.; de Figueiredo, Glauciane G.; Machado, Alex M.; Bisordi, Ivani; Nagasse-Sugahara, Teresa K.; Suzuki, Akemi; Pereira, Luiz E.; de Souza, Renato P.; de Souza, Luiza T.M.; Braconi, Carla T.; Harsi, Charlotte M.; de Andrade Zanotto, Paolo M.

    2009-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an increasing health problem in Brazil because of encroachment of sprawling urban, agricultural, and cattle-raising areas into habitats of subfamily Sigmodontinae rodents, which serve as hantavirus reservoirs. From 1993 through June 2007, a total of 884 cases of HPS were reported in Brazil (case-fatality rate 39%). To better understand this emerging disease, we collected 89 human serum samples and 68 rodent lung samples containing antibodies to hantavirus from a 2,500-km-wide area in Brazil. RNA was isolated from human samples and rodent tissues and subjected to reverse transcription–PCR. Partial sequences of nucleocapsid protein and glycoprotein genes from 22 human and 16 rodent sources indicated only Araraquara virus and Juquitiba virus lineages. The case-fatality rate of HPS was higher in the area with Araraquara virus. This virus, which may be the most virulent hantavirus in Brazil, was associated with areas that have had greater anthropogenic changes. PMID:19331732

  1. Hantavirus nephropathy as a pseudo-import pathology from Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Demeester, R; Bottieau, E; Van Esbroeck, M; Pourkarim, M R; Maes, P; Clement, J

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of hantavirus infection (nephropathia epidemica) diagnosed in a Belgian backpacker returning from a trekking expedition in Ecuador, after likely heavy exposure to rodents. Because of epidemiological inconsistency, molecular investigation was performed and revealed a Puumala infection acquired during very limited exposure in Belgium upon return.

  2. The first established focus of hantavirus infection in Poland, 2007.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Anna; Heyman, Paul; Knap, Józef Piotr; Burzyński, Waldemar; Witas, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    The first hantavirus infection outbreak in Poland (with different seroetiology) was identified between August-December 2007. Thirteen cases were reported in southeast Poland: 12 cases in the Carpathians bordering with northeast Slovakia, mainly in the forested areas of the Bieszczady mountains, and one case approximately 100-120 kilometres north from the others, in the adjacent Sub-Carpathian region. Four additional cases of past infection were identified retrospectively, based on the presence of the hantavirus specific IgG antibodies. Thus, the total number of infections identified in this area amounts to 17. Most probably, this number does not constitute the real hantavirus participation in the infections in this area. Considerable evidence for the probable participation of Dobrava virus (10 cases out of 17) and Puumala virus (3 cases out of 17) in the hantavirus diseases has been revealed. There were no fatal infections. However, out of 13 symptomatic cases, major HFRS clinical manifestations were observed in 10 cases and a typical nephropathia epidemica in the next 3 cases. Haemorrhagic diathesis was observed in 9 patients. Five patients underwent haemodialysis treatment due to acute renal failure. One, a female patient, haemodialysed in 10th week of gravidity, managed to maintain pregnancy and remains under interdisciplinary care.

  3. Detection of Dobrava hantavirus RNA in Apodemus mice in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Christova, Iva; Plyusnina, Angelina; Gladnishka, Teodora; Kalvatchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Iva; Dimitrov, Hristo; Mitkovska, Vesela; Mohareb, Emad; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A. flavicollis and one A. agrarius. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all recovered sequences belonged to DOBV. On the phylogenetic trees, the novel Bulgarian hantavirus sequences clustered together with sequences of established previously DOBV variants recovered from Bulgarian HFRS patients and also with variants found in wild rodents trapped in Slovenia, Greece, and Slovakia. One of the novel Bulgarian DOBV S-sequences from A. agrarius was related closely to DOBV sequences recovered from A. flavicollis, suggesting a spillover of DOBV from its natural host to A. agrarius mice. The results of this study confirmed the circulation of DOBV in wild rodents in Bulgaria. The complexity of the epidemiological situation in the Balkans requires further studies of hantaviruses in rodent hosts and human HFRS cases.

  4. Western Slope of Andes, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Along the western flank of the Andes, 400 km SE of Lima Peru, erosion has carved the mountain slopes into long, narrow serpentine ridges. The gently-sloping sediments have been turned into a plate of worms wiggling their way downhill to the ocean.

    The image was acquired September 28, 2004, covers an area of 38 x 31.6 km, and is located near 14.7 degrees south latitude, 74.5 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  5. The broad spectrum of hantaviruses and their hosts in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Klempa, B; Radosa, L; Kruger, D H

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are considered to be emerging viruses due to their increasing significance as human pathogens and their cyclic reappearance during outbreaks. Central Europe is an important endemic region for hantavirus infections. Reflecting the presence of all relevant small mammals serving as reservoir hosts, close to all recognized European hantaviruses occur also in Central Europe. Important human pathogens, Puumala and Dobrava-Belgrade viruses, are present and cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome of various severities. Moreover, several of the newly recognized shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses are present. In this review, we summarize current data on molecular detection of hantaviruses in reservoir hosts as well as on molecular epidemiology of human hantavirus infections in Central Europe.

  6. Structure of the Hantavirus Nucleoprotein Provides Insights into the Mechanism of RNA Encapsidation.

    PubMed

    Olal, Daniel; Daumke, Oliver

    2016-03-08

    Hantaviruses are etiological agents of life-threatening hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The nucleoprotein (N) of hantavirus is essential for viral transcription and replication, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. We have determined the crystal structure of hantavirus N to 3.2 Å resolution. The structure reveals a two-lobed, mostly α-helical structure that is distantly related to that of orthobunyavirus Ns. A basic RNA binding pocket is located at the intersection between the two lobes. We provide evidence that oligomerization is mediated by amino- and C-terminal arms that bind to the adjacent monomers. Based on these findings, we suggest a model for the oligomeric ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex. Our structure provides mechanistic insights into RNA encapsidation in the genus Hantavirus and constitutes a template for drug discovery efforts aimed at combating hantavirus infections.

  7. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-18

    Ecology and epidemiology of an emerging virus in Latin America]. Medicina (B Aires) 66: 343–356. 22. Weissenbacher MC, Cura E, Segura EL, Hortal M, Baek LJ...et al. (1996) Serological evidence of human Hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 23. Pini N (2004...Hantavirus in human and rodent population in an endemic area for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires) 62: 1–8. 26. Simonsen L

  8. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters▿

    PubMed Central

    Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Chapman, Jennifer; Asher, Ludmila; Fisher, Robert; Zimmerman, Michael; Larsen, Tom; Hooper, Jay W.

    2007-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and Sin Nombre virus (SNV) are rodent-borne hantaviruses that cause a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever in humans known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). There are no vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HPS, and the pathogenesis is not understood. Syrian hamsters infected with ANDV, but not SNV, develop a highly lethal disease that closely resembles HPS in humans. Here, we performed a temporal pathogenesis study comparing ANDV and SNV infections in hamsters. SNV was nonpathogenic and viremia was not detected despite the fact that all animals were infected. ANDV was uniformly lethal with a mean time to death of 11 days. The first pathology detected was lymphocyte apoptosis starting on day 4. Animals were viremic and viral antigen was first observed in multiple organs by days 6 and 8, respectively. Levels of infectious virus in the blood increased 4 to 5 logs between days 6 and 8. Pulmonary edema was first detected ultrastructurally on day 6. Ultrastructural analysis of lung tissues revealed the presence of large inclusion bodies and substantial numbers of vacuoles within infected endothelial cells. Paraendothelial gaps were not observed, suggesting that fluid leakage was transcellular and directly attributable to infecting virus. Taken together, these data imply that HPS treatment strategies aimed at preventing virus replication and dissemination will have the greatest probability of success if administered before the viremic phase; however, because vascular leakage is associated with infected endothelial cells, a therapeutic strategy targeting viral replication might be effective even at later times (e.g., after disease onset). PMID:17475651

  9. What Do We Know about How Hantaviruses Interact with Their Different Hosts?

    PubMed Central

    Ermonval, Myriam; Baychelier, Florence; Tordo, Noël

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses, like other members of the Bunyaviridae family, are emerging viruses that are able to cause hemorrhagic fevers. Occasional transmission to humans is due to inhalation of contaminated aerosolized excreta from infected rodents. Hantaviruses are asymptomatic in their rodent or insectivore natural hosts with which they have co-evolved for millions of years. In contrast, hantaviruses cause different pathologies in humans with varying mortality rates, depending on the hantavirus species and its geographic origin. Cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) have been reported in Europe and Asia, while hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndromes (HCPS) are observed in the Americas. In some cases, diseases caused by Old World hantaviruses exhibit HCPS-like symptoms. Although the etiologic agents of HFRS were identified in the early 1980s, the way hantaviruses interact with their different hosts still remains elusive. What are the entry receptors? How do hantaviruses propagate in the organism and how do they cope with the immune system? This review summarizes recent data documenting interactions established by pathogenic and nonpathogenic hantaviruses with their natural or human hosts that could highlight their different outcomes. PMID:27529272

  10. Phylogeny and origins of hantaviruses harbored by bats, insectivores, and rodents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Ping; Lin, Xian-Dan; Wang, Wen; Tian, Jun-Hua; Cong, Mei-Li; Zhang, Hai-Lin; Wang, Miao-Ruo; Zhou, Run-Hong; Wang, Jian-Bo; Li, Ming-Hui; Xu, Jianguo; Holmes, Edward C; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2013-02-01

    Hantaviruses are among the most important zoonotic pathogens of humans and the subject of heightened global attention. Despite the importance of hantaviruses for public health, there is no consensus on their evolutionary history and especially the frequency of virus-host co-divergence versus cross-species virus transmission. Documenting the extent of hantavirus biodiversity, and particularly their range of mammalian hosts, is critical to resolving this issue. Here, we describe four novel hantaviruses (Huangpi virus, Lianghe virus, Longquan virus, and Yakeshi virus) sampled from bats and shrews in China, and which are distinct from other known hantaviruses. Huangpi virus was found in Pipistrellus abramus, Lianghe virus in Anourosorex squamipes, Longquan virus in Rhinolophus affinis, Rhinolophus sinicus, and Rhinolophus monoceros, and Yakeshi virus in Sorex isodon, respectively. A phylogenetic analysis of the available diversity of hantaviruses reveals the existence of four phylogroups that infect a range of mammalian hosts, as well as the occurrence of ancient reassortment events between the phylogroups. Notably, the phylogenetic histories of the viruses are not always congruent with those of their hosts, suggesting that cross-species transmission has played a major role during hantavirus evolution and at all taxonomic levels, although we also noted some evidence for virus-host co-divergence. Our phylogenetic analysis also suggests that hantaviruses might have first appeared in Chiroptera (bats) or Soricomorpha (moles and shrews), before emerging in rodent species. Overall, these data indicate that bats are likely to be important natural reservoir hosts of hantaviruses.

  11. Estimating Hantavirus Risk in Southern Argentina: A GIS-Based Approach Combining Human Cases and Host Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Andreo, Veronica; Neteler, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Provensal, Cecilia; Levis, Silvana; Porcasi, Ximena; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Lanfri, Mario; Scavuzzo, Marcelo; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Polop, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We use a Species Distribution Modeling (SDM) approach along with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques to examine the potential distribution of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) caused by Andes virus (ANDV) in southern Argentina and, more precisely, define and estimate the area with the highest infection probability for humans, through the combination with the distribution map for the competent rodent host (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Sites with confirmed cases of HPS in the period 1995–2009 were mostly concentrated in a narrow strip (~90 km × 900 km) along the Andes range from northern Neuquén to central Chubut province. This area is characterized by high mean annual precipitation (~1,000 mm on average), but dry summers (less than 100 mm), very low percentages of bare soil (~10% on average) and low temperatures in the coldest month (minimum average temperature −1.5 °C), as compared to the HPS-free areas, features that coincide with sub-Antarctic forests and shrublands (especially those dominated by the invasive plant Rosa rubiginosa), where rodent host abundances and ANDV prevalences are known to be the highest. Through the combination of predictive distribution maps of the reservoir host and disease cases, we found that the area with the highest probability for HPS to occur overlaps only 28% with the most suitable habitat for O. longicaudatus. With this approach, we made a step forward in the understanding of the risk factors that need to be considered in the forecasting and mapping of risk at the regional/national scale. We propose the implementation and use of thematic maps, such as the one built here, as a basic tool allowing public health authorities to focus surveillance efforts and normally scarce resources for prevention and control actions in vast areas like southern Argentina. PMID:24424500

  12. Novel camelid antibody fragments targeting recombinant nucleoprotein of Araucaria hantavirus: a prototype for an early diagnosis of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Soraya S; Moreira-Dill, Leandro S; Morais, Michelle S S; Prado, Nidiane D R; Barros, Marcos L; Koishi, Andrea C; Mazarrotto, Giovanny A C A; Gonçalves, Giselle M; Zuliani, Juliana P; Calderon, Leonardo A; Soares, Andreimar M; Pereira da Silva, Luiz H; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Fernandes, Carla F C; Stabeli, Rodrigo G

    2014-01-01

    In addition to conventional antibodies, camelids produce immunoglobulins G composed exclusively of heavy chains in which the antigen binding site is formed only by single domains called VHH. Their particular characteristics make VHHs interesting tools for drug-delivery, passive immunotherapy and high-throughput diagnosis. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. Two clinical forms of the infection are known. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) is present in the Old World, while Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is found on the American continent. There is no specific treatment for HPS and its diagnosis is carried out by molecular or serological techniques, using mainly monoclonal antibodies or hantavirus nucleoprotein (N) to detect IgM and IgG in patient serum. This study proposes the use of camelid VHHs to develop alternative methods for diagnosing and confirming HPS. Phage display technology was employed to obtain VHHs. After immunizing one Lama glama against the recombinant N protein (prNΔ₈₅) of a Brazilian hantavirus strain, VHH regions were isolated to construct an immune library. VHHs were displayed fused to the M13KO7 phage coat protein III and the selection steps were performed on immobilized prNΔ₈₅. After selection, eighty clones recognized specifically the N protein. These were sequenced, grouped based mainly on the CDRs, and five clones were analyzed by western blot (WB), surface plasmon resonance (SPR) device, and ELISA. Besides the ability to recognize prNΔ85 by WB, all selected clones showed affinity constants in the nanomolar range. Additionaly, the clone KC329705 is able to detect prNΔ₈₅ in solution, as well as the native viral antigen. Findings support the hypothesis that selected VHHs could be a powerful tool in the development of rapid and accurate HPS diagnostic assays, which are essential to provide supportive care to patients and reduce the high mortality rate associated with hantavirus

  13. [Hantavirus infection: two case reports from a province in the Eastern Black Sea Region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Kaya, Selçuk; Yılmaz, Gürdal; Erensoy, Sükrü; Yağçı Çağlayık, Dilek; Uyar, Yavuz; Köksal, Iftihar

    2010-07-01

    Hantaviruses which are the members of Bunyaviridae, differ from other members of this family since they are transmitted to humans by rodents. More than 200.000 cases of hantavirus infections are reported annually worldwide. Hantaviruses can lead to two different types of infection in humans, namely, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). HFRS is the most common type of hantavirus infection in Europe and Asia and the most common virus types are Dobrava, Puumala, Hantaan and Seoul. A total of 25 hantavirus suspected cases have been reported from the Western Black Sea region of Turkey and 12 of these were confirmed serologically as "Puumala" subtype. Serological tests such as indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), are used for diagnosis and typing of the hantaviruses, however, since cross-reactions are common between the subtypes, the results of these tests should be confirmed by other methods. In this report two cases with hantavirus infection defined serologically were presented. Two male patients, 55 and 50 years old, respectively, living in Giresun province of Eastern Black Sea region, Turkey, were admitted to the State Hospital with the complaints of fever, sweating and diarrhoea without blood or mucus. Since thrombocytopenia and renal failure were detected in these two cases, they were transferred to the University Hospital. Presence of fever, thrombocytopenia and renal failure, with no laboratory findings of a bacterial infection and no growth of microoorganisms in the clinical specimens, admittance of the patients during summer and history of being present in the fields, necessitated to rule out leptospirosis, Crimean Kongo hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus infection which were all endemic in our area. Further investigation of the serum samples at the National Reference Virology Laboratory by IFA (Hantavirus Mosaic-1, Euroimmun, Germany) revealed hantavirus IgM and IgG antibodies ≥ 1:100 titer and the results

  14. Recent discoveries of new hantaviruses widen their range and question their origins.

    PubMed

    Henttonen, Heikki; Buchy, Philippe; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herbreteau, Vincent; Laakkonen, Juha; Chaval, Yannick; Galan, Maxime; Dobigny, Gauthier; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Michaux, Johan; Cosson, Jean-François; Morand, Serge; Hugot, Jean-Pierre

    2008-12-01

    Hantaviruses belong to the Bunyaviridae family. While usually hosted by wild mammals, they are potentially pathogenic for humans, and several serologically distinct groups associated with different syndromes have been identified. Yet, investigations have mostly been conducted where human infections by hantaviruses constitute a real and well-identified public health problem, i.e., the holarctic and neotropical areas. Some hantaviruses have also been described from a Suncus murinus in India and a Bandicota indica in Thailand. In addition, recent investigations in Cambodia revealed new Hantavirus types. More recently, two new Hantavirus species were described: Sangassou from a Hylomyscus simus, and Tanganya from a Crocidura theresae, both from Africa (Guinea), thus strongly questioning the current views about geographic range, evolution, and epidemiology of hantaviruses. In such a framework, we have conducted a survey of Hantavirus diversity in Southeast Asia which allows us to isolate the Thailand virus and address questions about the taxonomy of their rodent hosts. Here we present a molecular analysis of representatives of all currently known Hantavirus species, thus allowing the comparison between the newly described ones with a large range sample of rodent hantaviruses. Our results clearly point to the presence of a particular lineage of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia. It also strongly suggests that new viruses, additional mammalian hosts and different related syndromes in humans are likely to be discovered in the near future, particularly in Southeast Asia and in Africa, where Muridae rodents are highly diversified. Furthermore, additional work is also urgently needed to investigate the hantaviruses associated with Crociduridae and Soricidae.

  15. Andes

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... provide a striking demonstration of the power of water erosion. This image pair was acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging ... with the red filter placed over your left eye. Two main erosion formations can be seen. The one above image center is carved by the Rio ...

  16. A Global Perspective on Hantavirus Ecology, Epidemiology, and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Colleen B.; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Vapalahti, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Hantaviruses are enzootic viruses that maintain persistent infections in their rodent hosts without apparent disease symptoms. The spillover of these viruses to humans can lead to one of two serious illnesses, hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. In recent years, there has been an improved understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of these viruses following an increase in the number of outbreaks in the Americas. In this review, current concepts regarding the ecology of and disease associated with these serious human pathogens are presented. Priorities for future research suggest an integration of the ecology and evolution of these and other host-virus ecosystems through modeling and hypothesis-driven research with the risk of emergence, host switching/spillover, and disease transmission to humans. PMID:20375360

  17. Immunogenicity of a multi-epitope DNA vaccine against hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Yujie; Wang, Si; Yu, Tongtong; Du, Feng; Yang, X Frank; Luo, Enjie

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a severe epidemic disease caused by hantaviruses including Hantaan virus (HTNV), Seoul virus (SEOV), Dobrava virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus. Three of the four HFRS hantaviruses, HTNV, SEOV, and PUUV are found in China. Currently, there is no effective strategy available to reduce infection risk. In this study, we constructed a multi-epitope chimeric DNA vaccine that encodes expressing 25 glycoprotein epitopes from SEOV, HTNV and PUUV (designated as SHP chimeric gene). Vaccination of BALb/c mice with SHP multi-epitope chimeric DNA vaccine led to a dramatic augmentation of humoral and cellular responses. The SHP vaccine DNA was detected in many organs but not for more than 60 d. There was no risk of mutation due to integration. Thus, the SHP multi-epitope chimeric DNA vaccine is a potential effective and safe DNA vaccine against infection by SEOV, HTNV, and PUUV.

  18. Hantavirus infections in Europe and their impact on public health.

    PubMed

    Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Voutilainen, Liina; Mustonen, Jukka; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses (genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped tri-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses each carried by a specific rodent or insectivore host species. Several different hantaviruses known to infect humans circulate in Europe. The most common is Puumala (PUUV) carried by the bank vole; another two important, genetically closely related ones are Dobrava-Belgrade (DOBV) and Saaremaa viruses (SAAV) carried by Apodemus mice (species names follow the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses nomenclature). Of the two hantaviral diseases, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantaviral cardiopulmonary syndrome, the European viruses cause only HFRS: DOBV with often severe symptoms and a high case fatality rate, and PUUV and SAAV more often mild disease. More than 10,000 HFRS cases are diagnosed annually in Europe and in increasing numbers. Whether this is because of increasing recognition by the medical community or due to environmental factors such as climate change, or both, is not known. Nevertheless, in large areas of Europe, the population has a considerable seroprevalence but only relatively few HFRS cases are reported. Moreover, no epidemiological data are available from many countries. We know now that cardiac, pulmonary, ocular and hormonal disorders are, besides renal changes, common during the acute stage of PUUV and DOBV infection. About 5% of hospitalized PUUV and 16%-48% of DOBV patients require dialysis and some prolonged intensive-care treatment. Although PUUV-HFRS has a low case fatality rate, complications and long-term hormonal, renal, and cardiovascular consequences commonly occur. No vaccine or specific therapy is in general use in Europe. We conclude that hantaviruses have a significant impact on public health in Europe.

  19. Epidemiology of Hantavirus Infections in the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-08

    mellitus and/or associated retinopathy were considered to have diabetic nephropathy . Those with chronic renal disease in the setting of longstanding...significantly higher rates of hypertensive renal disease (70% vs 9.4% of those with assignable diagnoses), while diabetic nephropathy was the most...I CV AD-A242 885 AD _ EPIDEMIOLOGY OF HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES MIDTERM REPORT JAMES E. CHILDS JUNE 8, 1991 Supported by U.S. ARMY

  20. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and rodent reservoirs in the savanna-like biome of Brazil's southeastern region.

    PubMed

    Limongi, J E; Oliveira, R C; Guterres, A; Costa Neto, S F; Fernandes, J; Vicente, L H B; Coelho, M G; Ramos, V N; Ferreira, M S; Bonvicino, C R; D'Andrea, P S; Lemos, E R S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the diversity of rodent fauna in an area endemic for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Brazil, the population dynamics and the relationship of rodents with hantavirus in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome. Additionally, an analysis is made of the partial S segment sequences of the hantaviruses obtained from serologically confirmed human HCPS cases and from rodent specimens. Rodents were collected during four campaigns. Human serum samples were collected from suspected cases of HCPS at hospitals in the state of Minas Gerais. The samples antibody-reactive by ELISA were processed by RT-PCR. The PCR product was amplified and sequenced. Hantavirus was detected only in Necromys lasiurus, the wild rodent species most prevalent in the Cerrado biome (min-max: 50-83·7%). All the six human serum samples were hantavirus seropositive and five showed amplified PCR products. The analysis of the nucleotide sequences showed the circulation of a single genotype, the Araraquara hantavirus. The environmental changes that have occurred in the Cerrado biome in recent decades have favoured N. lasiurus in interspecific competition of habitats, thus increasing the risk of contact between humans and rodent species infected with hantavirus. Our data corroborate the definition of N. lasiurus as the main hantavirus reservoir in the Cerrado biome.

  1. Whole-Genome Sequence of a Novel Hantavirus Isolated from the European Mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of Nova virus, a novel hantavirus isolated from a European mole (Talpa europaea) captured in central Poland, was determined. The availability of this sequence will facilitate the search for other mole-borne hantaviruses and will accelerate the acquisition of new knowledge about their phylogeography and evolutionary origin. PMID:26021917

  2. Comparison of innate immune responses to pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Shim, So Hee; Park, Man-Seong; Moon, Sungsil; Park, Kwang Sook; Song, Jin-Won; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju

    2011-09-01

    Hantaviruses are human pathogens that cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. The mechanisms accounting for the differences in virulence between pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses are not well known. We have examined the pathogenesis of different hantavirus groups by comparing the innate immune responses induced in the host cell following infection by pathogenic (Sin Nombre, Hantaan, and Seoul virus) and putative non-pathogenic (Prospect Hill, Tula, and Thottapalayam virus) hantaviruses. Pathogenic hantaviruses were found to replicate more efficiently in interferon-competent A549 cells than putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses. The former also suppressed the expression of the interferon-β and myxovirus resistance protein genes, while the transcription level of both genes increased rapidly within 24 h post-infection in the latter. In addition, the induction level of interferon correlated with the activation level of interferon regulatory factor-3. Taken together, these results suggest that the observed differences are correlated with viral pathogenesis and further indicate that pathogenic and putative non-pathogenic hantaviruses differ in terms of early interferon induction via activation of the interferon regulatory factor-3 in infected host cells.

  3. Changes in diversification patterns and signatures of selection during the evolution of murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Castel, Guillaume; Razzauti, Maria; Jousselin, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J; Cosson, Jean-François

    2014-03-10

    In the last 50 years, hantaviruses have significantly affected public health worldwide, but the exact extent of the distribution of hantavirus diseases, species and lineages and the risk of their emergence into new geographic areas are still poorly known. In particular, the determinants of molecular evolution of hantaviruses circulating in different geographical areas or different host species are poorly documented. Yet, this understanding is essential for the establishment of more accurate scenarios of hantavirus emergence under different climatic and environmental constraints. In this study, we focused on Murinae-associated hantaviruses (mainly Seoul Dobrava and Hantaan virus) using sequences available in GenBank and conducted several complementary phylogenetic inferences. We sought for signatures of selection and changes in patterns and rates of diversification in order to characterize hantaviruses' molecular evolution at different geographical scales (global and local). We then investigated whether these events were localized in particular geographic areas. Our phylogenetic analyses supported the assumption that RNA virus molecular variations were under strong evolutionary constraints and revealed changes in patterns of diversification during the evolutionary history of hantaviruses. These analyses provide new knowledge on the molecular evolution of hantaviruses at different scales of time and space.

  4. [Hantaviruses in Germany: threat for zoo, pet, companion and farm animals?].

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Rainer G; Imholt, Christian; Krüger, Detlev H; Krautkrämer, Ellen; Scheibe, Thomas; Essbauer, Sandra S; Pfeffer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Hantaviruses are so-called "emerging" and "re-emerging" viruses because of the new and sudden nature of their appearance. Human infections can lead to two distinct disease patterns, the Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome. All known human pathogenic hantaviruses are transmitted through rodent hosts. There are three rodent-associated hantaviruses in Germany. The bank vole-associated Puumala virus (PUUV) is responsible for most of the human hantavirus infections. The Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) associated with the striped field mouse is causing hantavirus disease in the North and Northeast of Germany. The human pathogenicity of Tula virus (TULV) is still controversially discussed--the virus has been mainly associated with the common vole as the reservoir, but was molecularly detected also in the field and the water vole. More recently, two shrew-borne hantaviruses were described in Germany, i. e. Seewis virus in the common shrew and Asikkala virus in the pygmy shrew. Systematic studies about hantavirus infections of zoo, pet, companion and farm animals are still lacking. Hence, the aim of this review article is to summarise the current knowledge on this topic and raise the attention of veterinarians to potentially overlooked clinical disease patterns.

  5. Evolution of hantaviruses: co-speciation with reservoir hosts for more than 100 MYR.

    PubMed

    Plyusnin, Alexander; Sironen, Tarja

    2014-07-17

    The most recent (9th) Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) lists 23 established and 30 provisional species in the genus Hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae) (Plyusnin et al., 2012). These virus species are harbored by altogether 51 species of rodents, shrews and moles and thus in most cases it is a relationship of "one hantavirus-one host". Such a tight bond between the two, in combination with the observed association between whole groups of hantaviruses and (sub)families of rodents, helped to develop the widely accepted view of a long-term co-evolution (co-speciation) of these viruses with their hosts. Accumulating evidence of host-switching events, both recent and ancient, however challenged some of the earlier views on hantavirus evolution. In this paper we discuss the concept of hantavirus-host co-speciation and propose a scenario of hantavirus evolution based on the currently available genetic information. This scenario is based on the hypothesis that hantaviruses are very ancient viruses which already existed at the estimated diversification point of major placental clades, of which one includes the ancestors of the order Rodentia and another the ancestors of both orders Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera; the diversification occurred approximately at 90-100 MYA. We also speculate that the evolutionary history of hantaviruses extents even deeper in the past, beyond this time-point, and included the transmission of a (pre)bunyavirus from an insect host to a mammal host.

  6. Hantavirus reservoirs: current status with an emphasis on data from Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; D'Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2014-04-29

    Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera) and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha). More than 80 genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens.

  7. A small-scale survey of hantavirus in mammals from eastern Poland.

    PubMed

    Wójcik-Fatla, Angelina; Zając, Violetta; Knap, Józef P; Sroka, Jacek; Cisak, Ewa; Sawczyn, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    Samples of 30 dead small mammals each were collected on area 'A' located in eastern Poland which is exposed to flooding by the Vistula river, and on the area 'B', also located in eastern Poland but not exposed to flooding. Kidneys and livers of the mammals were examined by the PCR and nested PCR methods for the presence of hantavirus RNA. Out of 7 species of small mammals examined, the presence of hantaviruses was detected in 4 of them. Hantavirus prevalence was low in Apodemus agrarius (2.6%), the most numerous mammal species, whereas in the remaining 3 positive species (Microtus agrestis, Myodes glareolus, Sorex araneus) this was 12.5-100%. The presence of hantaviruses was detected only in the animals found on area 'A' exposed to flooding, and their prevalence was statistically greater compared to area 'B' not exposed to flooding (16.7% vs. 0%, p=0.0345). The overall positivity of the examined small mammals population from the areas 'A' and 'B' was 8.3%. The sequence analysis of the samples positive for hantavirus proved that the amplified products showed 77-86% homology with the L segment sequence of hantavirus Fusong-Mf-731 isolated from Microtus fortis in China. The presented study is the first to demonstrate the occurrence of hantavirus infection in small mammals from eastern Poland, and the first to demonstrate the significant relationship between flooding and the prevalence of hantaviruses in small mammals.

  8. Hantavirus Reservoirs: Current Status with an Emphasis on Data from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho de Oliveira, Renata; Guterres, Alexandro; Fernandes, Jorlan; D’Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2014-01-01

    Since the recognition of hantavirus as the agent responsible for haemorrhagic fever in Eurasia in the 1970s and, 20 years later, the descovery of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the Americas, the genus Hantavirus has been continually described throughout the World in a variety of wild animals. The diversity of wild animals infected with hantaviruses has only recently come into focus as a result of expanded wildlife studies. The known reservoirs are more than 80, belonging to 51 species of rodents, 7 bats (order Chiroptera) and 20 shrews and moles (order Soricomorpha). More than 80genetically related viruses have been classified within Hantavirus genus; 25 recognized as human pathogens responsible for a large spectrum of diseases in the Old and New World. In Brazil, where the diversity of mammals and especially rodents is considered one of the largest in the world, 9 hantavirus genotypes have been identified in 12 rodent species belonging to the genus Akodon, Calomys, Holochilus, Oligoryzomys, Oxymycterus, Necromys and Rattus. Considering the increasing number of animals that have been implicated as reservoirs of different hantaviruses, the understanding of this diversity is important for evaluating the risk of distinct hantavirus species as human pathogens. PMID:24784571

  9. Notes from the field: hantavirus pulmonary syndrome --- Maine, April 2011.

    PubMed

    2011-06-17

    On April 25, 2011, the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention was notified of a suspected case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in a man aged 70 years with no recent out-of-state travel. The Maine resident went to a community hospital in early April with a 5-day history of fatigue, decreased appetite, weakness, chills, myalgias, and progressive shortness of breath. On examination, he was hypoxic and tachypneic. The patient was admitted with laboratory evidence of acute renal insufficiency, leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia, and appearance of diffuse bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph. Two days later, he was transferred to a tertiary-care facility for management of respiratory failure with hypoxemia and worsening renal insufficiency. The next day, he was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Serum specimens demonstrated high titers of hantavirus reactive immunoglobulin M (1:6,400) and immunoglobulin G (1:1,600) antibodies. Hantavirus RNA was detected in the patient's blood. The patient was discharged to a skilled nursing facility 1 month after admission and is recovering with extensive rehabilitation.

  10. Hantavirus testing in small mammal populations of northcentral New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Foxx, T.

    1995-07-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993 and 1994, the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, primarily for ecological risk assessment (ecorisk) studies. At the request of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the School of Medicine at the University of New Mexico, EST also collected blood samples from captured animals for use in determining seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region due to the recent outbreak of this virus in the four-comers region of the Southwest. The deer mouse was the most commonly captured species during the tripping sessions. Other species sampled included harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), least chipmunk (Eutamias minimus), long-tailed vole (Microtus longicaudus), Mexican woodrat (Neotoma mexicana), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). The team collected blood samples from tripped animals following CDC`s suggested guidelines. Results of the 1993 and 1994 hantavirus testing identified a total overall seroprevalence of approximately 5.5% and 4.2%, respectively. The highest seroprevalence rates were found in deer mice seri (3--6%), but results on several species were inconclusive; further studies will be necessary, to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  11. [Hantavirus as important emerging agents in South America].

    PubMed

    Ondoño, Andrés F; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-01-01

    The dawning of the 20th century was marked by the emergence of new infectious disease agents and the appearance of others previously thought controlled. Both phenomena were possibly connected with ecological disturbances that led to the recognition of a dramatic climate change, of which the effects are only now becoming noticeable. Among the variety of agents to be considered, the many new viruses stand out, not only for their numerical proliferation, but also for their genetic versatility. It is this quality that provides them dexterity for evolving new strategies and adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Recently, some of the most ubiquitous and well-publicized viral agents in the American continents have been the rodent-borne viruses, and among these are the hantaviruses, etiological agents of pulmonary syndromes. Approximately 18 hantaviruses (belonging to the family Bunyaviridae), have been discovered in South America during the last 20 years, and although most of them cause persistent infections and subclinical infections in wild rodents (particularly members of the subfamily Sigmodontinae) and humans respectively; some others might also be highly lethal for humans. The goal herein is to review the state of the art regarding general aspects of hantaviruses and the diseases they cause around the world, highlighting the most recent findings in Colombia. Finally, the many unanswered questions will be recognized and highlighted concerning clinical importance and socio-economic impact of these agents on quality of public health in Colombia.

  12. Andes virus recognition of human and Syrian hamster beta3 integrins is determined by an L33P substitution in the PSI domain.

    PubMed

    Matthys, Valery S; Gorbunova, Elena E; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Mackow, Erich R

    2010-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) causes a fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans and Syrian hamsters. Human alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are receptors for several pathogenic hantaviruses, and the function of alpha(v)beta(3) integrins on endothelial cells suggests a role for alpha(v)beta(3) in hantavirus directed vascular permeability. We determined here that ANDV infection of human endothelial cells or Syrian hamster-derived BHK-21 cells was selectively inhibited by the high-affinity alpha(v)beta(3) integrin ligand vitronectin and by antibodies to alpha(v)beta(3) integrins. Further, antibodies to the beta(3) integrin PSI domain, as well as PSI domain polypeptides derived from human and Syrian hamster beta(3) subunits, but not murine or bovine beta(3), inhibited ANDV infection of both BHK-21 and human endothelial cells. These findings suggest that ANDV interacts with beta(3) subunits through PSI domain residues conserved in both Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Sequencing the Syrian hamster beta(3) integrin PSI domain revealed eight differences between Syrian hamster and human beta(3) integrins. Analysis of residues within the PSI domains of human, Syrian hamster, murine, and bovine beta(3) integrins identified unique proline substitutions at residues 32 and 33 of murine and bovine PSI domains that could determine ANDV recognition. Mutagenizing the human beta(3) PSI domain to contain the L33P substitution present in bovine beta(3) integrin abolished the ability of the PSI domain to inhibit ANDV infectivity. Conversely, mutagenizing either the bovine PSI domain, P33L, or the murine PSI domain, S32P, to the residue present human beta(3) permitted PSI mutants to inhibit ANDV infection. Similarly, CHO cells transfected with the full-length bovine beta(3) integrin containing the P33L mutation permitted infection by ANDV. These findings indicate that human and Syrian hamster alpha(v)beta(3) integrins are key receptors for ANDV and that specific residues within the

  13. The role of mites in the transmission and maintenance of Hantaan virus (Hantavirus: Bunyaviridae).

    PubMed

    Yu, Xue-jie; Tesh, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    This review examines the evidence indicating a role for parasitic mites in the transmission and maintenance of Hantaan virus in nature. The available data, much of it from recent studies in China, indicate that both trombiculid and gamasid mites are naturally infected with Hantaan virus and that infected mites can transmit the virus by bite to laboratory mice and transovarially (vertically) through eggs to their offspring. Collectively, these findings challenge the current paradigm of hantavirus transmission, namely, that rodents serve as the reservoir of human pathogenic hantaviruses in nature and that humans are infected with these viruses by inhalation of aerosols of infectious rodent excreta. Further research is needed to confirm the mite-hantavirus association and to determine if parasitic mites are in fact the major source and principal vectors of human pathogenic hantaviruses, such as Hantaan. If the mite hypothesis is correct, then it will significantly alter current concepts about the epidemiology, prevention, and control of human hantavirus infection.

  14. Genetic evidence of hantavirus infections in wild rodents from northwestern Colombia.

    PubMed

    Londoño, Andres F; Díaz, Francisco J; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad; Levis, Silvana; Rodas, Juan D

    2011-06-01

    This report builds on recent serological evidence for the presence of hantavirus in northern Colombia by providing sequence-specific and phylogenetic data of hantavirus infections in wild rodents. From August 2007 to August 2008, 354 rodent specimens representing four families were collected in the northwestern Antioquia region of Colombia. Antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus and Maciel virus antigens by IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were found in 15 of 109 (14%) Cherries cane rats (Zygodontomys cherriei), the only sigmodontinae rodents captured. Lung tissue samples from 11 of the 15 seropositive rodents were RT-polymerase chain reaction positive for hantavirus RNA, using primers for the S and M genome segments. Eight of these amplicons were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses indicated RNA of a hantavirus closely related to Calabazo virus, previously found in Panama. This is the first report of the genetic characterization of a hantavirus in rodents in Colombia.

  15. Endocytic Pathways Used by Andes Virus to Enter Primary Human Lung Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Mike; Lin, Jin-Mann S.; Spiropoulou, Christina F.

    2016-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) is the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in South America. Despite a high fatality rate (up to 40%), no vaccines or antiviral therapies are approved to treat ANDV infection. To understand the role of endocytic pathways in ANDV infection, we used 3 complementary approaches to identify cellular factors required for ANDV entry into human lung microvascular endothelial cells. We screened an siRNA library targeting 140 genes involved in membrane trafficking, and identified 55 genes required for ANDV infection. These genes control the major endocytic pathways, endosomal transport, cell signaling, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. We then used infectious ANDV and retroviral pseudovirions to further characterize the possible involvement of 9 of these genes in the early steps of ANDV entry. In addition, we used markers of cellular endocytosis along with chemical inhibitors of known endocytic pathways to show that ANDV uses multiple routes of entry to infect target cells. These entry mechanisms are mainly clathrin-, dynamin-, and cholesterol-dependent, but can also occur via a clathrin-independent manner. PMID:27780263

  16. The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) as a new reservoir for puumala-like hantavirus strains in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vahlenkamp, M; Müller, T; Tackmann, K; Löschner, U; Schmitz, H; Schreiber, M

    1998-10-01

    We have used an indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to screen the sera and tissues of muskrats (Ondatra zibethica) caught in the northwest of Brandenburg and in the northeast of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany, for hantavirus infection. Kidney and/or lung tissue from 6 (3.1%, CI = 1.1-6.5%) out of 197 muskrats were found to be positive for genomic sequences of hantavirus by RT-PCR. We could also demonstrate that 14 (5%, CI = 2.9-8.7%) out of 266 muskrat's sera available for testing contained hantavirus-specific antibodies in IFA. Thus, a total of 8% of the investigated muskrat population was found to be positive for hantavirus infection by RT-PCR and IFA. None of the animals was found positive in both tests. Further analysis of the RT-PCR amplified fragments by genomic sequencing revealed sequences mostly related to the puumala (PUU) S segment sequence of the Hällnäs B1 hantavirus strain (97-99% similarity). Our data therefore demonstrate that Ondatra zibethicus serves as an additional reservoir for puumala-like hantavirus strains in Europe. The epidemiological implications of this finding for hantavirus infection in Europe and elsewhere are discussed.

  17. Serologic survey on hantavirus in blood donors from the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Caio Maurício Mendes de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Emergent diseases such as Hantavirus Cardio-pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS) are able to create a significant impact on human populations due to their seriousness and high fatality rate. Santa Catarina, located in the South of Brazil, is the leading state for HCPS with 267 reported cases from 1999 to 2011. We present here a serological survey on hantavirus in blood donors from different cities of the state of Santa Catarina, with an IgG-ELISA using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein from Araraquara hantavirus as an antigen. In total, 314 donors from blood banks participated in the study, geographically covering the whole state. Among these, 14 individuals (4.4%) had antibodies to hantavirus: four of 50 (8% positivity) from Blumenau, four of 52 (7.6%) from Joinville, three of 50 (6%) from Florianópolis, two of 50 (4%) from Chapecó and one of 35 (2.8%) from Joaçaba. It is possible that hantaviruses are circulating across almost the whole state, with important epidemiological implications. Considering that the seropositive blood donors are healthy individuals, it is possible that hantaviruses may be causing unrecognized infections, which are either asymptomatic or clinically nonspecific, in addition to HCPS. It is also possible that more than one hantavirus type could be circulating in this region, causing mostly benign infections.

  18. Polar release of pathogenic Old World hantaviruses from renal tubular epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Epithelio- and endotheliotropic viruses often exert polarized entry and release that may be responsible for viral spread and dissemination. Hantaviruses, mostly rodent-borne members of the Bunyaviridae family infect epithelial and endothelial cells of different organs leading to organ dysfunction or even failure. Endothelial and renal epithelial cells belong to the target cells of Old World hantavirus. Therefore, we examined the release of hantaviruses in several renal epithelial cell culture models. We used Vero cells that are commonly used in hantavirus studies and primary human renal epithelial cells (HREpC). In addition, we analyzed MDCKII cells, an epithelial cell line of a dog kidney, which represents a widely accepted in vitro model of polarized monolayers for their permissiveness for hantavirus infection. Results Vero C1008 and primary HREpCs were grown on porous-support filter inserts for polarization. Monolayers were infected with hantavirus Hantaan (HTNV) and Puumala (PUUV) virus. Supernatants from the apical and basolateral chamber of infected cells were analyzed for the presence of infectious particles by re-infection of Vero cells. Viral antigen and infectious particles of HTNV and PUUV were exclusively detected in supernatants collected from the apical chamber of infected Vero C1008 cells and HREpCs. MDCKII cells were permissive for hantavirus infection and polarized MDCKII cells released infectious hantaviral particles from the apical surface corresponding to the results of Vero and primary human epithelial cells. Conclusions Pathogenic Old World hantaviruses are released from the apical surface of different polarized renal epithelial cells. We characterized MDCKII cells as a suitable polarized cell culture model for hantavirus infection studies. PMID:23194647

  19. A proposal for new criteria for the classification of hantaviruses, based on S and M segment protein sequences.

    PubMed

    Maes, Piet; Klempa, Boris; Clement, Jan; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Gajdusek, D Carleton; Krüger, Detlev H; Van Ranst, Marc

    2009-09-01

    Hantaviruses, members of the family Bunyaviridae, are the causative agents of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Hantaviruses are currently demarcated into species based on the guidelines provided by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). These guidelines however, are often ignored by the descriptors of novel hantaviruses. With this study we attempted to refine the second ICTV guideline for hantavirus species demarcation by phylogenetically analyzing all in Genbank available complete sequences derived from the S, M or L segments of hantaviruses. S and M segment amino acid sequence comparison allowed clear and unequivocal distinction between different hantavirus species, and lead us to propose additional criteria for the demarcation of hantavirus species (S segment amino acid distance >10% or M segment amino acid distance >12%) and hantavirus groups (S segment amino distance >24% or M segment amino acid distance >32%). With this study, we propose to adjust the second rule of the ICTV classification guidelines ("a 7% difference in amino acid identity when comparing the complete S segment and M segment sequences") to a more appropriate rule, "a 10% difference in S segment similarity and a 12% difference in M segment similarity based on complete amino acid sequences" in accordance with the current situation in the hantavirus field.

  20. Group updates Gravity Database for central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MIGRA Group; Götze, H.-J.

    Between 1993 and 1995 a group of scientists from Chile, Argentina, and Germany incorporated some 2000 new gravity observations into a database that covers a remote region of the Central Andes in northern Chile and northwestern Argentina (between 64°-71°W and 20°-29°S). The database can be used to study the structure and evolution of the Andes. About 14,000 gravity values are included in the database, including older, reprocessed data. Researchers at universities or governmental agencies are welcome to use the data for noncommercial purposes.

  1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a Chilean patient with recent travel in Bolivia.

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, R.; Vial, P.; Noriega, L. M.; Johnson, A.; Nichol, S. T.; Rollin, P. E.; Wells, R.; Zaki, S.; Reynolds, E.; Ksiazek, T. G.

    1998-01-01

    A case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was serologically confirmed in a critically ill patient in Santiago, Chile. The patient's clinical course had many similarities to that of other HPS patients in North and South America but was complicated by acute severe renal failure. The patient's history included self-reported urban and probable rural rodent exposure during travel in Bolivia. Comparison of a viral sequence from an acute-phase serum sample with other known hantaviruses showed that the hantavirus nucleic acid sequence from the patient was very similar to a virus recently isolated from rodents associated with HPS cases in Paraguay. PMID:9452401

  2. Rodent-borne emerging viral zoonosis. Hemorrhagic fevers and hantavirus infections in South America.

    PubMed

    Enria, D A; Pinheiro, F

    2000-03-01

    Hantaviruses and arenaviruses are naturally occurring viruses of rodents. Four South American hemorrhagic fevers caused by arenaviruses have emerged in the last 5 decades. All have similar clinical manifestations, with a case-fatality rate as high as 15% to 30%. Hantavirus infections have been increasingly recognized in South America since the description in 1993 of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Given the diversity of rodent species in the region, it can be foreseen that many other viruses will be discovered, and some of them will be causing human illnesses of high public health impact.

  3. Effects of internal fluctuations on the spreading of Hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Escudero, C; Buceta, J; de la Rubia, F J; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-12-01

    We study the spread of Hantavirus over a host population of deer mice using a population dynamics model. We show that taking into account the internal fluctuations in the mouse population due to its discrete character strongly alters the behavior of the system. In addition to the familiar transition present in the deterministic model, the inclusion of internal fluctuations leads to the emergence of an additional deterministically hidden transition. We determine parameter values that lead to maximal propagation of the disease and discuss some implications for disease prevention policies.

  4. Effects of internal fluctuations on the spreading of Hantavirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escudero, C.; Buceta, J.; de La Rubia, F. J.; Lindenberg, Katja

    2004-12-01

    We study the spread of Hantavirus over a host population of deer mice using a population dynamics model. We show that taking into account the internal fluctuations in the mouse population due to its discrete character strongly alters the behavior of the system. In addition to the familiar transition present in the deterministic model, the inclusion of internal fluctuations leads to the emergence of an additional deterministically hidden transition. We determine parameter values that lead to maximal propagation of the disease and discuss some implications for disease prevention policies.

  5. Earth - False Color Mosaic of the Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color mosaic of the central part of the Andes mountains of South America (70 degrees west longitude, 19 degrees south latitude) is made up of 42 images acquired by the Galileo spacecraft from an altitude of about 25,000 kilometers (15,000 miles). A combination of visible (green) and near-infrared (0.76 and 1.0-micron) filters was chosen for this view to separate regions with distinct vegetation and soil types. The mosaic shows the area where Chile, Peru and Bolivia meet. The Pacific Coast appears at the left of the image-- Galileo captured this view as it traveled west over the Pacific Ocean, looking back at the Andes. Lakes Titicaca and Poopo are nearly black patches at the top and center, respectively; a large light-blue area below and to the left of Lake Poopo is Salar de Uyuni, a dry salt lake some 120 kilometers (75 miles) across. These lakes lie in the Altiplano, a region between the western and eastern Andes, which are covered by clouds. The vegetation-bearing Gran Chaco plains east of the Andes appear pale green. Light-blue patches in the mountains to the north are glaciers.

  6. Development and optimization of a PCR assay for detection of Dobrava and Puumala hantaviruses in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Smajlović, Lejla; Davoren, Jon; Heyman, Paul; Cochez, Christel; Haas, Cordula; Maake, Caroline; Hukić, Mirsada

    2012-06-01

    Hantavirus-specific serology tests are the main diagnostic technique for detection of hantavirus infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to enhance hantavirus infections monitoring a sensitive PCR based assay was developed to detect Dobrava (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses. Nested primer sets were designed within three different regions of the viral RNA (S and M segment of DOBV and M segment of PUUV) based on highly similar regions from a number of different European hantavirus strains. Assay conditions were optimized using cell cultures infected with DOBV Slovenia, PUUV Sotkamo and PUUV CG 18-20. This sensitive and specific assay has proven to be useful for detection of both Puumala and Dobrava hantaviruses.

  7. Arenaviruses and hantaviruses: from epidemiology and genomics to antivirals.

    PubMed

    Charrel, R N; Coutard, B; Baronti, C; Canard, B; Nougairede, A; Frangeul, A; Morin, B; Jamal, S; Schmidt, C L; Hilgenfeld, R; Klempa, B; de Lamballerie, X

    2011-05-01

    The arenaviruses and hantaviruses are segmented genome RNA viruses that are hosted by rodents. Due to their association with rodents, they are globally widespread and can infect humans via direct or indirect routes of transmission, causing considerable human morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, despite their obvious and emerging importance as pathogens, there are currently no effective antiviral drugs (except ribavirin which proved effective against Lassa virus) with which to treat humans infected by any of these viruses. The EU-funded VIZIER project (Comparative Structural Genomics of Viral Enzymes Involved in Replication) was instigated with an ultimate view of contributing to the development of antiviral therapies for RNA viruses, including the arenaviruses and bunyaviruses. This review highlights some of the major features of the arenaviruses and hantaviruses that have been investigated during recent years. After describing their classification and epidemiology, we review progress in understanding the genomics as well as the structure and function of replicative enzymes achieved under the VIZIER program and the development of new disease control strategies.

  8. The hantaviruses of Europe: from the bedside to the bench.

    PubMed Central

    Clement, J.; Heyman, P.; McKenna, P.; Colson, P.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.

    1997-01-01

    In Europe, hantavirus disease can hardly be called an emerging zoonosis; it is rather a rediscovered disease. Since 1934 an epidemic condition with primarily renal involvement has been described in Sweden. Nowadays, hundreds to thousands of cases per year are registered in Fennoscandia, fluctuating with the numbers of the specific Arvicoline-rodent reservoir, the red bank vole, which carries the main European serotype, Puumala (PUU). In the early 1980s, the rat-transmitted serotype, Seoul (SEO), caused laboratory outbreaks throughout Europe, and recent reports also suggest sporadic, wild rat-spread hantavirus disease. In the Balkans, at least four serotypes are present simultaneously: PUU, SEO, the "Korean" prototype Hantaan (HTN) or HTN-like types, and Dobrava, the latter causing a mortality rate of up to 20%. Moreover, recent genotyping studies have disclosed several PUU-like genotypes spread in Europe and/or Russia by other genera of the Arvicoline-rodent subfamily: Tula, Tobetsu, Khabarovsk, and Topografov. Their importance for human pathogenicity is still unclear, but serologic cross-reactions with PUU antigen might have caused their misdiagnosis as PUU-infections in the past. PMID:9204306

  9. Old World hantaviruses in rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Cross, Robert W; Waffa, Bradley; Freeman, Ashley; Riegel, Claudia; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew; Safronetz, David; Fischer, Elizabeth R; Feldmann, Heinz; Voss, Thomas G; Bausch, Daniel G

    2014-05-01

    Seoul virus, an Old World hantavirus, is maintained in brown rats and causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. We captured rodents in New Orleans, Louisiana and tested them for the presence of Old World hantaviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sequencing, cell culture, and electron microscopy; 6 (3.4%) of 178 rodents captured--all brown rats--were positive for a Seoul virus variant previously coined Tchoupitoulas virus, which was noted in rodents in New Orleans in the 1980s. The finding of Tchoupitoulas virus in New Orleans over 25 years since its first discovery suggests stable endemicity in the city. Although the degree to which this virus causes human infection and disease remains unknown, repeated demonstration of Seoul virus in rodent populations, recent cases of laboratory-confirmed HFRS in some US cities, and a possible link with hypertensive renal disease warrant additional investigation in both rodents and humans.

  10. HFRS and hantaviruses in the Balkans/South-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Avšič Županc, Tatjana; Korva, Miša; Markotić, Alemka

    2014-07-17

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is endemic in the Balkans with epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases that have been recorded yearly since the disease was first recognized. The incidence of Balkan HFRS is modest, with approximately one hundred cases reported in most years. Seroepidemiological investigations conducted in several Balkan countries revealed an overall seroprevalence of 6% in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1.6% in Croatia, 4% in Greece and 1.7% in Slovenia, respectively. The complex ecology of the Balkan Peninsula supports the existence of diverse rodent and insectivore species which harbor several pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses. Among them only Dobrava (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) viruses are associated with disease in humans. Comprehensive clinical studies compared clinical signs and symptoms between patients infected with either virus. A spectrum of clinical picture of the disease ranges from mild illness typical of PUUV infections to a severe form with fulminant hemorrhagic fever and an overall mortality rate of 9.8% among DOBV infected patients. While severe DOBV cases are recognized from Slovenia in the North to Greece in the South, PUUV infections are more frequent in northern part of the area. Balkans represent an area with a potential need for hantavirus vaccines, but due to co-existence of DOBV and PUUV causing HFRS in the same region, a universal vaccine is required.

  11. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil. PMID:27034670

  12. Serological Survey of Hantavirus in Inhabitants from Tropical and Subtropical Areas of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves Morais, Felipe; Pereira, Alexandre; Santo Pietro Pereira, Aparecida; Lazaro Moreli, Marcos; Marcelo Aranha Camargo, Luís; Schiavo Nardi, Marcello; Farah Tófoli, Cristina; Araujo, Jansen; Mara Dutra, Lilia; Lopes Ometto, Tatiana; Hurtado, Renata; Carmona de Jesus Maués, Fábio; Zingano Hinke, Tiene; Jaber Mahmud, Sati; Correia Lima, Monica; Tadeu Moraes Figueiredo, Luiz; Luiz Durigon, Edison

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has reported more than 1,600 cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HPS) since 1993, with a 39% rate of reported fatalities. Using a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of Araraquara virus, we performed ELISA to detect IgG antibodies against hantavirus in human sera. The aim of this study was to analyze hantavirus antibody levels in inhabitants from a tropical area (Amazon region) in Rondônia state and a subtropical (Atlantic Rain Forest) region in São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 1,310 serum samples were obtained between 2003 and 2008 and tested by IgG-ELISA, and 82 samples (6.2%), of which 62 were from the tropical area (5.8%) and 20 from the subtropical area (8.3%), tested positive. Higher levels of hantavirus antibody were observed in inhabitants of the populous subtropical areas compared with those from the tropical areas in Brazil.

  13. Hantavirus-induced pathogenesis in mice with a humanized immune system.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Lidija; Raftery, Martin J; Voigt, Sebastian; Kühl, Anja A; Kilic, Ergin; Kurth, Andreas; Witkowski, Peter; Hofmann, Jörg; Nitsche, Andreas; Schaade, Lars; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2015-06-01

    Hantaviruses are emerging zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe disease in humans. Clinical observations suggest that human immune components contribute to hantavirus-induced pathology. To address this issue we generated mice with a humanized immune system. Hantavirus infection of these animals resulted in systemic infection associated with weight loss, decreased activity, ruffled fur and inflammatory infiltrates of lung tissue. Intriguingly, after infection, humanized mice harbouring human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted human CD8+ T cells started to lose weight earlier (day 10) than HLA class I-negative humanized mice (day 15). Moreover, in these mice the number of human platelets dropped by 77 % whereas the number of murine platelets did not change, illustrating how differences between rodent and human haemato-lymphoid systems may contribute to disease development. To our knowledge this is the first description of a humanized mouse model of hantavirus infection, and our results indicate a role for human immune cells in hantaviral pathogenesis.

  14. Old World hantaviruses: aspects of pathogenesis and clinical course of acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Krautkrämer, Ellen; Zeier, Martin

    2014-07-17

    Hantavirus-associated diseases represent emerging infections that are ranked in the highest priority group of communicable diseases for surveillance and epidemiological research. In the last years, several novel hantavirus species were described and the number of host reservoir species harboring hantaviruses is also increasing. Reports of cases with severe or atypical clinical courses become also more frequent. These facts raise more and more questions concerning host reservoir specificity, pathogenicity and molecular mechanism of pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease is characterized by vascular leakage due to increased capillary permeability. The infection manifests often in the lung (hantaviral cardiopulmonary syndrome; HCPS) or in the kidney (hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, HFRS). The underlying mechanisms of both syndromes are probably similar despite the difference in organ tropism. Characterization of hantaviral replication cycle and of patient-specific determinants will help to identify factors responsible for the clinical symptoms and course.

  15. Hantavirus Infections among Overnight Visitors to Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Núñez, Jonathan J.; Fritz, Curtis L.; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Enge, Barryett; Novak, Mark G.; Kramer, Vicki; Osadebe, Lynda; Messenger, Sharon; Albariño, César G.; Ströher, Ute; Niemela, Michael; Amman, Brian R.; Wong, David; Manning, Craig R.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, an outbreak of hantavirus infections occurred among overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park in California, USA. An investigation encompassing clinical, epidemiologic, laboratory, and environmental factors identified 10 cases among residents of 3 states. Eight case-patients experienced hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, of whom 5 required intensive care with ventilatory support and 3 died. Staying overnight in a signature tent cabin (9 case-patients) was significantly associated with becoming infected with hantavirus (p<0.001). Rodent nests and tunnels were observed in the foam insulation of the cabin walls. Rodent trapping in the implicated area resulted in high trap success rate (51%), and antibodies reactive to Sin Nombre virus were detected in 10 (14%) of 73 captured deer mice. All signature tent cabins were closed and subsequently dismantled. Continuous public awareness and rodent control and exclusion are key measures in minimizing the risk for hantavirus infection in areas inhabited by deer mice. PMID:24565589

  16. Yellow Pygmy Rice Rat (Oligoryzomys flavescens) and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Delfraro, Adriana; Clara, Mario; Tomé, Lorena; Achaval, Federico; Levis, Silvana; Calderón, Gladys; Enria, Delia; Lozano, Mario; Russi, José

    2003-01-01

    During 5,230 trapping nights, 672 small mammals were trapped in the areas where most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases occur in Uruguay. Yellow pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys flavescens) were the only rodents that showed evidence of antibodies to hantavirus, with a seroprevalence of 2.6%. The rodents were trapped in all the explored environments, and most of the seropositive rodents were found in habitats frequented by humans. Nucleotide sequences were obtained from four HPS case-patients and four yellow pygmy rice rats of the M genome segment. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis showed that rodent-borne viruses and viruses from three HPS case-patients form a well-supported clade and share a 96.4% identity with the previously characterized Central Plata hantavirus. These results suggest that yellow pygmy rice rat (O. flavescens) may be the host for Central Plata, a hantavirus associated with HPS in the southern area of Uruguay.[ PMID:12890326

  17. Sangassou virus, the first hantavirus isolate from Africa, displays genetic and functional properties distinct from those of other murinae-associated hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Klempa, Boris; Witkowski, Peter T; Popugaeva, Elena; Auste, Brita; Koivogui, Lamine; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Strecker, Thomas; Ter Meulen, Jan; Krüger, Detlev H

    2012-04-01

    We have discovered the first indigenous African hantavirus, Sangassou virus (SANGV). The virus was isolated from an African wood mouse (Hylomyscus simus), trapped in a forest habitat in Guinea, West Africa. Here, we report on the characterization of the genetic and functional properties of the virus. The complete genome of SANGV was determined and showed typical hantavirus organization. The small (S), medium (M), and large (L) genome segments containing genes encoding nucleocapsid protein, two envelope glycoproteins, and viral polymerase were found to be 1,746, 3,650, and 6,531 nucleotides long, respectively. The exact 5' and 3' termini for all three segments of the SANGV genome were determined and were predicted to form the panhandle structures typical of bunyaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of all three segment sequences confirmed SANGV as a Murinae-associated hantavirus most closely related to the European Dobrava-Belgrade virus. We showed, however, that SANGV uses β(1) integrin rather than β(3) integrin and decay-accelerating factor (DAF)/CD55 as an entry receptor. In addition, we demonstrated a strong induction of type III lambda interferon (IFN-λ) expression in type I IFN-deficient Vero E6 cells by SANGV. These properties are unique within Murinae-associated hantaviruses and make the virus useful in comparative studies focusing on hantavirus pathogenesis.

  18. A novel hantavirus associated with an outbreak of fatal respiratory disease in the southwestern United States: evolutionary relationships to known hantaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, B; Jenison, S; Torrez-Martinez, N; Yamada, T; Nolte, K; Zumwalt, R; MacInnes, K; Myers, G

    1994-01-01

    Four Corners hantavirus (FCV) is the tentative name of the suspected etiologic agent of the newly identified hantavirus-associated respiratory distress syndrome (HARDS). The identification in HARDS patients of serum immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin G antibodies that cross-reacted with Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala virus antigens first suggested that FCV is a hantavirus. Limited nucleotide sequence data from the FCV glycoprotein-2 (G2) confirmed that FCV is a hantavirus and showed that it is most closely related to Prospect Hill and Puumala viruses. We have molecularly cloned approximately 95% of the sequences of the M and S segments of the FCV genome encoding the envelope glycoproteins and nucleocapsid protein N from the lungs of a patient with HARDS. The nucleotide sequence has been determined for 2,632 bases. The nucleotide sequence data show that FCV is a new member of the Puumala virus and Prospect Hill virus division of the hantavirus genus. Phylogenetic tree analyses indicate that the M and S segments have evolved in parallel. Therefore, the novel pathogenic activity of FCV is not likely to be the result of recent reassortment of segments from less pathogenic viruses. PMID:8289363

  19. Differences between Human and Rodent Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells May Explain the Pathogenic Disparity of Hantavirus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    migration and T cell priming after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection . J Exp Med (2006) 203(7):1805–15. doi:10.1084/jem.20052545 51. Shahrara S, Pickens...Hantavirus Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Vincent Lombardi CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: WHITTEMORE PETERSON INSTITUTE FOR NEURO-IMMUNE DISEASE RENO...Final 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Cells May Explain the Pathogenic Disparity of Hantavirus Infection 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER #W81XWH-14-1-0492

  20. High-Dose Intravenous Methylprednisolone for Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in Chile: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Pablo A.; Valdivieso, Francisca; Ferres, Marcela; Riquelme, Raul; Rioseco, M. Luisa; Calvo, Mario; Castillo, Constanza; Díaz, Ricardo; Scholz, Luis; Cuiza, Analia; Belmar, Edith; Hernandez, Carla; Martinez, Jessica; Lee, Sang-Joon; Mertz, Gregory J.; Abarca, Juan; Tomicic, Vinko; Aracena, M. Eugenia; Rehbein, Ana Maria; Velásquez, Soledad; Lavin, Victoria; Garrido, Felipe; Godoy, Paula; Martinez, Constanza; Chamorro, Juan Carlos; Contreras, Jorge; Hernandez, Jury; Pino, Marcelo; Villegas, Paola; Zapata, Viviana; León, Marisol; Vega, Ivonne; Otarola, Irisol; Ortega, Carlos; Daube, Elizabeth; Huecha, Doris; Neira, Alda; Ruiz, Ines; Nuñez, M. Antonieta; Monsalve, Luz; Chabouty, Henriette; Riquelme, Lorena; Palma, Samia; Bustos, Raul; Miranda, Ruben; Mardones, Jovita; Hernandez, Nora; Betancur, Yasna; Sanhueza, Ligia; Inostroza, Jaime; Donoso, Solange; Navarrete, Maritza; Acuña, Lily; Manriquez, Paulina; Castillo, Fabiola; Unzueta, Paola; Aguilera, Teresa; Osorio, Carola; Yobanolo, Veronica; Mardones, Jorge; Aranda, Sandra; Carvajal, Soledad; Sandoval, Moisés; Daza, Soraya; Vargas, Felipe; Diaz, Violeta; Riquelme, Mauricio; Muñoz, Miriam; Carriel, Andrea; Lanino, Paola; Hernandez, Susana; Schumacher, Patricia; Yañez, Lia; Marco, Claudia; Ehrenfeld, Mildred; Delgado, Iris; Rios, Susana; Vial, Cecilia; Bedrick, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background. Andes virus (ANDV)–related hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) has a 35% case fatality rate in Chile and no specific treatment. In an immunomodulatory approach, we evaluated the efficacy of intravenous methylprednisolone for HCPS treatment, through a parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. Patients aged >2 years, with confirmed or suspected HCPS in cardiopulmonary stage, admitted to any of 13 study sites in Chile, were randomized by study center in blocks of 4 with a 1:1 allocation and assigned through sequentially numbered envelopes to receive placebo or methylprednisolone 16 mg/kg/day (≤1000 mg) for 3 days. All personnel remained blinded except the local pharmacist. Infection was confirmed by immunoglobulin M antibodies or ANDV RNA in blood. The composite primary endpoint was death, partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio ≤55, cardiac index ≤2.2, or ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation within 28 days. Safety endpoints included the number of serious adverse events (SAEs) and quantification of viral RNA in blood. Analysis was by intention to treat. Results. Infection was confirmed in 60 of 66 (91%) enrollees. Fifteen of 30 placebo-treated patients and 11 of 30 methylprednisolone-treated patients progressed to the primary endpoint (P = .43). We observed no significant difference in mortality between treatment groups (P = .41). There was a trend toward more severe disease in placebo recipients at entry. More subjects in the placebo group experienced SAEs (P = .02). There were no SAEs clearly related to methylprednisolone administration, and methylprednisolone did not increase viral load. Conclusions. Although methylprednisolone appears to be safe, it did not provide significant clinical benefit to patients. Our results do not support the use of methylprednisolone for HCPS. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00128180. PMID:23784924

  1. Genetic diversity and distribution of Peromyscus-borne hantaviruses in North America.

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, M. C.; Morzunov, S. P.; Johnson, A. M.; Bowen, M. D.; Artsob, H.; Yates, T.; Peters, C. J.; Rollin, P. E.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Nichol, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    The 1993 outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the southwestern United States was associated with Sin Nombre virus, a rodent-borne hantavirus; The virus' primary reservoir is the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus). Hantavirus-infected rodents were identified in various regions of North America. An extensive nucleotide sequence database of an 139 bp fragment amplified from virus M genomic segments was generated. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that SNV-like hantaviruses are widely distributed in Peromyscus species rodents throughout North America. Classic SNV is the major cause of HPS in North America, but other Peromyscine-borne hantaviruses, e.g., New York and Monongahela viruses, are also associated with HPS cases. Although genetically diverse, SNV-like viruses have slowly coevolved with their rodent hosts. We show that the genetic relationships of hantaviruses in the Americas are complex, most likely as a result of the rapid radiation and speciation of New World sigmodontine rodents and occasional virus-host switching events. PMID:10081674

  2. Sero-epidemiological study of the presence of hantaviruses in domestic dogs and cats from Belgium.

    PubMed

    Dobly, A; Cochez, C; Goossens, E; De Bosschere, H; Hansen, P; Roels, S; Heyman, P

    2012-04-01

    Hantaviruses are worldwide rodent-borne pathogens infecting humans and other animals mainly through inhalation of aerosols contaminated with rodent excreta. Few data are available on hantavirus serology and geographical distribution in dogs and cats. We therefore screened sera from pet dogs (N=410) and cats (N=124) in two regions of Belgium, using IgG ELISA and IFA. We analysed the effect of the owner's address as well as pet gender and age on hantavirus status. Hantavirus antibodies were found in both species with a significantly higher seroprevalence in cats than in dogs (16.9% vs. 4.9%, P=0.001). More dogs were infected in highly forested southern Belgium (harbouring more rodents) than in northern Belgium (10.5% vs. 3.0%, P=0.002). In the south, hantavirus sero-positive cats were found in more densely forested localities than sero-negatives ones were (P=0.033). These results are consistent with the ecological variations of hantavirus risks in humans.

  3. Hantavirus evolution in relation to its rodent and insectivore hosts: no evidence for codivergence.

    PubMed

    Ramsden, Cadhla; Holmes, Edward C; Charleston, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    Hantaviruses are considered one of the best examples of a long-term association between RNA viruses and their hosts. Based on the appearance of strong host specificity, it has been suggested that hantaviruses cospeciated with the rodents and insectivores they infect since these mammals last shared a common ancestor, approximately 100 million years ago. We tested this hypothesis of host-virus codivergence in two ways: 1) we used cophylogenetic reconciliation analysis to assess the fit of the virus tree onto that of the host and 2) we estimated the evolutionary rates and divergence times for the Hantavirus genus using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method and similarly compared these with those of their hosts. Our reconciliation analysis provided no evidence for a history of codivergence between hantaviruses and their hosts. Further, the divergence times for the Hantavirus genus were many orders of magnitude too recent to correspond with the timescale of their hosts' speciation. We therefore propose that apparent similarities between the phylogenies of hantaviruses and their mammalian hosts are the result of a more recent history of preferential host switching and local adaptation. Based on the presence of clade-defining amino acids in all genomic segments, we propose that the patterns of amino acid replacement in these viruses are also compatible with a history of host-specific adaptation.

  4. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: Outbreak Investigation and Antibody Prevalence Study

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Joel M.; Blair, Patrick J.; Carroll, Darin S.; Mills, James N.; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M.; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G.; Glabman, Raisa A.; Bausch, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans. PMID:23094116

  5. Phylogenetic exploration of hantaviruses in paraguay reveals reassortment and host switching in South America

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal mark-recapture studies of rodents in two sites in the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve in the Interior Atlantic Forest of eastern Paraguay have revealed a complex and intriguing pattern of hantaviruses harbored by rodents in this area. Full-length sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were conducted for several rodents from Akodon montensis and Oligoryzomys fornesi. The phylogenetic relationships of these viruses were analyzed in the context of hantaviruses in South America with published S- and M-segment sequences. Findings Phylogenetic analyses of hantaviruses identified in the Mbaracayú Biosphere Reserve in Paraguay revealed Jabora and Juquitiba viruses are harbored by Akodon montensis and Oligoryzomys fornesi, respectively. These analyses revealed that in general the constituents of the major subclade for the S- and M-segments differ for the South American hantaviruses. Further, the two major groups within subclade C for the M-segment reflect in general the lethality associated with the viruses within each group. Conclusions Phylogenetic studies of Jabora and Juquitiba viruses and other Paraguayan viruses in the context of American hantaviruses revealed reassortment and host-switching in the evolution of South American hantaviruses. PMID:21838900

  6. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Santa Cruz, Bolivia: outbreak investigation and antibody prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Joel M; Blair, Patrick J; Carroll, Darin S; Mills, James N; Gianella, Alberto; Iihoshi, Naomi; Briggiler, Ana M; Felices, Vidal; Salazar, Milagros; Olson, James G; Glabman, Raisa A; Bausch, Daniel G

    2012-01-01

    We report the results of an investigation of a small outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in 2002 in the Department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, where the disease had not previously been reported. Two cases were initially reported. The first case was a physician infected with Laguna Negra virus during a weekend visit to his ranch. Four other persons living on the ranch were IgM antibody-positive, two of whom were symptomatic for mild hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The second case was a migrant sugarcane worker. Although no sample remained to determine the specific infecting hantavirus, a virus 90% homologous with Río Mamoré virus was previously found in small-eared pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys microtis) trapped in the area. An antibody prevalence study conducted in the region as part of the outbreak investigation showed 45 (9.1%) of 494 persons to be IgG positive, illustrating that hantavirus infection is common in Santa Cruz Department. Precipitation in the months preceding the outbreak was particularly heavy in comparison to other years, suggesting a possible climatic or ecological influence on rodent populations and risk of hantavirus transmission to humans. Hantavirus infection appears to be common in the Santa Cruz Department, but more comprehensive surveillance and field studies are needed to fully understand the epidemiology and risk to humans.

  7. Development of a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test for hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Pádua, Michelly de; Souza, William Marciel de; Lauretti, Flávio; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2015-08-01

    In the Americas, hantaviruses cause severe cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) with a high fatality rate. Hantavirus infection is commonly diagnosed using serologic techniques and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This paper presents a novel plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT) for detecting antibodies to Brazilian hantavirus. Using PRNT, plaque detection was enhanced by adding 0.6% of dimethyl sulfoxide into the overlay culture medium of the infected cells. This procedure facilitated clear visualisation of small plaques under the microscope and provided for easy and accurate plaque counting. The sera from 37 HCPS patients from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil was evaluated for the Rio Mamoré virus (RIOMV) using PRNT. Six samples exhibited neutralising antibodies; these antibodies exhibited a low titre. The low level of seropositive samples may be due to fewer cross-reactions between two different hantavirus species; the patients were likely infected by Araraquara virus (a virus that has not been isolated) and RIOMV was used for the test. This assay offers a new approach to evaluating and measuring neutralising antibodies produced during hantavirus infections and it can be adapted to other hantaviruses, including viruses that will be isolated in the future.

  8. Multiple co-infections of rodents with hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Tadin, Ante; Turk, Nenad; Korva, Miša; Margaletić, Josip; Beck, Relja; Vucelja, Marko; Habuš, Josipa; Svoboda, Petra; Zupanc, Tatjana Avšič; Henttonen, Heikki; Markotić, Alemka

    2012-05-01

    Hantaviruses, Leptospira spp., and Babesia spp. are rodent-borne pathogens present worldwide. We studied multiple co-infections of small rodents in Croatia with all three pathogens. Twenty-eight Apodemus flavicollis and 16 Myodes glareolus were tested for the presence of hantavirus RNA by real-time RT-PCR, Leptospira strains by renoculture method and Babesia DNA by PCR. Anti-hantavirus antibodies and anti-Leptospira antibodies were detected by serological methods. Very high infection rates with each pathogen were found in A. flavicollis: 20 of 28 rodents (71%) were infected with Dobrava virus, 13 rodents (46%) were infected with Leptospira, and 5 rodents (18%) were infected with Babesia. Multiple co-infections with all three pathogens were found in 3 of 28 (11%) A. flavicollis animals, suggesting that the same rodent host can be infected with several pathogens at the same time. Dual infections with both hantaviruses and Leptospira were found in 7 of 44 rodents (16%), with hantaviruses and Babesia in 2 rodents (5%), and double infection with both Leptospira and Babesia were found in 1 rodent (2%). Since hantaviruses, Leptospira, and Babesia have similar geographical distributions, it is to be expected that in other parts of the world multiple co-infections, representing a serious threat to public health, can be found.

  9. Preferential host switching and its relation with Hantavirus diversification in South America.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Paula C; González-Ittig, Raul E; Gardenal, Cristina N

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the notion of co-speciation between Hantavirus species and their hosts was discarded in favour of a more likely explanation: preferential host switching. However, the relative importance of this last process in shaping the evolutionary history of hantaviruses remains uncertain, given the present limited knowledge not only of virus-host relationships but also of the pathogen and reservoir phylogenies. In South America, more than 25 hantavirus genotypes were detected; several of them act as aetiological agents of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). An understanding of the diversity of hantaviruses and of the processes underlying host switching is critical since human cases of HPS are almost exclusively the result of human-host interactions. In this study, we tested if preferential host switching is the main process driving hantavirus diversification in South America, by performing a co-phylogenetic analysis of the viruses and their primary hosts. We also suggest a new level of amino acid divergence to define virus species in the group. Our results indicate that preferential host switching would not be the main process driving virus diversification. The historical geographical proximity among rodent hosts emerges as an alternative hypothesis to be tested.

  10. β2 integrin mediates hantavirus-induced release of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Raftery, Martin J; Lalwani, Pritesh; Krautkrӓmer, Ellen; Peters, Thorsten; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Krüger, Renate; Hofmann, Jörg; Seeger, Karl; Krüger, Detlev H; Schönrich, Günther

    2014-06-30

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are emerging human pathogens that cause severe human disease. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood, as hantaviruses replicate in endothelial and epithelial cells without causing any cytopathic effect. We demonstrate that hantaviruses strongly stimulated neutrophils to release neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Hantavirus infection induced high systemic levels of circulating NETs in patients and this systemic NET overflow was accompanied by production of autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. Analysis of the responsible mechanism using neutrophils from β2 null mice identified β2 integrin receptors as a master switch for NET induction. Further experiments suggested that β2 integrin receptors such as complement receptor 3 (CR3) and 4 (CR4) may act as novel hantavirus entry receptors. Using adenoviruses, we confirmed that viral interaction with β2 integrin induced strong NET formation. Collectively, β2 integrin-mediated systemic NET overflow is a novel viral mechanism of immunopathology that may be responsible for characteristic aspects of hantavirus-associated disease such as kidney and lung damage.

  11. Seroepidemiologic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in California.

    PubMed Central

    Jay, M.; Ascher, M. S.; Chomel, B. B.; Madon, M.; Sesline, D.; Enge, B. A.; Hjelle, B.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Rollin, P. E.; Kass, P. H.; Reilly, K.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 4,626 mammals were serologically tested for antibodies to Sin Nombre virus. All nonrodent species were antibody negative. Among wild rodents, antibody prevalence was 8.5% in murids, 1.4% in heteromyids, and < 0.1% in sciurids. Of 1,921 Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mice), 226 (11.8%) were antibody positive, including one collected in 1975. The highest antibody prevalence (71.4% of 35) was found among P. maniculatus on Santa Cruz Island, off the southern California coast. Prevalence of antibodies among deer mice trapped near sites of human cases (26.8% of 164) was significantly higher than that of mice from other sites (odds ratio = 4.5; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 11.6). Antibody prevalence increased with rising elevation (> 1,200 meters) and correlated with a spatial cluster of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome cases in the Sierra Nevada. PMID:9204301

  12. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome , Southern Chile, 1995–2012

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Raúl; Rioseco, María Luisa; Bastidas, Lorena; Trincado, Daniela; Riquelme, Mauricio; Loyola, Hugo; Valdivieso, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus is endemic to the Region de Los Lagos in southern Chile; its incidence is 8.5 times higher in the communes of the Andean area than in the rest of the region. We analyzed the epidemiologic aspects of the 103 cases diagnosed by serology and the clinical aspects of 80 hospitalized patients during 1995–2012. Cases in this region clearly predominated during winter, whereas in the rest of the country, they occur mostly during summer. Mild, moderate, and severe disease was observed, and the case-fatality rate was 32%. Shock caused death in 75% of those cases; high respiratory frequency and elevated creatinine plasma level were independent factors associated with death. Early clinical suspicion, especially in rural areas, should prompt urgent transfer to a hospital with an intensive care unit and might help decrease the high case-fatality rate. PMID:25816116

  13. LANDSAT imagery of the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komer, C. A.; Morgan, P.

    1986-01-01

    The central Andes of South America extend from approximately 14 deg. S to 28 deg. S as an unbroken chain of mountains and volcanoes over 2000 km long. It is here that the Nazca plate dives under the South American plate at angles varying from 10 deg to 30 deg. Very little is known about the volcanoes comprising this classic, subduction-type plate margin. A catalogue of the volcanoes in the central Andes is being prepared by Dr. P.W. Francis and Dr. C.A. Wood at the NASA Lunar and Planetary Institute. At present, more than 800 volcanoes of Cenozoic age have been recognized in the chain, with an estimated 75-80 major, active Quarternary volcanoes. Approximately one hundred 1536 x 1536 pixel color composite Optronics positives were produced from six full LANDSAT Thermatic Mapper scenes and three partial TM scenes. These positives cover a large portion of the central Andes. The positives were produced from LANDSAT data using the VAX imaging package, LIPS. The scenes were first transferred from magnetic tape to disk. The LIPS package was then used to select volcanically interesting areas which were then electronically enhanced. Finally, the selected areas were transferred back to tape and printed on the Optronics equipment. The pictures are color composites using LANDSAT TM bands 7,4, and 2 in the red, green, and blue filters, respectively.

  14. In Search for Factors that Drive Hantavirus Epidemics

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Paul; Thoma, Bryan R.; Marié, Jean-Lou; Cochez, Christel; Essbauer, Sandra Simone

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are small mammal-associated zoonotic and emerging pathogens that can cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Puumala virus, the main etiological agent carried by the bank vole Myodes glareolus is responsible for a mild form of HFRS while Dobrava virus induces less frequent but more severe cases of HFRS. Since 2000 in Europe, more than 3000 cases of HFRS have been recorded, in average, each year, which is nearly double compared to the previous decade. In addition to this upside long-term trend, significant oscillations occur. Epidemic years appear, usually every 2–4 years, with an increased incidence, generally in localized hot spots. Moreover, the virus has been identified in new areas in the recent years. A great number of surveys have been carried out in order to assess the prevalence of the infection in the reservoir host and to identify links with different biotic and abiotic factors. The factors that drive the infections are related to the density and diversity of bank vole populations, prevalence of infection in the reservoir host, viral excretion in the environment, survival of the virus outside its host, and human behavior, which affect the main transmission virus route through inhalation of infected rodent excreta. At the scale of a rodent population, the prevalence of the infection increases with the age of the individuals but also other parameters, such as sex and genetic variability, interfere. The contamination of the environment may be correlated to the number of newly infected rodents, which heavily excrete the virus. The interactions between these different parameters add to the complexity of the situation and explain the absence of reliable tools to predict epidemics. In this review, the factors that drive the epidemics of hantaviruses in Middle Europe are discussed through a panorama of the epidemiological situation in Belgium, France, and Germany. PMID:22934002

  15. Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypophysitis after Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Tarvainen, Marlene; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Summary Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a relatively mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Hypophyseal haemorrhage and hypopituitarism have been described in case reports on patients with acute NE. Chronic hypopituitarism diagnosed months or years after the acute illness has also been reported, without any signs of a haemorrhagic aetiology. The mechanisms leading to the late-onset hormonal defects remain unknown. Here, we present a case of NE-associated autoimmune polyendocrinopathy and hypopituitarism presumably due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Thyroid peroxidase antibody seroconversion occurred between 6 and 12 months, and ovarian as well as glutamate decarboxylase antibodies were found 18 months after acute NE. Brain MRI revealed an atrophic adenohypophysis with a heterogeneous, low signal intensity compatible with a sequela of hypophysitis. The patient developed central (or mixed central and peripheral) hypothyroidism, hypogonadism and diabetes insipidus, all requiring hormonal replacement therapy. This case report suggests that late-onset hormonal defects after PUUV infection may develop by an autoimmune mechanism. This hypothesis needs to be confirmed by prospective studies with sufficient numbers of patients. Learning points: Pituitary haemorrhage resulting in hypopituitarism has been reported during acute HFRS caused by PUUV and other hantaviruses. Central and peripheral hormone deficiencies developing months or years after HFRS have also been found, with an incidence higher than that in the general population. The pathogenesis of these late-onset hormonal defects remains unknown. This case report suggests that the late-onset hypopituitarism and peripheral endocrine defects after HFRS could evolve via autoimmune mechanisms. The sensitivity of current anti-pituitary antibody (APA) tests is low. A characteristic clinical course, together with typical brain MRI and endocrine findings may be

  16. Second external quality assurance study for the serological diagnosis of hantaviruses in Europe.

    PubMed

    Escadafal, Camille; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Vapalahti, Olli; Niklasson, Bo; Teichmann, Anette; Niedrig, Matthias; Donoso-Mantke, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic throughout the world and hosted by rodents and insectivores. Two human zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), are caused by hantaviruses and case fatality rates have reached 12% for HFRS and 50% for HPS in some outbreaks. Symptomatic hantavirus infections in Europe are summarised as HFRS mainly due to Puumala, Dobrava-Belgrade and Saaremaa virus. While HFRS has an overall low incidence in Europe, the number of cases varies from 100 per year in all Eastern and Southern Europe up to 1,000 per year only in Finland. To assess the quality of hantavirus diagnostics, the European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases (ENIVD) organised a first external quality assurance (EQA) in 2002. The purpose of this second EQA study is to collect updated information on the efficiency and accurateness of hantavirus serological methods applied by expert laboratories. A serum panel of 14 samples was sent to 28 participants in Europe of which 27 sent results. Performance in hantavirus diagnosis varied not only on the method used but also on the laboratories and the subclass of antibodies tested. Commercial and in-house assays performed almost equally. Enzyme immunoassays were mainly used but did not show the best performances while immunoblot assays were the less employed and showed overall better performances. IgM antibodies were not detected in 61% of the positive IgM samples and IgM detection was not performed by 7% of the laboratories indicating a risk of overlooking acute infections in patients. Uneven performances using the same method is indicating that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols.

  17. Calculated WIMP signals at the ANDES laboratory: comparison with northern and southern located dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitarese, O.; Fushimi, K. J.; Mosquera, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are possible components of the Universe’s dark matter (DM). The detection of WIMPs is signaled by the recoil of the atomic nuclei which form a detector. CoGeNT at the Soudan Underground Laboratory (SUL) and DAMA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) have reported data on annual modulation of signals attributed to WIMPs. Both experiments are located in laboratories in the Northern Hemisphere. DM detectors are planned to operate (or already operate) in laboratories in the Southern Hemisphere, including SABRE at Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory (SUPL) in Australia, and DM-ICE in Antarctica. In this work we have analyzed the dependence of diurnal and annual modulation of signals, pertaining to the detection of WIMP, on the coordinates of the laboratory, for experiments which may be performed in the planned new Agua Negra Deep Experimental Site (ANDES) underground facility, to be built in San Juan, Argentina. We made predictions for NaI and Ge-type detectors placed in ANDES, to compare with DAMA, CoGeNT, SABRE and DM-ICE arrays, and found that the diurnal modulation of the signals, at the ANDES site, is amplified at its maximum value, both for NaI (Ge)-type detectors, while the annual modulation remains unaffected by the change in coordinates from north to south.

  18. Hantavirus seropositivity in rodents in relation to habitat heterogeneity in human-shaped landscapes of Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Morand, Serge; Henttonen, Heikki; Tran, Annelise; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    To establish how the conversion of natural habitats for agricultural purposes may impact the distribution of hantaviruses in Southeast Asia, we tested how habitat structure affects hantavirus infection prevalence of common murine rodents that inhabit human-dominated landscapes in this region. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents analysed for hantavirus infection and land cover maps produced for the seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR where they were collected. Rodents were tested by serological methods that detect several hantaviruses, including pathogenic ones. Rodents with a seropositive status were more likely to be found near to agriculture on steep land, and also in environments with a high proportion of agriculture on steep land. These results suggest that in Southeast Asia, hantaviruses, which are often associated with generalist rodent species with a preference for agricultural land, may benefit from land conversion to agriculture.

  19. Development and validation of a point-of-care test for detecting hantavirus antibodies in human and rodent samples.

    PubMed

    Koishi, Andrea Cristine; Aoki, Mateus Nóbrega; Jorge, Taissa Ricciardi; Suzukawa, Andréia Akemi; Zanluca, Camila; Levis, Silvana; Duarte Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses are etiologic agents of a zoonotic disease transmitted mainly from wild rodents to humans, causing Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Eurasia and the Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome in the Americas (HCPS), reaching a lethality rate of 40% in Brazil. Hantavirus diagnostic and seroprevalence are often based on the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against the virus. Here we propose a rapid test assay able to identify hantavirus antibodies with sensibility and specificity similar to ELISA assays. We analyzed five groups of samples, including healthy human population and small mammals of endemic areas, suspected cases of HCPS, patients with non-related infections and a serum panel from a different geographical region. The test presented good rates of sensibility (87-100%) and specificity (97-100%) for all groups, being a promising tool suitable for both rodent and human hantavirus epidemiological surveys.

  20. Clinical Course and Long-Term Outcome of Hantavirus-Associated Nephropathia Epidemica, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Latus, Joerg; Schwab, Matthias; Tacconelli, Evelina; Pieper, Friedrich-Michael; Wegener, Daniel; Dippon, Juergen; Müller, Simon; Zakim, David; Segerer, Stephan; Kitterer, Daniel; Priwitzer, Martin; Mezger, Barbara; Walter-Frank, Birgit; Corea, Angela; Wiedenmann, Albrecht; Brockmann, Stefan; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Alscher, M. Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Human infection with Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Central Europe, causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a disease characterized by acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. To determine the clinical phenotype of hantavirus-infected patients and their long-term outcome and humoral immunity to PUUV, we conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey of 456 patients in Germany with clinically and serologically confirmed hantavirus-associated NE during 2001–2012. Prominent clinical findings during acute NE were fever and back/limb pain, and 88% of the patients had acute kidney injury. At follow-up (7–35 mo), all patients had detectable hantavirus-specific IgG; 8.5% had persistent IgM; 25% had hematuria; 23% had hypertension (new diagnosis for 67%); and 7% had proteinuria. NE-associated hypertension and proteinuria do not appear to have long-term consequences, but NE-associated hematuria may. All patients in this study had hantavirus-specific IgG up to years after the infection. PMID:25533268

  1. Clinical course and long-term outcome of hantavirus-associated nephropathia epidemica, Germany.

    PubMed

    Latus, Joerg; Schwab, Matthias; Tacconelli, Evelina; Pieper, Friedrich-Michael; Wegener, Daniel; Dippon, Juergen; Müller, Simon; Zakim, David; Segerer, Stephan; Kitterer, Daniel; Priwitzer, Martin; Mezger, Barbara; Walter-Frank, Birgit; Corea, Angela; Wiedenmann, Albrecht; Brockmann, Stefan; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Alscher, M Dominik; Braun, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Human infection with Puumala virus (PUUV), the most common hantavirus in Central Europe, causes nephropathia epidemica (NE), a disease characterized by acute kidney injury and thrombocytopenia. To determine the clinical phenotype of hantavirus-infected patients and their long-term outcome and humoral immunity to PUUV, we conducted a cross-sectional prospective survey of 456 patients in Germany with clinically and serologically confirmed hantavirus-associated NE during 2001-2012. Prominent clinical findings during acute NE were fever and back/limb pain, and 88% of the patients had acute kidney injury. At follow-up (7-35 mo), all patients had detectable hantavirus-specific IgG; 8.5% had persistent IgM; 25% had hematuria; 23% had hypertension (new diagnosis for 67%); and 7% had proteinuria. NE-associated hypertension and proteinuria do not appear to have long-term consequences, but NE-associated hematuria may. All patients in this study had hantavirus-specific IgG up to years after the infection.

  2. Cross-sectional survey of the seroprevalence of Puumala hantavirus in Austria.

    PubMed

    Poeppl, Wolfgang; Tobudic, Selma; Winkler, Heide-Maria; Faas, Angelus; Mooseder, Gerhard; Burgmann, Heinz

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of Puumala hantavirus infections in Austria and the occupational exposure of military personnel to this virus were assessed in 2009 in an exploratory nationwide cross-sectional seroprevalence survey in 526 healthy individuals, of which 222 were soldiers and 304 were civilians. In addition, information on possible risk factors for hantavirus exposure, including previous foreign military assignments, residential area, occupational animal contact, and regular outdoor activities, was obtained. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against Puumala hantavirus were examined with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 7 (1.3%) individuals, aged 19, 22, 24, 24, 26, 38, and 60 years, tested positive on serologic screening. There were no significant differences between the seroprevalence of the virus and any of the variables surveyed. Our data demonstrate serologic evidence of Puumala hantavirus infection among the Austrian population, with a stable prevalence in the past decade. When compared with the general population, no increased risk of exposure to Puumala hantavirus could be detected for military personnel.

  3. Phylogenetic and geographical relationships of hantavirus strains in eastern and western Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yong Kyu; Milligan, Brook; Owen, Robert D; Goodin, Douglas G; Jonsson, Colleen B

    2006-12-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of several potential rodent reservoirs of hantaviruses in western (Holochilus chacarius) and eastern Paraguay (Akodon montensis, Oligoryzomys chacoensis, and O. nigripes). Comparisons of the hantavirus S- and M-segments amplified from these four rodents revealed significant differences from each another and from other South American hantaviruses. The ALP strain from the semiarid Chaco ecoregion clustered with Leguna Negra and Rio Mamore (LN/RM), whereas the BMJ-NEB strain from the more humid lower Chaco ecoregion formed a clade with Oran and Bermejo. The other two strains, AAI and IP37/38, were distinct from known hantaviruses. With respect to the S-segment sequence, AAI from eastern Paraguay formed a clade with ALP/LN/RM, but its M-segment clustered with Pergamino and Maciel, suggesting a possible reassortment. AAI was found in areas experiencing rapid land cover fragmentation and change within the Interior Atlantic Forest. IP37/38 did not show any strong association with any of the known hantavirus strains.

  4. Phylogenetic and Geographical relationships of Hantavirus Strains in Eastern and Western Paraguay

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Yong-Kyu; Milligan, Brook; Owen, Robert D.; Goodin, Douglas G.; Jonsson, Colleen B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of several potential rodent reservoirs of hantaviruses in western (Holochilus chacarius) and eastern Paraguay (Akodon montensis, Oligoryzomys chacoensis, and O. nigripes). Comparisons of the hantavirus S- and M-segments amplified from these four rodents revealed significant differences from each another and from other South American hantaviruses. The ALP strain from the semiarid Chaco ecoregion clustered with Leguna Negra and Rio Mamore (LN/RM), whereas the BMJ-ÑEB strain from the more humid lower Chaco ecoregion formed a clade with Oran and Bermejo. The other two strains, AAI and IP37/38, were distinct from known hantaviruses. With respect to the S-segment sequence, AAI from eastern Paraguay formed a clade with ALP/LN/RM, but its M-segment clustered with Pergamino and Maciel, suggesting a possible reassortment. AAI was found in areas experiencing rapid land cover fragmentation and change within the Interior Atlantic Forest. IP37/38 did not show any strong association with any of the known hantavirus strains. PMID:17172380

  5. Detection of shrew-borne hantavirus in Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Radosa, Lukáš; Schlegel, Mathias; Gebauer, Petra; Ansorge, Hermann; Heroldová, Marta; Jánová, Eva; Stanko, Michal; Mošanský, Ladislav; Fričová, Jana; Pejčoch, Milan; Suchomel, Josef; Purchart, Luboš; Groschup, Martin H; Krüger, Detlev H; Ulrich, Rainer G; Klempa, Boris

    2013-10-01

    Recently, it was found that not only rodents but also shrews are reservoir hosts of hantaviruses. In Central Europe, only Seewis virus, associated with the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), has been recognized until now. In the present report, tissue samples from shrews belonging to Crocidurinae and Soricinae subfamilies, trapped in Czech Republic, Germany, and Slovakia, were screened for the presence of novel hantaviruses. Three new hantavirus partial L-segment sequences were obtained from pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus) trapped in Czech Republic and Germany. Complete nucleocapsid protein- and glycoprotein precursor-coding S- and M-segment sequences were then determined for the newly recognized hantavirus strains, CZ/Beskydy/412/2010/Sm, CZ/Drahany/420/2010/Sm, and DE/Dürrbach/1912/2009/Sm. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they represent strains of Asikkala virus (ASIV), a novel hantavirus also found in pygmy shrews from Finland. Our study reveals a broad geographic distribution of ASIV across Europe and indicates pygmy shrew as the primary reservoir host. Future studies will have to determine the pathogenic relevance of ASIV.

  6. Phylogeographic diversity of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses in slovenia.

    PubMed

    Korva, Miša; Knap, Nataša; Rus, Katarina Resman; Fajs, Luka; Grubelnik, Gašper; Bremec, Matejka; Knapič, Tea; Trilar, Tomi; Županc, Tatjana Avšič

    2013-12-10

    Slovenia is a very diverse country from a natural geography point of view, with many different habitats within a relatively small area, in addition to major geological and climatic differences. It is therefore not surprising that several small mammal species have been confirmed to harbour hantaviruses: A. flavicollis (Dobrava virus), A. agrarius (Dobrava virus-Kurkino), M. glareolus (Puumala virus), S. areanus (Seewis virus),M. agrestis, M. arvalis and M. subterraneus (Tula virus). Three of the viruses, namely the Dobrava, Dobrava-Kurkino and Puumala viruses, cause disease in humans, with significant differences in the severity of symptoms. Due to changes in haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome cases (HFRS) epidemiology, a detailed study on phylogenetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses circulating in ecologically diverse endemic regions was performed. The study presents one of the largest collections of hantavirus L, M and S sequences obtained from hosts and patients within a single country. Several genetic lineages were determined for each hantavirus species, with higher diversity among non-pathogenic compared to pathogenic viruses. For pathogenic hantaviruses, a significant geographic clustering of human- and rodent-derived sequences was confirmed. Several geographic and ecological factors were recognized as influencing and limiting the formation of endemic areas.

  7. Ecology of hantaviruses in Mexico: genetic identification of rodent host species and spillover infection.

    PubMed

    Saasa, Ngonda; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; de Lourdes Romero-Almaraz, María; Guerrero-Ibarra, Ezequiel; Almazán-Catalán, Alberto; Yoshida, Haruka; Miyashita, Daisuke; Ishizuka, Mariko; Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Ramos, Celso; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-09-01

    In our recent epidemiological survey conducted in Mexico for hantavirus infection, we identified three distinct viruses circulating in Mexican wild rodents, namely Montano virus (MTNV), Huitzilac virus (HUIV), and Carrizal virus (CARV). To gain a detailed understanding of hantavirus epidemiology and its associated hosts, 410 rodents were captured at eight collecting points in Morelos and Guerrero, Mexico, and examined for hantavirus seroprevalence, the presence of viral RNA, and rodent host species identification using cytochrome b gene sequences. Of the 32 species captured, seven species were positive for hantavirus: Peromyscus beatae (31/127; 24.4%), Reithrodontomys sumichrasti (6/15; 40%), Reithrodontomys megalotis (2/25; 8%), Peromyscus aztecus evides (1/1; 100%), Peromyscus megalops (1/41; 2.4%), Megadontomys thomasi (1/9; 11.1%), and Neotoma picta (1/6; 16.7%), with an overall prevalence of 10.5%; virus genome persisted in the majority of seropositive rodents. Nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis showed that the viruses belonged mainly to the three lineages previously identified. The data showed that MTNV and CARV were primarily carried by P. beatae and R. sumichrasti, respectively. In addition, the data revealed an apparent complex interaction between hantaviruses and their hosts, suggesting active transmission and/or spillover infections within sympatric rodent species.

  8. Serological diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a febrile patient in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Salim; Garzon, Denisse; Tadeu, Luis; Faccini-Martínez, Alvaro A; Mills, James N

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis caused by any of at least 20 hantavirus genotypes distributed throughout the Americas. Although HPS has been documented in several bordering countries, it has not been reported in Colombia. Here we report seroconversion to a hantavirus in paired samples from a hospitalized patient with symptoms compatible with HPS from Montería, Córdoba Department, north-western Colombia. Tests for regionally endemic agents including Plasmodium, Leptospira, Salmonella, dengue virus, Brucella, Rickettsia, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis viruses were negative. Because the patient was enrolled in a clinical trial for hemorrhagic fevers conducted by the University of Córdoba, serum samples were collected on admission and at discharge. Testing using Sin Nombre virus ELISA showed IgG and IgM seroconversion between samples. The eventual finding of this first clinical case of hantavirus infection in Colombia is consistent with the high prevalence of hantavirus antibodies in humans in the region and the likely exposure of the patient to rodents. The clinical presentation was similar to that found in neighbouring Panama.

  9. The Use of Chimeric Virus-like Particles Harbouring a Segment of Hantavirus Gc Glycoprotein to Generate a Broadly-Reactive Hantavirus-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80–89) or site #4 (aa 280–289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications. PMID:24513568

  10. The use of chimeric virus-like particles harbouring a segment of hantavirus Gc glycoprotein to generate a broadly-reactive hantavirus-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zvirbliene, Aurelija; Kucinskaite-Kodze, Indre; Razanskiene, Ausra; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Klempa, Boris; Ulrich, Rainer G; Gedvilaite, Alma

    2014-02-07

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against viral glycoproteins have important diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In most cases, the MAbs specific to viral glycoproteins are raised against intact virus particles. The biosynthesis of viral glycoproteins in heterologous expression systems such as bacteria, yeast, insect or mammalian cells is often problematic due to their low expression level, improper folding and limited stability. To generate MAbs against hantavirus glycoprotein Gc, we have used initially a recombinant yeast-expressed full-length Puumala virus (PUUV) Gc protein. However, this approach was unsuccessful. As an alternative recombinant antigen, chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) harboring a segment of PUUV Gc glycoprotein were generated in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A 99 amino acid (aa)-long segment of Gc protein was inserted into the major capsid protein VP1 of hamster polyomavirus at previously defined positions: either site #1 (aa 80-89) or site #4 (aa 280-289). The chimeric proteins were found to self-assemble to VLPs as evidenced by electron microscopy. Chimeric VLPs induced an efficient insert-specific antibody response in immunized mice. Monoclonal antibody (clone #10B8) of IgG isotype specific to hantavirus Gc glycoprotein was generated. It recognized recombinant full-length PUUV Gc glycoprotein both in ELISA and Western blot assay and reacted specifically with hantavirus-infected cells in immunofluorescence assay. Epitope mapping studies revealed the N-terminally located epitope highly conserved among different hantavirus strains. In conclusion, our approach to use chimeric VLPs was proven useful for the generation of virus-reactive MAb against hantavirus Gc glycoprotein. The generated broadly-reactive MAb #10B8 might be useful for various diagnostic applications.

  11. Jürgen Stock: From One End of the Andes to the Other

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas, A. K.; Stock, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    Jürgen Stock (1923-2004) will always be remembered for his work on astronomical site testing. He led the efforts to find the best place for CTIO, and his work had a large influence in the setting of other observatories in Chile. He was the first director of CTIO (1963-1966). After his time in Chile, he moved to the other end of the Andes and was in charge of the site selection and the construction of the only professional observatory in Venezuela, the Llano del Hato National Observatory.

  12. Hantavirus and Arenavirus Antibodies in Persons with Occupational Rodent Exposure, North America

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Armstrong, Lori R.; Childs, James E.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Khabbaz, Rima; Peters, C.J.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Rodents are the principal hosts of Sin Nombre virus, 4 other hantaviruses known to cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in North America, and the 3 North American arenaviruses. Serum samples from 757 persons who had worked with rodents in North America and handled neotomine or sigmodontine rodents were tested for antibodies against Sin Nombre virus, Whitewater Arroyo virus, Guanarito virus, and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Antibodies against Sin Nombre virus were found in 4 persons, against Whitewater Arroyo virus or Guanarito virus in 2 persons, and against lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in none. These results suggest that risk for infection with hantaviruses or arenaviruses usually is low in persons whose occupations entail close physical contact with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in North America. PMID:17553266

  13. A major outbreak of hantavirus infection in Belgium in 1995 and 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, P.; Vervoort, T.; Colson, P.; Chu, Y. K.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Lundkvist, A.

    1999-01-01

    Haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a human disease characterized by flu-like symptoms, renal dysfunction, and in severe cases, haemorrhagic manifestations. The causative agents of HFRS are Hantaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), Puumala (PUU) and Dobrava (DOB) hantaviruses. Hantavirus infections are of increasing importance in Europe. Outbreaks occur in Belgium with a 3- to 4-year interval with an increasing number of cases. We describe the largest outbreak so far in Belgium with 217 serologically and clinically confirmed cases in the period between October 1995 and December 1996. We demonstrated that the use of viral antigen derived from a local PUU-strain was able to detect significantly more sera positive for IgM in an immunofluorescence assay. Furthermore, although in some cases SEO, HTN and DOB antibody-reactivities were detected by ELISA, only PUU infections could be confirmed by neutralization test. The presence of an unknown hantavirus serotype circulating in Belgium should be considered. PMID:10459649

  14. Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central Arizona.

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, K. D.; Ksiazek, T. G.; Mills, J. N.

    1999-01-01

    For 35 months, we monitored hantavirus activity in rodent populations in central Arizona. The most frequently captured hantavirus antibody-positive rodents were Peromyscus boylii and P. truei. Antibody-positive P. boylii were more frequently male (84%), older, and heavier, and they survived longer on trapping web sites than antibody-negative mice. The number of antibody-positive P. boylii was greater during high population densities than during low densities, while antibody prevalence was greater during low population densities. Virus transmission and incidence rates, also related to population densities, varied by trapping site. The spatial distribution of antibody-positive P. boylii varied by population density and reflected the species preference for dense chaparral habitats. The focal ranges of antibody-positive P. boylii also demonstrated a patchy distribution of hantavirus. PMID:10081677

  15. Anjozorobe hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Thailand virus detected in rodents from Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Reynes, Jean-Marc; Razafindralambo, Nadia Kaloina; Lacoste, Vincent; Olive, Marie-Marie; Barivelo, Tony Andrianaivo; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Heraud, Jean-Michel; Lavergne, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Until now, there was only serological evidence that hantaviruses were circulating in rodents and infecting humans from Madagascar. To assess the presence of a hantavirus on the island, between October, 2008, and March, 2010, we sampled 585 rodents belonging to seven species in the Anjozorobe-Angavo forest corridor, 70 km north from the capital city Antananarivo. A hantavirus was detected from organs of the ubiquist roof rat (Rattus rattus) and of the endemic Major's tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus majori). Amazingly, sequence analysis of the S (small), M (medium), and L (large) coding DNA sequence of this virus showed that the Anjozorobe strain (proposed name) was a new genetic variant of Thailand virus (THAIV) that comprises other variants found in Southeast Asia. Because THAIV is suspected of causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans, ongoing studies are addressing the risk of infection by this new variant in the Malagasy population.

  16. ANDES TOOLS: Promotional slides for Industrial Clients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-03

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 10 August 2015 – 3 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANDES TOOLS: Promotional slides for Industrial ...Clients 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9300-13-C-2014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tim Holmes, D.Sc. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK... Industrial Clients PA Case Number: #15479; Clearance Date: 9/3/2015 14. ABSTRACT Briefing Charts/Viewgraphs 15. SUBJECT TERMS N/A 16. SECURITY

  17. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential (n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) (p < 0.001 of Zar-t test based on the Shannon index). Rattus rattus and Sundamys muelleri were present at high frequencies in both localities. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that hantavirus-targeting antibodies were absent from 53 tested serum samples. This is the first report of hantavirus seroprevalence surveillance in rodent populations in Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  18. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential (n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) (p < 0.001 of Zar-t test based on the Shannon index). Rattus rattus and Sundamys muelleri were present at high frequencies in both localities. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that hantavirus-targeting antibodies were absent from 53 tested serum samples. This is the first report of hantavirus seroprevalence surveillance in rodent populations in Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia. PMID:28228923

  19. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (Rio Mamore virus) in the Peruvian Amazon region].

    PubMed

    Casapía, Martín; Mamani, Enrique; García, María P; Miraval, María L; Valencia, Pedro; Quino, Alberto H; Alvarez, Carlos; Donaires, Luis F

    2012-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is a viral zoonotic infection borne by rodents which most letal form clinical is the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (SPH, Spanish abbreviation). The Mamore River variant originates in South America and was found in rodents without any association to human diseases. Two cases of SPH were identified in the Peruvian Amazon region in November 2011. In both cases, a molecular diagnostic testing was conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Salud from Peru. A phylogenetic analysis of a viral genome fragment and a histopathological evaluation were conducted. Both patients developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and refractory shock. A patient died and another one recovered 12 days later.

  20. The English 'sweate' (Sudor Anglicus) and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bridson, E

    2001-01-01

    A rapidly fatal viral infectious disease appeared in England in 1485, persisted for the summer months and disappeared as winter approached. This pattern of infection re-appeared in 1508, 1517, 1528, and finally 1551. The epidemic never returned. It had no respect for wealth or rank, and predominantly attacked males between the ages of 15 and 45 years. The incubation period was frighteningly short and the outcome normally fatal. The symptoms of acute respiratory disease and copious sweating were characteristic, providing the name 'the English sweating disease'. It was never in the big league of killer epidemics, such as plague and influenza, but its pockets of instant lethality in communities gave it a special ranking of horror. The infective cause of this disease remained a total mystery until it was compared with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1994. The strength of this theory is examined in this paper, and it is concluded that, although there is a close resemblance, HPS does not match the English sweating disease completely and positive identification of a possible rodent carrier for the latter was not established.

  1. Hantaviruses in Rodents and Humans, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng-Xian; Gao, Na; Wang, Jian-Bo; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Hua-Xin; Zou, Yang; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Surveys were carried out in 2003–2006 to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China (Inner Mongolia). Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) was first reported in this region in 1955 and has been an important public health problem here since then. During 1955–2006, 8,309 persons with HFRS were reported in Inner Mongolia (average incidence rate 0.89/100,000), and 261 (3.14%) died. Before the 1990s, all HFRS cases occurred in northeastern Inner Mongolia. Subsequently, HFRS cases were registered in central (1995) and western (1999) Inner Mongolia. In this study, hantaviral antigens were identified in striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) from northeastern Inner Mongolia and in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from middle and western Inner Mongolia. Phylogenetic analysis of hantaviral genome sequences suggests that HFRS has been caused mainly by Hantaan virus in northeastern Inner Mongolia and by Seoul virus in central and western Inner Mongolia. PMID:19523286

  2. Late Miocene climate variability and surface elevation in the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulch, Andreas; Uba, Cornelius E.; Strecker, Manfred R.; Schoenberg, R.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2010-02-01

    Temporal and spatial variations in topography and oxygen stable isotope ratios in precipitation in the central Andes have stimulated widespread discussion about the competing roles of mantle and crustal processes and their feedbacks with global-scale climatic change in uplifting and shaping the central Andes. In general, one of the major obstacles in assessing the relative contributions of long-term (10 5-10 6a) tectonic processes and precipitation (as a proxy for climate) to the uplift history of the Andean orogen is the lack of integrated data sets that record late Miocene patterns of uplift and climate. Radiogenic ( 87Sr/ 86Sr), sedimentologic, and stable isotope ( δ18O) data from Subandean foreland deposits of the Chaco Basin (Bolivia) show a rapid (< 200 ka) transition towards higher δ18O and 87Sr/ 86Sr values at ˜ 8.5 Ma that we interpret to reflect a change in precipitation patterns along the Eastern Cordillera and the Subandean fold-thrust belt. In agreement with δ13C studies on paleosol carbonates we attribute this change to a southward deflection of the South American low-level jet (LLJ) that currently exerts the dominant control over the seasonality and amount of precipitation along the Eastern flanks of the Andes. Deflection of the LLJ occurred most likely as the combined effects of readjustment of relief and topography within the Eastern Cordillera at 20-22°S and possibly associated surface uplift of the Altiplano. Contemporaneous rapid positive shifts in δ18O and 87Sr/ 86Sr of pedogenic carbonate in fluvial foreland deposits are consistent with a transition to more seasonal precipitation conditions and critical threshold elevations being attained that affected South American atmospheric circulation patterns. A four-fold increase in sedimentation rates in the foreland together with a shift to strongly radiogenic 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios in paleo-river water and sediment load as well as river incision into the well preserved San Juán del Oro paleo

  3. Crustal Thickness in Northern Andes Using pP and sS Precursors at Teleseismic Distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranda Camacho, N. M.; Assumpcao, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean belt is a result of the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American continental plate. It has an extension of 8000 km from Venezuela to Tierra del Fuego. While the crustal-thickness is a well-known property in Southern and Central Andes, it is still poorly known in the Northern Andes (between 10°N and 4° S). The crustal thickness is a very important property to understand the crustal evolution such as in geodynamic models and in modeling wave-propagation in global and regional seismic studies. Due to the high seismic activity at intermediate depths in the Northern Andes, it is possible to use the teleseismic P-wave and S-wave trains to find the crustal-thickness. In this study, we analyze the reflections from the underside of the Moho for intermediate and deep earthquakes in the northern Andes recorded at teleseismic distances (between 40°- 85°), and estimate the crustal-thickness at the bounce points of the pP and sS wave by converting the delay time between the phases pP and pmP and also between sS and smS into crustal thickness. This method can be applied in zones with earthquakes having magnitude larger than 6 for that reason the Northern Andes is a favorable area to develop it. We analyzed five events from the Northern Andes with magnitude larger than 6 and deeper than 100 km. The crustal thickness was calculated using the P wave with the vertical component and the S wave using both transverse SH and radial SV components. We find that the crustal-thickness in this area varied from 27.9 × 2.4 km at (76.48 W, 4.82 N) to 55.7 × 5.2 km at (77.92 W, 2 S). Our results show a crustal-thickness consistent with a compilation made for a larger region that includes our research area, showing residuals between -4 km and 4 km in most of the bounce points . We are getting results in areas that have not been studied previously so it will help to increase the database of crustal-thicknesses for the Northern Andes.

  4. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure.

    PubMed

    Haese, Nicole; Brocato, Rebecca L; Henderson, Thomas; Nilles, Matthew L; Kwilas, Steve A; Josleyn, Matthew D; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Schiltz, James; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W; Bradley, David S

    2015-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000). Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50). Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8), or no-treatment (n=8), developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral biological product

  5. Antiviral Biologic Produced in DNA Vaccine/Goose Platform Protects Hamsters Against Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome When Administered Post-exposure

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Thomas; Nilles, Matthew L.; Kwilas, Steve A.; Josleyn, Matthew D.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Schiltz, James; Royals, Michael; Ballantyne, John; Hooper, Jay W.; Bradley, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Andes virus (ANDV) and ANDV-like viruses are responsible for most hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in South America. Recent studies in Chile indicate that passive transfer of convalescent human plasma shows promise as a possible treatment for HPS. Unfortunately, availability of convalescent plasma from survivors of this lethal disease is very limited. We are interested in exploring the concept of using DNA vaccine technology to produce antiviral biologics, including polyclonal neutralizing antibodies for use in humans. Geese produce IgY and an alternatively spliced form, IgYΔFc, that can be purified at high concentrations from egg yolks. IgY lacks the properties of mammalian Fc that make antibodies produced in horses, sheep, and rabbits reactogenic in humans. Geese were vaccinated with an ANDV DNA vaccine encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins. All geese developed high-titer neutralizing antibodies after the second vaccination, and maintained high-levels of neutralizing antibodies as measured by a pseudovirion neutralization assay (PsVNA) for over 1 year. A booster vaccination resulted in extraordinarily high levels of neutralizing antibodies (i.e., PsVNA80 titers >100,000). Analysis of IgY and IgYΔFc by epitope mapping show these antibodies to be highly reactive to specific amino acid sequences of ANDV envelope glycoproteins. We examined the protective efficacy of the goose-derived antibody in the hamster model of lethal HPS. α-ANDV immune sera, or IgY/IgYΔFc purified from eggs, were passively transferred to hamsters subcutaneously starting 5 days after an IM challenge with ANDV (25 LD50). Both immune sera, and egg-derived purified IgY/IgYΔFc, protected 8 of 8 and 7 of 8 hamsters, respectively. In contrast, all hamsters receiving IgY/IgYΔFc purified from normal geese (n=8), or no-treatment (n=8), developed lethal HPS. These findings demonstrate that the DNA vaccine/goose platform can be used to produce a candidate antiviral biological product

  6. Transcriptome Markers of Viral Persistence in Naturally-Infected Andes Virus (Bunyaviridae) Seropositive Long-Tailed Pygmy Rice Rats

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Corey L.; Torres-Perez, Fernando; Acuna-Retamar, Mariana; Schountz, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Long-tailed pygmy rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus) are principal reservoir hosts of Andes virus (ANDV) (Bunyaviridae), which causes most hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome cases in the Americas. To develop tools for the study of the ANDV-host interactions, we used RNA-Seq to generate a de novo transcriptome assembly. Splenic RNA from five rice rats captured in Chile, three of which were ANDV-infected, was used to generate an assembly of 66,173 annotated transcripts, including noncoding RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of selected predicted proteins showed similarities to those of the North American deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), the principal reservoir of Sin Nombre virus (SNV). One of the infected rice rats had about 50-fold more viral burden than the others, suggesting acute infection, whereas the remaining two had levels consistent with persistence. Differential expression analysis revealed distinct signatures among the infected rodents. The differences could be due to 1) variations in viral load, 2) dimorphic or reproductive differences in splenic homing of immune cells, or 3) factors of unknown etiology. In the two persistently infected rice rats, suppression of the JAK-STAT pathway at Stat5b and Ccnot1, elevation of Casp1, RIG-I pathway factors Ppp1cc and Mff, and increased FC receptor-like transcripts occurred. Caspase-1 and Stat5b activation pathways have been shown to stimulate T helper follicular cell (TFH) development in other species. These data are also consistent with reports suggestive of TFH stimulation in deer mice experimentally infected with hantaviruses. In the remaining acutely infected rice rat, the apoptotic pathway marker Cox6a1 was elevated, and putative anti-viral factors Abcb1a, Fam46c, Spp1, Rxra, Rxrb, Trmp2 and Trim58 were modulated. Transcripts for preproenkephalin (Prenk) were reduced, which may be predictive of an increased T cell activation threshold. Taken together, this transcriptome dataset will permit rigorous

  7. Crystal Structure of Glycoprotein C from a Hantavirus in the Post-fusion Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Willensky, Shmuel; Bignon, Eduardo A.; Tischler, Nicole D.; Dessau, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging human pathogens and are the causative agents of serious diseases in humans with high mortality rates. Like other members in the Bunyaviridae family their M segment encodes two glycoproteins, GN and GC, which are responsible for the early events of infection. Hantaviruses deliver their tripartite genome into the cytoplasm by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes in response to the reduced pH of the endosome. Unlike phleboviruses (e.g. Rift valley fever virus), that have an icosahedral glycoprotein envelope, hantaviruses display a pleomorphic virion morphology as GN and GC assemble into spikes with apparent four-fold symmetry organized in a grid-like pattern on the viral membrane. Here we present the crystal structure of glycoprotein C (GC) from Puumala virus (PUUV), a representative member of the Hantavirus genus. The crystal structure shows GC as the membrane fusion effector of PUUV and it presents a class II membrane fusion protein fold. Furthermore, GC was crystallized in its post-fusion trimeric conformation that until now had been observed only in Flavi- and Togaviridae family members. The PUUV GC structure together with our functional data provides intriguing evolutionary and mechanistic insights into class II membrane fusion proteins and reveals new targets for membrane fusion inhibitors against these important pathogens. PMID:27783673

  8. T Cells and Pathogenesis of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Terajima, Masanori; Ennis, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We previously hypothesized that increased capillary permeability observed in both hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) and hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) may be caused by hantavirus-specific cytotoxic T cells attacking endothelial cells presenting viral antigens on their surface based on clinical observations and in vitro experiments. In HCPS, hantavirus-specific T cell responses positively correlated with disease severity. In HFRS, in one report, contrary to HCPS, T cell responses negatively correlated with disease severity, but in another report the number of regulatory T cells, which are thought to suppress T cell responses, negatively correlated with disease severity. In rat experiments, in which hantavirus causes persistent infection, depletion of regulatory T cells helped infected rats clear virus without inducing immunopathology. These seemingly contradictory findings may suggest delicate balance in T cell responses between protection and immunopathogenesis. Both too strong and too weak T cell responses may lead to severe disease. It is important to clarify the role of T cells in these diseases for better treatment (whether to suppress T cell functions) and protection (vaccine design) which may need to take into account viral factors and the influence of HLA on T cell responses. PMID:21994770

  9. Crystal Structure of Glycoprotein C from a Hantavirus in the Post-fusion Conformation.

    PubMed

    Willensky, Shmuel; Bar-Rogovsky, Hagit; Bignon, Eduardo A; Tischler, Nicole D; Modis, Yorgo; Dessau, Moshe

    2016-10-01

    Hantaviruses are important emerging human pathogens and are the causative agents of serious diseases in humans with high mortality rates. Like other members in the Bunyaviridae family their M segment encodes two glycoproteins, GN and GC, which are responsible for the early events of infection. Hantaviruses deliver their tripartite genome into the cytoplasm by fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes in response to the reduced pH of the endosome. Unlike phleboviruses (e.g. Rift valley fever virus), that have an icosahedral glycoprotein envelope, hantaviruses display a pleomorphic virion morphology as GN and GC assemble into spikes with apparent four-fold symmetry organized in a grid-like pattern on the viral membrane. Here we present the crystal structure of glycoprotein C (GC) from Puumala virus (PUUV), a representative member of the Hantavirus genus. The crystal structure shows GC as the membrane fusion effector of PUUV and it presents a class II membrane fusion protein fold. Furthermore, GC was crystallized in its post-fusion trimeric conformation that until now had been observed only in Flavi- and Togaviridae family members. The PUUV GC structure together with our functional data provides intriguing evolutionary and mechanistic insights into class II membrane fusion proteins and reveals new targets for membrane fusion inhibitors against these important pathogens.

  10. Geographic Distribution of Hantaviruses Associated with Neotomine and Sigmodontine Rodents, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Milazzo, Mary L.; Cajimat, Maria N.B.; Romo, Hannah E.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Iñiguez-Dávalos, L. Ignacio; Bradley, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    To increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in Mexico, we tested 876 cricetid rodents captured in 18 Mexican states (representing at least 44 species in the subfamily Neotominae and 10 species in the subfamily Sigmodontinae) for anti-hantavirus IgG. We found antibodies against hantavirus in 35 (4.0%) rodents. Nucleotide sequence data from 5 antibody-positive rodents indicated that Sin Nombre virus (the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [HPS] in the United States) is enzootic in the Mexican states of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. However, HPS has not been reported from these states, which suggests that in northeastern Mexico, HPS has been confused with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory diseases. Analyses of nucleotide sequence data from 19 other antibody-positive rodents indicated that El Moro Canyon virus and Limestone Canyon virus are geographically widely distributed in Mexico. PMID:22469569

  11. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Central Bolivia: Relationships Between Reservoir Hosts, Habitats, and Viral Genotypes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    GAT GA-3 Anti-sense PPT716R 5-AAI CCI ATI ACI CCC AT-3 Rodent cytochrome b primers L1472419 5-CGA AGC TTG ATA TGA AAA ACC ATC GTT G-3 L1464821...Lee HW, 1996. Serological evidence of human hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia and Uruguay. Medicina (B Aires) 56: 17–22. 6. Johnson AM, de

  12. Pygmy Rice Rat as Potential Host of Castelo dos Sonhos Hantavirus

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B. A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de Souza; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.R.; Via, Alba Valéria; D’Andrea, Paulo; Bonvicino, Cibele R.; Lemos, Elba Regina S.

    2011-01-01

    To study the dynamics of wild rodent populations and identify potential hosts for hantavirus, we conducted an eco-epidemiologic study in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. We detected and genetically characterized Castelo dos Sonhos virus found in a species of pygmy rice rat (Oligoryzomys utiaritensis). PMID:21801642

  13. Hantaviruses induce antiviral and pro-inflammatory innate immune responses in astrocytic cells and the brain.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Song, Gabriella Shinyoung; Kumar, Mukesh; Yanagihara, Richard; Lee, Ho-Wang; Song, Jin-Won

    2014-08-01

    Although hantaviruses are not generally considered neurotropic, neurological complications have been reported occasionally in patients with hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS). In this study, we analyzed innate immune responses to hantavirus infection in vitro in human astrocytic cells (A172) and in vivo in suckling ICR mice. Infection of A172 cells with pathogenic Hantaan virus (HTNV) or a novel shrew-borne hantavirus, known as Imjin virus (MJNV), induced activation of antiviral genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. MicroRNA expression profiles of HTNV- and MJNV-infected A172 cells showed distinct changes in a set of miRNAs. Following intraperitoneal inoculation with HTNV or MJNV, suckling ICR mice developed rapidly progressive, fatal central nervous system-associated disease. Immunohistochemical staining of virus-infected mouse brains confirmed the detection of viral antigens within astrocytes. Taken together, these findings suggest that the neurological findings in HFRS patients may be associated with hantavirus-directed modulation of innate immune responses in the brain.

  14. Hantaviruses induce cell type- and viral species-specific host microRNA expression signatures.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ok Sarah; Kumar, Mukesh; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms of hantavirus-induced modulation of host cellular immunity remain poorly understood. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a class of essential regulators of host immune response genes. To ascertain if differential host miRNA expression toward representative hantavirus species correlated with immune response genes, miRNA expression profiles were analyzed in human endothelial cells, macrophages and epithelial cells infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic rodent- and shrew-borne hantaviruses. Distinct miRNA expression profiles were observed in a cell type- and viral species-specific pattern. A subset of miRNAs, including miR-151-5p and miR-1973, were differentially expressed between Hantaan virus and Prospect Hill virus. Pathway analyses confirmed that the targets of selected miRNAs were associated with inflammatory responses and innate immune receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Our data suggest that differential immune responses following hantavirus infection may be regulated in part by cellular miRNA through dysregulation of genes critical to the inflammatory process.

  15. Geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine and sigmodontine rodents, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary L; Cajimat, Maria N B; Romo, Hannah E; Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Iñiguez-Dávalos, L Ignacio; Bradley, Robert D; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2012-04-01

    To increase our knowledge of the geographic distribution of hantaviruses associated with neotomine or sigmodontine rodents in Mexico, we tested 876 cricetid rodents captured in 18 Mexican states (representing at least 44 species in the subfamily Neotominae and 10 species in the subfamily Sigmodontinae) for anti-hantavirus IgG. We found antibodies against hantavirus in 35 (4.0%) rodents. Nucleotide sequence data from 5 antibody-positive rodents indicated that Sin Nombre virus (the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome [HPS] in the United States) is enzootic in the Mexican states of Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas, and Veracruz. However, HPS has not been reported from these states, which suggests that in northeastern Mexico, HPS has been confused with other rapidly progressive, life-threatening respiratory diseases. Analyses of nucleotide sequence data from 19 other antibody-positive rodents indicated that El Moro Canyon virus and Limestone Canyon virus are geographically widely distributed in Mexico.

  16. Tula hantavirus triggers pro-apoptotic signals of ER stress in Vero E6 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Dong; Lankinen, Hilkka; Putkuri, Niina; Vapalahti, Olli; Vaheri, Antti

    2005-03-01

    Tula virus is a member of the Hantavirus genus of the family Bunyaviridae. Viruses of this family have an unusual pattern of intracellular maturation at the ER-Golgi compartment. We recently found that Tula virus, similar to several other hantaviruses, is able to induce apoptosis in cultured cells [Li, X.D., Kukkonen, S., Vapalahti, O., Plyusnin, A., Lankinen, H., Vaheri, A., 2004. Tula hantavirus infection of Vero E6 cells induces apoptosis involving caspase 8 activation. J. Gen. Virol. 85, 3261-3268.]. However, the cellular mechanisms remain to be clarified. In this study, we demonstrate that the progressive replication of Tula virus in Vero E6 cells initiates several death programs that are intimately associated with ER stress: (1) early activation of ER-resident caspase-12; (2) phosphorylation of Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and its downstream target transcriptional factor, c-jun; (3) induction of the pro-apoptotic transcriptional factor, growth arrest- and DNA damage-inducible gene 153, or C/EBP homologous protein (Gadd153/chop); and (4) changes in the ER-membrane protein BAP31 implying cross-talk with the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, we confirmed that a sustained ER stress was induced marked by an increased expression of an ER chaperone Grp78/BiP. Taken together, we have identified involvement of ER stress-mediated death program in Tula virus-infected Vero E6 cells which provides a new approach to understand the mechanisms in hantavirus-induced apoptosis.

  17. The Glaciation of the Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Carlos

    This pleasing book fills the gap in the knowledge about Pleistocene and recent glaciation between Colombia and Peru. A significant amount of data exists already for Colombia and Venezuela and for Peru, Bolivia, and, particularly, Chile. Hastenrath has now given us a description of glaciers and glaciation underneath the equator in the Andes.The book begins with brief summaries of the physiography and the atmospheric circulation, which give the general setting of Ecuador. Then follow detailed descriptions of the glaciers and glacial morphology of all the important mountains of the Western and Eastern Cordilleras. These are well illustrated, and a particularly useful feature is the comparison of old photographs and paintings of glaciers with modern photographs, many taken by the author. All illustrate the spectacular retreat of the glaciers in the Ecuadorian Andes during the last century and correlate quite well with observations elsewhere. This retreat is snown quantitatively in Table 4, in terms of decrease in glacier-covered area since the glacial advance of moraine stage III. The area of present-day glaciers is about 10% of the area during that stage (compared with about 1.5% in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela). A series of maps show the glacial morphology of the mountains (unfortunately, some of the maps have been included within the binding, thus losing some information; they could have been reduced somewhat to fit a single page or, if too large, could have been included in the pocket, together with the map of Chimborazo-Carihuairazo).

  18. Orogenic float of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, Bernard; Dhont, Damien; Hervouët, Yves

    2010-07-01

    The Venezuelan (or Mérida) Andes are a NE-trending intracontinental orogen that started to rise from the Middle Miocene due to the E-W far field convergence between the Maracaibo block to the northwest and the Guyana shield to the southeast. Oblique convergence is responsible for strain partitioning with thrusting along both foreland basins and right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the NE-SW Boconó fault cutting the Venezuelan Andes along-strike. The central part of the belt is also cut by the N-S left-lateral strike-slip Valera fault that connects the Boconó fault, both faults bounding the Trujillo block that escapes towards the NNE. Even though the regional geology of belt is well known, its structure at depth remains a matter of debate. Our work, based on the integration of geological and geophysical data aims to better constrain the deep geometry of faults and the tectonic evolution of the mountain belt. We used the orogenic float model to construct two NW-SE trans-Andean crustal scale balanced sections. The Late Neogene-Quaternary shortening varies from 40 km in the south to 30 km in the north across the Trujillo block, indicating that a quarter of the deformation seems to be absorbed by the tectonic escape process. More importantly, a major reorganization in the crust took place in the Early Pliocene. It is characterized by the imbrication of the Maracaibo crust into the Guyana crust. This resulted in the subduction of the Guyana lower crust and the formation of a NW-vergent basement thrust propagating upwards and surfacing along the Las Virtudes thrust. Rapid uplift of the northern flank of the belt subsequently occurred together with massive deposition of the Plio-Quaternary coarse grained Betijoque formation in the northwestern foreland basin.

  19. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Uriarte, Maria; Tambosi, Leandro Reverberi; Prado, Amanda; Pardini, Renata; D´Andrea, Paulo Sérgio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993–2012) and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature), landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane), and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index). We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest). In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk), and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks. PMID:27780250

  20. Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii, and Laguna Negra hantavirus in an Indian reserve in the Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of rickettsia and hantavirus in wild rodents and arthropods in response to an outbreak of acute unidentified febrile illness among Indians in the Halataikwa Indian Reserve, northwest of the Mato Grosso state, in the Brazilian Amazon. Where previously surveillance data showed serologic evidence of rickettsia and hantavirus human infection. Methods The arthropods were collected from the healthy Indian population and by flagging vegetation in grassland or woodland along the peridomestic environment of the Indian reserve. Wild rodents were live-trapped in an area bordering the reserve limits, due the impossibility of capturing wild animals in the Indian reserve. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and karyotype. DNA was extracted from spleen or liver samples of rodents and from invertebrate (tick and louse) pools, and the molecular characterization of the rickettsia was through PCR and DNA sequencing of fragments of two rickettsial genes (gltA and ompA). In relation to hantavirus, rodent serum samples were serologically screened by IgG ELISA using the Araraquara-N antigen and total RNA was extracted from lung samples of IgG-positive rodents. The amplification of the complete S segment was performed. Results A total of 153 wild rodents, 121 louse, and 36 tick specimens were collected in 2010. Laguna Negra hantavirus was identified in Calomys callidus rodents and Rickettsia bellii, Rickettsia amblyommii were identified in Amblyomma cajennense ticks. Conclusions Zoonotic diseases such as HCPS and spotted fever rickettsiosis are a public health threat and should be considered in outbreaks and acute febrile illnesses among Indian populations. The presence of the genome of rickettsias and hantavirus in animals in this Indian reserve reinforces the need to include these infectious agents in outbreak investigations of febrile cases in Indian populations. PMID:24742108

  1. Short report: Genetic diversity of Thottapalayam virus, a Hantavirus harbored by the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hae Ji; Kosoy, Michael Y; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Shrestha, Mrigendra P; Pavlin, Julie A; Gibbons, Robert V; Yanagihara, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Despite the recent discovery of genetically divergent hantaviruses in shrews of multiple species in widely separated geographic regions, data are unavailable about the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a hantavirus originally isolated from an Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus) captured in southern India more than four decades ago. To bridge this knowledge gap, the S, M, and L segments of hantavirus RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from archival lung tissues of Asian house shrews captured in Nepal from January to September 1996. Pair-wise alignment and comparison revealed approximately 80% nucleotide and > 94% amino acid sequence similarity to prototype TPMV. Phylogenetic analyses, generated by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of TPMV, similar to that observed for rodent- and soricid-borne hantaviruses. These findings confirm that the Asian house shrew is the natural reservoir of TPMV and suggest a long-standing virus-host relationship.

  2. Two clinical cases of renal syndrome caused by Dobrava/Saaremaa hantaviruses imported to the Netherlands from Poland and Belarus, 2012–2014

    PubMed Central

    GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H.; Goeijenbier, Marco; Verner-Carlsson, Jenny; Litjens, Eline; Bos, Willem-Jan; Pas, Suzan D.; Medonça Melo, Mariana; Koopmans, Marion; Lundkvist, Åke; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the rare event of two imported cases in the Netherlands presenting with renal syndrome caused by Dobrava (DOBV)/Saaremaa (SAAV) hantaviruses. DOBV/SAAV hantaviruses are not circulating in the Netherlands and their clinical manifestation is typically more severe than that of the endemic Puumala virus (PUUV). This report aims to increase awareness among healthcare professionals and diagnostic laboratories to consider different hantaviruses as a cause of renal failure. PMID:26818411

  3. Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelle, B; Lee, S W; Song, W; Torrez-Martinez, N; Song, J W; Yanagihara, R; Gavrilovskaya, I; Mackow, E R

    1995-01-01

    The complete M segment sequences of hantaviruses amplified from tissues of a patient with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States and from white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, from New York were 99% identical and differed from those of Four Corners virus by 23%. The serum of this patient failed to recognize a conserved, immunodominant epitope of the Four Corners virus G1 glycoprotein. Collectively, these findings indicate that P. leucopus harbors a genetically and antigenically distinct hantavirus that causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. PMID:7494337

  4. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet's musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1-53.4%, 17.0-59.9% and 14.6-39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese's shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses.

  5. Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffione, Marco; Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Speranza, Fabio; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline (here renamed as Patagonian Arc), and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from E-W in the Patagonian Andes to N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc (i.e., no relative vertical-axis rotation of the limbs occurs during its formation), then other mechanisms different from oroclinal bending should be invoked to explain the documented radial strain field. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin controlled

  6. Seismological Parameters in the Northern Andes, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobiesiak, M.; Palme de Osechas, C.; Choy, J. E.; Morandi S., M. T.; Campo, M.; Granado Ruiz, C.

    2001-12-01

    Venezuelas tectonic setting as part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and the South American plate causes two major seismologically active fault systems: the roughly west - east trending strike slip fault system along the coast with numerous sub-parallel faults and the Bocono fault system, which dominates the Venezuelan southwest - northeast striking Andes. The main Bocono fault reaches a total length of about 500 km and has a width of approximately 100 km between the southern and northern baseline of the mountain slopes which are marked by inverse faults. This is believed to be due to strain partitioning, a concept which seems to apply as well to the Bocono fault system. The whole fault system is characterized by a high seismicity rate of small scale and intermediate event magnitudes ranging from 1.5 to 6.3 in the last fifty years. In this study we would like to present an investigation on 39 focal mechanism solutions and a b-value mapping of the Andean region with the main goal to throw light on the stess and strain situation. For recompiling the focal memchanisms calculated from first motion polarities, various sources had to been used: seismograms from stations of the local and regional networks of the Seismological Center of ULA, the national seismic network operated by FUNVISIS, the seismic network Lago Maracaibo of PDVSA and the local seismic network of DESURCA. For the b-value mapping we used the two catalogues of ULA and DESURCA of which the last one registered more than 6500 events from 1994 to 1999. The set of focal mechanism solutions studied showed normal, strike slip, and reverse faulting mechanisms concentrated in distinct areas of the Bocono fault system and thus resulting in a zonation also supported by the determinations of the azimuths of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax. This hypothesis of the zonation of the Andes region is strongly supported by the results of the b-value mapping. The zonation as seen in the varying major stress

  7. Description and phylogeny of three new species of Synophis (Colubridae, Dipsadinae) from the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Echevarría, Lourdes Y.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Germán Chávez; Camper, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of three new species of Synophis snakes from the eastern slopes of the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru is reported. All previous records of Synophis bicolor from eastern Ecuador correspond to Synophis bogerti sp. n., which occurs between 1000–1750 m along a large part of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. In contrast, Synophis zamora sp. n. is restricted to southeastern Ecuador, including Cordillera del Cóndor, between 1543–1843 m. Synophis insulomontanus sp. n. is from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central and northern Peru, between 1122–1798 m, and represents the first record of Synophis from this country. All three new species share in common a large lateral spine at the base of the hemipenial body. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on three mitochondrial genes is presented, including samples of Diaphorolepis wagneri. Our tree strongly supports Synophis and Diaphorolepis as sister taxa, as well as monophyly of the three new species described here and Synophis calamitus. Inclusion of Synophis and Diaphorolepis within Dipsadinae as sister to a clade containing Imantodes, Dipsas, Ninia, Hypsiglena and Pseudoleptodeira is also supported. PMID:26798310

  8. Description and phylogeny of three new species of Synophis (Colubridae, Dipsadinae) from the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru.

    PubMed

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; Venegas, Pablo J; Germán Chávez; Camper, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of three new species of Synophis snakes from the eastern slopes of the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru is reported. All previous records of Synophis bicolor from eastern Ecuador correspond to Synophis bogerti sp. n., which occurs between 1000-1750 m along a large part of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. In contrast, Synophis zamora sp. n. is restricted to southeastern Ecuador, including Cordillera del Cóndor, between 1543-1843 m. Synophis insulomontanus sp. n. is from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central and northern Peru, between 1122-1798 m, and represents the first record of Synophis from this country. All three new species share in common a large lateral spine at the base of the hemipenial body. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on three mitochondrial genes is presented, including samples of Diaphorolepis wagneri. Our tree strongly supports Synophis and Diaphorolepis as sister taxa, as well as monophyly of the three new species described here and Synophis calamitus. Inclusion of Synophis and Diaphorolepis within Dipsadinae as sister to a clade containing Imantodes, Dipsas, Ninia, Hypsiglena and Pseudoleptodeira is also supported.

  9. ANDES Measurements for Advanced Reactor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plompen, A. J. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Kopecky, S.; Nyman, M.; Rouki, C.; Salvador Castiñeira, P.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Belloni, F.; Berthoumieux, E.; Gunsing, F.; Lampoudis, C.; Calviani, M.; Guerrero, C.; Cano-Ott, D.; Gonzalez Romero, E.; Aïche, M.; Jurado, B.; Mathieu, L.; Derckx, X.; Farget, F.; Rodrigues Tajes, C.; Bacquias, A.; Dessagne, Ph.; Kerveno, M.; Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Colonna, N.; Goncalves, I.; Penttilä, H.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Jokinen, A.

    2014-05-01

    A significant number of new measurements was undertaken by the ANDES “Measurements for advanced reactor systems” initiative. These new measurements include neutron inelastic scattering from 23Na, Mo, Zr, and 238U, neutron capture cross sections of 238U, 241Am, neutron induced fission cross sections of 240Pu, 242Pu, 241Am, 243Am and 245Cm, and measurements that explore the limits of the surrogate technique. The latter study the feasibility of inferring neutron capture cross sections for Cm isotopes, the neutron-induced fission cross section of 238Pu and fission yields and fission probabilities through full Z and A identification in inverse kinematics for isotopes of Pu, Am, Cm and Cf. Finally, four isotopes are studied which are important to improve predictions for delayed neutron precursors and decay heat by total absorption gamma-ray spectrometry (88Br, 94Rb, 95Rb, 137I). The measurements which are performed at state-of-the-art European facilities have the ambition to achieve the lowest possible uncertainty, and to come as close as is reasonably achievable to the target uncertainties established by sensitivity studies. An overview is presented of the activities and achievements, leaving detailed expositions to the various parties contributing to the conference.

  10. 3D Geomodeling of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, B.; Dhont, D.; Hervouet, Y.; Backé, G.; Klarica, S.; Choy, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    The crustal structure of the Venezuelan Andes is investigated thanks to a geomodel. The method integrates surface structural data, remote sensing imagery, crustal scale balanced cross-sections, earthquake locations and focal mechanism solutions to reconstruct fault surfaces at the scale of the mountain belt into a 3D environment. The model proves to be essential for understanding the basic processes of both the orogenic float and the tectonic escape involved in the Plio-Quaternary evolution of the orogen. The reconstruction of the Bocono and Valera faults reveals the 3D shape of the Trujillo block whose geometry can be compared to a boat bow floating over a mid-crustal detachment horizon emerging at the Bocono-Valera triple junction. Motion of the Trujillo block is accompanied by a generalized extension in the upper crust accommodated by normal faults with listric geometries such as for the Motatan, Momboy and Tuñame faults. Extension may be related to the lateral spreading of the upper crust, suggesting that gravity forces play an important role in the escape process.

  11. The first ANDES elements: 9-DOF plate bending triangles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Militello, Carmelo; Felippa, Carlos A.

    1991-01-01

    New elements are derived to validate and assess the assumed natural deviatoric strain (ANDES) formulation. This is a brand new variant of the assumed natural strain (ANS) formulation of finite elements, which has recently attracted attention as an effective method for constructing high-performance elements for linear and nonlinear analysis. The ANDES formulation is based on an extended parametrized variational principle developed in recent publications. The key concept is that only the deviatoric part of the strains is assumed over the element whereas the mean strain part is discarded in favor of a constant stress assumption. Unlike conventional ANS elements, ANDES elements satisfy the individual element test (a stringent form of the patch test) a priori while retaining the favorable distortion-insensitivity properties of ANS elements. The first application of this formulation is the development of several Kirchhoff plate bending triangular elements with the standard nine degrees of freedom. Linear curvature variations are sampled along the three sides with the corners as gage reading points. These sample values are interpolated over the triangle using three schemes. Two schemes merge back to conventional ANS elements, one being identical to the Discrete Kirchhoff Triangle (DKT), whereas the third one produces two new ANDES elements. Numerical experiments indicate that one of the ANDES element is relatively insensitive to distortion compared to previously derived high-performance plate-bending elements, while retaining accuracy for nondistorted elements.

  12. Volcanological evolution of Paniri volcano, Central Andes, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazcano, J.; Godoy, B.; Aguilera, F.; Wilke, H.

    2012-12-01

    San Pedro-Linzor volcanic chain (SPLVC) is located between 21°45'S-22°15'S, in the Recent volcanic arc of Central Andes. This volcanic chain comprises several volcanic edifices and dacitic domes, with a total lenght of ~65 km. Volcanic structures distributed in SPLVC show a NW-SE trending orientation and have been been built over Miocene ignimbrite fields. Paniri volcano (5946 m a.s.l.) is a composite stratovolcano located in SPLVC, and distributes southwards San Pedro - San Pablo volcanic complex, at the northern side of Chao Dacite. In this work, the volcanological evolution of Paniri is presented. This volcanic edifice is constituted by two cones, generated during four stages. The first stage corresponds to the plateau-type stage consituted by extensive andesitic and basaltic-andesite lavas and scoria flows that overlie the ignimbritic basement of the volcano. Over these mafic flows, thick dacitic flows were erupted at the northern, southern and southwestern flank of the volcano. After this stage, the main edifice was constructed, presenting two stages: the Old and the Young Cone. The Old Cone Stage was built on the southern part of the volcano. It is constituted by andesitic-to-dacitic lavas and pyroclastic flows. After that, lavic and pyroclastic flows were erupted north of the Old Cone, generating the Young Cone Stage, corresponding to lavas and pyroclastic flows that overlay the previous Old Cone. Composition of the flows of this stage vary from basaltic-andesite to dacite. An 40Ar/39Ar radiometric measure from an basaltic-andesite lava flow of the Young Cone Stage gave a plateau age of 400±50 ka. Significant dissection by glacial erosion affect southern flank of old cone and diverse parts of young cone, being in the last less pervasive. Frontal and lateral morraines deposits are present in the related glacial valleys. The last stage in the evolution of this volcano corresponds to emision of andesitic flows, with autobreccia textures. These flows reach up

  13. A new hantavirus from the stripe-backed shrew (Sorex cylindricauda) in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shu-Qing; Gong, Zheng-Da; Fang, Li-Qun; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Jiu-Song; Zhao, Qiu-Min; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2014-05-12

    Inspired by the recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses from insectivore species worldwide, we performed a small-scale search for insectivore-borne hantaviruses. In this paper, we report the discovery of a new hantavirus, which was designated the Qian Hu Shan virus (QHSV). This virus was detected in the lung tissues of three stripe-backed shrews (Sorex cylindricauda), which were captured in the Yunnan Province, China. The full-length S genomic segment of the representative QHSV strain YN05-284 was 1661 nucleotides and is predicted to encode a nucleocapsid protein of 429 amino acids that starts at nucleotide position 48. It exhibited the highest similarity with other Sorex-related hantaviruses, with 68.1%-72.8% nucleotide and 71.9%-84.4% amino acid sequence identities. An analysis of a 1430-nucleotide region of the partial M segment exhibited approximately 54.4%-79.5% nucleotide and 43.2%-90.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. A comparison of a 432-nucleotide region of the L segment also showed similar degrees of identity, with 68.9%-78.4% nucleotide and 71.1%-93.8% amino acid sequence identities to other hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses using Bayesian methods indicated that QHSV shared the most recent common ancestor with other Sorex-related hantaviruses. The host was identified using a morphological assessment and verified using mitochondrial cytochrome b (mt-Cyt b) gene sequencing. A pair-wise comparison of the 1140-nucleotide mt-Cyt b gene sequence from the host demonstrated that the host was close to S. cylindricauda from Nepal with 94.3% identity. The virus-host association tanglegram, which was constructed using the Dendroscope software, indicated that the QHSV phylogeny and the host phylogeny were approximately matched, which suggests no evidence of host switching for QHSV. Our results contribute to a wider viewpoint regarding the heterogeneity of viruses that infect shrews.

  14. Maporal viral infection in the Syrian golden hamster: a model of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Molina, Claudia P; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2002-11-15

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe and often fatal rodent-borne zoonosis. Maporal (MAP) virus is a newly discovered hantavirus that originally was isolated from an arboreal rice rat captured in central Venezuela. The results of this study indicate that MAP virus in the Syrian golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) can cause a disease that is clinically and pathologically remarkably similar to HPS. The similarities include the time course of clinical disease, presence of virus-specific IgG at the onset of clinical disease, subacute pneumonitis, rapid onset of diffuse alveolar edema in the absence of necrosis, hepatic-portal triaditis, mononuclear-cellular infiltrate in lung and liver, widespread distribution of hantaviral antigen in endothelial cells of the microvasculature of lung and other tissues, and variable lethality. These similarities suggest that the MAP virus-hamster system is a useful model for studies of the pathogenesis of HPS and for the evaluation of potential therapeutic agents.

  15. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Plyusnina, Angelina; Herbreteau, Vincent; Nemirov, Kirill; Laakkonen, Juha; Lundkvist, Åke; Supputamongkol, Yupin; Henttonen, Heikki; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus. PMID:16953877

  16. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. Possibility of person to person transmission.

    PubMed

    Enría, D; Padula, P; Segura, E L; Pini, N; Edelstein, A; Posse, C R; Weissenbacher, M C

    1996-01-01

    In March 1995 the first case of a familiar outbreak of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) was notified in El Bolson, in the South of Argentina. Until December 15, 1996, a total of 77 cases of HPS had been notified with 48% mortality, distributed in three geographical areas of the country, South, North and Center. During 1996, of the 19 cases from El Bolsón, three were local physicians, one of whom -during the prodrome of her illness- travelled to Buenos Aires to be attended. In the hospital, two of the physicians who assisted her, developed HPS 27 and 28 days after the first contact. These data suggest for the first time the possibility of interhuman transmission of the Hantavirus responsible for the pulmonary syndrome.

  17. Were the English Sweating Sickness and the Picardy Sweat Caused by Hantaviruses?

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Paul; Simons, Leopold; Cochez, Christel

    2014-01-01

    The English sweating sickness caused five devastating epidemics between 1485 and 1551, England was hit hardest, but on one occasion also mainland Europe, with mortality rates between 30% and 50%. The Picardy sweat emerged about 150 years after the English sweat disappeared, in 1718, in France. It caused 196 localized outbreaks and apparently in its turn disappeared in 1861. Both diseases have been the subject of numerous attempts to define their origin, but so far all efforts were in vain. Although both diseases occurred in different time frames and were geographically not overlapping, a common denominator could be what we know today as hantavirus infections. This review aims to shed light on the characteristics of both diseases from contemporary as well as current knowledge and suggests hantavirus infection as the most likely cause for the English sweating sickness as well as for the Picardy sweat. PMID:24402305

  18. Life-long shedding of Puumala hantavirus in wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus).

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Liina; Sironen, Tarja; Tonteri, Elina; Bäck, Anne Tuiskunen; Razzauti, Maria; Karlsson, Malin; Wahlström, Maria; Niemimaa, Jukka; Henttonen, Heikki; Lundkvist, Åke

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of viral shedding patterns and viraemia in the reservoir host species is a key factor in assessing the human risk of zoonotic viruses. The shedding of hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) by their host rodents has widely been studied experimentally, but rarely in natural settings. Here we present the dynamics of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) shedding and viraemia in naturally infected wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In a monthly capture-mark-recapture study, we analysed 18 bank voles for the presence and relative quantity of PUUV RNA in the excreta and blood from 2 months before up to 8 months after seroconversion. The proportion of animals shedding PUUV RNA in saliva, urine and faeces peaked during the first month after seroconversion, but continued throughout the study period with only a slight decline. The quantity of shed PUUV in reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) positive excreta was constant over time. In blood, PUUV RNA was present for up to 7 months but both the probability of viraemia and the virus load declined with time. Our findings contradict the current view of a decline in virus shedding after the acute phase and a short viraemic period in hantavirus infection - an assumption widely adopted in current epidemiological models. We suggest the life-long shedding as a means of hantaviruses to survive over host population bottlenecks, and to disperse in fragmented habitats where local host and/or virus populations face temporary extinctions. Our results indicate that the kinetics of pathogens in wild hosts may differ considerably from those observed in laboratory settings.

  19. Co-circulation of Soricid- and Talpid-borne Hantaviruses in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010–2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0–18.8% and 0–5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1–100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3–100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species coexisting in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses. PMID:25445646

  20. Co-circulation of soricid- and talpid-borne hantaviruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Kang, Hae Ji; Markowski, Marcin; Połatyńska, Małgorzata; Sikorska, Beata; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Previously, we reported the discovery of a genetically distinct hantavirus, designated Boginia virus (BOGV), in the Eurasian water shrew (Neomys fodiens), as well as the detection of Seewis virus (SWSV) in the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), in central Poland. In this expanded study of 133 shrews and 69 moles captured during 2010-2013 in central and southeastern Poland, we demonstrate the co-circulation of BOGV in the Eurasian water shrew and SWSV in the Eurasian common shrew, Eurasian pygmy shrew (Sorex minutus) and Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus). In addition, we found high prevalence of Nova virus (NVAV) infection in the European mole (Talpa europaea), with evidence of NVAV RNA in heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen and intestine. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence variation of the L segment among the SWSV strains was 0-18.8% and 0-5.4%, respectively. And for the 38 NVAV strains from European moles captured in Huta Dłutowska, the L-segment genetic similarity ranged from 94.1%-100% at the nucleotide level and 96.3%-100% at the amino acid level. Phylogenetic analyses showed geographic-specific lineages of SWSV and NVAV in Poland, not unlike that of rodent-borne hantaviruses, suggesting long-standing host-specific adaptation. The co-circulation and distribution of BOGV, SWSV and NVAV in Poland parallels findings of multiple hantavirus species co-existing in their respective rodent reservoir species elsewhere in Europe. Also, the detection of SWSV in three syntopic shrew species resembles spill over events observed among some rodent-borne hantaviruses.

  1. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-20

    that recruit other innate immune cell types to areas of infection and secreting 82 antiviral cytokines. However, activation of AMθ, can also contribute...Hooper JW, Li D. 2001. Vaccines against hantaviruses. Current topics in microbiology and 627 immunology 256:171-191. 628 7. Schmaljohn CSaJWH. 2001...experimental immunology 91:314-319. 658 TR-16-089 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. UNCLASSIFIED 17

  2. Adler hantavirus, a new genetic variant of Tula virus identified in Major's pine voles (Microtus majori) sampled in southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Witkowski, Peter T; Radosa, Lukas; Dzagurova, Tamara K; Okulova, Nataliya M; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Vasilenko, Ludmila; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Malkin, Gennadiy A; Krüger, Detlev H; Klempa, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Although at least 30 novel hantaviruses have been recently discovered in novel hosts such as shrews, moles and even bats, hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are primarily known as rodent-borne human pathogens. Here we report on identification of a novel hantavirus variant associated with a rodent host, Major's pine vole (Microtus majori). Altogether 36 hantavirus PCR-positive Major's pine voles were identified in the Krasnodar region of southern European Russia within the years 2008-2011. Initial partial L-segment sequence analysis revealed novel hantavirus sequences. Moreover, we found a single common vole (Microtusarvalis) infected with Tula virus (TULV). Complete S- and M-segment coding sequences were determined from 11 Major's pine voles originating from 8 trapping sites and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. The data obtained show that Major's pine vole is a newly recognized hantavirus reservoir host. The newfound virus, provisionally called Adler hantavirus (ADLV), is closely related to TULV. Based on amino acid differences to TULV (5.6-8.2% for nucleocapsid protein, 9.4-9.5% for glycoprotein precursor) we propose to consider ADLV as a genotype of TULV. Occurrence of ADLV and TULV in the same region suggests that ADLV is not only a geographical variant of TULV but a host-specific genotype. High intra-cluster nucleotide sequence variability (up to 18%) and geographic clustering indicate long-term presence of the virus in this region.

  3. New York 1 and Sin Nombre Viruses Are Serotypically Distinct Viruses Associated with Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilovskaya, Irina; LaMonica, Rachel; Fay, Mary-Ellen; Hjelle, Brian; Schmaljohn, Connie; Shaw, Robert; Mackow, Erich R.

    1999-01-01

    New York 1 virus (NY-1) and Sin Nombre virus (SN) are associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). NY-1 and SN are derived from unique mammalian hosts and geographic locations but have similar G1 and G2 surface proteins (93 and 97% identical, respectively). Focus reduction neutralization assays were used to define the serotypic relationship between NY-1 and SN. Sera from NY-1-positive Peromyscus leucopus neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of ≥1/3,200 and ≤1/400, respectively (n = 12). Conversely, SN-specific rodent sera neutralized NY-1 and SN at titers of <1/400 and 1/6,400, respectively (n = 13). Acute-phase serum from a New York HPS patient neutralized NY-1 (1/640) but not SN (<1/20), while sera from HPS patients from the southwestern United States had 4- to >16-fold-lower neutralizing titers to NY-1 than to SN. Reference sera to Hantaan, Seoul, and Prospect Hill viruses also failed to neutralize NY-1. These results indicate that SN and NY-1 define unique hantavirus serotypes and implicate the presence of additional HPS-associated hantavirus serotypes in the Americas. PMID:9854075

  4. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change.

  5. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in northwestern Argentina: circulation of Laguna Negra virus associated with Calomys callosus.

    PubMed

    Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pini, Noemí; Calderón, Gladys; Ramírez, Josefina; Bravo, Daniel; St Jeor, Stephen; Ripoll, Carlos; Bego, Mariana; Lozano, Elena; Barquez, Rubén; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Enria, Delia

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the hantaviruses circulating in northwestern Argentina. Human and rodent studies were conducted in Yuto, where most cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) occur. Partial virus genome sequences were obtained from the blood of 12 cases of HPS, and from the lungs of 4 Calomys callosus and 1 Akodon simulator. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three genotypes associated with HPS circulate in Yuto. Laguna Negra (LN) virus, associated with C. laucha in Paraguay, was identified for the first time in Argentina; it was recovered from human cases and from C. callosus samples. The high sequence identity between human and rodent samples implicated C. callosus as the primary rodent reservoir for LN virus in Yuto. The genetic analysis showed that the Argentinian LN virus variant differed 16.8% at the nucleotide level and 2.9% at the protein level relative to the Paraguayan LN virus. The other two hantavirus lineages identified were the previously known Bermejo and Oran viruses.

  6. Hantavirus ecology in rodent populations in three protected areas of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vadell, M V; Bellomo, C; San Martín, A; Padula, P; Gómez Villafañe, I

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we identified hantavirus genotypes and their reservoirs and evaluated the spatial and temporal distribution of the virus in rodent population in three protected areas of Argentina over 3 years (2007-2010). A total of 837 rodents were captured with an effort of 22 117 trap-nights. We detected the genotype Lechiguanas in Oligoryzomys nigripes and O. flavescens and Pergamino in Akodon azarae. There was no correlation between seroprevalence and trap success of the host. The proportion of seropositive males was significantly higher than the proportion of seropositive females. The total length of seropositives was higher than that of seronegatives in each host species. Seropositive individuals were observed in warm months and not in cold months, which suggests an infection cycle. This investigation confirms that protected areas of central east Argentina are places with a variety of sylvan rodents species associated with different hantavirus genotypes where reservoirs are numerically dominant. Although there was more than one known reservoir of hantavirus, only one species had antibodies in each area. This can be explained because the transmission of the virus does need not only the presence of a rodent species but also a threshold density. Longevity of even a small proportion of the host population in cold months may provide a trans-seasonal mechanism for virus persistence. The seroprevalence detected was higher than the one found before in rodent populations of Argentina, and this explains the appearance of human cases in two of these three areas.

  7. A Habitat-Based Model for the Spread of Hantavirus Between Reservoir and Spillover Species

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Linda J. S.; Wesley, Curtis L.; Owen, Robert D.; Goodin, Douglas G.; Koch, David; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Chu, Yong-Kyu; Shawn Hutchinson, J. M.; Paige, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    New habitat-based models for spread of hantavirus are developed which account for interspecies interaction. Existing habitat-based models do not consider interspecies pathogen transmission, a primary route for emergence of new infectious diseases and reservoirs in wildlife and man. The modeling of interspecies transmission has the potential to provide more accurate predictions of disease persistence and emergence dynamics. The new models are motivated by our recent work on hantavirus in rodent communities in Paraguay. Our Paraguayan data illustrate the spatial and temporal overlap among rodent species, one of which is the reservoir species for Jabora virus and others which are spillover species. Disease transmission occurs when their habitats overlap. Two mathematical models, a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) and a continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model, are developed for spread of hantavirus between a reservoir and a spillover species. Analysis of a special case of the ODE model provides an explicit expression for the basic reproduction number, ℛ0, such that if ℛ0 < 1, then the pathogen does not persist in either population but if ℛ0 > 1, pathogen outbreaks or persistence may occur. Numerical simulations of the CTMC model display sporadic disease incidence, a new behavior of our habitat-based model, not present in other models, but which is a prominent feature of the seroprevalence data from Paraguay. Environmental changes that result in greater habitat overlap result in more encounters among various species that may lead to pathogen outbreaks and pathogen establishment in a new host. PMID:19616014

  8. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus coinfection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. Clinical findings: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. Diagnoses: A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. Interventions: After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. Outcomes: A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Conclusion: Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered. PMID:27930572

  9. Laguna Negra Virus Infection Causes Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in Turkish Hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti).

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, K; Scott, D; Safronetz, D; Brining, D L; Ebihara, H; Feldmann, H; LaCasse, R A

    2016-01-01

    Laguna Negra virus (LNV) is a New World hantavirus associated with severe and often fatal cardiopulmonary disease in humans, known as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). Five hamster species were evaluated for clinical and serologic responses following inoculation with 4 hantaviruses. Of the 5 hamster species, only Turkish hamsters infected with LNV demonstrated signs consistent with HPS and a fatality rate of 43%. Clinical manifestations in infected animals that succumbed to disease included severe and rapid onset of dyspnea, weight loss, leukopenia, and reduced thrombocyte numbers as compared to uninfected controls. Histopathologic examination revealed lung lesions that resemble the hallmarks of HPS in humans, including interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary edema, as well as generalized infection of endothelial cells and macrophages in major organ tissues. Histologic lesions corresponded to the presence of viral antigen in affected tissues. To date, there have been no small animal models available to study LNV infection and pathogenesis. The Turkish hamster model of LNV infection may be important in the study of LNV-induced HPS pathogenesis and development of disease treatment and prevention strategies.

  10. Responses of small mammals to habitat fragmentation: epidemiological considerations for rodent-borne hantaviruses in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Rubio, André V; Ávila-Flores, Rafael; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Rodent-borne hantaviruses are a group of zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fever in humans. The transmission of hantaviruses among rodent hosts may be higher with the increase of reservoir host abundance in a given area (density-dependent transmission) and with the decrease of small mammal diversity (dilution effect phenomenon). These population and community parameters may be modified by habitat fragmentation; however, studies that focus on fragmentation and its effect on hantavirus infection risk are scarce. To further understanding of this issue, we assessed some population and community responses of rodents that may increase the risk for hantavirus transmission among wildlife hosts in the Americas. We conducted a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the responses of small mammals to fragmentation of native habitats, relative to patch size. Our analyses included five countries and 14 case studies for abundance of reservoir hosts (8 species) and 15 case studies for species richness. We found that a reduction of patch area due to habitat fragmentation is associated with increased reservoir host abundances and decreased small mammal richness, which is mainly due to the loss of non-host small mammals. According to these results, habitat fragmentation in the Americas should be considered as an epidemiological risk factor for hantavirus transmission to humans. These findings are important to assess potential risk of infection when fragmentation of native habitats occurs.

  11. Dynamic Circulation and Genetic Exchange of a Shrew-borne Hantavirus, Imjin virus, in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Ho; Kim, Won-Keun; No, Jin Sun; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Jin Il; Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Heung-Chul; Klein, Terry A.; Park, Man-Seong; Song, Jin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae) are enveloped negative-sense tripartite RNA viruses. The natural hosts of hantaviruses include rodents, shrews, moles, and bats. Imjin virus (MJNV) is a shrew-borne hantavirus identified from the Ussuri white-toothed shrews (Crocidura lasiura) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and China. We have isolated MJNV and determined its prevalence and molecular diversity in Gyeonggi province, ROK. However, the distribution and phylogeography of MJNV in other regions of ROK remain unknown. A total of 96 C. lasiura were captured from Gangwon and Gyeonggi provinces, ROK, during 2011–2014. Among them, four (4.2%) shrews were positive for anti-MJNV IgG and MJNV RNA was detected from nine (9.4%), respectively. Based on the prevalence of MJNV RNA, the preponderance of infected shrews was male and adult, consistent with the gender- and weight-specific prevalence of hantaviruses in other species. We monitored the viral load of MJNV RNA in various tissues of shrews, which would reflect the dynamic infectious status and circulation of MJNV in nature. Our phylogeographic and genomic characterization of MJNV suggested natural occurrences of recombination and reassortment in the virus population. Thus, these findings provide significant insights into the epidemiology, phylogeographic diversity, and dynamic circulation and evolution of shrew-borne hantaviruses. PMID:28295052

  12. A longitudinal study of hantavirus infection in three sympatric reservoir species in agroecosystems on the Argentine Pampa.

    PubMed

    Mills, James N; Schmidt, Karina; Ellis, Barbara A; Calderón, Gladys; Enría, Delia A; Ksiazek, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    Prevalence of antibody reactive with Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV) was evaluated from rodents captured over 31 months (March 1988 to September 1990) from six mark-recapture grids on the central Argentine Pampa. The most frequently infected rodents were: Akodon azarae (31/459), Necromys benefactus (8/141), and Oligoryzomys flavescens (10/281), which are known hosts of Pergamino, Maciel, and Lechiguanas hantaviruses, respectively. Relative population density and antibody prevalence varied seasonally and from year to year, population densities were highest in fall and prevalences were highest in spring. A positive association between antibody prevalence and body weight corroborated findings from other studies suggesting that hantaviruses are maintained in reservoir populations by horizontal transmission. In two of three host species, transmission was more frequent among male than among female mice. We found no evidence for a detrimental effect of hantavirus infection on host body weight, growth, longevity, movement, or reproductive preparedness. This analysis, based on cryopreserved specimens, represents the earliest conducted longitudinal, mark-recapture study of the dynamics of infection of autochthonous American hantaviruses in their sigmodontine host populations.

  13. Human Puumala and Dobrava Hantavirus Infections in the Black Sea Region of Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kalaycioglu, Handan; Uyar, Yavuz; Sevindi, Demet Furkan; Turkyilmaz, Bedia; Çakir, Vedat; Cindemir, Cengiz; Unal, Belgin; Yağçi-Çağlayik, Dilek; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Ertek, Mustafa; Heyman, Paul; Lundkvist, Åke

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to better understand the epidemiology of hantaviruses in a province of Turkey (Giresun) where human hantavirus disease has recently been detected. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 626 blood samples from healthy people aged 15 and 84 years old were collected both in urban and rural areas in 2009. The sera were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), immunoblotting assay, and the focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). We screened the samples by an ELISA and found that 65/626 samples reacted positively for the presence of hantavirus-reactive immunoglobulin G (IgG). Twenty of the 65 ELISA-positive samples could be confirmed by an immunobloting assay, and the overall seroprevalence was thereby calculated to 3.2% (20/626). The seroprevalence of the people living in wood areas or adobe houses 9/17 (52.9%) was significantly higher than among people living in concrete houses 10/47 (21.3%) (p=0.014). Finally, 3 of the 20 immunoblot-positive sera were confirmed as specific for the Puumala hantavirus serotype by FRNT, 1 serum was confirmed as Dobrava virus-specific, whereas 1 serum was found to be equally reactive to Dobrava and Saaremaa viruses. We will now focus on further investigations of the ecology and epidemiology of hantaviruses in humans and their carrier animals in Turkey, studies that have already been started and will be further intensified. PMID:23289396

  14. Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Won; Kang, Hae Ji; Gu, Se Hun; Moon, Sung Sil; Bennett, Shannon N; Song, Ki-Joon; Baek, Luck Ju; Kim, Heung-Chul; O'Guinn, Monica L; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Yanagihara, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews' clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.

  15. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-02-19

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80-120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans.

  16. Identification of hantavirus infection by Western blot assay and TaqMan PCR in patients hospitalized with acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Oldal, Miklós; Németh, Viktória; Madai, Mónika; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Péterfi, Zoltán; Sebők, Judit; Wittmann, István; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2014-06-01

    Hantaviruses, one of the causative agents of viral hemorrhagic fevers, represent a considerable healthcare threat. In Hungary, Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) and Puumala virus (PUUV) are the main circulating hantavirus species, responsible for the clinical picture known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, a disease that may be accompanied by acute kidney injury (AKI), requiring hospitalization with occasionally prolonged recovery phase. A total of 20 patient sera were collected over a 2-year period from persons hospitalized with AKI, displaying clinical signs and laboratory findings directly suggestive for hantavirus infection. Samples were tested using an immunoblot assay, based on complete viral nucleocapsid proteins to detect patients' IgM and IgG antibodies against DOBV and PUUV. In parallel, all specimens were also tested by 1-step real-time TaqMan reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to confirm infection and to determine the causative hantavirus genotype. We present here the first Hungarian clinical study spanning across 2 years and dedicated specifically to assess acute kidney injuries, in the context of hantavirus prevalence.

  17. Molecular phylogeny of hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats in Côte d'Ivoire and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Lim, Burton K; Kadjo, Blaise; Arai, Satoru; Kim, Jeong-Ah; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Denys, Christiane; Cook, Joseph A; Dominguez, Samuel R; Holmes, Kathryn V; Urushadze, Lela; Sidamonidze, Ketevan; Putkaradze, Davit; Kuzmin, Ivan V; Kosoy, Michael Y; Song, Jin-Won; Yanagihara, Richard

    2014-04-29

    The recent discovery of genetically distinct hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews and moles prompted a further exploration of their host diversification by analyzing frozen, ethanol-fixed and RNAlater®-preserved archival tissues and fecal samples from 533 bats (representing seven families, 28 genera and 53 species in the order Chiroptera), captured in Asia, Africa and the Americas in 1981-2012, using RT-PCR. Hantavirus RNA was detected in Pomona roundleaf bats (Hipposideros pomona) (family Hipposideridae), captured in Vietnam in 1997 and 1999, and in banana pipistrelles (Neoromicia nanus) (family Vespertilionidae), captured in Côte d'Ivoire in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis, based on the full-length S- and partial M- and L-segment sequences using maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, demonstrated that the newfound hantaviruses formed highly divergent lineages, comprising other recently recognized bat-borne hantaviruses in Sierra Leone and China. The detection of bat-associated hantaviruses opens a new era in hantavirology and provides insights into their evolutionary origins.

  18. Isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent lineage of hantavirus from the European mole (Talpa europaea)

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Kumar, Mukesh; Sikorska, Beata; Hejduk, Janusz; Markowski, Janusz; Markowski, Marcin; Liberski, Paweł P.; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Genetically distinct hantaviruses have been identified in five species of fossorial moles (order Eulipotyphla, family Talpidae) from Eurasia and North America. Here, we report the isolation and partial characterization of a highly divergent hantavirus, named Nova virus (NVAV), from lung tissue of a European mole (Talpa europaea), captured in central Poland in August 2013. Typical hantavirus-like particles, measuring 80–120 nm in diameter, were found in NVAV-infected Vero E6 cells by transmission electron microscopy. Whole-genome sequences of the isolate, designated NVAV strain Te34, were identical to that amplified from the original lung tissue, and phylogenetic analysis of the full-length L, M and S segments, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that NVAV was most closely related to hantaviruses harbored by insectivorous bats, consistent with an ancient evolutionary origin. Infant Swiss Webster mice, inoculated with NVAV by the intraperitoneal route, developed weight loss and hyperactivity, beginning at 16 days, followed by hind-limb paralysis and death. High NVAV RNA copies were detected in lung, liver, kidney, spleen and brain by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Neuropathological examination showed astrocytic and microglial activation and neuronal loss. The first mole-borne hantavirus isolate will facilitate long-overdue studies on its infectivity and pathogenic potential in humans. PMID:26892544

  19. Eccentricity-driven fluvial fill terrace formation in the southern-central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Savi, Sara; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Schildgen, Taylor F.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, fill-terrace formation in glaciated catchments has been linked to variable sediment production and river discharge over glacial-interglacial cycles. Little is known, however, how variability in global climate may have affected rainfall patterns and associated surface-processes on multi-millennial timescales in regions far from major glaciers and ice sheets, and how those changes might be reflected in the landscape. Here, we investigate the timing of fluvial fill terrace planation and abandonment in the Quebrada del Toro, an intermontane basin located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina. Fluvial fills in the valley reach more than 150 m above the current river level. Sculpted into the fills, we observe at least 5 terrace levels with pronounced differences in their extent and preservation. We sampled four TCN (in situ 10Be) depth profiles to date the abandonment of the most extensive terrace surfaces in locations, where subsequent overprint by erosion and deposition was not pronounced. We interpret unexpectedly low 10Be concentrations at shallow depths and surface samples to be related to aeolian input, causing surface inflation. Correcting the depth profiles for inflation results in a reduction of the terrace surface ages by up to 70 ka. The inflation-corrected ages fall within the late Pleistocene (~140 - 370 ka) and suggest a potential link to orbital eccentricity (~100 ka) cycles. The studied fills in the Toro Basin document successive episodes of incision, punctuated by periods of lateral planation and possible partial re-filling. We propose climate cycles as a potentially-dominant factor in forming these terraces. To our knowledge, none of the previously studied fluvial terraces in the Andes date back more than 2 glacial cycles, thus making the Quebrada del Toro an important archive of paleoenvironmental conditions over longer timescales.

  20. Using Geographic Information System-based Ecologic Niche Models to Forecast the Risk of Hantavirus Infection in Shandong Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Lan; Qian, Quan; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Glass, Gregory E.; Song, Shao-Xia; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Li, Xiu-Jun; Yang, Hong; Wang, Xian-Jun; Fang, Li-Qun; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is an important public health problem in Shandong Province, China. In this study, we combined ecologic niche modeling with geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing techniques to identify the risk factors and affected areas of hantavirus infections in rodent hosts. Land cover and elevation were found to be closely associated with the presence of hantavirus-infected rodent hosts. The averaged area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.864, implying good performance. The predicted risk maps based on the model were validated both by the hantavirus-infected rodents' distribution and HFRS human case localities with a good fit. These findings have the applications for targeting control and prevention efforts. PMID:21363991

  1. Reflections on Andes' Goal-Free User Interface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Although the Andes project produced many results over its 18 years of activity, this commentary focuses on its contributions to understanding how a goal-free user interface impacts the overall design and performance of a step-based tutoring system. Whereas a goal-aligned user interface displays relevant goals as blank boxes or empty locations that…

  2. Confirmation of Choclo Virus as the Cause of Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome and high serum antibody prevalence in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Randin; Cañate, Raul; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Dragoo, Jerry W.; Armien, Blas; Armien, Anibal G.; Koster, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Choclo virus (CHOV) was described in sigmodontine rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, and humans during an outbreak of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in 1999 to 2000 in western Panama. Although HCPS is rare, hantavirus-specific serum antibody prevalence among the general population is high suggesting that CHOV may cause many mild or asymptomatic infections. The goals of this study were to confirm the role of CHOV in HCPS and in the frequently detected serum antibody and to established the phylogenetic relationship with other New World hantaviruses. CHOV was cultured to facilitate the sequencing of the small (S) and medium (M) segments and to perform CHOV-specific serum neutralization antibody assays. Sequences of the S and M segments found a close relationship to other Oligoryzomys-borne hantaviruses in the Americas, highly conserved terminal nucleotides, and no evidence for recombination events. The maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony analyses of complete M segment nucleotide sequences indicate a close relationship to Maporal and Laguna Negra viruses, found at the base of the South American clade. In a focus neutralization assay acute and convalescent sera from 6 Panamanian HCPS patients neutralized CHOV in dilutions from 1:200 to 1:6400. In a sample of antibody-positive adults without a history of HCPS, 9 of 10 sera neutralized CHOV in dilutions ranging from 1:100 to 1:6400. Although cross-neutralization with other sympatric hantaviruses not yet associated with human disease is possible, CHOV appears to be the causal agent for most of the mild or asymptomatic hantavirus infections, as well as HCPS, in Panama. PMID:20648614

  3. Lithospheric scale model of Merida Andes, Venezuela (GIAME Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, M.; Orihuela, N. D.; Klarica, S.; Gil, E.; Levander, A.; Audemard, F. A.; Mazuera, F.; Avila, J.

    2013-05-01

    Merida Andes (MA) is one of the most important orogenic belt in Venezuela and represents the northern culmination of South America Andes. During the last 60 years, several models have been proposed to explain the shallow and deep structure, using different geological, geophysical, seismological, geochemical and petrologic concepts; nevertheless, most of them have applied local observation windows, and do not represent the major structure of MA. Therefore, a multidisciplinary research group, coordinated by FUNVISIS, in close cooperation with UCV, ULA and PDVSA, is proposed in order to get the outlined goals in the project entitled GIAME ("Geociencia Integral de los Andes de MErida") was established, which aims to generate a lithospheric scale model and the development of a temporal dynamic model for the MA. As a base for lithospheric investigations of the Merida Andes, we are proposing three wide angle seismic profiles across the orogen on three representative sites, in order to determine the inner structure and its relation with the orogen's gravimetric root. To the date, there are no seismic studies at lithospheric scale which cross MA. The wide angle seismic will be complemented with the re-processing and re-interpretation of existing reflection seismic data, which will allow to establish a relationship between MA and its associated flexural basins (Maracaibo and Barinas-Apure basins). Depending on the results of the VENCORP Project (VENezuelan COntinental Reflection Profiling), which might show some reliable results about crustal features and Moho reflectors along three long seismic profiles at Caribbean Moutain system, a reflection seismic profile across the central portion of MA is proposed. Additional tasks, consisting in MA quaternary deformation studies, using research methods like neotectonics and paleoseismology, georadar, numerical modeling, cinematic GPS, SAR interferometry, thermocronology, detailed studies on regional geology, flexural modeling

  4. Hantavirus testing in rodents of north-central New Mexico 1993-1995

    SciTech Connect

    Biggs, J.; Bennett, K.; Salisbury, M.

    1996-03-01

    In 1993, an outbreak of a new strain of hantavirus in the southwestern US indicated that deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the primary carrier of the virus. In 1993, 1994, and 1995 the Ecological Studies Team (EST) at Los Alamos National Laboratory surveyed small mammal populations using live capture-recapture methods in Los Alamos County, New Mexico, to determine seroprevalence of hantavirus in this region. EST used trapping grids in 1993 and 1994 and used trapping webs in 1995. Grids were 120 m x 120 m (400 ft x 400 ft) with 144 trap stations at each grid. Three webs consisting of 148 traps each were used in 1995. Trapping took place over 4 to 8 consecutive nights. Programs CAPTURE and Distance were used to determine density estimates for grids and webs, respectively. Blood samples were analyzed in 1993 by the Centers for Disease Control and the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The 1994 and 1995 samples were analyzed by the University of New Mexico, School of Medicine. The deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) was the most commonly captured species at all locations except one site where voles (Microtus spp.) were the most commonly captured species. Other species sampled included: harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), woodrats (Neotoma spp.), shrews (Sorex spp.), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii), and brush mouse (Peromyscus boylii). Results of the 1993, 1994, and 1995 testing identified a total overall seroprevalence rate among deer mice of approximately 5.5%, 4.2%, and 0%, respectively. Several other species tested positive for the hantavirus but it is uncertain if it is Sin Nombre virus. Further studies will be necessary to quantify seroprevalence rates in those species. Higher seroprevalence rates were found in males than females. Seroprevalence rates for Los Alamos County were much lower than elsewhere in the region.

  5. Hantavirus infection during a stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Zelena, Hana; Zvolankova, Vlasta; Zuchnicka, Jana; Liszkova, Katerina; Papa, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Hantaviruses in Europe cause human hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) with various degree of severity. The most severe form is caused by the Dobrava/Belgrade virus (DOBV), associated with the rodent Apodemus flavicollis. During the last decade cases of infection caused by DOBV have been reported in Central Europe. The present study is a report on two Czech patients with severe HFRS who were infected during their stay in a mountain hut in Northern Slovakia. The two patients, combined with a third case observed in the same year in a nearby village in the Czech Republic, suggest that this region in Central Europe has to be considered as endemic for HFRS.

  6. Calcite Twin Analysis in the Central Andes of Northern Argentina and Southern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardesty, E.; Hindle, D.

    2005-12-01

    The use of calcite twinning to infer compression directions and strain axes patterns has been applied widely in both fold and thrust belts, and continental interiors. Calcite twinning is noted to be one of the most precise methods for determining the internal strain of deformed rocks. Until now, such data from the deformed plate boundary of the Central Andes were lacking. This study has examined twinning orientations along the deformed Andean foreland (southern Bolivia and northern Argentina) from -25 to -20 latitude. In the Central Andes, we find an abundance of calcite twins in intervals of the Cretaceous age Yacorite limestone. Twin samples were collected, measured for orientation and type (I and II can be best used for strain analysis), and processed using the Groshong method, to give resultant strain tensors. The orientations of the twin short axes trend mostly NE-SW, which is close to the plate convergence direction. However, in a limited number of samples from the north, adjacent to the southern culmination of the active Subandean fold thrust belt, they trend NW-SE. This difference may be related to the more active, or more recent, shortening of the southern portion of the Eastern Cordillera, south of the culmination of the Subandean belt. This implies that twin short axes vary consistently with respect to geographic location and local tectonic regime. NW-SE trends in the northern region match well with fault kinematic studies in rocks pre-dating the San Juan del Oro unconformity (9-10 Ma). NE-SW trends in the south could correspond to much younger (~1-3 Ma) fault kinematic trends. In the Eastern Cordillera, where there is present day tectonic activity, the plunges of the twin short axes are found to be almost horizontal. This suggests that the twins were formed after folding occurred.

  7. More novel hantaviruses and diversifying reservoir hosts--time for development of reservoir-derived cell culture models?

    PubMed

    Eckerle, Isabella; Lenk, Matthias; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2014-02-26

    Due to novel, improved and high-throughput detection methods, there is a plethora of newly identified viruses within the genus Hantavirus. Furthermore, reservoir host species are increasingly recognized besides representatives of the order Rodentia, now including members of the mammalian orders Soricomorpha/Eulipotyphla and Chiroptera. Despite the great interest created by emerging zoonotic viruses, there is still a gross lack of in vitro models, which reflect the exclusive host adaptation of most zoonotic viruses. The usually narrow host range and genetic diversity of hantaviruses make them an exciting candidate for studying virus-host interactions on a cellular level. To do so, well-characterized reservoir cell lines covering a wide range of bat, insectivore and rodent species are essential. Most currently available cell culture models display a heterologous virus-host relationship and are therefore only of limited value. Here, we review the recently established approaches to generate reservoir-derived cell culture models for the in vitro study of virus-host interactions. These successfully used model systems almost exclusively originate from bats and bat-borne viruses other than hantaviruses. Therefore we propose a parallel approach for research on rodent- and insectivore-borne hantaviruses, taking the generation of novel rodent and insectivore cell lines from wildlife species into account. These cell lines would be also valuable for studies on further rodent-borne viruses, such as orthopox- and arenaviruses.

  8. Genetic variants of Cao Bang hantavirus in the Chinese mole shrew (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrew (Anourosorex yamashinai).

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Arai, Satoru; Yu, Hon-Tsen; Lim, Burton K; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

    2016-06-01

    To determine the genetic diversity and geographic distribution of Cao Bang virus (CBNV) and to ascertain the existence of CBNV-related hantaviruses, natural history collections of archival tissues from Chinese mole shrews (Anourosorex squamipes) and Taiwanese mole shrews (Anourosorex yamashinai), captured in Guizho Province, People's Republic of China, and in Nantou County, Taiwan, in 2006 and 1989, respectively, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by RT-PCR. Pair-wise alignment and comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment sequences indicated CBNV in two of five Chinese mole shrews and a previously unrecognized hantavirus, named Xinyi virus (XYIV), in seven of 15 Taiwanese mole shrews. XYIV was closely related to CBNV in Vietnam and China, as well as to Lianghe virus (LHEV), recently reported as a distinct hantavirus species in Chinese mole shrews from Yunnan Province in China. Phylogenetic analyses, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, showed that XYIV shared a common ancestry with CBNV and LHEV, in keeping with the evolutionary relationship between Anourosorex mole shrews. Until such time that tissue culture isolates of CBNV, LHEV and XYIV can be fully analyzed, XYIV and LHEV should be regarded as genetic variants, or genotypes, of CBNV.

  9. Synchronous interhemispheric Holocene climate trends in the tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Polissar, Pratigya J; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Vuille, Mathias; Bezada, Maximiliano

    2013-09-03

    Holocene variations of tropical moisture balance have been ascribed to orbitally forced changes in solar insolation. If this model is correct, millennial-scale climate evolution should be antiphased between the northern and southern hemispheres, producing humid intervals in one hemisphere matched to aridity in the other. Here we show that Holocene climate trends were largely synchronous and in the same direction in the northern and southern hemisphere outer-tropical Andes, providing little support for the dominant role of insolation forcing in these regions. Today, sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean modulate rainfall variability in the outer tropical Andes of both hemispheres, and we suggest that this mechanism was pervasive throughout the Holocene. Our findings imply that oceanic forcing plays a larger role in regional South American climate than previously suspected, and that Pacific sea-surface temperatures have the capacity to induce abrupt and sustained shifts in Andean climate.

  10. Synchronous interhemispheric Holocene climate trends in the tropical Andes

    PubMed Central

    Polissar, Pratigya J.; Abbott, Mark B.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Vuille, Mathias; Bezada, Maximiliano

    2013-01-01

    Holocene variations of tropical moisture balance have been ascribed to orbitally forced changes in solar insolation. If this model is correct, millennial-scale climate evolution should be antiphased between the northern and southern hemispheres, producing humid intervals in one hemisphere matched to aridity in the other. Here we show that Holocene climate trends were largely synchronous and in the same direction in the northern and southern hemisphere outer-tropical Andes, providing little support for the dominant role of insolation forcing in these regions. Today, sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean modulate rainfall variability in the outer tropical Andes of both hemispheres, and we suggest that this mechanism was pervasive throughout the Holocene. Our findings imply that oceanic forcing plays a larger role in regional South American climate than previously suspected, and that Pacific sea-surface temperatures have the capacity to induce abrupt and sustained shifts in Andean climate. PMID:23959896

  11. Glacier shrinkage and water resources in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francou, Bernard; Coudrain, Anne

    For more than a century glaciers around the world have been melting as air temperatures rise due to a combination of natural processes and human activity. The disappearance of these glaciers can have wide-ranging effects, such as the creation of new natural hazards or changes in stream flow that could threaten water suppliesSome of the most dramatic melting has occurred in the Andes mountain range in South America. To highlight the climatic and glacial change in the Andes and to encourage the scientific community to strengthen the glacier observation network that stretches from Colombia to the Patagonian ice fields, the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Perú, and the Institute of Research and Development (IRD), France, recently organized the second Symposium on Mass Balance of Andean Glaciers in Huaráz,Perú.

  12. Crustal-thickness variations in the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George; Myers, Stephen C.; Wallace, Terry C.; Silver, Paul G.; Drake, Lawrence

    1996-05-01

    We estimated the crustal thickness along an east-west transect across the Andes at lat 20°S and along a north-south transect along the eastern edge of the Altiplano from data recorded on two arrays of portable broadband seismic stations (BANJO and SEDA). Waveforms of deep regional events in the downgoing Nazca slab and teleseismic earthquakes were processed to isolate the P-to-S converted phases from the Moho in order to compute the crustal thickness. We found crustal-thickness variations of nearly 40 km across the Andes. Maximum crustal thicknesses of 70 74 km under the Western Cordillera and the Eastern Cordillera thin to 32 38 km 200 km east of the Andes in the Chaco Plain. The central Altiplano at 20°S has crustal thicknesses of 60 to 65 km. The crust also appears to thicken from north (16°S, 55 60 km) to south (20°S, 70 74 km) along the Eastern Cordillera. The Subandean zone crust has intermediate thicknesses of 43 to 47 km. Crustal-thickness predictions for the Andes based on Airy-type isostatic behavior show remarkable overall correlation with observed crustal thickness in the regions of high elevation. In contrast, at the boundary between the Eastern Cordillera and the Subandean zone and in the Chaco Plain, the crust is thinner than predicted, suggesting that the crust in these regions is supported in part by the flexural rigidity of a strong lithosphere. With additional constraints, we conclude that the observation of Airy-type isostasy is consistent with thickening associated with compressional shortening of a weak lithosphere squeezed between the stronger lithosphere of the subducting Nazca plate and the cratonic lithosphere of the Brazilian craton.

  13. Synthetic Seismogram Study of the Eastern Central Andes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    gaps located in the coupling zone of the Nazca and the South American plates. The above-mentioned earthquakes were here used to generate the...the limits of gaps located in the coupling zone of the Nazca and the South American plates. The above-mentioned earthquakes were here used to generate...surrounding areas. RESEARCH PERFORMED The area of study is located in the Eastern Central Andes, in the region where the Nazca Plate subducts at 300

  14. Crustal-thickness variations in the central Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, S.L.; Myers, S.C.; Wallace, T.C.; Zandt, G. |; Silver, P.G.; Drake, L.

    1996-05-01

    We estimated the crustal thickness along an east-west transect across the Andes at lat 20{degree}S and along a north-south transect along the eastern edge of the Altiplano from data recorded on two arrays of portable broadband seismic stations (BANJO and SEDA). We found crustal-thickness variations of nearly 40 km across the Andes. Maximum crustal thicknesses of 70-74 km under the Western Cordillera and the Eastern Cordillera thin to 32-38 km 200 km east of the Andes in the Chaco Plain. The central Altiplano at 20{degree}S has crustal thicknesses of 60 to 65 km. The crust also appears to thicken from north (16{degree}S, 55-60 km) to south (20{degree}S, 70-74 km) along the Eastern Cordillera. The Subandean zone crust has intermediate thicknesses of 43 to 47 km. Crustal-thickness predictions for the Andes based on Airy-type isostatic behavior show remarkable overall correlation with observed crustal thickness in the regions of high elevation. In contrast, at the boundary between the Eastern Cordillera and the Subandean zone and in the Chaco Plain, the crust is thinner than predicted, suggesting that the crust in these regions is supported in part by the flexural rigidity of a strong lithosphere. With additional constraints, we conclude that the observation of Airy-type isostasy is consistent with thickening associated with compressional shortening of a weak lithosphere squeezed between the stronger lithosphere of the subducting Nazca plate and the cratonic lithosphere of the Brazilian craton. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Amplified warming at high elevation in the tropical Andes? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuille, M. F.; Buytaert, W.; Zulkafli, Z.; Franquist, E.

    2013-12-01

    Theoretical and modeling studies suggest that adjustment of the moist-adiabatic lapse rate due to continued greenhouse gas radiative forcing will lead to accelerated warming of tropical high-elevation mountain regions in the 21st century. The scarcity of observational data at high-elevation sites in the tropics, however, has complicated the unambiguous detection and potential attribution of such a warming signal. Here we will focus on the tropical Andes, where such an enhanced warming is of special concern, given the important ecosystem services provided by wetlands and glaciers, both being very sensitive to enhanced warming and resulting changes in evaporation, melt rates, snow-rain ratios, etc. This presentation will review the potential of various feedbacks, such as snow-albedo feedback, water vapor feedback, lapse rate feedback and others to produce differential warming rates at different elevations in the Andes. These theoretical considerations will then be compared with the latest available observational and modeling results regarding evidence (or lack thereof) for enhanced warming at high elevation sites. Our analysis relies on an updated database of more than 850 stations from different elevations along the Andes, complemented by projections for several representative concentration pathways (RCP's) from the CMIP5 multi-model ensemble.

  16. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Joseph W.; Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Mucker, Eric M.; Brocato, Rebecca L.

    2015-01-01

    Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF) and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs. PMID:26266264

  17. Animal Models for the Study of Rodent-Borne Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses: Arenaviruses and Hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Golden, Joseph W; Hammerbeck, Christopher D; Mucker, Eric M; Brocato, Rebecca L

    2015-01-01

    Human pathogenic hantaviruses and arenaviruses are maintained in nature by persistent infection of rodent carrier populations. Several members of these virus groups can cause significant disease in humans that is generically termed viral hemorrhagic fever (HF) and is characterized as a febrile illness with an increased propensity to cause acute inflammation. Human interaction with rodent carrier populations leads to infection. Arenaviruses are also viewed as potential biological weapons threat agents. There is an increased interest in studying these viruses in animal models to gain a deeper understating not only of viral pathogenesis, but also for the evaluation of medical countermeasures (MCM) to mitigate disease threats. In this review, we examine current knowledge regarding animal models employed in the study of these viruses. We include analysis of infection models in natural reservoirs and also discuss the impact of strain heterogeneity on the susceptibility of animals to infection. This information should provide a comprehensive reference for those interested in the study of arenaviruses and hantaviruses not only for MCM development but also in the study of viral pathogenesis and the biology of these viruses in their natural reservoirs.

  18. Puumala virus infection in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) resembling hantavirus infection in natural rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Nagata, Noriyo; Tanikawa, Yoichi; Seto, Takahiro; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2011-09-01

    The mechanism of hantavirus persistent infection in natural hosts is poorly understood due to a lack of laboratory animal models. Herein, we report that Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Puumala virus (PUUV) at 4 weeks old show persistent infection without clinical symptoms for more than 2 months. IgG and IgM antibodies against the viral nucleocapsid protein and neutralizing antibody were first detectable at 14 days postinoculation (dpi) and maintained through 70 dpi. Viral RNA was first detected from 3 dpi in lungs and blood clots, and was detected in all tissues tested at 7 dpi. The viral RNA persisted for at least 70 days in the lungs, kidney, spleen, heart, and brain. The highest level of RNA copies was observed at 14 dpi in the lungs. Slight inflammatory reactions were observed in the lungs, adrenal glands, and brain. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PUUV antigen persisted until 56 dpi in the kidneys and adrenal glands. Infected hamsters showed no body weight loss or clinical signs. These results indicate that PUUV infection in hamsters is quite similar to the hantavirus infection of natural host rodents.

  19. Maternal antibodies contribute to sex-based difference in hantavirus transmission dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Eva R.; Henttonen, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Lundkvist, Åke; Mappes, Tapio; Vapalahti, Olli

    2013-01-01

    Individuals often differ in their ability to transmit disease and identifying key individuals for transmission is a major issue in epidemiology. Male hosts are often thought to be more important than females for parasite transmission and persistence. However, the role of infectious females, particularly the transient immunity provided to offspring through maternal antibodies (MatAbs), has been neglected in discussions about sex-biased infection transmission. We examined the effect of host sex upon infection dynamics of zoonotic Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) in semi-natural, experimental populations of bank vole (Myodes glareolus). Populations were founded with either females or males that were infected with PUUV, whereas the other sex was immunized against PUUV infection. The likelihood of the next generation being infected was lower when the infected founders were females, underlying the putative importance of adult males in PUUV transmission and persistence in host populations. However, we show that this effect probably results from transient immunity that infected females provide to their offspring, rather than any sex-biased transmission efficiency per se. Our study proposes a potential contrasting nature of female and male hosts in the transmission dynamics of hantaviruses. PMID:24352416

  20. Production of hantavirus Puumala nucleocapsid protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for vaccine and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Antoniukas, L; Grammel, H; Reichl, U

    2006-07-13

    The production of hantavirus Puumala nucleocapsid (N) protein for potential applications as a vaccine and for diagnostic purposes was investigated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a recombinant host. The N protein gene and the hexahistidine tagged N (h-N) protein gene were expressed intracellular from a 2-microm plasmid vectors under the control of a fused galactose inducible GAL10-PYK promoter. For monitoring the recombinant gene expression, a h-N and a GFP fusion protein was used. Different cultivation strategies and growth media compositions were tested in shake flasks and a 5 l bioreactor. When using defined YNB growth medium, we found the biomass yield to be unsatisfactorily low. Higher concentrated YNB medium, promoted cell growth but showed a pronounced inhibitory effect on heterologous gene expression. This phenomenon could not be attributed to plasmid losses, as we could demonstrate high stability of the vector under the applied cultivation conditions. Supplementation of YNB medium with extracts of plant origin resulted in increased biomass yields with concomitant high expression levels of the recombinant gene. The modified medium was used for fed-batch cultivations where basic metabolic features as well as growth parameters were determined in addition to recombinant gene expression. The maximal volumetric yield of N protein was 316 mg l(-1), the respective yield of h-N protein was 284 mg l(-1). Our study provides a basis for large-scale production of hantavirus vaccines, which satisfies economic efficiency as well as biosafety regulations for human applications.

  1. Transmission ecology of Sin Nombre hantavirus in naturally infected North American deermouse populations in outdoor enclosures.

    PubMed

    Bagamian, Karoun H; Towner, Jonathan S; Kuenzi, Amy J; Douglass, Richard J; Rollin, Pierre E; Waller, Lance A; Mills, James N

    2012-01-01

    Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV), hosted by the North American deermouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in North America. Most transmission studies in the host were conducted under artificial conditions, or extrapolated information from mark-recapture data. Previous studies using experimentally infected deermice were unable to demonstrate SNV transmission. We explored SNV transmission in outdoor enclosures using naturally infected deermice. Deermice acquiring SNV in enclosures had detectable viral RNA in blood throughout the acute phase of infection and acquired significantly more new wounds (indicating aggressive encounters) than uninfected deermice. Naturally-infected wild deermice had a highly variable antibody response to infection, and levels of viral RNA sustained in blood varied as much as 100-fold, even in individuals infected with identical strains of virus. Deermice that infected other susceptible individuals tended to have a higher viral RNA load than those that did not infect other deermice. Our study is a first step in exploring the transmission ecology of SNV infection in deermice and provides new knowledge about the factors contributing to the increase of the prevalence of a zoonotic pathogen in its reservoir host and to changes in the risk of HPS to human populations. The techniques pioneered in this study have implications for a wide range of zoonotic disease studies.

  2. Immunogenetic factors affecting susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses and the clinical course of hantaviral disease in humans.

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Nathalie; Pagès, Marie; Sironen, Tarja; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaheri, Antti

    2014-05-26

    We reviewed the associations of immunity-related genes with susceptibility of humans and rodents to hantaviruses, and with severity of hantaviral diseases in humans. Several class I and class II HLA haplotypes were linked with severe or benign hantavirus infections, and these haplotypes varied among localities and hantaviruses. The polymorphism of other immunity-related genes including the C4A gene and a high-producing genotype of TNF gene associated with severe PUUV infection. Additional genes that may contribute to disease or to PUUV infection severity include non-carriage of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) allele 2 and IL-1β (-511) allele 2, polymorphisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) and platelet GP1a. In addition, immunogenetic studies have been conducted to identify mechanisms that could be linked with the persistence/clearance of hantaviruses in reservoirs. Persistence was associated during experimental infections with an upregulation of anti-inflammatory responses. Using natural rodent population samples, polymorphisms and/or expression levels of several genes have been analyzed. These genes were selected based on the literature of rodent or human/hantavirus interactions (some Mhc class II genes, Tnf promoter, and genes encoding the proteins TLR4, TLR7, Mx2 and β3 integrin). The comparison of genetic differentiation estimated between bank vole populations sampled over Europe, at neutral and candidate genes, has allowed to evidence signatures of selection for Tnf, Mx2 and the Drb Mhc class II genes. Altogether, these results corroborated the hypothesis of an evolution of tolerance strategies in rodents. We finally discuss the importance of these results from the medical and epidemiological perspectives.

  3. Tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes from satellite images analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Backé, G.; Hervouët, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The northern part of the Venezuelan (or Merida) Andes is a complex area comprising a Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary sequence that recorded two main stages of deformation: (1) the uplifting of the Carribean belt in the Cretaceous-Eocene (Carribean stage), which is superimposed by (2) the building of the Venezuelan Andes since the Miocene (Andean stage). The study area is located at the junction between the Merida Andes and the Caribbean belt, and constitutes a key zone to understand the transition between these two orogens. Our aim is to implement the structural mapping in order to propose a new model of deformation at regional scale. The methodology is based on analysis of Landsat TM, SPOT, radarsat and DEM images, and is complemented by geological studies in the field. Integration of this complementary data set into a GIS enables a new understanding of the tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes during the Neogene-Quaternary. We focused on three main areas where the structures are clearly exposed. In the Mene Grande area, our structural analysis allows to precise the geometry and timing of deformations. The Cerro la Galera anticline is a fault bend fold propagating to the SW that developped along the Burro Negro fault during the Eocene-Oligocene and then eroded. The Cerro La Luna (or Cerro Misoa) is a pop-up structure that developped later during the Andean stage. In the Jirajara area, we have evidenced a releasing-bend basin at left-stepping offset of the Valera fault. To the east, this basin is surrounded by the relief of the Serrania de Jirajara which gravitationally collapses towards the lowland of the basin. In the Sierra de Barragua area, we mapped the left-lateral strike-slip Rio Diquiva fault 25 km east of the Valera fault. This fault is a major structure bounding two distincts areas of sedimentation during the Eocene. The synthesis of these observations shows that the northern Venezuelan Andes consist in a mosaic of independent crustal blocks

  4. Association of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL28B, but Not TNF-α, With Severity of Disease Caused by Andes Virus

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Jenniffer; Pino, Karla; Echeverría-Chagas, Natalia; Marco, Claudia; Martínez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Galeno, Héctor; Villagra, Eliecer; Vera, Lilian; Lagos, Natalia; Becerra, Natalia; Mora, Judith; Bermúdez, Andrea; Cárcamo, Marcela; Díaz, Janepsy; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Ferrés, Marcela; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Background. Andes virus (ANDV) is the sole etiologic agent of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in Chile, with a fatality rate of about 35%. Individual host factors affecting ANDV infection outcome are poorly understood. In this case-control genetic association analysis, we explored the link between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs12979860, rs8099917 and rs1800629 and the clinical outcome of ANDV-induced disease. The SNPs rs12979860 and rs8099917 are known to play a role in the differential expression of the interleukin 28B gene (IL28B), whereas SNP rs1800629 is implicated in the expression of tumor necrosis factor α gene (TNF-α). Methods. A total of 238 samples from confirmed ANDV-infected patients collected between 2006 and 2014, and categorized according to the severity of the disease, were genotyped for SNPs rs12979860, rs8099917, and rs1800629. Results. Analysis of IL28B SNPs rs12979860 and rs8099917 revealed a link between homozygosity of the minor alleles (TT and GG, respectively), displaying a mild disease progression, whereas heterozygosity or homozygosity for the major alleles (CT/CC and TG/TT, respectively) in both IL28B SNPs is associated with severe disease. No association with the clinical outcome of HCPS was observed for TNF-α SNP rs1800629 (TNF −308G>A). Conclusions. The IL28B SNPs rs12979860 and rs8099917, but not TNF-α SNP rs1800629, are associated with the clinical outcome of ANDV-induced disease, suggesting a possible link between IL28B expression and ANDV pathogenesis. PMID:26394672

  5. Serologic Investigation of Hantavirus Infection in Patients with Previous Thrombocytopenia, and Elevated Urea and Creatinine Levels in an Epidemic Region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sevencan, Funda; Gözalan, Aysegül; Uyar, Yavuz; Kavakli, Ismet; Türkyilmaz, Bedia; Ertek, Mustafa; Lundkvist, Ake

    2015-01-01

    The first cases of Hantavirus infection in Turkey were reported in early 2009 in the Zonguldak and Bartin provinces. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of Hantavirus antibodies in patients who had clinical and laboratory findings that were potentially associated with Hantavirus infection prior to the epidemic in Bartin in 2009. After screening 314,577 medical records from between 2007 and 2009, the clinical and laboratory data for 442 patients meeting the criteria of coexistent thrombocytopenia, and elevated urea and creatinine levels were transferred to a statistical program. Home visits were made to 170 patients, 84 of whom consented to participate in the study. The participants completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. Commercial anti-Hantavirus IgG and IgM ELISA and immunoblotting assays were used, with seropositive samples being confirmed by focus reduction neutralization tests (FRNT). ELISA and/or immunoblotting assays detected 10 positive samples; however, only 7 of these were recorded as positive by FRNT. FRNT positivity was significantly associated with female sex, the presence of a barn near to the house, and working in a forest (P < 0.05). In a Hantavirus endemic region, physicians must keep in mind that thrombocytopenia, and elevated urea and creatinine levels may indicate Hantavirus infection.

  6. The N-terminus of the Montano virus nucleocapsid protein possesses broadly cross-reactive conformation-dependent epitopes conserved in rodent-borne hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshida, Haruka; Shimizu, Kenta; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; Romero-Almaraz, María de Lourdes; Koma, Takaaki; Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Ramos, Celso; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Takashima, Ikuo; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-06-20

    The hantavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein is an important immunogen that stimulates a strong and cross-reactive immune response in humans and rodents. A large proportion of the response to N protein has been found to target its N-terminus. However, the exact nature of this bias towards the N-terminus is not yet fully understood. We characterized six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the N protein of Montano virus (MTNV), a Mexican hantavirus. Five of these mAbs recognized eight American hantaviruses and six European and Asian hantaviruses, but not the Soricomorpha-borne Thottapalayam hantavirus. The N protein-reactive binding regions of the five mAbs were mapped to discontinuous epitopes within the N-terminal 13-51 amino acid residues, while a single serotype-specific mAb was mapped to residues 1-25 and 49-75. Our findings suggest that discontinuous epitopes at the N-terminus are conserved, at least in rodent-borne hantaviruses, and that they contribute considerably to N protein cross-reactivity.

  7. Complete genome sequence and molecular phylogeny of a newfound hantavirus harbored by the Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti) in Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Se Hun; Nicolas, Violaine; Lalis, Aude; Sathirapongsasuti, Nuankanya; Yanagihara, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Elucidation of the molecular phylogeny of shrew-borne hantaviruses in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the lack of full-length viral genomes. In this report, we present the complete genome analysis of a newfound hantavirus, designated Bowé virus, detected in ethanol-fixed intercostal muscle of a Doucet’s musk shrew (Crocidura douceti), captured in southwestern Guinea in February 2012. Full-length amino acid sequence comparison of the S-, M- and L-segment gene products revealed that Bowé virus differed by 24.1–53.4%, 17.0–59.9% and 14.6–39.7%, respectively, from all other representative rodent-, shrew- and mole-borne hantaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis, using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods, under the GTR+I+Γ model of evolution, showed that Bowé virus shared a common ancestry with Tanganya virus, a hantavirus detected in the Therese’s shrew (Crocidura theresae) in Guinea. Whole genome analysis of many more hantaviruses from sub-Saharan Africa are needed to better clarify how the radiation of African shrews might have contributed to the phylogeography of hantaviruses. PMID:23994121

  8. Unexpected climatological behavior of MLT gravity wave momentum flux in the lee of the Southern Andes hot spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, R. J.; Janches, D.; Fritts, D. C.; Stockwell, R. G.; Coy, L.

    2017-01-01

    The Southern Argentina Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER), located at Tierra del Fuego (53.7°S, 67.7°W), has been providing near-continuous high-resolution measurements of winds and high-frequency gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes of the mesopause region since May 2008. As SAAMER is located in the lee of the largest seasonal GW hot spot on Earth, this is a key location to study GWs and their interaction with large-scale motions. GW momentum flux climatologies are shown for the first time for this location and discussed in light of these unique dynamics. Particularly, the large eastward GW momentum fluxes during local winter are surprising, as these observations cannot be explained by the direct upward propagation of expected large-amplitude mountain waves (MWs) through the eastward stratospheric jet. Instead, these results are interpreted as secondary GWs propagating away from stratospheric sources over the Andes accompanying MW breaking over the Southern Andes.

  9. Survey for Hantaviruses, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and Rickettsia spp. in Small Rodents in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunoflourescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava–Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas. PMID:24866325

  10. Survey for hantaviruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, and Rickettsia spp. in small rodents in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; Margaletić, Josip; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-07-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assays (IIFT) and for nucleic acids by conventional (hantaviruses) and real-time RT-/PCRs (TBEV and Rickettsia spp.). A total of 25.5% (24/94) of the rodents from the mountainous area revealed specific antibodies against hantaviruses. In all, 21.3% (20/94) of the samples from the mountainous area and 29.0% (9/31) from the lowland area yielded positive results for either Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) using a conventional RT-PCR. All processed samples (n=194) were negative for TBEV by IIFT or real-time RT-PCR. Serological evidence of rickettsial infection was detected in 4.3% (4/94) rodents from the mountainous region. Another 3.2% (3/94) rodents were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. None of the rodents (n=76) from the lowland area were positive for Rickettsia spp. by real-time PCR. Dual infection of PUUV and Rickettsia spp. was found in one M. glareolus from the mountainous area by RT-PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first detection of Rickettsia spp. in small rodents from Croatia. Phylogenetic analyses of S- and M-segment sequences obtained from the two study sites revealed well-supported subgroups in Croatian PUUV and DOBV. Although somewhat limited, our data showed occurrence and prevalence of PUUV, DOBV, and rickettsiae in Croatia. Further studies are warranted to confirm these data and to determine the Rickettsia species present in rodents in these areas.

  11. Is tourism damaging ecosystems in the Andes? Current knowledge and an agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Barros, Agustina; Monz, Christopher; Pickering, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Despite the popularity of tourism and recreation in the Andes in South America and the regions conservation value, there is limited research on the ecological impacts of these types of anthropogenic use. Using a systematic quantitative literature review method, we found 47 recreation ecology studies from the Andes, 25 of which used an experimental design. Most of these were from the Southern Andes in Argentina (13 studies) or Chile (eight studies) with only four studies from the Northern Andes. These studies documented a range of impacts on vegetation, birds and mammals; including changes in plant species richness, composition and vegetation cover and the tolerance of wildlife of visitor use. There was little research on the impacts of visitors on soils and aquatic systems and for some ecoregions in the Andes. We identify research priorities across the region that will enhance management strategies to minimise visitor impacts in Andean ecosystems.

  12. Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex of the central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Silva, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    A model is presented accounting for many features of the Altiplano-Puna volcanic complex situated in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes which contains 50 recently active volcanoes. The dominant elements of the complex are several large nested caldera complexes which are the source structures for the major regionally distributed ignimbrite sheets that characterize the complex. The study of the complex reveals the importance of the intersection of subsidiary axis-oblique tectonic trends related to regional stress fields peculiar to individual oceanic ridge sections with the axis-parallel trends predominant at all spreading centers in localizing hydrothermal discharge zones.

  13. Early local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jacqueline A; Seltzer, Geoffrey O; Farber, Daniel L; Rodbell, Donald T; Finkel, Robert C

    2005-04-29

    The local last glacial maximum in the tropical Andes was earlier and less extensive than previously thought, based on 106 cosmogenic ages (from beryllium-10 dating) from moraines in Peru and Bolivia. Glaciers reached their greatest extent in the last glacial cycle approximately 34,000 years before the present and were retreating by approximately 21,000 years before the present, implying that tropical controls on ice volumes were asynchronous with those in the Northern Hemisphere. Our estimates of snowline depression reflect about half the temperature change indicated by previous widely cited figures, which helps resolve the discrepancy between estimates of terrestrial and marine temperature depression during the last glacial cycle.

  14. Neutralizing Antibodies and Sin Nombre Virus RNA after Recovery from Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Chunyan; Prescott, Joseph; Nofchissey, Robert; Goade, Diane

    2004-01-01

    Patients who later have a mild course of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) are more likely to exhibit a high titer of neutralizing antibodies against Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of HCPS, at the time of hospital admission. Because administering plasma from patients who have recovered from HCPS to those in the early stages of disease may be an advantageous form of passive immunotherapy, we examined the neutralizing antibody titers of 21 patients who had recovered from SNV infection. Even 1,000 days after admission to the hospital, 6 of 10 patients had titers of 800 or higher, with one sample retaining a titer of 3,200 after more than 1,400 days. None of the convalescent-phase serum samples contained detectable viral RNA. These results confirm that patients retain high titers of neutralizing antibodies long after recovery from SNV infection. PMID:15109416

  15. Dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in naturally infected bank voles (Clethrinomys glareolus).

    PubMed

    Bernshtein, A D; Apekina, N S; Mikhailova, T V; Myasnikov, Y A; Khlyap, L A; Korotkov, Y S; Gavrilovskaya, I N

    1999-01-01

    Specific features of hantavirus infection in bank vole (Clethrionomys glareolus) were studied in the endemic area of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the foothills of the Ural mountains, using long-term observations on living animals by the capture-mark-recapture (CMR) method. The results demonstrated that the infection naturally circulating in the voles is chronic (lasting for up to 15 months) and asymptomatic, with a peak of Puumala virus accumulation and release from the organism during the first month after infection. It was shown that the bank vole population includes young animals with maternal immunity, which remain resistant to the Puumala virus infection for 3-3.5 months. The infection rate in voles depended on the age and sexual maturity of animals. The greatest proportion of seropositive animals was observed among overwintered males. Seroconversion in voles was more frequent during the period of high reproductive activity.

  16. The role of endothelial activation in dengue hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Spiropoulou, Christina F; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon

    2013-01-01

    The loss of the endothelium barrier and vascular leakage play a central role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever viruses. This can be caused either directly by the viral infection and damage of the vascular endothelium, or indirectly by a dysregulated immune response resulting in an excessive activation of the endothelium. This article briefly reviews our knowledge of the importance of the disruption of the vascular endothelial barrier in two severe disease syndromes, dengue hemorrhagic fever and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Both viruses cause changes in vascular permeability without damaging the endothelium. Here we focus on our understanding of the virus interaction with the endothelium, the role of the endothelium in the induced pathogenesis, and the possible mechanisms by which each virus causes vascular leakage. Understanding the dynamics between viral infection and the dysregulation of the endothelial cell barrier will help us to define potential therapeutic targets for reducing disease severity. PMID:23841977

  17. Genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus in the edible dormouse (Glis glis) in central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Stanojevic, M; Nikolic, V; Stajkovic, N; Stamenkovic, G; Bozovic, B; Cekanac, R; Marusic, P; Gligic, A

    2015-01-01

    Hantaviruses are endemic in the Balkans, particularly in Serbia, where sporadic cases and/or outbreaks of hantaviral human disease have been reported repeatedly, and evidenced serologically. Here, we present genetic detection of Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) hantaviral sequences in wild rodents trapped in central Serbia. All the animals were pre-screened serologically by indirect immunofluorescence (IF) test and only those with a positive finding of hantaviral antigens were further tested by polymerase chain reaction. Of the total of 104 trapped animals, 20 were found to be IF positive and of those three were positive for hantaviral RNA: one Microtus arvalis for Tula virus, and one each of Apodemus agrarius and Glis glis for DOBV. Phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences implies putative DOBV spillover infection of A. agrarius and G. glis from Apodemus flavicollis. However, future investigations should help to identify the most common natural host and geographical distribution of DOBV in its reservoir hosts in Serbia.

  18. Isolation of Hokkaido virus, genus Hantavirus, using a newly established cell line derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae).

    PubMed

    Sanada, Takahiro; Seto, Takahiro; Ozaki, Yuka; Saasa, Ngonda; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki

    2012-10-01

    Hantaviruses belong to the family Bunyaviridae and are maintained in wild rodents. Although Vero E6 cells, which originate from African green monkey kidney, are used widely in hantavirus research, isolation of hantaviruses from this cell line is difficult. To develop an efficient method of propagation and isolation of hantaviruses we established a novel cell line, MRK101, derived from the kidney of the grey red-backed vole (Myodes rufocanus bedfordiae), the natural host of Hokkaido virus (HOKV). The MRK101 cells showed a significantly higher susceptibility to Puumala virus (PUUV) hosted by Myodes glareolus than Vero E6 cells. Viral nucleocapsid protein in PUUV-infected MRK101 cells was detected earlier than in Vero E6 cells, and the viral titre in the culture fluid of MRK101 cells was higher than that of Vero E6 cells during the early phase of infection. In contrast, MRK101 cells showed no susceptibility to Hantaan virus. HOKV, which has not been isolated to date, was isolated successfully using MRK101 cells. Moreover, the newly isolated HOKV was successfully propagated in MRK101, but not Vero E6, cells. Phylogenic analyses of the S (small), M (medium) and L (large) segment sequences revealed that HOKV is related most closely to PUUV, but is distinct from other hantaviruses. These data suggest that the MRK101 cell line is a useful tool for the isolation and propagation of hantaviruses. Moreover, this is (to our knowledge) the first report of hantavirus isolation in a cell line that originated from the natural host.

  19. Hantavirus infection and habitat associations among rodent populations in agroecosystems of Panama: implications for human disease risk.

    PubMed

    Armién, Aníbal G; Armién, Blas; Koster, Frederick; Pascale, Juan M; Avila, Mario; Gonzalez, Publio; de la Cruz, Manuel; Zaldivar, Yamitzel; Mendoza, Yaxelis; Gracia, Fernando; Hjelle, Brian; Lee, Sang-Joon; Yates, Terry L; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), which is caused by infection with Choclo virus, is uncommon in Panama, yet seropositivity among rural residents is as high as 60%. To clarify the environmental risk factors favoring rodent-to-human transmission, we tested serum from 3,067 rodents captured over a five-year period for antibodies against recombinant N protein of hantavirus by enzyme immunoassay and strip immunoblot. Among 220 seropositive rodents, Oligoryzomys fulvescens, the reservoir of Choclo virus, had the highest overall seroprevalence (23.5%); more abundant rodents (Zygodontomys brevicauda and Sigmodon hirsutus) had lower seroprevalences. In the mixed (combined modern and traditional) productive agroecosystem, the highest seroprevalence was among O. fulvescens captured in residences and in crops grown within 40 meters of a residence, with significantly lower seroprevalence in adjacent pasture and non-productive vegetation. Thus, crop habitats may serve as refugia for invasion into adjacent human residences and suggests several interventions to reduce human infection.

  20. Pneumonitis in Syrian golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) infected with Rio Mamoré virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus).

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Mary Louise; Eyzaguirre, Eduardo J; Fulhorst, Charles F

    2014-10-13

    Rio Mamoré virus is an etiological agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in South America. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in Syrian golden hamsters is pathogenic. None of 37 adult hamsters infected by intramuscular injection of HTN-007, including 10 animals killed on Day 42 or 43 post-inoculation, exhibited any symptom of disease. Histological abnormalities included severe or moderately severe pneumonitis in 6 (46.2%) of the 13 animals killed on Day 7 or 10 post-inoculation. The primary target of infection in lung was the endothelium of the microvasculature. Collectively, these results indicate that Rio Mamoré virus strain HTN-007 in adult Syrian golden hamsters can cause a nonlethal disease that is pathologically similar to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome.

  1. Hantavirus infection in rodents and haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Shaanxi province, China, 1984-2012.

    PubMed

    Yu, P B; Tian, H Y; Ma, C F; Ma, C A; Wei, J; Lu, X L; Wang, Z; Zhou, S; Li, S; Dong, J H; Xu, J R; Xu, B; Wang, J J

    2015-01-01

    The transmission of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is deeply influenced by the reservoir and hantavirus prevalence rate. In this study, a surveillance on human HFRS cases, relative rodent abundance, and hantavirus infection prevalence was conducted in Shaanxi province, China, during 1984-2012. A generalized linear model with Poisson-distributed residuals and a log link was used to quantify the relationship between reservoir, virus and HFRS cases. The result indicated that there was a significant association of HFRS incidence with relative rodent density and the prevalence rate. This research provides evidence that the changes of infection prevalence in the reservoir could lead directly to the emergence of a new epidemic. It was concluded that the measurement of a number of these variables could be used in disease surveillance to give useful advance warning of potential disease epidemics.

  2. Bayou virus-associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Eastern Texas: identification of the rice rat, Oryzomys palustris, as reservoir host.

    PubMed Central

    Torrez-Martinez, N.; Bharadwaj, M.; Goade, D.; Delury, J.; Moran, P.; Hicks, B.; Nix, B.; Davis, J. L.; Hjelle, B.

    1998-01-01

    We describe the third known case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) due to Bayou virus, from Jefferson County, Texas. By using molecular epidemiologic methods, we show that rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are frequently infected with Bayou virus and that viral RNA sequences from HPS patients are similar to those from nearby rice rats. Bayou virus is associated with O. palustris; this rodent appears to be its predominant reservoir host. PMID:9452404

  3. Episodic Cenozoic volcanism and tectonism in the Andes of Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, D.C.; McKee, E.H.; Farrar, E.; Petersen, U.

    1974-01-01

    Radiometric and geologic information indicate a complex history of Cenozoic volcanism and tectonism in the central Andes. K-Ar ages on silicic pyroclastic rocks demonstrate major volcanic activity in central and southern Peru, northern Chile, and adjacent areas during the Early and Middle Miocene, and provide additional evidence for volcanism during the Late Eocene. A provisional outline of tectonic and volcanic events in the Peruvian Andes during the Cenozoic includes: one or more pulses of igneous activity and intense deformation during the Paleocene and Eocene; a period of quiescence, lasting most of Oligocene time; reinception of tectonism and volcanism at the beginning of the Miocene; and a major pulse of deformation in the Middle Miocene accompanied and followed through the Pliocene by intense volcanism and plutonism. Reinception of igneous activity and tectonism at about the Oligocene-Miocene boundary, a feature recognized in other circum-Pacific regions, may reflect an increase in the rate of rotation of the Pacific plate relative to fixed or quasifixed mantle coordinates. Middle Miocene tectonism and latest Tertiary volcanism correlates with and probably is genetically related to the beginning of very rapid spreading at the East Pacific Rise. ?? 1974.

  4. Impact of glaciations on the long-term erosion in Southern Patagonian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Herman, Frederic; Baumgartner, Lukas; Shuster, David L.; Braun, Jean; Reiners, Pete W.; Valla, Pierre G.; Leuthold, Julien

    2014-05-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes are an ideal setting to study the impact of Late-Cenozoic climate cooling and onset of glaciations impact on the erosional history of mountain belts. The lack of tectonic activity during the last ~12 Myr makes the denudation history mainly controlled by surface processes, not by tectonics. Moreover, the glaciations history of Patagonia shows the best-preserved records within the southern hemisphere (with the exception of Antarctica). Indeed, the dry climate on the leeward side of Patagonia and the presence of lava flows interbedded with glacial deposits has allowed an exceptional preservation of late Cenozoic moraines with precise dating using K-Ar analyses on lava flow. The chronology of moraines reveals a long history covering all the Quaternary, Pliocene, and up to the Upper Miocene. The early growth of large glaciers flowing on eastern foothills started at ~7-6 Myr, while the maximum ice-sheet extent dates from approximately 1.1 Myr. In order to quantify the erosion history of the Southern Patagonian Andes and compare it to the glaciations sediment record, we collected samples along an age-elevation profile for low-temperature thermochronology in the eastern side of the mountain belt (Torres del Paine massif). The (U-Th)/He age-elevation relationship shows a clear convex shape providing an apparent long-term exhumation rate of ~0.2 km/Myr followed by an exhumation rate increase at ~6 Myr. Preliminary results of 4He/3He thermochronometry for a subset of samples complete the erosion history for the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. We used inverse procedure predicting 4He distributions within an apatite grain using a radiation-damage and annealing model to quantify He-diffusion kinetics in apatite. The model also allows quantifying the impact of potential U-Th zonation throughout each apatite crystal. Inversion results reveal a denudation history composed by a pulse of denudation at ~6 Ma, as suggested by the age-elevation relationship

  5. Glacial recession in the Tropical Andes from the Little Ice Age: the case of Ampato Volcanic Complex (Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcalá, J.; Palacios, D.; Zamorano, J. J.

    2010-03-01

    the Ampato volcanic complex (15º24´- 15º 51´ S, 71º 51´ - 73º W; 6.288 masl), one of the most important complexes of the northern sector of the CVZ. Photointerpretation of aerial photographs and teledetection through satellite images of Huayuray Valley (15º 41´ 14´´ S - 71º 51´ 53´´ W), located to the north of the complex, aided in accurately reconstructing the area occupied by the ice mass at different times (LIA, 1955, 2000 and 2008). Also the paleo-ELA (Equilibrium Line Altitude) and the ELA were calculated using the Accumulation Area (AA) method (Kaser and Osmaston, 2002; Osmaston, 2005) in a GIS. The ELA shows the relationship between climate and glacier mass balance (González Trueba, 2005). The data from Huayuray Valley show that the glaciers reached a minimum altitude of 5400 masl and covered an area of ~2.81 Km2 during the LIA. The paleo-ELA was located at ~5780 masl, ~120 m below the current ELA (~5900 m). Based on a vertical thermal gradient of 0.65ºC/100 m, the temperature during this event would have been about 0.7º C colder than present temperature in the Ampato volcanic complex. In 1955, Huayuray glacier covered ~2.45 km2, 12.8% less than in the LIA. In the same year, the glaciers in the Huayuray valley reached a minimum elevation of ~5660 masl and the ELA rose ~20 m, to 5800 masl. In only 45 years (1955 - 2000) the surface area of the ice was significantly reduced (~1 km2), i.e. 40.8%. The ELA continued to rise, until it reached 5890 masl in 2000. From 2000 - 2008, the Huayuray glacier was reduced to ~0.78 km2 and the ELA rised ~10 m to reach the 5900 masl These results from the CVZ confirm the dramatic recession of the glaciers in the tropical Andes during recent decades. They also suggest that if the rate of recession associated with the period 2000-2008 continues, glaciers in the Ampato volcanic complex will disappear in 10 years approximately. References González Trueba, J.J. (2005): La Pequeña Edad del Hielo en los Picos de

  6. Hantavirus Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... but deadly viral infection. It is spread by mice and rats. They shed the virus in their ... breathe infected air or come into contact with rodents or their urine or droppings. You cannot catch ...

  7. Ancient ice islands in salt lakes of the Central Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurlbert, S.H.; Chang, Cecily C.Y.

    1984-01-01

    Massive blocks of freshwater ice and frozen sediments protrude from shallow, saline lakes in the Andes of southwestern Bolivia and northeastern Chile. These ice islands range up to 1.5 kilometers long, stand up to 7 meters above the water surface, and may extend out tens of meters and more beneath the unfrozen lake sediments. The upper surfaces of the islands are covered with dry white sediments, mostly aragonite or calcite. The ice blocks may have formed by freezing of the fresh pore water of lake sediments during the "little ice age." The largest blocks are melting rapidly because of possibly recent increases in geothermal heat flux through the lake bottom and undercutting by warm saline lake water during the summer.

  8. The last occurrence of Pleistocene megafauna in the Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltorti, M.; Ficcarelli, G.; Jahren, H.; Espinosa, M. Moreno; Rook, L.; Torre, D.

    1998-12-01

    The latest Pleistocene—Holocene megafauna extinction is a global event, particularly dramatic in the Americas. In a previous paper the authors hypothesised a scenario for this extinction event in South America, where mastodonts first suffered from the changing climate environment, followed by the mylodonts and equids. These different latest Pleistocene—Holocene megafauna extinction "waves" in Ecuadorian Andes have been dated using 14C methods on material from selected sites in north and central Ecuadorian Interandean Depression. An outline of the physiographic evolution of the Interandean Depression in Ecuador is offered and the stratigraphic setting of the fossiliferous sites is discussed. The present results confirm the author's hypothesis on the megafauna extinction pattern, previously published in terms of relative age. The importance of climatic changes during Last Glacial Maximum at low latitudes is discussed.

  9. Modelling Andes Uplift Impact on Atmospheric Circulation: Consequences for Neogene Faunal and Floral Evolution ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulchre, P.; Sloan, L. C.; Fluteau, F.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonics in South America is marked by the uplift of the Andes during the Cenozoic. The Andes are approximately 7000 km long, oriented north-south, with some peak elevations in excess of 6000 m. Such a topographic structure has potentially a strong impact on atmospheric circulation. Climate model studies have showed that the Andes, as a topographic barrier, influence eastern Pacific Ocean climate and also meridional moisture transport above the south American continent. However, most studies have been done at the regional scale, and no quantification of rainfall changes due to a lower topography has been done. Here we use the high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model LMDz4 to quantify the impact of the Andes topography on the rainfall regime over the whole South American continent. Interpreting sensitivity experiments, we discuss about the tectonics history from 55 Ma to present-day and how to apply this method for Neogene paleoclimate, in a different continental configuration.

  10. A Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) DNA Vaccine Delivered Using a Spring-powered Jet Injector Elicits a Potent Neutralizing Antibody
Response in Rabbits and Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kwilas, Steve; Kishimori, Jennifer M.; Josleyn, Matthew; Jerke, Kurt; Ballantyne, John; Royals, Michael; Hooper, Jay W.

    2014-01-01

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) cause most of the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) cases in North and South America, respectively. The chances of a patient surviving HPS are only two in three. Previously, we demonstrated that SNV and ANDV DNA vaccines encoding the virus envelope glycoproteins elicit high-titer neutralizing antibodies in laboratory animals, and (for ANDV) in nonhuman primates (NHPs). In those studies, the vaccines were delivered by gene gun or muscle electroporation. Here, we tested whether a combined SNV/ANDV DNA vaccine (HPS DNA vaccine) could be delivered effectively using a disposable syringe jet injection (DSJI) system (PharmaJet, Inc). PharmaJet intramuscular (IM) and intradermal (ID) needle-free devices are FDA 510(k)-cleared, simple to use, and do not require electricity or pressurized gas. First, we tested the SNV DNA vaccine delivered by PharmaJet IM or ID devices in rabbits and NHPs. Both IM and ID devices produced high-titer anti-SNV neutralizing antibody responses in rabbits and NHPs. However, the ID device required at least two vaccinations in NHP to detect neutralizing antibodies in most animals, whereas all animals vaccinated once with the IM device seroconverted. Because the IM device was more effective in NHP, the Stratis® (PharmaJet IM device) was selected for follow-up studies. We evaluated the HPS DNA vaccine delivered using Stratis® and found that it produced high-titer anti-SNV and anti-ANDV neutralizing antibodies in rabbits (n=8/group) as measured by a classic plaque reduction neutralization test and a new pseudovirion neutralization assay. We were interested in determining if the differences between DSJI delivery (e.g., high-velocity liquid penetration through tissue) and other methods of vaccine injection, such as needle/syringe, might result in a more immunogenic DNA vaccine. To accomplish this, we compared the HPS DNA vaccine delivered by DSJI versus needle/syringe in NHPs (n=8/group). We found that

  11. Complex brittle deformation pattern along the Southern Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberón, Vanesa; Sue, Christian; Ronda, Gonzalo; Ghiglione, Matías

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes is located in the southern extreme of the Pacific subduction zone, where the Antartic oceanic plate sinks underneath South America. The history of the area begins with compression during Paleozoic, Jurassic extension associated to the rift and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, then a sag stage in the Lower Cretaceous followed by a foreland phase as a result of plate tectonics (Ghiglione et al., 2016). The kinematic study is concentrated in the Argentinean foothills, between 46°40' and 48° SL. We measured around 800 fault planes and their striaes with the sense of movement in order to characterize the stress field. The software used to make the stress inversion were Tensor (Delvaux, 2011) and Multiple Inverse Method MIM (Yamaji et al., 2011). The stress field map was built with the results of the MIM. We present new data from 48 sites located in the northern sector of the Southern Patagonian Andes. The measurements were made in several rocks from Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous, even though most were taken in pyroclastic jurassic rocks from El Quemado Complex. Paleostress tensors obtained are mostly strike-slip, although a 25% is normal and there are a few compresional. The pattern of faults found is complex. In some sites the tensor can be locally linked to satellite images and observations from the field or be related to a major thrust front. There is no clear correlation between the age and/or lithology with the tensor since the youngest rocks measured are Lower Cretaceous. Probably there are several generations of family faults connected to different and recent tectonic phases then the paleostress tensors might correspond to the latest tectonic events.

  12. PROTOPLANETARY DISK STRUCTURE WITH GRAIN EVOLUTION: THE ANDES MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya.; Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunin, A.; Birnstiel, T. E-mail: dwiebe@inasan.ru E-mail: zhukovska@mpia.de E-mail: henning@mpia.de E-mail: tbirnstiel@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-03-20

    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R {approx}< 50 AU) and lower in the outer disk (R {approx}> 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 2}CN, HNO, H{sub 2}O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

  13. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase G894T Polymorphism Associates with Disease Severity in Puumala Hantavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Koskela, Sirpa; Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Pessi, Tanja; Tuomisto, Sari; Huhtala, Heini; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Pörsti, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hantavirus infections are characterized by both activation and dysfunction of the endothelial cells. The underlying mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis are not fully understood. Here we tested the hypothesis whether the polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, eNOS G894T, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS G2087A, are associated with the severity of acute Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. Patients and Methods Hospitalized patients (n = 172) with serologically verified PUUV infection were examined. Clinical and laboratory variables reflecting disease severity were determined. The polymorphisms of eNOS G894T (Glu298Asp, rs1799983) and iNOS G2087A (Ser608Leu, rs2297518) were genotyped. Results The rare eNOS G894T genotype was associated with the severity of acute kidney injury (AKI). The non-carriers of G-allele (TT-homozygotes) had higher maximum level of serum creatinine than the carriers of G-allele (GT-heterozygotes and GG-homozygotes; median 326, range 102–1041 vs. median 175, range 51–1499 μmol/l; p = 0.018, respectively). The length of hospital stay was longer in the non-carriers of G-allele than in G-allele carriers (median 8, range 3–14 vs. median 6, range 2–15 days; p = 0.032). The rare A-allele carriers (i.e. AA-homozygotes and GA-heterozygotes) of iNOS G2087A had lower minimum systolic and diastolic blood pressure than the non-carriers of A-allele (median 110, range 74–170 vs.116, range 86–162 mmHg, p = 0.019, and median 68, range 40–90 vs. 72, range 48–100 mmHg; p = 0.003, respectively). Conclusions Patients with the TT-homozygous genotype of eNOS G894T had more severe PUUV-induced AKI than the other genotypes. The eNOS G894T polymorphism may play role in the endothelial dysfunction observed during acute PUUV infection. PMID:26561052

  14. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Camilo; Mattar, Salim; Levis, Silvana; Pini, Noemí; Figueiredo, Tadeu; Mills, James; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia. PMID:23579795

  15. Viral load and humoral immune response in association with disease severity in Puumala hantavirus-infected patients—implications for treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pettersson, L; Thunberg, T; Rocklöv, J; Klingström, J; Evander, M; Ahlm, C; Zupanc, T A

    2014-01-01

    Hantaviruses are the causative agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia and of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the Americas. The case fatality rate varies between different hantaviruses and can be up to 40%. At present, there is no specific treatment available. The hantavirus pathogenesis is not well understood, but most likely, both virus-mediated and host-mediated mechanisms are involved. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association among Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) viral RNA load, humoral immune response and disease severity in patients with HFRS. We performed a study of 105 PUUV-infected patients that were followed during the acute phase of disease and for up to 1–3 months later. Fifteen of the 105 patients (14%) were classified as having moderate/severe disease. A low PUUV-specific IgG response (p <0.05) and also a higher white blood cell count (p <0.001) were significantly associated with more severe disease. The PUUV RNA was detected in a majority of patient plasma samples up to 9 days after disease onset; however, PUUV RNA load or longevity of viraemia were not significantly associated with disease severity. We conclude that a low specific IgG response was associated with disease severity in patients with HFRS, whereas PUUV RNA load did not seem to affect the severity of HFRS. Our results raise the possibility of passive immunotherapy as a useful treatment for hantavirus-infected patients. PMID:23742660

  16. Prevalence of antibody to hantaviruses in humans and rodents in the Caribbean region of Colombia determined using Araraquara and Maciel virus antigens.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Camilo; Mattar, Salim; Levis, Silvana; Pini, Noemí; Figueiredo, Tadeu; Mills, James; Salazar-Bravo, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    We tested sera from 286 agricultural workers and 322 rodents in the department of Córdoba, northeastern Colombia, for antibodies against two hantaviruses. The sera were analysed by indirect ELISA using the lysate of Vero E6 cells infected with Maciel virus (MACV) or the N protein of Araraquara virus (ARAV) as antigens for the detection of antibodies against hantaviruses. Twenty-four human sera were IgG positive using one or both antigens. We detected anti-MACV IgG antibodies in 10 sera (3.5%) and anti-ARAV antibodies in 21 sera (7.34%). Of the 10 samples that were positive for MACV, seven (70%) were cross-reactive with ARAV; seven of the 21 ARAV-positive samples were cross-reactive with MACV. Using an ARAV IgM ELISA, two of the 24 human sera (8.4%) were positive. We captured 322 rodents, including 210 Cricetidae (181 Zygodontomys brevicauda, 28 Oligoryzomys fulvescens and 1 Oecomys trinitatis), six Heteromys anomalus (Heteromyidae), one Proechimys sp. (Echimyidae) and 105 Muridae (34 Rattus rattus and 71 Mus musculus). All rodent sera were negative for both antigens. The 8.4% detection rate of hantavirus antibodies in humans is much higher than previously found in serosurveys in North America, suggesting that rural agricultural workers in northeastern Colombia are frequently exposed to hantaviruses. Our results also indicate that tests conducted with South American hantavirus antigens could have predictive value and could represent a useful alternative for the diagnosis of hantavirus infection in Colombia.

  17. Late Cretaceous-early Eocene counterclockwise rotation of the Fueguian Andes and evolution of the Patagonia-Antarctic Peninsula system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, F.; Roperch, P.; Arriagada, C.; Ruffet, G.; Ramírez de Arellano, C.; Hervé, F.; Poujol, M.

    2016-02-01

    The southernmost Andes of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego present a prominent arc-shaped structure: the Patagonian Bend. Whether the bending is a primary curvature or an orocline is still matter of controversy. New paleomagnetic data have been obtained south of the Beagle Channel in 39 out of 61 sites. They have been drilled in Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sediments and interbedded volcanics and in mid-Cretaceous to Eocene intrusives of the Fuegian Batholith. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility was measured at each site and the influence of magnetic fabric on the characteristic remanent magnetizations (ChRM) in plutonic rocks was corrected using inverse tensors of anisotropy of remanent magnetizations. Normal polarity secondary magnetizations with west-directed declination were obtained in the sediments and they did not pass the fold test. These characteristic directions are similar to those recorded by mid Cretaceous intrusives suggesting a remagnetization event during the normal Cretaceous superchron and describe a large (> 90°) counterclockwise rotation. Late Cretaceous to Eocene rocks of the Fueguian Batholith, record decreasing counterclockwise rotations of 45° to 30°. These paleomagnetic results are interpreted as evidence of a large counterclockwise rotation of the Fueguian Andes related to the closure of the Rocas Verdes Basin and the formation of the Darwin Cordillera during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene. The tectonic evolution of the Patagonian Bend can thus be described as the formation of a progressive arc from an oroclinal stage during the closure of the Rocas Verdes basin to a mainly primary arc during the final stages of deformation of the Magallanes fold and thrust belt. Plate reconstructions show that the Antarctic Peninsula would have formed a continuous margin with Patagonia between the Early Cretaceous and the Eocene, and acted as a non-rotational rigid block facilitating the development of the Patagonian Bend.

  18. Glaciation and topographic evolution of the Central Patagonian Andes since 6 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christeleit, E. C.; Laemel, R.; De Wolf, W. E.; Shuster, D. L.; Brandon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    New and existing thermochronological data are used to model glacial erosion and topographic evolution of the central Patagonian Andes (~47S) over the last 6 Ma. The modern Andes are cut by large valleys and fjords with local valley relief of at least 2.5 km. It is currently thought that a formerly uniformly high Andes was 'buzzed' down to the elevation of the equilibrium line altitude, presumably in the last 2 Ma concurrent with late Cenozoic global cooling. However, studies of glacial debris show that glaciers were present in Patagonia as early as 6 Ma. The extent of these early glaciations is unclear, but recent work suggests that glacial valleys in the central Patagonian Andes were carved at a steady rate beginning at 6 Ma, implying that valley incision may be an important process in the topographic evolution of glaciated mountain ranges, rather than cirque retreat. To understand how valley relief has formed in the Andes, we dated 30 samples from Steffen Fjord in Chile using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology. We use this new data and existing thermochronological data in the region to estimate the topographic form of the central Andes at 6 Ma and model how the valley relief has evolved since the initiation of glaciation using Pecube.

  19. Temporal Analysis of Andes Virus and Sin Nombre Virus Infections of Syrian Hamsters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    4 to 5 logs between days 6 and 8. Pulmonary edema was first detected ultrastructurally on day 6. Ultrastructural analysis of lung tissues revealed...leakage and kidney dysfunction are associated with HFRS, while HPS-associated hantaviruses cause acute pulmonary edema (16, 44). Cardiac dysfunction...logs between days 6 and 9. Pulomonary edema was first detected ultrastructurally on day 6. Ultrastructural analysis of lumg tisssues revealed the

  20. Temporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in cyclic populations of bank voles.

    PubMed

    Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2016-02-18

    Understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir host populations is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human disease epidemics. The human infection risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is highest in northern Europe, where populations of the rodent host (bank vole, Myodes glareolus) undergo cyclic fluctuations. We conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture study to monitor seasonal and multiannual patterns of the PUUV infection rate in bank vole populations exhibiting a 3-year density cycle. Infected bank voles were most abundant in mid-winter months during years of increasing or peak host density. Prevalence of PUUV infection in bank voles exhibited a regular, seasonal pattern reflecting the annual population turnover and accumulation of infections within each year cohort. In autumn, the PUUV transmission rate tracked increasing host abundance, suggesting a density-dependent transmission. However, prevalence of PUUV infection was similar during the increase and peak years of the density cycle despite a twofold difference in host density. This may result from the high proportion of individuals carrying maternal antibodies constraining transmission during the cycle peak years. Our exceptionally intensive and long-term dataset provides a solid basis on which to develop models to predict the dynamic public health threat posed by PUUV in northern Europe.

  1. Inhibition of bunyaviruses, phleboviruses, and hantaviruses by human MxA protein.

    PubMed Central

    Frese, M; Kochs, G; Feldmann, H; Hertkorn, C; Haller, O

    1996-01-01

    Viruses of the Bunyaviridae family cause a variety of diseases ranging from uncomplicated fever to potentially lethal encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Little is known about the factors determining pathogenicity in the vertebrate host. Interferons have been reported to be inhibitory, but their mode of action against members of the Bunyaviridae has not yet been elucidated. The interferon-induced MxA protein encoded on human chromosome 21 is a large GTPase with antiviral activity against distinct negative-strand RNA viruses, notably influenza viruses. Here we show that MxA inhibits representative members of the Bunyaviridae family by interacting with an early step of virus replication. When constitutively expressed in stably transfected Vero cells, MxA prevented the accumulation of viral transcripts and proteins of Hantaan virus (genus Hantavirus). Other members of the family such as La Crosse virus (genus Bunyavirus) and Rift Valley fever virus and sandfly fever virus (both genus Phlebovirus) were likewise inhibited, and virus titers were reduced up to 10(4)-fold. Our data indicate that humans have evolved a mechanism of controlling these viruses irrespective of differences in viral coding strategies. PMID:8551631

  2. Temporal dynamics of Puumala hantavirus infection in cyclic populations of bank voles

    PubMed Central

    Voutilainen, Liina; Kallio, Eva R.; Niemimaa, Jukka; Vapalahti, Olli; Henttonen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of zoonotic pathogens in their reservoir host populations is a prerequisite for predicting and preventing human disease epidemics. The human infection risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) is highest in northern Europe, where populations of the rodent host (bank vole, Myodes glareolus) undergo cyclic fluctuations. We conducted a 7-year capture-mark-recapture study to monitor seasonal and multiannual patterns of the PUUV infection rate in bank vole populations exhibiting a 3-year density cycle. Infected bank voles were most abundant in mid-winter months during years of increasing or peak host density. Prevalence of PUUV infection in bank voles exhibited a regular, seasonal pattern reflecting the annual population turnover and accumulation of infections within each year cohort. In autumn, the PUUV transmission rate tracked increasing host abundance, suggesting a density-dependent transmission. However, prevalence of PUUV infection was similar during the increase and peak years of the density cycle despite a twofold difference in host density. This may result from the high proportion of individuals carrying maternal antibodies constraining transmission during the cycle peak years. Our exceptionally intensive and long-term dataset provides a solid basis on which to develop models to predict the dynamic public health threat posed by PUUV in northern Europe. PMID:26887639

  3. Bioinformatics for microbial genotyping of equine encephalitis viruses, orthopoxviruses, and hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Shea N; Jaing, Crystal J

    2013-10-01

    Microbial genotyping is essential for forensic discrimination of pathogen strains, tracing epidemics, and understanding evolutionary processes. Phylogenetic analyses were performed and genotyping assays designed for five viral species complexes or genera: Western, Eastern, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses, hantavirus segments L, M, and S, and orthopoxviruses. For each group, sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees were built. PCR signatures composed of primer pairs or TaqMan™ triplets were designed and mapped to nodes of the trees for sub-type or strain specific PCR-based identification. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified and mapped to trees, and SNP microarray probes were designed to enable highly multiplexed genotyping of an unsequenced sample by hybridization. SNP-based trees corresponded well with MSA trees. Near-perfect isolate resolution was possible for all viruses analyzed computationally using either SNPs or PCR signatures. More tree nodes were represented by SNP loci than by PCR signatures, as PCR signatures often represented subsets of strains not corresponding to a branch. However, while PCR genotyping is possible, the number of PCR signatures needed to characterize an unknown can be very large. SNP microarrays are a suitable alternative, as arrays enable highly multiplexed, high resolution genotyping of an unknown in a single hybridization assay.

  4. Endothelial Activation and Repair During Hantavirus Infection: Association with Disease Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Connolly-Andersen, Anne-Marie; Thunberg, Therese; Ahlm, Clas

    2014-01-01

    Background.  Endothelial activation and dysfunction play a central role in the pathogenesis of sepsis and viral hemorrhagic fevers. Hantaviral disease is a viral hemorrhagic fever and is characterized by capillary dysfunction, although the underlying mechanisms for hantaviral disease are not fully elucidated. Methods.  The temporal course of endothelial activation and repair were analyzed during Puumala hantavirus infection and associated with disease outcome and a marker for hypoxia, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1). The following endothelial activation markers were studied: endothelial glycocalyx degradation (syndecan-1) and leukocyte adhesion molecules (soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule 1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and endothelial selectin). Cytokines associated with vascular repair were also analyzed (vascular endothelial growth factor, erythropoietin, angiopoietin, and stromal cell-derived factor 1). Results.  Most of the markers we studied were highest during the earliest phase of hantaviral disease and associated with clinical and laboratory surrogate markers for disease outcome. In particular, the marker for glycocalyx degradation, syndecan-1, was significantly associated with levels of thrombocytes, albumin, IGFBP-1, decreased blood pressure, and disease severity. Conclusions.  Hantaviral disease outcome was associated with endothelial dysfunction. Consequently, the endothelium warrants further investigation when designing future medical interventions. PMID:25734100

  5. Hantavirus infections in fluctuating host populations: the role of maternal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Eva R.; Begon, Michael; Henttonen, Heikki; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Infected females may transfer maternal antibodies (MatAbs) to their offspring, which may then be transiently protected against infections the mother has encountered. However, the role of maternal protection in infectious disease dynamics in wildlife has largely been neglected. Here, we investigate the effects of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV)-specific MatAbs on PUUV dynamics, using 7 years' data from a cyclic bank vole population in Finland. For the first time to our knowledge, we partition seropositivity data from a natural population into separate dynamic patterns for MatAbs and infection. The likelihood of young of the year carrying PUUV-specific MatAbs during the breeding season correlated positively with infection prevalence in the overwintered parent population in the preceding spring. The probability of PUUV infection varied between seasons (highest in spring, lowest in late summer) and depended on population structure, but was also, in late autumn, notably, negatively related to summer MatAb prevalence, as well as to infection prevalence earlier in the breeding season. Hence, our results suggest that high infection prevalence in the early breeding season leads to a high proportion of transiently immune young individuals, which causes delays in transmission. This suggests, in turn, that MatAb protection has the potential to affect infection dynamics in natural populations. PMID:20591866

  6. Phage-displayed peptide targeting on the Puumala hantavirus neutralization site.

    PubMed Central

    Heiskanen, T; Lundkvist, A; Vaheri, A; Lankinen, H

    1997-01-01

    We have selected ligands for Puumala hantavirus, the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica, from a seven-amino-acid peptide library flanked by cysteines and displayed on a filamentous phage. To direct the selection to areas on the virus particle which are essential for infection, phages were competitively eluted with neutralizing monoclonal antibodies specific for the viral glycoproteins. The selected phage populations were specific for the same sites as the antibodies and mimicked their functions. The peptide insert, CHWMFSPWC, when displayed on the phages, completely inhibited Puumala virus infection in cell culture at the same effective concentration as the eluting antibody specific for envelope glycoprotein G2. The binding of the phage clones to the virus and inhibition of infection were not necessarily coincident; Pro-6 was critical for virus inhibition, while consensus residues Trp-2 and Phe-4 were essential for binding. The strategy described can be applied to any virus for production of molecules mimicking the effect of neutralizing antibodies. PMID:9094664

  7. [Pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome due to hantavirus: clinical aspects of an emerging disease in southeastern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Gelse Mazzoni; Borges, Alessandra Abel; Badra, Soraya Jabur; Figueiredo, Glauciane Garcia; Souza, Ricardo Luiz Moro de; Moreli, Marcos Lázaro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2009-01-01

    Pulmonary and cardiovascular syndrome due to hantavirus is a disease caused by inhalation of aerosols from the excreta of wild rodents contaminated by viruses of the Bunyaviridae family. We studied the clinical and laboratory manifestations of 70 cases that occurred in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, between 1998 and 2007. The frequency of symptoms was as follows: dyspnea (87%), fever (81%), coughing (44%), headache (34%), tachycardia (81%), low arterial blood pressure (56%), metabolic acidosis (57%), lymphocytopenia (51%), hematocrit > 45% (70%), leukocytosis with left deviation (67%), creatinine (51%) and urea (42%). Mortality (54.3%) occurred mainly on the fourth day. Respiratory insufficiency, low arterial blood pressure and shock occurred after 24 to 48 hours. High hematocrit and decreased platelet levels were signs strongly suggestive of the disease. The diagnostic hypothesis of atypical pneumonia was associated with a good prognosis (p = 0.0136). Fluid infusion greater than 2,000 ml and arterial hypotension were associated with a poor prognosis (p = 0.0286 and p = 0.0453).

  8. Abundance and Morphological Effects of Large Woody Debris in Forested Basins of Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, A.; Comiti, F.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    The Southern Andes mountain range represents an ideal location for studying large woody debris (LWD) in streams draining forested basins thanks to the presence of both pristine and managed woodland, and to the general low level of human alteration of stream corridors. However, no published investigations have been performed so far in such a large region. The investigated sites of this research are three basins (9-13 km2 drainage area, third-order channels) covered by Nothofagus forests: two of them are located in the Southern Chilean Andes (the Tres Arroyos in the Malalcahuello National Reserve and the Rio Toro within the Malleco Natural Reserve) and one basin lies in the Argentinean Tierra del Fuego (the Buena Esperanza basin, near the city of Ushuaia). Measured LWD were all wood pieces larger than 10 cm in diameter and 1 m in length, both in the active channel and in the adjacent active floodplain. Pieces forming log jams were all measured and the geometrical dimensions of jams were taken. Jam type was defined based on Abbe and Montgomery (2003) classification. Sediment stored behind log-steps and valley jams was evaluated approximating the sediment accumulated to a solid wedge whose geometrical dimensions were measured. Additional information relative to each LWD piece were recorded during the field survey: type (log, rootwad, log with rootwads attached), orientation to flow, origin (floated, bank erosion, landslide, natural mortality, harvest residuals) and position (log-step, in-channel, channel-bridging, channel margins, bankfull edge). In the Tres Arroyos, the average LWD volume stored within the bankfull channel is 710 m3 ha-1. The average number of pieces is 1,004 per hectare of bankfull channel area. Log-steps represent about 22% of all steps, whereas the elevation loss due to LWD (log-steps and valley jams) results in 27% loss of the total stream potential energy. About 1,600 m3 of sediment (assuming a porosity of 20%) is stored in the main channel

  9. Quantifying modern erosion rates and river-sediment contamination in the Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ghielmi, Giacomo; Mondaca, Gonzalo; Resentini, Alberto; Villarroel, Elena Katia; Padoan, Marta; Gentile, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    We use petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical data on modern river sediments of the Tupiza basin in the Bolivian Andes to investigate the relationships among human activity, heavy-metal contamination of sediments and modern erosion rates in mountain fluvial systems. Forward mixing model was used to quantify the relative contributions from each main tributary to total sediment load of the Tupiza River. The absolute sediment load was estimated by using the Pacific Southwest Inter Agency Committee model (PSIAC, 1968) after two years of geological field surveys (2009; 2010), together with data obtained from the Instituto Nacional del Agua public authority (INA, 2007), and suspended-load data from Aalto et al. (2006). Our results indicate that the sediment yield in the drainage basin is 910 ± 752 ton/km2year and the mean erosion rate is 0.40 ± 0.33 mm/year. These values compare well with erosion rates measured by Insel et al. (2010) using 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bolivian river sediments. More than 40% of the Tupiza river load is produced in the upper part of the catchment, where highly tectonized and weathered rocks are exposed and coupled with sporadic land cover and intense human activity (mines). In the Rio Chilco basin strong erosion of upland valleys produce an increase of erosion (˜10 mm/year) and the influx of large amounts of sediment by mass wasting processes. The main floodplain of the Tupiza catchment represents a significant storage site for the heavy metals (˜657 ton/year). Fluvial sediments contain zinc, lead, vanadium, chromium, arsenic and nickel. Since the residence time of these contaminants in the alluvial plain may be more than 100 years, they may represent a potential source of pollution for human health.

  10. Tectonic control on denudation rates in the central Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Kober, Florian; Hippe, Kristina; Lendzioch, Theodora; Grischott, Reto; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Christl, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Effects of a positive feedback loop between erosion and tectonics have been shown by analogue and numerical models and have been inferred from field observations at the scale of mountain ranges. We present new data from the Bolivian Andes supporting these observations, although common geomorphic parameters do not indicate a simple correlation. The upper Rio Grande segment, located between Cochabamba, Santa Cruz and Sucre, drains a major catchment in the central Bolivian Cordillera, from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) in the W, through the Interandean Zone (IAZ) and the Subandes (SA) in the E. The catchment covers an area of 58939 km² with an altitude range from 400 to 5150 m above sea level. Geologically, the Bolivian Andes comprise (from W to E) the Altiplano, the EC, the IAZ and the SA fold and thrust belts. The Altiplano represents an almost perfectly closed basin with distinct barriers defined by the Western Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera. The Rio Grande does not reach the Altiplano (unlike Rio La Paz and Rio Consata) but has its western drainage divide along the high peaks of the EC that experienced a period of intense shortening between Late Oligocene and Miocene. Near Cochabamba, the EC comprises metasedimentary siliciclastic rocks of Ordovician age. These rocks are overlain by Cretaceous to Paleocene and / or Neogene sediments with an angular unconformity. The IAZ and SA form an east-vergent fold and thrust belt and comprise Paleozoic and Mesozoic units. Farther east, the structures of the SA progressively include Neogene foreland strata of the Chaco foreland basin. The Chaco basin rests on the Brazilian shield east of the Subandean Belt and forms the modern foreland basin, where the lower Rio Grande catchment is sited. We obtained 58 cosmogenic 10Be catchment wide denudation rates for the Rio Grande catchments upstream of Abapó. They range from 7 mm/kyr to 1550 mm/kyr thus integrating at maximum over the last 10.000 years, with a mean of 262 mm/kyr. In

  11. Into the Andes: multiple independent colonizations drive montane diversity in the Neotropical clearwing butterflies Godyridina.

    PubMed

    Chazot, Nicolas; Willmott, Keith R; Condamine, Fabien L; De-Silva, Donna Lisa; Freitas, André V L; Lamas, Gerardo; Morlon, Hélène; Giraldo, Carlos E; Jiggins, Chris D; Joron, Mathieu; Mallet, James; Uribe, Sandra; Elias, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Understanding why species richness peaks along the Andes is a fundamental question in the study of Neotropical biodiversity. Several biogeographic and diversification scenarios have been proposed in the literature, but there is confusion about the processes underlying each scenario, and assessing their relative contribution is not straightforward. Here, we propose to refine these scenarios into a framework which evaluates four evolutionary mechanisms: higher speciation rate in the Andes, lower extinction rates in the Andes, older colonization times and higher colonization rates of the Andes from adjacent areas. We apply this framework to a species-rich subtribe of Neotropical butterflies whose diversity peaks in the Andes, the Godyridina (Nymphalidae: Ithomiini). We generated a time-calibrated phylogeny of the Godyridina and fitted time-dependent diversification models. Using trait-dependent diversification models and ancestral state reconstruction methods we then compared different biogeographic scenarios. We found strong evidence that the rates of colonization into the Andes were higher than the other way round. Those colonizations and the subsequent local diversification at equal rates in the Andes and in non-Andean regions mechanically increased the species richness of Andean regions compared to that of non-Andean regions ('species-attractor' hypothesis). We also found support for increasing speciation rates associated with Andean lineages. Our work highlights the importance of the Andean slopes in repeatedly attracting non-Andean lineages, most likely as a result of the diversity of habitats and/or host plants. Applying this analytical framework to other clades will bring important insights into the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the most species-rich biodiversity hotspot on the planet.

  12. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in

  13. Expression of recombinant Araraquara Hantavirus nucleoprotein in insect cells and its use as an antigen for immunodetection compared to the same antigen expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Antigens for Hantavirus serological tests have been produced using DNA recombinant technology for more than twenty years. Several different strategies have been used for that purpose. All of them avoid the risks and difficulties involved in multiplying Hantavirus in the laboratory. In Brazil, the Araraquara virus is one of the main causes of Hantavirus Cardio-Pulmonary Syndrome (HCPS). Methods In this investigation, we report the expression of the N protein of the Araraquara Hantavirus in a Baculovirus Expression System, the use of this protein in IgM and IgG ELISA and comparison with the same antigen generated in E. coli. Results The protein obtained, and purified in a nickel column, was effectively recognized by antibodies from confirmed HCPS patients. Comparison of the baculovirus generated antigen with the N protein produced in E. coli showed that both were equally effective in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions Our results therefore indicate that either of these proteins can be used in serological tests in Brazil. PMID:21569341

  14. Development of a one-step SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara and Rio Mamore hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alex Martins; de Souza, William Marciel; de Pádua, Michelly; da Silva Rodrigues Machado, Aline Rafaela; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-09-19

    Hantaviruses are members of the family Bunyaviridae and are an emerging cause of disease worldwide with high lethality in the Americas. In Brazil, the diagnosis for hantaviruses is based on immunologic techniques associated with conventional RT-PCR. A novel one-step SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR was developed for the detection and quantitation of Araraquara (ARAV) and Rio Mamore hantavirus (RIOMV). The detection limit of assay was 10 copies/μL of RNA in vitro transcribed of segment S. The specificity of assay was evaluated by melting curve analysis, which showed that the Araraquara virus amplified product generated a melt peak at 80.83 ± 0.89 °C without generating primer-dimers or non-specific products. The assay was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR and we detected two samples undetected by conventional RT-PCR. The one-step SYBR Green real-time quantitative RT-PCR is specific, sensible and reproducible, which makes it a powerful tool in both diagnostic applications and general research of ARAV and RIOMV and possibly other Brazilian hantaviruses.

  15. Active faulting in the Southwestern Venezuelan Andes and Colombia borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, A.; Beltran, C.; Lugo, M. , Caracas )

    1993-02-01

    In the southern Andes, the Bocono fault shows a progressive disactivation of its right lateral movement, resulting from its attenuation against the transversal system of Bramon and its kinematic connection to the [open quotes]Pamplona indenter,[close quotes] considered as a part of the plate boundary between the Caribbean and South America. Near the Colombian frontier, the velocity of Bocono fault is probably less than 1 mm/yr. Such a decrease is explained because an increasing amount of the 1 cm/yr slip movement of the northern part of the fault is absorbed through a complex branching of the active trace, southwest Merida. Another significative amount of the rate movement of Bocono fault, considered as plate boundary, results absorbed by subparallel active faulting systems located to the east (Uribante and Caparo Systems) and to the west sides (San Simon-Seboruco, and San Pedro-Aguas Calientes-La Don Juana systems). The last system, extending beyond the frontier, shows a particular seimotectonic importance, as a probable source of the 1875 Cucata earthquake. In this way, the weight of the southwestern end of Bocono fault as a seismic source loses importance respect to the northern segment located between la Grita and Merida where the 1610 and 1894 earthquakes occurred, and also as compared to the faults that define the [open quotes]Pamplona indenter[close quotes] like probable source for several other destructive earthquakes.

  16. [Medical education at Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Orrego Vicuña, F

    1997-07-01

    Universidad de los Andes School of Medicine started in 1991 with a new medical curriculum aimed at providing a medical education for its students, that is, it attempts to give, together with technical proficiency in medical matters, formation of character and a strong ethical attitude. The curriculum lasts for seven years: five of basic, pre-clinical and clinical theoretical and practical courses, followed by two years of internships in Internal Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Pediatrics, plus a four month period of an elective internship. The courses have an integrated design, in which each matter is presented from multiple perspectives, e.g. in Internal Medicine together with the clinical aspects of disease, the pathophysiology and the pharmacology of the drugs used are presented. Also the Pathology of each disease is given in coordination in the Pathology course. General educational matters such as Anthropology, Psychology, Origin of Living Beings, Theology and Medical Ethics are interspersed in the curriculum. An important feature is the personal counselling system, in which each student may choose an academic counsellor and discuss with him (her) the subjects of his choosing. Clinical practice is given in a system that includes five hospitals and five private clinics that range from general medical practice to Psychiatry or Ophthalmology.

  17. Membrane triangles with corner drilling freedoms. II - The ANDES element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felippa, Carlos A.; Militello, Carmelo

    1992-01-01

    This is the second article in a three-part series on the construction of 3-node, 9-dof membrane elements with normal-to-its-plane rotational freedoms (the so-called drilling freedoms) using parametrized variational principles. In this part, one such element is derived within the context of the assumed natural deviatoric strain (ANDES) formulation. The higher-order strains are obtained by constructing three parallel-to-sides pure-bending modes from which natural strains are obtained at the corner points and interpolated over the element. To attain rank sufficiency, an additional higher-order 'torsional' mode, corresponding to equal hierarchical rotations at each corner with all other motions precluded, is incorporated. The resulting formulation has five free parameters. When these parameters are optimized against pure bending by energy balance methods, the resulting element is found to coalesce with the optimal EFF element derived in Part I. Numerical integration as a strain filtering device is found to play a key role in this achievement.

  18. Meteorological Conditions of Floods In The Chilean Andes Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, J.

    Catastrophic floods occurred on mountains River during 2000 and 2001. The meteo- rological conditions of flood during the last five years have analyzed. For example, the flood of June 29 of 2000 occurred after one of extremely wettest June of the last 40 years were snowfall was 991cm in the Aconcagua Valley. Infrequently storms activ- ity generated a huge snowfall and rainfall over the Andes mountains on June of 2000 (1525mm in El Maule Valley) and the end of the unusually period, the flood was trig- gered by rising temperatures on the mountains and heavy rain (199mm in 24 hours) fall over the fresh snow on the morning of June 29 and floods wave developed and moved down along of the all river located on Central part of Chile, the foods peak was 2970.5m3/s on the El Maule basin in the morning of June 29. The regional meteoro- logical models with the hydrological forecasting was used for alert of the floods.

  19. Over three millennia of mercury pollution in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Colin A.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Biester, Harald; Wolfe, Alexander P.

    2009-01-01

    We present unambiguous records of preindustrial atmospheric mercury (Hg) pollution, derived from lake-sediment cores collected near Huancavelica, Peru, the largest Hg deposit in the New World. Intensive Hg mining first began ca. 1400 BC, predating the emergence of complex Andean societies, and signifying that the region served as a locus for early Hg extraction. The earliest mining targeted cinnabar (HgS) for the production of vermillion. Pre-Colonial Hg burdens peak ca. 500 BC and ca. 1450 AD, corresponding to the heights of the Chavín and Inca states, respectively. During the Inca, Colonial, and industrial intervals, Hg pollution became regional, as evidenced by a third lake record ≈225 km distant from Huancavelica. Measurements of sediment-Hg speciation reveal that cinnabar dust was initially the dominant Hg species deposited, and significant increases in deposition were limited to the local environment. After conquest by the Inca (ca. 1450 AD), smelting was adopted at the mine and Hg pollution became more widely circulated, with the deposition of matrix-bound phases of Hg predominating over cinnabar dust. Our results demonstrate the existence of a major Hg mining industry at Huancavelica spanning the past 3,500 years, and place recent Hg enrichment in the Andes in a broader historical context. PMID:19451629

  20. Structural style on southern flank of Merida Andes, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Urbina, C.; Cornelio, A. )

    1993-02-01

    The Merida Andes exhibit the most complex tectonics in western Venezuela. By studying the different ages and regional distribution of rocks, we can describe some tectonic features which are of interest to oil exploration in this area. Vertical basement movements accompanied extensional tectonics from pre-Cambrian until Eocene times. For this time interval, we reconstructed diverse normal fault systems and associated subsidence. From Eocene time onwards, compressional tectonics gave origin to anticlines and reverse, thrust and back-thrust faults. Neo-tectonic movements have modified existing structures by dislocation along transcurrent fault systems. Geochemical analyses have determined the presence of hydrocarbon source rocks equivalent to the a Luna Formation of the Maracaibo Basin; seismic, surface and subsurface data prove the existence of excellent seals in the Eocene Paguey Shale. The principal problem is to determine the timing of hydrocarbon migration with respect to the timing of trap formation. It is highly probable that the sapropelic strata of the Navay Formation, equivalent to the La Luna Formation, is presently expelling hydrocarbons to traps in the Barinas Basin, under presently existing temperature-pressure conditions.

  1. Epidemiology of Echinococcus granulosus infection in the central Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed Central

    Moro, P. L.; McDonald, J.; Gilman, R. H.; Silva, B.; Verastegui, M.; Malqui, V.; Lescano, G.; Falcon, N.; Montes, G.; Bazalar, H.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of human, canine, and ovine echinococcosis was determined in an endemic area of the Peruvian Andes where control programmes have not been operational since 1980. Prevalence of infection in humans was determined using portable ultrasound, chest X-rays, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. Canine and ovine echinococcal prevalence was determined by microscopic stool examinations following arecoline purging for tapeworm detection and by examination of the viscera from slaughtered livestock animals, respectively. The prevalence among 407 humans surveyed was 9.1%. The frequency of disease in the liver, lung, and in both organs was 3.4%, 2.0%, and 0.2%, respectively. Portable ultrasound or portable chest X-ray has shown that, compared to adults, children under 11 years had significantly higher seropositive rates without evidence of hydatid disease (P < 0.05). Among the 104 dogs inspected for echinococcus after arecoline purging, 33 (32%) were positive for adult tapeworms. Among the 117 sheep slaughtered at the local abattoir, 102 (87%) had hydatid cysts. The prevalence of human hydatidosis in this endemic area of Peru is one of the highest in the world and nearly five times higher than previously reported in 1980. An increase in echinococcosis prevalence may result after premature cessation of control programmes. PMID:9509628

  2. Quaternary Glaciations in the Rio Mendoza Valley, Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espizua, Lydia E.

    1993-09-01

    In the Rio Mendoza valley, five Pleistocene drifts and one Holocene drift are distinguished by multiple relative-age criteria, including surface-rock weathering, development of rock varnish, moraine morphology, soil-profile development, and stratigraphic relationships. Several absolute ages suggest a preliminary chronology. During the oldest (Uspallata) glaciation, a system of valley glaciers flowed 110 km from the Andean drainage divide and 80 km from Cerro Aconcagua to terminate at 1850 m. Drift of this ice advance is older than a widespread tephra dated by fission-track at 360,000 ± 36,000 yr. During the Punta de Vacas advance, ice terminated at 2350 m, while during the subsequent Penitentes advance, the glacier system ended at 2500 m. A travertine layer overlying Penitentes Drift has U-series age of 24,200 ± 2000 yr B.P. The distribution of Horcones Drift, which is inferred to represent the last glacial maximum, delimits an independent ice stream that flowed 22 km down Horcones valley to 2750 m. A later readvance (Almacenes) reached 3250 m. Confluencia Drift is considered to be Neoglacial in age and extends downvalley to 3300 m. The moraine sequence is compared with those studied by Caviedes (1972) along Rio Aconcagua on the Chilean flank of the Andes.

  3. [Description of the seismological network of the Venezuelan Andes].

    PubMed

    Guada, Carlos; Morandi, María; Silva, José

    2003-01-01

    Western Venezuela shows a broad zone characterized by a moderate seismicity level, which has been the scenery of various historic earthquakes of destructive character. The beginning of the seismic instrumentation in the area dates from 1969, nevertheless it was 10 years later when the seismological network of the Venezuelan Andes (REDSAV) was permanently installed in order to characterize the regional earthquake activity. The REDSAV is an array of 10 remote seismic stations that sends the seismic signals by analog telemetry to the central station, located in the city of Mérida, where the digitalization, automatic event detection in real time and the analysis and off-line processing of the seismic information is carried out. During the last 10 years important advances have been taken place in terms of its operativity, which includes a dynamic web site (http://lgula.ciens.ula.ve) with a catalog of western Venezuela earthquakes, where the user can visualize the seismograms, the P and S wave arrival time, the polarities and epicentral maps; moreover, it is possible to select events applying temporal, spatial and magnitute criteria. In this paper the technical characteristic of the equipment are described and the advances registered in the last years referring to the automatic acquisition system, processing of the information and seismologic catalog of the REDSAV, whose systematic use during a decade has permitted to gather the biggest information base of related with the seismicity of the south-western Venezuela.

  4. The Grenville-age basement of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the basement of the Andes shows the strong Grenville affinities of most of the inliers exposed in the different terranes from Colombia to Patagonia. The terranes have different histories, but most of them participated in the Rodinia supercontinent amalgamation during the Mesoproterozoic between 1200 and 1000 Ma. After Rodinia break-up some terranes were left in the Laurentian side such as Cuyania and Chilenia, while others stayed in the Gondwanan side. Some of the terranes once collided with the Amazon craton remained attached, experiencing diverse rifting episodes all along the Phanerozoic, as the Arequipa and Pampia terranes. Some other basement inliers were detached in the Neoproterozoic and amalgamated again to Gondwana in the Early Cambrian, Middle Ordovician or Permian times. A few basement inliers with Permian metamorphic ages were transferred to Gondwana after Pangea break-up from the Laurentian side. Some of them were part of the present Middle America terrane. An exceptional case is the Oaxaquia terrane that was detached from the Gondwana margin after the Early Ordovician and is now one of the main Mexican terranes that collided with Laurentia. These displacements, detachments, and amalgamations indicate a complex terrane transfer between Laurentia and Gondwana during Paleozoic times, following plate reorganizations and changes in the absolute motion of Gondwana.

  5. Characteristics of Precipitation Features and Annual Rainfall during the TRMM Era in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, Karen I.; Slayback, Daniel; Yager, Karina

    2014-01-01

    The central Andes extends from 7 deg to 21 deg S, with its eastern boundary defined by elevation (1000m and greater) and its western boundary by the coastline. The authors used a combination of surface observations, reanalysis, and the University of Utah Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) precipitation features (PF) database to understand the characteristics of convective systems and associated rainfall in the central Andes during the TRMM era, 1998-2012. Compared to other dry (West Africa), mountainous (Himalayas), and dynamically linked (Amazon) regions in the tropics, the central Andes PF population was distinct from these other regions, with small and weak PFs dominating its cumulative distribution functions and annual rainfall totals. No more than 10% of PFs in the central Andes met any of the thresholds used to identify and define deep convection (minimum IR cloud-top temperatures, minimum 85-GHz brightness temperature, maximum height of the 40-dBZ echo). For most of the PFs, available moisture was limited (less than 35mm) and instability low (less than 500 J kg(exp -1)). The central Andes represents a largely stable, dry to arid environment, limiting system development and organization. Hence, primarily short-duration events (less than 60 min) characterized by shallow convection and light to light-moderate rainfall rates (0.5-4.0 mm h(exp -1)) were found.

  6. Platelet ligands and ADAMTS13 during Puumala hantavirus infection and associated thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Outi; Mäkelä, Satu; Mustonen, Jukka; Helminen, Mika; Vaheri, Antti; Lassila, Riitta; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta

    2011-09-01

    We aimed here to elucidate the role of adhesive platelet ligands and endothelial involvement during the acute phase of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. Nineteen hospital-treated patients with serologically confirmed diagnosis of acute PUUV infection were included. Patient charts were reviewed for clinical and basic laboratory data. Plasma levels of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), ristocetin cofactor (VWF:RCo), factor VIII (FVIII:C) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 domain 13 (ADAMTS13) activities as well as fibrinogen and fibronectin were measured three times acutely and once during the recovery phase. VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo were nearly three-fold higher acutely compared with recovery (median 252 vs. 88%, and mean 267 vs. 98%, respectively; P<0.001 for both), whereas FVIII:C was only slightly elevated (median 118 vs. 88%, P=0.002) and remarkably failed to show association with VWF in the acute phase. ADAMTS13 activity and fibronectin concentration were lower in the acute compared with the recovery phase (median 56 vs. 63%, P=0.003, and median 221 vs. 330 μmol/l, P=0.001, respectively). Fibrinogen raised acutely (mean 5.0 vs. 3.3 g/l, P<0.001), negatively correlating with the platelet count (r=-0.468, P=0.043). Markedly upregulated fibrinogen and VWF together with decreased levels of ADAMTS13 activity and fibronectin were observed during acute PUUV infection. VWF and FVIII:C did not associate during the acute phase, whereas thrombocytopenia correlated negatively with fibrinogen. These findings imply several rearranged interactions between platelets and their ligands.

  7. Migration of Norway rats resulted in the worldwide distribution of Seoul hantavirus today.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo; Zhang, Yong-Zhen

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats.

  8. Migration of Norway Rats Resulted in the Worldwide Distribution of Seoul Hantavirus Today

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xian-Dan; Guo, Wen-Ping; Wang, Wen; Zou, Yang; Hao, Zong-Yu; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Dong, Xue; Qu, Yong-Gang; Li, Ming-Hui; Tian, Hai-Feng; Wen, Jian-Fan; Plyusnin, Alexander; Xu, Jianguo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the worldwide distribution, most of the known Seoul viruses (SEOV) are closely related to each other. In this study, the M and the S segment sequences of SEOV were recovered from 130 lung tissue samples (mostly of Norway rats) and from six patient serum samples by reverse transcription-PCR. Genetic analysis revealed that all sequences belong to SEOV and represent 136 novel strains. Phylogenetic analysis of all available M and S segment sequences of SEOV, including 136 novel Chinese strains, revealed four distinct groups. All non-Chinese SEOV strains and most of the Chinese variants fell into the phylogroup A, while the Chinese strains originating from mountainous areas clustered into three other distinct groups (B, C, and D). We estimated that phylogroup A viruses may have arisen only within the last several centuries. All non-Chinese variants appeared to be directly originated from China. Thus, phylogroup A viruses distributed worldwide may share a recent ancestor, whereas SEOV seems to be as diversified genetically as other hantaviruses. In addition, all available mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences of Norway rats, including our 44 newly recovered mtDNA sequences, were divided into two phylogenetic groups. The first group, which is associated with the group A SEOV variants, included most of rats from China and also all non-Chinese rats, while the second group consisted of a few rats originating only from mountain areas in China. We hypothesize that an ancestor of phylogroup A SEOV variants was first exported from China to Europe and then spread through the New World following the migration of Norway rats. PMID:22090114

  9. Evaluation of habitat requirements of small rodents and effectiveness of an ecologically-based management in a hantavirus-endemic natural protected area in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Vadell, María Victoria; García Erize, Francisco; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is a severe cardio pulmonary disease transmitted to humans by sylvan rodents found in natural and rural environments. Disease transmission is closely linked to the ecology of animal reservoirs and abiotic factors such as habitat characteristics, season or climatic conditions. The main goals of this research were: to determine the biotic and abiotic factors affecting richness and abundance of rodent species at different spatial scales, to evaluate different methodologies for studying population of small rodents, and to describe and analyze an ecologically-based rodent management experience in a highly touristic area. A 4-year study of small rodent ecology was conducted between April 2007 and August 2011 in the most relevant habitats of El Palmar National Park, Argentina. Management involved a wide range of control and prevention measures, including poisoning, culling and habitat modification. A total of 172 individuals of 5 species were captured with a trapping effort of 13 860 traps-nights (1.24 individuals/100 traps-nights). Five rodent species were captured, including 2 hantavirus-host species, Oligoryzomys nigripes and Akodon azarae. Oligoryzomys nigripes, host of a hantavirus that is pathogenic in humans, was the most abundant species and the only one found in all the studied habitats. Our results are inconsistent with the dilution effect hypothesis. The present study demonstrates that sylvan rodent species, including the hantavirus-host species, have distinct local habitat selection and temporal variation patterns in abundance, which may influence the risk of human exposure to hantavirus and may have practical implications for disease transmission as well as for reservoir management.

  10. Traditional use of the Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola) as a galactagogue in the Peruvian Andes

    PubMed Central

    Froemming, Steve

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the use of the dried meat and feathers of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola) to increase the milk supply of nursing women and domestic animals in the Andes. The treatment is of preColumbian origin, but continues to be used in some areas, including the village in the southern Peruvian highlands where I do ethnographic research. I explore the factors giving rise to and sustaining the practice, relate it to other galactagogues used in the Andes and to the use of birds in ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary treatments in general, and situate it within the general tendency in the Andes and elsewhere to replicate human relations in the treatment of valuable livestock. The bird's use as a galactagogue appears to be motivated by both metaphorical associations and its perceived efficacy, and conceptually blends human and animal healthcare domains. PMID:16677398

  11. Cenozoic climate change as a possible cause for the rise of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Simon; Davis, Paul

    2003-10-23

    Causal links between the rise of a large mountain range and climate have often been considered to work in one direction, with significant uplift provoking climate change. Here we propose a mechanism by which Cenozoic climate change could have caused the rise of the Andes. Based on considerations of the force balance in the South American lithosphere, we suggest that the height of, and tectonics in, the Andes are strongly controlled both by shear stresses along the plate interface in the subduction zone and by buoyancy stress contrasts between the trench and highlands, and shear stresses in the subduction zone depend on the amount of subducted sediments. We propose that the dynamics of subduction and mountain-building in this region are controlled by the processes of erosion and sediment deposition, and ultimately climate. In central South America, climate-controlled sediment starvation would then cause high shear stress, focusing the plate boundary stresses that support the high Andes.

  12. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Boris; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The volcanic ash soils of the Andes contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute significant potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Climate and/or land use change potentially have a strong effect on these large SOM stocks. To clarify the role of chemical and physical stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils in the montane tropics, we investigated carbon stocks and stabilization mechanisms in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under forest and grassland (páramo), including a site where vegetation cover changed in the last century. We applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along the transect. In addition, from several soils the molecular composition of SOM was further characterized with depth in the current soil as well as the entire first and the top of the second paleosol using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks in the mineral soil under forest a páramo vegetation were roughly twice as large as global averages for volcanic ash soils, regardless of whether the first 30cm, 100cm or 200cm were considered. We found the carbon stabilization mechanisms involved to be: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity of the soil (Tonneijck et al., 2010; Jansen et al. 2011). When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin in the topsoil while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved in the subsoil (Nierop and Jansen, 2009). Both vegetation

  13. Possible future lakes in the Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colonia, Daniel; Haeberli, Wilfried; Torres, Judith; Giraldez, Claudia; Schauwecker, Simone; Santiago, Alexzander; Cochachin, Alejo; Huggel, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Climate change has caused large losses of glacier mass in the Andes of Peru. Also, given the projected changes in climate, based on different IPCC scenarios for 2050 and 2080, simulations with a tropical glacier-climate model indicate that glaciers will continue to retreat. According to the national Peruvian glacier inventories 43% of glacier area has disappeared between 1970 and 2003-2010 in the 19 snowy mountain ranges and a total of 8 355 new lakes have formed in deglaciating terrain. With glacier retreat new lakes form in parts of the glacier tongue where there is an overdeepening, and these lakes can be a source of natural hazards to downstrean populations. Therefore, the identification of possible future lakes is important to plan for preventive measures concerning possible lake outbursts as well as to understand changes in freshwater storage in the corresponding source areas. Modeling of glacier-bed overdeepenings and possible future lakes forming in such topographic depressions when becoming ice-free was done using the SRTM DEM from the year 2000 with a 90 m resolution and the 2003-2010 glacier outlines from the recently published national glacier inventory of Perú. The GIS-based analysis followed three main steps: (1) identification of flat glacier areas with less than 10° surface slope as a first-order spatial approximation to possible occurrences of glacier-bed overdeepenings; (2) application, using Google Earth, of three morphological indications of glacier-bed overdeepenings following Frey et al. (2010): steepening surface slope, onset of crevasse formation, lateral flow-narrowing; and (3) verification of the results from steps (1) and (2) by comparison with GlabTop modeling of bed topographies following Linsbauer et al. (2012) using the SRTM DEM, contour lines and constructed branch lines for all glaciers. A pilot study has already been carried out for the Cordillera Blanca. The results show that 31 major new lakes may form in the future. The total

  14. Evolution of Irruputuncu volcano, Central Andes, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, I.; Roche, O.; Moune, S.; Aguilera, F.; Campos, E.; Pizarro, M.

    2015-11-01

    The Irruputuncu is an active volcano located in northern Chile within the Central Andean Volcanic Zone (CAVZ) and that has produced andesitic to trachy-andesitic magmas over the last ˜258 ± 49 ka. We report petrographical and geochemical data, new geochronological ages and for the first time a detailed geological map representing the eruptive products generated by the Irruputuncu volcano. The detailed study on the volcanic products allows us to establish a temporal evolution of the edifice. We propose that the Irruputuncu volcanic history can be divided in two stages, both dominated by effusive activity: Irruputuncu I and II. The oldest identified products that mark the beginning of Irruputuncu I are small-volume pyroclastic flow deposits generated during an explosive phase that may have been triggered by magma injection as suggested by mingling features in the clasts. This event was followed by generation of large lava flows and the edifice grew until destabilization of its SW flank through the generation of a debris avalanche, which ended Irruputuncu I. New effusive activity generated lavas flows to the NW at the beginning of Irruputuncu II. In the meantime, lava domes that grew in the summit were destabilized, as shown by two well-preserved block-and-ash flow deposits. The first phase of dome collapse, in particular, generated highly mobile pyroclastic flows that propagated up to ˜8 km from their source on gentle slopes as low as 11° in distal areas. The actual activity is characterized by deposition of sulfur and permanent gas emissions, producing a gas plume that reaches 200 m above the crater. The maximum volume of this volcanic system is of ˜4 km3, being one of the smallest active volcano of Central Andes.

  15. High resolution precipitation climatology for the Andes of South Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trachte, Katja; Bendix, Jörg

    2014-05-01

    The climate of Ecuador is strongly dominated by the complex structure of the Andes Mountains. Due to their heights and north-south orientation they act like a barrier, which cause delineation between the western and eastern flanks, as well as the inner-Andean areas. Commonly the Ecuadorian climate is classified in three zones, Costa, Interandina and Oriente. Existing precipitation products such as the GPCC or TRMM data are enabled to represent these climate zones, but because of their spatial resolution, they pass to capture the different regimes within a zone. Especially the inner-Andean region (Interandina) with its characteristic complex terrain shows spatially high climate variability. Local circulation systems, e.g. mountain-valley breezes as well as effects of windward and lee-side, drive the climate conditions allowing for the differentiation of air temperature and rainfall distribution on relative small scales. These highly variable patterns are also reflected by the diversity of ecosystems, e.g. rainforest, dry forest and Paramo, in a relative small area. In order to represent the local systems a dynamical downscaling approach for the Ecuadorian region is applied. In doing so the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used. A suitable model setup was evaluated within a sensitivity study, where various parametrization schemes were tested. The most suitable physics combination was used for a 30 year hint cast simulation. The poster presents first results of the high resolution climate simulations. On the basis of the spatial distribution of rainfall patterns distinct precipitation regimes within the Interandina will be shown. The aim is to highlight and discuss the importance of the adequately representation of the terrain in mountainous regions like the Andean Mountains.

  16. Erosion by Ice and Water in the Southern Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This scene on the remote, rugged Argentine/Chilean border in the far southern Andes Mountains offers numerous, dramatic examples of both erosional processes and features of ice and water. The sharp, glaciated crest of the Cerro San Lorenzo (center) exceeds 12,000 feet and casts a long shadow southeastward. Glaciers on its western flank flow into the valley. This Electronic Still Camera photo was taken from the International Space Station, in December 2000 (late spring) when most of the previous winter's snow had melted below an altitude of 6,000 feet. Lago Pueyrredon, and the other lakes visible here, have been excavated by geologically recent episodes of glacier erosion, when glaciers extended all the way onto the lowland plains (top right). Since the last melting of the glaciers (15,000 years ago) three distinct fan deltas (semicircular features, marked with arrows) have formed where rivers flow into the lake. Counterclockwise currents in the lake-driven by strong winds from the west-have generated thin sand spits from each fan-delta. The largest spit (attached to the largest fan-delta, see right arrow) has isolated an approximately 10-kilometer long segment of the south end of the lake. The river that constructed the largest fan presently discharges turbid water to this isolated basin, giving it a lighter color than the rest of the lake. Glacial data collected over the past 50 years indicate that small ice bodies are disappearing at accelerated rates. (EOS, vol 81, no. 24, June 13, 2000) Predictions are that large fluctuations in land ice, with significant implications to society, are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change. Before glacial data can be used to address critical problems pertaining to the world's economic and environmental health, more detailed information about such glaciers is needed. Image ISS001-ESC-5113 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  17. The Little Ice Age in the tropical Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomelli, V.; Cooley, D.; Naveau, P.; Rabatel, A.

    2003-12-01

    The period known as the Little Ice Age, from the 17th to the 19th century, brought a cooling of around 0.5 degrees Celsius as well as varyingly humid episodes Eurasia and North America. Because of a lack of long paleoclimatic time series in the tropical Andes, it is still unclear if similar cooling occurred over these tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions. Furthermore, if changes did take place, it is currently not well established if they were temporally synchronous or shifted with respect of the variations in the Northern Hemisphere or the globe. To look into this important climatic question and for advancing our understanding of the past climate links between the tropics and higher latitudes, 25 glaciers located in Bolivia and in Peru were carefully selected. Glacial activity and environmental changes were analyzed using lichenometry. Largest lichen diameters were measured in the different glacial basins. To better analyze these maximum diameters and to more appropriately represent uncertainty and the character of this collected data, age estimates of the different moraine systems were derived using extreme value theory rather than the traditional averaging. The results reveal two particular phases of glacier growth, 1550-1600 and 1800-1850. These two phases have also been identified in other proxy records, such as ice-cores and documentary data (particularly from church chronicles). In order to understand the climatic changes that could have contributed to the glacial variations, a simple model based on both precipitations and temperatures is applied to estimate mass balance questions in the basins. A cooling of the order of 0.5 C seems to be the most consistent with the data. Finally, these findings are compared with the better-known histories of Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude glaciers.

  18. The nature of orogenic crust in the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George

    2002-10-01

    The central Andes (16°-22°S) are part of an active continental margin mountain belt and the result of shortening of the weak western edge of South America between the strong lithospheres of the subducting Nazca plate and the underthrusting Brazilian shield. We have combined receiver function and surface wave dispersion results from the BANJO-SEDA project with other geophysical studies to characterize the nature of the continental crust and mantle lithospheric structure. The major results are as follows: (1) The crust supporting the high elevations is thick and has a felsic to intermediate bulk composition. (2) The relatively strong Brazilian lithosphere is underthrusting as far west (65.5°W) as the high elevations of the western part of the Eastern Cordillera (EC) but does not underthrust the entire Altiplano. (3) The subcrustal lithosphere is delaminating piecemeal under the Altiplano-EC boundary but is not completely removed beneath the central Altiplano. The Altiplano crust is characterized by a brittle upper crust decoupled from a very weak lower crust that is dominated by ductile deformation, leading to lower crustal flow and flat topography. In contrast, in the high-relief, inland-sloping regions of the EC and sub-Andean zone, the upper crust is still strongly coupled across the basal thrust of the fold-thrust belt to the underthrusting Brazilian Shield lithosphere. Subcrustal shortening between the Altiplano and Brazilian lithosphere appears to be accommodated by delamination near the Altiplano-EC boundary. Our study suggests that orogenic reworking may be an important part of the "felsification" of continental crust.

  19. Glacier loss and emerging hydrologic vulnerabilities in the Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, B. G.; McKenzie, J. M.; Baraer, M.; Lagos, P.; Lautz, L.; Carey, M.; Bury, J.; Crumley, R.; Wigmore, O.; Somers, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    Accelerating glacier recession in the tropical Andes is transforming downstream hydrology, while increasing demands for water by end-users (even beyond the watershed limits) is complicating the assessment of vulnerability. Future scenarios of hydro-climatic vulnerability require a better understanding of coupled hydrologic and human systems, involving both multiscale process studies and more robust models of glacier-climate interactions. We synthesize research in two proglacial valleys of glacierized mountain ranges in different regions of Peru that are both in proximity to growing water usage from urban sectors, agriculture, hydroelectric generation, and mining. In both the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca and the Shullcas River watershed below Hyuatapallana Mountain in Junin, glaciers have receded over 25% since the 1980s. Historical runoff and glacier data, combined with glacier-climate modeling, show a long-term decrease in discharge resulting from a net loss of stored water. We find evidence that this altered hydrology is transforming proglacial wetland ecology and water quality, even while water resource use has intensified. Beyond glaciers, our results show that over 60% of the dry season base flow in each watershed is groundwater sourced from heterogeneous aquifers. Municipal water supply in Huancayo already relies on 18 groundwater wells. Perceptions of water availability and actual water use practices remain relatively divorced from the actual water resources provided from each mountain range. Critical changes in glacier volume and water supply are not perceived or acknowledged consistently amongst different water users, nor reflected in water management decisions. In order to identify, understand, model, and adapt to climate-glacier-water changes, it is vital to integrate the analysis of water availability and groundwater processes (the domain of hydrologists) with that of water use (the focus for social scientists). Attention must be

  20. Glaciological studies in the central Andes using AIRSAR/TOPSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forster, Richard R.; Klein, Andrew G.; Blodgett, Troy A.; Isacks, Bryan L.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of climate and topography in mountainous regions is dramatically expressed in the spatial distribution of glaciers and snowcover. Monitoring existing alpine glaciers and snow extent provides insight into the present mountain climate system and how it is changing, while mapping the positions of former glaciers as recorded in landforms such as cirques and moraines provide a record of the large past climate change associated with the last glacial maximum. The Andes are an ideal mountain range in which to study the response of snow and ice to past and present climate change. Their expansive latitudinal extent offers the opportunity to study glaciers in diverse climate settings from the tropical glaciers of Peru and Bolivia to the ice caps and tide-water glaciers of sub-polar Patagonia. SAR has advantages over traditional passive remote sensing instruments for monitoring present snow and ice and differentiating moraine relative ages. The cloud penetrating ability of SAR is indispensable for perennially cloud covered mountains. Snow and ice facies can be distinguished from SAR's response to surface roughness, liquid water content and grain size distribution. The combination of SAR with a coregestered high-resolution DEM (TOPSAR) provides a promising tool for measuring glacier change in three dimensions, thus allowing ice volume change to be measured directly. The change in moraine surface roughness over time enables SAR to differentiate older from younger moraines. Polarimetric SAR data have been used to distinguish snow and ice facies and relatively date moraines. However, both algorithms are still experimental and require ground truth verification. We plan to extend the SAR classification of snow and ice facies and moraine age beyond the ground truth sites to throughout the Cordillera Real to provide a regional view of past and present snow and ice. The high resolution DEM will enhance the SAR moraine dating technique by discriminating relative ages

  1. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  2. Two New Species of Black Flies (Diptera: Simuliidae) from the High Andes of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mantilla, Juan S; Moncada, Ligia I; Matta, Nubia E; Adler, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    The females, males, pupae, and larvae of two new species of Simulium are described and illustrated from a small stream 3950 m above sea level in the Lake Otún area of the Colombian Andes Mountains. Simulium (Pternaspatha) quimbayium n. sp. represents a 630-km northeastern extension of the distributional range of previously known members of the subgenus Pternaspatha, and Simulium (Psilopelmia) machetorum n. sp. represents the highest altitude recorded for a species of the subgenus Psilopelmia. These species illustrate the unique simuliid biodiversity in the páramo ecosystem of the high northern Andes.

  3. Modelling wet snow avalanche runout to assess road safety at a high-altitude mine in the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Cesar Vera; Wever, Nander; Bühler, Yves; Stoffel, Lukas; Margreth, Stefan; Bartelt, Perry

    2016-11-01

    Mining activities in cold regions are vulnerable to snow avalanches. Unlike operational facilities, which can be constructed in secure locations outside the reach of avalanches, access roads are often susceptible to being cut, leading to mine closures and significant financial losses. In this paper we discuss the application of avalanche runout modelling to predict the operational risk to mining roads, a long-standing problem for mines in high-altitude, snowy regions. We study the 35 km long road located in the "Cajón del rio Blanco" valley in the central Andes, which is operated by the Codelco Andina copper mine. In winter and early spring, this road is threatened by over 100 avalanche paths. If the release and snow cover conditions can be accurately specified, we find that avalanche dynamics modelling is able to represent runout, and safe traffic zones can be identified. We apply a detailed, physics-based snow cover model to calculate snow temperature, density and moisture content in three-dimensional terrain. This information is used to determine the initial and boundary conditions of the avalanche dynamics model. Of particular importance is the assessment of the current snow conditions along the avalanche tracks, which define the mass and thermal energy entrainment rates and therefore the possibility of avalanche growth and long runout distances.

  4. Anthropogenic habitat disturbance and the dynamics of hantavirus using remote sensing, GIS, and a spatially explicit agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lina

    Sin Nombre virus (SNV), a strain of hantavirus, causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in humans, a deadly disease with high mortality rate (>50%). The primary virus host is deer mice, and greater deer mice abundance has been shown to increase the human risk of HPS. There is a great need in understanding the nature of the virus host, its temporal and spatial dynamics, and its relation to the human population with the purpose of predicting human risk of the disease. This research studies SNV dynamics in deer mice in the Great Basin Desert of central Utah, USA using multiyear field data and integrated geospatial approaches including remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS), and a spatially explicit agent-based model. The goal is to advance our understanding of the important ecological and demographic factors that affect the dynamics of deer mouse population and SNV prevalence. The primary research question is how climate, habitat disturbance, and deer mouse demographics affect deer mouse population density, its movement, and SNV prevalence in the sagebrush habitat. The results show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) can be good predictors of deer mouse density and the number of infected deer mice with a time lag of 1.0 to 1.3 years. This information can be very useful in predicting mouse abundance and SNV risk. The results also showed that climate, mouse density, sex, mass, and SNV infection had significant effects on deer mouse movement. The effect of habitat disturbance on mouse movement varies according to climate conditions with positive relationship in predrought condition and negative association in postdrought condition. The heavier infected deer mice moved the most. Season and disturbance alone had no significant effects. The spatial agent-based model (SABM) simulation results show that prevalence was negatively related to the disturbance levels and the sensitivity analysis showed that

  5. Plasma pentraxin-3 and coagulation and fibrinolysis variables during acute Puumala hantavirus infection and associated thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Laine, Outi K; Koskela, Sirpa M; Outinen, Tuula K; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Huhtala, Heini; Vaheri, Antti; Hurme, Mikko A; Jylhävä, Juulia; Mäkelä, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

    2014-09-01

    Thrombocytopenia and altered coagulation characterize all hantavirus infections. To further assess the newly discovered predictive biomarkers of disease severity during acute Puumala virus (PUUV) infection, we studied the associations between them and the variables reflecting coagulation, fibrinolysis and endothelial activation. Nineteen hospital-treated patients with serologically confirmed acute PUUV infection were included. Acutely, plasma levels of pentraxin-3 (PTX3), cell-free DNA (cf-DNA), complement components SC5b-9 and C3 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were recorded as well as platelet ligands and markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis. High values of plasma PTX3 associated with thrombin formation (prothrombin fragments F1+2; r = 0.46, P = 0.05), consumption of platelet ligand fibrinogen (r = -0.70, P < 0.001) and natural anticoagulants antithrombin (AT) (r = -0.74, P < 0.001), protein C (r = -0.77, P < 0.001) and protein S free antigen (r = -0.81, P < 0.001) and a decreased endothelial marker ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 domain 13) (r = -0.48, P = 0.04). Plasma level of AT associated with C3 (r = 0.76, P < 0.001), IL-6 (r = -0.56, P = 0.01) and cf-DNA (r = -0.47, P = 0.04). High cf-DNA coincided with increased prothrombin fragments F1+2 (r = 0.47, P = 0.04). Low C3 levels reflecting the activation of complement system through the alternative route predicted loss of all natural anticoagulants (for protein C r = 0.53, P = 0.03 and for protein S free antigen r = 0.64, P = 0.004). Variables depicting altered coagulation follow the new predictive biomarkers of disease severity, especially PTX3, in acute PUUV infection. The findings are consistent with the previous observations of these biomarkers also being predictive for low platelet count and underline the cross-talk of inflammation and coagulation systems in acute PUUV infection.

  6. Relating increasing hantavirus incidences to the changing climate: the mast connection

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Jan; Vercauteren, Jurgen; Verstraeten, Willem W; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Barrios, José M; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Maes, Piet; Van Ranst, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Background Nephropathia epidemica (NE), an emerging rodent-borne viral disease, has become the most important cause of infectious acute renal failure in Belgium, with sharp increases in incidence occurring for more than a decade. Bank voles are the rodent reservoir of the responsible hantavirus and are known to display cyclic population peaks. We tried to relate these peaks to the cyclic NE outbreaks observed since 1993. Our hypothesis was that the ecological causal connection was the staple food source for voles, being seeds of deciduous broad-leaf trees, commonly called "mast". We also examined whether past temperature and precipitation preceding "mast years" were statistically linked to these NE outbreaks. Results Since 1993, each NE peak is immediately preceded by a mast year, resulting in significantly higher NE case numbers during these peaks (Spearman R = -0.82; P = 0.034). NE peaks are significantly related to warmer autumns the year before (R = 0.51; P < 0.001), hotter summers two years before (R = 0.32; P < 0.001), but also to colder (R = -0.25; P < 0.01) and more moist summers (R = 0.39; P < 0.001) three years before. Summer correlations were even more pronounced, when only July was singled out as the most representative summer month. Conclusion NE peaks in year 0 are induced by abundant mast formation in year-1, facilitating bank vole survival during winter, thus putting the local human population at risk from the spring onwards of year 0. This bank vole survival is further promoted by higher autumn temperatures in year-1, whereas mast formation itself is primed by higher summer temperatures in year-2. Both summer and autumn temperatures have been rising to significantly higher levels during recent years, explaining the virtually continuous epidemic state since 2005 of a zoonosis, considered rare until recently. Moreover, in 2007 a NE peak and an abundant mast formation occurred for the first time within the same year, thus forecasting yet another

  7. Holocene compression in the Acequión valley (Andes Precordillera, San Juan province, Argentina): Geomorphic, tectonic, and paleoseismic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audemard, M.; Franck, A.; Perucca, L.; Laura, P.; Pantano, Ana; Avila, Carlos R.; Onorato, M. Romina; Vargas, Horacio N.; Alvarado, Patricia; Viete, Hewart

    2016-04-01

    The Matagusanos-Maradona-Acequión Valley sits within the Andes Precordillera fold-thrust belt of western Argentina. It is an elongated topographic depression bounded by the roughly N-S trending Precordillera Central and Oriental in the San Juan Province. Moreover, it is not a piggy-back basin as we could have expected between two ranges belonging to a fold-thrust belt, but a very active tectonic corridor coinciding with a thick-skinned triangular zone, squeezed between two different tectonic domains. The two domains converge, where the Precordillera Oriental has been incorporated to the Sierras Pampeanas province, becoming the western leading edge of the west-verging broken foreland Sierras Pampeanas domain. This latter province has been in turn incorporated into the active deformation framework of the Andes back-arc at these latitudes as a result of enhanced coupling between the converging plates due to the subduction of the Juan Fernández ridge that flattens the Nazca slab under the South American continent. This study focuses on the neotectonics of the southern tip of this N-S elongated depression, known as Acequión (from the homonym river that crosses the area), between the Del Agua and Los Pozos rivers. This depression dies out against the transversely oriented Precordillera Sur, which exhibits a similar tectonic style as Precordillera Occidental and Central (east-verging fold-thrust belt). This contribution brings supporting evidence of the ongoing deformation during the Late Pleistocene and Holocene of the triangular zone bounded between the two leading and converging edges of Precordillera Central and Oriental thrust fronts, recorded in a multi-episodic lake sequence of the Acequión and Nikes rivers. The herein gathered evidence comprise Late Pleistocene-Holocene landforms of active thrusting, fault kinematics (micro-tectonic) data and outcrop-scale (meso-tectonic) faulting and folding of recent lake and alluvial sequences. In addition, seismically

  8. Evolution of crustal thickening in the central Andes, Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, Nathan; McQuarrie, Nadine; Ryan, Jamie; Karimi, Bobak; Beck, Susan; Zandt, George

    2015-09-01

    Paleoelevation histories from the central Andes in Bolivia have suggested that the geodynamic evolution of the region has been punctuated by periods of large-scale lithospheric removal that drive rapid increases in elevation at the surface. Here, we evaluate viable times and locations of material loss using a map-view reconstruction of the Bolivian orocline displacement field to forward-model predicted crustal thicknesses. Two volumetric models are presented that test assumed pre-deformation crustal thicknesses of 35 km and 40 km. Both models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved first in the northern Eastern Cordillera (EC) by 30-20 Ma but remained below modern in the southern EC until ≤10 Ma. The Altiplano is predicted to have achieved modern crustal thickness after 10 Ma but only with a pre-deformation thickness of 50 km, including 10 km of sediment. At the final stage, the models predict 8-25% regional excess crustal volume compared to modern thickness, largely concentrated in the northern EC. The excess predicted volume from 20 to 0 Ma can be accounted for by: 1) crustal flow to the WC and/or Peru, 2) localized removal of the lower crust, or 3) a combination of the two. Only models with initial crustal thicknesses >35 km predict excess volumes sufficient to account for potential crustal thickness deficits in Peru and allow for lower crustal loss. However, both initial thickness models predict that modern crustal thicknesses were achieved over the same time periods that paleoelevation histories indicate the development of modern elevations. Localized removal of lower crust is only necessary in the northern EC where crustal thickness exceeds modern by 20 Ma, prior to paleoelevation estimates of modern elevations by 15 Ma. In the Altiplano, crustal thicknesses match modern values at 10 Ma and can only exceed modern values by 5 Ma, post-dating when modern elevations were thought to have been established. Collectively, these models predict that

  9. Motion of continental slivers and creeping subduction in the northern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nocquet, J.-M.; Villegas-Lanza, J. C.; Chlieh, M.; Mothes, P. A.; Rolandone, F.; Jarrin, P.; Cisneros, D.; Alvarado, A.; Audin, L.; Bondoux, F.; Martin, X.; Font, Y.; Régnier, M.; Vallée, M.; Tran, T.; Beauval, C.; Maguiña Mendoza, J. M.; Martinez, W.; Tavera, H.; Yepes, H.

    2014-04-01

    Along the western margin of South America, plate convergence is accommodated by slip on the subduction interface and deformation of the overriding continent. In Chile, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia, continental deformation occurs mostly through the motion of discrete domains, hundreds to thousands of kilometres in scale. These continental slivers are wedged between the Nazca and stable South American plates. Here we use geodetic data to identify another large continental sliver in Peru that is about 300-400 km wide and 1,500 km long, which we call the Inca Sliver. We show that movement of the slivers parallel to the subduction trench is controlled by the obliquity of plate convergence and is linked to prominent features of the Andes Mountains. For example, the Altiplano is located at the boundary of converging slivers at the concave bend of the central Andes, and the extending Gulf of Guayaquil is located at the boundary of diverging slivers at the convex bend of the northern Andes. Motion of a few large continental slivers therefore controls the present-day deformation of nearly the entire Andes mountain range. We also show that a 1,000-km-long section of the plate interface in northern Peru and southern Ecuador slips predominantly aseismically, a behaviour that contrasts with the highly seismic neighbouring segments. The primary characteristics of this low-coupled segment are shared by ~20% of the subduction zones in the eastern Pacific Rim.

  10. Lichenometric dating using Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon in the Patagonian Andes, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibotti, Irene Adriana; Villalba, Ricardo

    2009-05-01

    This study represents the first attempt to develop and apply lichenometric dating curves of Rhizocarpon subgenus Rhizocarpon for dating glacier fluctuations in the Patagonian Andes. Six glaciers were studied along the Patagonian Andes. Surfaces of known ages (historical evidences and tree-ring analyses) were used as control sites to develop indirect lichenometric dating curves. Dating curves developed for the studied glaciers show the same general logarithmic form, indicating that growth rate of subgenus Rhizocarpon decreases over time. The strong west-east precipitation gradient across the Andean Cordillera introduces statistically significant differences in the growth curves, with faster growth rates in the moist west sites than the drier eastern sites. Latitudinal difference among the studied glaciers does not appear to be a major factor regulating lichen growth rates. Therefore, we developed two lichenometric curves for dating glacier fluctuations in wetter and drier sites in the Patagonian Andes during the past 450 yrs. Application of the developed curves to moraine dating allowed us to complement glacial chronologies previously obtained by tree-ring analyses. A first chronosequence for moraine formation in the Torrecillas Glacier (42°S) is presented. Our findings confirm the utility of lichenometry to date deglaciated surfaces in the Patagonian Andes.

  11. Knowledge and Learning in the Andes: Ethnographic Perspectives. Liverpool Latin American Studies, New Series 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stobart, Henry, Ed.; Howard, Rosaleen, Ed.

    This book presents research into the ways in which Indigenous peoples of the Andes create, transmit, maintain, and transform their knowledge, and the related processes of teaching and learning. Most chapters are based on papers delivered at a round-table conference at the University of Cambridge (England) in 1996 and include contributions from…

  12. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  13. "Nervios" and "Modern Childhood": Migration and Shifting Contexts of Child Life in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribilsky, Jason

    2001-01-01

    Argues that beyond explanations predicated on psychological ideas of separation and attachment, "nervios," a depression-like disorder among children in the southern Ecuadorian Andes, reflects the limits of children's abilities to accept terms of family life increasingly defined through transnational migration and new consumption…

  14. Immune Serum Produced by DNA Vaccination Protects Hamsters against Lethal Respiratory Challenge with Andes Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. Possibility of person to person transmission. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 56: 709–711. 8. Ferres, M., P. Vial, C. Marco, L...transmission of Andes virus. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 58(Suppl. 1):27–36. 20. Padula, P. J., A. Edelstein, S. D. Miguel, N. M. Lopez, C. M. Rossi, and R

  15. New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the northern Andes

    PubMed Central

    Harrigan, Ryan J; Sedano, Raul; Chasar, Anthony C; Chaves, Jaime A; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Whitaker, Alexis; Smith, Thomas B

    2014-01-01

    The northern Andes, with their steep elevational and climate gradients, are home to an exceptional diversity of flora and fauna, particularly rich in avian species that have adapted to divergent ecological conditions. With this diversity comes the opportunity for parasites to exploit a wide breadth of avian hosts. However, little research has focused on examining the patterns of prevalence and lineage diversity of avian parasites in the Andes. Here, we screened a total of 428 birds from 19 species (representing nine families) and identified 133 infections of avian haemosporidia (31%), including lineages of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon. We document a higher prevalence of haemosporidia at higher elevations and lower temperatures, as well as an overall high diversity of lineages in the northern Andes, including the first sequences of haemosporidians reported in hummingbirds (31 sequences found in 11 species within the family Trochilidae). Double infections were distinguished using PHASE, which enables the separation of distinct parasite lineages. Results suggest that the ecological heterogeneity of the northern Andes that has given rise to a rich diversity of avian hosts may also be particularly conducive to parasite diversification and specialization. PMID:25469161

  16. Between Andes and Amazon: the genetic profile of the Arawak-speaking Yanesha.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Chiara; Heggarty, Paul; Yang Yao, Daniele; Ferri, Gianmarco; De Fanti, Sara; Sarno, Stefania; Ciani, Graziella; Boattini, Alessio; Luiselli, Donata; Pettener, Davide

    2014-12-01

    The Yanesha are a Peruvian population who inhabit an environment transitional between the Andes and Amazonia. They present cultural traits characteristic of both regions, including in the language they speak: Yanesha belongs to the Arawak language family (which very likely originated in the Amazon/Orinoco lowlands), but has been strongly influenced by Quechua, the most widespread language family of the Andes. Given their location and cultural make-up, the Yanesha make for an ideal case study for investigating language and population dynamics across the Andes-Amazonia divide. In this study, we analyze data from high and mid-altitude Yanesha villages, both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 16 SNPs diagnostic for assigning haplogroups) and mtDNA data (control region sequences and 3 SNPs and one INDEL diagnostic for assigning haplogroups). We uncover sex-biased genetic trends that probably arose in different stages: first, a male-biased gene flow from Andean regions, genetically consistent with highland Quechua-speakers and probably dating back to Inca expansion; and second, traces of European contact consistent with Y chromosome lineages from Italy and Tyrol, in line with historically documented migrations. Most research in the history, archaeology and linguistics of South America has long been characterized by perceptions of a sharp divide between the Andes and Amazonia; our results serve as a clear case-study confirming demographic flows across that 'divide'.

  17. A remote sensing assessment of the impact of the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8) on the volcanoes of the southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M. E.; Welch, M.; Jay, J.; Button, N.

    2011-12-01

    del Maule and Cordón Caulle (which began a major eruption in June, 2011). The deformation rate at Laguna del Maule continues through 2011 at a similar high rate, accumulating more than 60 cm of vertical deformation since 2007 -- making it one of the largest deformation signals without recent eruption yet observed. The rate of uplift at Laguna del Maule seems to be unchanged before and after the 2010 Maule earthquake. The spatial and temporal deformation at Cordón Caulle is complex as noted by Fournier et al., 2010, but does not appear to have been changed by the Maule earthquake either. The reasons that the 2010 Maule earthquake did not strongly affect the closest volcanic arc in the southern Andes remains a mystery. Comparison with the 2004 Sumatra (Mw 9.2) and the 2011 Japan (Mw 9.0) earthquakes and their closest volcanic arcs could provide clues to the elusive links between large earthquakes and volcanic unrest.

  18. Effects of Humidity Variation on the Hantavirus Infection and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Occurrence in Subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Hong; Huang, Ru; Gao, Li-Dong; Huang, Cun-Rui; Lin, Xiao-Ling; Li, Na; Liu, Hai-Ning; Tong, Shi-Lu; Tian, Huai-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Infection rates of rodents have a significant influence on the transmission of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). In this study, four cities and two counties with high HFRS incidence in eastern Hunan Province in China were studied, and surveillance data of rodents, as well as HFRS cases and related environmental variables from 2007 to 2010, were collected. Results indicate that the distribution and infection rates of rodents are closely associated with environmental conditions. Hantavirus infections in rodents were positively correlated with temperature vegetation dryness index and negatively correlated with elevation. The predictive risk maps based on multivariate regression model revealed that the annual variation of infection risks is small, whereas monthly variation is large and corresponded well to the seasonal variation of human HFRS incidence. The identification of risk factors and risk prediction provides decision support for rodent surveillance and the prevention and control of HFRS. PMID:26711521

  19. Recognition of DAF and αvβ3 by inactivated Hantaviruses, towards the development of HTS flow cytometry assays

    PubMed Central

    Buranda, Tione; Wu, Yang; Perez, Dominique; Jett, Stephen D.; BonduHawkins, Virginie; Ye, Chunyan; Edwards, Bruce; Hall, Pamela; Larson, Richard S.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Sklar, Larry A.; Hjelle, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Hantaviruses cause two severe diseases in humans: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) or hantavirus cardio-pulmonary syndrome (HCPS). The lack of vaccines or specific drugs to prevent or treat HFRS and HCPS, and the requirement for conducting experiments in a biosafety level 3 laboratory (BSL-3) limit the ability to probe the mechanism of infection and disease pathogenesis. In this study we have developed a generalizable spectroscopic assay to quantify saturable fluorophore sites solubilized in envelope membranes of Sin Nombre virus (SNV) particles. We then use flow cytometry and live cell confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging to show that UV-killed SNV bind to the cognate receptors of live virions, namely, decay accelerating factor (CD55/DAF) expressed on Tanoue B cells and αvβ3 integrins expressed on Vero E6 cells. SNV binding to DAF is multivalent and of high affinity (Kd ≈ 26pM). Self-exchange competition binding assays between fluorescently labeled SNV and unlabeled SNV are used to evaluate an infectious unit-to-particle ratio of ∼1:14000. We have configured the assay for measuring the binding of fluorescently labeled SNV to Tanoue B suspension cells using a high throughput flow cytometer. In this way, we establish a proof of principle high throughput screening assay for binding inhibition. This is a first step towards the development of HTS format assays for small molecule inhibitors of viral-cell interactions, as well as dissecting the mechanism of infection in a BSL-2 environment. PMID:20363206

  20. Structure and Evolution of the Central Andes of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, L.; Pfiffner, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    Three major units make up the Andes in Peru: (1) The Western Cordillera consists of the Cretaceous Coastal Batholith intruding Jurassic to Cretaceous volcaniclastics (Casma group) in the west, and a fold-and-thrust belt of Mesozoic sediments in the east. Eocene and Miocene volcanics (Calipuy group and equivalents) overly all of these rock types. (2) The Central Highland contains a folded Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary sequence overlain by thick Quaternary deposits. A major fault puts Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera next to these units. (3) In the Eastern Cordillera, Late Paleozoic clastic successions unconformably overly folded Early Paleozoic sediments and a Neoproterozoic basement in the east. Permian (locally Triassic) granitoids intruded these units and were affected by folding and thrusting. In the core of the Eastern Cordillera, Early Cretaceous overly Early or Late Paleozoic strata. To the west, a thrust belt of Paleozoic to Cenozoic strata forms the transition to the foreland of the Brasilian shield. The most external part of this thrust belt involves Pliocene sediments and is referred to as Subandine zone. The Coastal Batholith is internally undeformed. The adjacent fold-and-thrust belt to the east is characterized by tight, nearly isoclinal upright folds with amplitudes of up to 1000 m. At the surface only Cretaceous rocks are observed. Using balancing techniques, a detachment horizon at the base of the Lowermost Cretaceous (Goyallarisquizga group - Oyon Formation) can be proposed. Further east, folds are more open, asymmetric and east verging, Jurassic sediments appear in the cores of the anticlines. The abrupt change in style from upright tight folding in the west to more open folding in the east is explained by a primary difference in the depositional sequence, most probably associated with synsedimentary faulting. The overlying volcanics of the Calipuy group and equivalents are, in turn, only slightly folded. In the Northern

  1. Episodic subgreenschist facies metamorphism in the Andes of Chile - is it a valid model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevins, R. E.; Robinson, D.; Aguirre, L.; Vergara, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Central Andes of Chile are characterized by subgreenschist facies burial metamorphism that is reported as having developed in up to seven episodic cycles of some 40Myr duration. The main evidence in support of the model is reported as mineralogical breaks at major stratigraphic boundaries that are interpreted as documenting sharp breaks in metamorphic grade. Here we test this model by examination of the progressive secondary mineral development, reaction progress in mafic phyllosilicates, and topological variations of the low-grade assemblages in metabasites for Jurassic to Miocene sequences east of Santiago. The mafic phyllosilicates (smectite - mixed-layer chlorite/smectite - chlorite) show increasing reaction progress with stratigraphic age and there is a continuum across the main stratigraphic boundaries, such there is no offset or gap in the reaction progress at these boundaries. There are some differences in mineral assemblages between the various stratigraphic units, such as between prehnite+pumpellyite+/-laumonite or amphibole-bearing and non amphibole bearing rocks, from which contrasting subgreenschist facies can be recognised. However, consideration of the controls on mineral parageneses at subgreenschist facies conditions demonstrates that these different facies cannot be used solely as evidence of sharp breaks in metamorphic grade at unconformities, as has been reported in many previous publications for the Andes. The presently accepted model for the Central Andes, involving repeated cycles of episodic metamorphism developing in extensional basins, is, therefore, partly unfounded. Consideration of the overall tectonic evolution of this part of the Andes concurs that the burial metamorphism developed in extensional settings, but in only two events, namely in mid-late Cretaceous and Late Miocene times respectively. The results from this work suggest that the record of sharp metamorphic breaks and the episodic model of metamorphism reported for many

  2. [Optimization of ELISA and immunoblot methods for the detection of IgG antibodies against old world hantaviruses in wild rodents].

    PubMed

    Polat, Ceylan; Karataş, Ahmet; Sözen, Mustafa; Matur, Ferhat; Abacıoğlu, Hakan; Öktem, Mehmet Ali

    2016-04-01

    Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of viral particles in infected rodents' secretions such as saliva, urine and faeces or via direct contact with infected rodents. The rodent species that are known as the carriers of Dobrava (DOBV), Puumala (PUUV), Saaremaa (SAAV), Tula (TULV) and Seoul (SEOV) viruses are found in our country. The presence of specific antibodies against hantaviruses have been demonstrated in rodents collected from Black Sea and Aegean Regions of Turkey in 2004 for the first time. The first hantavirus-related hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) cases were reported in Black Sea region in 2009. The determination of the hantavirus prevalence in wild life and rodent populations in the field is crucial for the information about hantavirus-related cases and to clarify the state of risk. There is no commercial product optimized for the screening of rodent serum samples in terms of HFRS agents like DOBV and PUUV that are widely seen in Eurasia as well as Turkey. In this study, the antigens belonging to the commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immunoblot tests that are produced for the screening of human sera were used for the development of antibody screening tests against hantavirus in rodent sera and were optimized. The most appropriate serum and conjugate dilutions were determined for the optimization of ELISA (Anti-Hantavirus Pool ELISA; Euroimmun, Germany) and immunoblot (Euroline Anti-Hanta Profile 1 strips; Euroimmun, Germany) methods. Optimized ELISA method was used for the screening and optimized immunoblot method was used for the confirmation. A total of 84 wild rodent sera that belonged to Apodemus and Microtus species were evaluated with this procedure and the cut-off value, sensitivity and specificity of optimized ELISA method were determined. For the optimization of ELISA 1/50, 1/100 and 1/200 serum dilutions and 1/10.000, 1/20.000 and 1/40.000 conjugate dilutions were tested. For the optimization of immunoblot, 1

  3. Daily Movements and Microhabitat Selection of Hantavirus Reservoirs and Other Sigmodontinae Rodent Species that Inhabit a Protected Natural Area of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Maroli, Malena; Vadell, María Victoria; Iglesias, Ayelén; Padula, Paula Julieta; Gómez Villafañe, Isabel Elisa

    2015-09-01

    Abundance, distribution, movement patterns, and habitat selection of a reservoir species influence the dispersal of zoonotic pathogens, and hence, the risk for humans. Movements and microhabitat use of rodent species, and their potential role in the transmission of hantavirus were studied in Otamendi Natural Reserve, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Movement estimators and qualitative characteristics of rodent paths were determined by means of a spool and line device method. Sampling was conducted during November and December 2011, and March, April, June, October, and December 2012. Forty-six Oxymycterus rufus, 41 Akodon azarae, 10 Scapteromys aquaticus and 5 Oligoryzomys flavescens were captured. Movement patterns and distances varied according to sex, habitat type, reproductive season, and body size among species. O. flavescens, reservoir of the etiologic agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the region, moved short distances, had the most linear paths and did not share paths with other species. A. azarae had an intermediate linearity index, its movements were longer in the highland grassland than in the lowland marsh and the salty grassland, and larger individuals traveled longer distances. O. rufus had the most tortuous paths and the males moved more during the non-breeding season. S. aquaticus movements were associated with habitat type with longer distances traveled in the lowland marsh than in the salty grassland. Hantavirus antibodies were detected in 20% of A. azarae and were not detected in any other species. Seropositive individuals were captured during the breeding season and 85% of them were males. A. azarae moved randomly and shared paths with all the other species, which could promote hantavirus spillover events.

  4. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has proposed construction of the Lake Andes/Wagner Irrigation Demonstration Project to investigate environmental effects of irrigation of glacial till soils substantially derived from marine shales. During 1983-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment data in the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek Basins, and on the Missouri River upstream and downstream from Choteau Creek, to provide baseline information in support of the proposed demonstration project. Lake Andes has a drainage area of about 230 mi2 (square miles). Tributaries to Lake Andes are ephemeral. Water-level fluctuations in Lake Andes can be large, and the lake has been completely dry on several occasions. The outlet aqueduct from Lake Andes feeds into Garden Creek, which enters Lake Francis Case just upstream from Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri River. For Lake Andes tributary stations, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are approximately codominant among the cations, and sulfate is the dominant anion. Dissolved-solids concentrations typically range from about 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to about 1,700 mg/L. Major-ion concentrations for Lake Andes tend to be higher than the tributaries and generally increase downstream in Lake Andes. Proportions of major ions are similar among the different lake units (with the exception of Owens Bay), with calcium, magnesium, and sodium being approximately codominant among cations, and sulfate being the dominant anion. Owens Bay is characterized by a calcium sulfate water type. Dissolved-solids concentrations for Lake Andes typically range from about 1,400 to 2,000 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are similar among the Lake Andes tributaries, with median whole-water nitrogen concentrations ranging from about 1.6 to 2.4 mg/L, and median whole-water phosphorus concentrations ranging from about 0.5 to 0.7 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen concentrations in Lake Andes are similar among the

  5. Seroprevalence study in forestry workers of a non-endemic region in eastern Germany reveals infections by Tula and Dobrava-Belgrade hantaviruses.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Marc; Hofmann, Jörg; Petraityte-Burneikiene, Rasa; Ziller, Mario; Sasnauskas, Kestutis; Friedrich, Robert; Niederstrasser, Olaf; Krüger, Detlev H; Groschup, Martin H; Petri, Eckhardt; Werdermann, Sandra; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2011-11-01

    Highly endemic and outbreak regions for human hantavirus infections are located in the southern, southeastern, and western parts of Germany. The dominant hantavirus is the bank vole transmitted Puumala virus (PUUV). In the eastern part of Germany, previous investigations revealed Tula virus (TULV) and Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) infections in the respective rodent reservoirs. Here, we describe a seroprevalence study in forestry workers from Brandenburg, eastern Germany, using IgG ELISA and immunoblot tests based on recombinant TULV, DOBV, and PUUV antigens. Out of the 563 sera tested, 499 from male and 64 from female workers, we found 41 out of the 499 (8.2%) sera from men (mean age 47 years) and 10 out of 64 (15.6%) from the women (mean age 48 years) anti-hantavirus-positive. The majority of the 51 seropositive samples reacted exclusively in the TULV (n=22) and DOBV tests (n=17). Focus reduction neutralization assay investigations on selected sera confirmed the presence of TULV- and DOBV-specific antibodies in the forestry workers. These investigations demonstrated a potential health threat for forestry workers and also the average population in non-endemic geographical regions where TULV and DOBV are circulating in the corresponding reservoir hosts. The infections in this region might be frequently overlooked due to their unspecific and mild symptoms.

  6. Outbreak of hantavirus infection in the Four Corners region of the United States in the wake of the 1997-1998 El Nino-southern oscillation.

    PubMed

    Hjelle, B; Glass, G E

    2000-05-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS), a rodent-borne zoonosis, has been endemic in the Americas for at least several decades. It is hypothesized that the 1991-1992 El Niño-southern oscillation (ENSO) caused increased precipitation that allowed an increase in rodent population densities, thereby increasing the possibility of transmission to humans. The result was a 1993-1994 outbreak of the disease in the Four Corners states of the southwestern United States. A second strong ENSO occurred in 1997-1998, after a period of considerable public education about the risks of hantavirus infection that began during the 1993-1994 outbreak. The caseload of HCPS increased 5-fold above baseline in the Four Corners states in 1998-1999. Regions that had received increased rainfall in 1998 were especially affected. A large majority of the 1998-1999 case patients reported indoor exposure to deer mice. Hantavirus outbreaks can occur in response to abiotic events, even in the face of extensive public education and awareness.

  7. Death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) mediated apoptosis in hantavirus infection is counter-balanced by activation of interferon-stimulated nuclear transcription factors

    SciTech Connect

    Khaiboullina, Svetlana F.; Morzunov, Sergey P.; Boichuk, Sergei V.; Palotás, András; Jeor, Stephen St.; Lombardi, Vincent C.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2013-09-01

    Hantaviruses are negative strand RNA species that replicate predominantly in the cytoplasm. They also activate numerous cellular responses, but their involvement in nuclear processes is yet to be established. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study investigates the molecular finger-print of nuclear transcription factors during hantavirus infection. The viral-replication-dependent activation of pro-myelocytic leukemia protein (PML) was followed by subsequent localization in nuclear bodies (NBs). PML was also found in close proximity to activated Sp100 nuclear antigen and interferon-stimulated gene 20 kDa protein (ISG-20), but co-localization with death-domain associated protein-6 (DAXX) was not observed. These data demonstrate that hantavirus triggers PML activation and localization in NBs in the absence of DAXX-PLM-NB co-localization. The results suggest that viral infection interferes with DAXX-mediated apoptosis, and expression of interferon-activated Sp100 and ISG-20 proteins may indicate intracellular intrinsic antiviral attempts.

  8. Comment on Jameson et al.: Prevalence of Antibodies against Hantaviruses in Serum and Saliva of Adults Living or Working on Farms in Yorkshire, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Jan; McKenna, Paula; Vergote, Valentijn; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This British hantavirus IgG prevalence study, aimed at 119 asymptomatic farmers in England, and using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) as screening technique, concluded that rat-transmitted Seoul virus (SEOV) might be the main suspect as hantaviral pathogen in the UK. Exactly the same conclusion, using the same IFA screening technique, resulted from a 1994 serosurvey in the same country, and in 627 clinical cases plus 100 healthy controls. SEOV-positive study subjects were also mainly farmers with heavy rat-exposure, but residing in Northern-Ireland, a region where all other known rodent reservoirs for pathogenic hantaviruses are known to be absent, except the wild rat. A rodent capture action in and around the farms of eight seropositives confirmed SEOV seropositivity in 21.6% of 51 rats. All SEOV seropositives were patients, hospitalized with an acute feverish condition, a majority of which having the clinical picture of hantavirus-induced nephropathy, known as hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Leptospirosis, often mimicking perfectly HFRS, was serologically excluded. Thus, SEOV was established as a human hantaviral pathogen in the UK and in Europe 20 years ago. PMID:25256389

  9. Hantavirus Public Health outreach effectiveness in three populations: an overview of northwestern New Mexico, Los Santos Panama, and Region IX Chile.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Marjorie S

    2014-02-27

    This research compared the effectiveness of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) outreach programs in New Mexico, Panama, and Chile. Understanding the role of human demographics, disease ecology, and human behavior in the disease process is critical to the examination of community responses in terms of behavior changes. Attitudes, knowledge, and behavior across three populations were measured through the implementation of a self-administered questionnaire (N = 601). Surveys implemented in Chile and Panama in 2004, followed by northwestern New Mexico in 2008, attempted to assess knowledge and behavior change with respect to hantavirus in high- and lower-risk prevalence areas during endemic periods. While levels of concern over contracting hantavirus were lowest in New Mexico, they were highest in Panama. Respondents in Chile showed mid-level concern and exhibited a tendency to practice proper cleaning methods more than in New Mexico and Panama. This indicates that public health messages appear to be more effective in Chile. However, since negative behavior changes, such as sweeping and vacuuming, occur at some level in all three populations, improved messages should help decrease risk of exposure to HPS.

  10. The Largest Holocene Eruption of the Central Andes Found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J.; Esteban, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present new data and interpretation about a major eruption -spreading ˜110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in NW Argentina. This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. The environmental effects of this voluminous eruption are still noticeable, as evidenced by the high content of arsenic and other trace elements in the groundwaters of the Chacopampean Plain. The recognition of this significant volcanic event may shed new light on interpretations of critical changes observed in the mid-Holocene paleontological and archaeological records, and offers researchers an excellent, extensive regional chronostratigraphic marker for reconstructing mid-Holocene geological history over a wide geographical area of South America. More than 100 ashes were sampled in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay during different field campaigns. Ash samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), grain size distributions laser diffraction, and geochemically by electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation-HR-ICP-MS. New and published 14C ages were calibrated to calendar years BP. The age of the most recent CBVC eruption is 4407-4093 cal y BP, indirectly dated by 14C of associated organic sediment within the lower part of a proximal fall deposit of this event (26°53'16.05"S-67°44'48.68"W). This is the youngest record of a major volcanic event in the Southern Puna. This age is consistent with other radiocarbon dates of organic matter in palaeosols underlying or overlying distal ash fall deposits. Based on their products, all of rhyolitic composition, we have distinguished 8 main episodes during the evolution of the most recent CBVC eruption: 1) the eruption began with a white rhyolite lava dome extrusion; 2) followed by a Plinian

  11. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    accumulated considerable concentrations of Cu and Zn. The species from the genus Bidens (Asteraceae) were able not only to accumulate high shoot As concentrations (> 1000 μg g-1 in B. cynapiifolia from Peru) but also considerable amounts of Pb (B. humilis from Chile). The highest Cu shoot concentrations were found in Mullinum spinosum (870 μg g-1) and in B. cynapiifolia (620 μg g-1). The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). In the Peruvian Andes, B. triplinervia can be considered interesting for phytostabilization, due to its capacity to restrict the accumulation of elevated amounts of Pb and Zn in the shoots.

  12. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Mérida Andes and the Santander Massif, NW South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard; Mora, Andrés

    2016-04-01

    New apatite U-Pb and multiphase 40Ar/39Ar data constrain the high to medium temperature (~ 500 °C-~ 300 °C) thermal histories of igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the Mérida Andes of Venezuela, and new apatite and zircon fission track data constrain the ~ 500 °C-~ 60 °C thermal histories of pre-Jurassic igneous and metamorphic rocks of the adjacent Santander Massif of Colombia. Computed thermal history envelopes using apatite U-Pb dates and grain size information from an Early Palaeozoic granodiorite in the Mérida Andes suggest that it cooled from > 500 °C to < 350 °C between ~ 266 Ma and ~ 225 Ma. Late Permian to Triassic cooling is also recorded in Early Palaeozoic granitoids and metasedimentary rocks in the Mérida Andes by numerous new muscovite and biotite 40Ar/39Ar plateau dates spanning 257.1 ± 1.0 Ma to 205.1 ± 0.8 Ma. This episode of cooling is not recognised in the Santander Massif, where 40Ar/39Ar data suggest that some Early Palaeozoic rocks cooled below ~ 320 °C in the Early Palaeozoic. However, most data from pre-Jurassic rocks reveal a regional heat pulse at ~ 200 Ma during the intrusion of numerous shallow granitoids, resulting in temperatures in excess of ~ 520 °C, obscuring late Palaeozoic histories. The generally accepted timing of amalgamation of Pangaea along the Ouachita-Marathon suture pre-dates Late Permian to Triassic cooling recorded in basement rocks of the Mérida Andes by > 30 Ma, and its effect on rocks preserved in north-western South America is unknown. We interpret late Permian to Triassic cooling in the Mérida Andes to be driven by exhumation. Previous studies have suggested that a short phase of shortening and anatexis is recorded at ~ 253 Ma in the Maya Block, which may have been adjacent to the basement rocks of the Mérida Andes in the Late Permian. The coeval onset of exhumation in the Mérida Andes may be a result of increased coupling in the magmatic arc, which was located along the western margin of

  13. Current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a perspective on glacier evolution and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabatel, Antoine; Francou, Bernard; Soruco, Alvaro; Gomez, Jesus; Caceres, Bolivar; Ceballos, Jorge-Luis; Vuille, Mathias; Sicart, Jean-Emmanuel; Huggel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of the studies of glaciers in the tropical Andes conducted in recent decades leading to the current status of the glaciers in the context of climate change. In terms of changes in surface area and length, we show that the glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the last three decades is unprecedented since the maximum extension of the LIA (mid 17th - early 18th century). In terms of changes in mass balance, although there have been some sporadic gains on several glaciers, we show that the trend has been quite negative over the past 50 years, with a mean mass balance deficit for glaciers in the tropical Andes that is slightly more negative than the one computed on a global scale. A break point in the trend appeared in the late 1970s with mean annual mass balance per year decreasing from -0.2 m w.e. in the period 1964-1975 to -0.76 m w.e. in the period 1976-2010. In addition, even if glaciers are currently retreating everywhere in the tropical Andes, it should be noted that this is much more pronounced on small glaciers at low altitudes that do not have a permanent accumulation zone, and which could disappear in the coming years/decades. Monthly mass balance measurements performed in Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia show that variability of the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean is the main factor governing variability of the mass balance at the decadal time scale. Precipitation did not display a significant trend in the tropical Andes in the 20th century, and consequently cannot explain the glacier recession. On the other hand, temperature increased at a significant rate of 0.10°C/decade in the last 70 years. The higher frequency of El Niño events and changes in its spatial and temporal occurrence since the late 1970s together with a warming troposphere over the tropical Andes may thus explain much of the recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in this part of the world.

  14. Interseismic Rates From the CTO cGPS Andes and Nepal Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genrich, J. F.; Galetzka, J.; Chowdhury, F.; Avouac, J.; Simons, M.; Barrientos, S. E.; Comte, D.; Norabuena, E. O.; Sapkota, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    To study crustal deformation at converging plate margins the Caltech Tectonics Observatory (CTO), together with partner institutions in the host countries, operates continuously observing GPS stations in the central Andes (northern Chile and southern Peru) and in Nepal. The currently 20-site Andes network was established in 2005 with 7 stations. Efforts are underway to provide data streaming links at near real time for the majority of sites. The Nepal network started with 10 sites in 2004 and has been expanded to 23 sites in the last couple of years. Dual frequency code and phase data from all sites are processed with the GAMIT/GLOBK processing package. Reliable interseismic velocities are now available for the majority of sites. Network metadata, rinex data files, processed time series and velocity estimates can be found online thru links at the CTO website: tectonics.caltech.edu.

  15. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes region.

    PubMed

    Fjeldså, Jon; Alvarez, María D; Lazcano, Juan Mario; León, Blanca

    2005-05-01

    Coca, once grown for local consumption in the Andes, is now produced for external markets, often in areas with armed conflict. Internationally financed eradication campaigns force traffickers and growers to constantly relocate, making drug-related activities a principal cause of forest loss. The impact on biodiversity is known only in general terms, and this article presents the first regional analysis to identify areas of special concern, using bird data as proxy. The aim of conserving all species may be significantly constrained in the Santa Marta and Perijá mountains, Darién, some parts of the Central Andes in Colombia, and between the middle Marañón and middle Huallaga valleys in Peru. Solutions to the problem must address the root causes: international drug markets, long-lasting armed conflict, and lack of alternative income for the rural poor.

  16. Climate change and water resources in arid mountains: an example from the Bolivian Andes.

    PubMed

    Rangecroft, Sally; Harrison, Stephan; Anderson, Karen; Magrath, John; Castel, Ana Paola; Pacheco, Paula

    2013-11-01

    Climate change is projected to have a strongly negative effect on water supplies in the arid mountains of South America, significantly impacting millions of people. As one of the poorest countries in the region, Bolivia is particularly vulnerable to such changes due to its limited capacity to adapt. Water security is threatened further by glacial recession with Bolivian glaciers losing nearly half their ice mass over the past 50 years raising serious water management concerns. This review examines current trends in water availability and glacier melt in the Bolivian Andes, assesses the driving factors of reduced water availability and identifies key gaps in our knowledge of the Andean cryosphere. The lack of research regarding permafrost water sources in the Bolivian Andes is addressed, with focus on the potential contribution to mountain water supplies provided by rock glaciers.

  17. The ANDES Deep Underground Laboratory in South America: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertou, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    The construction of the Agua Negra tunnel through the Andes between Argentina and Chile is a unique opportunity to build a world class deep underground laboratory in the southern hemisphere, with 1750 m of rock overburden. At 30 degrees latitude south, far from nuclear power plants, it provides a unique site for Dark Matter searches and Neutrino experiments, and can host multidisciplinary experiments with a specific focus on Earth sciences given its location in a peculiar geoactive region. Its operation is foreseen to be coordinated by an international consortium and to start in 2026. In this presentation the current status of the Agua Negra tunnel and the ANDES initiative will be reviewed, and the scientific programme of the planned laboratory will be discussed.

  18. Surface uplift in the Central Andes driven by growth of the Altiplano Puna Magma Body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Jonathan P.; Ward, Kevin M.; de Silva, Shanaka L.; Zandt, George; Beck, Susan L.; Finnegan, Noah J.

    2016-10-01

    The Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) in the Central Andes is the largest imaged magma reservoir on Earth, and is located within the second highest orogenic plateau on Earth, the Altiplano-Puna. Although the APMB is a first-order geologic feature similar to the Sierra Nevada batholith, its role in the surface uplift history of the Central Andes remains uncertain. Here we show that a long-wavelength topographic dome overlies the seismically measured extent of the APMB, and gravity data suggest that the uplift is isostatically compensated. Isostatic modelling of the magmatic contribution to dome growth yields melt volumes comparable to those estimated from tomography, and suggests that the APMB growth rate exceeds the peak Cretaceous magmatic flare-up in the Sierran batholith. Our analysis reveals that magmatic addition may provide a contribution to surface uplift on par with lithospheric removal, and illustrates that surface topography may help constrain the magnitude of pluton-scale melt production.

  19. Assessment of future regional precipitation pattern for an Andes region in Southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salzmann, N.; Rohrer, M.; Acuna, D.; Calanca, P.; Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Cusco and Apurímac region (Southern Peru) in the outer tropical Andes is characterized by a distinct wet and dry season. The climatology of the Andes region in southern Peru is complex and mainly influenced by tropical and extra tropical upper level-large scale circulation as well as by local convection. For the past decades, observations from station data show a slight negative precipitation trend for the area. Scenarios for the future are associated with large uncertainties. Data from the few available Regional Climate Model simulations, and results from statistical downscaling show neither clear nor consistent future precipitation trends for this region The large biodiversity in the high altitude of the Andes and the critical socio-economic situation of the majority of the local population imply a high vulnerability to climate variability and change. Even small shifts in particular in the precipitation regime (sum, frequency or intensity) can therefore have significant impacts on the livelihood of the rural population. Droughts and flooding events that occurred in the past years have demonstrated the heavy repercussion of extreme events. In our study, we analysed and correlated past regional station observations with large-scale circulation patterns from Renanalyses in order to aim at improving our understanding of the major drivers for precipitation in the Cusco-Apurímac region. First results show an only moderate correlation with ENSO and a relative stronger correlation with moisture transported from the Amazon Basin. Our results are then related to large-scale pattern scenarios provided by GCMs and discussed in view of possible impacts of climate change for the Cusco - Apurímac region. In conclusion, we aim at showing at the example of this specific area of the Andes how process knowledge can be used to support the development of adaptation measures in regions with limited availability of data.

  20. Foreland shortening and crustal balancing in the Andes at 30°S latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; Figueroa, D.; Synder, D.; Beer, J.; Mpodozis, C.; Isaacks, B. L.

    1990-08-01

    Excellent surface exposures, known Benioff zone geometry, a dynamic morphology, and the availability of industry seismic reflection data all make the Andes at 30°S an excellent transect for investigating crustal-scale balanced sections. 150-170 km of horizontal shortening has occurred in three major belts located between the trench and the foreland. The thin-skinned, east-verging Precordillera of western Argentina accounts for 60-75% of the total shortening and formed mostly since major volcanism ceased at ˜10 Ma. Industry seismic reflection data show that the décollement of the Precordillera belt is located anomalously deep at ˜15 km. The belt is dominated by fault propagation folds and contains several prominent out-of-sequence thrust faults. Seismic stratigraphie analysis shows that Miocene strata in the Iglesia Valley, located between the Precordillera and the crest of the Andes, accumulated in a piggy-back basin. Onlap relations on the western side indicate that the High Cordillera was uplifted as a major fault bend fold over a buried ramp. Thrusting in the two western belts, both in the High Cordillera of Chile, formed during the waning stages of arc volcanism, 11-16 Ma. and account for 25-40% of the shortening. The observed shortening is probably greater than can be accounted for with reasonable crustal thicknesses, indicating the possibility of continental truncation or erosion along the plate margin or an anomalously thick root held down by the nearly flat subducted Nazca Plate. Our preferred crustal geometry puts the ramp between upper and lower crustal deformation west of the high topography, requiring crustal scale tectonic wedging to thicken the crust beneath the crest of the Andes. This non-unique model provides a simple explanation of the first order morphology of the Andes at this latitude.

  1. A new species of Platydecticus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Tettigoniinae; Nedubini) from the Andes of Chile.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Alejandro Vera

    2015-11-10

    A new species of the genus Platydecticus is described based on adult male and female specimens and the egg. The new species, Platydecticus diaguita, inhabits the Andes Range at 27º S latitude, above 3000 m elevation. Both sexes are easily identifiable by genital morphology characters and by the external characters of the fastigium of the vertex and the reduced number of spines in the hind tibia. It is also the smallest species described for the genus.

  2. Climate in the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes over the last 4300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Chuman, Tomáš; Šefrna, Luděk; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The Distichia peat core obtained in the Carhuasanta valley near Nevado Mismi, Cordillera Chila, provides information on climatic and environmental conditions over the last ˜4300 years. The relative changes in the stable carbon isotope composition of plant remains preserved in the core reflect major temperature fluctuations in the Western Cordillera of the southern Peruvian Andes. These temperature variations can be additionally linked with the changes in precipitation patterns by analysing C% and C/N ratio in the core. Relatively warm and moist conditions prevailed from 4280 to 3040 cal. yrs BP (BC 2330-1090) with a short colder dry episode around 3850 cal. yrs BP (BC 1900). The most prominent climate changes recorded in the peat occurred between 3040 and 2750 cal. yrs BP (BC 1090-800) when the initial warming turned to a rapid cooling to temperatures at least 2 °C lower than the mean for the Late Holocene. Initially drier conditions within this event turned to a short wet phase after 2780 cal. yrs BP (BC 830) when the temperature increased again. This event coincides with significant changes in peat and ice core records in the Central Andes matching the timing of the global climate event around 2.8 cal. ka BP. Climatic conditions in the study area became relatively dry and stable after the event for about 800 years. Highly variable temperatures and humidity prevailed during the last 2000 years when an extended warm and relatively humid period occurred between 640 and 155 cal. yrs BP (AD 1310-1795) followed by predominantly colder and drier conditions. The established δ13C peat record represents the first continuous proxy for the temperature in the southern Peruvian Andes dated by the AMS 14C. Distichia peat is wide spread in the Andes and the proposed approach can be applied elsewhere in high altitudes, where no other traditional climate proxies are available.

  3. Application of the Orogenic Float Model for the Structural Evolution of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Monod, B.; Hervouet, Y.; Klarica, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Venezuelan (or Mérida) Andes form a NE-SW-striking intracontinental orogen that started to uplift in the Middle Miocene due to E-W convergence between the Maracaibo block to the northwest and the Guyana shield to the southeast. Oblique collision resulted in strain partitioning accommodated by (1) transverse shortening along thrust faults bounding the belt on both flanks, (2) right-lateral slip along the Bocono fault running more or less along the chain axis and (3) tectonic escape of the Trujillo block moving towards the NE in between the Bocono and the N-S-striking sinistral Valera faults. Even though the surface geology of the Venezuelan Andes is well known, its structure at depth remains a matter of debate. Among the mechanisms that have proposed to account for the crustal architecture and evolution of the mountain belt, we develop the idea that the deformation process in this orogen is consistent with a model of orogenic float where the upper crust is decoupled from its underlying lithosphere above a large-scale mid-crustal detachment zone. According to this model, all the major faults involved in the strain partitioning sole into the detachment horizon and may therefore be considered as upper crustal faults. The integration of the orogenic float into a coherent evolutionary model provides further insight on both the crustal structure of the Venezuelan Andes and on the tectonic history of the region. A major reorganization in the crust occurred in the Early Pliocene when the Maracaibo block penetrated as a wedge into the Guyana crust. This event was accompanied by a rapid uplift of the Venezuelan Andes in association with the NE-ward crustal escape of the Trujillo block whose motion is accompanied by the lateral spreading of the upper crust.

  4. Spatial and temporal patterns of exhumation across the Venezuelan Andes: Implications for Cenozoic Caribbean geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez, Mauricio A.; Kohn, Barry P.; van der Beek, Peter A.; Bernet, Matthias; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Shagam, Reginald

    2010-10-01

    The Venezuelan Andes formed by complex geodynamic interaction between the Caribbean Plate, the Panamá Arc, the South American Plate and the continental Maracaibo block. We study the spatial and temporal patterns of exhumation across the Venezuelan Andes using 47 new apatite fission track (AFT) ages as well as topographic analyses. This approach permits the identification of at least seven tectonic blocks (Escalante, Cerro Azul, Trujillo, Caparo, Sierra Nevada, Sierra La Culata and El Carmen blocks) with contrasting exhumation and cooling histories. The Sierra Nevada, Sierra La Culata and El Carmen blocks, located in the central part of the Venezuelan Andes and separated by the Boconó fault system, cooled rapidly but diachronously during the late Miocene-Pliocene. Major surface uplift and exhumation occurred in the Sierra Nevada block since before 8 Ma. A second phase of uplift and exhumation affected the El Carmen and Sierra La Culata blocks to the north of the Boconó fault during the late Miocene-Pliocene. The highest topography and steepest relief of the belt coincides with these blocks. The Caparo and Trujillo blocks, located at the northeastern and southwestern ends of the orogen, cooled more slowly from the Oligocene to the late Miocene. These blocks are characterized by significantly lower mean elevations and slightly lower mean slopes than the central blocks. Unraveling the cooling history of the individual blocks is important to better understand the control of preexisting faults and regional Caribbean geodynamics on the evolution of the Venezuelan Andes. Our data indicate a strong control of major preexisting fault zones on exhumation patterns and temporal correlation between phases of rapid exhumation in different blocks with major tectonic events (e.g., collision of the Panamá arc; rotation of the Maracaibo block).

  5. Two new species of Siphocampylus (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from the Central Andes

    PubMed Central

    Lagomarsino, Laura P.; Santamaría-Aguilar, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Siphocampylus (Campanulaceae: Lobelioideae) from the Central Andes of Peru and Bolivia are described, illustrated, and discussed with reference to related species. One species, Siphocampylus antonellii, is endemic to high elevation grasslands of Calca, Peru, while the second, Siphocampylus siberiensis, is endemic to cloud forests of Cochabamba, Bolivia. Both species are robust shrubs that produce tubular pink flowers that are likely pollinated by hummingbirds. PMID:26884710

  6. Seismic evidence for blind thrusting of the northwestern flank of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Toni, Bruno; Kellogg, James

    1993-12-01

    Surface geology and seismic and well data from the northwestern flank of the Venezuelan Andes indicate overthrusting of Andean basement rocks toward the adjacent Maracaibo Basin along a blind thrust fault. The frontal monocline is interpreted as the forelimb of a northwestward verging fault-related fold deformed over a crustal-scale ramp. The Andean block has been thrust 20 km to the northwest and uplifted 10 km on a ramp that dips about 20°-30° southeastward. The thrust fault ramps up through crystalline basement rocks to a decollement horizon within the shaly units of the Cretaceous Colon-Mito Juan formations. Backthrusts in the monocline produce a wedge geometry and reduce the amount of blind slip required on the decollement northwest of the Andes. The rigid Andean uplift was caused by northwest-southeast compressive tectonic forces related to the convergence of the Caribbean plate, the Panama volcanic arc, and northwestern South America. The thick (up to 6 km) molasse deposits accumulated in the foredeep basin indicate that the Venezuelan Andes started to rise as early as the early Miocene. However, a late Miocene intramolasse unconformity marks the beginning of the formation of the monocline and the greatest uplift. The crustal-scale fault-related fold model may explain structural features seen in other areas of basement-involved foreland deformation.

  7. Miocene orographic uplift forces rapid hydrological change in the southern central Andes

    PubMed Central

    Rohrmann, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Mulch, Andreas; Pingel, Heiko; Tofelde, Stefanie; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-01-01

    Rainfall in the central Andes associated with the South American Monsoon and the South American Low-Level Jet results from orographic effects on atmospheric circulation exerted by the Andean Plateau and the Eastern Cordillera. However, despite its importance for South American climate, no reliable records exist that allow decoding the evolution of thresholds and interactions between Andean topography and atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the onset of humid conditions in the inherently dry southern central Andes. Here, we employ multi-proxy isotope data of lipid biomarkers, pedogenic carbonates and volcanic glass from the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina and present the first long-term evapotranspiration record. We find that regional eco-hydrology and vegetation changes are associated with initiation of moisture transport via the South American Low-Level Jet at 7.6 Ma, and subsequent lateral growth of the orogen at 6.5 Ma. Our results highlight that topographically induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, not global climate change, were responsible for late Miocene environmental change in this part of the southern hemisphere. This suggests that mountain building over time fundamentally controlled habitat evolution along the central Andes. PMID:27767043

  8. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes

    PubMed Central

    Goss, Erica M.; Tabima, Javier F.; Cooke, David E. L.; Restrepo, Silvia; Fry, William E.; Forbes, Gregory A.; Fieland, Valerie J.; Cardenas, Martha; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    2014-01-01

    Phytophthora infestans is a destructive plant pathogen best known for causing the disease that triggered the Irish potato famine and remains the most costly potato pathogen to manage worldwide. Identification of P. infestan’s elusive center of origin is critical to understanding the mechanisms of repeated global emergence of this pathogen. There are two competing theories, placing the origin in either South America or in central Mexico, both of which are centers of diversity of Solanum host plants. To test these competing hypotheses, we conducted detailed phylogeographic and approximate Bayesian computation analyses, which are suitable approaches to unraveling complex demographic histories. Our analyses used microsatellite markers and sequences of four nuclear genes sampled from populations in the Andes, Mexico, and elsewhere. To infer the ancestral state, we included the closest known relatives Phytophthora phaseoli, Phytophthora mirabilis, and Phytophthora ipomoeae, as well as the interspecific hybrid Phytophthora andina. We did not find support for an Andean origin of P. infestans; rather, the sequence data suggest a Mexican origin. Our findings support the hypothesis that populations found in the Andes are descendants of the Mexican populations and reconcile previous findings of ancestral variation in the Andes. Although centers of origin are well documented as centers of evolution and diversity for numerous crop plants, the number of plant pathogens with a known geographic origin are limited. This work has important implications for our understanding of the coevolution of hosts and pathogens, as well as the harnessing of plant disease resistance to manage late blight. PMID:24889615

  9. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic South American camelids of the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Velásquez, Amanda; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Casas-Astos, Eva; Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Casas-Velásquez, Gina; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; Alvarez-García, Gema

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii- and Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic South American camelids (SAC) (llamas and alpacas) from the Peruvian Andes through a cross-sectional study. A wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main SAC production areas of Peru was selected. Immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum immunoglobulins G in serum samples. The association between T. gondii and N. caninum seroprevalence and the geographical origin (Central and South Peruvian Andes) was evaluated. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 460 (24.9 %) llamas and 706 (24.6 %) alpacas, whereas anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected in 153 (8.3 %) llamas and 425 (14.8 %) alpacas. Toxoplasma gondii infection was strongly associated with the South Peruvian Andes where moderate climate conditions, larger human population, compared to the Central region, and the presence of wildlife definitive hosts could favor horizontal transmission to SAC. In contrast, N. caninum infection was not associated with the geographical region. These results indicate that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are highly and moderately widespread, respectively, in both species of domestic SAC studied in the sampled areas and appropriate control measures should be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of both parasitic infections.

  10. Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Forest Canopy Chemistry in the Andes-Amazon Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes-Amazon corridor is one of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth. Elevation gradients provide opportunities to explore the underlying sources and environmental controls on functional diversity of the forest canopy, however plot-based studies have proven highly variable. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) to quantify changes canopy functional traits in a series of eleven 25-ha landscapes distributed along a 3300 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to treeline in the Peruvian Andes. Each landscape encompassed a 1 ha field plot in which all trees reaching the canopy were climbed and leaves were sampled for 20 chemical traits. We used partial least squares regression to relate plot-level chemical values with airborne spectroscopy from the 1 ha area. Sixteen chemical traits produced predictable relationships with the spectra and were used to generate maps of the 25 ha landscape. Ten chemical traits were significantly related to elevation at the 25 ha scale. These ten traits displayed 35% greater accuracy (R2) and precision (rmse) when evaluated at the 25 ha scale compared to values derived from tree climbing alone. The results indicate that high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy can be used as surrogate for laborious tree climbing and chemical assays to understand chemical diversity in Amazonian forests. Understanding how these chemicals vary among forest communities throughout the Andes-Amazon corridor will facilitate mapping of functional diversity and the response of canopies to climate change.

  11. Miocene orographic uplift forces rapid hydrological change in the southern central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Mulch, Andreas; Pingel, Heiko; Tofelde, Stefanie; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-10-01

    Rainfall in the central Andes associated with the South American Monsoon and the South American Low-Level Jet results from orographic effects on atmospheric circulation exerted by the Andean Plateau and the Eastern Cordillera. However, despite its importance for South American climate, no reliable records exist that allow decoding the evolution of thresholds and interactions between Andean topography and atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the onset of humid conditions in the inherently dry southern central Andes. Here, we employ multi-proxy isotope data of lipid biomarkers, pedogenic carbonates and volcanic glass from the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina and present the first long-term evapotranspiration record. We find that regional eco-hydrology and vegetation changes are associated with initiation of moisture transport via the South American Low-Level Jet at 7.6 Ma, and subsequent lateral growth of the orogen at 6.5 Ma. Our results highlight that topographically induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, not global climate change, were responsible for late Miocene environmental change in this part of the southern hemisphere. This suggests that mountain building over time fundamentally controlled habitat evolution along the central Andes.

  12. Miocene orographic uplift forces rapid hydrological change in the southern central Andes.

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Mulch, Andreas; Pingel, Heiko; Tofelde, Stefanie; Alonso, Ricardo N; Strecker, Manfred R

    2016-10-21

    Rainfall in the central Andes associated with the South American Monsoon and the South American Low-Level Jet results from orographic effects on atmospheric circulation exerted by the Andean Plateau and the Eastern Cordillera. However, despite its importance for South American climate, no reliable records exist that allow decoding the evolution of thresholds and interactions between Andean topography and atmospheric circulation, especially regarding the onset of humid conditions in the inherently dry southern central Andes. Here, we employ multi-proxy isotope data of lipid biomarkers, pedogenic carbonates and volcanic glass from the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina and present the first long-term evapotranspiration record. We find that regional eco-hydrology and vegetation changes are associated with initiation of moisture transport via the South American Low-Level Jet at 7.6 Ma, and subsequent lateral growth of the orogen at 6.5 Ma. Our results highlight that topographically induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns, not global climate change, were responsible for late Miocene environmental change in this part of the southern hemisphere. This suggests that mountain building over time fundamentally controlled habitat evolution along the central Andes.

  13. The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans originated in central Mexico rather than the Andes.

    PubMed

    Goss, Erica M; Tabima, Javier F; Cooke, David E L; Restrepo, Silvia; Fry, William E; Forbes, Gregory A; Fieland, Valerie J; Cardenas, Martha; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2014-06-17

    Phytophthora infestans is a destructive plant pathogen best known for causing the disease that triggered the Irish potato famine and remains the most costly potato pathogen to manage worldwide. Identification of P. infestan's elusive center of origin is critical to understanding the mechanisms of repeated global emergence of this pathogen. There are two competing theories, placing the origin in either South America or in central Mexico, both of which are centers of diversity of Solanum host plants. To test these competing hypotheses, we conducted detailed phylogeographic and approximate Bayesian computation analyses, which are suitable approaches to unraveling complex demographic histories. Our analyses used microsatellite markers and sequences of four nuclear genes sampled from populations in the Andes, Mexico, and elsewhere. To infer the ancestral state, we included the closest known relatives Phytophthora phaseoli, Phytophthora mirabilis, and Phytophthora ipomoeae, as well as the interspecific hybrid Phytophthora andina. We did not find support for an Andean origin of P. infestans; rather, the sequence data suggest a Mexican origin. Our findings support the hypothesis that populations found in the Andes are descendants of the Mexican populations and reconcile previous findings of ancestral variation in the Andes. Although centers of origin are well documented as centers of evolution and diversity for numerous crop plants, the number of plant pathogens with a known geographic origin are limited. This work has important implications for our understanding of the coevolution of hosts and pathogens, as well as the harnessing of plant disease resistance to manage late blight.

  14. Grenvillian remnants in the Northern Andes: Rodinian and Phanerozoic paleogeographic perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, A.; Chew, D.; Valencia, V. A.; Bayona, G.; Mišković, A.; Ibañez-Mejía, M.

    2010-01-01

    Grenvillian crust is encountered in several basement inliers in the northern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and is also represented as a major detrital or inherited component within Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic sedimentary and magmatic rocks. This review of the tectonic and geochronological record of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes suggests that these crustal segments probably formed on an active continental margin in which associated arc and back-arc magmatism evolved from ca. 1.25 to 1.16 Ga, possibly extending to as young as 1.08 Ga. The lithostratigraphic and tectonic history of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes differs from that of the Sunsas belt on the southwest Amazonian Craton and from the Grenvillian belt of Eastern Laurentia. It is considered that this belt, along with similar terranes of Grenvillian age in Middle America and Mexico define a separate composite orogen which formed on the northwestern margin of the Amazonian Craton. Microcontinent accretion and interaction with the Sveconorwegian province on Baltica is a feasible tectonic scenario, in line with recent paleogeographic reconstructions of the Rodinian supercontinent. Although Phanerozoic tectonics may have redistributed some of these terranes, they are still viewed as para-autocthonous domains that remained in proximity to the margin of Amazonia. Paleogeographic data derived from Phanerozoic rocks suggest that some of the Colombian Grenvillian fragments were connected to northernmost Peru and Ecuador until the Mesozoic, whereas the Mexican terranes where attached to the Colombian margin until Pangea fragmentation in Late Triassic times.

  15. Aerosol transport along the Andes from Amazonia to the remote Pacific Ocean: A multiyear CALIOP assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Quentin; Ekman, Annica; Krejci, Radovan

    2015-04-01

    The free troposphere over South America and the Pacific Ocean is a particularly interesting region to study due to the prevailing easterly wind direction, forcing air over Amazonia towards the Pacific Ocean but encountering a natural barrier - the Andes - in between which might play a significant role. In addition, the strong contrast between the wet, relatively clean season and the dry, relatively polluted season as well as the difference between day and night meteorological conditions may influence the vertical distribution of aerosols in the free troposphere. Six years (2007-2012) of CALIOP observations at both day and night were used to investigate the vertical distribution, transport and removal processes of aerosols over South America and the Pacific Ocean. The multiyear assessment shows that aerosols, mainly biomass burning particles emitted during the dry season in Amazonia, may be lifted along the Andes. During their lifting, aerosols remain in the boundary layer which makes them subject to scavenging and deposition processes. The removal aerosol extinction rate was quantified. After reaching the top of the Andes, free tropospheric aerosols are likely pushed by the large-scale subsidence towards the marine boundary layer (MBL) during their transport over the Pacific Ocean. CALIOP observations may indicate that aerosols are transported over thousands of kilometers in the free troposphere over the Pacific Ocean. During their long range transport, aerosols could be entrained into the MBL and may further act as cloud condensation nuclei, and influence climate and the radiative budget of the Earth.

  16. Sr and Nd isotopic and trace element compositions of Quaternary volcanic centers of the Southern Andes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Futa, K.; Stern, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of samples from six Quaternary volcanoes located in the northern and southern extremities of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33-46??S) of the Andes and from four centers in the Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, 49-54??S) range for 87Sr 86Sr from 0.70280 to 0.70591 and for 143Nd 144Nd from 0.51314 to 0.51255. The ranges are significantly greater than previously reported from the southern Andes but are different from the isotopic compositions of volcanoes in the central and northern Andes. Basalts and basaltic andesites from three centers just north of the Chile Rise-Trench triple junction have 87Sr 86Sr, 143Nd 144Nd, La Yb, Ba La, and Hf Lu that lie within the relatively restricted ranges of the basic magmas erupted from the volcanic centers as far north as 35??S in the SVZ of the Andes. The trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of these magmas may be explained by source region contamination of subarc asthenosphere, with contaminants derived from subducted pelagic sediments and seawater-altered basalts by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the northern extremity of the SVZ between 33?? and 34??S, basaltic andesites and andesites have higher 87Sr 86Sr, Rb Cs, and Hf Lu, and lower 143Nd 144Nd than basalts and basaltic andesites erupted farther south in the SVZ, which suggests involvement of components derived from the continental crust. In the AVZ, the most primitive sample, high-Mg andesite from the southernmost volcanic center in the Andes (54??S) has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and K Rb and Ba La similar to MORB. The high La Yb of this sample suggests formation by small degrees of partial melting of subducted MORB with garnet as a residue. Samples from centers farther north in the AVZ show a regionally regular northward increase in SiO2, K2O, Rb, Ba, Ba La, and 87Sr 86Sr and decrease in MgO, Sr, K Rb, Rb Cs, and 143Nd 144Nd, suggesting increasingly greater degrees of fractional crystallization and associated intra

  17. Developing services for climate impact and adaptation baseline information and methodologies for the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.

    2012-04-01

    Impacts of climate change are observed and projected across a range of ecosystems and economic sectors, and mountain regions thereby rank among the hotspots of climate change. The Andes are considered particularly vulnerable to climate change, not only due to fragile ecosystems but also due to the high vulnerability of the population. Natural resources such as water systems play a critical role and are observed and projected to be seriously affected. Adaptation to climate change impacts is therefore crucial to contain the negative effects on the population. Adaptation projects require information on the climate and affected socio-environmental systems. There is, however, generally a lack of methodological guidelines how to generate the necessary scientific information and how to communicate to implementing governmental and non-governmental institutions. This is particularly important in view of the international funds for adaptation such as the Green Climate Fund established and set into process at the UNFCCC Conferences of the Parties in Cancun 2010 and Durban 2011. To facilitate this process international and regional organizations (World Bank and Andean Community) and a consortium of research institutions have joined forces to develop and define comprehensive methodologies for baseline and climate change impact assessments for the Andes, with an application potential to other mountain regions (AndesPlus project). Considered are the climatological baseline of a region, and the assessment of trends based on ground meteorological stations, reanalysis data, and satellite information. A challenge is the scarcity of climate information in the Andes, and the complex climatology of the mountain terrain. A climate data platform has been developed for the southern Peruvian Andes and is a key element for climate data service and exchange. Water resources are among the key livelihood components for the Andean population, and local and national economy, in particular for

  18. Spleen enlargement is a common finding in acute Puumala hantavirus infection and it does not associate with thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Sirpa M; Laine, Outi K; Paakkala, Antti S; Mäkelä, Satu M; Mustonen, Jukka T

    2014-10-01

    The pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia in Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection is probably multifactorial. We aimed to evaluate the possible spleen enlargement during acute PUUV infection, and to determine its association with thrombocytopenia and disease severity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spleen was performed in 20 patients with acute PUUV infection. MRI was repeated 5-8 months later. The change in spleen length was compared with markers describing the severity of the disease. In all patients, the spleen length was increased in the acute phase compared with the control phase (median 129 mm vs 111 mm, p < 0.001). The change correlated with maximum C-reactive protein value (r = 0.513, p = 0.021) and inversely with maximum leukocyte count (r = -0.471, p = 0.036), but not with maximum serum creatinine level or minimum platelet count. Enlarged spleen, evaluated by MRI, was shown to be a common finding during acute PUUV infection. However, it does not associate with thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury.

  19. Lethal disease in infant and juvenile Syrian hamsters experimentally infected with Imjin virus, a newfound crocidurine shrew-borne hantavirus.

    PubMed

    Gu, Se Hun; Kim, Young-Sik; Baek, Luck Ju; Kurata, Takeshi; Yanagihara, Richard; Song, Jin-Won

    2015-12-01

    To gain insights into the pathogenicity of Imjin virus (MJNV), a newfound hantavirus isolated from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura), groups of Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) of varying ages (<1, 5, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 56 days) were inoculated by the intraperitoneal route with 1000 pfu of MJNV strains 04-55 and 05-11. MJNV-infected Syrian hamsters, aged 21 days or less, exhibited reduced activity, weight loss, respiratory distress, hind-limb paralysis and seizures. Death ensued 1 to 6 days after onset of clinical disease. MJNV RNA was detected in brain and other major organs by RT-PCR and real time-PCR. Histopathological examination showed alveolar hemorrhage, interstitial pneumonia and severe pulmonary congestion; focal hepatic necrosis and portal inflammation; and acute meningoencephalitis. By immunohistochemistry, MJNV antigen was detected in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells. Older hamsters (35 and 56 days of age) developed subclinical infection without histopathological changes. Future studies are warranted to determine the pathophysiologic bases for the differential age susceptibility of Syrian hamsters to lethal MJNV disease.

  20. Hantavirus Disease Outbreak in Germany: Limitations of Routine Serological Diagnostics and Clustering of Virus Sequences of Human and Rodent Origin▿

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Stefan; Emmerich, Petra; Klempa, Boris; Auste, Brita; Schnaith, Ebbo; Schmitz, Herbert; Krüger, Detlev H.; Günther, Stephan; Meisel, Helga

    2007-01-01

    In Europe, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome results mainly from infection with Puumala virus (PUUV) or Dobrava virus. For 31 patients from a hantavirus disease outbreak in Lower Bavaria, a district in southeast Germany, serodiagnosis was undertaken by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunofluorescence assay, and immunoblot analysis. In a few of these cases, however, PUUV-specific typing of antibodies by these standard assays failed and a virus neutralization assay under biosafety level 3 conditions was required to verify the infection by this virus type. PUUV RNA was amplified by reverse transcription-PCR from acute-phase sera of three patients and was found to be very closely related to virus sequences obtained from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) trapped in the same area. These findings link the outbreak with a novel PUUV lineage, “Bavaria,” circulating in the local rodent population. The Bavaria lineage associated with the outbreak is only distantly related to other PUUV lineages from Germany. PMID:17626170

  1. Application of MODIS GPP to Forecast Risk of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Based on Fluctuations in Reservoir Population Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loehman, R.; Heinsch, F. A.; Mills, J. N.; Wagoner, K.; Running, S.

    2003-12-01

    Recent predictive models for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) have used remotely sensed spectral reflectance data to characterize risk areas with limited success. We present an alternative method using gross primary production (GPP) from the MODIS sensor to estimate the effects of biomass accumulation on population density of Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse), the principal reservoir species for Sin Nombre virus (SNV). The majority of diagnosed HPS cases in North America are attributed to SNV, which is transmitted to humans through inhalation of excretions and secretions from infected rodents. A logistic model framework is used to evaluate MODIS GPP, temperature, and precipitation as predictors of P. maniculatus density at established trapping sites across the western United States. Rodent populations are estimated using monthly minimum number alive (MNA) data for 2000 through 2002. Both local meteorological data from nearby weather stations and 1.25 degree x 1 degree gridded data from the NASA DAO were used in the regression model to determine the spatial sensi