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Sample records for del inositol fosfoglicano

  1. Phosphate, inositol and polyphosphates.

    PubMed

    Livermore, Thomas M; Azevedo, Cristina; Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Wilson, Miranda S C; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2016-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells have ubiquitously utilized the myo-inositol backbone to generate a diverse array of signalling molecules. This is achieved by arranging phosphate groups around the six-carbon inositol ring. There is virtually no biological process that does not take advantage of the uniquely variable architecture of phosphorylated inositol. In inositol biology, phosphates are able to form three distinct covalent bonds: phosphoester, phosphodiester and phosphoanhydride bonds, with each providing different properties. The phosphoester bond links phosphate groups to the inositol ring, the variable arrangement of which forms the basis of the signalling capacity of the inositol phosphates. Phosphate groups can also form the structural bridge between myo-inositol and diacylglycerol through the phosphodiester bond. The resulting lipid-bound inositol phosphates, or phosphoinositides, further expand the signalling potential of this family of molecules. Finally, inositol is also notable for its ability to host more phosphates than it has carbons. These unusual organic molecules are commonly referred to as the inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs), due to the presence of high-energy phosphoanhydride bonds (pyro- or diphospho-). PP-IPs themselves constitute a varied family of molecules with one or more pyrophosphate moiety/ies located around the inositol. Considering the relationship between phosphate and inositol, it is no surprise that members of the inositol phosphate family also regulate cellular phosphate homoeostasis. Notably, the PP-IPs play a fundamental role in controlling the metabolism of the ancient polymeric form of phosphate, inorganic polyphosphate (polyP). Here we explore the intimate links between phosphate, inositol phosphates and polyP, speculating on the evolution of these relationships.

  2. Inositol phosphates in the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Benjamin L; Papházy, Michael J; Haygarth, Philip M; McKelvie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    The inositol phosphates are a group of organic phosphorus compounds found widely in the natural environment, but that represent the greatest gap in our understanding of the global phosphorus cycle. They exist as inositols in various states of phosphorylation (bound to between one and six phosphate groups) and isomeric forms (e.g. myo, D-chiro, scyllo, neo), although myo-inositol hexakisphosphate is by far the most prevalent form in nature. In terrestrial environments, inositol phosphates are principally derived from plants and accumulate in soils to become the dominant class of organic phosphorus compounds. Inositol phosphates are also present in large amounts in aquatic environments, where they may contribute to eutrophication. Despite the prevalence of inositol phosphates in the environment, their cycling, mobility and bioavailability are poorly understood. This is largely related to analytical difficulties associated with the extraction, separation and detection of inositol phosphates in environmental samples. This review summarizes the current knowledge of inositol phosphates in the environment and the analytical techniques currently available for their detection in environmental samples. Recent advances in technology, such as the development of suitable chromatographic and capillary electrophoresis separation techniques, should help to elucidate some of the more pertinent questions regarding inositol phosphates in the natural environment. PMID:12028785

  3. Two inositol hexakisphosphate kinases drive inositol pyrophosphate synthesis in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inositol pyrophosphates are novel cellular signaling molecules with newly discovered roles in energy sensing and metabolic control. Studies in eukaryotes have revealed that these compounds turn over rapidly, and thus only small amounts accumulate. Inositol pyrophosphates have not been the subject of...

  4. Inositol uptake in rat aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Rapoport, R.M.; Van Gorp, C.; Chang, Ki-Churl )

    1990-01-01

    {sup 3}H-inositol uptake into deendothelialized aorta was linear for at least 2 h and was composed of both a saturable, Na{sup +}-dependent, and a nonsaturable, Na{sup +}-independent component. The Na{sup +}-dependent component of inositol uptake had a K{sub m} of 50 {mu}M and a V{sub max} of 289 pmol/mg prot/h. Exposure to LiCl, ouabain, or Ca{sup 2+} - free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution inhibited uptake. Metabolic poisoning with dinitrophenol, as well as incubation with phloretin, an inhibitor of carrier-mediated hexose transport, also inhibited uptake. Exposure to norepinephrine decreased inositol uptake, while phorbol myristate acetate was without effect. Isobutylmethylxanthine significantly increased inositol uptake, while the increased uptake due to dibutyryl cyclic AMP and forskolin were not statistically significant. Sodium nitroprusside, and activator of guanylate cyclase, and 8-bromo cyclic GMP, were without effect on uptake, as was methylene blue, an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase. Inositol uptake into the aorta was increased when the endothelium was allowed to remain intact, although this effect was likely due to uptake in both the endothelial and smooth muscle cells.

  5. Broad Spectrum Anticancer Activity of Myo-Inositol and Inositol Hexakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Dinicola, Simona

    2016-01-01

    Inositols (myo-inositol and inositol hexakisphosphate) exert a wide range of critical activities in both physiological and pathological settings. Deregulated inositol metabolism has been recorded in a number of diseases, including cancer, where inositol modulates different critical pathways. Inositols inhibit pRB phosphorylation, fostering the pRB/E2F complexes formation and blocking progression along the cell cycle. Inositols reduce PI3K levels, thus counteracting the activation of the PKC/RAS/ERK pathway downstream of PI3K activation. Upstream of that pathway, inositols disrupt the ligand interaction between FGF and its receptor as well as with the EGF-transduction processes involving IGF-II receptor and AP-1 complexes. Additionally, Akt activation is severely impaired upon inositol addition. Downregulation of both Akt and ERK leads consequently to NF-kB inhibition and reduced expression of inflammatory markers (COX-2 and PGE2). Remarkably, inositol-induced downregulation of presenilin-1 interferes with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reduces Wnt-activation, β-catenin translocation, Notch-1, N-cadherin, and SNAI1 release. Inositols interfere also with the cytoskeleton by upregulating Focal Adhesion Kinase and E-cadherin and decreasing Fascin and Cofilin, two main components of pseudopodia, leading hence to invasiveness impairment. This effect is reinforced by the inositol-induced inhibition on metalloproteinases and ROCK1/2 release. Overall, these effects enable inositols to remodel the cytoskeleton architecture. PMID:27795708

  6. Synthesis of inositol phosphate ligands of plant hormone-receptor complexes: pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover.

    PubMed

    Hanke, David E; Parmar, Paroo N; Caddick, Samuel E K; Green, Porntip; Brearley, Charles A

    2012-06-15

    Reduction of phytate is a major goal of plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional quality of crops. Remarkably, except for the storage organs of crops such as barley, maize and soybean, we know little of the stereoisomeric composition of inositol phosphates in plant tissues. To investigate the metabolic origins of higher inositol phosphates in photosynthetic tissues, we have radiolabelled leaf tissue of Solanum tuberosum with myo-[2-3H]inositol, undertaken a detailed analysis of inositol phosphate stereoisomerism and permeabilized mesophyll protoplasts in media containing inositol phosphates. We describe the inositol phosphate composition of leaf tissue and identify pathways of inositol phosphate metabolism that we reveal to be common to other kingdoms. Our results identify the metabolic origins of a number of higher inositol phosphates including ones that are precursors of cofactors, or cofactors of plant hormone-receptor complexes. The present study affords alternative explanations of the effects of disruption of inositol phosphate metabolism reported in other species, and identifies different inositol phosphates from that described in photosynthetic tissue of the monocot Spirodela polyrhiza. We define the pathways of inositol hexakisphosphate turnover and shed light on the occurrence of a number of inositol phosphates identified in animals, for which metabolic origins have not been defined.

  7. The inositols and polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Bharti; Kalra, Sanjay; Sharma, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This review describes the rationale, biochemical, and clinical data related to the use of inositols in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). It covers studies related to the mechanism of action of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol (MDI), with randomized controlled trials conducted in women with PCOS, and utilizes these data to suggest pragmatic indications and methods for using MDI combination in PCOS. Rationally crafted inositol combinations have a potential role to play in maintaining metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive health in women with PCOS. PMID:27730087

  8. Regulatory Mutations of Inositol Biosynthesis in Yeast: Isolation of Inositol-Excreting Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Miriam L.; Reiner, Barry; Henry, Susan A.

    1982-01-01

    The enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase (I-1-P synthase), product of the INO1 locus, catalyzes the synthesis of inositol-1-phosphate from the substrate glucose-6-phosphate. The activity of this enzyme is dramatically repressed in the presence of inositol. By selecting for mutants which overproduce and excrete inositol, we have identified mutants constitutive for inositol-1-phosphate synthase as well as a mutation in phospholipid biosynthesis. Genetic analysis of the mutants indicates that at least three loci (designated OPI1, OPI2 and OPI4) direct inositol-mediated repression of I-1-P synthase. Mutants of these loci synthesize I-1-P synthase constitutively. Three loci are unlinked to each other and to INO1, the structural gene for the enzyme. A mutant of a fourth locus, OPI3, does not synthesize I-1-P synthase constitutively, despite its inositol excretion phenotype. This mutant is preliminarily identified as having a defect in phospholipid synthesis. PMID:7047296

  9. Inositol trisphosphate and calcium signalling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berridge, Michael J.

    1993-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate is a second messenger that controls many cellular processes by generating internal calcium signals. It operates through receptors whose molecular and physiological properties closely resemble the calcium-mobilizing ryanodine receptors of muscle. This family of intracellular calcium channels displays the regenerative process of calcium-induced calcium release responsible for the complex spatiotemporal patterns of calcium waves and oscillations. Such a dynamic signalling pathway controls many cellular processes, including fertilization, cell growth, transformation, secretion, smooth muscle contraction, sensory perception and neuronal signalling.

  10. Inositol phosphates induce DAPI fluorescence shift.

    PubMed

    Kolozsvari, Bernadett; Parisi, Federica; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2014-06-15

    The polymer inorganic polyP (polyphosphate) and inositol phosphates, such as IP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate; also known as phytic acid), share many biophysical features. These similarities must be attributed to the phosphate groups present in these molecules. Given the ability of polyP to modify the excitation-emission spectra of DAPI we decided to investigate whether inositol phosphates possess the same property. We discovered that DAPI-IP6 complexes emit at approximately 550 nm when excited with light of wavelength 410-420 nm. IP5 (inositol pentakisphosphate) is also able to induce a similar shift in DAPI fluorescence. Conversely, IP3 (inositol trisphosphate) and IP4 (inositol tetrakisphosphate) are unable to shift DAPI fluorescence. We have employed this newly discovered feature of DAPI to study the enzymatic activity of the inositol polyphosphate multikinase and to monitor phytase phosphatase reactions. Finally, we used DAPI-IP6 fluorescence to determine the amount of IP6 in plant seeds. Using an IP6 standard curve this straight-forward analysis revealed that among the samples tested, borlotti beans possess the highest level of IP6 (9.4 mg/g of dry mass), whereas the Indian urad bean the lowest (3.2 mg/g of dry mass). The newly identified fluorescence properties of the DAPI-IP5 and DAPI-IP6 complexes allow the levels and enzymatic conversion of these two important messengers to be rapidly and reliably monitored.

  11. Inositol pyrophosphates modulate hydrogen peroxide signalling.

    PubMed

    Onnebo, Sara Maria Nancy; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2009-09-14

    Inositol pyrophosphates are involved in a variety of cellular functions, but the specific pathways and/or downstream targets remain poorly characterized. In the present study we use Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants to examine the potential roles of inositol pyrophosphates in responding to cell damage caused by ROS (reactive oxygen species). Yeast lacking kcs1 [the S. cerevisiae IP6K (inositol hexakisphosphate kinase)] have greatly reduced IP7 (diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate) and IP8 (bisdiphosphoinositol tetrakisphosphate) levels, and display increased resistance to cell death caused by H2O2, consistent with a sustained activation of DNA repair mechanisms controlled by the Rad53 pathway. Other Rad53-controlled functions, such as actin polymerization, appear unaffected by inositol pyrophosphates. Yeast lacking vip1 [the S. cerevisiae PP-IP5K (also known as IP7K, IP7 kinase)] accumulate large amounts of the inositol pyrophosphate IP7, but have no detectable IP8, indicating that this enzyme represents the physiological IP7 kinase. Similar to kcs1Delta yeast, vip1Delta cells showed an increased resistance to cell death caused by H2O2, indicating that it is probably the double-pyrophosphorylated form of IP8 [(PP)2-IP4] which mediates the H2O2 response. However, these inositol pyrophosphates are not involved in directly sensing DNA damage, as kcs1Delta cells are more responsive to DNA damage caused by phleomycin. We observe in vivo a rapid decrease in cellular inositol pyrophosphate levels following exposure to H2O2, and an inhibitory effect of H2O2 on the enzymatic activity of Kcs1 in vitro. Furthermore, parallel cysteine mutagenesis studies performed on mammalian IP6K1 are suggestive that the ROS signal might be transduced by the direct modification of this evolutionarily conserved class of enzymes.

  12. The Effectiveness of Myo-Inositol and D-Chiro Inositol Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Di Vieste, Giacoma; Bonomo, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Inositol has been used as a supplement in treating several pathologies such as PCOS, metabolic syndrome, and gestational diabetes. Both myo-inositol and its isomer d-chiro-inositol showed insulin mimetic effects in conditions of insulin resistance. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a condition typically caused by insulin resistance. There is a lack of evidence of inositol use in T2DM. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol treatment in T2DM. This was a pilot study involving a consecutive sample of patients with T2DM with suboptimal glycemic control (HbA1c 7.0–10.0%) already treated with glucose-lowering agents. Patients (23.1% males, mean age of 60.8 ± 11.7 years) took for three months a combination of myo-inositol (550 mg) and d-chiro-inositol (13.8 mg) orally twice a day as add-on supplement to their glucose-lowering drugs. Possible occurrence of side effects was investigated. After three months of treatment fasting blood glucose (192.6 ± 60.2 versus 160.9 ± 36.4; p = 0.02) and HbA1c levels (8.6 ± 0.9 versus 7.7 ± 0.9; p = 0.02) significantly decreased compared to baseline. There was no significant difference in blood pressure, lipid profile, and BMI levels. None of the participants reported side effects. In conclusion, a supplementation with a combination of myo- and d-chiro-inositol is an effective and safe strategy for improving glycemic control in T2DM. PMID:27807448

  13. Synthesis of myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate from inositol phosphates generated by receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, L R; Hawkins, P T; Barker, C J; Downes, C P

    1988-01-01

    myo-[3H]Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate can be made from myo-[3H]inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in a rat brain homogenate or soluble fraction. Although D-myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate can be phosphorylated by a soluble rat brain enzyme to give myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate, it is not an intermediate in the pathway from myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The intermediates in the above pathway are myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate [Shears, Parry, Tang, Irvine, Michell & Kirk (1987) Biochem. J. 246, 139-147; Balla, Guillemette, Baukal & Catt (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 9952-9955], and it is catalysed by soluble kinase activities of similar anion-exchange mobility and Mr value. Compounds with chromatographic and chemical properties consistent with the structures myo-inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, myo-inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate and myo-inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate are present in avian erythrocytes, human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells and primary-cultured murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages. The amounts of these inositol tetrakisphosphates rise upon muscarinic cholinergic stimulation of the astrocytoma cells or stimulation of macrophages with platelet-activating factor. PMID:2845930

  14. Chronic treatment with lithium and pretreatment with excess inositol reduce inositol pool size in astrocytes by different mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, M; Hertz, E; Belmaker, R H; Hertz, L

    1998-03-16

    Chronic treatment with a lithium salt is the classical treatment for manic-depressive disorder. It is hypothesized that the therapeutic action of lithium is caused by its inhibition of inositol phosphatases which leads to a relative deficiency of inositol and, therefore, an impairment of inositol recycling and production of precursor for the second messengers inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). However, peculiarly enough, treatment with high doses of inositol also has an antidepressant effect. In the present work, we have studied the acute and chronic effects of lithium and of excess inositol, in separation or together, on accumulation of 50 microM [3H]inositol (a physiologically relevant concentration) into primary cultures of mouse astrocytes. Two parameters were investigated: (1) rate of unidirectional uptake across the cell membrane (measured during short-term exposure to the radioisotope), and (2) magnitude of the intracellular pool of inositol, equilibrating with extracellular inositol (measured during long-term exposure to the radioisotope). Inositol uptake was highly concentrative and occurred with a Km of approximately 500 microM and a Vmax of 1.5 nmol/min/mg protein. The uptake rate was not affected by either acute or chronic treatment with LiCl (or both), but it was substantially reduced ('down-regulated') after pretreatment with a high concentration of inositol. The inositol pool size was decreased to a similar extent as the uptake rate by previous exposure to excess inositol. In spite of the fact that inositol uptake rate was unaffected by lithium, the magnitude of the inositol pool was significantly decreased by chronic treatment with a pharmacologically relevant concentration of LiCl (1 mM), but not by treatment with lower concentrations. This decrease is likely to reflect a reduction in either inositol synthesis or replenishment of inositol from IP3, due to the inhibition of inositol phosphatases by the lithium ion. In agreement

  15. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5370 - Inositol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inositol. 582.5370 Section 582.5370 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  20. Myo-Inositol content determined by myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation in blueberry fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangyuan; Su, Hongyan; Yang, Nan; Zhu, Luying; Cheng, Jieshan; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Xianhao

    2016-11-01

    Myo-inositol metabolism in plant edible organs has become the focus of many recent studies because of its benefits to human health and unique functions in plant development. In this study, myo-inositol contents were analyzed during the development of two blueberry cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop'. Furthermore, two VcMIPS 1/2 (Vaccinium corymbosum MIPS) genes, one VcIMP (Vaccinium corymbosum IMP) gene and one VcMIOX (Vaccinium corymbosum MIOX) gene were isolated for the first time from blueberry. The expression patterns of VcMIPS2, VcIMP and VcMIOX genes showed a relationship with the change profiles of myo-inositol content during fruit ripening. The results were further confirmed by the analyses of the enzyme activity. Results indicated that both myo-inositol biosynthesis and oxidation played important roles in determining of myo-inositol levels during the development of blueberry. To our knowledge, this report is the first to discuss myo-inositol levels in fruits in terms of biosynthesis and catabolism.

  1. The inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signalling pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, R; Pignataro, O P

    1991-01-01

    Using [32P]Pi and [3H]inositol as precursors, we have detected the presence of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and their derivatives inositol phosphate, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate respectively, in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells it was possible to detect a stimulation in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate as well as an increased generation of diacylglycerol in the presence of 1 mM-CaCl2. These results are consistent with the operation of a functional inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol pathway in T. cruzi, and constitute the first demonstration of the presence and activation of this pathway in a parasitic protozoan. These results also indicate that this pathway is conserved during evolution from lower to higher eukaryotic organisms. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2025225

  2. Content of methylated inositols in familiar edible plants.

    PubMed

    Negishi, Osamu; Mun'im, Abdul; Negishi, Yukiko

    2015-03-18

    Familiar plants contain large amounts of inositols; soybean, white clover, red clover, bush clover, locust tree, wisteria, and kudzu of the legume family contain pinitol (3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol) at approximately 200-600 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). The contents of pinitol in other plants were 260 mg/100 g FW for sticky mouse-ear, 275 mg/100 g FW for chickweed, and 332 mg/100 g FW for ginkgo. chiro-Inositol of 191 and 156 mg/100 g FW was also found in dandelion and Japanese mallotus, respectively. Ononitol (4-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 166 mg/100 g FW was found in sticky mouse-ear. Furthermore, young leaves of ginkgo contained sequoyitol (5-O-methyl-myo-inositol) of 287 mg/100 g FW. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of the methylated inositols were higher than those of the original inositols. Effective uses of these familiar edible plants are expected to promote good health.

  3. Analysis of Dictyostelium discoideum inositol pyrophosphate metabolism by gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Pisani, Francesca; Livermore, Thomas; Rose, Giuseppina; Chubb, Jonathan Robert; Gaspari, Marco; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum was instrumental in the discovery and early characterization of inositol pyrophosphates, a class of molecules possessing highly-energetic pyrophosphate bonds. Inositol pyrophosphates regulate diverse biological processes and are attracting attention due to their ability to control energy metabolism and insulin signalling. However, inositol pyrophosphate research has been hampered by the lack of simple experimental procedures to study them. The recent development of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and simple staining to resolve and detect inositol pyrophosphate species has opened new investigative possibilities. This technology is now commonly applied to study in vitro enzymatic reactions. Here we employ PAGE technology to characterize the D. discoideum inositol pyrophosphate metabolism. Surprisingly, only three major bands are detectable after resolving acidic extract on PAGE. We have demonstrated that these three bands correspond to inositol hexakisphosphate (IP₆ or Phytic acid) and its derivative inositol pyrophosphates, IP₇ and IP₈. Biochemical analyses and genetic evidence were used to establish the genuine inositol phosphate nature of these bands. We also identified IP₉ in D. discoideum cells, a molecule so far detected only from in vitro biochemical reactions. Furthermore, we discovered that this amoeba possesses three different inositol pentakisphosphates (IP₅) isomers, which are largely metabolised to inositol pyrophosphates. Comparison of PAGE with traditional Sax-HPLC revealed an underestimation of the cellular abundance of inositol pyrophosphates by traditional methods. In fact our study revealed much higher levels of inositol pyrophosphates in D. discoideum in the vegetative state than previously detected. A three-fold increase in IP₈ was observed during development of D. discoideum a value lower that previously reported. Analysis of inositol pyrophosphate metabolism using ip6k null amoeba

  4. Inositol pyrophosphates inhibit synaptotagmin-dependent exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae-Sun; Lee, Joo-Young; Kyung, Jae Won; Yang, Yoosoo; Park, Seung Ju; Lee, Seulgi; Pavlovic, Igor; Kong, Byoungjae; Jho, Yong Seok; Jessen, Henning J.; Kweon, Dae-Hyuk; Shin, Yeon-Kyun; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Tae-Young; Kim, Seyun

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates such as 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5-IP7) are highly energetic inositol metabolites containing phosphoanhydride bonds. Although inositol pyrophosphates are known to regulate various biological events, including growth, survival, and metabolism, the molecular sites of 5-IP7 action in vesicle trafficking have remained largely elusive. We report here that elevated 5-IP7 levels, caused by overexpression of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) kinase 1 (IP6K1), suppressed depolarization-induced neurotransmitter release from PC12 cells. Conversely, IP6K1 depletion decreased intracellular 5-IP7 concentrations, leading to increased neurotransmitter release. Consistently, knockdown of IP6K1 in cultured hippocampal neurons augmented action potential-driven synaptic vesicle exocytosis at synapses. Using a FRET-based in vitro vesicle fusion assay, we found that 5-IP7, but not 1-IP7, exhibited significantly higher inhibitory activity toward synaptic vesicle exocytosis than IP6. Synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1), a Ca2+ sensor essential for synaptic membrane fusion, was identified as a molecular target of 5-IP7. Notably, 5-IP7 showed a 45-fold higher binding affinity for Syt1 compared with IP6. In addition, 5-IP7–dependent inhibition of synaptic vesicle fusion was abolished by increasing Ca2+ levels. Thus, 5-IP7 appears to act through Syt1 binding to interfere with the fusogenic activity of Ca2+. These findings reveal a role of 5-IP7 as a potent inhibitor of Syt1 in controlling the synaptic exocytotic pathway and expand our understanding of the signaling mechanisms of inositol pyrophosphates. PMID:27364007

  5. Partial purification and characterization of indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (indoleacetic acid-inositol synthase)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesy, J. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure is described for the purification of the enzyme indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (IAA-myo-inositol synthase). This enzyme catalyzes the transfer of indol-3-ylacetate from 1-0-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-d-glucose to myo-inositol to form indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol and glucose. A hexokinase or glucose oxidase based assay system is described. The enzyme has been purified approximately 16,000-fold, has an isoelectric point of pH 6.1 and yields three catalytically inactive bands upon acrylamide gel electrophoresis of the native protein. The enzyme shows maximum transferase activity with myo-inositol but shows some transferase activity with scyllo-inositol and myo-inosose-2. No transfer of IAA occurs with myo-inositol-d-galactopyranose, cyclohexanol, mannitol, or glycerol as acyl acceptor. The affinity of the enzyme for 1-0-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-d-glucose is, Km = 30 micromolar, and for myo-inositol is, Km = 4 millimolar. The enzyme does not catalyze the exchange incorporation of glucose into IAA-glucose indicating the reaction mechanism involves binding of IAA glucose to the enzyme with subsequent hydrolytic cleavage of the acyl moiety by the hydroxyl of myo-inositol to form IAA myo-inositol ester.

  6. Inositols in the Treatment of Insulin-Mediated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research is currently focused on the role of inositol isomers and in particular myo-inositol (MYO-INS) and D-chiroinositol (DCI) in the treatment of insulin resistance states. Both isomers have been shown to exert insulin-mimetic action and to lower postprandial glucose. Further, insulin resistance-related diseases were associated to derangements in inositol metabolism. Thus, the aim of this review is to provide current evidence on the potential benefits of inositol isomers (MYO-INS and DCI) in the treatment of disease associated to insulin resistance such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), gestational diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular insights into inositol insulin-sensitizing effects will be covered focusing on the possible role of inositol glycans as insulin second messengers. PMID:27688754

  7. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase products contain diphosphate and triphosphate groups.

    PubMed

    Draskovic, Petra; Saiardi, Adolfo; Bhandari, Rashna; Burton, Adam; Ilc, Gregor; Kovacevic, Miroslav; Snyder, Solomon H; Podobnik, Marjetka

    2008-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells produce a family of diverse inositol polyphosphates (IPs) containing pyrophosphate bonds. Inositol pyrophosphates have been linked to a wide range of cellular functions, and there is growing evidence that they act as second messengers. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase (IP6K) is able to convert the natural substrates inositol pentakisphosphate (IP 5) and inositol hexakisphosphate (IP 6) to several products with an increasing number of phospho-anhydride bonds. In this study, we structurally analyzed IPs synthesized by three mammalian isoforms of IP6K from IP 5 and IP 6. The NMR and mass analyses showed a number of products with diverse, yet specific, stereochemistry, defined by the architecture of IP6K's active site. We now report that IP6K synthesizes both pyrophosphate (diphospho) as well as triphospho groups on the inositol ring. All three IP6K isoforms share the same activities both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. The D-chiro-inositol paradox in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Unfer, Vittorio; Roseff, Scott

    2011-06-30

    The D-chiro-inositol-to-myo-inositol ratio is regulated by an insulin-dependent epimerase. Enzyme activity varies among tissues, likely owing to the specific needs of the two different molecules. We hypothesize that in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome patients, epimerase activity is enhanced, leading to a local myo-inositol deficiency which in turn is responsible for the poor oocyte quality.

  9. Effects of Inositol(s) in Women with PCOS: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Nestler, John E.; Kamenov, Zdravko A.; Prapas, Nikos; Facchinetti, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder, with complex etiology and pathophysiology, which remains poorly understood. It affects about 5–10% of women of reproductive age who typically suffer from obesity, hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction, and menstrual irregularity. Indeed, PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in industrialized nations, and it is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increased cardiovascular risk. Although insulin resistance is not included as a criterion for diagnosis, it is a critical pathological condition of PCOS. The purpose of this systematic review is the analysis of recent randomized clinical trials of inositol(s) in PCOS, in particular myo- and D-chiro-inositol, in order to better elucidate their physiological involvement in PCOS and potential therapeutic use, alone and in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, in the clinical treatment of women with PCOS. PMID:27843451

  10. The “Other” Inositols and Their Phosphates: Synthesis, Biology and Medicine (with Recent Advances in myo-Inositol Chemistry)

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mark P; Mills, Stephen J; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-01-01

    Cell signalling via inositol phosphates, eg the second messenger myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and phosphoinositides comprises a huge field of biology. Of nine 1,2,3,4,5,6-cyclohexanehexol isomers, myo-inositol is pre-eminent, with “other” inositols (cis-, epi-, allo-, muco-, neo-, l-chiro-, d-chiro- and scyllo-) and derivatives rarer or thought not to exist in nature. However, recently, neo- and d-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphates were revealed in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, highlighting the paucity of knowledge of the origins and potential biological functions of such stereoisomers, a prevalent group of environmental organic phosphates, and their parent inositols. Some “other” inositols are medically relevant, e.g. scyllo-inositol (neurodegenerative diseases), and d-chiro-inositol (diabetes). It is timely to consider exploration of roles and applications of “other” isomers and their derivatives, likely by exploiting techniques now well developed for the myo-series. PMID:26694856

  11. Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases in human disease.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Sandra; Bertucci, Micka C; Conduit, Sarah E; Vuong, David L; Mitchell, Christina A

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoinositide signalling molecules interact with a plethora of effector proteins to regulate cell proliferation and survival, vesicular trafficking, metabolism, actin dynamics and many other cellular functions. The generation of specific phosphoinositide species is achieved by the activity of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases, which phosphorylate and dephosphorylate, respectively, the inositol headgroup of phosphoinositide molecules. The phosphoinositide phosphatases can be classified as 3-, 4- and 5-phosphatases based on their specificity for dephosphorylating phosphates from specific positions on the inositol head group. The SAC phosphatases show less specificity for the position of the phosphate on the inositol ring. The phosphoinositide phosphatases regulate PI3K/Akt signalling, insulin signalling, endocytosis, vesicle trafficking, cell migration, proliferation and apoptosis. Mouse knockout models of several of the phosphoinositide phosphatases have revealed significant physiological roles for these enzymes, including the regulation of embryonic development, fertility, neurological function, the immune system and insulin sensitivity. Importantly, several phosphoinositide phosphatases have been directly associated with a range of human diseases. Genetic mutations in the 5-phosphatase INPP5E are causative of the ciliopathy syndromes Joubert and MORM, and mutations in the 5-phosphatase OCRL result in Lowe's syndrome and Dent 2 disease. Additionally, polymorphisms in the 5-phosphatase SHIP2 confer diabetes susceptibility in specific populations, whereas reduced protein expression of SHIP1 is reported in several human leukaemias. The 4-phosphatase, INPP4B, has recently been identified as a tumour suppressor in human breast and prostate cancer. Mutations in one SAC phosphatase, SAC3/FIG4, results in the degenerative neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Indeed, an understanding of the precise functions of phosphoinositide phosphatases is not only

  12. Characterization of inositol phosphates in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-01-01

    We have shown previously that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) stimulates an efflux of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from fusogenic carrot protoplasts. In light of these results, we suggested that IP{sub 3} might serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not IP{sub 3} and other inositol phosphates were present in the carrot cells, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-{sup 3}H)inositol for 18 hours and extracted with ice-cold 10% trichloroacetic acid. The inositol metabolites were separated by anion exchange chromatography and by paper electrophoresis. We found that ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites coeluted with inositol bisphosphate (IP{sub 2}) and IP{sub 3} when separated by anion exchange chromatography. However, we could not detect IP{sub 2} or IP{sub 3} when the inositol metabolites were analyzed by paper electrophoresis even though the polyphosphoinositides, which are the source of IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3}, were present in these cells. Thus, ({sup 3}H)inositol metabolites other than IP{sub 2} and IP{sub 3} had coeluted on the anion exchange columns. The data indicate that either IP{sub 3} is rapidly metabolized or that it is not present at a detectable level in the carrot cells.

  13. Myo-Inositol-Dependent Sodium Uptake in Ice Plant1

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Donald E.; Koukoumanos, Michelle; Bohnert, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    In salt-stressed ice plants (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum), sodium accumulates to high concentrations in vacuoles, and polyols (myo-inositol, d-ononitol, and d-pinitol) accumulate in the cytosol. Polyol synthesis is regulated by NaCl and involves induction and repression of gene expression (D.E. Nelson, B. Shen, and H.J. Bohnert [1998] Plant Cell 10: 753–764). In the study reported here we found increased phloem transport of myo-inositol and reciprocal increased transport of sodium and inositol to leaves under stress. To determine the relationship between increased translocation and sodium uptake, we analyzed the effects of exogenous application of myo-inositol: The NaCl-inducible ice plant myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase is repressed in roots, and sodium uptake from root to shoot increases without stimulating growth. Sodium uptake and transport through the xylem was coupled to a 10-fold increase of myo-inositol and ononitol in the xylem. Seedlings of the ice plant are not salt-tolerant, and yet the addition of exogenous myo-inositol conferred upon them patterns of gene expression and polyol accumulation observed in mature, salt-tolerant plants. Sodium uptake and transport through the xylem was enhanced in the presence of myo-inositol. The results indicate an interdependence of sodium uptake and alterations in the distribution of myo-inositol. We hypothesize that myo-inositol could serve not only as a substrate for the production of compatible solutes but also as a leaf-to-root signal that promotes sodium uptake. PMID:9880357

  14. Inositol pyrophosphates: why so many phosphates?

    PubMed Central

    Shears, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    The inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs) are a specialized group of “energetic” signaling molecules found in yeasts, plants and animals. PP-InsPs boast the most crowded three dimensional phosphate arrays found in Nature; multiple phosphates and diphosphates are crammed around the six-carbon, inositol ring. Yet, phosphate esters are also a major energy currency in cells. So the synthesis of PP-InsPs, and the maintenance of their levels in the face of a high rate of ongoing turnover, all requires significant bioenergetic input. What are the particular properties of PP-InsPs that repay this investment of cellular energy? Potential answers to that question are discussed here, against the backdrop of a recent hypothesis that signaling by PP-InsPs is evolutionarily ancient. The latter idea is extended herein, with the proposal that the primordial origins of PP-InsPs is reflected in the apparent lack of isomeric specificity of certain of their actions. Nevertheless, there are other aspects of signaling by these polyphosphates that are more selective for a particular PP-InsP isomer. Consideration of the nature of both specific and non-specific effects of PP-InsPs can help rationalize why such molecules possess so many phosphates. PMID:25453220

  15. A Novel Inositol Pyrophosphate Phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Elizabeth A.; Chong, Lucy S.; Wu, Mingxuan; Crooke, Elliott; Fiedler, Dorothea; Resnick, Adam C.; Rolfes, Ronda J.

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates are high energy signaling molecules involved in cellular processes, such as energetic metabolism, telomere maintenance, stress responses, and vesicle trafficking, and can mediate protein phosphorylation. Although the inositol kinases underlying inositol pyrophosphate biosynthesis are well characterized, the phosphatases that selectively regulate their cellular pools are not fully described. The diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes of the Nudix protein family have been demonstrated to dephosphorylate inositol pyrophosphates; however, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog Ddp1 prefers inorganic polyphosphate over inositol pyrophosphates. We identified a novel phosphatase of the recently discovered atypical dual specificity phosphatase family as a physiological inositol pyrophosphate phosphatase. Purified recombinant Siw14 hydrolyzes the β-phosphate from 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5PP-IP5 or IP7) in vitro. In vivo, siw14Δ yeast mutants possess increased IP7 levels, whereas heterologous SIW14 overexpression eliminates IP7 from cells. IP7 levels increased proportionately when siw14Δ was combined with ddp1Δ or vip1Δ, indicating independent activity by the enzymes encoded by these genes. We conclude that Siw14 is a physiological phosphatase that modulates inositol pyrophosphate metabolism by dephosphorylating the IP7 isoform 5PP-IP5 to IP6. PMID:26828065

  16. Biosynthesis and possible functions of inositol pyrophosphates in plants

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Sarah P.; Gillaspy, Glenda E.; Perera, Imara Y.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol phosphates (InsPs) are intricately tied to lipid signaling, as at least one portion of the inositol phosphate signaling pool is derived from hydrolysis of the lipid precursor, phosphatidyl inositol (4,5) bisphosphate. The focus of this review is on the inositol pyrophosphates, which are a novel group of InsP signaling molecules containing diphosphate or triphosphate chains (i.e., PPx) attached to the inositol ring. These PPx-InsPs are emerging as critical players in the integration of cellular metabolism and stress signaling in non-plant eukaryotes. Most eukaryotes synthesize the precursor molecule, myo-inositol (1,2,3,4,5,6)-hexakisphosphate (InsP6), which can serve as a signaling molecule or as storage compound of inositol, phosphorus, and minerals (referred to as phytic acid). Even though plants produce huge amounts of precursor InsP6 in seeds, almost no attention has been paid to whether PPx-InsPs exist in plants, and if so, what roles these molecules play. Recent work has delineated that Arabidopsis has two genes capable of PP-InsP5 synthesis, and PPx-InsPs have been detected across the plant kingdom. This review will detail the known roles of PPx-InsPs in yeast and animal systems, and provide a description of recent data on the synthesis and accumulation of these novel molecules in plants, and potential roles in signaling. PMID:25729385

  17. Inositol and In Vitro Fertilization with Embryo Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Simi, G.; Genazzani, A. R.; Obino, M. E. R.; Papini, F.; Pinelli, S.; Cela, V.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, studies on inositol supplementation during in vitro fertilization program (IVF) have gained particular importance due to the effect of this molecule on reducing insulin resistance improving ovarian function, oocyte quality, and embryo and pregnancy rates and reducing gonadotropin amount during stimulation. Inositol and its isoforms, especially myoinositol (MYO), are often used as prestimulation therapy in infertile patients undergoing IVF cycle. Inositol supplementation started three months before ovarian stimulation, resulting in significant improvements in hormonal responses, reducing the amount of FSH necessary for optimal follicle development and serum levels of 17beta-estradiol measured the day of hCG injection. As shown by growing number of trials, MYO supplementation improves oocyte quality by reducing the number of degenerated and immature oocytes, in this way increasing the quality of embryos produced. Inositol can also improve the quality of sperm parameters in those patients affected by oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. PMID:28348586

  18. A conserved family of enzymes that phosphorylate inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Mulugu, Sashidhar; Bai, Wenli; Fridy, Peter C; Bastidas, Robert J; Otto, James C; Dollins, D Eric; Haystead, Timothy A; Ribeiro, Anthony A; York, John D

    2007-04-06

    Inositol pyrophosphates are a diverse group of high-energy signaling molecules whose cellular roles remain an active area of study. We report a previously uncharacterized class of inositol pyrophosphate synthase and find it is identical to yeast Vip1 and Asp1 proteins, regulators of actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP 2/3) complexes. Vip1 and Asp1 acted as enzymes that encode inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) and inositol heptakisphosphate (IP7) kinase activities. Alterations in kinase activity led to defects in cell growth, morphology, and interactions with ARP complex members. The functionality of Asp1 and Vip1 may provide cells with increased signaling capacity through metabolism of IP6.

  19. Absence of detectable inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) in plasma.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Robin F

    2014-06-01

    A critical evaluation of a recent attempt to measure inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) in mammalian plasma by mass spectroscopy leads to the conclusion that as yet there is no unambiguous evidence that plasma contains any IP6.

  20. Structural analysis of a multifunctional, tandemly repeated inositol polyphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Gruninger, Robert J; Selinger, L Brent; Mosimann, Steven C

    2009-09-11

    Mitsuokella multacida expresses a unique inositol polyphosphatase (PhyAmm) that is composed of tandem repeats (TRs). Each repeat possesses a protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) active-site signature sequence and fold. Using a combination of structural, mutational, and kinetic studies, we show that the N-terminal (D1) and C-terminal (D2) active sites of the TR have diverged and possess significantly different specificities for inositol polyphosphate. Structural analysis and molecular docking calculations identify steric and electrostatic differences within the substrate binding pocket of each TR that may be involved in the altered substrate specificity. The implications of our results for the biological function of related PTP-like phytases are discussed. Finally, the structures and activities of PhyAmm and tandemly repeated receptor PTPs are compared and discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first example of an inositol phosphatase with tandem PTP domains possessing substrate specificity for different inositol phosphates.

  1. Functional Characterization of Pneumocystis carinii Inositol Transporter 1

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Margaret S.; Sesterhenn, Thomas; Porollo, Aleksey; Vadukoot, Anish Kizhakkekkara; Merino, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fungi in the genus Pneumocystis live in the lungs of mammals, where they can cause a fatal pneumonia (PCP [Pneumocystis pneumonia]) in hosts with compromised immune systems. The absence of a continuous in vitro culture system for any species of Pneumocystis has led to limited understanding of these fungi, especially for the discovery of new therapies. We recently reported that Pneumocystis carinii, Pneumocystis murina, and most significantly, Pneumocystis jirovecii lack both enzymes necessary for myo-inositol biosynthesis but contain genes with homologies to fungal myo-inositol transporters. Since myo-inositol is essential for eukaryotic viability, the primary transporter, ITR1, was functionally and structurally characterized in P. carinii. The predicted structure of P. carinii ITR1 (PcITR1) contained 12 transmembrane alpha-helices with intracellular C and N termini, consistent with other inositol transporters. The apparent Km was 0.94 ± 0.08 (mean ± standard deviation), suggesting that myo-inositol transport in P. carinii is likely through a low-affinity, highly selective transport system, as no other sugars or inositol stereoisomers were significant competitive inhibitors. Glucose transport was shown to use a different transport system. The myo-inositol transport was distinct from mammalian transporters, as it was not sodium dependent and was cytochalasin B resistant. Inositol transport in these fungi offers an attractive new drug target because of the reliance of the fungi on its transport, clear differences between the mammalian and fungal transporters, and the ability of the host to both synthesize and transport this critical nutrient, predicting low toxicity of potential inhibitors to the fungal transporter. PMID:27965450

  2. Dictyostelium uses ether-linked inositol phospholipids for intracellular signalling.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jonathan; Kay, Robert R; Kielkowska, Anna; Niewczas, Izabella; Fets, Louise; Oxley, David; Stephens, Len R; Hawkins, Phillip T

    2014-10-01

    Inositol phospholipids are critical regulators of membrane biology throughout eukaryotes. The general principle by which they perform these roles is conserved across species and involves binding of differentially phosphorylated inositol head groups to specific protein domains. This interaction serves to both recruit and regulate the activity of several different classes of protein which act on membrane surfaces. In mammalian cells, these phosphorylated inositol head groups are predominantly borne by a C38:4 diacylglycerol backbone. We show here that the inositol phospholipids of Dictyostelium are different, being highly enriched in an unusual C34:1e lipid backbone, 1-hexadecyl-2-(11Z-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-myo-inositol), in which the sn-1 position contains an ether-linked C16:0 chain; they are thus plasmanylinositols. These plasmanylinositols respond acutely to stimulation of cells with chemoattractants, and their levels are regulated by PIPKs, PI3Ks and PTEN. In mammals and now in Dictyostelium, the hydrocarbon chains of inositol phospholipids are a highly selected subset of those available to other phospholipids, suggesting that different molecular selectors are at play in these organisms but serve a common, evolutionarily conserved purpose.

  3. The Inositol-3-Phosphate Synthase Biosynthetic Enzyme Has Distinct Catalytic and Metabolic Roles

    PubMed Central

    Frej, Anna D.; Clark, Jonathan; Le Roy, Caroline I.; Lilla, Sergio; Thomason, Peter A.; Otto, Grant P.; Churchill, Grant; Insall, Robert H.; Claus, Sandrine P.; Hawkins, Phillip; Stephens, Len

    2016-01-01

    Inositol levels, maintained by the biosynthetic enzyme inositol-3-phosphate synthase (Ino1), are altered in a range of disorders, including bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. To date, most inositol studies have focused on the molecular and cellular effects of inositol depletion without considering Ino1 levels. Here we employ a simple eukaryote, Dictyostelium discoideum, to demonstrate distinct effects of loss of Ino1 and inositol depletion. We show that loss of Ino1 results in an inositol auxotrophy that can be rescued only partially by exogenous inositol. Removal of inositol supplementation from the ino1− mutant resulted in a rapid 56% reduction in inositol levels, triggering the induction of autophagy, reduced cytokinesis, and substrate adhesion. Inositol depletion also caused a dramatic generalized decrease in phosphoinositide levels that was rescued by inositol supplementation. However, loss of Ino1 triggered broad metabolic changes consistent with the induction of a catabolic state that was not rescued by inositol supplementation. These data suggest a metabolic role for Ino1 that is independent of inositol biosynthesis. To characterize this role, an Ino1 binding partner containing SEL1L1 domains (Q54IX5) and having homology to mammalian macromolecular complex adaptor proteins was identified. Our findings therefore identify a new role for Ino1, independent of inositol biosynthesis, with broad effects on cell metabolism. PMID:26951199

  4. Assaying inositol and phosphoinositide phosphatase enzymes.

    PubMed

    Donahue, Janet L; Ercetin, Mustafa; Gillaspy, Glenda E

    2013-01-01

    One critical aspect of phosphoinositide signaling is the turnover of signaling molecules in the pathway. These signaling molecules include the phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PtdInsPs) and inositol phosphates (InsPs). The enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of these molecules are thus important potential regulators of signaling, and in many cases the activity of such enzymes needs to be measured and compared to other enzymes. PtdInsPs and InsPs are broken down by sequential dephosphorylation reactions which are catalyzed by a set of specific phosphatases. Many of the phosphatases can act on both PtdInsP and InsP substrates. The protocols described in this chapter detail activity assays that allow for the measurement of PtdInsP and InsP phosphatase activities in vitro starting with native or recombinant enzymes. Three different assays are described that have different equipment requirements and allow one to test a range of PtdInsP and InsP phosphatases that act on different substrates.

  5. Inositol Trisphosphate Receptor Ca2+ Release Channels

    PubMed Central

    FOSKETT, J. KEVIN; WHITE, CARL; CHEUNG, KING-HO; MAK, DON-ON DANIEL

    2010-01-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are a family of Ca2+ release channels localized predominately in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cell types. They function to release Ca2+ into the cytoplasm in response to InsP3 produced by diverse stimuli, generating complex local and global Ca2+ signals that regulate numerous cell physiological processes ranging from gene transcription to secretion to learning and memory. The InsP3R is a calcium-selective cation channel whose gating is regulated not only by InsP3, but by other ligands as well, in particular cytoplasmic Ca2+. Over the last decade, detailed quantitative studies of InsP3R channel function and its regulation by ligands and interacting proteins have provided new insights into a remarkable richness of channel regulation and of the structural aspects that underlie signal transduction and permeation. Here, we focus on these developments and review and synthesize the literature regarding the structure and single-channel properties of the InsP3R. PMID:17429043

  6. Reflections on inositol(s) for PCOS therapy: steps toward success.

    PubMed

    Nestler, John E; Unfer, Vittorio

    2015-07-01

    In polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) pathogenesis, both the insulin resistance and the related compensatory hyperinsulinemia are involved. Despite their similarities, Myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI) play different roles in PCOS etiology and therapy. Indeed, in tissue such as the liver both molecules are involved in the insulin signaling, i.e. MI promotes glucose uptake and DCI glycogen synthesis. In reproductive tissue such as the ovary, MI regulates glucose uptake and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) signaling, whereas DCI is devoted to the insulin-mediated androgen production. The new hypothesis on "DCI paradox" in the ovary has provided the key for a better understanding. Unlike other tissues, ovary is not insulin resistant, indeed because the epimerase enzyme, which converts MI to DCI, is insulin dependent, the "DCI paradox" hypothesis suggests that in the ovary of PCOS women, an increased epimerase activity leads to a DCI overproduction and MI depletion. This imbalance could be the cause of the poor oocyte quality and the impairment in the FSH signaling. Owing to this situation, the focal point is the administration of both MI and DCI in a proper ratio for treating PCOS. This topic, with several other "hot" issues, was the driving thread in the discussion between the two scientists.

  7. Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5–10% of women in reproductive age and is characterized by oligo/amenorrhea, androgen excess, insulin resistance, and typical polycystic ovarian morphology. It is the most common cause of infertility secondary to ovulatory dysfunction. The underlying etiology is still unknown but is believed to be multifactorial. Insulin-sensitizing compounds such as inositol, a B-complex vitamin, and its stereoisomers (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol) have been studied as an effective treatment of PCOS. Administration of inositol in PCOS has been shown to improve not only the metabolic and hormonal parameters but also ovarian function and the response to assisted-reproductive technology (ART). Accumulating evidence suggests that it is also capable of improving folliculogenesis and embryo quality and increasing the mature oocyte yield following ovarian stimulation for ART in women with PCOS. In the current review, we collate the evidence and summarize our current knowledge on ovarian stimulation and ART outcomes following inositol treatment in women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). PMID:27795706

  8. Inositol Treatment and ART Outcomes in Women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Garg, Deepika; Tal, Reshef

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age and is characterized by oligo/amenorrhea, androgen excess, insulin resistance, and typical polycystic ovarian morphology. It is the most common cause of infertility secondary to ovulatory dysfunction. The underlying etiology is still unknown but is believed to be multifactorial. Insulin-sensitizing compounds such as inositol, a B-complex vitamin, and its stereoisomers (myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol) have been studied as an effective treatment of PCOS. Administration of inositol in PCOS has been shown to improve not only the metabolic and hormonal parameters but also ovarian function and the response to assisted-reproductive technology (ART). Accumulating evidence suggests that it is also capable of improving folliculogenesis and embryo quality and increasing the mature oocyte yield following ovarian stimulation for ART in women with PCOS. In the current review, we collate the evidence and summarize our current knowledge on ovarian stimulation and ART outcomes following inositol treatment in women with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) and/or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

  9. New Functions of the Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatases in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Erneux, Christophe; Ghosh, Somadri; Ramos, Ana Raquel; Edimo, William's Elong

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases act on inositol phosphates and phosphoinositides as substrates. They are 10 different isoenzymes and several splice variants in the human genome that are involved in a series of human pathologies such as the Lowe syndrome, the Joubert and MORM syndromes, breast cancer, glioblastoma, gastric cancer and several other type of cancers. Inositol 5-phosphatases can be amplified in human cancer cells, whereas the 3- and 4- phosphatase tumor suppressor PTEN and INPP4B, repectively are often repressed or deleted. The inositol 5-phosphatases are critically involved in a complex network of higly regulated phosphoinositides, affecting the lipid content of PI(3, 4, 5)P3, PI(4, 5)P2 and PI(3, 4)P2. This has an impact on the normal behavior of many intracellular target proteins e.g. protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) or actin binding proteins and final biological responses. The production of PI(3, 4P)2 by dephosphorylation of the substrate PI(3, 4, 5)P3 is particularly important as it produces a new signal messenger in the control of cell migration, invasion and endocytosis. New inhibitors/activators of inositol 5- phosphatases have recently been identified for the possible control of their activity in several human pathologies such as inflamation and cancer.

  10. Rabbit synoviocyte inositol phospholipid metabolism is stimulated by hydroxyapatite crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenberg, R.J.; Cheung, H.

    1988-04-01

    Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis partially ameliorates some aspects of synovitis, but joint destruction still progresses. Other aspects of phospholipid metabolism may play a role in synovial tissue pathophysiology. Products of phosphatidylinositol metabolism can activate intracellular processes in response to extracellular stimuli. We asked whether this pathway is activated in synoviocytes in monolayer tissue culture by the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in medium. These crystals are found in pathological human synovial fluid. These crystals are associated with the secretion of degradative enzymes and with a destructive arthritis in humans. Rabbit synoviocyte cultures, previously incubated with (3H)inositol to label inositol phospholipids, were stimulated with the addition of hydroxyapatite (180 micrograms/ml) to the cultures. There was enhanced intracellular accumulation of (3H)inositol monophosphate (30-100%) after 4 h. This indicated an increased phospholipase C activity. The radioactivity in (3H)inositol bis- and trisphosphates was too low to reliably measure. The use of (32P)Pi allowed detection of these compounds. In the presence of HA, incorporation of (32P)Pi into phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol monophosphate, and phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate was increased. In addition, cultures exposed to (32P)Pi during stimulation with HA had an increased content of (32P)inositol monophosphate, bisphosphate, and trisphosphate.

  11. Synthesis of fagopyritols A1 and B1 from D-chiro-inositol.

    PubMed

    Cid, M Belén; Alfonso, Francisco; Martín-Lomas, Manuel

    2004-09-13

    Fagopyritol A1 (3-O-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-d-chiro-inositol) and fagopyritol B1 (2-O-alpha-d-galactopyranosyl-d-chiro-inositol) have been synthesized by glycosylation of the diequatorial diol 1,4,5,6-tetra-O-benzoyl-d-chiro-inositol, readily obtained from d-chiro-inositol, with 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-benzyl-d-galactopyranosyl trichloroacetimidate.

  12. Human Sodium/Inositol Cotransporter 2 (SMIT2) Transports Inositols But Not Glucose in L6 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Fitzgerald, Robin L.; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary To characterize the function of the sodium/inositol symporter SMIT2 in skeletal muscle, human SMIT2 cDNA was transfected into L6 myoblasts using pcDNA3.1 expression vector. Compared with the pcDNA3.1 vector only transfection, this overexpression increased the uptake of [3H]D-chiro-inositol (DCI) by 159-fold. [3H]myo-Inositol uptake increased by 37-fold. In contrast, [14C]D-glucose, [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose, or [14C]3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake remained unchanged in the presence of either 0, 5.5, or 25 mM unlabeled glucose. The Km of DCI and myo-inositol for DCI uptake was 111.0 and 158.0 μM, respectively, whereas glucose competed for DCI uptake with a Ki of 6.1 mM. Insulin treatment of non-transfected L6 cells (2 μM for 24 hours) increased [3H]DCI specific uptake 18-fold. DCI transport is up regulated by insulin and competitively inhibited by millimolar levels of glucose. Therefore, expression and/or function of SMIT2, a high affinity transporter specific for DCI and myo-inositol, may be reduced in diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and polycystic ovary syndrome causing the abnormal DCI metabolism observed in these conditions. PMID:19032932

  13. Brain inositol is a novel stimulator for promoting Cryptococcus penetration of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong-Bao; Kim, Jong-Chul; Wang, Yina; Toffaletti, Dena L; Eugenin, Eliseo; Perfect, John R; Kim, Kee Jun; Xue, Chaoyang

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common cause of fungal meningitis, with high mortality and morbidity. The reason for the frequent occurrence of Cryptococcus infection in the central nervous system (CNS) is poorly understood. The facts that human and animal brains contain abundant inositol and that Cryptococcus has a sophisticated system for the acquisition of inositol from the environment suggests that host inositol utilization may contribute to the development of cryptococcal meningitis. In this study, we found that inositol plays an important role in Cryptococcus traversal across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) both in an in vitro human BBB model and in in vivo animal models. The capacity of inositol to stimulate BBB crossing was dependent upon fungal inositol transporters, indicated by a 70% reduction in transmigration efficiency in mutant strains lacking two major inositol transporters, Itr1a and Itr3c. Upregulation of genes involved in the inositol catabolic pathway was evident in a microarray analysis following inositol treatment. In addition, inositol increased the production of hyaluronic acid in Cryptococcus cells, which is a ligand known to binding host CD44 receptor for their invasion. These studies suggest an inositol-dependent Cryptococcus traversal of the BBB, and support our hypothesis that utilization of host-derived inositol by Cryptococcus contributes to CNS infection.

  14. Anion exchange chromatographic separation of inositol phosphates and their quantification by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Heathers, G P; Juehne, T; Rubin, L J; Corr, P B; Evers, A S

    1989-01-01

    The direct measurement of mass of inositol trisphosphate from biologic samples is described. Separation of inositol monophosphate, bisphosphate, trisphosphate, and inositol tetrakisphosphate was achieved using anion exchange chromatography with a sodium sulfate gradient. In addition, separation of the isomers of each inositol phosphate was performed using HPLC procedures. The individual inositol phosphate fractions were subsequently dephosphorylated and desalted. The myo-inositol from each fraction was then derivatized to the hexatrimethylsilyl derivative and the myo-inositol derivatives were quantified by a novel gas chromatographic analysis using the hexatrimethylsilyl derivative of chiro-inositol as an internal concentration reference. This method is a reproducible and relatively rapid procedure for the direct quantification of inositol phosphate mass which overcomes many of the problems associated with the use of radiolabeled precursors. The method is a significant improvement over existing procedures for the quantitative determination of the mass of inositol phosphate by virtue of improved recovery, sensitivity, and technical simplicity. The applicability of this method is illustrated by the quantitative determination of inositol trisphosphate in response to norepinephrine stimulation of adult canine myocytes and cerebral cortical brain slices and by measurement of the isomers of inositol trisphosphate in isolated myocytes.

  15. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Min; Song, Yang; Wen, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xingyi; Cui, Lianhua

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and inositol (Ins), naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC) in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group). IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day) were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies. PMID:27187454

  16. Role of an Expanded Inositol Transporter Repertoire in Cryptococcus neoformans Sexual Reproduction and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chaoyang; Liu, Tongbao; Chen, Lydia; Li, Wenjun; Liu, Iris; Kronstad, James W.; Seyfang, Andreas; Heitman, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are globally distributed human fungal pathogens and the leading causes of fungal meningitis. Recent studies reveal that myo-inositol is an important factor for fungal sexual reproduction. That C. neoformans can utilize myo-inositol as a sole carbon source and the existence of abundant inositol in the human central nervous system suggest that inositol is important for Cryptococcus development and virulence. In accord with this central importance of inositol, an expanded myo-inositol transporter (ITR) gene family has been identified in Cryptococcus. This gene family contains two phylogenetically distinct groups, with a total of 10 or more members in C. neoformans and at least six members in the sibling species C. gattii. These inositol transporter genes are differentially expressed under inositol-inducing conditions based on quantitative real-time PCR analyses. Expression of ITR genes in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae itr1 itr2 mutant lacking inositol transport can complement the slow-growth phenotype of this strain, confirming that ITR genes are bona fide inositol transporters. Gene mutagenesis studies reveal that the Itr1 and Itr1A transporters are important for myo-inositol stimulation of mating and that functional redundancies among the myo-inositol transporters likely exist. Deletion of the inositol 1-phosphate synthase gene INO1 in an itr1 or itr1a mutant background compromised virulence in a murine inhalation model, indicating the importance of inositol sensing and acquisition for fungal infectivity. Our study provides a platform for further understanding the roles of inositol in fungal physiology and virulence. PMID:20689743

  17. Comparison between effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol on ovarian function and metabolic factors in women with PCOS.

    PubMed

    Pizzo, Alfonsa; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Barbaro, Luisa

    2014-03-01

    Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol are capable of improving the ovarian function and metabolism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. The aim of this work is to compare the effects of myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol in PCOS. We enrolled 50 patients, with homogeneous bio-physical features, affected by PCOS and menstrual irregularities, and we randomly divided them into two groups: 25 were treated with 4 g of myo-inositol/die plus 400 mcg of folic acid/die orally for six months, 25 with 1 g of D-chiro-inositol/die plus 400 mcg of folic acid/die orally for six months. We analyzed in both groups pre-treatment and post-treatment BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Ferriman-Gallwey score, Cremoncini score, serum LH, LH/FSH ratio, total and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), Δ-4-androstenedione, SHBG, prolactin, glucose/immunoreactive insulin (IRI) ratio, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index, and the resumption of regular menstrual cycles. Both the isoforms of inositol were effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS, although myo-inositol showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas D-chiro-inositol reduced hyperandrogenism better.

  18. Using inositol as a biocompatible ligand for efficient transgene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Bellis, Susan L; Fan, Yiwen; Wu, Yunkun

    2015-01-01

    Transgene transfection techniques using cationic polymers such as polyethylenimines (PEIs) and PEI derivatives as gene vectors have shown efficacy, although they also have shortcomings. PEIs have decent DNA-binding capability and good cell internalization performance, but they cannot deliver gene payloads very efficiently to cell nuclei. In this study, three hyperbranched polyglycerol-polyethylenimine (PG6-PEI) polymers conjugated with myo-inositol (INO) molecules were developed. The three resulting PG6-PEI-INO polymers have an increased number of INO ligands per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 1 had only 14 carboxymethyl INO (CMINO) units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 2 had approximately 130 CMINO units per molecule. PG6-PEI-INO 3 had as high as 415 CMINO units approximately. Mixing PG6-PEI-INO polymers with DNA produced compact nanocomposites. We then performed localization studies using fluorescent microscopy. As the number of conjugated inositol ligands increased in PG6-PEI-INO polymers, there was a corresponding increase in accumulation of the polymers within 293T cell nuclei. Transfection performed with spherical 293T cells yielded 82% of EGFP-positive cells when using PG6-PEI-INO 3 as the vehicle. Studies further revealed that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (eATP) can inhibit the transgene efficiency of PG6-PEI-INO polymers, as compared with PEI and PG6-PEI that were not conjugated with inositol. Our work unveiled the possibility of using inositol as an effective ligand for transgene expression. PMID:25926732

  19. Inositol-phosphodihydroceramides in the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia: Structural analysis and incorporation of exogenous myo-inositol

    PubMed Central

    Megson, Zoë Anne; Pittenauer, Ernst; Duda, Katarzyna Anna; Engel, Regina; Ortmayr, Karin; Koellensperger, Gunda; Mach, Lukas; Allmaier, Günter; Holst, Otto; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Unique phosphodihydroceramides containing phosphoethanolamine and glycerol have been previously described in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Importantly, they were shown to possess pro-inflammatory properties. Other common human bacteria were screened for the presence of these lipids, and they were found, amongst others, in the oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia. To date, no detailed study into the lipids of this organism has been performed. Methods Lipids were extracted, separated and purified by HPTLC, and analyzed using GC-MS, ESI–MS and NMR. Of special interest was how T. forsythia acquires the metabolic precursors for the lipids studied here. This was assayed by radioactive and stable isotope incorporation using carbon-14 and deuterium labeled myo-inositol, added to the growth medium. Results T. forsythia synthesizes two phosphodihydroceramides (Tf GL1, Tf GL2) which are constituted by phospho-myo-inositol linked to either a 17-, 18-, or 19-carbon sphinganine, N-linked to either a branched 17:0(3-OH) or a linear 16:0(3-OH) fatty acid which, in Tf GL2, is, in turn, ester-substituted with a branched 15:0 fatty acid. T. forsythia lacks the enzymatic machinery required for myo-inositol synthesis but was found to internalize inositol from the medium for the synthesis of both Tf GL1 and Tf GL2. Conclusion The study describes two novel glycolipids in T. forsythia which could be essential in this organism. Their synthesis could be reliant on an external source of myo-inositol. General significance The effects of these unique lipids on the immune system and their role in bacterial virulence could be relevant in the search for new drug targets. PMID:26277409

  20. Metabolism of myo-[2-3H]Inositol and scyllo-[R-3H]Inositol in Ripening Wheat Kernels 1

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ken; Loewus, Frank A.

    1980-01-01

    Injection of myo-[2-3H]inositol or scyllo-[R-3H]inositol into the peduncular cavity of wheat stalks about 2 to 4 weeks postanthesis led to rapid translocation into the spike and accumulation of label in developing kernels, especially the bran fraction. With myo-[2-3H]inositol, about 50 to 60% of the label was incorporated into high molecular weight cell wall substance in the region of the injection. That portion translocated to the kernels was utilized primarily for cell wall polysaccharide formation and phytate biosynthesis. A small amount was recovered as free myo-inositol and galactinol. When scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was supplied, most of the label was translocated into the developing kernels where it accumulated as free scyllo-inositol and O-α-d-galactopyranosyl-scyllo-inositol in approximately equal amount. None of the label from scyllo-[R-3H]inositol was utilized for either phytate biosynthesis or cell wall polysaccharide formation. PMID:16661513

  1. Inositol lipid phosphatases in membrane trafficking and human disease.

    PubMed

    Billcliff, Peter G; Lowe, Martin

    2014-07-15

    The specific interaction of phosphoinositides with proteins is critical for a plethora of cellular processes, including cytoskeleton remodelling, mitogenic signalling, ion channel regulation and membrane traffic. The spatiotemporal restriction of different phosphoinositide species helps to define compartments within the cell, and this is particularly important for membrane trafficking within both the secretory and endocytic pathways. Phosphoinositide homoeostasis is tightly regulated by a large number of inositol kinases and phosphatases, which respectively phosphorylate and dephosphorylate distinct phosphoinositide species. Many of these enzymes have been implicated in regulating membrane trafficking and, accordingly, their dysregulation has been linked to a number of human diseases. In the present review, we focus on the inositol phosphatases, concentrating on their roles in membrane trafficking and the human diseases with which they have been associated.

  2. Crystal Structures of Type-II Inositol Polyphosphate 5-Phosphatase INPP5B with Synthetic Inositol Polyphosphate Surrogates Reveal New Mechanistic Insights for the Inositol 5-Phosphatase Family.

    PubMed

    Mills, Stephen J; Silvander, Camilla; Cozier, Gyles; Trésaugues, Lionel; Nordlund, Pär; Potter, Barry V L

    2016-03-08

    The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5B hydrolyzes the 5-phosphate group from water- and lipid-soluble signaling messengers. Two synthetic benzene and biphenyl polyphosphates (BzP/BiPhPs), simplified surrogates of inositol phosphates and phospholipid headgroups, were identified by thermodynamic studies as potent INPP5B ligands. The X-ray structure of the complex between INPP5B and biphenyl 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexakisphosphate [BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6, IC50 5.5 μM] was determined at 2.89 Å resolution. One inhibitor pole locates in the phospholipid headgroup binding site and the second solvent-exposed ring binds to the His-Tag of another INPP5B molecule, while a molecule of inorganic phosphate is also present in the active site. Benzene 1,2,3-trisphosphate [Bz(1,2,3)P3] [one ring of BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6] inhibits INPP5B ca. 6-fold less potently. Co-crystallization with benzene 1,2,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Bz(1,2,4,5)P4, IC50 = 6.3 μM] yielded a structure refined at 2.9 Å resolution. Conserved residues among the 5-phosphatase family mediate interactions with Bz(1,2,4,5)P4 and BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 similar to those with the polar groups present in positions 1, 4, 5, and 6 on the inositol ring of the substrate. 5-Phosphatase specificity most likely resides in the variable zone located close to the 2- and 3-positions of the inositol ring, offering insights to inhibitor design. We propose that the inorganic phosphate present in the INPP5B-BiPh(3,3',4,4',5,5')P6 complex mimics the postcleavage substrate 5-phosphate released by INPP5B in the catalytic site, allowing elucidation of two new key features in the catalytic mechanism proposed for the family of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases: first, the involvement of the conserved Arg-451 in the interaction with the 5-phosphate and second, identification of the water molecule that initiates 5-phosphate hydrolysis. Our model also has implications for the proposed "moving metal" mechanism.

  3. Membrane interaction and functional plasticity of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Braun, Werner; Schein, Catherine H

    2014-05-06

    In this issue of Structure, Trésaugues and colleagues determined the interaction of membrane-bound phosphoinositides with three clinically significant human inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (I5Ps). A comparison to the structures determined with soluble substrates revealed differences in the binding mode and suggested how the I5Ps and apurinic endonuclease (APE1) activities evolved from the same metal-binding active center.

  4. Myoinositol and D-Chiro Inositol in Improving Insulin Resistance in Obese Male Children: Preliminary Data

    PubMed Central

    Andreassi, Alice; Salvioni, Michela; Pelliccione, Fiore; Mantellassi, Gianna; Banderali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Myoinositol and D-chiro inositol, which are inositol isomers, have been shown to possess insulin-mimetic properties and to improve insulin resistance, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. However, it has not been determined if this relationship exists also in children. Based on these previous findings, we hypothesized that inositol could be effective in improving insulin sensitivity in children with insulin resistance. To evaluate this hypothesis, we administered both inositol formulations before carrying out an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in a group of obese insulin-resistant male children with high basal insulin levels and compared the values obtained with an OGTT previously conducted without inositol, in the same group, with unchanged BMI. Our results confirm that myoinositol and D-chiro inositol acutely reduce insulin increase after glucose intake mainly in children with high basal insulin level. PMID:27882052

  5. A femtomole-sensitivity mass assay for inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Andrew J; Schell, Michael J; Irvine, Robin F

    2010-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) is an important component of cells, and its mass levels are usually assayed by either (a) equilibrium labelling of cell cultures with radiolabelled inositol or (b) by a variety of mass assays of differing sensitivities and ambiguities. Here, we describe a mass assay for InsP(6) that is based on phosphorylating InsP(6) with [(32)P]-ATP to 5-(PP)InsP(5) using a recombinant Giardia InsP(6) kinase and quantification of the radiolabelled 5-[(32)P](PP)InsP(5) product by anion exchange HPLC with an internal [(3)H]-(PP)InsP(5) standard. Interference with the enzyme reaction by other factors in the tissue extract is corrected for by assay of identical aliquots of tissue spiked with known amounts of InsP(6). This assay only measures InsP(6) (and not other inositol phosphates), and although it is simple in principle and requires no dedicated or specialised equipment, it is quite time-consuming. But the assay is unambiguous and is capable of quantifying accurately as little as 10 fmol of InsP(6) in a cell extract.

  6. Inositols and methylinositols in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) berries.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Heikki; Lassila, Marika; Järvenpää, Eila; Haraldsson, Gudmundur G; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Yang, Baoru

    2009-05-15

    Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries, especially of ssp. sinensis, contain significant quantities of an unknown, water-soluble compound, evidently a cyclitol derivative. The compound was isolated by HPLC and analyzed by GC-MS [trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivative, selected ion monitoring (SIM) and total ion chromatogram (TIC) analyses], by (1)H and (13)C NMR and by optical activity measurements. The results together with analyses of reference compound verified the unambiguous structure (-)-2-O-methyl-L-chiro-inositol (L-quebrachitol). In addition, chiro-inositol and myo-inositol existing in trace amounts were identified based on reference compounds, chromatographic data and mass spectra of the TMS derivatives. Methyl-myo-inositol was tentatively identified based on chromatography and mass spectrometry. Inositols and methyl inositols are bioactive compounds essential for regulating physiological processes of plants and humans. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of chiro-inositol and myo-inositol in sea buckthorn and L-quebrachitol in edible berries. The identification of the inositols and l-quebrachitol in sea buckthorn may bring new insights into the sensory properties and also mechanisms behind the health effects of the berry.

  7. Results from the International Consensus Conference on Myo-inositol and d-chiro-inositol in Obstetrics and Gynecology: the link between metabolic syndrome and PCOS.

    PubMed

    Facchinetti, Fabio; Bizzarri, Mariano; Benvenga, Salvatore; D'Anna, Rosario; Lanzone, Antonio; Soulage, Christophe; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Hod, Moshe; Cavalli, Pietro; Chiu, Tony T; Kamenov, Zdravko A; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Carlomagno, Gianfranco; Gerli, Sandro; Oliva, Mario Montanino; Devroey, Paul

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, interest has been focused to the study of the two major inositol stereoisomers: myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI), because of their involvement, as second messengers of insulin, in several insulin-dependent processes, such as metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome. Although these molecules have different functions, very often their roles have been confused, while the meaning of several observations still needs to be interpreted under a more rigorous physiological framework. With the aim of clarifying this issue, the 2013 International Consensus Conference on MI and DCI in Obstetrics and Gynecology identified opinion leaders in all fields related to this area of research. They examined seminal experimental papers and randomized clinical trials reporting the role and the use of inositol(s) in clinical practice. The main topics were the relation between inositol(s) and metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome (with a focus on both metabolic and reproductive aspects), congenital anomalies, gestational diabetes. Clinical trials demonstrated that inositol(s) supplementation could fruitfully affect different pathophysiological aspects of disorders pertaining Obstetrics and Gynecology. The treatment of PCOS women as well as the prevention of GDM seem those clinical conditions which take more advantages from MI supplementation, when used at a dose of 2g twice/day. The clinical experience with MI is largely superior to the one with DCI. However, the existence of tissue-specific ratios, namely in the ovary, has prompted researchers to recently develop a treatment based on both molecules in the proportion of 40 (MI) to 1 (DCI).

  8. Metabolism of myo-Inositol by Legionella pneumophila Promotes Infection of Amoebae and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Manske, Christian; Schell, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila is a natural parasite of environmental amoebae and the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The facultative intracellular pathogen employs a bipartite metabolism, where the amino acid serine serves as the major energy supply, while glycerol and glucose are mainly utilized for anabolic processes. The L. pneumophila genome harbors the cluster lpg1653 to lpg1649 putatively involved in the metabolism of the abundant carbohydrate myo-inositol (here termed inositol). To assess inositol metabolism by L. pneumophila, we constructed defined mutant strains lacking lpg1653 or lpg1652, which are predicted to encode the inositol transporter IolT or the inositol-2-dehydrogenase IolG, respectively. The mutant strains were not impaired for growth in complex or defined minimal media, and inositol did not promote extracellular growth. However, upon coinfection of Acanthamoeba castellanii, the mutants were outcompeted by the parental strain, indicating that the intracellular inositol metabolism confers a fitness advantage to the pathogen. Indeed, inositol added to L. pneumophila-infected amoebae or macrophages promoted intracellular growth of the parental strain, but not of the ΔiolT or ΔiolG mutant, and growth stimulation by inositol was restored by complementation of the mutant strains. The expression of the Piol promoter and bacterial uptake of inositol required the alternative sigma factor RpoS, a key virulence regulator of L. pneumophila. Finally, the parental strain and ΔiolG mutant bacteria but not the ΔiolT mutant strain accumulated [U-14C6]inositol, indicating that IolT indeed functions as an inositol transporter. Taken together, intracellular L. pneumophila metabolizes inositol through the iol gene products, thus promoting the growth and virulence of the pathogen. IMPORTANCE The environmental bacterium Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of a severe pneumonia termed Legionnaires' disease. The

  9. Chloride secretagogues stimulate inositol phosphate formation in shark rectal gland tubules cultured in suspension

    SciTech Connect

    Ecay, T.W.; Valentich, J.D. )

    1991-03-01

    Neuroendocrine activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland cells is associated with increases in cellular cAMP, cGMP, and free calcium concentrations. We report here on the effects of several chloride secretagogues on inositol phosphate formation in cultured rectal gland tubules. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), atriopeptin (AP), and ionomycin increase the total inositol phosphate levels of cultured tubules, as measured by ion exchange chromatography. Forskolin, a potent chloride secretagogue, has no effect on inositol phosphate formation. The uptake of {sup 3}H-myo-inositol into phospholipids is very slow, preventing the detection of increased levels of inositol trisphosphate. However, significant increases in inositol monophosphate (IP1) and inositol biphosphate (IP2) were measured. The time course of VIP- and AP-stimulated IP1 and IP2 formation is similar to the effects of these agents on the short-circuit current responses of rectal gland monolayer cultures. In addition, aluminum fluoride, an artificial activator of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, stimulates IP1 and IP2 formation. We conclude that rectal gland cells contain VIP and AP receptors coupled to the activation of phospholipase C. Coupling may be mediated by G-proteins. Receptor-stimulated increases in inositol phospholipid metabolism is one mechanism leading to increased intracellular free calcium concentrations, an important regulatory event in the activation of transepithelial chloride secretion by shark rectal gland epithelial cells.

  10. Defective Craniofacial Development and Brain Function in a Mouse Model for Depletion of Intracellular Inositol Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Murata, Takuya; Watanabe, Akiko; Hida, Akiko; Ohba, Hisako; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Mishima, Kazuo; Gondo, Yoichi; Yoshikawa, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    myo-Inositol is an essential biomolecule that is synthesized by myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) from inositol monophosphate species. The enzymatic activity of IMPase is inhibited by lithium, a drug used for the treatment of mood swings seen in bipolar disorder. Therefore, myo-inositol is thought to have an important role in the mechanism of bipolar disorder, although the details remain elusive. We screened an ethyl nitrosourea mutant mouse library for IMPase gene (Impa) mutations and identified an Impa1 T95K missense mutation. The mutant protein possessed undetectable enzymatic activity. Homozygotes died perinatally, and E18.5 embryos exhibited striking developmental defects, including hypoplasia of the mandible and asymmetric fusion of ribs to the sternum. Perinatal lethality and morphological defects in homozygotes were rescued by dietary myo-inositol. Rescued homozygotes raised on normal drinking water after weaning exhibited a hyper-locomotive trait and prolonged circadian periods, as reported in rodents treated with lithium. Our mice should be advantageous, compared with those generated by the conventional gene knock-out strategy, because they carry minimal genomic damage, e.g. a point mutation. In conclusion, our results reveal critical roles for intracellular myo-inositol synthesis in craniofacial development and the maintenance of proper brain function. Furthermore, this mouse model for cellular inositol depletion could be beneficial for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical effect of lithium and myo-inositol-mediated skeletal development. PMID:24554717

  11. Characterization of Inositol-containing Phosphosphingolipids from Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Karan; Lester, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    A method for a large scale extraction of phosphoglycosphingolipids from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. has been developed. The phosphosphingolipid concentrate consists of a dozen or more polar lipids as judged by thin layer chromatography. Two of these lipids were purified by chromatography on porous silica beads and partially characterized. These lipids are formulated as: N-acetylglucosamidoglucuronidoinositol phosphorylceramide and glucosamidoglucuronidoinositol phosphorylceramide. Although not fully characterized, the other lipids in the concentrate are inositol-containing phosphosphingolipids with a higher carbohydrate content. PMID:16659016

  12. Levoprotiline ((-)-oxaprotiline) effects on inositol phosphate generation in human peripheral lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Schubert, T; Müller, W E

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the atypical antidepressant levoprotiline (LPT) on inositol phosphate metabolism were investigated in N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenylalanine (fMLP) activated human lymphocytes. In the presence of LPT, stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis by fMLP lead to an increased accumulation of inositol bisphosphates, an effect which could be detected within the range of therapuetic plasma concentrations and which is exerted by lithium in a similar way. Furthermore, incubation of lymphocytes with LPT and subsequent stimulation with fMLP lead to a pronounced decrease in the level of free intracellular [3H]inositol. Both LPT effects, the increased accumulation of inositol bisphosphates and the reduction of free intracellular [3H]inositol, were found to be more pronounced for LPT than for its enantiomer (+)-oxaprotiline. The results are discussed in view of a possible biochemical mechanism which may contribute to the antidepressive activity of LPT.

  13. Specificity determinants in phosphoinositide dephosphorylation: crystal structure of an archetypal inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Tsujishita, Y; Guo, S; Stolz, L E; York, J D; Hurley, J H

    2001-05-04

    Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases are central to intracellular processes ranging from membrane trafficking to Ca(2+) signaling, and defects in this activity result in the human disease Lowe syndrome. The 1.8 resolution structure of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase domain of SPsynaptojanin bound to Ca(2+) and inositol (1,4)-bisphosphate reveals a fold and an active site His and Asp pair resembling those of several Mg(2+)-dependent nucleases. Additional loops mediate specific inositol polyphosphate contacts. The 4-phosphate of inositol (1,4)-bisphosphate is misoriented by 4.6 compared to the reactive geometry observed in the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, explaining the dephosphorylation site selectivity of the 5-phosphatases. Based on the structure, a series of mutants are described that exhibit altered substrate specificity providing general determinants for substrate recognition.

  14. Functional expression of a myo-inositol/H+ symporter from Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed Central

    Drew, M E; Langford, C K; Klamo, E M; Russell, D G; Kavanaugh, M P; Landfear, S M

    1995-01-01

    The vast majority of surface molecules in such kinetoplastid protozoa as members of the genus Leishmania contain inositol and are either glycosyl inositol phospholipids or glycoproteins that are tethered to the external surface of the plasma membrane by glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors. We have shown that the biosynthetic precursor for these abundant glycolipids, myo-inositol, is translocated across the parasite plasma membrane by a specific transporter that is structurally related to mammalian facilitative glucose transporters. This myo-inositol transporter has been expressed and characterized in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Two-electrode voltage clamp experiments demonstrate that this protein is a sodium-independent electrogenic symporter that appears to utilize a proton gradient to concentrate myo-inositol within the cell. Immunolocalization experiments with a transporter-specific polyclonal antibody reveal the presence of this protein in the parasite plasma membrane. PMID:7565702

  15. Degradation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by a phytate-degrading enzyme from Pantoea agglomerans.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf

    2004-11-01

    High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis established myo-inositol pentakisphosphate as the final product of phytate dephosphorylation by the phytate-degrading enzyme from Pantoea agglomerans. Neither product inhibition by phosphate nor inactivation of the Pantoea enzyme during the incubation period were responsible for the limited phytate hydrolysis as shown by addition of phytate-degrading enzyme and phytate, respectively, after the observed stop of enzymatic phytate degradation. In additon, the Pantoea enzyme did not possess activity toward the purified myo-inositol pentakisphosphate. Using a combination of High-Performance Ion Chromatography (HPIC) analysis and kinetic studies, the nature of the generated myo-inositol pentakisphosphate was established. The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme from Pantoea agglomerans dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way to finally D-myo-inositol(1,2,4,5,6)pentakisphosphate.

  16. Cholinesterase inhibitor soman increases inositol trisphosphate in rat brain. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Mobley, P.L.

    1990-12-31

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of the cholinesterase inhibitor soman on the amount of inositol trisphosphate in the neocortex, striatum, cerebellum, and medulla-pons regions of rat brain in vivo. The studies indicate that treatment with soman increase inositol trisphosphate in the neocortex and striatum, but not in the cerebellum or medulla-pons region. In the neocortex the most pronounced increases were observed in animals with severe poisoning symptoms; however, inositol trisphophate was also found to be elevated in animals with only mild poisoning symptoms. A variety of evidence suggests that the receptor-mediated hydrolysis of phosphatidyl inositol results in the formation of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol, both of which function as intracellular signal messengers, and that this mechanism represents a major signal transduction system through which extracellular signals can influence intracellular events.

  17. myo-Inositol and d-Ribose Ligand Discrimination in an ABC Periplasmic Binding Protein

    PubMed Central

    Herrou, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The periplasmic binding protein (PBP) IbpA mediates the uptake of myo-inositol by the IatP-IatA ATP-binding cassette transmembrane transporter. We report a crystal structure of Caulobacter crescentus IbpA bound to myo-inositol at 1.45 Å resolution. This constitutes the first structure of a PBP bound to inositol. IbpA adopts a type I PBP fold consisting of two α-β lobes that surround a central hinge. A pocket positioned between the lobes contains the myo-inositol ligand, which binds with submicromolar affinity (0.76 ± 0.08 μM). IbpA is homologous to ribose-binding proteins and binds d-ribose with low affinity (50.8 ± 3.4 μM). On the basis of IbpA and ribose-binding protein structures, we have designed variants of IbpA with inverted binding specificity for myo-inositol and d-ribose. Five mutations in the ligand-binding pocket are sufficient to increase the affinity of IbpA for d-ribose by 10-fold while completely abolishing binding to myo-inositol. Replacement of ibpA with these mutant alleles unable to bind myo-inositol abolishes C. crescentus growth in medium containing myo-inositol as the sole carbon source. Neither deletion of ibpA nor replacement of ibpA with the high-affinity ribose binding allele affected C. crescentus growth on d-ribose as a carbon source, providing evidence that the IatP-IatA transporter is specific for myo-inositol. This study outlines the evolutionary relationship between ribose- and inositol-binding proteins and provides insight into the molecular basis upon which these two related, but functionally distinct, classes of periplasmic proteins specifically bind carbohydrate ligands. PMID:23504019

  18. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like inositol polyphosphatase from Megasphaera elsdenii.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Aaron A; Greiner, Ralf; Selinger, L Brent

    2009-02-01

    Inositol polyphosphatases (IPPases), particularly those that can hydrolyze myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (Ins P(6)), are of biotechnological interest for their ability to reduce the metabolically unavailable organic phosphate content of feedstuffs and to produce lower inositol polyphosphates (IPPs) for research and pharmaceutical applications. Here, the gene coding for a new protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-like IPPase was cloned from Megasphaera elsdenii (phyAme), and the biochemical properties of the recombinant protein were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of PhyAme is similar to known PTP-like IPPases (29-44% identity), and the recombinant enzyme displayed strict specificity for IPP substrates. Optimal IPPase activity was displayed at an ionic strength of 250 mM, a pH of 5.0, and a temperature of 60 degrees C. In order to elucidate its stereospecificity of Ins P(6) dephosphorylation, a combination of high-performance ion-pair chromatography and kinetic studies was conducted. PhyAme displayed a stereospecificity that is unique among enzymes belonging to this class in that it preferentially cleaved Ins P(6) at one of two phosphate positions, 1D-3 or 1D-4. PhyAme followed two distinct and specific routes of hydrolysis, predominantly degrading Ins P(6) to Ins(2)P via: (a) 1D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), 1D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), 1D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), and 1D-Ins(1,2)P(2) (60%) and (b) 1D-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P(5), 1D-Ins(1,2,3,6)P(4), Ins(1,2,3)P(3), and D/L-Ins(1,2)P(2)(35%).

  19. Structural analysis of inositol phospholipids from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms.

    PubMed Central

    Bertello, L E; Gonçalvez, M F; Colli, W; de Lederkremer, R M

    1995-01-01

    Inositol phospholipids (IPL) from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi have been investigated by metabolic labelling with [3H]palmitic acid and by GLC-MS analysis of the lipids obtained from non-labelled parasites. The IPL fraction was separated into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and inositol-phosphoceramide subfractions, the latter accounting for 80-85% of the total IPL. The neutral lipids released from the IPLs by PI-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus thuringiensis were analysed by silica-gel and reverse-phase TLC for the radioactive lipids and by GLC-MS for the non-radioactive samples. Ceramides containing dihydrosphingosine and sphingosine with C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids were identified. The main component in the [3H]palmitic acid-labelled ceramides was palmitoyldihydrospingosine, while in the non-labelled sample the ceramides contained mainly sphingosine. This could reflect partial uptake of phospholipid from the medium. The PI contain both alkylacyl- and diacyl-glycerol lipids, with the ether lipid being more abundant. The latter was identified as 1-O-hexadecylglycerol esterified by C18:2 and C18:1 fatty acids. Interestingly, the same lipid had been identified in the anchor of the 1G7 glycoprotein of T. cruzi metacyclic forms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:7646454

  20. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase 3 Regulates Metabolism and Lifespan in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Moritoh, Yusuke; Oka, Masahiro; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Hozumi, Hiroyuki; Iwachidow, Kimihiko; Fuse, Hiromitsu; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2016-01-01

    Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 3 (IP6K3) generates inositol pyrophosphates, which regulate diverse cellular functions. However, little is known about its own physiological role. Here, we show the roles of IP6K3 in metabolic regulation. We detected high levels of both mouse and human IP6K3 mRNA in myotubes and muscle tissues. In human myotubes, IP6K3 was upregulated by dexamethasone treatment, which is known to inhibit glucose metabolism. Furthermore, Ip6k3 expression was elevated under diabetic, fasting, and disuse conditions in mouse skeletal muscles. Ip6k3−/− mice demonstrated lower blood glucose, reduced circulating insulin, deceased fat mass, lower body weight, increased plasma lactate, enhanced glucose tolerance, lower glucose during an insulin tolerance test, and reduced muscle Pdk4 expression under normal diet conditions. Notably, Ip6k3 deletion extended animal lifespan with concomitant reduced phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein in the heart. In contrast, Ip6k3−/− mice showed unchanged skeletal muscle mass and no resistance to the effects of high fat diet. The current observations suggest novel roles of IP6K3 in cellular regulation, which impact metabolic control and lifespan. PMID:27577108

  1. Inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and not phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate is the probable precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in agonist-stimulated parotid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Downes, C P; Hawkins, P T; Irvine, R F

    1986-01-01

    When [3H]inositol-prelabelled rat parotid-gland slices were stimulated with carbachol, noradrenaline or Substance P, the major inositol trisphosphate produced with prolonged exposure to agonists was, in each case, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate. Much lower amounts of radioactivity were present in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate fraction separated by anion-exchange h.p.l.c. Analysis of the inositol trisphosphate head group of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate in [32P]Pi-labelled parotid glands showed the presence of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, but no detectable phosphatidylinositol 3,4-bisphosphate. Carbachol-stimulated [3H]inositol-labelled parotid glands contained an inositol polyphosphate with the chromatographic properties and electrophoretic mobility of an inositol tetrakisphosphate, the probable structure of which was determined to be inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Since an enzyme in erythrocyte membranes is capable of degrading this tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, it is suggested to be the precursor of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in parotid glands. PMID:2432882

  2. Specific determination of myo-inositol in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations by a flow injection system using a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor coupled with a glucose eliminating enzyme reactor.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masaki; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Itoh, Yuji; Shimada, Kenji; Yamato, Susumu

    2003-12-04

    A flow injection system for myo-inositol determination in multivitamin pharmaceutical preparations using two enzyme reactors was developed. Myo-inositol was detected using a fluorophotometer, to measure the fluorescence of NADH produced from NAD+ by a myo-inositol dehydrogenase reactor (IDR) containing myo-inositol dehydrogenase immobilized on porous glass. Enhanced interference due to excess glucose included in a multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation as a sweetener was eliminated by a glucose eliminating reactor (GER) co-immobilized with three enzymes (glucose oxidase, mutarotase and catalase). The calibration coefficient for the standard curve was 0.9993 for myo-inositol detection in the range of 1-5 microg/ml. Myo-inositol was determined even in the presence of glucose concentrations of 140-420 microg/ml. The recovery of myo-inositol added to the multivitamin pharmaceutical preparation was 99.6% (n=9).

  3. Loss-of-function of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase reversibly increases the severity of allergic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Aich, Jyotirmoi; Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ahmad, Tanveer; Agrawal, Anurag; Ghosh, Balaram

    2012-06-06

    Inositol polyphosphate phosphatases regulate the magnitude of phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling output. Although inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase is known to regulate phosphoinositide-3 kinase signalling, little is known regarding its role in asthma pathogenesis. Here we show that modulation of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase alters the severity of asthma. Allergic airway inflammation in mice led to calpain-mediated degradation of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase. In allergic airway inflammation models, preventing inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase degradation by inhibiting calpain activity, or overexpression of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase in mouse lungs, led to attenuation of the asthma phenotype. Conversely, knockdown of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase severely aggravated the allergic airway inflammation and the asthma phenotype. Interestingly, inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase knockdown in lungs of naive mice led to spontaneous airway hyper-responsiveness, suggesting that inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase could be vital in maintaining the lung homeostasis. We suggest that inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase has an important role in modulating inflammatory response in asthma, and thus, uncover a new understanding of the complex interplay between inositol signalling and asthma, which could provide alternative strategies in asthma management.

  4. Changes in inositol phosphates in wild carrot cells upon initiation of cell wall digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup +2/ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts and it was suggested that IP/sub 3/ may serve as a second messenger for the mobilization of intracellular Ca/sup +2/ in higher plant cells. To determine whether or not inositol phosphate metabolism changes in response to external stimuli, the cells were labeled with myo-(2-/sup 3/H) inositol for 18 h and exposed to cell wall digestion enzymes, Driselase. The inositol phosphates were extracted with ice cold 10% TCA and separated by anion exchange chromatography. The radioactivity of the fraction that contained IP/sub 3/ increased 2-3.8 fold and that which contained inositol bisphosphate increased 1.9-2.6 fold within 1.5 min of exposure to Driselase. After 6 min, the radioactivity of both fractions increased 6-7.7 fold and an increase in inositol monophosphate was observed. These data indicate that inositol phosphate metabolism is stimulated by Driselase and suggest polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis occurs upon initiation of cell wall digestion.

  5. Transport and metabolism of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-galactoside in seedlings of Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komoszynski, M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside labeled with 3H in the indole and 14C in the galactose moieties was applied to kernels of 5 day old germinating seedlings of Zea mays. Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside was not transported into either the shoot or root tissue as the intact molecule but was instead hydrolyzed to yield [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [3H]indole-3-acetic acid which were then transported to the shoot with little radioactivity going to the root. With certain assumption concerning the equilibration of applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[U-14C]galactose with the endogenous pool, it may be concluded that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol galactoside in the endosperm supplies about 2 picomoles per plant per hour of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and 1 picomole per plant per hour of indole-3-acetic acid to the shoot and thus is comparable to indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol as a source of indole-acetic acid for the shoot. Quantitative estimates of the amount of galactose in the kernels suggest that [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose is hydrolyzed after the compound leaves the endosperm but before it reaches the shoot. In addition, [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol-[14C]galactose supplies appreciable amounts of 14C to the shoot and both 14C and 3H to an uncharacterized insoluble fraction of the endosperm.

  6. Inositol pyrophosphates modulate cell cycle independently of alteration in telomere length.

    PubMed

    Banfic, Hrvoje; Crljen, Vladiana; Lukinovic-Skudar, Vesna; Dembitz, Vilma; Lalic, Hrvoje; Bedalov, Antonio; Visnjic, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of inositol pyrophosphates through activation of Kcs1 plays an important role in the signalling response required for cell cycle progression after mating pheromone arrest. Overexpression of Kcs1 doubled the level of inositol pyrophosphates when compared to wild type cells and 30 min following the release from α-factor block further increase in inositol pyrophosphates was observed, which resulted that cells overexpressing Kcs1 reached G2/M phase earlier than wild type cells. Similar effect was observed in ipk1Δ cells, which are unable to synthesize IP6-derived inositol pyrophosphates (IP7 and IP8) but will synthesize IP5-derived inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IP4 and (PP)2-IP3). Although ipk1Δ cells have shorter telomeres than wild type cells, overexpression of Kcs1 in both strains have similar effect on cell cycle progression. As it is known that PP-IP4 regulates telomere length through Tel1, inositol polyphosphates, cell cycle and telomere length were determined in tel1Δ cells. The release of the cells from α-factor block and overexpression of Kcs1 in tel1Δ cells produced similar effects on inositol pyrophosphates level and cell cycle progression when compared to wild type cells, although tel1Δ cells possesses shorter telomeres than wild type cells. It can be concluded that telomere length does not affect cell cycle progression, since cells with short telomeres (ipk1Δ and tel1Δ) progress through cell cycle in a similar manner as wild type cells and that overexpression of Kcs1 in cells with either short or normal telomeres will increase S phase progression without affecting telomere length. Furthermore, IP5-derived inositol pyrophosphates can compensate for the loss of IP6-derived inositol pyrophosphates, in modulating S phase progression of the cell cycle.

  7. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  8. The response to inositol: regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Susan A.; Gaspar, Maria L.; Jesch, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on discoveries of the mechanisms governing the regulation of glycerolipid metabolism and stress response signaling in response to the phospholipid precursor, inositol. The regulation of glycerolipid lipid metabolism in yeast in response to inositol is highly complex, but increasingly well understood, and the roles of individual lipids in stress response are also increasingly well characterized. Discoveries that have emerged over several decades of genetic, molecular and biochemical analyses of metabolic, regulatory and signaling responses of yeast cells, both mutant and wild type, to the availability of the phospholipid precursor, inositol are discussed. PMID:24418527

  9. Inositol 5-phosphatases: insights from the Lowe syndrome protein OCRL.

    PubMed

    Pirruccello, Michelle; De Camilli, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    The precise regulation of phosphoinositide lipids in cellular membranes is crucial for cellular survival and function. Inositol 5-phosphatases have been implicated in a variety of disorders, including various cancers, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and rare genetic conditions. Despite the obvious impact on human health, relatively little structural and biochemical information is available for this family. Here, we review recent structural and mechanistic work on the 5-phosphatases with a focus on OCRL, whose loss of function results in oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe and Dent 2 disease. Studies of OCRL emphasize how the actions of 5-phosphatases rely on both intrinsic and extrinsic membrane recognition properties for full catalytic function. Additionally, structural analysis of missense mutations in the catalytic domain of OCRL provides insight into the phenotypic heterogeneity observed in Lowe syndrome and Dent disease.

  10. Control of eukaryotic phosphate homeostasis by inositol polyphosphate sensor domains.

    PubMed

    Wild, Rebekka; Gerasimaite, Ruta; Jung, Ji-Yul; Truffault, Vincent; Pavlovic, Igor; Schmidt, Andrea; Saiardi, Adolfo; Jessen, Henning Jacob; Poirier, Yves; Hothorn, Michael; Mayer, Andreas

    2016-05-20

    Phosphorus is a macronutrient taken up by cells as inorganic phosphate (P(i)). How cells sense cellular P(i) levels is poorly characterized. Here, we report that SPX domains--which are found in eukaryotic phosphate transporters, signaling proteins, and inorganic polyphosphate polymerases--provide a basic binding surface for inositol polyphosphate signaling molecules (InsPs), the concentrations of which change in response to P(i) availability. Substitutions of critical binding surface residues impair InsP binding in vitro, inorganic polyphosphate synthesis in yeast, and P(i) transport in Arabidopsis In plants, InsPs trigger the association of SPX proteins with transcription factors to regulate P(i) starvation responses. We propose that InsPs communicate cytosolic P(i) levels to SPX domains and enable them to interact with a multitude of proteins to regulate P(i) uptake, transport, and storage in fungi, plants, and animals.

  11. Measurement of Inositol Triphosphate Levels from Rat Hippocampal Slices

    PubMed Central

    Tabatadze, Nino; Woolley, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Inositol triphosphate (IP3) is an important second messenger that participates in signal transduction pathways in diverse cell types including hippocampal neurons. Stimulation of phospholipase C in response to various stimuli (hormones, growth factors, neurotransmitters, neurotrophins, neuromodulators, odorants, light, etc) results in hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a phospholipid that is located in the plasma membrane, and leads to the production of IP3 and diacylglycerol. Binding of IP3 to the IP3 receptor (IP3R) induces Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and enables the initiation of intracellular Ca2+-dependent signaling. Here we describe a procedure for the measurement of cellular IP3 levels in tissue homogenates prepared from rat hippocampal slices. PMID:27468425

  12. Nuclear inositol lipid metabolism: more than just second messenger generation?

    PubMed

    Martelli, Alberto M; Follo, Matilde Yung; Evangelisti, Camilla; Falà, Federica; Fiume, Roberta; Billi, Anna Maria; Cocco, Lucio

    2005-10-01

    A distinct polyphosphoinositide cycle is present in the nucleus, and growing evidence suggests its importance in DNA replication, gene transcription, and apoptosis. Even though it was initially thought that nuclear inositol lipids would function as a source for second messengers, recent findings strongly indicate that lipids present in the nucleus also fulfil other roles. The scope of this review is to highlight the most intriguing advances made in the field over the last few years, such as the possibility that nuclear phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate is involved in maintaining chromatin in a transcriptionally active conformation, the new emerging roles for intranuclear phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) trisphosphate and phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and the evidence which suggests a tight relationship between a decreased level of nuclear phosphoinositide specific phospholipase C-beta1 and the evolution of myelodisplastic syndrome into acute myeloid leukemia.

  13. Arginine Silicate Inositol Complex Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Durmus, Ali Said; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Ozdemir, Oguzhan; Orhan, Cemal; Sahin, Nurhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Komorowski, James Richard; Ali, Shakir; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-10-14

    Arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex is a composition of arginine, silicon, and inositol that has been shown to have beneficial effects on vascular health. This study reports the effects of an ASI ointment on wound healing in rats. A full-thickness excision wound was created by using a disposable 5 mm diameter skin punch biopsy tool. In this placebo-controlled study, the treatment group's wound areas were covered by 4 or 10 % ASI ointments twice a day for 5, 10, or 15 days. The rats were sacrificed either 5, 10, or 15 days after the wounds were created, and biopsy samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Granulation tissue appeared significantly faster in the ASI-treated groups than in the control groups (P < 0.05). The mean unhealed wound area was significantly smaller, and the mean percentage of total wound healing was significantly higher in ASI-treated wounds than in the control wounds. Hydroxyproline, collagen, and matrix metalloproteinases were measured in the granulated tissue and found to be affected. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), and various cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) measured in this study showed a significant fall in expression level in ASI-treated wounds. The results suggest that topical application of ASI ointment (especially 4 % concentration) has beneficial effects on the healing response of an excisional wound.

  14. Alterations in Lipid and Inositol Metabolisms in Two Dopaminergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Hannah S.; Do, Kieu Trinh; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Wahl, Simone; Adamski, Jerzy; Peters, Annette; Krumsiek, Jan; Suhre, Karsten; Haslinger, Bernhard; Ceballos-Baumann, Andres; Gieger, Christian; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Background Serum metabolite profiling can be used to identify pathways involved in the pathogenesis of and potential biomarkers for a given disease. Both restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson`s disease (PD) represent movement disorders for which currently no blood-based biomarkers are available and whose pathogenesis has not been uncovered conclusively. We performed unbiased serum metabolite profiling in search of signature metabolic changes for both diseases. Methods 456 metabolites were quantified in serum samples of 1272 general population controls belonging to the KORA cohort, 82 PD cases and 95 RLS cases by liquid-phase chromatography and gas chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Genetically determined metabotypes were calculated using genome-wide genotyping data for the 1272 general population controls. Results After stringent quality control, we identified decreased levels of long-chain (polyunsaturated) fatty acids of individuals with PD compared to both RLS (PD vs. RLS: p = 0.0001 to 5.80x10-9) and general population controls (PD vs. KORA: p = 6.09x10-5 to 3.45x10-32). In RLS, inositol metabolites were increased specifically (RLS vs. KORA: p = 1.35x10-6 to 3.96x10-7). The impact of dopaminergic drugs was reflected in changes in the phenylalanine/tyrosine/dopamine metabolism observed in both individuals with RLS and PD. Conclusions A first discovery approach using serum metabolite profiling in two dopamine-related movement disorders compared to a large general population sample identified significant alterations in the polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in PD and implicated the inositol metabolism in RLS. These results provide a starting point for further studies investigating new perspectives on factors involved in the pathogenesis of the two diseases as well as possible points of therapeutic intervention. PMID:26808974

  15. Relationship Between Myo-Inositol Supplementary and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiangqin; Liu, Zhaozhen; Zhang, Yulong; Lin, Yuan; Song, Jianrong; Zheng, Lianghui; Lin, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To determine whether myo-inositol supplement will increase the action of endogenous insulin, which is mainly measured by markers of insulin resistance such as homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and web of science were comprehensively searched using “gestational diabetes mellitus” and “myo-inositol” to identify relevant studies. Both subject headings and free texts were adopted. The methodological quality of the included studies were assessed and pooled analyzed by the methods recommended by the Cochrane collaboration. A total of 5 trials containing 513 participants were included. There was a significant reduction in aspects of gestational diabetes incidence (risk ratio [RR], 0.29; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.19–0.44), birth weight (mean difference [MD], −116.98; 95% CI, −208.87 to −25.09), fasting glucose oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (MD, −0.36; 95% CI, −0.51 to −0.21), 1-h glucose OGTT (MD, −0.63; 95% CI, −1.01 to −0.26), 2-h glucose OGTT (MD, −0.45; 95% CI, −0.75 to −0.16), and related complications (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI 0.14–0.58). On the basis of current evidence, myo-inositol supplementation reduces the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), although this conclusion requires further evaluation in large-scale, multicenter, blinded randomized controlled trials. PMID:26496267

  16. Do mammals make all their own inositol hexakisphosphate?

    PubMed

    Letcher, Andrew J; Schell, Michael J; Irvine, Robin F

    2008-12-01

    A highly specific and sensitive mass assay for inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) was characterized. This centres around phosphorylating InsP6 with [32P]ATP using a recombinant InsP6 kinase from Giardia lambia, followed by HPLC of the 32P-labelled products with an internal [3H]InsP7 standard. This assay was used to quantify InsP6 levels in a variety of biological samples.Concentrations of InsP6 in rat tissues varied from 10-20 microM (assuming 64% of wet weight of tissue is cytosol water), whereas using the same assumption axenic Dictyostelium discoideum cells contained 352 +/- 11 microM InsP6. HeLa cells were seeded at low density and grown to confluence, at which point they contained InsP6 levels per mg of protein similar to rat tissues. This amounted to 1.952 +/- 0.117 nmol InsP6 per culture dish, despite the cells being grown in serum shown to contain no detectable(less than 20 pmol per dish) InsP6. These results demonstrate that mammalian cells synthesize all their own InsP6. Human blood was analysed, and although the white cell fraction contained InsP6 at a concentration comparable with other tissues, in serum and platelet-free plasma no InsP6 was detected (<1 nM InsP6). Human urine was also examined, and also contained no detectable (<5 nM) InsP6. These results suggest that dietary studies purporting to measure InsP6 at micromolar concentrations in human plasma or urine may not have been quantifying this inositol phosphate. Therefore claims that administrating InsP6 in the diet or applying it topically can produce health benefits by increasing extracellular InsP6 levels may require reassessment.

  17. Inositol induces a profound alteration in the pattern and rate of synthesis and turnover of membrane lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Maria L; Aregullin, Manuel A; Jesch, Stephen A; Henry, Susan A

    2006-08-11

    The addition of inositol to actively growing yeast cultures causes a rapid increase in the rate of synthesis of phosphatidylinositol and, simultaneously, triggers changes in the expression of hundreds of genes. We now demonstrate that the addition of inositol to yeast cells growing in the presence of choline leads to a dramatic reprogramming of cellular lipid synthesis and turnover. The response to inositol includes a 5-6-fold increase in cellular phosphatidylinositol content within a period of 30 min. The increase in phosphatidylinositol content appears to be dependent upon fatty acid synthesis. Phosphatidylcholine turnover increased rapidly following inositol addition, a response that requires the participation of Nte1p, an endoplasmic reticulum-localized phospholipase B. Mass spectrometry revealed that the acyl species composition of phosphatidylinositol is relatively constant regardless of supplementation with inositol or choline, whereas phosphatidylcholine acyl species composition is influenced by both inositol and choline. In medium containing inositol, but lacking choline, high levels of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine were detected. Within 60 min following the addition of inositol, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine levels had decreased from approximately 40% of total phosphatidylcholine to a basal level of less than 5%. nte1Delta cells grown in the absence of inositol and in the presence of choline exhibited lower levels of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine than wild type cells grown under these same conditions, but these levels remained largely constant after the addition of inositol. These results are discussed in relationship to transcriptional regulation known to be linked to lipid metabolism in yeast.

  18. Noradrenaline stimulation of the phosphoinositide system: evidence for a novel hydrophobic inositol-containing compound in resistance arterioles.

    PubMed Central

    Ollerenshaw, J. D.; Heagerty, A. M.; Swales, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    1. Five inositol phosphates were extracted from adult rat resistance arterioles and separated by ion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. 2. By use of this technique, inositol phosphates liberated were identified as inositol 1-phosphate, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate. Stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis with noradrenaline produced increases in inositol phosphate production. 3. Three inositol-containing phospholipids extracted from resistance arterioles were measured as their glycerol esters following deacylation, thereby permitting an analysis of both membrane and cytosolic components of the phosphoinositide signalling system. 4. A substantial agonist-sensitive pool of a previously undescribed inositol but not glycerol-containing lipid extract component was also identified in this tissue. 5. These experiments for the first time allow a precise description of phosphoinositide metabolism in resting and agonist-stimulated resistance arterioles and provide data on a novel compound possibly similar to that recently described in other tissues. PMID:2840158

  19. Non-Mendelian Inheritance of DNA-Induced Inositol Independence in Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, N. C.; Tatum, E. L.

    1973-01-01

    Inositol-independent (inos+) revertants of Neurospora induced in inositol-requiring mutants by treatment with wild-type DNA in previous studies were found to be stable and to grow well in the absence of inositol. Genetic data presented in this paper show that a major proportion of these induced revertants rarely transmitted the inositol independence character (inos+) to their sexual progeny. Non-Mendelian transmission of the transformed character (inos+) was also found to occur in some of the sexual progeny in subsequent generations. These genetic data support the idea that the transforming DNA pieces carrying the genetic information (called exosomes) are not readily integrated into the host genome. It is suggested that elimination of most exosomes during meiosis causes a loss of the genetic information and leads to non-Mendelian transmission of the induced revertant character (inos+). PMID:4521213

  20. Inositol prevents folate-resistant neural tube defects in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Greene, N D; Copp, A J

    1997-01-01

    Clinical trials demonstrate that up to 70% of neural tube defects (NTDs) can be prevented by folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy, whereas the remaining NTDs are resistant to folate. Here, we show that a second vitamin, myo-inositol, is capable of significantly reducing the incidence of spinal NTDs in curly tail mice, a genetic model of folate-resistant NTDs. Inositol increases flux through the inositol/lipid cycle, stimulating protein kinase C activity and upregulating expression of retinoic acid receptor beta, specifically in the caudal portion of the embryonic hindgut. This reduces the delay in closure of the posterior neuropore, the embryonic defect that is known to lead directly to spina bifida in curly tail embryos. Our findings reveal a molecular pathway of NTD prevention and suggest the possible efficacy of combined treatment with folate and inositol in overcoming the majority of human NTDs.

  1. An accelerated mass spectrometric method for measuring myo-inositol in phosphatidylinositol in rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deutsch, Joseph; Ma, Kaizung; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2006-03-01

    A fast and efficient chemical ionization mass spectrometric (CI-GC-MS) method for measuring myo-inositol in phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) in rat brain has been developed. Previously, quantitation of PtdIns involved the release of the myo-inositol by two enzymatic reactions using phospholipase C and alkaline phosphatase. The hydrolytic action of these enzymes was replaced by using commercially available 48% hydrofluoric acid (HF) at 80 °C for 30 min. The process can be carried out on the crude Folch extract of brain phospholipids without prior thin layer chromatography (TLC) purification, thereby significantly increasing the speed of analysis. For quantification, unlabeled myo-inositol, labeled myo- and neo-inositol (internal standard) were converted to acetate derivatives and analyzed by CI-GC-MS.

  2. Unlike lithium, anticonvulsants and antidepressants do not alter rat brain myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Brent M; Greenshaw, Andrew J; McKay, Ryan; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Silverstone, Peter H

    2007-10-08

    Lithium is the first-line in bipolar disorder treatment. Lithium's clinical efficacy might be due to its inhibition of myo-inositol turnover in the phosphatidylinositol second messenger system. This study aimed to determine whether this action can extend to antidepressants and anticonvulsants also used to treat bipolar symptoms. Male rats were treated for 2 weeks with an intraperitoneal injection of phenelzine, fluoxetine, desipramine, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, sodium valproate or vehicle. Brains were dissected and myo-inositol concentrations were analyzed using high-field nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 18.8 T and quantified using Chenomx Profiler software. Brain regions assessed included the prefrontal, temporal and occipital cortical areas as well as the hippocampus. The main finding is that contrary to lithium, the anticonvulsants and antidepressants do not alter brain myo-inositol concentration. This suggests that these agents might work via a mechanism that is not centered on changes in myo-inositol concentration.

  3. Light induces a rapid and transient increase in inositol-trisphosphate in toad rod outer segments

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.E.; Blazynski, C.; Cohen, A.I.

    1987-08-14

    The sub-second time course of changes in the content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate was determined in rod outer segments from very rapidly frozen Bufo retinas that had been incubated with (/sup 3/H)inositol. Rod outer segments were cut off frozen specimens with a cryostat microtome and the water soluble extracts were analyzed. The content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate rose after approximately 250 msec of bright illumination, but returned to the unstimulated level after 1 sec, whether the stimulus remained on or not. That is, there was rapid but transient change in the content of (/sup 3/H)inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate after the onset of stimulation.

  4. Effect of cellular inositol content on ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in sake brewing.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Keiji; Kitano, Hideyuki; Mizoguchi, Haruhiko; Hara, Shodo

    2004-01-01

    The effect of cellular inositol content on the ethanol tolerance of sake yeast was investigated. In a static culture of strain K901 in a synthetic medium, when cells were grown in the presence of inositol in limited amount (L-cells), the inositol content of cells decreased by one-third that of cells grown in the presence of inositol in sufficient amount (H-cells). L-cells exhibited a higher death rate constant than H-cells in the presence of 12-20% ethanol, while no difference in specific ethanol production rate in the presence of 0-18% ethanol between the two cell types was observed. L-cells leaked more intracellular components, such as nucleotides, phosphate and potassium, in the presence of ethanol than H-cells. L-cells exhibited a lower intracellular pH value than H-cells, which represented the lowering of cell vitality by the decrease in H(+) extrusion activity. Furthermore, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity of L-cells was approximately one-half of that of H-cells. Therefore, it was considered that the decrease in viability in the presence of ethanol due to inositol limitation results from the lowering of H(+)-ATPase activity, which maintains the permeability barrier of the yeast membrane, ensuring the homeostasis of ions in the cytoplasm of yeast cells. It is assumed that the lowering of H(+)-ATPase activity due to inositol limitation is caused by the change in lipid environment of the enzyme, which is affected by inositol-containing glycerophospholipids such as phosphatidylinositol (PI), because in the PI-saturated mixed micellar assay system, the difference in H(+)-ATPase activity between L- and H-cells disappeared. In the early stage of sake mash, inositol limitation lowers the ethanol tolerance due to the decrease in H(+)-ATPase activity as in static culture. In the final stage of sake mash, the disruption of the ino1 gene responsible for inositol synthesis, resulted in a decrease in cell density. Furthermore, the ino1 disruptant, which was not

  5. Phosphatidic acid stimulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in adult cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kurz, T; Wolf, R A; Corr, P B

    1993-03-01

    The cellular content of phosphatidic acid can increase in response to several agonists either by phosphorylation of diacylglycerol after phospholipase C-catalyzed hydrolysis of phospholipids or directly through activation of phospholipase D. Although previous findings indicated that the generation of phosphatidic acid was exclusively a means of regulation of the cellular concentration of diacylglycerol, more recent studies have indicated that phosphatidic acid may also directly regulate several cellular functions. Accordingly, the present study was performed to assess whether phosphatidic acid could stimulate cardiac phospholipase C in intact adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. The mass of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins (1,4,5)P3] was determined by a specific and sensitive binding protein assay and by direct mass measurement using anion exchange chromatography for separation of selected inositol phosphates and gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for quantification of inositol monophosphate (IP1), inositol bisphosphate (IP2), inositol trisphosphate (IP3), and inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP4). Phosphatidic acid (10(-9)-10(-6) M) elicited a rapid concentration-dependent increase in Ins (1,4,5)P3 accumulation, with the peak fourfold to fivefold increase at 30 seconds of stimulation; the concentration required for 50% of maximal stimulation was 4.4 x 10(-8) M. The time course of individual inositol phosphates indicated a successive increase in the mass of IP3, IP4, IP2, and IP1 in response to stimulation with phosphatidic acid. The production of Ins (1,4,5)P3 in response to phosphatidic acid was not altered in the absence of extracellular calcium or in the presence of extracellular EGTA (10(-3) M). Thus, these findings indicate that phosphatidic acid is a potent activator of inositol phosphate production in adult ventricular myocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Modulation of hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes in diabetic rats by dietary myo-inositol

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliese, G.; Tilton, R.G.; Speedy, A.; Santarelli, E.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Sherman, W.R.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1990-03-01

    To assess the potential of myo-inositol-supplemented diets to prevent diabetes-induced vascular functional changes, we examined the effects of diets supplemented with 0.5, 1, or 2% myo-inositol on blood flow and vascular filtration function in nondiabetic control rats and rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes (STZ-D). After 1 mo of diabetes and dietary myo-inositol supplementation, (1) 131I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) permeation of vessels was assessed in multiple tissues, (2) glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated as renal plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA, (3) regional blood flows were measured with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres, and (4) endogenous albumin and IgG urinary excretion rates were quantified by radial immunodiffusion assay. In STZ-D rats, 131I-BSA tissue clearance increased significantly (2- to 4-fold) in the anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, retina, sciatic nerve, aorta, new granulation tissue, diaphragm, and kidney but was unchanged in skin, forelimb muscle, and heart. myo-Inositol-supplemented diets reduced diabetes-induced increases in 131I-BSA clearance (in a dose-dependent manner) in all tissues; however, only in new granulation tissue and diaphragm did the 2% myo-inositol diet completely normalize vascular albumin permeation. Diabetes-induced increases in GFR and in urinary albumin and IgG excretion were also substantially reduced or normalized by dietary myo-inositol supplements. Increased blood flow in anterior uvea, choroid-sclera, kidney, new granulation tissue, and skeletal muscle in STZ-D rats also was substantially reduced or normalized by the 2% myo-inositol diet. myo-Inositol had minimal if any effects on the above parameters in control rats.

  7. The RpiR-like repressor IolR regulates inositol catabolism in Sinorhizobium meliloti.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Petra R A; Choong, Ee-Leng; Rossbach, Silvia

    2011-10-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti, the nitrogen-fixing symbiont of alfalfa, has the ability to catabolize myo-, scyllo-, and D-chiro-inositol. Functional inositol catabolism (iol) genes are required for growth on these inositol isomers, and they play a role during plant-bacterium interactions. The inositol catabolism genes comprise the chromosomally encoded iolA (mmsA) and the iolY(smc01163)RCDEB genes, as well as the idhA gene located on the pSymB plasmid. Reverse transcriptase assays showed that the iolYRCDEB genes are transcribed as one operon. The iol genes were weakly expressed without induction, but their expression was strongly induced by myo-inositol. The putative transcriptional regulator of the iol genes, IolR, belongs to the RpiR-like repressor family. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that IolR recognized a conserved palindromic sequence (5'-GGAA-N6-TTCC-3') in the upstream regions of the idhA, iolY, iolR, and iolC genes. Complementation assays found IolR to be required for the repression of its own gene and for the downregulation of the idhA-encoded myo-inositol dehydrogenase activity in the presence and absence of inositol. Further expression studies indicated that the late pathway intermediate 2-keto-5-deoxy-D-gluconic acid 6-phosphate (KDGP) functions as the true inducer of the iol genes. The iolA (mmsA) gene encoding methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase was not regulated by IolR. The S. meliloti iolA (mmsA) gene product seems to be involved in more than only the inositol catabolic pathway, since it was also found to be essential for valine catabolism, supporting its more recent annotation as mmsA.

  8. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme of baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Alminger, M L; Carlsson, N G

    2001-05-01

    During food processing such as baking, phytate is dephosphorylated to produce degradation products, such as myo-inositol pentakis-, tetrakis-, tris-, bis-, and monophosphates. Certain myo-inositol phosphates have been proposed to have positive effects on human health. The position of the phosphate groups on the myo-inositol ring is thereby of great significance for their physiological functions. Using a combination of high-performance ion chromatography analysis and kinetic studies the stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was established. The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme from baker's yeast dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4), D-Ins(1,2,6)P(3), D-Ins(1,2)P(2), to finally Ins(2)P (notation 3/4/5/6/1). Knowledge of the absolute stereochemical specificity of the baker's yeast phytase allows use of the enzyme to produce defined myo-inositol phosphates for kinetic and physiological studies.

  9. Plant inositol monophosphatase is a lithium-sensitive enzyme encoded by a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gillaspy, G E; Keddie, J S; Oda, K; Gruissem, W

    1995-01-01

    myo-Inositol monophosphatase (IMP) is a soluble, Li(+)-sensitive protein that catalyzes the removal of a phosphate from myo-inositol phosphate substrates. IMP is required for de novo inositol synthesis from glucose 6-phosphate and for breakdown of inositol trisphosphate, a second messenger generated by the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway. We cloned the IMP gene from tomato (LeIMP) and show that the plant enzyme is encoded by a small gene family. Three different LeIMP cDNAs encode distinct but highly conserved IMP enzymes that are catalytically active in vitro. Similar to the single IMP from animals, the activities of all three LeIMPs are inhibited by low concentrations of LiCl. LeIMP mRNA levels are developmentally regulated in seedlings and fruit and in response to light. Immunoblot analysis detected three proteins of distinct molecular masses (30, 29, and 28 kD) in tomato; these correspond to the predicted molecular masses of the LeIMPs encoded by the genes. Immunoreactive proteins in the same size range are also present in several other plants. Immunolocalization studies indicated that many cell types within seedlings accumulate LeIMP proteins. In particular, cells associated with the vasculature express high levels of LeIMP protein; this may indicate a coordinate regulation between phloem transport and synthesis of inositol. The presence of three distinct enzymes in tomato most likely reflects the complexity of inositol utilization in higher plants. PMID:8718627

  10. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of mouse myo-inositol oxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Peter M. Caradoc-Davies, Tom T.; Dickson, James M.; Cooper, Garth J. S.; Loomes, Kerry M.; Baker, Edward N.

    2006-08-01

    Mouse myo-inositol oxygenase, a key enzyme involved in inositol catabolism, has been expressed, purified and crystallized in a form suitable for structure determination by X-ray crystallography. Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX) catalyzes the novel oxidative cleavage of myo-inositol (MI) and its epimer d-chiro inositol (DCI) to d-glucuronate. MIOX utilizes an Fe{sup II}/Fe{sup III} binuclear iron centre for the dioxygen-dependent cleavage of the C1—C6 bond in MI. Despite its key role in inositol metabolism, the structural basis of its unique four-electron oxidation mechanism and its substrate specificity remain unknown. In order to answer these questions and to facilitate the use of this key enzyme for the development of new therapeutic strategies for diabetes, the mouse enzyme has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized from 4.4 M sodium formate. The crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 44.87, b = 77.26, c = 84.84 Å, and diffract to 2.8 Å resolution.

  11. Safety and Pharmacokinetics of Multiple Dose myo-Inositol in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Dale L.; Ward, Robert M.; Williams, Rick L.; Nolen, Tracy L.; Watterberg, Kristi L.; Oh, William; Goedecke, Michael; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Fennell, Timothy; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Cotten, C. Michael; Hallman, Mikko; Frantz, Ivan D.; Faix, Roger G.; Zaterka-Baxter, Kristin M.; Das, Abhik; Ball, M. Bethany; Lacy, Conra Backstrom; Walsh, Michele C.; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Bell, Edward F.; Shankaran, Seetha; Carlton, David P.; Chess, Patricia R.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Preterm infants with RDS given inositol had reduced BPD, death and severe ROP. We assessed the safety and pharmacokinetics(PK) of daily inositol to select a dose providing serum levels previously associated with benefit, and to learn if accumulation occurred when administered throughout the normal period of retinal vascularization. METHODS Infants ≤29wks GA (n=122, 14 centers) were randomized and treated with placebo or inositol at 10, 40 or 80mg/kg/day. Intravenous administration converted to enteral when feedings were established, and continued to the first of 10 weeks, 34weeks PMA or discharge. Serum collection employed a sparse sampling population PK design. Inositol urine losses and feeding intakes were measured. Safety was prospectively monitored. RESULTS At 80mg/kg/day mean serum levels reached 140mg/L, similar to Hallman’s findings. Levels declined after 2 weeks, converging in all groups by 6 wks. Analyses showed a mean volume of distribution 0.657 L/kg, clearance 0.058 L/kg/hr, and half-life 7.90 hr. Adverse events and co-morbidities were fewer in the inositol groups, but not significantly so. CONCLUSIONS Multiple dose inositol at 80mg/kg/day was not associated with increased adverse events, achieves previously effective serum levels, and is appropriate for investigation in a Phase 3 trial. PMID:27074126

  12. Regioselective Opening of myo-Inositol Orthoesters: Mechanism and Synthetic Utility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis of myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthoesters, apart from orthoformates, exclusively affords the corresponding 2-O-acyl myo-inositol products via a 1,2-bridged five-membered ring dioxolanylium ion intermediate observed by NMR spectroscopy. These C-2-substituted inositol derivatives provide valuable precursors for rapid and highly efficient routes to 2-O-acyl inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphates and myo-inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate with biologically interesting and anticancer properties. Deuterium incorporation into the α-methylene group of such alkyl ester products (2-O-C(O)CD2R), when the analogous alkyl orthoester is treated with deuterated acid, is established utilizing the novel orthoester myo-inositol 1,3,5-orthobutyrate as an example. Such deuterated ester products provide intermediates for deuterium-labeled synthetic analogues. Investigation into this selective formation of 2-O-ester products and the deuterium incorporation is presented with proposed mechanisms from NMR experiments. PMID:23438216

  13. Useful access to enantiomerically pure protected inositols from carbohydrates: the aldohexos-5-uloses route

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrea, Felicia; Catelani, Giorgio; Pistarà, Venerando

    2016-01-01

    The intramolecular aldol condensation of aldohexos-5-ulose derivatives of the D-xylo and L-ribo stereoseries has been studied. Only one of the four possible inososes was isolated from both stereoseries in reasonable yields (30–38%). The results obtained, together with the previous findings for the L-arabino and L-lyxo stereoseries, allowed for the rationalisation of a mechanism of the reaction based on open-transition-state models and electron-withdrawing inductive effects. Complementary reductions of the intermediate inososes were possible by changing the reaction conditions, and two isomeric inositol derivatives were obtained with complete stereoselection from each inosose. The presented approach permits us to control the configuration of three out of the six stereocentres of the inositol frame and gives access to seven of the nine inositols. Noteworthy, for the D-xylo derivative, the two-step sequence (condensation followed by reduction with NaBH(OAc)3) represents the biomimetic synthesis of myo-inositol. Furthermore, the sugar-based pathway leads directly to enantiomerically pure selectively protected inositols and does not require any desymmetrisation procedure which is needed when myo-inositol and other achiral precursors are employed as starting materials. As an example of application of the method, the indirect selective protection of secondary inositols’ hydroxy functions, by placing specific protecting groups on the aldohexos-5-ulose precursor has been presented. PMID:28144301

  14. Determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates in foods by high-performance ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingchuan

    2004-07-28

    A high-performance anion exchange chromatographic method was adapted for the quantitative determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphate isomers (excluding enantiomers) in foods. Because of the cost and limited availability of inositol phosphate standards, a phytic acid sodium salt standard was used for the calculation of an average relative response factor for the quantification of inositol pentakisphosphate isomers, and the purity of phytic acid sodium salt standard was also accurately established. The detection limits (S/N = 3) for phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates were in the range of 1.5-3.4 microM (0.1-0.2 microg/100 microL). This method has been successfully applied to the determination of phytic acid and inositol pentakisphosphates in a variety of beans and nuts after extraction with 0.5 M HCl and cleanup with solid phase extraction cartridges. The results demonstrated that there was a strong correlation between either the phytic acid content or the total content of phytic acid together with inositol pentakisphosphates and the total dietary fiber content in the group of all raw dry beans and in the group of raw dry black beans but not in the group of raw dry red kidney beans, which was probably due to the insufficient number of the raw dry red kidney bean samples.

  15. Synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Auchus, R J; Kaiser, S L; Majerus, P W

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method for synthesis of inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate using a water-soluble carbodiimide. We obtained 1-1.5 mumol of the inositol cyclic trisphosphate starting with 5 mumol of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The cyclized product was isolated by HPLC on Partisil SAX. The identity of the cyclic product was verified by its hydrolysis to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in acid and by its conversion to 1,2-(cyclic)-4-bisphosphate by a specific 5-phosphomonoesterase from platelets. We also identified the product by 31P NMR spectroscopy, which showed a peak at 17.2 ppm, characteristic of a five-membered cyclic phosphodiester ring, and peaks at 4.1 ppm and 0.8 ppm, indicative of phosphomonoesters. This relatively simple method for producing inositol 1,2-(cyclic)-4,5-trisphosphate will facilitate studies of the physiology of this compound in signal transduction. PMID:3469663

  16. Interconversion of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate to inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate and (1,3,4)-trisphosphate in permeabilized adrenal glomerulosa cells is calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent

    SciTech Connect

    Rossier, M.F.; Dentand, I.A.; Lew, P.D.; Capponi, A.M.; Vallotton, M.B.

    1986-08-29

    The metabolism of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate was followed in permeabilized bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells. At low Ca++ concentration (pCa = 7.2), more than 90% of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate had disappeared within 2 min, while two other metabolites, (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate appeared progressively. At higher Ca++ concentrations (pCa = 5.7 and 4.8), the formation of these two metabolites was markedly increased, but completely abolished if the medium was ATP-depleted. The peak levels for the generation of (/sub 3/H)inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate (1 min) preceded those of (3H)inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate and were closely correlated. These results suggest that, in adrenal glomerulosa cells, the isomer inositol (1,3,4)-trisphosphate is generated from inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate via a calcium-sensitive and ATP-dependent phosphorylation/dephosphorylation pathway involving the formation of inositol (1,3,4,5)-tetrakisphosphate.

  17. Determining the effects of inositol supplementation and the opi1 mutation on ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Krause, Erin L; Villa-García, Manuel J; Henry, Susan A; Walker, Larry P

    2007-11-07

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important microorganism for the ethanol fuel industry. As with many microorganisms, the production and accumulation of certain metabolites, such as ethanol, can have a detrimental effect on cell growth and productivity. Yeast cells containing a higher concentration of phosphatidylinositol (PI) in the cellular membrane, due to inositol supplementation in the growth media, have been shown to tolerate and produce higher concentrations of ethanol. The specific goal of our research was to assess the effects of inositol supplementation in the growth media as well as to compare the ethanol tolerance of the wild-type S. cerevisiae to a mutant, the opi1 strain (opi=overproduction of inositol). The OPI1 gene product is a negative regulatory factor that controls the transcription of the INO1 structural gene, which encodes the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step in the biosynthesis of inositol, that is, the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-3-phosphate. Upon the deletion of the OPI1 gene, the cell will constitutively produce inositol, regardless of the extracellular inositol concentration. Inositol supplementation in cultures of wild-type cells increased ethanol tolerance in terms of cell viability. Cells grown in -I media had a 20% higher specific death rate than cells grown in +I media when exposed to 15% ethanol. The opi1 strain, with the ability to constitutively produce inositol regardless of media composition, showed less inhibition of cell growth in the presence of ethanol than did the wild-type strain, particularly in inositol-free media. We conclude that the introduction of an opi1 mutation in yeast results in an inherent increase in PI levels and constitutive biosynthesis of inositol that, in turn, will reduce the cost of supplementing inositol into the media to achieve a higher ethanol tolerance.

  18. Crystal Structure and Product Analysis of an Archaeal myo-Inositol Kinase Reveal Substrate Recognition Mode and 3-OH Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Ryuhei; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Sato, Takaaki; Atomi, Haruyuki; Miki, Kunio

    2015-06-09

    The TK2285 protein from Thermococcus kodakarensis was recently characterized as an enzyme catalyzing the phosphorylation of myo-inositol. Only two myo-inositol kinases have been identified so far, the TK2285 protein and Lpa3 from Zea mays, both of which belong to the ribokinase family. In either case, which of the six hydroxyl groups of myo-inositol is phosphorylated is still unknown. In addition, little is known about the myo-inositol binding mechanism of these enzymes. In this work, we determined two crystal structures: those of the TK2285 protein complexed with the substrates (ATP analogue and myo-inositol) or the reaction products formed by the enzyme. Analysis of the ternary substrates-complex structure and site-directed mutagenesis showed that five residues were involved in the interaction with myo-inositol. Structural comparison with other ribokinase family enzymes indicated that two of the five residues, Q136 and R140, are characteristic of myo-inositol kinase. The crystal structure of the ternary products-complex, which was prepared by incubating the TK2285 protein with myo-inositol and ATP, holds 1d-myo-inositol 3-phosphate (Ins(3)P) in the active site. NMR and HPLC analyses with a chiral column also indicated that the TK2285 reaction product was Ins(3)P. The results obtained here showed that the TK2285 protein specifically catalyzes the phosphorylation of the 3-OH of myo-inositol. We thus designated TK2285 as myo-inositol 3-kinase (MI3K). The precise identification of the reaction product should provide a sound basis to further explore inositol metabolism in Archaea.

  19. Early effects of Escherichia coli endotoxin infusion on vasopressin-stimulated breakdown and metabolism of inositol lipids in rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez de Turco, E.B.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1988-08-30

    The turnover of vasopressin-stimulated 32P-phosphoinositides and 32P-phosphatidic acid and accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates were examined in hepatocytes from rats infused i.v. with saline and E. coli endotoxin for 3 hrs. Within 60s of VP stimulation the decrease in phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate labeling as well as the increased uptake of 32P into phosphatidic acid were similar in both groups. However, at a later time (300s) the 32P-phosphatidylinositol turnover was greatly decreased concomitantly with a higher labeling of phosphatidic acid. The accumulation of (2-3H)-inositol phosphates in ET-cells was significantly decreased both at 30s and 600s after VP addition. The distribution of (2-3H)-inositol labeling accumulated in the different inositol phosphate fractions over the first 30s of VP stimulation showed a tendency to lower accumulation of inositol trisphosphate, and a significantly lower accumulation of inositol bisphosphate simultaneously with a higher labeling of the inositol tetrakisphosphate fraction. These observations reflect an early effect of ET-infusion on VP-stimulated inositol lipid turnover and on the subsequent metabolism of the released inositol phosphates.

  20. Metabolism of the phospholipid precursor inositol and its relationship to growth and viability in the natural auxotroph Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, S; Homann, M J; Henry, S A; Carman, G M

    1986-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe was examined. Three enzymes of phospholipid biosynthesis, cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol synthase (CDP-DG), phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthase, and phosphatidylserine (PS) synthase, were characterized in extracts of S. pombe cells. Contrary to an earlier report, we were able to demonstrate that CDP-DG served as a precursor for PI and PS biosynthesis in S. pombe. S. pombe is naturally auxotrophic for the phospholipid precursor inositol. We found that S. pombe was much more resistant to loss of viability during inositol starvation than artificially generated inositol auxotrophs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phospholipid composition of S. pombe cells grown in inositol-rich medium (50 microM) was similar to that of S. cerevisiae cells grown under similar conditions. However, growth of S. pombe at low inositol concentrations (below 30 microM) affected the ratio of the anionic phospholipids PI and PS, while the relative proportions of other glycerophospholipids remained unchanged. During inositol starvation, the rate of PI synthesis decreased rapidly, and there was a concomitant increase in the rate of PS synthesis. Phosphatidic acid and CDP-DG, which are precursors to these phospholipids, also increased when PI synthesis was blocked by lack of exogenous inositol. The major product of turnover of inositol-containing phospholipids in S. pombe was found to be free inositol, which accumulated in the medium and could be reused by the cell. Images PMID:3011744

  1. Crystal structure of a substrate complex of myo-inositol oxygenase, a di-iron oxygenase with a key role in inositol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M; Caradoc-Davies, Tom T; Dickson, James M J; Cooper, Garth J S; Loomes, Kerry M; Baker, Edward N

    2006-10-10

    Altered metabolism of the inositol sugars myo-inositol (MI) and d-chiro-inositol is implicated in diabetic complications. In animals, catabolism of MI and D-chiro-inositol depends on the enzyme MI oxygenase (MIOX), which catalyzes the first committed step of the glucuronate-xylulose pathway, and is found almost exclusively in the kidneys. The crystal structure of MIOX, in complex with MI, has been determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction methods and refined at 2.0-A resolution (R=0.206, Rfree=0.253). The structure reveals a monomeric, single-domain protein with a mostly helical fold that is distantly related to the diverse HD domain superfamily. Five helices form the structural core and provide six ligands (four His and two Asp) for the di-iron center, in which the two iron atoms are bridged by a putative hydroxide ion and one of the Asp ligands, Asp-124. A key loop forms a lid over the MI substrate, which is coordinated in bidentate mode to one iron atom. It is proposed that this mode of iron coordination, and interaction with a key Lys residue, activate MI for bond cleavage. The structure also reveals the basis of substrate specificity and suggests routes for the development of specific MIOX inhibitors.

  2. The diabetic rat kidney mediates inosituria and selective urinary partitioning of D-chiro-inositol.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao-Han; Choong, Bernard; Phillips, Anthony R J; Loomes, Kerry M

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus with a pressing need for effective metabolic markers to detect renal impairment. Of potential significance are the inositol compounds, myo-inositol (MI), and the less abundant stereoisomer, D-chiro-inositol (DCI), which are excreted at increased levels in the urine in diabetes mellitus, a phenomenon known as inosituria. There is also a selective urinary excretion of DCI compared to MI. As the biological origins of altered inositol metabolism in diabetes mellitus are unknown, the aim of this study was to determine whether the diabetic kidney was directly responsible. Kidneys isolated from four-week streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were characterized by a 3-fold reduction in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) compared to matched non-diabetic kidneys. When perfused with fixed quantities of MI (50 µM) and DCI (5 µM) under normoglycemic conditions (5 mM glucose), GFR-normalized urinary excretion of MI was increased by 1.7-fold in diabetic vs. non-diabetic kidneys. By comparison, GFR-normalized urinary excretion of DCI was increased by 4-fold. Perfusion conditions replicating hyperglycemia (20 mM glucose) potentiated DCI but not MI urinary excretion in both non-diabetic and diabetic kidneys. Overall, there was a 2.4-fold increase in DCI urinary excretion compared to MI in diabetic kidneys that was independent of glucose ambience. This increased urinary excretion of DCI and MI in diabetic kidneys occurred despite increased renal expression of the inositol transporters, sodium myo-inositol transporter subtype 1 and 2 (SMIT1 and SMIT2). These findings show that the diabetic kidney primarily mediates inosituria and altered urinary partitioning of MI and DCI. Urinary inositol levels might therefore serve as an indicator of impaired renal function in diabetes mellitus with wider implications for monitoring chronic kidney disease.

  3. Myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and promotes muscle glucose uptake: a dual approach study.

    PubMed

    Chukwuma, Chika Ifeanyi; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of myo-inositol on muscle glucose uptake and intestinal glucose absorption ex vivo as well as in normal and type 2 diabetes model of rats. In ex vivo study, both intestinal glucose absorption and muscle glucose uptake were studied in isolated rat jejunum and psoas muscle respectively in the presence of increasing concentrations (2.5 % to 20 %) of myo-inositol. In the in vivo study, the effect of a single bolus dose (1 g/kg bw) of oral myo-inositol on intestinal glucose absorption, blood glucose, gastric emptying and digesta transit was investigated in normal and type 2 diabetic rats after 1 h of co-administration with 2 g/kg bw glucose, when phenol red was used as a recovery marker. Myo-inositol inhibited intestinal glucose absorption (IC50 = 28.23 ± 6.01 %) and increased muscle glucose uptake, with (GU50 = 2.68 ± 0.75 %) or without (GU50 = 8.61 ± 0.55 %) insulin. Additionally, oral myo-inositol not only inhibited duodenal glucose absorption and reduced blood glucose increase, but also delayed gastric emptying and accelerated digesta transit in both normal and diabetic animals. Results of this study suggest that dietary myo-inositol inhibits intestinal glucose absorption both in ex vivo and in normal or diabetic rats and also promotes muscle glucose uptake in ex vivo condition. Hence, myo-inositol may be further investigated as a possible anti-hyperglycaemic dietary supplement for diabetic foods and food products.

  4. Inositol, neural tube closure and the prevention of neural tube defects

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kit‐Yi; Copp, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Susceptibility to neural tube defects (NTDs), such as anencephaly and spina bifida is influenced by genetic and environmental factors including maternal nutrition. Maternal periconceptional supplementation with folic acid significantly reduces the risk of an NTD‐affected pregnancy, but does not prevent all NTDs, and “folic acid non‐responsive” NTDs continue to occur. Similarly, among mouse models of NTDs, some are responsive to folic acid but others are not. Among nutritional factors, inositol deficiency causes cranial NTDs in mice while supplemental inositol prevents spinal and cranial NTDs in the curly tail (Grhl3 hypomorph) mouse, rodent models of hyperglycemia or induced diabetes, and in a folate‐deficiency induced NTD model. NTDs also occur in mice lacking expression of certain inositol kinases. Inositol‐containing phospholipids (phosphoinositides) and soluble inositol phosphates mediate a range of functions, including intracellular signaling, interaction with cytoskeletal proteins, and regulation of membrane identity in trafficking and cell division. Myo‐inositol has been trialed in humans for a range of conditions and appears safe for use in human pregnancy. In pilot studies in Italy and the United Kingdom, women took inositol together with folic acid preconceptionally, after one or more previous NTD‐affected pregnancies. In nonrandomized cohorts and a randomized double‐blind study in the United Kingdom, no recurrent NTDs were observed among 52 pregnancies reported to date. Larger‐scale fully powered trials are needed to determine whether supplementation with inositol and folic acid would more effectively prevent NTDs than folic acid alone. Birth Defects Research 109:68–80, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27324558

  5. Hysteresis in myo-inositol utilization by Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hellinckx, Jessica; Fuchs, Thilo M

    2016-12-27

    Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain 14028 with myo-inositol (MI) as the sole carbon and energy source is characterized by a bistable phenotype that manifests in a growth phenotype with an extraordinarily long and length-variable lag phase. However, in the presence of hydrogen carbonate, in the absence of IolR that represses the MI degradation pathway, or if cells are already adapted to minimal medium (MM) with MI, the lag phase is drastically shortened, and the bistable phenotype is abolished. We hypothesized that memory development or hysteresis is a further characteristic of MI degradation by S. Typhimurium; therefore, we investigated the transition from a short to a long lag phase in more detail. Growth experiments demonstrated that memory on the population level is successively lost within approximately 8 hr after cells, which had been adapted to MI utilization, were transferred to lysogeny broth (LB) medium. Flow cytometry (FC) analysis using a chromosomal fusion to PiolE , a promoter controlling the expression of the enzymatic genes iolE and iolG involved in MI degradation, indicated a gradual reversion within a few hours from a population in the "ON" status with respect to iolE transcription to one that is mainly in the "OFF" status. Growth and FC experiments revealed that IolR does not affect hysteresis.

  6. Cellular Cations Control Conformational Switching of Inositol Pyrophosphate Analogues.

    PubMed

    Hager, Anastasia; Wu, Mingxuan; Wang, Huanchen; Brown, Nathaniel W; Shears, Stephen B; Veiga, Nicolás; Fiedler, Dorothea

    2016-08-22

    The inositol pyrophosphate messengers (PP-InsPs) are emerging as an important class of cellular regulators. These molecules have been linked to numerous biological processes, including insulin secretion and cancer cell migration, but how they trigger such a wide range of cellular responses has remained unanswered in many cases. Here, we show that the PP-InsPs exhibit complex speciation behaviour and propose that a unique conformational switching mechanism could contribute to their multifunctional effects. We synthesised non-hydrolysable bisphosphonate analogues and crystallised the analogues in complex with mammalian PPIP5K2 kinase. Subsequently, the bisphosphonate analogues were used to investigate the protonation sequence, metal-coordination properties, and conformation in solution. Remarkably, the presence of potassium and magnesium ions enabled the analogues to adopt two different conformations near physiological pH. Understanding how the intrinsic chemical properties of the PP-InsPs can contribute to their complex signalling outputs will be essential to elucidate their regulatory functions.

  7. Enigmatic ion-exchange behavior of myo-inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Shelor, C Phillip; Liao, Hongzhu; Kadjo, Akinde Florence; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2015-05-05

    The separation of myo-inositol mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphate (InsP1, InsP2, InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, InsP6) was carried out using hydroxide eluent ion chromatography. Acid hydrolysis of InsP6 (phytate) was used to prepare a distribution of InsPs, ranging from InsP1 to InsP5's and including unhydrolyzed InsP6. Counting all possible positional isomers (many of which have stereoisomers that will not be separable by conventional ion exchange), 40 chromatographically separable peaks are possible; up to 22 were separated and identified by mass spectrometry. InsPs show unusual ion-exchange behavior in two respects: (a) the retention order is not monotonically related with the charge on the ion and (b) at the same hydroxide eluent concentration, retention is greatly dependent on the eluent metal cation. The retention of InsP3-InsP6 was determined to be controlled by steric factors while elution was influenced by eluent cation complexation. These highly phosphorylated InsPs have a much greater affinity for alkali metals (Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+)) than quaternary ammonium ions. This difference in cation affinity was exploited to improve separation through the use of a tetramethylammonium hydroxide-sodium hydroxide gradient.

  8. The inositol trisphosphate receptor in the control of autophagy.

    PubMed

    Criollo, Alfredo; Vicencio, José Miguel; Tasdemir, Ezgi; Maiuri, M Chiara; Lavandero, Sergio; Kroemer, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The second messenger myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) acts on the IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R), an IP(3)-activated Ca(2+) channel of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The IP(3)R agonist IP(3) inhibits starvation-induced autophagy. The IP(3)R antagonist xestospongin B induces autophagy in human cells through a pathway that requires the obligate contribution of Beclin-1, Atg5, Atg10, Atg12 and hVps34, yet is inhibited by ER-targeted Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL, two proteins that physically interact with IP(3)R. Autophagy can also be induced by depletion of the IP(3)R by small interfering RNAs. Autophagy induction by IP(3)R blockade cannot be explained by changes in steady state levels of Ca(2+) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the cytosol. Autophagy induction by IP(3)R blockade is effective in cells lacking the obligate mediator of ER stress IRE1. In contrast, IRE1 is required for autophagy induced by ER stress-inducing agents such a tunicamycin or thapsigargin. These findings suggest that there are several distinct pathways through which autophagy can be initiated at the level of the ER.

  9. Regulation of autophagy by the inositol trisphosphate receptor.

    PubMed

    Criollo, A; Maiuri, M C; Tasdemir, E; Vitale, I; Fiebig, A A; Andrews, D; Molgó, J; Díaz, J; Lavandero, S; Harper, F; Pierron, G; di Stefano, D; Rizzuto, R; Szabadkai, G; Kroemer, G

    2007-05-01

    The reduction of intracellular 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) levels stimulates autophagy, whereas the enhancement of IP(3) levels inhibits autophagy induced by nutrient depletion. Here, we show that knockdown of the IP(3) receptor (IP(3)R) with small interfering RNAs and pharmacological IP(3)R blockade is a strong stimulus for the induction of autophagy. The IP(3)R is known to reside in the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as well as within ER-mitochondrial contact sites, and IP(3)R blockade triggered the autophagy of both ER and mitochondria, as exactly observed in starvation-induced autophagy. ER stressors such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin also induced autophagy of ER and, to less extent, of mitochondria. Autophagy triggered by starvation or IP(3)R blockade was inhibited by Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L) specifically targeted to ER but not Bcl-2 or Bcl-X(L) proteins targeted to mitochondria. In contrast, ER stress-induced autophagy was not inhibited by Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L). Autophagy promoted by IP(3)R inhibition could not be attributed to a modulation of steady-state Ca(2+) levels in the ER or in the cytosol, yet involved the obligate contribution of Beclin-1, autophagy-related gene (Atg)5, Atg10, Atg12 and hVps34. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that IP(3)R exerts a major role in the physiological control of autophagy.

  10. Stereo- and regiospecificity of yeast phytases-chemical synthesis and enzymatic conversion of the substrate analogues neo- and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Adelt, Stephan; Podeschwa, Michael; Dallmann, Guido; Altenbach, Hans-Josef; Vogel, Günter

    2003-02-01

    Phytases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate esters in myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytic acid). The precise routes of enzymatic dephosphorylation by phytases of the yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia rhodanensis have been investigated up to the myo-inositol trisphosphate level, including the absolute configuration of the intermediates. Stereoselective assignment of the myo-inositol pentakisphosphates (D-myo-inositol 1,2,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate and D-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate) generated was accomplished by a new method based on enantiospecific enzymatic conversion and HPLC analysis. Via conduritol B or E derivatives the total syntheses of two epimers of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, neo-inositol hexakisphosphate and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate were performed to examine the specificity of the yeast phytases with these substrate analogues. A comparison of kinetic data and the degradation pathways determined gave the first hints about the molecular recognition of inositol hexakisphosphates by the enzymes. Exploitation of the high stereo- and regiospecificity observed in the dephosphorylation of neo- and L-chiro-inositol hexakisphosphate made it possible to establish enzyme-assisted steps for the synthesis of D-neo-inositol 1,2,5,6-tetrakisphosphate, L-chiro-inositol 1,2,3,5,6-pentakisphosphate and L-chiro-inositol 1,2,3,6-tetrakisphosphate.

  11. Molecular definition of a novel inositol polyphosphate metabolic pathway initiated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Seeds, Andrew M; Bastidas, Robert J; York, John D

    2005-07-29

    The production of inositol polyphosphate (IPs) and pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (I(1,4,5)P3) requires the 6-/3-/5-kinase activity of Ipk2 (also known as Arg82 and inositol polyphosphate multikinase). Here, we probed the distinct roles for I(1,4,5)P3 6- versus 3-kinase activities in IP metabolism and cellular functions reported for Ipk2. Expression of either I(1,4,5)P3 6- or 3-kinase activity rescued growth of ipk2-deficient yeast at high temperatures, whereas only 6-kinase activity enabled growth on ornithine as the sole nitrogen source. Analysis of IP metabolism revealed that the 3-kinase initiated the synthesis of novel pathway consisting of over eleven IPs and PP-IPs. This pathway was present in wild-type and ipk2 null cells, albeit at low levels as compared with inositol hexakisphosphate synthesis. The primary route of synthesis was: I(1,4,5)P3 --> I(1,3,4,5)P4 --> I(1,2,3,4,5)P5 --> PP-IP4 --> PP2-IP3 and required Kcs1 (or possibly Ipk2), Ipk1, a novel inositol pyrophosphate synthase, and then Kcs1 again, respectively. Mutation of kcs1 ablated this pathway in ipk2 null cells and overexpression of Kcs1 in ipk2 mutant cells phenocopied IP3K expression, confirming it harbors a novel 3-kinase activity. Our work provides a revised genetic map of IP metabolism in yeast and evidence for dosage compensation between IPs and PP-IPs downstream of I(1,4,5)P3 in the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic processes.

  12. Expression of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae inositol-1-phosphate synthase (INO1) gene is regulated by factors that affect phospholipid synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, J P; Henry, S A

    1986-01-01

    The INO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes the regulated enzyme inositol-1-phosphate synthase, which catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of inositol-containing phospholipids. The expression of this gene was analyzed under conditions known to regulate phospholipid synthesis. RNA blot hybridization with a genomic clone for INO1 detected two RNA species of 1.8 and 0.6 kb. The abundance of the 1.8-kb RNA was greatly decreased when the cells were grown in the presence of the phospholipid precursor inositol, as was the enzyme activity of the synthase. Complementation analysis showed that this transcript encoded the INO1 gene product. The level of INO1 RNA was repressed 12-fold when the cells were grown in medium containing inositol, and it was repressed 33-fold when the cells were grown in the presence of inositol and choline together. The INO1 transcript was present at a very low level in cells containing mutations (ino2 and ino4) in regulatory genes unlinked to INO1 that result in inositol auxotrophy. The transcript was constitutively overproduced in cells containing a mutation (opi1) that causes constitutive expression of inositol-1-phosphate synthase and results in excretion of inositol. The expression of INO1 RNA was also examined in cells containing a mutation (cho2) affecting the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine. In contrast to what was observed in wild-type cells, growth of cho2 cells in medium containing inositol did not result in a significant decrease in INO1 RNA abundance. Inositol and choline together were required for repression of the INO1 transcript in these cells, providing evidence for a regulatory link between the synthesis of inositol- and choline-containing lipids. The level of the 0.6-kb RNA was affected, although to a lesser degree, by many of the same factors that influence INO1 expression. Images PMID:3025587

  13. Asymmetric distribution of glucose and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol in geostimulated Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momonoki, Y. S.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol occurs in both the kernel and vegetative shoot of germinating Zea mays seedlings. The effect of a gravitational stimulus on the transport of [3H]-5-indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and [U-14C]-D-glucose from the kernel to the seedling shoot was studied. Both labeled glucose and labeled indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol become asymmetrically distributed in the mesocotyl cortex of the shoot with more radioactivity occurring in the bottom half of a horizontally placed seedling. Asymmetric distribution of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid, derived from the applied [3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol, occurred more rapidly than distribution of total 3H-radioactivity. These findings demonstrate that the gravitational stimulus can induce an asymmetric distribution of substances being transported from kernel to shoot. They also indicate that, in addition to the transport asymmetry, gravity affects the steady state amount of indole-3-acetic acid derived from indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol.

  14. Genetic variants in the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and risk of different types of cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Juan; Yu, Chen-Yang; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Hao-Yan; Guan, Jian; Chen, Ying-Xuan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-02-16

    Members of the inositol phosphate metabolism pathway regulate cell proliferation, migration and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling, and are frequently dysregulated in cancer. Whether germline genetic variants in inositol phosphate metabolism pathway are associated with cancer risk remains to be clarified. We examined the association between inositol phosphate metabolism pathway genes and risk of eight types of cancer using data from genome-wide association studies. Logistic regression models were applied to evaluate SNP-level associations. Gene- and pathway-based associations were tested using the permutation-based adaptive rank-truncated product method. The overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway was significantly associated with risk of lung cancer (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)), esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (P = 5.70 × 10(-3)), gastric cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-2)) and renal cell carcinoma (P = 1.26 × 10(-2)), but not with pancreatic cancer (P = 1.40 × 10(-1)), breast cancer (P = 3.03 × 10(-1)), prostate cancer (P = 4.51 × 10(-1)), and bladder cancer (P = 6.30 × 10(-1)). Our results provide a link between inherited variation in the overall inositol phosphate metabolism pathway and several individual genes and cancer. Further studies will be needed to validate these positive findings, and to explore its mechanisms.

  15. Purification and properties of myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase from germinating mung bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, B; De, B P; Biswas, B B

    1984-01-01

    A novel enzyme, myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol 1-phosphate to ribulose 5-phosphate has been purified 84-fold from mung bean seedling employing several common techniques. The molecular weight of this purified enzyme has been recorded as 88,500 by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography, and in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis one protein band containing three subunits of Mr 32,000 each was discernible. Km values for NAD+ and myo-inositol 1-phosphate have been recorded as 2.8 X 10(-4) and 5.0 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Production of NADH in myo-inositol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase reaction has also been evidenced by measurement of NADH fluorescence. Dehydrogenation and decarboxylation of myo-inositol 1-phosphate are mediated by the same enzyme. In fact, the rate of dehydrogenation corroborates with that of decarboxylation. Stoichiometry of this reaction suggests that for the production of 1 mol of ribulose 5-phosphate 2 mol of NAD+ are reduced.

  16. Metabolism and Ovarian Function in PCOS Women: A Therapeutic Approach with Inositols

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Paola; Buscema, Massimo; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Gullo, Giuseppe; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by chronical anovulation and hyperandrogenism which may be present in a different degree of severity. Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia are the main physiopathological basis of this syndrome and the failure of inositol-mediated signaling may concur to them. Myo (MI) and D-chiro-inositol (DCI), the most studied inositol isoforms, are classified as insulin sensitizers. In form of glycans, DCI-phosphoglycan and MI-phosphoglycan control key enzymes were involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. In form of phosphoinositides, they play an important role as second messengers in several cellular biological functions. Considering the key role played by insulin-resistance and androgen excess in PCOS patients, the insulin-sensitizing effects of both MI and DCI were tested in order to ameliorate symptoms and signs of this syndrome, including the possibility to restore patients' fertility. Accumulating evidence suggests that both isoforms of inositol are effective in improving ovarian function and metabolism in patients with PCOS, although MI showed the most marked effect on the metabolic profile, whereas DCI reduced hyperandrogenism better. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on inositol signaling and correlate data on biological functions of these multifaceted molecules, in view of a rational use for the therapy in women with PCOS. PMID:27579037

  17. Carbamoylcholine and gastrin induce inositol lipid turnover in canine gastric parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, T.; Fisher, S.K.; Park, J.; Seguin, E.B.; Agranoff, B.W.; Yamada, Tadataka )

    1988-07-01

    The potential role of inositol phospholipid turnover in mediating acid secretion was examined in a preparation enriched for isolated canine gastric parietal cells. The stimulatory effects of carbamoylcholine (carbachol) and gastrin on parietal cell uptake of ({sup 14}C)aminopyrine were linked to dose- and time-dependent selective reduction in cellular phosphatidylinositol content, although the specific fatty acid composition of the phosphoinositides was not altered. Analysis of ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates accumulated in cells prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol revealed an increase in labeled inositol trisphosphate by 5 min of incubation with either carbachol or gastrin. Furthermore, after preincubation of parietal cells in medium containing ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate, the two secretagogues elicited a time-dependent decrease in {sup 32}P labeling of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and concomitant increase in labeling of phosphatidic acid. These data demonstrate that the acid secretagogue actions of carbachol and gastrin are correlated with turnover of cellular inositol phospholipids in a preparation consisting predominantly of parietal cells.

  18. Dephosphorylation of 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate in rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, A J; Storey, D J; Downes, C P; Michell, R H

    1988-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of 1D-myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P2] in rat liver is catalysed by a cytosolic phosphatase that removes the 1-phosphate group. The Km for Ins(1,4)P2 is approx. 17 microM. Li+ (100 mM) causes 50% inhibition of Ins(1,4)P2 phosphatase activity when activity is measured at the very low substrate concentration of 10 nM, but on raising the substrate concentration to 100 microM there is a greater than 10-fold increase in sensitivity to Li+, suggesting that Li+ acts mainly, but not entirely, as an uncompetitive inhibitor of Ins(1,4)P2 phosphatase. In addition, rat liver cytosol shows Li+-sensitive phosphatase activity against 1D-myo-inositol 1-,3- and 4-monophosphates. The Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase and inositol monophosphatase activities all share an apparent Mr of 47 x 10(3), as determined by gel-filtration chromatography. However, the Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase is more sensitive to inactivation by heat, and can be separated from inositol monophosphatase activity by anion-exchange chromatography. We conclude that rat liver cytosol contains an Ins(1,4)P2 1-phosphatase that is distinct from, but in many ways similar to, inositol monophosphatase. PMID:2848493

  19. Inositol trisphosphate metabolism in carrot (Daucus carota L. ) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Memon, A.R.; Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The metabolism of exogenously added D-myo-(1-{sup 3}H)inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) has been examined in microsomal membrane and soluble fractions of carrot cells grown in suspension culture. When ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to a microsomal membrane fraction, ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} was the primary metabolite consisting of approximately 83% of the total recovered ({sup 3}H) by electrophoresis. ({sup 3}H)IP was only 6% of the ({sup 3}H) recovered, and 10% of the ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was not further metabolized. In contrast, when ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} was added to the soluble fraction, approximately equal amounts of ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 2} and ({sup 3}H)IP were recovered. Ca{sup 2+} (100 micromolar) tended to enhance IP{sub 3} dephosphorylation but inhibited the IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction by about 20%. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} (1 millimolar) inhibited the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the microsomal fraction and the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 2} by the soluble fraction. MoO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, however, did not inhibit the dephosphorylation of IP{sub 3} by the soluble fraction. Li{sup +} (10 and 50 millimolar) had no effect on IP{sub 3} metabolism in either the soluble or membrane fraction; however, Li{sup +} (50 millimolar) inhibited IP{sub 2} dephosphorylation in the soluble fraction about 25%.

  20. A second-generation Bacillus cell factory for rare inositol production

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Kosei; Takanaka, Shinji; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Some rare inositol stereoisomers are known to exert specific health-promoting effects, including scyllo-inositol (SI), which is a promising therapeutic agent for Alzheimer disease. We recently reported a Bacillus subtilis cell factory that performed the efficient production of SI from the cheapest and most abundant isomer myo-inositol (MI). In the cell factory all “useless” genes involved in MI and SI metabolism were deleted and overexpression of the key enzymes, IolG and IolW, was appended. It converted 10 g/L MI into the same amount of SI in 48 h of cultivation. In this addendum, we discuss further improvement in the cell factory and its possible applications. PMID:25482235

  1. Determination of free inositols and other low molecular weight carbohydrates in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Oswaldo; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María Luz; Martínez-Castro, Isabel

    2011-03-23

    Different low molecular weight carbohydrates including saccharides, polyalcohols, sugar acids, and glycosides have been identified and quantified in different edible vegetables from Asteraceae, Amarantaceae, Amarylidaceae, Brassicaceae, Dioscoreaceae, and Solanaceae families by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Apart from glucose, fructose, and sucrose, other saccharides such as sedoheptulose in chicory, spinach, cabbage, purple yam, eggplant, radish, and oak leaf lettuce, rutinose in eggplant skin, and a glycosyl-inositol in spinach have been identified. chiro-Inositol was found in all vegetables of the Asteraceae family (3.1-32.6 mg 100 g(-1)), whereas scyllo-inositol was detected in those of purple yam, eggplant, artichoke, chicory, escarole, and endive (traces-23.2 mg 100 g(-1)). α-Galactosides, kestose, glucaric acid, and glycosyl-glycerols were also identified and quantified in some of the analyzed vegetables. Considering the bioactivity of most of these compounds, mainly chicory leaves, artichokes, lettuces, and purple yam could constitute beneficial sources for human health.

  2. HPLC with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric detection for the analysis of inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Amaro, Rosa; Escalona, Andrés; Murillo, Miguel

    2004-10-01

    The use of inductively coupled plasma optimal emission spectroscopy as a detector for the high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of inositol phosphates is studied. It is found that separation of different inositol phosphates with a mobile phase consisting of tetraethylammonium (0.14%, w/v), methanol (5%, v/v), and formic acid (0.18%, w/v) may be obtained on a PRP-1 column with an analysis time of 18 min. In addition, high specificity and sensitivity of the detection system used permits detection of the inositol phosphates from bi- to hexaphosphate free from interference of other chromatographic peaks, which could be from the sample or mobile phase. Additionally, it is possible to use less sample because of the high sensitivity of the detection system.

  3. Role for ionotropic and metabotropic receptors in quisqualate-stimulated inositol polyphosphate accumulation in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Baird, J G; Challiss, R A; Nahorski, S R

    1991-06-01

    The actions of the excitatory amino acid quisqualate (QA) on inositol polyphosphate accumulation in cerebral cortex slices have been assessed using both [3H]inositol prelabeling and mass measurements over relatively short incubation periods. QA stimulated accumulation of all the inositol polyphosphates, with similar EC50 values (2.8 +/- 0.7 microM). High performance liquid chromatography analysis of isomeric forms of inositol polyphosphates and specific mass assays revealed that both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation products of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate accumulate. A large component of the QA-stimulated inositol polyphosphate accumulation was inhibited by the ionotropic antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione in a competitive manner. This implied that the QA response may be due to entry of Ca2+ via voltage-sensitive calcium channels as a consequence of an ionotropic receptor-induced depolarization. In support of this mechanism, the QA-induced response was dependent on the presence of extracellular calcium, whereas the well characterized muscarinic receptor agonist response to carbachol showed only a slight reduction under the same conditions. The concentration-dependent (EC50 8.8 +/- 3 microM) response to the selective ionotropic agonist amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoazolepropionic acid (AMPA) differed from that to QA or carbachol, in that accumulation of only [3H]inositol mono- and bisphosphates was stimulated, with no increase in the [3H]inositol tris- or tetrakisphosphates. Use of the metabotropic agonist (trans)-(+/-)-1-aminocyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylate (ACPD), however, produced concentration-dependent increases in all [3H]inositol polyphosphates. Although both AMPA and ACPD responses alone were smaller in magnitude than that to QA, when present together AMPA and ACPD produced additive responses on [3H]inositol mono- and bisphosphate and a marked synergistic increase in [3H]inositol tetrakisphosphate accumulation, resulting in a response similar to

  4. Structure-based identification of inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase from Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Faisal Tarique, Khaja; Arif Abdul Rehman, Syed; Betzel, Christian; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2014-11-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase from Entamoeba histolytica (EhIPPase) is an Mg(2+)-dependent and Li(+)-sensitive enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of inositol 1,4-bisphosphate [Ins(1,4)P2] into myo-inositol 1-monophosphate and PO4(3-). In the present work, EhIPPase has been biochemically identified and its crystal structure has been determined in the presence of Mg(2+) and PO4(3-) at 2.5 Å resolution. This enzyme was previously classified as a 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase in the NCBI, but its biochemical activity and structural analysis suggest that this enzyme behaves more like an inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase. The ability of EhIPPase to hydrolyze the smaller Ins(1,4)P2 better than the bulkier 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphate (PAP) is explained on the basis of the orientations of amino-acid residues in the binding site. This structure is the first of its class to be determined from any protozoan parasite, and is the third to determined among all organisms, following its rat and bovine homologues. The three-dimensional fold of EhIPPase is similar to those of other members of the inositol monophosphatase superfamily, which also includes inositol monophosphatase, 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate 1-phosphatase. They all share conserved residues essential for metal binding and substrate hydrolysis, with the motif D-Xn-EE-Xn-DP(I/L)DG(S/T)-Xn-WD-Xn-GG. The structure is divided into two domains, namely α+β and α/β, and the substrate and metal ions bind between them. However, the ability of each enzyme class to act specifically on its cognate substrate is governed by the class-specific amino-acid residues at the active site.

  5. Use of Per-C-Deuterated myo-Inositol for Study of Cell Wall Synthesis in Germinating Beans.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, K; Nagahashi, G; Gretz, M R; Taylor, I E

    1989-06-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides of the hypocotyl and roots in germinating beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were selectively labeled in arabinosyl, xylosyl, and galacturonosyl residues by per-C-deuterated myo-inositol, which was introduced through 72 hours of imbibition. Glucuronate residues remained unlabeled. Selected ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that deuterium was not redistributed in these three sugar residues or into other carbohydrate residues during this conversion, suggesting that the labeled residues are formed exclusively via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway and that no glucogenesis from myo-inositol takes place during this conversion. The presence of a significant level of deuterated arabinose, xylose, and galacturonate after just 72 hours of imbibitional uptake of per-C-deuterated myo-inositol indicated that the myo-inositol oxidation pathway has a predominant role in the biosynthesis of new cell walls.

  6. Chronic inositol treatment reduces depression-like immobility of Flinders Sensitive Line rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Einat, Haim; Belmaker, Robert H; Zangen, Avraham; Overstreet, D H; Yadid, Gal

    2002-01-01

    Inositol, a precursor of the PIP cycle that was reported to have therapeutic effects in depressive patients and to be effective in two animal models of depression, was evaluated in the forced swim test using the genetic Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats model of depression. Groups of rats were tested in a 2 x 2 design with Strain (FSL or Control) as one factor and Drug (Inositol or Placebo) as the second factor. Rats received chronic treatment (daily for 14 days) with inositol (1.2 g/kg) or placebo (1:2 glucose/mannitol solution). On day 14 rats were exposed to the forced swim test for 5 min and their behavior videotaped. Tapes were analyzed for three levels of activity: immobility, swimming, and vigorous struggle. Inositol countered the exaggerated immobility of FSL rats in the forced swim test, without affecting control animals. Data support our previous suggestion of inositol as a potential antidepressant.

  7. Use of Per-C-Deuterated myo-Inositol for Study of Cell Wall Synthesis in Germinating Beans 1

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagahashi, Gerald; Gretz, Michael R.; Taylor, Iain E. P.

    1989-01-01

    Cell wall polysaccharides of the hypocotyl and roots in germinating beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were selectively labeled in arabinosyl, xylosyl, and galacturonosyl residues by per-C-deuterated myo-inositol, which was introduced through 72 hours of imbibition. Glucuronate residues remained unlabeled. Selected ion gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that deuterium was not redistributed in these three sugar residues or into other carbohydrate residues during this conversion, suggesting that the labeled residues are formed exclusively via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway and that no glucogenesis from myo-inositol takes place during this conversion. The presence of a significant level of deuterated arabinose, xylose, and galacturonate after just 72 hours of imbibitional uptake of per-C-deuterated myo-inositol indicated that the myo-inositol oxidation pathway has a predominant role in the biosynthesis of new cell walls. PMID:16666828

  8. Putative Key Role of Inositol Messengers in Endothelial Cells in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Kunjara, Sirilaksana; McLean, Patricia; Rademacher, Laurens; Rademacher, Thomas W.; Fascilla, Fabiana; Bettocchi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Immunological alterations, endothelial dysfunction, and insulin resistance characterize preeclampsia. Endothelial cells hold the key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The signaling pathways mediating these biological abnormalities converge on PKB/Akt, an intracellular kinase regulating cell survival, proliferation, and metabolism. Inositol second messengers are involved in metabolic and cell signaling pathways and are highly expressed during preeclampsia. Intracellular action of these molecules is deeply affected by zinc, manganese, and calcium. To evaluate the pathophysiological significance, we present the response of the intracellular pathways of inositol phosphoglycans involved in cellular metabolism and propose a link with the disease. PMID:27738431

  9. A potassium-18-crown-6 salt of a cyclic myo-inositol phosphate.

    PubMed

    Kumara Swamy, K C; Kumaraswamy, S

    2001-10-01

    The six-membered phosphorinane ring in (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane)potassium 2-O-benzoyl-1,3,5-O-methylidyne-myo-inositol 4,6-cyclophosphate trihydrate, [K(C(12)H(24)O(6))](C(14)H(12)O(9)P).3H(2)O, has a boat rather than a chair conformation. The K(+) ion is eight-coordinate and is connected to one of the phosphate O atoms, one of the O atoms of the myo-inositol residue and the six O atoms of the crown ether.

  10. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    SciTech Connect

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E. )

    1990-08-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed.

  11. Phytic acid and myo-inositol support adipocyte differentiation and improve insulin sensitivity in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2014-08-01

    Phytic acid, also known as myo-inositol hexaphosphate, has been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin sensitivity in rodents. We investigated the effects of phytic acid and myo-inositol on differentiation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and lipolysis of adipocytes to test the hypothesis that the antidiabetic properties of phytic acid and myo-inositol are mediated directly through adipocytes. 3T3-L1 cells were treated with 10, 50, or 200 μmol/L of phytic acid or myo-inositol. Oil Red O staining and an intracellular triacylglycerol assay were used to determine lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. Immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to evaluate expression of transcription factors, a target protein, and insulin signaling molecules. Phytic acid and myo-inositol exposures increased lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner (P < .01). The expression of key transcription factors associated with adipocyte differentiation, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, and the expression of fatty acid synthase increased upon treatments with phytic acid and myo-inositol (P < .05). Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mature adipocytes increased with phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments (P < .01). In addition, mRNA levels of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), mRNA levels of glucose transporter 4, and phosphorylation of tyrosine in IRS1 increased upon phytic acid and myo-inositol treatments. In fully differentiated adipocytes, phytic acid and myo-inositol reduced basal lipolysis dose dependently (P < .01). These results suggest that phytic acid and myo-inositol increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by increasing lipid storage capacity, improving glucose uptake, and inhibiting lipolysis.

  12. High-performance reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic study of myo-inositol phosphates. Separation of myo-inositol phosphates, some common nucleotides and sugar phosphates.

    PubMed

    Patthy, M; Balla, T; Arányi, P

    1990-12-07

    A detailed study of all the major chromatographic variables affecting the retention behaviour and separation of myo-inositol phosphates in reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic systems was carried out. The parameters studied included the eluent concentration of the pairing ion, the eluent concentration of the organic modifier and the buffer salt, the pH of the eluent, the minimum column plate count necessary for the separation of the inositol trisphosphate isomers and isocratic and gradient modes of separation. The retention behaviour of some common nucleotides and sugar phosphates was also investigated as these phosphates present chromatographic interference problems in biochemical studies based on the cellular incorporation of [32P]Pi. The separation methods developed appear to be superior to established anion-exchange separation techniques in terms of separation speed and "mildness" of the chromatographic conditions.

  13. A protein tyrosine phosphatase-like inositol polyphosphatase from Selenomonas ruminantium subsp. lactilytica has specificity for the 5-phosphate of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Aaron A; Greiner, Ralf; Selinger, L Brent

    2008-01-01

    Although it is becoming well known that myo-inositol polyphosphates and the enzymes involved in their metabolism play a critical role in eukaryotic systems, little is understood of their significance in prokaryotic systems. A novel protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-like inositol polyphosphatase (IPPase) gene has been cloned from Selenomonas ruminantium subsp. lactilytica (phyAsrl). The deduced amino acid sequence of PhyAsrl is most similar to a PTP-like IPPase from the anaerobic bacterium S. ruminantium (35% identity), but also shows similarity (19-30% identity) to various other putative prokaryotic PTPs. Recombinant PhyAsrl could dephosphorylate myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (Ins P(6)) in vitro, and maximal activity was displayed at an ionic strength of 200 mM, a pH of 4.5, and a temperature of 55 degrees C. In order to elucidate its substrate specificity and pathway of Ins P(6) dephosphorylation, a combination of kinetic and high-performance ion-pair chromatography studies were conducted. The data indicated that PhyAsrl has a general specificity for polyphosphorylated myo-inositol substrates, but can also dephosphorylate molecules containing high energy pyrophosphate bonds in vitro. PhyAsrl is unique from other microbial IPPases in that it preferentially cleaves the 5-phosphate position of Ins P(6). Furthermore, it can produce Ins(2)P via a highly unique and ordered pathway of sequential dephosphorylation: Ins P(6), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5), D-Ins(1,2,3,6)P(4), Ins(1,2,3)P(3), and D/L-Ins(1,2)P(2). Finally, reverse transcription PCR was used to determine that phyAsrl is constitutively expressed, and together with bioinformatic analysis, was used to gain an understanding of its physiological significance.

  14. Metabolism of extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Andlid, Thomas A; Veide, Jenny; Sandberg, Ann-Sofie

    2004-12-15

    Iron and zinc deficiencies are global problems, frequently leading to severe illness in vulnerable human populations. Addition of phytases can improve the bioavailability of iron and zinc in food. Saccharomyces cerevisiae would be an ideal candidate as a bioavailability improving food additive if it demonstrates significant phytase activity. The purpose of the paper was to study yeast phytase activity to obtain information required to improve strains. All yeasts tested readily degraded extracellular inositol hexaphosphate (phytate; IP6) in media with IP6 as the sole phosphorous source. Phosphate (Pi) addition yielded repression consistent with the PHO system. However, repression of IP6-degrading enzymes was not only dependent on level of Pi, but also on pH and medium composition. In complex medium, containing Pi at a concentration previously suggested to yield full repression of the secretory acid phosphatases (SAPs; e.g., [Mol. Biol. Cell 11 (2000) 4309]), and at relatively high pH, repression of phytate-degrading enzymes was weak. The capacity to degrade phytate, irrespective of Pi addition or not, was highest at the pH most distant from the pH optimum of the SAPs [Microbiol. Res. 151 (1996) 291], suggesting that expression rather than enzyme activity was affected by pH. In synthetic medium, repression was strong and pH-independent (no IP6 degradation within the range tested). The distinct difference between media shows that, in addition to known regulatory role of Pi for the PHO system, additional factors may be involved. Using a deletion strain, we further demonstrate that the main secretory acid phosphatase Pho5p is not essential for intact phytate-degrading capacity and growth without Pi, neither is Pho3p. However, when constitutively overexpressing PHO5 an increased net phytase activity was obtained, in repressing and non-repressing conditions. This proves that, although redundant in a wild type, Pho5p can catalyze hydrolysis of IP6 and that at least one

  15. How to Achieve High-Quality Oocytes? The Key Role of Myo-Inositol and Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Rossetti, Paola; Corrado, Francesco; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have experienced growing interest from infertile patients seeking to become pregnant. The quality of oocytes plays a pivotal role in determining ART outcomes. Although many authors have studied how supplementation therapy may affect this important parameter for both in vivo and in vitro models, data are not yet robust enough to support firm conclusions. Regarding this last point, in this review our objective has been to evaluate the state of the art regarding supplementation with melatonin and myo-inositol in order to improve oocyte quality during ART. On the one hand, the antioxidant effect of melatonin is well known as being useful during ovulation and oocyte incubation, two occasions with a high level of oxidative stress. On the other hand, myo-inositol is important in cellular structure and in cellular signaling pathways. Our analysis suggests that the use of these two molecules may significantly improve the quality of oocytes and the quality of embryos: melatonin seems to raise the fertilization rate, and myo-inositol improves the pregnancy rate, although all published studies do not fully agree with these conclusions. However, previous studies have demonstrated that cotreatment improves these results compared with melatonin alone or myo-inositol alone. We recommend that further studies be performed in order to confirm these positive outcomes in routine ART treatment. PMID:27651794

  16. Muscarinic receptor-mediated inositol tetrakisphosphate response in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sanborn, B.B.; Schneider, A.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Inositol trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}), a product of the phosphoinositide cycle, mobilizes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} in many cell types. New evidence suggests that inositol tetrakisphosphate (IP{sub 4}), an IP{sub 3} derivative, may act as another second messenger to further alter calcium homeostasis. However, the function and mechanism of action of IP{sub 4} are presently unresolved. We now report evidence of muscarinic receptor-mediated accumulation of IP{sub 4} in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, a classic neurosecretory system in which calcium movements have been well studied. Muscarine stimulated an increase in ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} and ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 3} accumulation in chromaffin cells and this effect was completely blocked by atropine. ({sup 3}H)IP{sub 4} accumulation was detectable within 15 sec, increased to a maximum by 30 sec and thereafter declined. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an inhibitor of IP{sub 3} and IP{sub 4} hydrolysis, enhanced accumulation of these inositol polyphosphates. The results provide the first evidence of a rapid inositol tetrakisphosphate response in adrenal chromaffin cells, which should facilitate the future resolution of the relationship between IP{sub 4} and calcium homeostasis.

  17. Salt-induced abnormalities on root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa: prevention by inositol pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Jolly; Majumder, Arun Lahiri

    2010-09-01

    Salt-induced growth reduction of plants is a well-known phenomenon which poses major problem in crop productivity in places where vast majority of land plants are affected by salt. In this report, studies were carried out to reveal the effect of salt injury on the cell division pattern in roots and the role of myo-inositol in preventing the salt-induced ion disequilibrium on the chromosome and DNA degradation in roots. Present study revealed induction of various chromosomal abnormalities on the root tip mitotic cells of Allium cepa by treatment with different concentrations of NaCl (0-500 mM) for 24 h as also the amelioration of such effect by prior treatment of the roots with different concentration of myo-inositol (0-300 mM). Results showed that a narrow albeit definite range of extracellular myo-inositol (100-150 mM) is effective in preventing internucleosomal fragmentation which is the early response in roots under salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Oryza (OsINO1) as well as Porteresia (PcINO1) cytosolic L: -myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase coding genes can withstand and retain their chromosomal and DNA integrity in 100 mM NaCl solution and can subsequently prevent DNA fragmentation, caused by intracellular endonuclease activity at this salt concentration.

  18. myo-Inositol and Phytate Are Toxic to Formosan Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Veillon, Lucas; Bourgeois, Jared; Leblanc, Amanda; Henderson, Gregg; Marx, Brian D; Muniruzzaman, Syed; Laine, Roger A

    2014-10-01

    Several rare and common monosaccharides were screened for toxic effects on the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, with the aim of identifying environmentally friendly termiticides. myo-Inositol and phytic acid, which are nontoxic to mammals, were identified as potential termite control compounds. Feeding bioassays with termite workers, where both compounds were supplied on filter paper in concentrations from 160.2 to 1,281.7 μg/mm(3), showed concentration-dependent toxicity within 2 wk. Interestingly myo-inositol was nontoxic when administered to termites in agar (40 mg/ml) in the absence of a cellulosic food source, an unexplained phenomenon. In addition, decreased populations of termite hindgut protozoa were observed upon feeding on myo-inositol but not phytate-spiked filter paper. Radiotracer feeding studies using myo-inositol-[2-(3)H] with worker termites showed no metabolism after ingestion over a 2-d feeding period, ruling out metabolites responsible for the selective toxicity.

  19. Characterization of two genes, Impa1 and Impa2 encoding mouse myo-inositol monophosphatases.

    PubMed

    Shamir, A; Sjøholt, G; Ebstein, R P; Agam, G; Steen, V M

    2001-06-27

    The enzyme myo-inositol monophosphatase (Impa) catalyzes the synthesis of free myo-inositol from various myo-inositol monophosphates in the phosphatidylinositol signaling system. Impa is a lithium-blockable enzyme that has been hypothesized to be the biological target for lithium-salts used as mood-stabilizing drugs in the treatment of manic-depressive (bipolar) illness. As an initial step to explore the functional consequences of reduced or absent Impa activity in an animal model we here report the isolation of two Impa-encoding mouse genes, Impa1 and Impa2. Impa1 spans approximately 17.5 kb and contains nine exons of 46--1354 bp encoding a protein of 277 amino acids. Impa2 spans at least 19.5 kb and contains eight exons of 46--444 bp size encoding a protein of 290 amino acids. The genomic structure including the positions of the exon-intron splice sites seems to be conserved among myo-inositol monophosphatase genes in mammalian species. One or more Impa-like genes do also exist in evolutionary more distant species like invertebrates, plants and bacteria. The proteins encoded by the non-vertebrate genes seem to be equally related to Impa1 and Impa2. We therefore suggest that the Impa1 and Impa2 genes duplicated from a common ancestral gene after the evolutionary divergence of vertebrates.

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) inositol monophosphatase: gene structure and enzyme characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The de novo synthesis of myo-inositol (Ins) is catalyzed by two enzymatic activities; Ins(3)P1 synthase (MIPS; EC. 5.5.1.4) and Ins monophosphatase (IMPase; EC 3.1.3.25). The barley IMP-1 gene and gene products were studied to facilitate research into the regulation of Ins synthesis and supply. In m...

  1. Lactic acid and thermal treatments trigger the hydrolysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and modify the abundance of lower myo-inositol phosphates in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2014-01-01

    Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance.

  2. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1 (IP6K1) activity is required for cytoplasmic dynein-driven transport

    PubMed Central

    Chanduri, Manasa; Rai, Ashim; Malla, Aushaq Bashir; Wu, Mingxuan; Fiedler, Dorothea; Mallik, Roop; Bhandari, Rashna

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates, such as diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), are conserved eukaryotic signaling molecules that possess pyrophosphate and monophosphate moieties. Generated predominantly by inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks), inositol pyrophosphates can modulate protein function by posttranslational serine pyrophosphorylation. Here, we report inositol pyrophosphates as novel regulators of cytoplasmic dynein-driven vesicle transport. Mammalian cells lacking IP6K1 display defects in dynein-dependent trafficking pathways, including endosomal sorting, vesicle movement, and Golgi maintenance. Expression of catalytically active but not inactive IP6K1 reverses these defects, suggesting a role for inositol pyrophosphates in these processes. Endosomes derived from slime mold lacking inositol pyrophosphates also display reduced dynein-directed microtubule transport. We demonstrate that Ser51 in the dynein intermediate chain (IC) is a target for pyrophosphorylation by IP7, and this modification promotes the interaction of the IC N-terminus with the p150Glued subunit of dynactin. IC–p150Glued interaction is decreased, and IC recruitment to membranes is reduced in cells lacking IP6K1. Our study provides the first evidence for the involvement of IP6Ks in dynein function and proposes that inositol pyrophosphate-mediated pyrophosphorylation may act as a regulatory signal to enhance dynein-driven transport. PMID:27474409

  3. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiming . E-mail: zhuzming@mail.dph-fsi.com; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin . E-mail: Martin.Tepel@charite.de

    2005-12-16

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, {beta}-myosin heavy chain, and {alpha}-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway.

  4. Stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytate-degrading enzyme of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Greiner, R; Carlsson, N; Alminger, M L

    2001-11-17

    Using a combination of high-performance ion chromatography analysis and kinetic studies, the stereospecificity of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by the phytate-degrading enzyme P2 of Escherichia coli was established. High-performance ion chromatography revealed that the phytate-degrading enzyme P2 of E. coli degrades myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by stepwise dephosphorylation via D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), D/L-Ins(2,3,4,5)P(4), D/L-Ins(2,4,5)P(3) or D/L-Ins(1,2,4)P(3), D/L-Ins(1,2)P(2) or Ins(2, 5)P(2) or D/L-Ins(4,5)P(2) to finally Ins(2)P or Ins(5)P. Kinetic parameters for myo-inositol pentakisphosphate hydrolysis by E. coli and wheat phytase, respectively, showed that the myo-inositol pentakisphosphate intermediate produced either by the phytate-degrading enzyme of wheat or E. coli are not identical. The absolute configuration of the myo-inositol pentakisphosphate isomer produced by the E. coli enzyme was determined by taking into consideration that wheat phytase produces predominantly the D-Ins(1, 2,3,5,6)P(5) isomer (Lim, P.E., Tate, M.E., 1973. The phytases: II. Properties of phytase fraction F(1) and F(2) from wheat bran and the myo-inositol phosphates produced by fraction F(2). Biochim. Biophys. Acta 302, 326-328). The data demonstrate that the phytate-degrading enzyme P2 of E. coli dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), D-Ins(2,3,4,5)P(4), D-Ins(2,4,5)P(3), Ins(2,5)P(2) to finally Ins(2)P (notation 6/1/3/4/5).

  5. Enzymic synthesis of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose and indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol.

    PubMed Central

    Michalczuk, L; Bandurski, R S

    1982-01-01

    An enzyme fraction from extracts of immature kernels of Zea mays catalyses the formation of 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose from indol-3-ylacetic acid and UDP-glucose. A second enzyme fraction catalyses the formation of indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol from 1-O-indol-3-ylacetyl-beta-D-glucose and myo-inositol. To our knowledge, this is the first example of hydroxy-group acylation by a 1-O-acyl sugar. The following reaction sequence is proposed: Indol-3-ylacetic acid + UDP-glucose leads to indol-3-ylacetylglucose + UDP (1) Indol-3-ylacetylglucose + myo-inositol leads to indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol + glucose (2) The enzyme catalysing reaction (1) is called UDP-glucose:indol-3-ylacetate glucosyl-transferase (indol-3-ylacetylglucose synthase), and that catalysing reaction (2) is indol-3-ylacetylglucose:myo-inositol indol-3-ylacetyltransferase (indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol synthase). We further show that indol-3-ylacetylglucose synthase is specific for UDP-glucose and, at the stage of purity tested, the enzyme will use either indol-3-ylacetic acid or naphthalene-1-acetic acid, but not 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, as glucose acceptor. The indol-3-ylacetyl-myo-inositol synthase is specific for indol-3-ylacetyl-glucose and will not use naphthalene-1-acetylglucose as substrate, and it is specific for myo-inositol among the alcohol acceptors tested. Thus, of the auxins tested, only indol-3-ylacetic acid forms the myo-inositol ester. PMID:6218801

  6. IP3 accumulation and/or inositol depletion: two downstream lithium's effects that may mediate its behavioral and cellular changes

    PubMed Central

    Sade, Y; Toker, L; Kara, N Z; Einat, H; Rapoport, S; Moechars, D; Berry, G T; Bersudsky, Y; Agam, G

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is the prototype mood stabilizer but its mechanism is still unresolved. Two hypotheses dominate—the consequences of lithium's inhibition of inositol monophosphatase at therapeutically relevant concentrations (the ‘inositol depletion' hypothesis), and of glycogen-synthase kinase-3. To further elaborate the inositol depletion hypothesis that did not decisively determine whether inositol depletion per se, or phosphoinositols accumulation induces the beneficial effects, we utilized knockout mice of either of two inositol metabolism-related genes—IMPA1 or SMIT1, both mimic several lithium's behavioral and biochemical effects. We assessed in vivo, under non-agonist-stimulated conditions, 3H-inositol incorporation into brain phosphoinositols and phosphoinositides in wild-type, lithium-treated, IMPA1 and SMIT1 knockout mice. Lithium treatment increased frontal cortex and hippocampal phosphoinositols labeling by several fold, but decreased phosphoinositides labeling in the frontal cortex of the wild-type mice of the IMPA1 colony strain by ~50%. Inositol metabolites were differently affected by IMPA1 and SMIT1 knockout. Inositoltrisphosphate administered intracerebroventricularly affected bipolar-related behaviors and autophagy markers in a lithium-like manner. Namely, IP3 but not IP1 reduced the immobility time of wild-type mice in the forced swim test model of antidepressant action by 30%, an effect that was reversed by an antagonist of all three IP3 receptors; amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion of wild-type mice (distance traveled) was 35% reduced by IP3 administration; IP3 administration increased hippocampal messenger RNA levels of Beclin-1 (required for autophagy execution) and hippocampal and frontal cortex protein levels ratio of Beclin-1/p62 by about threefold (p62 is degraded by autophagy). To conclude, lithium affects the phosphatidylinositol signaling system in two ways: depleting inositol, consequently decreasing phosphoinositides; elevating

  7. Importance and regulation of inositol biosynthesis during growth and differentiation of Streptomyces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohua; Tian, Yuqing; Hu, Kun; Zhu, Yu; Chater, Keith F; Feng, Chi; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2012-03-01

    Unusually among bacteria, actinobacteria possess myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (mIPS). In the developmentally complex Streptomyces coelicolor, the mIPS-encoding gene (inoA) is cotranscribed with a putative regulatory gene (inoR). The inoRA transcript was more abundant in an inoR in-frame deletion mutant, and InoR formed different complexes in vitro with an extensive region around the inoRA promoter. Binding was relieved by adding glucose 6-phosphate. Thus, InoR is a metabolite-sensitive autorepressor that influences inoA expression, and hence the level of inositol, by controlling transcription from P(inoRA) . Disruption of inoA resulted in inositol-dependent growth and development, with full phenotypic correction at 0.1 mM inositol: at lower inositol concentrations differentiation was arrested at intermediate stages. This pattern may partly reflect increased demand for membrane phospholipids during sporulation septation. A corresponding sharp upregulation of inoRA transcription coincident with sporulation was dependent on a developmental regulator, WhiI. A truncated form of WhiI could bind two sites downstream of P(inoRA) , and one of the WhiI-binding sites overlapped the InoR-binding site. The combined action of a metabolic regulator and a developmental regulator at the simple P(inoRA) promoter is a previously undescribed strategy for the differential provision of developmentally appropriate levels of a substance required during the formation of spore chains.

  8. Inositol Depletion Induced by Acute Treatment of the Bipolar Disorder Drug Valproate Increases Levels of Phytosphingosine.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Shyamalagauri; Russo, Sarah; Cowart, L Ashley; Greenberg, Miriam L

    2017-03-24

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe psychiatric illness affecting ∼1% of the world population. Valproate (VPA) and lithium, widely used for the treatment of BD, are not universally effective. These drugs have been shown to cause inositol depletion, but translating this observation to a specific therapeutic mechanism has been difficult, hampering the development of more effective therapies. We have shown previously in yeast that chronic VPA treatment induces the unfolded protein response due to increasing ceramide levels. To gain insight into the mechanisms activated during acute VPA treatment, we performed a genome-wide expression study in yeast treated with VPA for 30 min. We observed increased mRNA and protein levels of RSB1, which encodes an exporter of long chain bases dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), and further saw that VPA increased sensitivity of an rsb1Δ mutant to PHS, suggesting that VPA increases long chain base levels. Consistent with this, PHS levels were elevated in wild type and, to a greater extent, in rsb1Δ cells. Expression of ORM genes (negative regulators of PHS synthesis) and of fatty acid elongase genes FEN1 and SUR4 were decreased, and expression of YOR1 (exporter of PHS-1P) and DPL1 (lyase that degrades DHS-1P and PHS-1P) was increased. These effects were more pronounced in medium lacking inositol, and were mirrored by inositol starvation of an ino1Δ mutant. These findings provide a metabolic explanation as to how VPA-mediated inositol depletion causes increased synthesis of PHS and further support the therapeutic relevance of inositol depletion as a bipolar disorder treatment.

  9. PTH (parathyroid hormone) elevates inositol polyphosphates and diacylglycerol in a rat osteoblast-like cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Civitelli, R.; Reid, I.R.; Westbrook, S.; Avioli, L.V.; Hruska, K.A. )

    1988-11-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated signal transduction through mechanisms alternate to adenosine 3{prime},5{prime}-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production were studied in UMR 106-01 cells, a cell line with an osteoblastic phenotype. PTH produced transient, dose-related increases in cytosolic calcium ((Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}), inositol trisphosphates, and diacylglycerol (DAG). Both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3}) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins-1,3,4P{sub 3}) production were rapidly stimulated by PTH. Consistent with the production of Ins-1,3,4P{sub 3}, rapid stimulation of late eluting inositol tetrakisphosphate was observed. The effects on the inositol phosphates were induced rapidly, consistent with roles as signals for changes in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}. In saponin-permeabilized UMR 106-01 cells, Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} stimulated {sup 45}Ca release from a nonmitochondrial intracellular pool. Thus the hypothesis that PTH-stimulated Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} production initiates Ca{sup 2+} release and contributes to transient elevations of (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} is supported. These data suggest that stimulation of cAMP production during PTH stimulation may negatively affect production of rises in (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i} during PTH stimulation. The inactivation of the inhibitory G protein of adenylate cyclase by pertussis toxin could explain its action similar to cAMP analogues. Cyclci nucleotides diminish the effects of PTH on (Ca{sup 2+}){sub i}, probably interacting on a biochemical step subsequent to or independent of Ins-1,4,5P{sub 3} release.

  10. Synthesis of myo-inositol 1,2,3-tris- and 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(dihydrogen phosphate)s as a tool for the inhibition of iron-gall-ink corrosion.

    PubMed

    Sala, Martin; Kolar, Jana; Strlic, Matija; Kocevar, Marijan

    2006-05-22

    Two myo-inositol phosphates, myo-inositol 1,2,3-tris(dihydrogen phosphate) and myo-inositol 1,2,3,5-tetrakis(dihydrogen phosphate), have been synthesised in several steps from myo-inositol (in Chem. Abstr.: d-myo-inositol) in the form of their sodium salts. They were shown to prevent iron-gall-ink decay in cellulose items at the same level as phytic acid dodecasodium salt.

  11. The incorporation of myo-inositol into phosphatidylinositol derivatives is stimulated during hormone-induced meiotic maturation of amphibian oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Carrasco, D.; Allende, C.C.; Allende, J.E. )

    1990-12-01

    The incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into phosphatidylinositol and its phosphorylated derivatives was studied by microinjection of the radioactive precursor into Xenopus laevis oocytes. Induction of meiotic maturation of the oocytes by treatment with either progesterone one or insulin resulted in a significant increase in the incorporation of myo-({sup 3}H)inositol into the phospholipid fraction. This increase occurred 3-6 h after hormonal treatment, a time coincident with the start of the breakdown of the nuclear envelope, and requires protein synthesis. The effect of progesterone and insulin contrasts with the effect of acetylcholine, which acts through a muscarinic receptor causing the activation of phospholipase C, since the latter effector causes an increase in myo-({sup 3}H)inositol incorporation, which is more rapid and does not require protein synthesis. These results suggest that the meiotic maturation process is connected with changes in inositol metabolism in the amphibian oocyte.

  12. Osmoregulatory inositol transporter SMIT1 modulates electrical activity by adjusting PI(4,5)P2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Gucan; Yu, Haijie; Traynor-Kaplan, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Myo-inositol is an important cellular osmolyte in autoregulation of cell volume and fluid balance, particularly for mammalian brain and kidney cells. We find it also regulates excitability. Myo-inositol is the precursor of phosphoinositides, key signaling lipids including phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. However, whether myo-inositol accumulation during osmoregulation affects signaling and excitability has not been fully explored. We found that overexpression of the Na+/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT1) and myo-inositol supplementation enlarged intracellular PI(4,5)P2 pools, modulated several PI(4,5)P2-dependent ion channels including KCNQ2/3 channels, and attenuated the action potential firing of superior cervical ganglion neurons. Further experiments using the rapamycin-recruitable phosphatase Sac1 to hydrolyze PI(4)P and the P4M probe to visualize PI(4)P suggested that PI(4)P levels increased after myo-inositol supplementation with SMIT1 expression. Elevated relative levels of PIP and PIP2 were directly confirmed using mass spectrometry. Inositol trisphosphate production and release of calcium from intracellular stores also were augmented after myo-inositol supplementation. Finally, we found that treatment with a hypertonic solution mimicked the effect we observed with SMIT1 overexpression, whereas silencing tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein prevented these effects. These results show that ion channel function and cellular excitability are under regulation by several “physiological” manipulations that alter the PI(4,5)P2 setpoint. We demonstrate a previously unrecognized linkage between extracellular osmotic changes and the electrical properties of excitable cells. PMID:27217553

  13. Probing the promiscuous active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase using synthetic substrates, homology modeling, and active site modification.

    PubMed

    Daniellou, Richard; Zheng, Hongyan; Langill, David M; Sanders, David A R; Palmer, David R J

    2007-06-26

    The active site of myo-inositol dehydrogenase (IDH, EC 1.1.1.18) from Bacillus subtilis recognizes a variety of mono- and disaccharides, as well as 1l-4-O-substituted inositol derivatives. It catalyzes the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the axial alcohol of these substrates with comparable kinetic constants. We have found that 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol does not act as a substrate for IDH, in contrast to structurally similar compounds such as those bearing substituted benzyl substituents in the same position. X-ray crystallographic analysis of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol and 4-O-(2-naphthyl)methyl-myo-inositol, which is a substrate for IDH, shows a distinct difference in the preferred conformation of the aryl substituent. Conformational analysis of known substrates of IDH suggests that this conformational difference may account for the difference in reactivity of 4-O-p-toluenesulfonyl-myo-inositol in the presence of IDH. A sequence alignment of IDH with the homologous glucose-fructose oxidoreductase allowed the construction of an homology model of inositol dehydrogenase, to which NADH and 4-O-benzyl-scyllo-inosose were docked and the active site energy minimized. The active site model is consistent with all experimental results and suggests that a conserved tyrosine-glycine-tyrosine motif forms the hydrophobic pocket adjoining the site of inositol recognition. Y233F and Y235F retain activity, while Y233R and Y235R do not. A histidine-aspartate pair, H176 and D172, are proposed to act as a dyad in which H176 is the active site acid/base. The enzyme is inactivated by diethyl pyrocarbonate, and the mutants H176A and D172N show a marked loss of activity. Kinetic isotope effect experiments with D172N indicate that chemistry is rate-determining for this mutant.

  14. Efficacy of IP6 + inositol in the treatment of breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective, randomized, pilot clinical study was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) + Inositol in breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant therapy. Patients and methods Patients with invasive ductal breast cancer where polychemotherapy was indicated were monitored in the period from 2005-2007. Fourteen patients in the same stage of ductal invasive breast cancer were involved in the study, divided in two randomized groups. One group was subjected to take IP6 + Inositol while the other group was taking placebo. In both groups of patients the same laboratory parameters were monitored. When the treatment was finished, all patients have filled questionnaires QLQ C30 and QLQ-BR23 to determine the quality of life. Results Patients receiving chemotherapy, along with IP6 + Inositol did not have cytopenia, drop in leukocyte and platelet counts. Red blood cell counts and tumor markers were unaltered in both groups. However, patients who took IP6 + Inositol had significantly better quality of life (p = 0.05) and functional status (p = 0.0003) and were able to perform their daily activities. Conclusion IP6 + Inositol as an adjunctive therapy is valuable help in ameliorating the side effects and preserving quality of life among the patients treated with chemotherapy. PMID:20152024

  15. In vitro effect of myo-inositol on sperm motility in normal and oligoasthenospermia patients undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Artini, P G; Casarosa, E; Carletti, E; Monteleone, P; Di Noia, A; Di Berardino, O M

    2017-02-01

    It is a known fact that abnormal seminal liquid specimens contain abnormal amounts of oxygen free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that the use of antioxidant molecules both in vivo and in vitro leads to improvement of semen quality in terms of motility, reduction in DNA damage, with obvious consequences on the fertilization potential. Myo-inositol has been observed to have anti-oxidant properties and be present in much greater concentrations specifically in seminal liquid than in the blood. Moreover, there seems to be a direct relationship between myo-inositol and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and sperm motility. Studies performed in vivo have demonstrated that a dietary supplementation with myo-inositol in men undergoing assisted reproduction techniques may improve sperm quality and motility in oligoasthenospermia (OAT) patients. In the following study we utilized myo-inositol in vitro to verify its effect on semen quality in both normal and OAT patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with respect to standard sperm medium. In vitro incubation of seminal liquid carried out using myo-inositol (Andrositol-Lab, Lo.Li. Pharma-Roma, Italy) at a concentration of 15 μl/ml improved progressive motility in both normospermia and OAT subjects. In our opinion, myo-inositol may prove to be a useful strategy to improve sperm preparation for clinical use in IVF.

  16. myo-Inositol synthesis from (1-/sup 3/H)glucose in Phaseolus vulgaris L. during early stages of germination

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1986-06-01

    Radiolabeled D-(1-/sup 3/H)glucose was fed by imbibition under sterile conditions to bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds. After 72 and 96 hours of feeding, the /sup 3/H was located in uronic acid and pentose residues as well as hexose residues of cell wall polysaccharides in growing hypocotyl and root. Free myo-inositol present in cotyledons, hypocotyl, and root also contained /sup 3/H, showing that de novo synthesis of myo-inositol from (1-/sup 3/H)glucose did occur during the first 72 hours of germination. More than 90% of the labeled, free myo-inositol was present in the cotyledons. The /sup 3/H percentage in trifluoroacetic acid-soluble arabinaose residues of cell wall polysaccharides from 72-hour-old bean hypocotyls was only half of their mole percentage. On the other hand, /sup 3/H percentages in hexose residues were higher than their mole percentages. The results suggest that myo-inositol is synthesized from reserve sugars during the very early stages of germination, and that the newly synthesized myo-inositol, as well as that stored in cotyledons, can be used for the construction of new hypocotyl and root cell wall polysaccharides after conversion into uronic acids and pentoses via the myo-inositol oxidation pathway.

  17. Separation of phytic acid and other related inositol phosphates by high-performance ion chromatography and its applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Chuan; Li, Betty W

    2003-11-07

    A high-performance anion-exchange chromatographic method was developed for the separation of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates (myo-inositol bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, and pentakisphosphates) with gradient elution and ultraviolet absorbance detection after post-column derivatization. With the acidic eluents, the combination of anion-exchange and ion suppression retention mechanisms led to the separation of 35 inositol phosphates (excluding enantiomers) into 27 peaks for the first time, and the retention behaviors of all myo-inositol bis- to hexakisphosphate isomers were studied. The whole separation procedure was completed within 65 min. Based on the investigations of nonenzymatic hydrolysis of phytic acid under different conditions by using this method, an in-house reference standard solution was produced, which can be used for method development. In addition, by applying this method to in vitro kinetic studies, at least one new enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of phytic acid was found, and one rule of enzymatic dephosphorylation of inositol phosphates (position effect) was proposed and another one (neighboring effect) was confirmed. The principle of the proposed identification approach for several inositol phosphate isomers based on hydrolysis products study will be applicable to other natural products analysis, for which standards are very expensive or not available.

  18. Bst1 is required for Candida albicans infecting host via facilitating cell wall anchorage of Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Zou, Zui; Huang, Xin; Shen, Hui; He, Li Juan; Chen, Si Min; Li, Li Ping; Yan, Lan; Zhang, Shi Qun; Zhang, Jun Dong; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. While the function of inositol deacylation of GPI-APs in mammalian cells has been previously characterized the impact of inositol deacylation in fungi and implications to host infection remains largely unexplored. Herein we describe our identification of BST1, an inositol deacylase of GPI-Aps in Candida albicans, was critical for GPI-APs cell wall attachment and host infection. BST1-deficient C. albicans (bst1Δ/Δ) was associated with severely impaired cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs and subsequen unmasked β-(1,3)-glucan. Consistent with the aberrant cell wall structures, bst1Δ/Δ strain did not display an invasive ability and could be recognized more efficiently by host immune systems. Moreover, BST1 null mutants or those expressing Bst1 variants did not display inositol deacylation activity and exhibited severely attenuated virulence and reduced organic colonization in a murine systemic candidiasis model. Thus, Bst1 can facilitate cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs in C. albicans by inositol deacylation, and is critical for host invasion and immune escape. PMID:27708385

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of inositol dehydrogenase (IDH) from Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Van Straaten, K. E.; Hoffort, A.; Palmer, D. R. J.; Sanders, D. A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Inositol dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme that catalyses the NAD+-dependent oxidation of myo-inositol to scyllo-inosose. The enzyme has been purified to homogeneity by means of Ni2+-affinity chromatography and was crystallized in both native and selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled forms using the microbatch method. SAD X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution from a SeMet-labelled crystal at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) and a MAD data set was collected to 1.75 Å resolution at the Canadian Light Source (CLS); this is the first reported anomalous diffraction experiment from the CLS. The crystals belong to space group I222 and contain one molecule per asymmetric unit. PMID:18259059

  20. A chromogenic substrate for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C: 4-nitrophenyl myo-inositol-1-phosphate.

    PubMed

    Shashidhar, M S; Volwerk, J J; Griffith, O H; Keana, J F

    1991-12-01

    A chromogenic water-soluble substrate for phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C was synthesized starting from myo-inositol employing isopropylidene and 4-methoxytetrahydropyranyl protecting groups. In this analogue of phosphatidylinositol, 4-nitrophenol replaces the diacylglycerol moiety, resulting in synthetic, racemic 4-nitrophenyl myo-inositol-1-phosphate. Using this synthetic substrate a rapid, convenient and sensitive spectrophotometric assay for the phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus was developed. Initial rates of the cleavage of the nitrophenol substrate were linear with time and the amount of enzyme used. At pH 7.0, specific activities for the B. cereus enzyme were 77 and 150 mumol substrate cleaved min-1 (mg protein)-1 at substrate concentrations of 1 and 2 mM, respectively. Under these conditions, less than 50 ng quantities of enzyme were easily detected. The chromogenic substrate was stable during long term storage (6 months) as a solid at -20 degrees C.

  1. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases: traffic controllers, waistline watchers and tumour suppressors?

    PubMed

    Astle, Megan V; Horan, Kristy A; Ooms, Lisa M; Mitchell, Christina A

    2007-01-01

    Phosphoinositide signals regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, cytoskeletal rearrangement and intracellular trafficking. Hydrolysis of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases regulates synaptic vesicle recycling (synaptojanin-1), hematopoietic cell function [SHIP1(SH2-containing inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase-1)], renal cell function [OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe)] and insulin signalling (SHIP2). We present here a detailed review of the characteristics of the ten mammalian 5-phosphatases. Knockout mouse phenotypes and underexpression studies are associated with significant phenotypic changes, indicating non-redundant roles, despite, in many cases, overlapping substrate specificity and tissue expression. The extraordinary complexity in the control of phosphoinositide signalling continues to be revealed.

  2. Structural basis for phosphoinositide substrate recognition, catalysis, and membrane interactions in human inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Trésaugues, Lionel; Silvander, Camilla; Flodin, Susanne; Welin, Martin; Nyman, Tomas; Gräslund, Susanne; Hammarström, Martin; Berglund, Helena; Nordlund, Pär

    2014-05-06

    SHIP2, OCRL, and INPP5B belong to inositol polyphosphate 5-phophatase subfamilies involved in insulin regulation and Lowes syndrome. The structural basis for membrane recognition, substrate specificity, and regulation of inositol polyphosphate 5-phophatases is still poorly understood. We determined the crystal structures of human SHIP2, OCRL, and INPP5B, the latter in complex with phosphoinositide substrate analogs, which revealed a membrane interaction patch likely to assist in sequestering substrates from the lipid bilayer. Residues recognizing the 1-phosphate of the substrates are highly conserved among human family members, suggesting similar substrate binding modes. However, 3- and 4-phosphate recognition varies and determines individual substrate specificity profiles. The high conservation of the environment of the scissile 5-phosphate suggests a common reaction geometry for all members of the human 5-phosphatase family.

  3. Osmotic stress-induced phosphoinositide and inositol phosphate signalling in plants.

    PubMed

    Munnik, Teun; Vermeer, Joop E M

    2010-04-01

    Polyphosphoinositides (PPIs) became famous for their role in inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) mediated-Ca(2+) signalling in mammalian cells, generated through signal-activated phospholipase C (PLC) hydrolysis of the minor membrane lipid, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate. For many years, the plant field followed the same paradigm, however, slowly a completely different picture is emerging. Moreover, various novel PPI-signalling compounds have been identified meanwhile, with new functions and targets coming to light. These include lipids phosphorylated at the D3-position of inositol but also water-soluble inositolpolyphosphates (IPPs). For several of them, a relationship to water stress has been reported. This review summarizes the current status of PPIs and IPPs in plants and discusses their potential in osmotic stress signalling and drought.

  4. High-performance thin-layer chromatography method for inositol phosphate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hatzack, F; Rasmussen, S K

    1999-12-24

    A simple and inexpensive high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for the analysis of inositol mono- to hexakisphosphates on cellulose precoated plates is described. Plates were developed in 1-propanol-25% ammonia solution-water (5:4:1) and substance quantities as low as 100-200 pmol were detected by molybdate staining. Chromatographic mobilities of nucleotides and phosphorylated carbohydrates were also characterized. Charcoal treatment was employed to separate nucleotides from inositol phosphates with similar R(F) values prior to HPTLC analysis. Practical application of the HPTLC system is demonstrated by analysis of grain extracts from wild type and low-phytate mutant barley as well as phytate degradation products resulting from barley phytase activity.

  5. Inositol hexakisphosphate kinase-1 regulates behavioral responses via GSK3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, A; Latapy, C; Xu, J; Snyder, S H; Beaulieu, J-M

    2014-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a prominent enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism, also has a major role in brain function. It is physiologically regulated by the kinase Akt, which phosphorylates GSK3 to inhibit catalytic activity. Inositol hexakisphosphate-1 (IP6K1) generates the inositol pyrophosphate diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7), which physiologically inhibits Akt leading to enhanced GSK3 activity. We report that IP6K1 binds and stimulates GSK3 enzymatic activity in a non-catalytic fashion. Physiological relevance is evident in the inhibition of GSK3 activity in the brains of IP6K1-deleted mice. Behavioral alterations of IP6K1 knockout mice resemble those of GSK3 mutants. Accordingly, modulation of IP6K1-GSK3β interaction may exert beneficial effects in psychiatric disorders involving GSK3.

  6. Conformational Changes in Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate 2-Kinase upon Substrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A.; González, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP5 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP5. Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP5 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP5 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP5 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP5 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP5 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg130 mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP5 2-K in mammals. PMID:22745128

  7. An Uncharacterized Member of the Ribokinase Family in Thermococcus kodakarensis Exhibits myo-Inositol Kinase Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takaaki; Fujihashi, Masahiro; Miyamoto, Yukika; Kuwata, Keiko; Kusaka, Eriko; Fujita, Haruo; Miki, Kunio; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Here we performed structural and biochemical analyses on the TK2285 gene product, an uncharacterized protein annotated as a member of the ribokinase family, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis. The three-dimensional structure of the TK2285 protein resembled those of previously characterized members of the ribokinase family including ribokinase, adenosine kinase, and phosphofructokinase. Conserved residues characteristic of this protein family were located in a cleft of the TK2285 protein as in other members whose structures have been determined. We thus examined the kinase activity of the TK2285 protein toward various sugars recognized by well characterized ribokinase family members. Although activity with sugar phosphates and nucleosides was not detected, kinase activity was observed toward d-allose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, d-talose, d-xylose, and d-xylulose. Kinetic analyses with the six sugar substrates revealed high Km values, suggesting that they were not the true physiological substrates. By examining activity toward amino sugars, sugar alcohols, and disaccharides, we found that the TK2285 protein exhibited prominent kinase activity toward myo-inositol. Kinetic analyses with myo-inositol revealed a greater kcat and much lower Km value than those obtained with the monosaccharides, resulting in over a 2,000-fold increase in kcat/Km values. TK2285 homologs are distributed among members of Thermococcales, and in most species, the gene is positioned close to a myo-inositol monophosphate synthase gene. Our results suggest the presence of a novel subfamily of the ribokinase family whose members are present in Archaea and recognize myo-inositol as a substrate. PMID:23737529

  8. Cyclic nucleotide regulation of inositol lipid metabolism in rat cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Nicchitta, C.V.; Williamson, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have investigated the effects of compounds known to elevate cAMP levels and/or activate the cAMP dependent protein kinase on resting and stimulated inositol lipid metabolism in rat cortical slices and synaptosomes. In (/sup 3/H)-myo-inositol-labeled brain slices, carbamylcholine-stimulated accumulation of (/sup 3/H)-myo-inositol 1-phosphate (IP/sub 1/) was decreased 50% by forskolin (150..mu..M) isobutylmethylxantihine (IBMX) (1mM), 8-bromo cAMP (5mM) or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) cAMP (5mM). In studies with synaptosomes, the incorporation of (/sup 32/Pi) into phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP/sub 2/) and phosphatidic acid (PA) was also reduced in the presence of forskolin or the cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitors IBMX and RO20-1724 (+/-)-4-(3-butoxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinone. In the presence of maximally effective concentrations of these agents, steady state PIP levels were reduced by 50% and PIP/sub 2/ and PA levels by 40%. The effects of these compounds on (/sup 32/Pi) labeling of the phosphoinositides and PA are consistent with an inhibition of flux through the inositide cycle, presumably through the action of cAMP. Such an inhibition may account for the reduction in carbamylcholine sensitive IP/sub 1/ accumulation observed in brain slices. These studies indicate that in rat brain, ..beta..-adrenergic stimulation may be involved in modulating the activity of muscarinic cholinergic agonists. This regulation appears to be at the level of inositol lipid metabolism.

  9. The pathway for the production of inositol hexakisphosphate in human cells.

    PubMed

    Verbsky, John W; Chang, Shao-Chun; Wilson, Monita P; Mochizuki, Yasuhiro; Majerus, Philip W

    2005-01-21

    The yeast and Drosophila pathways leading to the production of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) have been elucidated recently. The in vivo pathway in humans has been assumed to be similar. Here we show that overexpression of Ins(1,3,4)P(3) 5/6-kinase in human cell lines results in an increase of inositol tetrakisphosphate (InsP(4)) isomers, inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP(5)) and InsP(6), whereas its depletion by RNA interference decreases the amounts of these inositol phosphates. Expression of Ins(1,3,4,6)P(4) 5-kinase does not increase the amount of InsP(5) and InsP(6), although its depletion does block InsP(5) and InsP(6) production, showing that it is necessary for production of InsP(5) and InsP(6). Expression of Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5) 2-kinase increases the amount of InsP(6) by depleting the InsP(5) in the cell, and depletion of 2-kinase decreases the amount of InsP(6) and causes an increase in InsP(5). These results are consistent with a pathway that produces InsP(6) through the sequential action of Ins(1,3,4)P(3) 5/6-kinase, Ins(1,3,4,6)P(4) 5-kinase, and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase to convert Ins(1,3,4)P(3) to InsP(6). Furthermore, the evidence implicates 5/6-kinase as the rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway.

  10. Characterization of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate deposits from larval Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Casaravilla, Cecilia; Brearley, Charles; Soulé, Silvia; Fontana, Carolina; Veiga, Nicolás; Bessio, María I; Ferreira, Fernando; Kremer, Carlos; Díaz, Alvaro

    2006-07-01

    The abundant metabolite myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) can form vesicular deposits with cations, a widespread phenomenon in plants also found in the cestode parasite, Echinococcus granulosus. In this organism, the deposits are exocytosed, accumulating in a host-exposed sheath of extracellular matrix termed the laminated layer. The formation and mobilization of InsP6 deposits, which involve precipitation and solubilization reactions, respectively, cannot yet be rationalized in quantitative chemical terms, as the solids involved have not been formally described. We report such a description for the InsP6 deposits from E. granulosus, purified as the solid residue left by mild alkaline digestion of the principal mucin component of the laminated layer. The deposits are largely composed of the compound Ca5H2L.16H2O (L representing fully deprotonated InsP6), and additionally contain Mg2+ (6-9% molar ratio with respect to Ca2+), but not K+. Calculations employing recently available chemical constants show that the precipitation of Ca5H2L.16H2O is predicted by thermodynamics in secretory vesicle-like conditions. The deposits appear to be similar to microcrystalline solids when analysed under the electron microscope; we estimate that each crystal comprises around 200 InsP6 molecules. We calculate that the deposits increase, by three orders of magnitude, the surface area available for adsorption of host proteins, a salient ability of the laminated layer. The major inositol phosphate in the deposits, other than InsP6, is myo-inositol (1,2,4,5,6) pentakisphosphate, or its enantiomer, inositol (2,3,4,5,6) pentakisphosphate. The compound appears to be a subproduct of the intracellular pathways leading to the synthesis and vesicular accumulation of InsP6, rather than arising from extracellular hydrolysis of InsP6.

  11. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-12-15

    The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish.

  12. Treatment of hirsutism with myo-inositol: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, M; D'Andrea, G; Unfer, V

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of myo-inositol treatment in hirsute women; changes in lipid pattern and insulin sensitivity were also considered. Forty-six hirsute women were enrolled at the first Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology and evaluated at baseline and after receiving myo-inositol therapy for 6 months. Body mass index (BMI), hirsutism, serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein(a), serum adrenal and ovarian androgens, fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were evaluated. No changes in BMI were observed. The hirsutism decreased after therapy (P < 0.001). Total androgens, FSH and LH concentrations decreased while oestradiol concentrations increased. There was a slight non-significant decrease in total cholesterol concentrations, an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations and a decrease in LDL cholesterol concentrations. No significant changes were observed in serum triglyceride, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Insulin resistance (P < 0.01), analysed by homeostasis model assessment, was reduced significantly after therapy. Administration of oral myo-inositol significantly reduced hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and ameliorated the abnormal metabolic profile of women with hirsutism.

  13. Optimization of pressurized liquid extraction of inositols from pine nuts (Pinus pinea L.).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Aceituno, L; Rodríguez-Sánchez, S; Sanz, J; Sanz, M L; Ramos, L

    2014-06-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been used for the first time to extract bioactive inositols from pine nuts. The influence of extraction time, temperature and cycles of extraction in the yield and composition of the extract was studied. A quadratic lineal model using multiple linear regression in the stepwise mode was used to evaluate possible trends in the process. Under optimised PLE conditions (50°C, 18 min, 3 cycles of 1.5 mL water each one) at 10 MPa, a noticeable reduction in extraction time and solvent volume, compared with solid-liquid extraction (SLE; room temperature, 2h, 2 cycles of 5 mL water each one) was achieved; 5.7 mg/g inositols were extracted by PLE, whereas yields of only 3.7 mg/g were obtained by SLE. Subsequent incubation of PLE extracts with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37°C, 5h) allowed the removal of other co-extracted low molecular weight carbohydrates which may interfere in the bioactivity of inositols.

  14. Characterization of MTMR3. an inositol lipid 3-phosphatase with novel substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Walker, D M; Urbé, S; Dove, S K; Tenza, D; Raposo, G; Clague, M J

    2001-10-16

    Inositol lipids play key roles in many fundamental cellular processes that include growth, cell survival, motility, and membrane trafficking. Recent studies on the PTEN and Myotubularin proteins have underscored the importance of inositol lipid 3-phosphatases in cell function. Inactivating mutations in the genes encoding PTEN and Myotubularin are key steps in the progression of some cancers and in the onset of X-linked myotubular myopathy, respectively. Myotubularin-related protein 3 (MTMR3) shows extensive homology to Myotubularin, including the catalytic domain, but additionally possesses a C-terminal extension that includes a FYVE domain. We show that MTMR3 is an inositol lipid 3-phosphatase, with a so-far-unique substrate specificity. It is able to hydrolyze PtdIns3P and PtdIns3,5P2, both in vitro and when heterologously expressed in S. cerevisiae, and to thereby provide the first clearly defined route for the cellular production of PtdIns5P. Overexpression of a catalytically dead MTMR3 (C413S) in mammalian cells induces a striking formation of vacuolar compartments that enclose membranous structures that are highly concentrated in mutant proteins.

  15. Distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, P400, in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, J; Suburo, A M; Bentura, M L; Fernández, T; Nakade, S; Mikoshiba, K; Martínez-Murillo, R; Polak, J M

    1993-11-15

    The distribution of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein, P400, was investigated in adult rat brain by immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody 4C11 raised against mouse cerebellar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor protein. Immunoreactive neuronal cell bodies were detected in the cerebral cortex, the claustrum, the endopiriform nucleus, the corpus callosum, the anterior olfactory nuclei, the olfactory tubercle, the nucleus accumbens, the lateral septum, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the hippocampal formation, the dentate gyrus, the caudate-putamen, the fundus striatum, the amygdaloid complex, the thalamus, the caudolateral part of the hypothalamus, the supramammillary nuclei, the substantia nigra, the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus, the ventrotegmental area, the Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, the dorsal cochlear nucleus, the subnucleus oralis and caudalis of trigeminal nerve, and the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Immunoreactive fibres were found in the medial forebrain bundle, the globus pallidus, the stria terminalis, the pyramidal tract, the spinal tract of trigeminal nerve, and the ventral horn of spinal cord. Nerve fibres forming a dense plexus ending in terminal-like boutons were detected in relation to nonimmunoreactive neurons of the dentate, interpositus, and fastigial nuclei of the cerebellum and around neurons of the vestibular nuclei. This receptor protein binds a specific second messenger, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, which produces a mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and a modulation of transmitter release.

  16. Studies of inositol 1-phosphate analogues as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hiroyuki; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Nomiya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol in mycobacteria via phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) [Morii H., Ogawa, M., Fukuda, K., Taniguchi, H., and Koga, Y (2010) J. Biochem. 148, 593-602]. PIP synthase in the pathway is a promising target for the development of new anti-mycobacterium drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of the PIP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four types of compounds were chemically synthesized based on the assumption that structural homologues of inositol 1-phosphate, a PIP synthase substrate, would act as PIP synthase inhibitors, and the results confirmed that all synthesized compounds inhibited PIP synthase activity. The phosphonate analogue of inositol 1-phosphate (Ino-C-P) had the greatest inhibitory effect among the synthesized compounds examined. Kinetic analysis indicated that Ino-C-P acted as a competitive inhibitor of inositol 1-phosphate. The IC(50) value for Ino-C-P inhibition of the PIP synthase activity was estimated to be 2.0 mM. Interestingly, Ino-C-P was utilized in the same manner as the normal PIP synthase substrate, leading to the synthesis of a phosphonate analogue of PIP (PI-C-P), which had a structure similar to that of the natural product, PIP. In addition, PI-C-P had high inhibitory activity against PIP synthase.

  17. Effect of traditional, microwave and industrial cooking on inositol phosphate content in beans, chickpeas and lentils.

    PubMed

    Máñez, G; Alegría, A; Farré, R; Frígola, A

    2002-11-01

    An high-performance liquid chromatography method for determining inositol phosphate fractions was adapted to legumes. The validity of the method was assessed by estimating the following analytical parameters: linearity (linear response between 125 and 5000 microg inositol hexaphosphate (IP(6))/ml); instrumental precision and method precision (relative standard deviation, %) were 1.9% (IP(6)) for instrumental, and 2.5% (IP(6)) and 8.2% (IP(5)) for method precision. An accuracy was estimated by percentage recovery (72 +/- 3%). The application of this method to raw, conventional, microwave-cooked and ready-to-eat beans, chickpeas and lentils gave IP(6) contents ranging from 0.63 g/100 g dry matter in ready-to-eat lentils to 1.87 g/100 g dry matter in raw beans. The IP(6) content was reduced by all the cooking procedures, while the relative percentage of inositol pentaphosphate increased in all the legumes studied, and reached the maximum of 31% (expressed in relation to dry matter) in ready-to-eat beans.

  18. Isolation and identification of myo-inositol crystals from dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Rebecca, Ow Phui San; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Somasundram, Chandran

    2012-04-17

    Crystals isolated from Hylocereus polyrhizus were analyzed using four different approaches--X-ray Crystallography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and identified as myo-inositol. The X-ray crystallography analysis showed that the unit-cell parameters were: a = 6.6226 (3) Å, b = 12.0462 (5) Å, c = 18.8942 (8) Å, α = 90.00, β = 93.98, δ = 90.00. The purity of the crystals were checked using HPLC, whereupon a clean single peak was obtained at 4.8 min with a peak area of 41232 μV*s. The LC-MS/MS technique, which is highly sensitive and selective, was used to provide a comparison of the isolated crystals with a myo-inositol standard where the results gave an identical match for both precursor and product ions. NMR was employed to confirm the molecular structure and conformation of the crystals, and the results were in agreement with the earlier results in this study. The discovery of myo-inositol crystals in substantial amount in H. polyrhizus has thus far not been reported and this is an important finding which will increase the marketability and importance of H. polyrhizus as a crop with a wide array of health properties.

  19. Recombinant expression of a functional myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinyi; Hernick, Marcy

    2015-10-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS, E.C. 5.5.1.4) catalyzes the first step in inositol production-the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6P) to myo-inositol-1-phosphate. While the three dimensional structure of MIPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been solved, biochemical studies examining the in vitro activity have not been reported to date. Herein we report the in vitro activity of mycobacterial MIPS expressed in E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Recombinant expression in E. coli yields a soluble protein capable of binding the NAD(+) cofactor; however, it has no significant activity with the Glc-6P substrate. In contrast, recombinant expression in M. smegmatis mc(2)4517 yields a functionally active protein. Examination of structural data suggests that MtMIPS expressed in E. coli adopts a fold that is missing a key helix containing two critical (conserved) Lys side chains, which likely explains the inability of the E. coli expressed protein to bind and turnover the Glc-6P substrate. Recombinant expression in M. smegmatis may yield a protein that adopts a fold in which this key helix is formed enabling proper positioning of important side chains, thereby allowing for Glc-6P substrate binding and turnover. Detailed mechanistic studies may be feasible following optimization of the recombinant MIPS expression protocol in M. smegmatis.

  20. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rounds, M. A.; Nielsen, S. S.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  1. Anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column detection for the analysis of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates.

    PubMed

    Rounds, M A; Nielsen, S S

    1993-10-29

    The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and quantitation of "phytic acid" and other inositol phosphates in plant, food, and soil samples.

  2. [3H]inositol polyphosphate metabolism in muscarinic cholinoceptor-stimulated airways smooth muscle: accumulation of [3H]inositol 4,5 bisphosphate via a lithium-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Lynch, B J; Muqit, M M; Walker, T R; Chilvers, E R

    1997-02-01

    Agonist-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis is the principal mechanism underlying pharmacomechanical coupling in airways smooth muscle. In bovine tracheal smooth muscle, activation of muscarinic cholinoceptors results in sustained phospholipase C-mediated PtdIns(4,5)P2 hydrolysis but transient Ins(1,4,5)P3 accumulation, which implies agonist-stimulated metabolism of Ins(1,4,5)P3. To investigate the metabolic fate of Ins(1,4,5)P3 in bovine tracheal smooth muscle, we developed a [3H]inositol-labeling protocol wherein more than 98% of the [3H]inositol polyphosphates that accumulated over a 0 to 30-min incubation with 100 microM carbachol in the presence of 5 mM LiCl were derived from [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 and wherein the Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase (EC 2.7.1.127) and 5-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.56) pathways generated a set of mutually exclusive [3H]-inositol polyphosphate isomers. Under these conditions, the 5-phosphatase pathway was shown to be the dominant route for [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism at all time intervals measured, especially at early times (0-300 sec), where it accounted for more than 85% of [H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 metabolism. We also observed accumulation of a novel agonist and LiCl-sensitive [3H]InsP2 isomer identified as [3H]Ins(4,5)P2. The presence of a LiCI-sensitive inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.57) was demonstrated, and high LiCl concentrations (30 mM) caused a significant enhancement of [3H]Ins(1,4)P2 accumulation and a corresponding decline in [3H]Ins4P levels. Because nearly identical bell-shaped LiCl concentration-response curves were obtained for [H]Ins4P and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation, and [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 was not generated under conditions expected to stimulate phospholipase D, these data suggest that the most likely precurser of [3H]Ins(4,5)P2 is [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3. This is the first demonstration of Ins(4,5)P2 accumulation in a non-neuronal cell type, and the foregoing data suggest a novel route of formation via an Ins(1,4,5)P3 1-phosphatase

  3. Sugar-metal ion interactions: the complicated coordination structures of cesium ion with D-ribose and myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haijian; Xue, Junhui; Wen, Xiaodong; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Chao; Yang, Limin; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Guozhong; Bu, Xiaoxia; Liu, Kexin; Chen, Jia'er; Wu, Jinguang

    2013-11-18

    The novel cesium chloride-D-ribose complex (CsCl·C5H10O5; Cs-R) and cesium chloride-myo-inositol complex (CsCl·C6H12O6; Cs-I) have been synthesized and characterized using X-ray diffraction and FTIR, FIR, THz, and Raman spectroscopy. Cs(+) is eight-coordinated to three chloride ions, O1 and O2 from one D-ribose molecule, O1 from another D-ribose molecule, and O4 and O5 from the third D-ribose molecule in Cs-R. For one D-ribose molecule, the oxygen atom O1 in the ring is coordinated to two cesium ions as an oxygen bridge, O2 is cocoordinated with O1 to one of the two cesium ions, and O4 and O5 are coordinated to the third cesium ion, respectively. O3 does not coordinate to metal ions and only takes part in forming hydrogen bonds. One chloride ion is connected to three cesium ions. Thus, a complicated structure of Cs-D-ribose forms. For Cs-I, Cs(+) is 10-coordinated to three chloride ions, O1 and O2 from one myo-inositol molecule, O3 and O4 from another myo-inositol molecule, O5 and O6 from the third myo-inositol molecule, and O6 from the fourth myo-inositol molecule. One metal ion is connected to four ligands, and one myo-inositol is coordinated to four Cs(+) ions, which is also a complicated coordination structure. Crystal structure results, FTIR, FIR, THz, and Raman spectra provide detailed information on the structure and coordination of hydroxyl groups to metal ions in the cesium chloride-D-ribose and cesium chloride-myo-inositol complexes.

  4. Regulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3/Akt signalling by inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Eramo, Matthew J; Mitchell, Christina A

    2016-02-01

    The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) generated lipid signals, PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, are both required for the maximal activation of the serine/threonine kinase proto-oncogene Akt. The inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (5-phosphatases) hydrolyse the 5-position phosphate from the inositol head group of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to yield PtdIns(3,4)P2. Extensive work has revealed several 5-phosphatases inhibit PI3K-driven Akt signalling, by decreasing PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 despite increasing cellular levels of PtdIns(3,4)P2. The roles that 5-phosphatases play in suppressing cell proliferation and transformation are slow to emerge; however, the 5-phosphatase PIPP [proline-rich inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase; inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (INPP5J)] has recently been identified as a putative tumour suppressor in melanoma and breast cancer and SHIP1 [SH2 (Src homology 2)-containing inositol phosphatase 1] inhibits haematopoietic cell proliferation. INPP5E regulates cilia stability and INPP5E mutations have been implicated ciliopathy syndromes. This review will examine 5-phosphatase regulation of PI3K/Akt signalling, focussing on the role PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases play in developmental diseases and cancer.

  5. Formation of inositol 1,3,4,6-tetrakisphosphate during angiotensin II action in bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Balla, T.; Guillemette, G.; Baukal, A.J.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-10-14

    Angiotensin II stimulates the formation of several inositol polyphosphates in cultured bovine adrenal glomerulosa cells prelabelled with (/sup 3/H) inositol. Analysis by high performance anion exchange chromatography of the inositol-phosphate compounds revealed the existence of two additional inositol tetrakisphosphate (InsP4) isomers in proximity to Ins-1,3,4,5-P4, the known phosphorylation product of Ins-1,4,5-trisphosphate and precursor of Ins-1,3,4-trisphosphate. Both of these new compounds showed a slow increase after stimulation with angiotensin II. The structure of one of these new InsP4 isomers, which is a phosphorylation product of Ins-1,3,4-P3, was deduced by its resistance to periodate oxidation to be Ins-1,3,4,6-P4. The existence of multiple cycles of phosphorylation-dephosphorylation reactions for the processing of Ins-1,4,5-P4 may represent a new aspect of the inositol-lipid related signalling mechanism in agonist-activated target cells.

  6. Methyl-inositol, γ-aminobutyric acid and other health benefit compounds in the aril of litchi.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi-Chen; Yang, Zhuan-Ying; Li, Jian-Guo; Chen, Hou-Bin; Huang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Hui-Cong

    2016-11-01

    The available components in the flesh of litchi seem insufficient to interpret its wide and significant physiological effects. Some unusual compounds, including myo-inositol, inositol methyl derivatives and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were identified as main constituents in the flesh of litchi. Their concentrations varied among cultivars but remain relatively constant during development. Litchi flesh was shown to contain moderate myo-inositol (0.28-0.78 mg g(-1) FW), ascorbic acid (0.08-0.39 mg g(-1) FW) and phenolics (0.47-1.60 mg g(-1) FW), but abundant l-quebrachitol (1.6-6.4 mg g(-1) FW) and GABA (1.7-3.5 mg g(-1) FW). The concentration of GABA in the flesh of litchi was about 100 times higher than in other fruits. And l-quebrachitol is not a common component in fruits. The biological and physiological activities of inositols, inositol derivatives and GABA have been extensively documented. These compounds are probably important compositional characteristic contributing to the widely shown health benefits of litchi.

  7. Certain Malvaceae Plants Have a Unique Accumulation of myo-Inositol 1,2,4,5,6-Pentakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Phillippy, Brian Q.; Perera, Imara Y.; Donahue, Janet L.; Gillaspy, Glenda E.

    2015-01-01

    Methods used to quantify inositol phosphates in seeds lack the sensitivity and specificity necessary to accurately detect the lower concentrations of these compounds contained in the leaves of many plants. In order to measure inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) and inositol pentakisphosphate (InsP5) levels in leaves of different plants, a method was developed to concentrate and pre-purify these compounds prior to analysis. Inositol phosphates were extracted from leaves with diluted HCl and concentrated on small anion exchange columns. Reversed-phase solid phase extraction cartridges were used to remove compounds that give peaks that sometimes interfere during HPLC. The method permitted the determination of InsP6 and InsP5 concentrations in leaves as low as 10 µM and 2 µM, respectively. Most plants analyzed contained a high ratio of InsP6 to InsP5. In contrast, certain members of the Malvaceae family, such as cotton (Gossypium) and some hibiscus (Hibiscus) species, had a preponderance of InsP5. Radiolabeling of cotton seedlings also showed increased amounts of InsP5 relative to InsP6. Why some Malvaceae species exhibit a reversal of the typical ratios of these inositol phosphates is an intriguing question for future research. PMID:27135328

  8. [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolysis by extracts of Zea mays L. vegetative tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P. J.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    [3H]Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was hydrolyzed by buffered extracts of acetone powders prepared from 4 day shoots of dark grown Zea mays L. seedlings. The hydrolytic activity was proportional to the amount of extract added and was linear for up to 6 hours at 37 degrees C. Boiled or alcohol denatured extracts were inactive. Analysis of reaction mixtures by high performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that not all isomers of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol were hydrolyzed at the same rate. Buffered extracts of acetone powders were prepared from coleoptiles and mesocotyls. The rates of hydrolysis observed with coleoptile extracts were greater than those observed with mesocotyl extracts. Active extracts also catalyzed the hydrolysis of esterase substrates such as alpha-naphthyl acetate and the methyl esters of indoleacetic acid and naphthyleneacetic acid. Attempts to purify the indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol hydrolyzing activity by chromatographic procedures resulted in only slight purification with large losses of activity. Chromatography over hydroxylapatite allowed separation of two enzymically active fractions, one of which catalyzed the hydrolysis of both indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol and esterase substrates. With the other enzymic hydrolysis of esterase substrates was readily demonstrated, but no hydrolysis of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was ever detected.

  9. Inhibitory effects of phytic acid and other inositol phosphates on zinc and calcium absorption in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, B; Sandberg, A S; Sandström, B; Kunz, C

    1989-02-01

    While it is known that phytic acid, inositol hexaphosphate, has a negative effect on zinc and calcium absorption, the effects of inositol which is phosphorylated to a lesser extent are less known. We have prepared inositol triphosphate (IP-3), tetraphosphate (IP-4), pentaphosphate (IP-5) and hexaphosphate (IP-6) by hydrolysis of sodium phytate and separation by ion-exchange chromatography and have studied their effect on zinc and calcium absorption. Using a suckling rat pup model, we found that liver uptake of 65Zn after 6 h was 5% of the total dose from solutions of IP-6, 19% from IP-5, 28% from IP-4, 29% from IP-3 and 31% from ZnCl2 (control). Non-absorbed calcium was 17%, 1.4%, 0.5%, 0.5% and 0.5% of the given dose of 45Ca, respectively. Thus, at a high degree of phosphorylation (IP-6, IP-5), zinc and calcium uptake was inhibited, while no effect was observed for the other phosphates. Consequently, total "phytate" analysis, which includes inositol phosphates with varying degrees of phosphorylation, can give misleading information with regard to mineral availability. In addition, even limited dephosphorylation of inositol hexaphosphate can have a positive effect on mineral absorption.

  10. Kinetics, substrate specificity, and stereospecificity of two new protein tyrosine phosphatase-like inositol polyphosphatases from Selenomonas lacticifex.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Aaron A; Greiner, Ralf; Selinger, L Brent

    2008-08-01

    Inositol polyphosphatases (IPPases) play an important role in the metabolism of inositol polyphosphates, a class of molecules involved in signal transduction. Here we characterize 2 new protein tyrosine phosphatase-like IPPases (PhyAsl and PhyBsl) cloned from Selenomonas lacticifex that can hydrolyze myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) in vitro. To determine their preferred substrates and stereospecificity of InsP6 dephosphorylation, a combination of kinetic and high-performance ion pair chromatography studies were conducted. Despite only 33% amino acid sequence identity between them, both enzymes display strict specificity for IPP substrates and cleave InsP6 primarily at the D-3-phosphate position (>90%). Furthermore, both enzymes predominantly degrade InsP6 to Ins(2)P via identical and very specific routes of dephosphorylation (3,4,5,6,1). Despite these similarities, PhylAsl is shown to have a slight kinetic preference for the major inositol pentakisphosphate intermediate in its InsP6 hydrolysis pathway, whereas PhyBsl displays a unique and substantial preference for an inositol tetrakisphosphate intermediate.

  11. Lily pollen alkaline phytase is a histidine phosphatase similar to mammalian multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MINPP).

    PubMed

    Mehta, Bakul Dhagat; Jog, Sonali P; Johnson, Steven C; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N

    2006-09-01

    Phytic acid is the most abundant inositol phosphate in cells; it constitutes 1-5% of the dry weight of cereal grains and legumes. Phytases are the primary enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of phytic acid and thus play important roles in inositol phosphate metabolism. A novel alkaline phytase in lily pollen (LlALP) was recently purified in our laboratory. In this paper, we describe the cloning and characterization of LlALP cDNA from lily pollen. Two isoforms of alkaline phytase cDNAs, LlAlp1 and LlAlp2, which are 1467 and 1533 bp long and encode proteins of 487 and 511 amino acids, respectively, were identified. The deduced amino acid sequences contains the signature heptapeptide of histidine phosphatases, -RHGXRXP-, but shares < 25% identity to fungal histidine acid phytases. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that LlALP is most closely related to multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase (MINPP) from humans (25%) and rats (23%). mRNA corresponding to LlAlp1 and LlAlp2 were expressed in leaves, stem, petals and pollen grains. The expression profiles of LlAlp isoforms in anthers indicated that mRNA corresponding to both isoforms were present at all stages of flower development. The expression of LlAlp2 cDNA in Escherichia coli revealed the accumulation of the active enzyme in inclusion bodies and confirmed that the cDNA encodes an alkaline phytase. In summary, plant alkaline phytase is a member of the histidine phosphatase family that includes MINPP and exhibits properties distinct from bacterial and fungal phytases.

  12. Fungal Inositol Pyrophosphate IP7 Is Crucial for Metabolic Adaptation to the Host Environment and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sophie; Li, Cecilia; Desmarini, Desmarini; Saiardi, Adolfo; Fewings, Nicole L.; Schibeci, Stephen D.; Sharma, Raghwa; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inositol pyrophosphates (PP-IPs) comprising inositol, phosphate, and pyrophosphate (PP) are essential for multiple functions in eukaryotes. Their role in fungal pathogens has never been addressed. Cryptococcus neoformans is a model pathogenic fungus causing life-threatening meningoencephalitis. We investigate the cryptococcal kinases responsible for the production of PP-IPs (IP7/IP8) and the hierarchy of PP-IP importance in pathogenicity. Using gene deletion and inositol polyphosphate profiling, we identified Kcs1 as the major IP6 kinase (producing IP7) and Asp1 as an IP7 kinase (producing IP8). We show that Kcs1-derived IP7 is the most crucial PP-IP for cryptococcal drug susceptibility and the production of virulence determinants. In particular, Kcs1 kinase activity is essential for cryptococcal infection of mouse lungs, as reduced fungal burdens were observed in the absence of Kcs1 or when Kcs1 was catalytically inactive. Transcriptome and carbon source utilization analysis suggested that compromised growth of the KCS1 deletion strain (Δkcs1 mutant) in the low-glucose environment of the host lung is due to its inability to utilize alternative carbon sources. Despite this metabolic defect, the Δkcs1 mutant established persistent, low-level asymptomatic pulmonary infection but failed to elicit a strong immune response in vivo and in vitro and was not readily phagocytosed by primary or immortalized monocytes. Reduced recognition of the Δkcs1 cells by monocytes correlated with reduced exposure of mannoproteins on the Δkcs1 mutant cell surface. We conclude that IP7 is essential for fungal metabolic adaptation to the host environment, immune recognition, and pathogenicity. PMID:26037119

  13. Candida albicans OPI1 Regulates Filamentous Growth and Virulence in Vaginal Infections, but Not Inositol Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Lien; de Bernardis, Flavia; Yu, Shang-Jie; Sandini, Silvia; Kauffman, Sarah; Tams, Robert N.; Bethea, Emily; Reynolds, Todd B.

    2015-01-01

    ScOpi1p is a well-characterized transcriptional repressor and master regulator of inositol and phospholipid biosynthetic genes in the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An ortholog has been shown to perform a similar function in the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata, but with the distinction that CgOpi1p is essential for growth in this organism. However, in the more distantly related yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, the OPI1 homolog was not found to regulate inositol biosynthesis, but alkane oxidation. In Candida albicans, the most common cause of human candidiasis, its Opi1p homolog, CaOpi1p, has been shown to complement a S. cerevisiae opi1∆ mutant for inositol biosynthesis regulation when heterologously expressed, suggesting it might serve a similar role in this pathogen. This was tested in the pathogen directly in this report by disrupting the OPI1 homolog and examining its phenotypes. It was discovered that the OPI1 homolog does not regulate INO1 expression in C. albicans, but it does control SAP2 expression in response to bovine serum albumin containing media. Meanwhile, we found that CaOpi1 represses filamentous growth at lower temperatures (30°C) on agar, but not in liquid media. Although, the mutant does not affect virulence in a mouse model of systemic infection, it does affect virulence in a rat model of vaginitis. This may be because Opi1p regulates expression of the SAP2 protease, which is required for rat vaginal infections. PMID:25602740

  14. Cytoplasmic inositol hexakisphosphate production is sufficient for mediating the Gle1-mRNA export pathway.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aimee L; Suntharalingam, Mythili; Johnson, Sylvia L; Audhya, Anjon; Emr, Scott D; Wente, Susan R

    2004-12-03

    Production of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) by Ipk1, the inositol-1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase, is required for Gle1-mediated mRNA export in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. To examine the network of interactions that require IP6 production, an analysis of fitness defects was conducted in mutants harboring both an ipk1 null allele and a mutant allele in genes encoding nucleoporins or transport factors. Enhanced lethality was observed with a specific subset of mutants, including nup42, nup116, nup159, dbp5, and gle2, all of which had been previously connected to Gle1 function. Complementation of the nup116Deltaipk1Delta and nup42Deltaipk1Delta double mutants did not require the Phe-Gly repeat domains in the respective nucleoporins, suggesting that IP6 was acting subsequent to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein targeting to the nuclear pore complex. With Nup42 and Nup159 localized exclusively to the nuclear pore complex cytoplasmic side, we speculated that IP6 may regulate a cytoplasmic step in mRNA export. To test this prediction, the spatial requirements for the production of IP6 were investigated. Restriction of Ipk1 to the cytoplasm did not block IP6 production. Moreover, coincident sequestering of both Ipk1 and Mss4 (an enzyme required for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate production) to the cytoplasm also did not block IP6 production. Given that the kinase required for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate production (Ipk2) is localized in the nucleus, these results indicated that soluble inositides were diffusing between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Additionally, the cytoplasmic production of IP6 by plasma membrane-anchored Ipk1 rescued a gle1-2 ipk1-4 synthetic lethal mutant. Thus, cytoplasmic IP6 production is sufficient for mediating the Gle1-mRNA export pathway.

  15. Synthesis of Differentially Protected myo- and chiro-Inositols from D-Xylose; Stereoselectivity in Intramolecular SmI2-Promoted Pinacol Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Ding, Kejia

    2009-01-01

    Methods for the enantioselective conversion of D-xylose to differentially protected myo-inositol and L-chiro-inositol have been developed. The key transformation is a highly diastereoselective intramolecular SmI2-promoted pinacol coupling. The stereoselectivity was extremely dependent on the conditions, suggesting a change in mechanism. Preliminary mechanistic experiments and possible explanations for this behavior are discussed. PMID:20622936

  16. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model.

    PubMed

    Duliński, Robert; Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo- -inositol.

  17. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  18. Inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1 regulates plasma membrane ATPase (Pma1) stability in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Farnoud, Amir M; Mor, Visesato; Singh, Ashutosh; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2014-11-03

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen, which can replicate in the acidic environment inside phagolysosomes. Deletion of the enzyme inositol-phosphosphingolipid-phospholipase-C (Isc1) makes C. neoformans hypersensitive to acidic pH likely by inhibiting the function of the proton pump, plasma membrane ATPase (Pma1). In this work, we examined the role of Isc1 on Pma1 transport and oligomerization. Our studies showed that Isc1 deletion did not affect Pma1 synthesis or transport, but significantly inhibited Pma1 oligomerization. Interestingly, Pma1 oligomerization could be restored by supplementing the medium with phytoceramide. These results offer insight into the mechanism of intracellular survival of C. neoformans.

  19. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) in transcriptional regulation and nuclear inositide metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Malabanan, M. Merced; Blind, Raymond D.

    2017-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK, ipk2, Arg82, ArgRIII) is an inositide kinase with unusually flexible substrate specificity and the capacity to partake in many functional protein–protein interactions (PPIs). By merging these two activities, IPMK is able to execute gene regulatory functions that are very unique and only now beginning to be recognized. In this short review, we present a brief history of IPMK, describe the structural biology of the enzyme and highlight a few recent discoveries that have shed more light on the role IPMK plays in inositide metabolism, nuclear signalling and transcriptional regulation. PMID:26862216

  20. The role of the inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases in cellular function and human disease.

    PubMed

    Ooms, Lisa M; Horan, Kristy A; Rahman, Parvin; Seaton, Gillian; Gurung, Rajendra; Kethesparan, Dharini S; Mitchell, Christina A

    2009-04-01

    Phosphoinositides are membrane-bound signalling molecules that regulate cell proliferation and survival, cytoskeletal reorganization and vesicular trafficking by recruiting effector proteins to cellular membranes. Growth factor or insulin stimulation induces a canonical cascade resulting in the transient phosphorylation of PtdIns(4,5)P(2) by PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) to form PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), which is rapidly dephosphorylated either by PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10) back to PtdIns(4,5)P(2), or by the 5-ptases (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases), generating PtdIns(3,4)P(2). The 5-ptases also hydrolyse PtdIns(4,5)P(2), forming PtdIns4P. Ten mammalian 5-ptases have been identified, which share a catalytic mechanism similar to that of the apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases. Gene-targeted deletion of 5-ptases in mice has revealed that these enzymes regulate haemopoietic cell proliferation, synaptic vesicle recycling, insulin signalling, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking and actin polymerization. Several studies have revealed that the molecular basis of Lowe's syndrome is due to mutations in the 5-ptase OCRL (oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe). Futhermore, the 5-ptases SHIP [SH2 (Src homology 2)-domain-containing inositol phosphatase] 2, SKIP (skeletal muscle- and kidney-enriched inositol phosphatase) and 72-5ptase (72 kDa 5-ptase)/Type IV/Inpp5e (inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E) are implicated in negatively regulating insulin signalling and glucose homoeostasis in specific tissues. SHIP2 polymorphisms are associated with a predisposition to insulin resistance. Gene profiling studies have identified changes in the expression of various 5-ptases in specific cancers. In addition, 5-ptases such as SHIP1, SHIP2 and 72-5ptase/Type IV/Inpp5e regulate macrophage phagocytosis, and SHIP1 also controls haemopoietic cell proliferation. Therefore the 5-ptases are a significant family of signal-modulating enzymes that govern a

  1. [Activity of the inositol-containing phospholipid dimer analogues against human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Baranova, E O; Shastina, N S; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Nosik, D N; Shvets, V I

    2014-01-01

    For the purpose of finding effective inhibitors of virus adsorption the series of inositol-containing phospholipid dimer analogues were previously synthesized. In the present work, the antiretroviral activity of these compounds against HIV-1 was demonstrated on the model of cells infected with the virus. The highest effect was found in the case of dimer poliol 5, EC50 (50%-effective concentration) was 3.9 microg/ml. The development of new polyanionic compounds, which can interfere with early steps of the virus life cycle, is a promising addition to the antiretroviral therapy based on the virus enzyme inhibitors.

  2. Labeling Cell Surface GPIs and GPI-Anchored Proteins through Metabolic Engineering with Artificial Inositol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lili; Gao, Jian; Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-08-10

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of proteins to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. An effective strategy was developed for the metabolic engineering of cell-surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins were then tagged with biotin on live cells through a click reaction, which allows further elaboration with streptavidin-conjugated dyes or other molecules. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies.

  3. Biochemical characterization of fungal phytases (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate phosphohydrolases): catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Wyss, M; Brugger, R; Kronenberger, A; Rémy, R; Fimbel, R; Oesterhelt, G; Lehmann, M; van Loon, A P

    1999-02-01

    Supplementation with phytase is an effective way to increase the availability of phosphorus in seed-based animal feed. The biochemical characteristics of an ideal phytase for this application are still largely unknown. To extend the biochemical characterization of wild-type phytases, the catalytic properties of a series of fungal phytases, as well as Escherichia coli phytase, were determined. The specific activities of the fungal phytases at 37 degreesC ranged from 23 to 196 U. (mg of protein)-1, and the pH optima ranged from 2.5 to 7.0. When excess phytase was used, all of the phytases were able to release five phosphate groups of phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate), which left myo-inositol 2-monophosphate as the end product. A combination consisting of a phytase and Aspergillus niger pH 2.5 acid phosphatase was able to liberate all six phosphate groups. When substrate specificity was examined, the A. niger, Aspergillus terreus, and E. coli phytases were rather specific for phytic acid. On the other hand, the Aspergillus fumigatus, Emericella nidulans, and Myceliophthora thermophila phytases exhibited considerable activity with a broad range of phosphate compounds, including phenyl phosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, sugar phosphates, alpha- and beta-glycerophosphates, phosphoenolpyruvate, 3-phosphoglycerate, ADP, and ATP. Both phosphate liberation kinetics and a time course experiment in which high-performance liquid chromatography separation of the degradation intermediates was used showed that all of the myo-inositol phosphates from the hexakisphosphate to the bisphosphate were efficiently cleaved by A. fumigatus phytase. In contrast, phosphate liberation by A. niger or A. terreus phytase decreased with incubation time, and the myo-inositol tris- and bisphosphates accumulated, suggesting that these compounds are worse substrates than phytic acid is. To test whether broad substrate specificity may be advantageous for feed application, phosphate

  4. Metabolic Studies on Intermediates in the myo-Inositol Oxidation Pathway in Lilium longiflorum Pollen: I. Conversion to Hexoses.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, C L; Fann, C; Loewus, F A

    1978-01-01

    The myo-inositol oxidation pathway was investigated in regard to its role as a source of carbon for products of hexose monophosphate metabolism in germinated pollen of Lilium longiflorum Thunb., cv. Ace. myo-[2-(14)]Inositol and d-[1-(14)C]glucuronate had similar distributions of radioactivity, contributing about three times more label to polysaccharide-bound glucose than myo-[2-(3)H]inositol. In the course of glucogenesis label from the latter appeared as tritiated water in the medium. This exchange could be enhanced by supplying d-[5R,5S-(3)H]xylose instead of myo-[2-(3)H]inositol. When the former was administered, [(3)H]glucose was the only labeled sugar residue found in polysaccharide products. The soluble constituents of d-[5R,5S-(3)H]xylose-labeled pollen contained no traces of labeled xylose despite massive uptake and utilization.l-[1-(14)C]- and l-[5-(14)C]Arabinose produced similar labeling patterns in germinated pollen including incorporation of arabinosyl units into pollen tube polysaccharides and substantial glucogenesis which led to utilization of arabinose for respiration and further incorporation of labeled glucosyl units into pollen tube polysaccharides.d-[5-(3)H]Galacturonate was rapidly taken up by germinated pollen but slowly utilized, without conversion to other sugars, for incorporation into pollen tube polysaccharides. l-[6-(14)C]Gulonate was not taken up by pollen.Results strongly support a scheme of conversion from myo-inositol to hexose monophosphate and subsequent products of glucose metabolism that involves the myo-inositol oxidation pathway.

  5. Rv2131c gene product: An unconventional enzyme that is both inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Gu Xiaoling; Chen Mao; Shen Hongbo; Jiang Xin; Huang Yishu; Wang Honghai . E-mail: hhwang@fudan.edu.cn

    2006-01-20

    Inositol monophosphatase is an enzyme in the biosynthesis of myo-inostiol, a crucial substrate for the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol, which has been demonstrated to be an essential component of mycobacteria. In this study, the Rv2131c gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was cloned into the pET28a vector and the recombinant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain, allowing the expression of the enzyme in fusion with a histidine-rich peptide on the N-terminal. The fusion protein was purified from the soluble fraction of the lysed cells under native conditions by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC). The purified Rv2131c gene product showed inositol monophosphatase activity but with substrate specificity that was broader than those of several bacterial and eukaryotic inositol monophosphatases, and it also acted as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. The dimeric enzyme exhibited dual activities of IMPase and FBPase, with K {sub m} of 0.22 {+-} 0.03 mM for inositol-1-phosphate and K {sub m} of 0.45 {+-} 0.05 mM for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. To better understand the relationship between the function and structure of the Rv2131c enzyme, we constructed D40N, L71A, and D94N mutants and purified these corresponding proteins. Mutations of D40N and D94N caused the proteins to almost completely lose both the inositol monophosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activities. However, L71A mutant did not cause loss either of the activities, but the activity toward the inositol was 12-fold more resistant to inhibition by lithium (IC{sub 5} {approx} 60 mM). Based on the substrate specificity and presence of conserved sequence motifs of the M. tuberculosis Rv2131c, we proposed that the enzyme belonged to class IV fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase IV)

  6. Lipophosphonoglycan of the plasma membrane of A canthamoeba castellanii. Inositol and phytosphingosine content and general structural features.

    PubMed

    Dearborn, D G; Smith, S; Korn, E D

    1976-05-25

    Lipophosphonoglycan, a major component of the plasma membrane of Acanthamoeba castellanii, has now been shown to contain 8% inositol and 13% C25- and C24-phytosphingosines in addition to the previously identified content of neutral sugars (26%), amino sugars (3%), aminophosphonates (10%), acidhydrolyzable phosphate (3%), and long chain fatty acids (14%). The fatty acids and phytosphingosines are in ceramide groups. Lipophosphonoglycan can be separated by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis into two major components that are similar in composition except for different oligosaccharide groups. A tentative structural model incorporating these features is proposed in which each of the two components of lipophosphonoglycan is conceived as an oligomeric inositol-containing glycosphingolipid.

  7. Characterization of myo-inositol utilization by Corynebacterium glutamicum: the stimulon, identification of transporters, and influence on L-lysine formation.

    PubMed

    Krings, Eva; Krumbach, Karin; Bathe, Brigitte; Kelle, Ralf; Wendisch, Volker F; Sahm, Hermann; Eggeling, Lothar

    2006-12-01

    Although numerous bacteria possess genes annotated iol in their genomes, there have been very few studies on the possibly associated myo-inositol metabolism and its significance for the cell. We found that Corynebacterium glutamicum utilizes myo-inositol as a carbon and energy source, enabling proliferation with a high maximum rate of 0.35 h-1. Whole-genome DNA microarray analysis revealed that 31 genes respond to myo-inositol utilization, with 21 of them being localized in two clusters of >14 kb. A set of genomic mutations and functional studies yielded the result that some genes in the two clusters are redundant, and only cluster I is necessary for catabolizing the polyol. There are three genes which encode carriers belonging to the major facilitator superfamily and which exhibit a >12-fold increased mRNA level on myo-inositol. As revealed by mutant characterizations, one carrier is not involved in myo-inositol uptake whereas the other two are active and can completely replace each other with apparent Kms for myo-inositol as a substrate of 0.20 mM and 0.45 mM, respectively. Interestingly, upon utilization of myo-inositol, the L-lysine yield is 0.10 mol/mol, as opposed to 0.30 mol/mol, with glucose as the substrate. This is probably not only due to myo-inositol metabolism alone since a mixture of 187 mM glucose and 17 mM myo-inositol, where the polyol only contributes 8% of the total carbon, reduced the L-lysine yield by 29%. Moreover, genome comparisons with other bacteria highlight the core genes required for growth on myo-inositol, whose metabolism is still weakly defined.

  8. Determination of myo-inositol (free and bound as phosphatidylinositol) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by liquid chromatography/pulsed amperometry with column switching: first action 2011.18.

    PubMed

    Schimpf, Karen; Thompson, Linda; Baugh, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Myo-inositol is a 6-carbon cyclic polyalcohol also known as meso-inositol, meat sugar, inosite, and i-inositol. It occurs in nature in both free (myo-inositol) and bound (inositol phosphates and phosphatidylinositol) forms. For the determination of free myo-inositol, samples are mixed with dilute hydrochloric acid to extract myo-inositol and precipitate proteins, diluted with water, and filtered. For the determination of myo-inositol bound as phosphatidylinositol, samples are extracted with chloroform, isolated from other fats with silica SPE cartridges, and hydrolyzed with concentrated acid to free myo-inositol. Prepared samples are first injected onto a Dionex CarboPac PA1 column, which separates myo-inositol from other late-eluting carbohydrates. After column switching, myo-inositol is further separated on a CarboPac MA1 column using a 0.12% sodium hydroxide mobile phase; strongly retained carbohydrates are eluted from the PA1 column with a 3% sodium hydroxide mobile phase. Eluant from the CarboPac MA1 analytical column passes through an electrochemical detector cell where myo-inositol is detected by pulsed amperometry using a gold electrode. The method showed appropriate performance characteristics versus selected established standard method performance requirement parameters for the determination of myo-inositol: linear response; repeatability (RSDr) of 2%; and intermediate precision (RSDir) of 2.5%. Instrument LOD and LOQ were 0.0004 and 0.0013 mg/100 mL, respectively, and correspond to a free myo-inositol quantitation limit of 0.026 mg/100 g and a phosphatidylinositol quantitation limit of 0.016 mg/100 g. Correlation with the reference microbiological assay was good. The proposed method has been accepted by the Expert Review Panel as an AOAC First Action Method, suitable for the routine determination of myo-inositol in infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  9. Production of partially phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates using phytases immobilised on magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf; Konietzny, Ursula; Blackburn, Daniel Menezes; Jorquera, Milko A

    2013-08-01

    Phytases of different origin were covalently bound onto Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (12 nm). Binding efficiencies of all three phytases were well above 70% relative to the number of aldehyde groups available on the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles. Temperature stability for all three phytases was enhanced as a consequence of immobilisation, whereas pH dependence of enzyme activity was not affected. Maximum catalytic activity of the immobilised phytases was found at 60°C (rye), 65°C (Aspergillus niger) and 70°C (Escherichia albertii). The immobilised enzymes exhibited the same excellent substrate specificities and unique myo-inositol phosphate phosphatase activities as their soluble counterparts. However, the catalytic turnover number dropped drastically for the immobilised phytases. The amount of the desired partially phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphate isomer could be easily controlled by the contact time of substrate solution and immobilised enzymes. The immobilised phytases showed a high operational stability by retaining almost full activity even after fifty uses.

  10. Brevis plant1, a putative inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, is required for internode elongation in maize.

    PubMed

    Avila, Luis M; Cerrudo, Diego; Swanton, Clarence; Lukens, Lewis

    2016-03-01

    In maize (Zea mays L.), as in other grass species, stem elongation occurs during growth and most noticeably upon the transition to flowering. Genes that reduce stem elongation have been important to reduce stem breakage, or lodging. Stem elongation has been mediated by dwarf and brachytic/brevis plant mutants that affect giberellic acid and auxin pathways, respectively. Maize brevis plant1 (bv1) mutants, first identified over 80 years ago, strongly resemble brachytic2 mutants that have shortened internodes, short internode cells, and are deficient in auxin transport. Here, we characterized two novel bv1 maize mutants. We found that an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase orthologue of the rice gene dwarf50 was the molecular basis for the bv1 phenotype, implicating auxin-mediated inositol polyphosphate and/or phosphoinositide signalling in stem elongation. We suggest that auxin-mediated internode elongation involves processes that also contribute to stem gravitropism. Genes misregulated in bv1 mutants included genes important for cell wall synthesis, transmembrane transport, and cytoskeletal function. Mutant and wild-type plants were indistinguishable early in development, responded similarly to changes in light quality, had unaltered flowering times, and had normal flower development. These attributes suggest that breeding could utilize bv1 alleles to increase crop grain yields.

  11. Microtubule-Mediated Inositol Lipid Signaling Plays Critical Roles in Regulation of Blebbing.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Tatsuroh; Pramanik, Md Kamruzzaman; Yumura, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells migrate by extending pseudopods such as lamellipodia and blebs. Although the signals leading to lamellipodia extension have been extensively investigated, those for bleb extension remain unclear. Here, we investigated signals for blebbing in Dictyostelium cells using a newly developed assay to induce blebbing. When cells were cut into two pieces with a microneedle, the anucleate fragments vigorously extended blebs. This assay enabled us to induce blebbing reproducibly, and analyses of knockout mutants and specific inhibitors identified candidate molecules that regulate blebbing. Blebs were also induced in anucleate fragments of leukocytes, indicating that this assay is generally applicable to animal cells. After cutting, microtubules in the anucleate fragments promptly depolymerized, followed by the extension of blebs. Furthermore, when intact cells were treated with a microtubule inhibitor, they frequently extended blebs. The depolymerization of microtubules induced the delocalization of inositol lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate from the cell membrane. PI3 kinase-null cells frequently extended blebs, whereas PTEN-null cells extended fewer blebs. From these observations, we propose a model in which microtubules play a critical role in bleb regulation via inositol lipid metabolism.

  12. Kinetic crystallization separation process of the inositol isomers by controlling metastable zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konuki, Kaname; Hirasawa, Izumi

    2013-06-01

    D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is prepared by the immobilized enzyme reaction which uses myo-inositol (MI) as the substrate and the conversion rate is about 13%. The aim of this study was to develop a separation method for high purity DCI crystals from a reaction solution including low purity DCI only by the crystallization process. We succeeded in separating DCI crystals of 96% purity by water cooling crystallization, but it was presumed that scale-up was difficult. Although we tried anti-solvent crystallization similar to water cooling crystallization, high purity DCI crystals were not obtained. Therefore, we proposed the crystallization separation process by controlling metastable zones. The purity of a desired compound is controlled by this process, because solid-liquid separation is achieved before crystallization of compound in metastable zone. By the crystallization using this method, the DCI crystals of 97% purity were obtained. Although the yield per batch is about 50%, the actual yield is improved as the last mother liquor returns into the process of the following batch. When this process was repeated, the purity and the yield of DCI were reproduced and the robustness of this process was proved. It is expected that scale-up of this process will be successful, and this purification method could be applicable to similar systems such as separation of isomers and analogs.

  13. Sac2/INPP5F is an inositol 4-phosphatase that functions in the endocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Fubito; Messa, Mirko; Nández, Ramiro; Czapla, Heather; Zou, Yixiao; Strittmatter, Stephen M; De Camilli, Pietro

    2015-04-13

    The recruitment of inositol phosphatases to endocytic membranes mediates dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a phosphoinositide concentrated in the plasma membrane, and prevents its accumulation on endosomes. The importance of the conversion of PI(4,5)P2 to PtdIns during endocytosis is demonstrated by the presence of both a 5-phosphatase and a 4-phosphatase (Sac domain) module in the synaptojanins, endocytic PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases conserved from yeast to humans and the only PI(4,5)P2 phosphatases in yeast. OCRL, another 5-phosphatase that couples endocytosis to PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation, lacks a Sac domain. Here we show that Sac2/INPP5F is a PI4P phosphatase that colocalizes with OCRL on endocytic membranes, including vesicles formed by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, macropinosomes, and Rab5 endosomes. An OCRL-Sac2/INPP5F interaction could be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and was potentiated by Rab5, whose activity is required to recruit Sac2/INPP5F to endosomes. Sac2/INPP5F and OCRL may cooperate in the sequential dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2 at the 5 and 4 position of inositol in a partnership that mimics that of the two phosphatase modules of synaptojanin.

  14. Cyclic AMP restores a normal phenotype to sis oncogene transformed cells and inhibits inositol phospholipid turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, S.K.; Lazarus, A.; Pendergas, M.; Lockwood, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The sis oncogene encodes the A chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with the cloned sis oncogene display a malignant phenotype and have enhanced turnover of the regulatory phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate (PIP2). They have found that elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP can restore many aspects of normal growth and morphology to sis-transformed cells. Cells rapidly become less refractile, flatten on the substratum, develop actomyosin bundles, and acquire a more tranquil membrane. Growth rate and saturation density are reduced. Cultures become contact-inhibited and, at confluence, assume a normal fibrobastic morphology. The ability to grow in low serum or suspension is lost. Following addition of 8-Br-cAMP, cellular levels of PIP and PIP2 increase to those in untransformed cells. Concurrently, the steady-state levels of inositol phosphates are reduced to normal values. They have found a similar effect of cAMP on inositol phospholipid metabolism in cells transformed by the human H-ras oncogene. These results suggest that cAMP, acting through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, antagonizes ras and sis oncogene expression by inhibiting polyphosphoinositide turnover. Such action might occur by phosphorylation of the PDGF (sis) receptor or of a ras-stimulated phospholipase C.

  15. INOSITOL HEXAKISPHOSPHATE MEDIATES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST ADENOCARCINOMA MCF-7 CELL LINE VIA INTRINSIC PATHWAY

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-12

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsP{sub s}) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP{sub 6}) is the most abundant among all InsP{sub s} and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsP{sub s} also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsP{sub s} have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP{sub 6} dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsP{sub s} tested (InsP{sub 3}, InsP{sub 4}, InsP{sub 5}, and InsP{sub 6}), InsP{sub 6} was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP{sub 6} were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP{sub 6} induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  16. D-chiro-inositol glycan stimulates insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells.

    PubMed

    Lazarenko, Roman; Geisler, Jessica; Bayliss, Douglas; Larner, Joseph; Li, Chien

    2014-04-25

    Insulin has been shown to act on pancreatic β cells to regulate its own secretion. Currently the mechanism underlying this effect is unclear. INS-2, a novel inositol glycan pseudo-disaccharide containing D-chiro-inositol and galactosamine, has been shown to function as an insulin mimetic and a putative insulin mediator. In the present study we found that INS-2 stimulates insulin secretion in MIN6 β cells and potentiates glucose stimulated insulin secretion in isolated mouse islets. Importantly, INS-2 failed to potentiate insulin secretion induced by tolbutamide, which stimulates insulin release by closing ATP sensitive potassium channels (KATP). Electrophysiological studies showed that INS-2 inhibited sulfonylurea-sensitive KATP conductance. The effect of INS-2 on inhibiting KATP channel is mediated by protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), as knocking down PP2C expression in MIN6 cells by PP2C small hairpin RNA completely abolished the effect of INS-2 on KATP and consequently attenuated INS-2 induced insulin secretion. In conclusion, the present study identifies a novel mechanism involving PP2C in regulating KATP channel activity and consequently insulin secretion.

  17. Microtubule-Mediated Inositol Lipid Signaling Plays Critical Roles in Regulation of Blebbing

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Tatsuroh; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Yumura, Shigehiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells migrate by extending pseudopods such as lamellipodia and blebs. Although the signals leading to lamellipodia extension have been extensively investigated, those for bleb extension remain unclear. Here, we investigated signals for blebbing in Dictyostelium cells using a newly developed assay to induce blebbing. When cells were cut into two pieces with a microneedle, the anucleate fragments vigorously extended blebs. This assay enabled us to induce blebbing reproducibly, and analyses of knockout mutants and specific inhibitors identified candidate molecules that regulate blebbing. Blebs were also induced in anucleate fragments of leukocytes, indicating that this assay is generally applicable to animal cells. After cutting, microtubules in the anucleate fragments promptly depolymerized, followed by the extension of blebs. Furthermore, when intact cells were treated with a microtubule inhibitor, they frequently extended blebs. The depolymerization of microtubules induced the delocalization of inositol lipid phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate from the cell membrane. PI3 kinase-null cells frequently extended blebs, whereas PTEN-null cells extended fewer blebs. From these observations, we propose a model in which microtubules play a critical role in bleb regulation via inositol lipid metabolism. PMID:26317626

  18. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Mediates Apoptosis in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma MCF-7 Cell Line via Intrinsic Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Rakhee; Ali, Nawab

    2010-04-01

    Inositol polyphosphates (InsPs) are naturally occurring compounds ubiquitously present in plants and animals. Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) is the most abundant among all InsPs and constitutes the major portion of dietary fiber in most cereals, legumes and nuts. Certain derivatives of InsPs also regulate cellular signaling mechanisms. InsPs have also been shown to reduce tumor formation and induce apoptosis in cancerous cells. Therefore, in this study, the effects of InsPs on apoptosis were studied in an attempt to investigate their potential anti-cancer therapeutic application and understand their mechanism of action. Acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining suggested that InsP6 dose dependently induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells. Among InsPs tested (InsP3, InsP4, InsP5, and InsP6), InsP6 was found to be the most effective in inducing apoptosis. Furthermore, effects of InsP6 were found most potent inducing apoptosis. Etoposide, the drug known to induce apoptosis in both in vivo and in vitro, was used as a positive control. Western blotting experiments using specific antibodies against known apoptotic markers suggested that InsP6 induced apoptotic changes were mediated via an intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  19. Brevis plant1, a putative inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, is required for internode elongation in maize

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Luis M.; Cerrudo, Diego; Swanton, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    In maize (Zea mays L.), as in other grass species, stem elongation occurs during growth and most noticeably upon the transition to flowering. Genes that reduce stem elongation have been important to reduce stem breakage, or lodging. Stem elongation has been mediated by dwarf and brachytic/brevis plant mutants that affect giberellic acid and auxin pathways, respectively. Maize brevis plant1 (bv1) mutants, first identified over 80 years ago, strongly resemble brachytic2 mutants that have shortened internodes, short internode cells, and are deficient in auxin transport. Here, we characterized two novel bv1 maize mutants. We found that an inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase orthologue of the rice gene dwarf50 was the molecular basis for the bv1 phenotype, implicating auxin-mediated inositol polyphosphate and/or phosphoinositide signalling in stem elongation. We suggest that auxin-mediated internode elongation involves processes that also contribute to stem gravitropism. Genes misregulated in bv1 mutants included genes important for cell wall synthesis, transmembrane transport, and cytoskeletal function. Mutant and wild-type plants were indistinguishable early in development, responded similarly to changes in light quality, had unaltered flowering times, and had normal flower development. These attributes suggest that breeding could utilize bv1 alleles to increase crop grain yields. PMID:26767748

  20. Crystal structures of Bacillus alkaline phytase in complex with divalent metal ions and inositol hexasulfate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yi-Fang; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Lai, Hui-Lin; Cheng, Ya-Shan; Wu, Tzu-Hui; Ma, Yanhe; Chen, Chun-Chi; Yang, Chii-Shen; Cheng, Kuo-Joan; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Guo, Rey-Ting; Liu, Je-Ruei

    2011-06-03

    Alkaline phytases from Bacillus species, which hydrolyze phytate to less phosphorylated myo-inositols and inorganic phosphate, have great potential as additives to animal feed. The thermostability and neutral optimum pH of Bacillus phytase are attributed largely to the presence of calcium ions. Nonetheless, no report has demonstrated directly how the metal ions coordinate phytase and its substrate to facilitate the catalytic reaction. In this study, the interactions between a phytate analog (myo-inositol hexasulfate) and divalent metal ions in Bacillus subtilis phytase were revealed by the crystal structure at 1.25 Å resolution. We found all, except the first, sulfates on the substrate analog have direct or indirect interactions with amino acid residues in the enzyme active site. The structures also unraveled two active site-associated metal ions that were not explored in earlier studies. Significantly, one metal ion could be crucial to substrate binding. In addition, binding of the fourth sulfate of the substrate analog to the active site appears to be stronger than that of the others. These results indicate that alkaline phytase starts by cleaving the fourth phosphate, instead of the third or the sixth that were proposed earlier. Our high-resolution, structural representation of Bacillus phytase in complex with a substrate analog and divalent metal ions provides new insight into the catalytic mechanism of alkaline phytases in general.

  1. Potentiometric and spectroscopic study of the interaction of 3d transition metal ions with inositol hexakisphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, Nicolás; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos; Torres, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Among myo-inositol phosphates, the most abundant in nature is the myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6. Although it is known to be vital to cell functioning, the biochemical research into its metabolism needs chemical and structural analysis of all the protonation, complexation and precipitation processes that it undergoes in the biological media. In view of its high negative charge at physiological level, our group has been leading a thorough research into the InsP6 chemical and structural behavior in the presence of the alkali and alkaline earth metal ions essential for life. The aim of this article is to extend these studies, dealing with the chemical and structural features of the InsP6 interaction with biologically relevant 3d transition metal ions (Fe(II), Fe(III), Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)), in a non-interacting medium and under simulated physiological conditions. The metal-complex stability constants were determined by potentiometry, showing under ligand-excess conditions the formation of mononuclear species in different protonation states. Under metal ion excess, polymetallic species were detected for Fe(II), Fe(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II). Additionally, the 31P NMR and UV-vis spectroscopic studies provided interesting structural aspects of the strong metal ion-InsP6 interaction.

  2. Analysis of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase: indication of a novel reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kerovuo, J; Rouvinen, J; Hatzack, F

    2000-12-15

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP(6)) hydrolysis by Bacillus phytase (PhyC) was studied. The enzyme hydrolyses only three phosphates from phytic acid. Moreover, the enzyme seems to prefer the hydrolysis of every second phosphate over that of adjacent ones. Furthermore, it is very likely that the enzyme has two alternative pathways for the hydrolysis of phytic acid, resulting in two different myo-inositol trisphosphate end products: Ins(2,4,6)P(3) and Ins(1,3,5)P(3). These results, together with inhibition studies with fluoride, vanadate, substrate and a substrate analogue, indicate a reaction mechanism different from that of other phytases. By combining the data presented in this study with (1) structural information obtained from the crystal structure of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens phytase [Ha, Oh, Shin, Kim, Oh, Kim, Choi and Oh (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol. 7, 147-153], and (2) computer-modelling analyses of enzyme-substrate complexes, a novel mode of phytic acid hydrolysis is proposed.

  3. Myo-Inositol in the Treatment of Teenagers Affected by PCOS

    PubMed Central

    Barbakadze, Ludmila; Kvashilava, Nana

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MI) and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in monotherapy and MI in combination with OCPs in the treatment of teenagers affected by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Methods. 61 adolescent girls aged 13–19 years, with PCOS, were involved in the prospective, open-label study. Patients were randomized into three groups: I group, 20 patients receiving drospirenone 3 mg/ethinyl estradiol 30 μg; II group, 20 patients receiving 4 g myo-inositol plus 400 mg folic acid; III group, 21 patients receiving both medications. Results. After receiving MI significant reduction in weight, BMI, glucose, C-peptide, insulin, HOMA-IR, FT, and LH was detected. The levels of SHBG, TT, FAI, DHEA-S, and AMH did not change statistically significantly. After receiving OCPs weight and BMI slightly increased, but metabolic parameters did not change. Combination of MI and OCPs did not change weight and BMI, but reduction in C-peptide, insulin, and HOMA-IR was detected. TT, FT, FAI, DHEA-S, LH, and AMH levels decreased and SHBG increased. Conclusions. Administration of MI is a safe and effective method to prevent and correct metabolic disorders in teenagers affected by PCOS. With combination of MI and OCPs antiandrogenic effects are enhanced, negative impact of OCPs on weight gain is balanced, and metabolic profile is improved. PMID:27635134

  4. Neurotransmitter agonists inhibit inositol phosphate formation in the brain of bupropione-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, P.D.; Hungund, B.; Suckow, R.; Barkai, A.I.

    1986-03-05

    Bupropione is a chemically unique antidepressant whose mechanism of action is not known. In this study they have evaluated the effect of chronic treatment with bupropione on the receptor-mediated release of inositol phosphates (IP) from brain slices in rats. Animals were implanted with Alzet osmotic pumps that delivered bupropione at a constant rate (40mg/kg/day) for 2 weeks. Cross-chopped slices of cerebral cortex from control and drug-treated rats were prelabelled with myo-/sup 3/H-inositol in HEPES buffer containing 11 mM LiCl. Accumulation of IP was measured in the presence and absence of the following agonists: Carbamylcholine (100..mu..m); norepinephrine (5..mu..M) and serotonin (10..mu..M). All agonists stimulated release of IP from slices of control animals but appeared to inhibit IP release in bupropione-treated rats. These results indicate that a phospholipase C inhibitor may appear following the activation of this enzyme by the agonist, and that the agonist-induced formation of the apparent inhibitor may be markedly enhanced after treatment with bupropione.

  5. Inositol lipids: from an archaeal origin to phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate faults in human disease.

    PubMed

    Michell, Robert H

    2013-12-01

    The last couple of decades have seen an extraordinary transformation in our knowledge and understanding of the multifarious biological roles of inositol phospholipids. Herein, I briefly consider two topics. The first is the role that recently acquired biochemical and genomic information - especially from archaeons - has played in illuminating the possible evolutionary origins of the biological employment of inositol in lipids, and some questions that these studies raise about the 'classical' biosynthetic route to phosphatidylinositol. The second is the growing recognition of the importance in eukaryotic cells of phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate. Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate only entered our phosphoinositide consciousness quite recently, but it is speedily gathering a plethora of roles in diverse cellular processes and diseases thereof. These include: control of endolysosomal vesicular trafficking and of the activity of ion channels and pumps in the endolysosomal compartment; control of constitutive and stimulated protein traffic to and from plasma membrane subdomains; control of the nutrient and stress-sensing target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway (TORC1); and regulation of key genes in some central metabolic pathways.

  6. Masses of inositol phosphates in resting and tetanically stimulated vertebrate skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Mayr, G W; Thieleczek, R

    1991-12-15

    The masses of inositol phosphates have been determined in isolated skeletal muscles from Xenopus laevis (sartorius, tibialis anterior and iliofibularis) and rat (gastrocnemius and soleus) which were quick-frozen in the resting state and at different stages of an isometric (Xenopus) or isotonic (rat) tetanus. The isomeric spectrum of inositol phosphates detected was similar to that in other tissues and cell types. The total sarcoplasmic concentrations of the isomers Ins-(1,4,5,6)P4/Ins(3,4,5,6)P4 (0.2-0.9 microM), Ins(1,3,4,6)P4 (not detectable), Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 (about 1 microM) and InsP6 (3.2-4.6 microM) were lower than in other cell types. Variations in these concentrations were due to the muscle type rather than to the donor species. The putative second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3, as well as its dephosphorylation product Ins(1,4)P2, were present at surprisingly high total myoplasmic resting concentrations, ranging from 1.2 to 2.5 microM and 3.5 to 6.9 microM respectively. Upon tetanic stimulation these two inositol phosphates in particular exhibited significantly increased total sarcoplasmic concentrations, up to 4.2 microM and 11.3 microM respectively, with a time scale of seconds. From the initial rate of increase in the total sarcoplasmic concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3 and its rapidly formed metabolic products, a minimal phosphoinositidase C (PIC) activity in tetanically activated Xenopus skeletal muscle of about 1.7-2.6 microM/s can be estimated. This PIC activity observed in vivo seems to be far too low to account for a functional role for Ins(1,4,5)P3 as a chemical transmitter in the fast excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) process in skeletal muscle. The presence of Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in all muscle types is indicative of a Ca(2+)-activated Ins(1,4,5)P3 3-kinase activity. The rapid transient increases in Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3)P2 in isometrically contracting Xenopus muscles suggest that corresponding Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 phosphatases are operating in skeletal muscle

  7. Quantification of myo-inositol, 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol, and D-chiro-inositol using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection in very small volume clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Karen J.; Meek, Claudia C.; Leff, Richard D.; Phelps, Dale L.; Schmitz, Daniel J.; Cordle, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol is a six-carbon sugar alcohol and is one of nine biologically significant isomers of hexahydroxycyclohexane. Myo-inositol is the primary biologically active form and is present in higher concentrations in the fetus and newborn than in adults. It is currently being examined for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity in newborn preterm infants. A robust method for quantifying myo-inositol (MI), D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and 1,5-anhydro-D-sorbitol (ADS) in very small-volume (25 μL) urine, blood serum and/or plasma samples was developed. Using a multiple-column, multiple mobile phase liquid chromatographic system with electrochemical detection, the method was validated with respect to (a) selectivity, (b) accuracy/recovery, (c) precision/reproducibility, (d) sensitivity, (e) stability and (f) ruggedness. The standard curve was linear and ranged from 0.5 to 30 mg/L for each of the three analytes. Above-mentioned performance measures were within acceptable limits described in the Food and Drug Administration’s Guidance for Industry: Bioanalytical Method Validation. The method was validated using blood serum and plasma collected using four common anticoagulants, and also by quantifying the accuracy and sensitivity of MI measured in simulated urine samples recovered from preterm infant diaper systems. The method performs satisfactorily measuring the three most common inositol isomers on 25 μL clinical samples of serum, plasma milk, and/or urine. Similar performance is seen testing larger volume samples of infant formulas and infant formula ingredients. MI, ADS and DCI may be accurately tested in urine samples collected from five different preterm infant diapers if the urine volume is greater than 2–5 mL. PMID:26010453

  8. Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA Damage Response and Diseases.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Kaushlendra

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Ceramides are generally produced through the sphingomyelin hydrolysis and catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (SMase) in mammals. Presently, there are many known SMases and they are categorized into three groups acid SMases (aSMases), alkaline SMases (alk-SMASES), and neutral SMases (nSMases). The yeast homolog of mammalians neutral SMases is inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C. Yeasts generally have inositol phosphosphingolipids instead of sphingomyelin, which may act as a homolog of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we shall explain the structure and function of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1, its localization inside the cells, mechanisms, and its roles in various cell responses during replication stresses and diseases. This review will also give a new basis for our understanding for the mechanisms and nature of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1/nSMase.

  9. Identification and Quantitation of Various Inositols and O-methylinositols Present in Plant Roots Using Gas Chromatograpghy/Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many inositols and O-methylinositols serve important roles in medicine and plant biology. A simple method was developed for the identification of these compounds in plant roots by extracting with 80% ethanol, derivatizing with trimethylsilyl imidazole, and analyzing by gas chromatography/mass spect...

  10. Functional myo-inositol catabolic genes of Bacillus subtilis Natto are involved in depletion of pinitol in Natto (fermented soybean).

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Tetsuro; Yamaguchi, Masanori; Makino, Yuki; Nanamiya, Hideaki; Takahashi, Kiwamu; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Kawamura, Fujio; Ashida, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2006-08-01

    Soybeans are rich in pinitol (PI; 3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol), which improves health by treating conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as diabetes mellitus and obesity. Natto is a food made from soybeans fermented by strains of Bacillus subtilis natto. In the chromosome of natto strain OK2, there is a putative promoter region almost identical to the iol promoter for myo-inositol (MI) catabolic genes of B. subtilis 168. In the presence of MI, the putative iol promoter functioned to induce inositol dehydrogenase, the enzyme for the first-step reaction in the MI catabolic pathway. PI also induced inositol dehydrogenase and the promoter was indispensable for the utilization of PI as well as MI, suggesting that PI might be an alternative carbon source metabolized in a way involving the MI catabolic genes. Natto fermentation studies have revealed that the parental natto strain consumed PI while a mutant defective in the iol promoter did not do so at all. These results suggest that inactivating the MI catabolic genes might prevent PI consumption, retaining it in natto for enrichment of possible health-promoting properties.

  11. Comparison of muscarine- and vasopressin-stimulated inositol phospholipid metabolism in the superior cervical ganglion of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, J.; Anderson, C.; Perlman, R.L.

    1986-03-05

    Both muscarine and vasopressin have previously been shown to increase the accumulation of /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates (/sup 3/H-IP) in superior cervical ganglia in which the phospholipids were labeled with /sup 3/H-inositol. They have compared the effects of muscarine and vasopressin on phospholipid metabolism in the ganglion. The effects of these agents on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation are additive. The response to muscarine plateaus after approximately 10 min whereas the response to vasopressin increases for at least 30 min. Decentralization and maintenance in organ culture appear to potentiate the effect of muscarine on /sup 3/H-IP accumulation but do not effect the response of the ganglia to vasopressin. Muscarine and vasopressin also increase the incorporation of /sup 3/H-inositol into phospholipids in the ganglion. Autoradiographic techniques were used to localize the inositol-containing phospholipids in the ganglion. Muscarine increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the cell bodies of the principal ganglionic neurons, whereas vasopressin increases phospholipid labeling primarily in the neuropil. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that muscarine and vasopressin stimulate the metabolism of different pools of phospholipids.

  12. A limitation of the continuous spectrophotometric assay for the measurement of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinyi; Hernick, Marcy

    2011-10-15

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) catalyzes the conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to myo-inositol-1-phosphate. The reaction catalyzed by MIPS is the first step in the biosynthesis of inositol and inositol-containing molecules that serve important roles in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Consequently, MIPS is a target for the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of infectious diseases and bipolar disorder. We recently reported a continuous spectrophotometric method for measuring MIPS activity using a coupled assay that allows the rapid characterization of MIPS in a multiwell plate format. Here we validate the continuous assay as a high-throughput alternative for measuring MIPS activity and report on one limitation of this assay-the inability to examine the effect of divalent metal ions (at high concentrations) on MIPS activity. In addition, we demonstrate that the activity of MIPS from Arabidopsis thaliana is moderately enhanced by the addition Mg(2+) and is not enhanced by other divalent metal ions (Zn(2+) and Mn(2+)), consistent with what has been observed for other eukaryotic MIPS enzymes. Our findings suggest that the continuous assay is better suited for characterizing eukaryotic MIPS enzymes that require monovalent cations as cofactors than for characterizing bacterial or archeal MIPS enzymes that require divalent metal ions as cofactors.

  13. A novel Entamoeba histolytica inositol phosphate kinase catalyzes the formation of 5PP-Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5).

    PubMed

    Löser, Benjamin; Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Fanick, Werner; Lin, Hongying; Tannich, Egbert; Mayr, Georg W

    2012-01-01

    The parasitic protozoan Entamoeba histolytica is able to invade human tissues by secreting proteolytic enzymes. This secretion is regulated by inositol phosphate-mediated Ca(2+) release from internal stores. To further investigate the inositol phosphate metabolism of Entamoeba histolytica four putative inositol phosphate kinase genes (ehipk1-4) were identified and their expression analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR using RNA of trophozoites. Furthermore inositol phosphate kinase EhIPK1 was recombinantly expressed, purified and enzymatically characterized. Its main activity is the conversion of InsP(6) to 5PP-Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5), one of the main inositol phosphates found in Entamoeba histolytica. Remarkably, EhIPK1 possesses several additional enzymatic activities, e.g. the phosphorylation of the Ca(2+)-releasing second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P(3).We were able to identify several compounds with inhibitory potential against EhIPK1. Because of the important role of inositol phosphates in the invasion of human tissues by Entamoeba histolytica, inositol phosphate metabolizing enzymes are interesting targets for novel therapeutic approaches.

  14. 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root characterised using LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Kenny, O; Smyth, T J; Hewage, C M; Brunton, N P; McLoughlin, P

    2014-02-01

    The combination of hyphenated techniques, LC-SPE-NMR and LC-MS, to isolate and identify minor isomeric compounds from an ethyl acetate fraction of Taraxacum officinale root was employed in this study. Two distinct fractions of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivatives of inositol were isolated and characterised by spectroscopic methods. The (1)H NMR spectra and MS data revealed two groups of compounds, one of which were derivatives of the di-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid derivative of the inositol compound tetrahydroxy-5-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl] oxycyclohexyl-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetate, while the other group consisted of similar tri-substituted inositol derivatives. For both fractions the derivatives of inositols vary in the number of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid groups present and their position and geometry on the inositol ring. In total, three di-substituted and three tri-substituted 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid inositol derivates were identified for the first time along with a further two previously reported di-substituted inositol derivatives.

  15. A defect in sodium-dependent amino acid uptake in diabetic rabbit peripheral nerve. Correction by an aldose reductase inhibitor or myo-inositol administration.

    PubMed Central

    Greene, D A; Lattimer, S A; Carroll, P B; Fernstrom, J D; Finegold, D N

    1990-01-01

    A myo-inositol-related defect in nerve sodium-potassium ATPase activity in experimental diabetes has been suggested as a possible pathogenetic factor in diabetic neuropathy. Because the sodium-potassium ATPase is essential for other sodium-cotransport systems, and because myo-inositol-derived phosphoinositide metabolites regulate multiple membrane transport processes, sodium gradient-dependent amino acid uptake was examined in vitro in endoneurial preparations derived from nondiabetic and 14-d alloxan diabetic rabbits. Untreated alloxan diabetes reduced endoneurial sodium-gradient dependent uptake of the nonmetabolized amino acid 2-aminoisobutyric acid by greater than 50%. Administration of an aldose reductase inhibitor prevented reductions in both nerve myo-inositol content and endoneurial sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. Myo-inositol supplementation that produced a transient pharmacological elevation in plasma myo-inositol concentration, but did not raise nerve myo-inositol content, reproduced the effect of the aldose reductase inhibitor on endoneurial sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. Phorbol myristate acetate, which acutely normalizes sodium-potassium ATPase activity in diabetic nerve, did not acutely correct 2-aminoisobutyric uptake when added in vitro. These data suggest that depletion of a small myo-inositol pool may be implicated in the pathogenesis of defects in amino acid uptake in diabetic nerve and that rapid correction of sodium-potassium ATPase activity with protein kinase C agonists in vitro does not acutely normalize sodium-dependent 2-aminoisobutyric acid uptake. PMID:2185278

  16. Effect of co-solutes and process variables on crystallinity and the crystal form of freeze-dried myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Kusano, Riho; Arai, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masataka; Shibata, Hiroko; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Goda, Yukihiro; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how co-solutes affect the crystallization of small solute molecules during freeze-drying and subsequent storage. Crystallization profiles of myo-inositol and its mixture with dextran 40k in frozen solutions and dried solids were assessed by thermal analysis (DSC), powder-X-ray diffraction, and simultaneous DSC and PXRD analysis. Higher mass ratios of dextran maintained myo-inositol in the non-crystalline mixture state, in frozen solutions, during freeze-drying process, and exposure of dried solids to higher temperatures. Co-lyophilization with a lower mass ratio of dextran resulted in solids containing a variety of myo-inositol crystal forms and crystallinity depending on the composition and thermal history of the process. Heating of some inositol-rich amorphous solids showed crystallization of myo-inositol in the metastable form and its transition to stable form before melting. Heat-treatment of inositol-rich frozen solutions resulted in high crystallinity stable-form inositol solids, leaving dextran in the amorphous state. Sufficient direct molecular interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding) should explain the stability of dextran-rich amorphous solids. Optimizing solute composition and processes should be a potent way to control crystal form and crystallinity of components in freeze-dried formulations.

  17. A Novel Inositol Pyrophosphate Phosphatase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Siw14 PROTEIN SELECTIVELY CLEAVES THE β-PHOSPHATE FROM 5-DIPHOSPHOINOSITOL PENTAKISPHOSPHATE (5PP-IP5).

    PubMed

    Steidle, Elizabeth A; Chong, Lucy S; Wu, Mingxuan; Crooke, Elliott; Fiedler, Dorothea; Resnick, Adam C; Rolfes, Ronda J

    2016-03-25

    Inositol pyrophosphates are high energy signaling molecules involved in cellular processes, such as energetic metabolism, telomere maintenance, stress responses, and vesicle trafficking, and can mediate protein phosphorylation. Although the inositol kinases underlying inositol pyrophosphate biosynthesis are well characterized, the phosphatases that selectively regulate their cellular pools are not fully described. The diphosphoinositol phosphate phosphohydrolase enzymes of the Nudix protein family have been demonstrated to dephosphorylate inositol pyrophosphates; however, theSaccharomyces cerevisiaehomolog Ddp1 prefers inorganic polyphosphate over inositol pyrophosphates. We identified a novel phosphatase of the recently discovered atypical dual specificity phosphatase family as a physiological inositol pyrophosphate phosphatase. Purified recombinant Siw14 hydrolyzes the β-phosphate from 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (5PP-IP5or IP7)in vitro. In vivo,siw14Δ yeast mutants possess increased IP7levels, whereas heterologousSIW14overexpression eliminates IP7from cells. IP7levels increased proportionately whensiw14Δ was combined withddp1Δ orvip1Δ, indicating independent activity by the enzymes encoded by these genes. We conclude that Siw14 is a physiological phosphatase that modulates inositol pyrophosphate metabolism by dephosphorylating the IP7isoform 5PP-IP5to IP6.

  18. Metabolic and structural evidence for the existence of a third species of polyphosphoinositide in cells: D-phosphatidyl-myo-inositol 3-phosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, L; Hawkins, P T; Downes, C P

    1989-01-01

    When human 1321 N1 astrocytoma cells were labelled to steady state with [3H]inositol and briefly with [32P]orthophosphate, a compound which contained both radiotracers and which co-migrated with phosphatidylinositol-myo-inositol 4-phosphate during t.l.c. could be extracted in acidic chloroform/methanol. Treatment with methylamine under conditions which lead to deacylation of conventional glycerophospholipids yielded a water-soluble moiety which was labelled with both radioisotopes and was eluted from an anion-exchange h.p.l.c. column with a retention time similar to, but distinct from, that of glycerophosphoinositol 4-phosphate. Experiments using sodium periodate and selective phosphatase enzymes to degrade this compound systematically generated a series of products which suggested the structure of the parent phospholipid was phosphatidyl-myo-inositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns3P). PtdIns3P is metabolically closely related to the pool(s) of inositol phospholipid(s) that serves as substrate(s) for an agonist-sensitive phosphoinositidase C, as the levels of PtdIns3P fell significantly when 1321 N1 cells were stimulated with carbachol. The relative rate of turnover of the inositol moiety of PtdIns3P is similar to that of both of the major polyphosphoinositides and significantly higher than that of total cellular phosphatidyl-myo-inositol. This suggests that all three polyphosphoinositides are synthesized from a common, rapidly metabolized, pool of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol. PMID:2541684

  19. Bcl-2 functionally interacts with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors to regulate calcium release from the ER in response to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rui; Valencia, Ignacio; Zhong, Fei; McColl, Karen S.; Roderick, H. Llewelyn; Bootman, Martin D.; Berridge, Michael J.; Conway, Stuart J.; Holmes, Andrew B.; Mignery, Gregory A.; Velez, Patricio; Distelhorst, Clark W.

    2004-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptors (InsP3Rs) are channels responsible for calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We show that the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 (either wild type or selectively localized to the ER) significantly inhibited InsP3-mediated calcium release and elevation of cytosolic calcium in WEHI7.2 T cells. This inhibition was due to an effect of Bcl-2 at the level of InsP3Rs because responses to both anti-CD3 antibody and a cell-permeant InsP3 ester were decreased. Bcl-2 inhibited the extent of calcium release from the ER of permeabilized WEHI7.2 cells, even at saturating concentrations of InsP3, without decreasing luminal calcium concentration. Furthermore, Bcl-2 reduced the open probability of purified InsP3Rs reconstituted into lipid bilayers. Bcl-2 and InsP3Rs were detected together in macromolecular complexes by coimmunoprecipitation and blue native gel electrophoresis. We suggest that this functional interaction of Bcl-2 with InsP3Rs inhibits InsP3R activation and thereby regulates InsP3-induced calcium release from the ER. PMID:15263017

  20. Fagopyritol B1, O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-D-chiro-inositol, a galactosyl cyclitol in maturing buckwheat seeds associated with desiccation tolerance.

    PubMed

    Horbowicz, M; Brenac, P; Obendorf, R L

    1998-05-01

    O-alpha-D-Galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-D-chiro-inositol, herein named fagopyritol B1, was identified as a major soluble carbohydrate (40% of total) in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) embryos. Analysis of hydrolysis products of purified compounds and of the crude extract led to the conclusion that buckwheat embryos have five alpha-galactosyl D-chiro-inositols: fagopyritol A1 and fagopyritol B1 (mono-galactosyl D-chiro-inositol isomers), fagopyritol A2 and fagopyritol B2 (di-galactosyl D-chiro-inositol isomers), and fagopyritol B3 (tri-galactosyl D-chiro-inositol). Other soluble carbohydrates analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography included sucrose (42% of total), D-chiro-inositol, myo-inositol, galactinol, raffinose and stachyose (1% of total), but no reducing sugars. All fagopyritols were readily hydrolyzed by alpha-galactosidase (EC 3.2.1.22) from green coffee bean, demonstrating alpha-galactosyl linkage. Retention time of fagopyritol B1 was identical to the retention time of O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-D-chiro-inositol from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill, Leguminosae), suggesting that the alpha-galactosyl linkage is to the 2-position of D-chiro-inositol. Accumulation of fagopyritol B1 was associated with acquisition of desiccation tolerance during seed development and maturation in planta, and loss of fagopyritol B1 correlated with loss of desiccation tolerance during germination. Embryos of seeds grown at 18 degrees C, a condition that favors enhanced seed vigor and storability, had a sucrose-to-fagopyritol B1 ratio of 0.8 compared to a ratio of 2.46 for seeds grown at 25 degrees C. We propose that fagopyritol B1 facilitates desiccation tolerance and storability of buckwheat seeds.

  1. Uncoupling of attenuated myo-(3H)inositol uptake and dysfunction in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in hypergalactosemic cultured bovine lens epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cammarata, P.R.; Tse, D.; Yorio, T. )

    1991-06-01

    Attenuation of both the active transport of myo-inositol and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity has been implicated in the onset of sugar cataract and other diabetic complications in cell culture and animal models of the disease. Cultured bovine lens epithelial cells (BLECs) maintained in galactose-free Eagle's minimal essential medium (MEM) or 40 mM galactose with and without sorbinil for up to 5 days were examined to determine the temporal effects of hypergalactosemia on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and myo-inositol uptake. The Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity after 5 days of continuous exposure to galactose did not change, as demonstrated by 86Rb uptake. The uptake of myo-(3H)inositol was lowered after 20 h of incubation in galactose and remained below that of the control throughout the 5-day exposure period. The coadministration of sorbinil to the galactose medium normalized the myo-(3H)inositol uptake. No significant difference in the rates of passive efflux of myo-(3H)inositol or 86Rb from preloaded galactose-treated and control cultures was observed. Culture-media reversal studies were also carried out to determine whether the galactose-induced dysfunction in myo-inositol uptake could be corrected. BLECs were incubated in galactose for 5 days, then changed to galactose-free physiological medium with and without sorbinil for a 1-day recovery period. myo-Inositol uptake was reduced to 34% of control after 6 days of continuous exposure to galactose. Within 24 h of media reversal, myo-inositol uptake returned to or exceeded control values in BLECs switched to either MEM or MEM with sorbinil.2+ reversible and occurred independently of changes in Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pumping activity in cultured lens epithelium, indicating that the two parameters are not strictly associated and that the deficit in myo-inositol uptake occurs rapidly during hypergalactosemia.

  2. Differential effects of heparin on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binding, metabolism, and calcium release activity in the bovine adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Guillemette, G; Lamontagne, S; Boulay, G; Mouillac, B

    1989-03-01

    In a wide variety of cells, inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate is a second messenger that interacts with specific intracellular receptors and triggers the release of sequestered Ca2+ from an intracellular store. We have looked at the influence of heparin on the action and metabolism of inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate in the bovine adrenal cortex. Heparin blocked inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate binding with half-maximal efficiency around 10 micrograms/ml. Scatchard analyses revealed that heparin did not change the affinity but decreased the number of available binding sites. The Ca2+-releasing activity of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate was monitored with the fluorescent indicator, fura-2. Heparin blocked this activity with half-maximal effeciency around 10 micrograms/ml. The effect of heparin could be overcome by a supramaximal dose of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (25 microM). The activity of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-3-kinase from bovine adrenal cortex cytosol was also studied. Heparin inhibited the activity of the kinase with a half-maximal effeciency around 0.4 microgram/ml. Lineweaver-Burk plots revealed that this potent effect was noncompetitive. Finally, we observed that heparin is without effect on inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-5-phosphatase (at concentrations as high as 2 mg/ml). These results are consistent with the suggestion that the binding sites for inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate are the intracellular receptors responsible for the Ca2+-mobilizing effects of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate. These results also show that the kinase, the phosphatase, and the receptor are three different molecular entities, which are affected in a different manner by heparin.

  3. The regulation of runt-related transcription factor 2 by fibroblast growth factor-2 and connexin43 requires the inositol polyphosphate/protein kinase Cδ cascade.

    PubMed

    Niger, Corinne; Luciotti, Maria A; Buo, Atum M; Hebert, Carla; Ma, Vy; Stains, Joseph P

    2013-06-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) plays a critical role in osteoblast function and bone mass accrual, yet the identity of the second messengers communicated by Cx43 gap junctions, the targets of these second messengers and how they regulate osteoblast function remain largely unknown. We have shown that alterations of Cx43 expression in osteoblasts can impact the responsiveness to fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), by modulating the transcriptional activity of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). In this study, we examined the contribution of the phospholipase Cγ1/inositol polyphosphate/protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) cascade to the Cx43-dependent transcriptional response of MC3T3 osteoblasts to FGF2. Knockdown of expression and/or inhibition of function of phospholipase Cγ1, inositol polyphosphate multikinase, which generates inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (InsP₄) and InsP₅, and inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1/2, which generates inositol pyrophosphates, prevented the ability of Cx43 to potentiate FGF2-induced signaling through Runx2. Conversely, overexpression of phospholipase Cγ1 and inositol hexakisphosphate kinase 1/2 enhanced FGF2 activation of Runx2 and the effect of Cx43 overexpression on this response. Disruption of these pathways blocked the nuclear accumulation of PKCδ and the FGF2-dependent interaction of PKCδ and Runx2, reducing Runx2 transcriptional activity. These data reveal that FGF2-signaling involves the inositol polyphosphate cascade, including inositol hexakisphosphate kinase (IP6K), and demonstrate that IP6K regulates Runx2 and osteoblast gene expression. Additionally, these data implicate the water-soluble inositol polyphosphates as mediators of the Cx43-dependent amplification of the osteoblast response to FGF2, and suggest that these low molecular weight second messengers may be biologically relevant mediators of osteoblast function that are communicated by Cx43-gap junctions.

  4. Phospholipase C of Cryptococcus neoformans regulates homeostasis and virulence by providing inositol trisphosphate as a substrate for Arg1 kinase.

    PubMed

    Lev, Sophie; Desmarini, Desmarini; Li, Cecilia; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Traven, Ana; Sorrell, Tania C; Djordjevic, Julianne T

    2013-04-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) of Cryptococcus neoformans (CnPlc1) is crucial for virulence of this fungal pathogen. To investigate the mechanism of CnPlc1-mediated signaling, we established that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) is a major CnPlc1 substrate, which is hydrolyzed to produce inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Plc1-derived IP(3) is a substrate for the inositol polyphosphate kinase Arg82, which converts IP(3) to more complex inositol polyphosphates. In this study, we show that in C. neoformans, the enzyme encoded by ARG1 is the major IP(3) kinase, and we further demonstrate that catalytic activity of Arg1 is essential for cellular homeostasis and virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. IP(3) content was reduced in the CnΔplc1 mutant and markedly increased in the CnΔarg1 mutant, while PIP(2) was increased in both mutants. The CnΔplc1 and CnΔarg1 mutants shared significant phenotypic similarity, including impaired thermotolerance, compromised cell walls, reduced capsule production and melanization, defective cell separation, and the inability to form mating filaments. In contrast to the S. cerevisiae ARG82 deletion mutant (ScΔarg82) strain, the CnΔarg1 mutant exhibited dramatically enlarged vacuoles indicative of excessive vacuolar fusion. In mammalian cells, PLC-derived IP(3) causes Ca(2+) release and calcineurin activation. Our data show that, unlike mammalian PLCs, CnPlc1 does not contribute significantly to calcineurin activation. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence that the inositol polyphosphate anabolic pathway is essential for virulence of C. neoformans and further show that production of IP(3) as a precursor for synthesis of more complex inositol polyphosphates is the key biochemical function of CnPlc1.

  5. The phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosyltransferase PimA is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Francesca; Ventura, Marcello; Degiacomi, Giulia; Ravishankar, Sudha; Sala, Claudia; Svetlikova, Zuzana; Ambady, Anisha; Dhar, Neeraj; Kordulakova, Jana; Zhang, Ming; Serafini, Agnese; Vishwas, K G; Vishwas, V G; Kolly, Gaëlle S; Kumar, Naveen; Palù, Giorgio; Guerin, Marcelo E; Mikusova, Katarina; Cole, Stewart T; Manganelli, Riccardo

    2014-10-01

    The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains glycans and lipids of peculiar structure that play prominent roles in the biology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Consequently, the chemical structure and biosynthesis of the cell wall have been intensively investigated in order to identify novel drug targets. Here, we validate that the function of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosyltransferase PimA is vital for M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo. PimA initiates the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides by transferring a mannosyl residue from GDP-Man to phosphatidyl-myo-inositol on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. To prove the essential nature of pimA in M. tuberculosis, we constructed a pimA conditional mutant by using the TetR-Pip off system and showed that downregulation of PimA expression causes bactericidality in batch cultures. Consistent with the biochemical reaction catalyzed by PimA, this phenotype was associated with markedly reduced levels of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol dimannosides, essential structural components of the mycobacterial cell envelope. In addition, the requirement of PimA for viability was clearly demonstrated during macrophage infection and in two different mouse models of infection, where a dramatic decrease in viable counts was observed upon silencing of the gene. Notably, depletion of PimA resulted in complete clearance of the mouse lungs during both the acute and chronic phases of infection. Altogether, the experimental data highlight the importance of the phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannoside biosynthetic pathway for M. tuberculosis and confirm that PimA is a novel target for future drug discovery programs.

  6. Phospholipase C of Cryptococcus neoformans Regulates Homeostasis and Virulence by Providing Inositol Trisphosphate as a Substrate for Arg1 Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Lev, Sophie; Desmarini, Desmarini; Li, Cecilia; Chayakulkeeree, Methee; Traven, Ana; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) of Cryptococcus neoformans (CnPlc1) is crucial for virulence of this fungal pathogen. To investigate the mechanism of CnPlc1-mediated signaling, we established that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is a major CnPlc1 substrate, which is hydrolyzed to produce inositol trisphosphate (IP3). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Plc1-derived IP3 is a substrate for the inositol polyphosphate kinase Arg82, which converts IP3 to more complex inositol polyphosphates. In this study, we show that in C. neoformans, the enzyme encoded by ARG1 is the major IP3 kinase, and we further demonstrate that catalytic activity of Arg1 is essential for cellular homeostasis and virulence in the Galleria mellonella infection model. IP3 content was reduced in the CnΔplc1 mutant and markedly increased in the CnΔarg1 mutant, while PIP2 was increased in both mutants. The CnΔplc1 and CnΔarg1 mutants shared significant phenotypic similarity, including impaired thermotolerance, compromised cell walls, reduced capsule production and melanization, defective cell separation, and the inability to form mating filaments. In contrast to the S. cerevisiae ARG82 deletion mutant (ScΔarg82) strain, the CnΔarg1 mutant exhibited dramatically enlarged vacuoles indicative of excessive vacuolar fusion. In mammalian cells, PLC-derived IP3 causes Ca2+ release and calcineurin activation. Our data show that, unlike mammalian PLCs, CnPlc1 does not contribute significantly to calcineurin activation. Collectively, our findings provide the first evidence that the inositol polyphosphate anabolic pathway is essential for virulence of C. neoformans and further show that production of IP3 as a precursor for synthesis of more complex inositol polyphosphates is the key biochemical function of CnPlc1. PMID:23381992

  7. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Kinase-3 Regulates the Morphology and Synapse Formation of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells via Spectrin/Adducin

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chenglai; Xu, Jing; Li, Ruo-Jing; Crawford, Joshua A.; Khan, A. Basit; Ma, Ting Martin; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Snowman, Adele M.; Pletnikov, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) are the principal enzymes that generate inositol pyrophosphates. There are three IP6Ks (IP6K1, 2, and 3). Functions of IP6K1 and IP6K2 have been substantially delineated, but little is known of IP6K3's role in normal physiology, especially in the brain. To elucidate functions of IP6K3, we generated mice with targeted deletion of IP6K3. We demonstrate that IP6K3 is highly concentrated in the brain in cerebellar Purkinje cells. IP6K3 physiologically binds to the cytoskeletal proteins adducin and spectrin, whose mutual interactions are perturbed in IP6K3-null mutants. Consequently, IP6K3 knock-out cerebella manifest abnormalities in Purkinje cell structure and synapse number, and the mutant mice display deficits in motor learning and coordination. Thus, IP6K3 is a major determinant of cytoskeletal disposition and function of cerebellar Purkinje cells. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We identified and cloned a family of three inositol hexakisphosphate kinases (IP6Ks) that generate the inositol pyrophosphates, most notably 5-diphosphoinositol pentakisphosphate (IP7). Of these, IP6K3 has been least characterized. In the present study we generated IP6K3 knock-out mice and show that IP6K3 is highly expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. IP6K3-deleted mice display defects of motor learning and coordination. IP6K3-null mice manifest aberrations of Purkinje cells with a diminished number of synapses. IP6K3 interacts with the cytoskeletal proteins spectrin and adducin whose altered disposition in IP6K3 knock-out mice may mediate phenotypic features of the mutant mice. These findings afford molecular/cytoskeletal mechanisms by which the inositol polyphosphate system impacts brain function. PMID:26245967

  8. The Phosphatidyl-myo-Inositol Mannosyltransferase PimA Is Essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Boldrin, Francesca; Ventura, Marcello; Degiacomi, Giulia; Ravishankar, Sudha; Sala, Claudia; Svetlikova, Zuzana; Ambady, Anisha; Dhar, Neeraj; Kordulakova, Jana; Zhang, Ming; Serafini, Agnese; Vishwas, V. G.; Kolly, Gaëlle S.; Kumar, Naveen; Palù, Giorgio; Guerin, Marcelo E.; Mikusova, Katarina; Cole, Stewart T.

    2014-01-01

    The cell envelope of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains glycans and lipids of peculiar structure that play prominent roles in the biology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis. Consequently, the chemical structure and biosynthesis of the cell wall have been intensively investigated in order to identify novel drug targets. Here, we validate that the function of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosyltransferase PimA is vital for M. tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo. PimA initiates the biosynthesis of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannosides by transferring a mannosyl residue from GDP-Man to phosphatidyl-myo-inositol on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane. To prove the essential nature of pimA in M. tuberculosis, we constructed a pimA conditional mutant by using the TetR-Pip off system and showed that downregulation of PimA expression causes bactericidality in batch cultures. Consistent with the biochemical reaction catalyzed by PimA, this phenotype was associated with markedly reduced levels of phosphatidyl-myo-inositol dimannosides, essential structural components of the mycobacterial cell envelope. In addition, the requirement of PimA for viability was clearly demonstrated during macrophage infection and in two different mouse models of infection, where a dramatic decrease in viable counts was observed upon silencing of the gene. Notably, depletion of PimA resulted in complete clearance of the mouse lungs during both the acute and chronic phases of infection. Altogether, the experimental data highlight the importance of the phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannoside biosynthetic pathway for M. tuberculosis and confirm that PimA is a novel target for future drug discovery programs. PMID:25049093

  9. A High-Throughput Screening-Compatible Strategy for the Identification of Inositol Pyrophosphate Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Brandi M; Wang, Huanchen; An, Yi; Kireev, Dmitri; Stashko, Michael A; Jessen, Henning J; Pearce, Kenneth H; Frye, Stephen V; Shears, Stephen B

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological tools-'chemical probes'-that intervene in cell signaling cascades are important for complementing genetically-based experimental approaches. Probe development frequently begins with a high-throughput screen (HTS) of a chemical library. Herein, we describe the design, validation, and implementation of the first HTS-compatible strategy against any inositol phosphate kinase. Our target enzyme, PPIP5K, synthesizes 'high-energy' inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs), which regulate cell function at the interface between cellular energy metabolism and signal transduction. We optimized a time-resolved, fluorescence resonance energy transfer ADP-assay to record PPIP5K-catalyzed, ATP-driven phosphorylation of 5-InsP7 to 1,5-InsP8 in 384-well format (Z' = 0.82 ± 0.06). We screened a library of 4745 compounds, all anticipated to be membrane-permeant, which are known-or conjectured based on their structures-to target the nucleotide binding site of protein kinases. At a screening concentration of 13 μM, fifteen compounds inhibited PPIP5K >50%. The potency of nine of these hits was confirmed by dose-response analyses. Three of these molecules were selected from different structural clusters for analysis of binding to PPIP5K, using isothermal calorimetry. Acceptable thermograms were obtained for two compounds, UNC10112646 (Kd = 7.30 ± 0.03 μM) and UNC10225498 (Kd = 1.37 ± 0.03 μM). These Kd values lie within the 1-10 μM range generally recognized as suitable for further probe development. In silico docking data rationalizes the difference in affinities. HPLC analysis confirmed that UNC10225498 and UNC10112646 directly inhibit PPIP5K-catalyzed phosphorylation of 5-InsP7 to 1,5-InsP8; kinetic experiments showed inhibition to be competitive with ATP. No other biological activity has previously been ascribed to either UNC10225498 or UNC10112646; moreover, at 10 μM, neither compound inhibits IP6K2, a structurally-unrelated PP-InsP kinase. Our screening strategy

  10. A High-Throughput Screening-Compatible Strategy for the Identification of Inositol Pyrophosphate Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanchen; An, Yi; Kireev, Dmitri; Stashko, Michael A.; Jessen, Henning J.; Pearce, Kenneth H.; Frye, Stephen V.; Shears, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological tools—‘chemical probes’—that intervene in cell signaling cascades are important for complementing genetically-based experimental approaches. Probe development frequently begins with a high-throughput screen (HTS) of a chemical library. Herein, we describe the design, validation, and implementation of the first HTS-compatible strategy against any inositol phosphate kinase. Our target enzyme, PPIP5K, synthesizes ‘high-energy’ inositol pyrophosphates (PP-InsPs), which regulate cell function at the interface between cellular energy metabolism and signal transduction. We optimized a time-resolved, fluorescence resonance energy transfer ADP-assay to record PPIP5K-catalyzed, ATP-driven phosphorylation of 5-InsP7 to 1,5-InsP8 in 384-well format (Z’ = 0.82 ± 0.06). We screened a library of 4745 compounds, all anticipated to be membrane-permeant, which are known—or conjectured based on their structures—to target the nucleotide binding site of protein kinases. At a screening concentration of 13 μM, fifteen compounds inhibited PPIP5K >50%. The potency of nine of these hits was confirmed by dose-response analyses. Three of these molecules were selected from different structural clusters for analysis of binding to PPIP5K, using isothermal calorimetry. Acceptable thermograms were obtained for two compounds, UNC10112646 (Kd = 7.30 ± 0.03 μM) and UNC10225498 (Kd = 1.37 ± 0.03 μM). These Kd values lie within the 1–10 μM range generally recognized as suitable for further probe development. In silico docking data rationalizes the difference in affinities. HPLC analysis confirmed that UNC10225498 and UNC10112646 directly inhibit PPIP5K-catalyzed phosphorylation of 5-InsP7 to 1,5-InsP8; kinetic experiments showed inhibition to be competitive with ATP. No other biological activity has previously been ascribed to either UNC10225498 or UNC10112646; moreover, at 10 μM, neither compound inhibits IP6K2, a structurally-unrelated PP-InsP kinase. Our

  11. H(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate uptake in Trypanosoma brucei is influenced by myo-inositol transporter.

    PubMed

    Russo-Abrahão, Thais; Koeller, Carolina Macedo; Steinmann, Michael E; Silva-Rito, Stephanie; Marins-Lucena, Thaissa; Alves-Bezerra, Michele; Lima-Giarola, Naira Ligia; de-Paula, Iron Francisco; Gonzalez-Salgado, Amaia; Sigel, Erwin; Bütikofer, Peter; Gondim, Katia Calp; Heise, Norton; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes human African trypanosomiasis or "sleeping sickness". During the different phases of its life cycle, T. brucei depends on exogenous inorganic phosphate (Pi), but little is known about the transport of Pi in this organism. In the present study, we showed that the transport of (32)Pi across the plasma membrane follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics and is modulated by pH variation, with higher activity at acidic pH. Bloodstream forms presented lower Pi transport in comparison to procyclic forms, that displayed an apparent K0.5 = 0.093 ± 0.008 mM. Additionally, FCCP (H(+)-ionophore), valinomycin (K(+)-ionophore) and SCH28080 (H(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitor) inhibited the Pi transport. Gene Tb11.02.3020, previously described to encode the parasite H(+):myo-inositol transporter (TbHMIT), was hypothesized to be potentially involved in the H(+):Pi cotransport because of its similarity with the Pho84 transporter described in S. cerevisiae and other trypanosomatids. Indeed, the RNAi mediated knockdown remarkably reduced TbHMIT gene expression, compromised cell growth and decreased Pi transport by half. In addition, Pi transport was inhibited when parasites were incubated in the presence of concentrations of myo-inositol that are above 300 μM. However, when expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, two-electrode voltage clamp experiments provided direct electrophysiological evidence that the protein encoded by TbHMIT is definitely a myo-inositol transporter that may be only marginally affected by the presence of Pi. These results confirmed the presence of a Pi carrier in T. brucei, similar to the H(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate system described in S. cerevisiae and other trypanosomatids. This transport system contributes to the acquisition of Pi and may be involved in the growth and survival of procyclic forms. In summary, this work presents the first description of a Pi transport system in T. brucei.

  12. Myo-Inositol trisphosphate mobilizes calcium from fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L. ) protoplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1987-02-01

    To determine whether or not inositol trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) mobilizes calcium in higher plant cells; they investigated the effect of IP/sub 3/ on Ca/sup 2 +/ fluxes in fusogenic carrot (Daucus carota L.) protoplasts. The protoplasts were incubated in /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/-containing medium and the /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ associated with the protoplasts was monitored with time. Addition of IP/sub 3/ (20 micromolar) caused a 17% net loss of the accumulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ within 4 minutes. There was a reuptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ and the protoplasts recovered to their initial value by 10 minutes. Phytic acid (IP/sub 6/), also stimulated /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from the protoplasts. Both the IP/sub 3/- and the IP/sub 6/-induced /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux were inhibited by the calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine.

  13. Inositol hexakisphosphate is bound in the ADAR2 core and required for RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Macbeth, Mark R; Schubert, Heidi L; Vandemark, Andrew P; Lingam, Arunth T; Hill, Christopher P; Bass, Brenda L

    2005-09-02

    We report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of human ADAR2, an RNA editing enzyme, at 1.7 angstrom resolution. The structure reveals a zinc ion in the active site and suggests how the substrate adenosine is recognized. Unexpectedly, inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is buried within the enzyme core, contributing to the protein fold. Although there are no reports that adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) require a cofactor, we show that IP6 is required for activity. Amino acids that coordinate IP6 in the crystal structure are conserved in some adenosine deaminases that act on transfer RNA (tRNA) (ADATs), related enzymes that edit tRNA. Indeed, IP6 is also essential for in vivo and in vitro deamination of adenosine 37 of tRNAala by ADAT1.

  14. Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases; new players in the regulation of cilia and ciliopathies.

    PubMed

    Conduit, Sarah E; Dyson, Jennifer M; Mitchell, Christina A

    2012-08-31

    Phosphoinositides regulate numerous cellular events via the recruitment and activation of multiple lipid-binding effector proteins. The precise temporal and spatial regulation of phosphoinositide signals by the co-ordinated activities of phosphoinositide kinases and phosphatases is essential for homeostasis and development. Mutations in two inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases, INPP5E and OCRL, cause the cerebrorenal syndromes of Joubert and Lowe's, respectively. INPP5E and OCRL exhibit overlapping phosphoinositide substrate specificity and subcellular localisation, including an association with the primary cilia. Here, we review recent studies that identify a new role for these enzymes in the regulation of primary cilia function. Joubert syndrome has been extensively linked to primary cilia defects, and Lowe's may represent a new class of 'ciliopathy associated' syndromes.

  15. DANGER, a novel regulatory protein of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-receptor activity.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Damian B; Patterson, Randen L; Cheung, King-Ho; Barrow, Roxanne K; Syrovatkina, Viktoriya; Gessell, Gregory S; Burkholder, Scott G; Watkins, D Neil; Foskett, J Kevin; Snyder, Solomon H

    2006-12-01

    We report the cloning and characterization of DANGER, a novel protein which physiologically binds to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)R). DANGER is a membrane-associated protein predicted to contain a partial MAB-21 domain. It is expressed in a wide variety of neuronal cell lineages where it localizes to membranes in the cell periphery together with IP(3)R. DANGER interacts with IP(3)R in vitro and co-immunoprecipitates with IP(3)R from cellular preparations. DANGER robustly enhances Ca(2+)-mediated inhibition of IP(3) RCa(2+) release without affecting IP(3) binding in microsomal assays and inhibits gating in single-channel recordings of IP(3)R. DANGER appears to allosterically modulate the sensitivity of IP(3) RtoCa(2+) inhibition, which likely alters IP(3)R-mediated Ca(2+) dynamics in cells where DANGER and IP(3)R are co-expressed.

  16. Effect of clinical death on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kapuściński, A

    1993-01-01

    Changes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate content in the rat brain have been evaluated by means of the radioimmunologic method during 5-min clinical death and up to 2 hrs after resuscitation. Ischemia produced a decrease of IP3 content in the brain on the average to 63% of the control values. IP3 concentration in the brain increased on the average to 197% of the control values at the 15th min after resuscitation, and decreased to 127% at the 60 min. Two hours after resuscitation the IP3 content in the brain again increased on the average to 187%. The new data on brain metabolism in the ischemic conditions and the role of IP3 as the second messenger and mediator of neuromodulation processes are discussed.

  17. Ethanol stimulates phospholipid turnover and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes.

    PubMed

    Musgrave, A; Kuin, H; Jongen, M; de Wildt, P; Schuring, F; Klerk, H; van den Ende, H

    1992-02-01

    Alcohols induce mating-structure activation in Chlamydomonas eugametos gametes. From the effect of ethanol on the (32)P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides, we conclude that the synthesis of these lipids is stimulated. Biologically inactive concentrations of ethanol (<6%) had no effect on synthesis, but 6-8% ethanol stimulated synthesis for upto 60 min. The (32)P incorporated into polyphosphoinositides and phosphatidic acid during ethanol treatment was readily chased out when 1 mM unlabelled Na3PO4 was added. Using a binding assay for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, we show that the production of this phospholipid constituent is dramatically increased after ethanol treatment. This effect, coupled to a rise in intracellular calcium concentration, could explain gamete activation. The significance of these results in explaining other ethanol-induced phenomena in algae is discussed.

  18. Ionophore A23187 induces a refractory state in thrombin-activated release of inositol phosphates.

    PubMed Central

    Moscat, G; Moreno, F; Iglesias, S; Garcia-Barreno, P; Municio, A M

    1986-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol cycle has been proposed to be involved in the regulation of platelet functionality through the control of cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels. However, the requirements of phospholipase C for Ca2+ has not yet been elucidated in intact platelets. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the Ca2+ requirements of this enzyme in platelets from miniature swine by taking advantage of the permeabilizing properties of the ionophore A23187. Our results strongly suggest that the treatment of platelets with A23187 induces a refractory state in thrombin-stimulated release of inositol phosphates while 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)-secretory capacity in response to thrombin remained constant. This refractory state seems to be dependent on some cytochalasin-inhibitable cytoskeletal phenomena. PMID:3099773

  19. Direct Ionic Regulation of the Activity of Myo-Inositol Biosynthesis Enzymes in Mozambique Tilapia.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Fernando D; Kültz, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol (Ins) is a major compatible osmolyte in many cells, including those of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Ins biosynthesis is highly up-regulated in tilapia and other euryhaline fish exposed to hyperosmotic stress. In this study, enzymatic regulation of two enzymes of Ins biosynthesis, Ins phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), by direct ionic effects is analyzed. Specific MIPS and IMPase isoforms from Mozambique tilapia (MIPS-160 and IMPase 1) were selected based on experimental, phylogenetic, and structural evidence supporting their role for Ins biosynthesis during hyperosmotic stress. Recombinant tilapia IMPase 1 and MIPS-160 activity was assayed in vitro at ionic conditions that mimic changes in the intracellular milieu during hyperosmotic stress. The in vitro activities of MIPS-160 and IMPase 1 are highest at alkaline pH of 8.8. IMPase 1 catalytic efficiency is strongly increased during hyperosmolality (particularly for the substrate D-Ins-3-phosphate, Ins-3P), mainly as a result of [Na+] elevation. Furthermore, the substrate-specificity of IMPase 1 towards D-Ins-1-phosphate (Ins-1P) is lower than towards Ins-3P. Because MIPS catalysis results in Ins-3P this results represents additional evidence for IMPase 1 being the isoform that mediates Ins biosynthesis in tilapia. Our data collectively demonstrate that the Ins biosynthesis enzymes are activated under ionic conditions that cells are exposed to during hypertonicity, resulting in Ins accumulation, which, in turn, results in restoration of intracellular ion homeostasis. We propose that the unique and direct ionic regulation of the activities of Ins biosynthesis enzymes represents an efficient biochemical feedback loop for regulation of intracellular physiological ion homeostasis during hyperosmotic stress.

  20. The importance to chondrocyte differentiation of changes in expression of the multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Kiyoshi; Kanematsu, Takashi; Caffrey, James J; Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Shears, Stephen B; Hirata, Masato

    2003-11-01

    It is important to both physiological and pathological osteogenesis to understand the significance of changes in gene expression in growth-plate chondrocytes that transit between the proliferative and hypertrophic states. MINPP is one such gene of interest. The Minpp protein dephosphorylates highly phosphorylated inositol signaling molecules InsP(5) and InsP(6). We show here that the ATDC5 chondrocyte progenitor cell line can recapitulate developmentally specific changes in MINPP expression previously only seen in longitudinal bone growth plates-both an initial 2-3-fold increase and a subsequent decrease back to initial levels during transition to hypertrophy. The increase in MINPP expression was accompanied by a 40% decrease in InsP(6) levels in ATDC5 cells. However, InsP(5) levels were not modified. Furthermore, throughout the hypertrophic phase, during which MINPP expression decreased, there were no alterations in InsP(5) and InsP(6) levels. We also created an ATDC5 line that stably overexpressed Minpp at 2-fold higher levels than in wild-type cells. This had no significant effect upon cellular levels of InsP(5) and InsP(6). Thus, substantial changes in MINPP expression can occur without a net effect upon InsP(5) and InsP(6) turnover in vivo. On the other hand, Minpp-overexpressing cells showed impaired chondrogenesis. We noted that the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity was inversely correlated with the expression of MINPP. The ATDC5 cells that overexpress Minpp failed to show an insulin-dependent increase in alkaline phosphatase levels, which presumably affects phosphate balance [J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 33995], and may be the reason cellular differentiation was impaired. In any case, we conclude that Minpp is important to chondrocyte differentiation, but in a manner that is, surprisingly, independent of inositol polyphosphate turnover.

  1. A role for inositol hexakisphosphate in the maintenance of basal resistance to plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Alex M; Otto, Bettina; Brearley, Charles A; Carr, John P; Hanke, David E

    2008-11-01

    Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) is an important phosphate store and signal molecule in plants. However, low-phytate plants are being developed to minimize the negative health effects of dietary InsP6 and pollution caused by undigested InsP6 in animal waste. InsP6 levels were diminished in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing an antisense gene sequence for myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (IPS, catalysing the first step in InsP6 biosynthesis) or Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase. These plants were less resistant to the avirulent pathogen potato virus Y and the virulent pathogen tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of the gene for the enzyme catalysing the final step of InsP6 biosynthesis (InsP5 2-kinase) also diminished InsP6 levels and enhanced susceptibility to TMV and to virulent and avirulent strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Arabidopsis thaliana has three IPS genes (AtIPS1-3). Mutant atips2 plants were depleted in InsP6 and were hypersusceptible to TMV, turnip mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus and cauliflower mosaic virus as well as to the fungus Botrytis cinerea and to P. syringae. Mutant atips2 and atipk1 plants were as hypersusceptible to infection as plants unable to accumulate salicylic acid (SA) but their increased susceptibility was not due to reduced levels of SA. In contrast, mutant atips1 plants, which were also depleted in InsP6, were not compromised in resistance to pathogens, suggesting that a specific pool of InsP6 regulates defence against phytopathogens.

  2. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex increased bone healing: histologic and histomorphometric study

    PubMed Central

    Yaman, Ferhan; Acikan, Izzet; Dundar, Serkan; Simsek, Sercan; Gul, Mehmet; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanifi; Komorowski, James; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    Background Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASI; arginine 49.5%, silicon 8.2%, and inositol 25%) is a novel material that is a bioavailable source of silicon and arginine. ASI offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effects of ASI complex on bone healing of critical-sized defects in rats. Methods The rats were randomly assigned to two groups of 21 rats each. The control group was fed a standard diet for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The ASI group was fed a diet containing 1.81 g/kg of ASI for 12 weeks; after the first 8 weeks, a calvarial critical-sized defect was created, and the rats were sacrificed 7, 14, and 28 days later. The calvarial bones of all the rats were then harvested for evaluation. Results Osteoblasts and osteoclasts were detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the control group at days 7, 14, and 28 of the calvarial defect (P<0.05). New bone formation was detected at higher levels in the ASI group compared with the controls at day 28 (P<0.05). However, new bone formation was not detected at days 7 and 14 in both the groups (P>0.05). Conclusion ASI supplementation significantly improved bone tissue healing in rats with critical-sized defects. This study demonstrated that ASI can enhance bone repair and has potential as a therapeutic regimen in humans. PMID:27390517

  3. Thrombin Induces Inositol Trisphosphate-Mediated Spatially Extensive Responses in Lung Microvessels.

    PubMed

    Escue, Rachel; Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Parthasarathi, Kaushik

    2017-04-01

    Activation of plasma membrane receptors initiates compartmentalized second messenger signaling. Whether this compartmentalization facilitates the preferential intercellular diffusion of specific second messengers is unclear. Toward this, the receptor-mediated agonist, thrombin, was instilled into microvessels in a restricted region of isolated blood-perfused mouse lungs. Subsequently, the thrombin-induced increase in endothelial F-actin was determined using confocal fluorescence microscopy. Increased F-actin was evident in microvessels directly treated with thrombin and in those located in adjoining thrombin-free regions. This increase was abrogated by inhibiting inositol trisphosphate-mediated calcium release with Xestospongin C (XeC). XeC also inhibited the thrombin-induced increase in the amplitude of endothelial cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations. Instillation of thrombin and XeC into adjacent restricted regions increased F-actin in microvessels in the thrombin-treated and adjacent regions but not in those in the XeC-treated region. Thus, inositol trisphosphate, and not calcium, diffused interendothelially to the spatially remote thrombin-free microvessels. Thus, activation of plasma membrane receptors increased the ambit of inflammatory responses via a second messenger different from that used by stimuli that induce cell-wide increases in second messengers. Thrombin however failed to induce the spatially extensive response in microvessels of mice lacking endothelial connexin43, suggesting a role for connexin43 gap junctions. Compartmental second messenger signaling and interendothelial communication define the specific second messenger involved in exacerbating proinflammatory responses to receptor-mediated agonists.

  4. Autophagy protects meniscal cells from glucocorticoids-induced apoptosis via inositol trisphosphate receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chao; Gu, Wen; Cai, Gui-Quan; Peng, Jian-Ping; Chen, Xiao-Dong

    2015-09-01

    Intra-articular injection of glucocorticoids (GCs) has been widely used in the management of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Nevertheless, several studies showed that GCs had toxic effects on chondrocytes as well as synovial cells. Previously we reported the protective role of autophagy in the degeneration of meniscal tissues. However, the effects of GCs on autophagy in the meniscal cells have not been fully elucidated. To investigate whether GCs can regulate autophagy in human meniscal cells, the meniscal cells were cultured in vitro and exposed in the presence of dexamethasone. The levels of apoptosis and autophagy were investigated via flow cytometry as well as western blotting analysis. The changes of the aggrecanases were measured using real-time PCR. The role of autophagy in dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was investigated using pharmacological agents and RNA interference technique. An agonist of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) was used to investigate the mechanism of dexamethasone-induced autophagy. The results showed that dexamethasone induced autophagy as well as apoptosis in normal human meniscal cells. Using RNA interference technique and pharmacological agents, our results showed that autophagy protected the meniscal cells from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis. Our results also indicated that dexamethasone increased the mRNA levels of aggrecanases. This catabolic effect of dexamethasone was enhanced by 3-MA, the autophagy inhibitor. Furthermore, our results showed that dexamethasone induced autophagy via suppressing the phosphorylation of IP3R. In summary, our results indicated that autophagy protected meniscal cells from GCs-induced apoptosis via inositol trisphosphate receptor signaling.

  5. Treatment with Myo-Inositol and Selenium Ensures Euthyroidism in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Basciani, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Clinical evidences have highlighted the efficacy of myo-inositol and selenium in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis. Aim of this study was to further analyze the role of myo-inositol plus selenium (Myo-Ins-Se) in restoring a normal thyroid function of Hashimoto's patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. Eighty-six patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis having thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels between 3 and 6 mIU/L, elevated serum antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and/or antithyroglobulin (TgAb), and normal free thyroxine (fT4) and free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels were enrolled in the study: one hyperthyroid subject with TSH about 0.14 μU/ml was included in this trial as a single case. Patients were assigned to receive Myo-Ins-Se. TSH, TPOAb, and TgAb levels were significantly decreased in patients treated with combined Myo-Ins-Se after 6 months of treatment. In addition, a significant fT3 and fT4 increase, along with an amelioration of their quality of life, was observed. Remarkably, TSH values of the hyperthyroid patient increased from 0.14 μU/ml up to 1.02 μU/ml, showing a complete restoration of TSH values at a normal range. In conclusion, the administration of Myo-Ins-Se is significantly effective in decreasing TSH, TPOAb, and TgAb levels, as well as enhancing thyroid hormones and personal wellbeing, therefore restoring euthyroidism in patients diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:28293260

  6. Inositol hexakisphosphate suppresses excitatory neurotransmission via synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain in the hippocampal neuron.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao-Nian; Shi, Yue; Yang, Guang; Li, Yuxin; Yu, Lina; Shin, Ok-Ho; Bacaj, Taulant; Südhof, Thomas C; Yu, Jia; Berggren, Per-Olof

    2012-07-24

    Inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) levels rise and fall with neuronal excitation and silence, respectively, in the hippocampus, suggesting potential signaling functions of this inositol polyphosphate in hippocampal neurons. We now demonstrate that intracellular application of InsP(6) caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of autaptic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in cultured hippocampal neurons. The treatment did not alter the size and replenishment rate of the readily releasable pool in autaptic neurons. Intracellular exposure to InsP(6) did not affect spontaneous EPSCs or excitatory amino acid-activated currents in neurons lacking autapses. The InsP(6)-induced inhibition of autaptic EPSCs was effectively abolished by coapplication of an antibody to synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain. Importantly, preabsorption of the antibody with a GST-WT synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain fragment but not with a GST-mutant synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain fragment that poorly reacted with the antibody impaired the activity of the antibody on the InsP(6)-induced inhibition of autaptic EPSCs. Furthermore, K(+) depolarization significantly elevated endogenous levels of InsP(6) and occluded the inhibition of autaptic EPSCs by exogenous InsP(6). These data reveal that InsP(6) suppresses excitatory neurotransmission via inhibition of the presynaptic synaptotagmin-1 C2B domain-mediated fusion via an interaction with the synaptotagmin Ca(2+)-binding sites rather than via interference with presynaptic Ca(2+) levels, synaptic vesicle trafficking, or inactivation of postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors. Therefore, elevated InsP(6) in activated neurons serves as a unique negative feedback signal to control hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission.

  7. Inositol phosphatase activity of the Escherichia coli agp-encoded acid glucose-1-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Cottrill, Michael A; Golovan, Serguei P; Phillips, John P; Forsberg, Cecil W

    2002-09-01

    When screening an Escherichia coli gene library for myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) phosphatases (phytases), we discovered that the agp-encoded acid glucose-1-phosphatase also possesses this activity. Purified Agp hydrolyzes glucose-1-phosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and InsP6 with pH optima, 6.5, 3.5, and 4.5, respectively, and was stable when incubated at pH values ranging from 3 to 10. Glucose-1-phosphate was hydrolyzed most efficiently at 55 degrees C. while InsP6 and p-nitrophenyl phosphate were hydrolyzed maximally at 60 degrees C. The Agp exhibited Km values of (0.39 mM, 13 mM, and 0.54 mM for the hydrolysis of glucose-1-phosphate, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, and InsP6, respectively. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of inositol phosphate hydrolysis products of Agp demonstrated that the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphate from each of InsP6, D-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, and Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5, producing D/L-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5. D-Ins(1,2,4,5)P4, D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and D/L-Ins(1,2,4,6)P4, respectively. These data support the contention that Agp is a 3-phosphatase.

  8. Myo-inositol administration positively effects ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Emekçi Özay, Özlen; Özay, Ali Cenk; Çağlıyan, Erkan; Okyay, Recep Emre; Gülekli, Bülent

    2017-03-03

    Objectıve: The aim of the study is to investigate the effect of myo-inositol (MYO) on pregnancy rates of patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who undergone controlled ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (IUI).

  9. Arabidopsis FHY3 and FAR1 Regulate Light-Induced myo-Inositol Biosynthesis and Oxidative Stress Responses by Transcriptional Activation of MIPS1.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Tian, Tian; Lin, Rongcheng; Deng, Xing-Wang; Wang, Haiyang; Li, Gang

    2016-04-04

    myo-Inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) catalyzes the limiting step of inositol biosynthesis and has crucial roles in plant growth and development. In response to stress, the transcription of MIPS1 is induced and the biosynthesis of inositol or inositol derivatives is promoted by unknown mechanisms. Here, we found that the light signaling protein FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and its homolog FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1) regulate light-induced inositol biosynthesis and oxidative stress responses by activating the transcription of MIPS1. Disruption of FHY3 and FAR1 caused light-induced cell death after dark-light transition, precocious leaf senescence, and increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. Reduction of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation by overexpression of SALICYLIC ACID 3-HYDROXYLASE largely suppressed the cell death phenotype of fhy3 far1 mutant plants, suggesting that FHY3- and FAR1-mediated cell death is dependent on SA. Furthermore, comparative analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and microarray results revealed that FHY3 and FAR1 directly target both MIPS1 and MIPS2. The fhy3 far1 mutant plants showed severely decreased MIPS1/2 transcript levels and reduced inositol levels. Conversely, constitutive expression of MIPS1 partially rescued the inositol contents, caused reduced transcript levels of SA-biosynthesis genes, and prevented oxidative stress in fhy3 far1. Taken together, our results indicate that the light signaling proteins FHY3 and FAR1 directly bind the promoter of MIPS1 to activate its expression and thereby promote inositol biosynthesis to prevent light-induced oxidative stress and SA-dependent cell death.

  10. Phytases Improve Myo-Inositol Bioaccessibility in Rye Bread: A Study Using an In Vitro Method of Digestion and a Caco-2 Cell Culture Model

    PubMed Central

    Cielecka, Emilia Katarzyna; Pierzchalska, Małgorzata; Żyła, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Summary Preparations of 6-phytase A (EC 3.1.3.26) and phytase B (acid phosphatase, EC 3.1.3.2) were applied alone and combined in the preparation of dough to estimate their catalytic potential for myo-inositol liberation from rye flour in the breadmaking technology. The experimental bread samples were ground after baking and subjected to determination of myo-inositol bioavailability by an in vitro method that simulated digestion in a human alimentary tract, followed by measurements of myo-inositol transport through enterocyte- -like differentiated Caco-2 cells to determine its bioaccessibility. Myo-inositol content was measured by a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technique. The concentration of myo-inositol in the dialysates of control bread was 25.3 µg/mL, whereas in the dialysates of bread sample baked with 6-phytase A, the concentration increased to 35.4 µg/mL, and in the bread baked with phytase B to 64.98 µg/mL. Simultaneous application of both enzymes resulted in myo-inositol release of 64.04 µg/mL. The highest bioaccessibility of myo-inositol, assessed by the measurement of the passage through the Caco-2 monolayer was determined in the bread baked with the addition of 6-phytase A. Enzymatically modified rye bread, particularly by the addition of 6-phytase A, may be therefore a rich source of a highly bioaccessible myo- -inositol. PMID:27904333

  11. Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate 6-/3-kinase is a nuclear protein that complements a yeast mutant lacking a functional ArgR-Mcm1 transcription complex.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hui-Jun; Brearley, Charles; Elge, Stephan; Kaplan, Boaz; Fromm, Hillel; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2003-02-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase, and more generally inositol polyphosphate kinases (Ipk), play important roles in signal transduction in animal cells; however, their functions in plant cells remain to be elucidated. Here, we report the molecular cloning of a cDNA (AtIpk2beta) from a higher plant, Arabidopsis. Arabidopsis AtIpk2beta is a 33-kD protein that exhibits weak homology ( approximately 25% identical amino acids) with Ipk proteins from animals and yeast and lacks a calmodulin binding site, as revealed by sequence analysis and calmodulin binding assays. However, recombinant AtIpk2beta phosphorylates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate and also converts it to inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5)]. AtIpk2beta also phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate to Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P(5). Thus, the enzyme is a D3/D6 dual-specificity inositol phosphate kinase. AtIpk2beta complements a yeast ARG82/IPK2 mutant lacking a functional ArgR-Mcm1 transcription complex. This complex is involved in regulating Arg metabolism-related gene expression and requires inositol polyphosphate kinase activity to function. AtIpk2beta was found to be located predominantly in the nucleus of plant cells, as demonstrated by immunolocalization and fusion to green fluorescent protein. RNA gel blot analysis and promoter-beta-glucuronidase reporter gene studies demonstrated AtIpk2beta gene expression in various organs tested. These data suggest a role for AtIpk2beta as a transcriptional control mediator in plants.

  12. VIH2 Regulates the Synthesis of Inositol Pyrophosphate InsP8 and Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Laha, Debabrata; Johnen, Philipp; Azevedo, Cristina; Dynowski, Marek; Weiß, Michael; Capolicchio, Samanta; Mao, Haibin; Iven, Tim; Steenbergen, Merel; Freyer, Marc; Gaugler, Philipp; de Campos, Marília K.F.; Zheng, Ning; Feussner, Ivo; Jessen, Henning J.; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Saiardi, Adolfo; Schaaf, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Diphosphorylated inositol polyphosphates, also referred to as inositol pyrophosphates, are important signaling molecules that regulate critical cellular activities in many eukaryotic organisms, such as membrane trafficking, telomere maintenance, ribosome biogenesis, and apoptosis. In mammals and fungi, two distinct classes of inositol phosphate kinases mediate biosynthesis of inositol pyrophosphates: Kcs1/IP6K- and Vip1/PPIP5K-like proteins. Here, we report that PPIP5K homologs are widely distributed in plants and that Arabidopsis thaliana VIH1 and VIH2 are functional PPIP5K enzymes. We show a specific induction of inositol pyrophosphate InsP8 by jasmonate and demonstrate that steady state and jasmonate-induced pools of InsP8 in Arabidopsis seedlings depend on VIH2. We identify a role of VIH2 in regulating jasmonate perception and plant defenses against herbivorous insects and necrotrophic fungi. In silico docking experiments and radioligand binding-based reconstitution assays show high-affinity binding of inositol pyrophosphates to the F-box protein COI1-JAZ jasmonate coreceptor complex and suggest that coincidence detection of jasmonate and InsP8 by COI1-JAZ is a critical component in jasmonate-regulated defenses. PMID:25901085

  13. The absence of expression of the three isoenzymes of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase does not prevent the formation of inositol pentakisphosphate and hexakisphosphate in mouse embryonic fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leyman, Alexandre; Pouillon, Valérie; Bostan, Alionka; Schurmans, Stéphane; Erneux, Christophe; Pesesse, Xavier

    2007-07-01

    The activation of phospholipase C leads to the formation of both I(1,4,5)P(3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). I(1,4,5)P(3) can be metabolized by dephosphorylation catalyzed by Type I I(1,4,5)P(3) 5-phosphatase and by enzymatic phosphorylation to various inositol phosphates. This last step is catalyzed by three mammalian isoenzymes that specifically phosphorylate the 3-phosphate position of the inositol ring Itpka, Itpkb and Itpkc and a less specific enzyme Ipmk (or inositol multikinase) that phosphorylates I(1,4,5)P(3) at the D-3 and D-6 positions. This study was performed in mice cells in order to understand the synthetic pathway of IP5 and IP6 following PLC stimulation and possible link with Itpk activity. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) were prepared from Itpkb(-/-) Itpkc(-/-) mice. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis show that the cells do not express Itpka. In contrast, they do express Ipmk. The cells still produce IP5 and IP6. Our data show that the absence of expression of the three isoenzymes of Itpk does not prevent the formation of IP5 and IP6, at least in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. The nuclear Ipmk plays therefore a critical role in the metabolism of I(1,4,5)P(3) and production of highly phosphorylated IP5 and IP6.

  14. Inositol 5'-phosphatase, SHIP1 interacts with phospholipase C-gamma1 and modulates EGF-induced PLC activity.

    PubMed

    Song, Minseok; Kim, Myung Jong; Ha, Sanghoon; Park, Jong Bae; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2005-06-30

    Phospholipase C-gamma1, containing two SH2 and one SH3 domains which participate in the interaction between signaling molecules, plays a significant role in the growth factor-induced signal transduction. However, the role of the SH domains in the growth factor-induced PLC-gamma1 regulation is unclear. By peptide-mass fingerprinting analysis, we have identified SHIP1 as the binding protein for the SH3 domain of PLC-gamma1. SHIP1 was co-immunoprecipitated with PLC-gamma1 and potentiated EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation. However, inositol 5'-phosphatase activity of SHIP1 was not required for the potentiation of EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation. Taken together, these results suggest that SHIP1 may function as an adaptor protein which can potentiate EGF-induced PLC-gamma1 activation without regards to its inositol 5'-phosphatase activity.

  15. myo-Inositol 1-Phosphate Synthase Inhibition and Control of Uridine Diphosphate-d-glucuronic Acid Biosynthesis in Plants 12

    PubMed Central

    Loewus, Mary W.; Loewus, Frank

    1974-01-01

    Of the eight intermediates associated with the two pathways of UDP-d-glucuronic acid biosynthesis found in plants, only d-glucuronic acid inhibited myo-inositol 1-phosphate synthase (EC 5.5.1.4), formerly referred to as d-glucose 6-phosphate cycloaldolase. Inhibition was competitive. An attempt to demonstrate over-all reversibility of the synthase indicated that it was less than 5% reversible, if at all. PMID:16658890

  16. Activation of frog (Xenopus laevis) eggs by inositol trisphosphate. I. Characterization of Ca2+ release from intracellular stores

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Iontophoresis of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate into frog (Xenopus laevis) eggs activated early developmental events such as membrane depolarization, cortical contraction, cortical granule exocytosis, and abortive cleavage furrow formation (pseudocleavage). Inositol 1, 4- bisphosphate also triggered these events, but only at doses approximately 100-fold higher, whereas no level of fructose-1, 6- bisphosphate tested activated eggs. Using Ca2+-selective microelectrodes, we observed that activating doses of inositol 1, 4, 5- trisphosphate triggered a Ca2+ release from intracellular stores that was indistinguishable from that previously observed at fertilization (Busa, W. B., and R. Nuccitelli, 1985, J. Cell Biol., 100:1325-1329), whereas subthreshold doses triggered only a localized Ca2+ release at the site of injection. The subthreshold IP3 response could be distinguished from the major Ca2+ release at activation with respect to their dose-response characteristics, relative timing, sensitivity to external Ca2+ levels, additivity, and behavior in the activated egg, suggesting that the Xenopus egg may possess two functionally distinct Ca2+ pools mobilized by different effectors. In light of these differences, we suggest a model for intracellular Ca2+ mobilization by sperm-egg interaction. PMID:3874873

  17. Inositol- and folate-resistant neural tube defects in mice lacking the epithelial-specific factor Grhl-3.

    PubMed

    Ting, Stephen B; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Auden, Alana; Hall, Mark; Voss, Anne K; Thomas, Tim; Parekh, Vishwas; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2003-12-01

    The neural tube defects (NTDs) spina bifida and anencephaly are widely prevalent severe birth defects. The mouse mutant curly tail (ct/ct) has served as a model of NTDs for 50 years, even though the responsible genetic defect remained unrecognized. Here we show by gene targeting, mapping and genetic complementation studies that a mouse homolog of the Drosophila grainyhead (grh) gene, grainyhead-like-3 (Grhl3), is a compelling candidate for the gene underlying the curly tail phenotype. The NTDs in Grhl3-null mice are more severe than those in the curly tail strain, as the Grhl3 alleles in ct/ct mice are hypomorphic. Spina bifida in ct/ct mice is folate resistant, but its incidence can be markedly reduced by maternal inositol supplementation periconceptually. The NTDs in Grhl3-/- embryos are also folate resistant, but unlike those in ct/ct mice, they are resistant to inositol. These findings suggest that residual Grhl3 expression in ct/ct mice may be required for inositol rescue of folate-resistant NTDs.

  18. D-chiro-inositol attenuates epinephrine-stimulated hepatic glucose output in the isolated perfused liver independently of insulin.

    PubMed

    Whiting, L; Danaher, R N; Ruggiero, K; Lee, C-C; Chaussade, C; Mulvey, T; Phillips, A; Loomes, K M

    2013-05-01

    D-chiro-Inositol (DCI) is a cyclic sugar alcohol that evokes both antidiabetic and insulin sensitizing effects. Pharmacological administration of DCI has been shown to lower blood glucose in rat models of diabetes mellitus and enhance insulin sensitivity in humans with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We hypothesised that the antidiabetic effects of DCI could be due to inhibition of hepatic glucose output (HGO). To test this hypothesis, we perfused isolated rat livers either with buffer, myo-inositol, DCI, or insulin, and investigated their respective effects on the stimulation of HGO by epinephrine. We found that perfusion with 200 μM DCI attenuated epinephrine-stimulated HGO by 35% over 30 min as compared to the buffer control perfusion (p=0.05). By comparison, perfusion with 1 nM insulin attenuated epinephrine-stimulated HGO by 57% (p<0.0001). The glucose-lowering effects by DCI occurred independently of insulin and were specific to the DCI stereoisomer as 200 μM myo-inositol had no effect. These findings suggest that DCI could evoke its antidiabetic effects in vivo by inhibition of HGO. Further identification of the protein targets involved could open up new avenues to regulate hyperglycaemia with wider implications for the treatment of hepatic insulin resistance in PCOS.

  19. Degradation of phytate in the gut of pigs--pathway of gastro-intestinal inositol phosphate hydrolysis and enzymes involved.

    PubMed

    Schlemmer, U; Jany, K D; Berk, A; Schulz, E; Rechkemmer, G

    2001-01-01

    The present study gives an overview on the whole mechanism of phytate degradation in the gut and the enzymes involved. Based on the similarity of the human and pigs gut, the study was carried out in pigs as model for humans. To differentiate between intrinsic feed phytases and endogenous phytases hydrolysing phytate in the gut, two diets, one high (control diet) and the other one very low in intrinsic feed phytases (phytase inactivated diet) were applied. In the chyme of stomach, small intestine and colon inositol phosphate isomers and activities of phytases and alkaline phosphatases were determined. In parallel total tract phytate degradation and apparent phosphorus digestibility were assessed. In the stomach chyme of pigs fed the control diet, comparable high phytase activity and strong phytate degradation were observed. The predominant phytate hydrolysis products were inositol phosphates, typically formed by plant phytases. For the phytase inactivated diet, comparable very low phytase activity and almost no phytate degradation in the stomach were determined. In the small intestine and colon, high activity of alkaline phosphatases and low activity of phytases were observed, irrespective of the diet fed. In the colon, stronger phytate degradation for the phytase inactivated diet than for the control diet was detected. Phytate degradation throughout the whole gut was nearly complete and very similar for both diets while the apparent availability of total phosphorus was significantly higher for the pigs fed the control diet than the phytase inactivated diet. The pathway of inositol phosphate hydrolysis in the gut has been elucidated.

  20. myo-inositol phosphate isomers generated by the action of a phytase from a malaysian waste-water bacterium.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf; Farouk, Abd-Elaziem; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar; Konietzny, Ursula

    2007-12-01

    Using a combination of High-Performance Ion Chromatography analysis and kinetic studies, the pathway of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate dephosphorylation by a phytase from a Malaysian waste-water bacterium was established. The data demonstrate that the phytase preferably dephosphorylates myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in a stereospecific way by sequential removal of phosphate groups via D-I(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), D-I(2,3,4,5)P(4), D-I(2,3,4)P(3), D-I(2,3)P(2) to finally I(2)P. It was estimated that more than 90% of phytate hydrolysis occurs via D-I(1,2,3,4,5)P(5). Thus, the phytase from the Malaysian waste-water bacterium has to be considered a 6-phytase (E.C. 3.1.3.26). A second pathway of minor importance could be proposed which is in accordance with the results obtained from analysis of the dephosphorylation products formed by the action of the phytase under investigation on myo-inositol hexakisphosphate. It proceeds via D/L-I(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D/L-I(1,2,4,5)P(4), D/L-I(1,2,4)P(3), D/L-I(2,4)P(2) to finally I(2)P.

  1. Kinetic mechanism of the Zn-dependent aryl-phosphatase activity of myo-inositol-1-phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Anna; Casolaro, Mario; Ranaldi, Francesco; Manao, Giampaolo; Camici, Guido; Giachetti, Eugenio

    2007-02-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.25) is able to hydrolyze myo-inositol-1-phosphate in the presence of Mg(2+) ions at neutral pH, and also p-nitrophenyl phosphate in the presence of Zn(2+)-ions at acidic pH. This enzyme plays a role in phosphatidylinositol cell signalling and is a putative target of lithium therapy in manic depression. We elucidate here the kinetic mechanism of the Zn-dependent activity of myo-inositol-1-phosphatase. As part of this analysis it was necessary to determine the basicity constants of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and the stability constant of its metal-complex in the presence of zinc chloride. We find that the Zn-dependent reaction may be described either by a rapid-equilibrium random mechanism or an ordered steady-state mechanism in which the substrate binds to the free enzyme prior to the metal ion. In both models the Zn-substrate complex acts as a high affinity inhibitor, yielding a dead-end species through its binding to the enzyme-Zn-substrate in rapid-equilibrium or to the enzyme-phosphate complexes in a steady-state model. Phosphate is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme with respect to the substrate and an uncompetitive inhibitor with respect to zinc ions.

  2. /sup 2/H-NMR studies of hypocotyl cell walls of germinating beams supplied with perdeuterated myo-inositol

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, K.; Wallace, J.C.; MacKay, A.L.; Balza, F.; Taylor, I.E.P.

    1987-04-01

    When myo-(2-/sup 3/H) inositol (MI) was supplied to bean seeds by imbibition, only uronic acid, arabinose and xylose residues of cell wall polysaccharides were labeled. To study the structural mobility of the uronic acid- and/or pentose-rich polysaccharides in cell wall using /sup 2/H-NMR, the authors supplied perdeuterated MI with (2-/sup 3/H) MI to germinating bean seeds. Perdeuterated MI was prepared by the /sup 1/H-/sup 2/H exchange reaction of MI in deuterium oxide with Raney nickel. During the exchange reaction, extensive epimerization occurred and at least 6 inositol epimers in addition to MI were identified in the reaction mixture of GC/MS. The perdeuterated MI was completely resolved from other inositol epimers and purified by anion-exchange chromatography using Dowex 1 (borate form) and by crystallization. The /sup 2/H-NMR analysis resolved the /sup 2/H-labeled hypocotyl cell walls into two components (rigid and mobile components). They also report the distribution of /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H from perdeuterated and (2-/sup 3/H) MI in the cell wall sugar residues.

  3. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex during the late laying period of quail at different environmental temperatures.

    PubMed

    Onderci, M; Sahin, N; Sahin, K; Balci, T A; Gursu, M F; Juturu, V; Kucuk, O

    2006-04-01

    Arginine silicate inositol complex (ASIdagger; arginine 49.5%, silicon 8.2%, inositol 25%) is a novel material which is a bioavailable source of silicon and arginine. ASI offers potential benefits for vascular and bone health. Poor eggshell quality has been a major economic concern to commercial egg producers. Poor egg quality, skeletal abnormalities and architectural deterioration of bone tissue are common problems under hot conditions and in older birds. The effects of ASI supplementation on egg production, egg quality, levels of osteocalcin (OC) and bone mineral content were investigated in heat-stressed Japanese quail during the later part of the laying period. The birds were randomly assigned to six treatment groups consisting of six replicates of five birds each in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments (temperatures, ASI levels). The birds were kept in wire cages in a temperature-controlled room at either 22 degrees C (TN) or 34 degrees C (HS) for 8 h/d and fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with either 500 or 1000 g of ASI/kg. Heat exposure reduced egg production, egg quality and bone mineralisation when the basal diet was fed. ASI supplementation had no effect on feed intake or egg production under TN or HS conditions. However, ASI supplementation increased egg weight, shell thickness, shell weight and Haugh unit in both TN and HS groups during the late laying period. Bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly improved by ASI supplementation in both TN and HS groups. Serum osteocalcin (OC) concentrations and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity increased linearly with dietary ASI supplementation during the late laying period. The amount of calcium and phosphorus in the excreta decreased, while ash, mineral content, calcium and phosphorus concentrations in tibia increased in ASI-supplemented quail in both TN and HS groups during the late laying period. ASI supplementation significantly improved egg quality and bone

  4. Seed phosphorus and inositol phosphate phenotype of barley low phytic acid genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dorsch, John A; Cook, Allen; Young, Kevin A; Anderson, Joseph M; Bauman, Andrew T; Volkmann, Carla J; Murthy, Pushpalatha P N; Raboy, Victor

    2003-03-01

    myo-Inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (Ins P(6) or "phytic acid") typically represents approximately 75% of the total phosphorus and >80% of soluble myo-inositol (Ins) phosphates in seeds. The seed phosphorus and Ins phosphate phenotypes of four non-lethal barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid mutations are described. In seeds homozygous for M 635 and M 955 reductions in Ins P(6), approximately 75 and >90% respectively, are accompanied by reductions in other Ins phosphates and molar-equivalent increases in Pi. This phenotype suggests a block in supply of substrate Ins. In seeds homozygous for barley low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1), a 45% decrease in Ins P(6) is mostly matched by an increase in Pi but also accompanied by small increases in Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5). In seeds homozygous for barley lpa2-1, reductions in seed Ins P(6) are accompanied by increases in both Pi and in several Ins phosphates, a phenotype that suggests a lesion in Ins phosphate metabolism, rather than Ins supply. The increased Ins phosphates in barley lpa2-1 seed are: Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5); Ins(1,2,4,6)P(4) and/or its enantiomer Ins(2,3,4,6)P(4); Ins(1,2,3,4)P(4) and/or its enantiomer Ins(1,2,3,6)P(4); Ins(1,2,6)P(3) and/or its enantiomer Ins(2,3,4)P(3); Ins(1,5,6)P(3) and/or its enantiomer Ins(3,4,5)P(3) (the methods used here cannot distinguish between enantiomers). This primarily "5-OH" series of Ins phosphates differs from the "1-/3-OH" series observed at elevated levels in seed of the maize lpa2 genotype, but previous chromosomal mapping data indicated that the maize and barley lpa2 loci might be orthologs of a single ancestral gene. Therefore one hypothesis that might explain the differing lpa2 phenotypes is that their common ancestral gene encodes a multi-functional, Ins phosphate kinase with both "1-/-3-" and "5-kinase" activities. A putative pyrophosphate-containing Ins phosphate, possibly an Ins P(7), was also observed in the mature seed of all barley genotypes except lpa2-1. Barley M

  5. Metabolic Studies on Intermediates in the myo-Inositol Oxidation Pathway in Lilium longiflorum Pollen: II. Evidence for the Participation of Uridine Diphosphoxylose and Free Xylose as Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, C L; Loewus, F A

    1978-01-01

    myo-Inositol-linked glucogenesis in germinated lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb., cv. Ace) pollen was investigated by studying the effects of added l-arabinose or d-xylose on metabolism of myo-[2-(3)H]inositol and by determining the distribution of radioisotope in pentosyl and hexosyl residues of polysaccharides from pollen labeled with myo-[2-(14)C]inositol, myo-[2-(3)H]inositol, l-[5-(14)C]arabinose, and d-[5R,5S-(3)H]xylose.myo-[2-(14)C]Inositol and l-[5-(14)C]arabinose produced labeled glucose with similar patterns of distribution of (14)C, 35% in C1, and 55% in C6. Arabinosyl units were labeled exclusively in C5. Incorporation of (3)H into arabinosyl and xylosyl units in pollen labeled with myo-[2-(3)H]inositol was repressed when unlabeled l-arabinose was included in the germination medium and a related (3)H exchange with water was stimulated. Results are consistent with a process of glucogenesis in which the myo-inositol oxidation pathway furnishes UDP-d-xylose as a key intermediate for conversion to hexose via free d-xylose and the pentose phosphate pathway.Additional evidence for this process was obtained from pollen labeled with d-[5R,5S-(3)H]xylose or myo-[2-(3)H]inositol which produces d-[5R-(3)H]xylose. Glucosyl units from polysaccharides in the former had 11% of the (3)H in C1 and 78% in C6 while glucosyl units in the latter had only 4% in C1 and 78% in C6. Stereochemical considerations involving selective exchange with water of prochiral-R (3)H in C1 of fructose-6-P during conversion to glucose provide explanation for observed differences in the metabolism of these 5-labeled xyloses.Incorporation of (3)H from myo-[2-(3)H]inositol into arabinosyl and xylosyl units of pollen polysaccharides was unaffected by the presence of unlabeled d-xylose in the medium. Exchange of (3)H with water was greatly affected, decreasing from a value of 21% exchange in the absence of unlabeled d-xylose to 5% in the presence of 6.7 mmd-xylose.d-Xylose was rapidly utilized for

  6. A Functional myo-Inositol Dehydrogenase Gene Is Required for Efficient Nitrogen Fixation and Competitiveness of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191 To Nodulate Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.)

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoqiao; Krishnan, Ammulu Hari; Kim, Yong-Woong; Wacek, Thomas J.; Krishnan, Hari B.

    2001-01-01

    Inositol derivative compounds provide a nutrient source for soil bacteria that possess the ability to degrade such compounds. Rhizobium strains that are capable of utilizing certain inositol derivatives are better colonizers of their host plants. We have cloned and determined the nucleotide sequence of the myo-inositol dehydrogenase gene (idhA) of Sinorhizobium fredii USDA191, the first enzyme responsible for inositol catabolism. The deduced IdhA protein has a molecular mass of 34,648 Da and shows significant sequence similarity with protein sequences of Sinorhizobium meliloti IdhA and MocA; Bacillus subtilis IolG, YrbE, and YucG; and Streptomyces griseus StrI. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutants revealed no detectable myo-inositol dehydrogenase activity and failed to grow on myo-inositol as a sole carbon source. Northern blot analysis and idhA-lacZ fusion expression studies indicate that idhA is inducible by myo-inositol. S. fredii USDA191 idhA mutant was drastically affected in its ability to reduce nitrogen and revealed deteriorating bacteroids inside the nodules. The number of bacteria recovered from such nodules was about threefold lower than the number of bacteria isolated from nodules initiated by S. fredii USDA191. In addition, the idhA mutant was also severely affected in its ability to compete with the wild-type strain in nodulating soybean. Under competitive conditions, nodules induced on soybean roots were predominantly occupied by the parent strain, even when the idhA mutant was applied at a 10-fold numerical advantage. Thus, we conclude that a functional idhA gene is required for efficient nitrogen fixation and for competitive nodulation of soybeans by S. fredii USDA191. PMID:11274120

  7. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex inhibits periodontal tissue loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Dundar, Serkan; Eltas, Abubekir; Hakki, Sema S; Malkoc, Sıddık; Uslu, M Ozay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Komorowski, James; Ozercan, I Hanifi; Akdemir, Fatih; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower in rats fed a diet containing ASI complex after experimental periodontitis. These results indicate that ASI complex could be an alternative agent for host modulation. PMID:27895467

  8. Jasmonate perception by inositol-phosphate-potentiated COI1-JAZ co-receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sheard, Laura B; Tan, Xu; Mao, Haibin; Withers, John; Ben-Nissan, Gili; Hinds, Thomas R; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Sharon, Michal; Browse, John; He, Sheng Yang; Rizo, Josep; Howe, Gregg A; Zheng, Ning

    2011-11-07

    Jasmonates are a family of plant hormones that regulate plant growth, development and responses to stress. The F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1) mediates jasmonate signalling by promoting hormone-dependent ubiquitylation and degradation of transcriptional repressor JAZ proteins. Despite its importance, the mechanism of jasmonate perception remains unclear. Here we present structural and pharmacological data to show that the true Arabidopsis jasmonate receptor is a complex of both COI1 and JAZ. COI1 contains an open pocket that recognizes the bioactive hormone (3R,7S)-jasmonoyl-l-isoleucine (JA-Ile) with high specificity. High-affinity hormone binding requires a bipartite JAZ degron sequence consisting of a conserved {alpha}-helix for COI1 docking and a loop region to trap the hormone in its binding pocket. In addition, we identify a third critical component of the jasmonate co-receptor complex, inositol pentakisphosphate, which interacts with both COI1 and JAZ adjacent to the ligand. Our results unravel the mechanism of jasmonate perception and highlight the ability of F-box proteins to evolve as multi-component signalling hubs.

  9. Isolation and characterization of the inositol trisphosphate receptor from smooth muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, C.C.; Saito, A.; Fleischer, S. )

    1990-03-01

    The release of Ca{sup 2+} from internal stores is requisite to muscle contraction. In skeletal muscle and heart, the Ca{sup 2+} release channels (ryanodine receptor) of sarcoplasmic reticulum, involved in excitation-contraction coupling, have recently been isolated and characterized. In smooth muscle, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) is believed to mobilize Ca{sup 2+} from internal stores and thereby modulate contraction. The authors describe the isolation of an IP{sub 3} receptor from smooth muscle. Bovine aorta smooth muscle microsomes were solubilized with 3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate, and the IP{sub 3} receptor was purified by sucrose gradient centrifugation and column chromatography with heparin-agarose and wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. The receptor is an oligomer of a single polypeptide with a M{sub r} of 224,000 as determined by SDS/PAGE. Negative-staining electron microscopy reveals that the receptor is a large pinwheel-like structure having surface dimensions of {approx}250 {times} 250 {angstrom} with fourfold symmetry. The IP{sub 3} receptor from smooth muscle is similar to the ryanodine receptor with regard to its large size and fourfold symmetry, albeit distinct with regard to appearance, protomer size, and ligand binding.

  10. Norepinephrine and veratrine stimulated formation of inositol phosphates in rat brain slices

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, K.U.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1986-03-05

    Stimulation of phosphoinositide (PIn) hydrolysis by depolarization with veratrine was compared to that produced by stimulation of alpha/sub 1/ adrenoceptors by norepinephrine (NE). The PIns in rat cerebral cortex were labelled with /sup 3/H-myoinositol and the effects of the drugs on the formation of the three /sup 3/H-inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3) were determined. The amounts of IP and IP2 formed by a maximal concentration of veratrine were about 50% of that formed by a maximal concentration of NE while the amount of IP3 formed after stimulation by veratrine was only about 10% of that produced by NE. The increase in IP was linear with time (30 min) for both NE and veratrine. IP2 and IP3 stimulation by veratrine reached a maximum at 5 min whereas that produced by NE continued to increase for 30 min. Blockade of voltage dependent calcium channels with manganese produced nearly complete antagonism of the veratrine response while only partially antagonizing the NE response. NE-induced IP2 formation was less sensitive to manganese than IP or IP3. These data suggest that veratrine causes hydrolysis of either a different pool of PIn or that the hydrolysis occurs by a different mechanism compared to NE. The data also suggest that IP2 may be produced directly from phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate rather than solely as a metabolite of IP3.

  11. Treating Woman with Myo-Inositol Vaginal Suppositories Improves Partner's Sperm Motility and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Poverini, Roberta; Lisi, Rosella; Carra, Maria Cristina; Lisi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Motility is the feature that allows spermatozoa to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete during fertilization. When this function is altered, and especially decreased, troubles in conceiving may occur. In this study, we demonstrated that treating fertile women with myo-inositol (MI) vaginal suppositories ameliorated their partners' sperm motility and also positively affected their conceiving capacity, without changes in cervical mucus structural and biochemical characteristics. Indeed, by means of the postcoital test on female cervical mucus, a significant improvement especially in progressive sperm motility was recorded after MI suppository use. Concomitantly, after MI treatment, a reduction of immotile spermatozoa percentage was observed. Importantly, MI vaginal supplementation positively correlated with a pregnancy for 5 of the 50 couples enrolled in the study, leading us to speculate that this substance may substantially contribute to create in the cervical mucus an ideal milieu that makes spermatozoa more motile and functionally able to fertilize. Even though the detailed mechanism is still unclear, these results should encourage MI vaginal use for the clinical improvement of male infertility, through their partners. PMID:27403162

  12. Treating Woman with Myo-Inositol Vaginal Suppositories Improves Partner's Sperm Motility and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Montanino Oliva, Mario; Poverini, Roberta; Lisi, Rosella; Carra, Maria Cristina; Lisi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Motility is the feature that allows spermatozoa to actively reach and penetrate the female gamete during fertilization. When this function is altered, and especially decreased, troubles in conceiving may occur. In this study, we demonstrated that treating fertile women with myo-inositol (MI) vaginal suppositories ameliorated their partners' sperm motility and also positively affected their conceiving capacity, without changes in cervical mucus structural and biochemical characteristics. Indeed, by means of the postcoital test on female cervical mucus, a significant improvement especially in progressive sperm motility was recorded after MI suppository use. Concomitantly, after MI treatment, a reduction of immotile spermatozoa percentage was observed. Importantly, MI vaginal supplementation positively correlated with a pregnancy for 5 of the 50 couples enrolled in the study, leading us to speculate that this substance may substantially contribute to create in the cervical mucus an ideal milieu that makes spermatozoa more motile and functionally able to fertilize. Even though the detailed mechanism is still unclear, these results should encourage MI vaginal use for the clinical improvement of male infertility, through their partners.

  13. Studies on the biochemistry and physiology of inositol phospholipids in Dunaliella salina

    SciTech Connect

    Einspahr, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the unicellular alga, Dunaliella salina, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP{sub 2}) comprise 14.8, 1.2, and 0.3 mol %, respectively, of cellular phospholipids. In isolated plasma membrane fractions, PIP and PIP{sub 2} are highly concentrated, together comprising 9.5 mol % of plasmalemma phospholipids. The metabolism of these inositol phospholipids and phosphatidic acid (PA) is very rapid under normal growth conditions, as illustrated by the fact that within 5 minutes after introduction of {sup 32}P{sub i} into the growth medium over 75% of lipid-bound label was found in these quantitatively minor phospholipids. Within 2 minutes after a sudden hypoosmotic shock, the levels of PIP{sub 2} and PIP dropped to 65 and 79%, respectively, of controls. Within the same time frame PA rose to 141% of control values. These data suggest that a rapid breakdown of the polyphosphoinositides may mediate the profound morphological and physiological changes which allow this organism to survive drastic hypoosmotic stress.

  14. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  15. T cells deficient in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor are resistant to apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, T; Marks, A R

    1997-01-01

    The type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) calcium release channel is present on the endoplasmic reticulum of most cell types. T lymphocytes which have been made deficient in IP3R1 lack detectable IP3-induced intracellular calcium release and exhibit defective signaling via the T-cell receptor (TCR) (T. Jayaraman, E. Ondriasova, K. Ondrias, D. Harnick, and A. R. Marks, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:6007-6011, 1995). We now show that IP3R1-deficient T cells are resistant to apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, TCR stimulation, ionizing radiation, and Fas. Resistance to TCR-mediated apoptosis in IP3R1-deficient cells is reversed by pharmacologically raising cytoplasmic calcium levels. TCR-mediated apoptosis can be induced in calcium-free media, indicating that extracellular calcium influx is not required. These findings suggest that intracellular calcium release via the IP3R1 is a critical mediator of apoptosis. PMID:9154798

  16. Depletion of Inositol Polyphosphate 4-Phosphatase II Suppresses Callosal Axon Formation in the Developing Mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Liting; Kim, Nam-Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh; Rhee, Hae Jin

    2016-06-30

    The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and is essential for coordinated transmission of information between them. Disruption of early stages of callosal development can cause agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), including both complete and partial callosal absence, causing mild to severe cognitive impairment. Despite extensive studies, the etiology of AgCC remains to be clarified due to the complicated mechanism involved in generating AgCC. The biological function of PI3K signaling including phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is well established in diverse biochemical processes including axon and dendrite morphogenesis, but the function of the closely related phosphatidylinositol-3,4,-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) signaling, particularly in the nervous system, is largely unknown. Here, we provide the first report on the role of inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase II (INPP4B), a PI(3,4)P2 metabolizing 4-phosphatase in the regulation of callosal axon formation. Depleting INPP4B by in utero electroporation suppressed medially directed callosal axon formation. Moreover, depletion of INPP4B significantly attenuated formation of Satb2-positive pyramidal neurons and axon polarization in cortical neurons during cortical development. Taken together, these data suggest that INPP4B plays a role in the regulating callosal axon formation by controlling axon polarization and the Satb2-positive pyramidal neuron population. Dysregulation of INPP4B during cortical development may be implicated in the generation of partial AgCC.

  17. Interactions of antagonists with subtypes of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Huma; Tovey, Stephen C; Molinski, Tedeusz F; Taylor, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are intracellular Ca2+ channels. Interactions of the commonly used antagonists of IP3Rs with IP3R subtypes are poorly understood. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH IP3-evoked Ca2+ release from permeabilized DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R was measured using a luminal Ca2+ indicator. The effects of commonly used antagonists on IP3-evoked Ca2+ release and 3H-IP3 binding were characterized. KEY RESULTS Functional analyses showed that heparin was a competitive antagonist of all IP3R subtypes with different affinities for each (IP3R3 > IP3R1 ≥ IP3R2). This sequence did not match the affinities for heparin binding to the isolated N-terminal from each IP3R subtype. 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) and high concentrations of caffeine selectively inhibited IP3R1 without affecting IP3 binding. Neither Xestospongin C nor Xestospongin D effectively inhibited IP3-evoked Ca2+ release via any IP3R subtype. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Heparin competes with IP3, but its access to the IP3-binding core is substantially hindered by additional IP3R residues. These interactions may contribute to its modest selectivity for IP3R3. Practicable concentrations of caffeine and 2-APB inhibit only IP3R1. Xestospongins do not appear to be effective antagonists of IP3Rs. PMID:24628114

  18. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and Ran expression during simulated and real microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kriegs, B; Theisen, R; Schnabl, H

    2006-12-01

    In order to gain further insight into the signal transduction pathway concerning gravitropism, we studied the expression profiles of mRNA in etiolated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. Differential-display reverse transcriptase PCR product assayed by capillary electrophoresis revealed the small GTPase Ran, regulating nuclear import and export of proteins. Parallel analysis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) release by a highly advanced system of metal-dye detection combined with high-performance liquid chromatography provided evidence that the second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3 is modulated by changes of the gravity vector. Investigations by fast clinorotation and sounding rockets established a positive correlation between the Ins(1,4,5)P3 level and the expression rate of Ran mRNA during simulated and real microgravity. Since an asymmetric distribution of auxin during graviresponse is suggested to induce differential cell elongation, additional information on the perception and transduction pathways was achieved by auxin stimulation experiments. While we were able to demonstrate an auxin-dependent production of Ins(1,4,5)P3, the expression of Ran mRNA was not affected by auxin. Finally, besides the phosphoinositide system as one element of the signal transduction chain linking graviperception to graviresponse, a Ran-mediated interaction model of extracellular microgravity signal perception and intercellular transduction pathway is proposed.

  19. Pheromone regulated production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate in the mammalian vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, K S; Anholt, R R

    1997-08-01

    Social behaviors of most mammals are profoundly affected by chemical signals, pheromones, exchanged between conspecifics. Pheromones interact with dendritic microvilli of bipolar neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO). To investigate vomeronasal signal transduction pathways, microvillar membranes from porcine VNO were prepared. Incubation of such membranes from prepubertal females with boar seminal fluid or urine results in an increase in production of inositol-(1, 4, 5)-trisphosphate (IP3). The dose response for IP3 production is biphasic with a GTP-dependent component at low stimulus concentrations and a nonspecific increase in IP3 at higher stimulus concentrations. The GTP-dependent stimulation is mimicked by GTPgammaS and blocked by GDPbetaS. Furthermore, the GTP-dependent component of the stimulation of IP3 production is sex specific and tissue dependent. Studies with monospecific antibodies reveal a G alpha(q/11)-related protein in vomeronasal neurons, concentrated at their microvilli. Our observations indicate that pheromones in boar secretions act on vomeronasal neurons in the female VNO via a receptor mediated, G protein-dependent increase in IP3. These observations set the stage for further investigations on the regulation of stimulus-excitation coupling in vomeronasal neurons. The pheromone-induced IP3 response also provides an assay for future purification of mammalian reproductive pheromones.

  20. Involvement of Arabidopsis Hexokinase1 in Cell Death Mediated by Myo-Inositol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Bruggeman, Quentin; Prunier, Florence; Mazubert, Christelle; de Bont, Linda; Garmier, Marie; Lugan, Raphaël; Benhamed, Moussa; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Delarue, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for several aspects of plant life, including development and stress responses. We recently identified the mips1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, which is deficient for the enzyme catalyzing the limiting step of myo-inositol (MI) synthesis. One of the most striking features of mips1 is the light-dependent formation of lesions on leaves due to salicylic acid (SA)-dependent PCD. Here, we identified a suppressor of PCD by screening for mutations that abolish the mips1 cell death phenotype. Our screen identified the hxk1 mutant, mutated in the gene encoding the hexokinase1 (HXK1) enzyme that catalyzes sugar phosphorylation and acts as a genuine glucose sensor. We show that HXK1 is required for lesion formation in mips1 due to alterations in MI content, via SA-dependant signaling. Using two catalytically inactive HXK1 mutants, we also show that hexokinase catalytic activity is necessary for the establishment of lesions in mips1. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed a restoration of the MI content in mips1 hxk1 that it is due to the activity of the MIPS2 isoform, while MIPS3 is not involved. Our work defines a pathway of HXK1-mediated cell death in plants and demonstrates that two MIPS enzymes act cooperatively under a particular metabolic status, highlighting a novel checkpoint of MI homeostasis in plants. PMID:26048869

  1. Which pulse sequence is optimal for myo-inositol detection at 3T?

    PubMed

    Hancu, Ileana

    2009-05-01

    Optimized myo-inositol (mI) detection is important for diagnosing and monitoring a multitude of pathological conditions of the brain. Simulations are presented in this work, performed to decide which pulse sequence has the most significant advantage in terms of improving repeatability and accuracy of mI measurements at 3T over the pulse sequence used typically in the clinic, a TE = 35 ms PRESS sequence. Five classes of pulse sequences, four previously suggested for optimized mI detection (a short TE PRESS, a Carr-Purcell PRESS sequence, an optimized STEAM sequence, an optimized zero quantum filter), and one optimized for mI detection in this work (a single quantum filter) were compared to a standard, TE = 35 ms pulse sequence. While limiting the SNR of an acquisition to the equivalent SNR of a spectrum acquired in 5 min from an 8 cc voxel, it was found through simulations that the most repeatable mI measurements would be obtained with a Carr-Purcell sequence. This sequence was implemented in a clinical scanner, and improved mI measurements were demonstrated in vivo.

  2. Free-radical mediated synthesis of enantiomerically pure, highly functionalized inositols from carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Marco-Contelles, J; Pozuelo, C; de Opazo, E

    2001-06-15

    We report the synthesis, free-radical cyclization of precursors 1,2,7-trideoxy-7-iodo-3,4:5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-D-gluco-hept-1-enitol (1), methyl 7-O-acetyl-6-O-benzyl-8-bromo-2,3,8-trideoxy-4,5-O-isopropylidene-D-gluco-oct-2-enonate (2) and 5-O-acetyl-4-O-benzyl-6-bromo-6-deoxy-2,3-O-isopropylidene-D-glucose-O-benzyloxime (3), readily prepared from D-glucose, and some selected transformations of the carbocycles obtained from these intermediates. In compound 1 we have installed a terminal double bond and an iodide as radical acceptor and leaving group, respectively. Compounds 2 and 3 are epsilon-bromo aldehydes substituted with alpha,beta-unsaturated ester and oxime ether functions as radical traps, respectively. The tributyltin hydride mediated ring closure of these radical precursors have afforded a series of interesting, diverse and highly functionalized carbocycles which can be considered useful building blocks for the synthesis of branched-chain cyclitols, aminocyclitols and aminoconduritols. In these processes, a good chemical yield and high stereoselectivity has been found in the newly formed stereocenters. Particularly interesting has been the finding that the stereochemical outcome of the free-radical cyclization is independent of the ratio of isomers (E or Z) in oxime ether 3. These results show the power and the state of art of this strategy for the stereocontrolled synthesis of enantiomerically pure inositols from carbohydrates.

  3. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates autophagy through its interaction with Beclin 1.

    PubMed

    Vicencio, J M; Ortiz, C; Criollo, A; Jones, A W E; Kepp, O; Galluzzi, L; Joza, N; Vitale, I; Morselli, E; Tailler, M; Castedo, M; Maiuri, M C; Molgó, J; Szabadkai, G; Lavandero, S; Kroemer, G

    2009-07-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) is a major regulator of apoptotic signaling. Through interactions with members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, it drives calcium (Ca(2+)) transients from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria, thereby establishing a functional and physical link between these organelles. Importantly, the IP(3)R also regulates autophagy, and in particular, its inhibition/depletion strongly induces macroautophagy. Here, we show that the IP(3)R antagonist xestospongin B induces autophagy by disrupting a molecular complex formed by the IP(3)R and Beclin 1, an interaction that is increased or inhibited by overexpression or knockdown of Bcl-2, respectively. An effect of Beclin 1 on Ca(2+) homeostasis was discarded as siRNA-mediated knockdown of Beclin 1 did not affect cytosolic or luminal ER Ca(2+) levels. Xestospongin B- or starvation-induced autophagy was inhibited by overexpression of the IP(3)R ligand-binding domain, which coimmunoprecipitated with Beclin 1. These results identify IP(3)R as a new regulator of the Beclin 1 complex that may bridge signals converging on the ER and initial phagophore formation.

  4. Myo-Inositol Safety in Pregnancy: From Preimplantation Development to Newborn Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kuşcu, Nilay

    2016-01-01

    Myo-inositol (myo-Ins) has a physiological role in mammalian gametogenesis and embryonic development and a positive clinical impact on human medically assisted reproduction. We have previously shown that mouse embryo exposure to myo-Ins through preimplantation development in vitro increases proliferation activity and blastocyst production, representing an improvement in culture conditions. We have herein investigated biochemical mechanisms elicited by myo-Ins in preimplantation embryos and evaluated myo-Ins effects on postimplantation/postnatal development. To this end naturally fertilized embryos were cultured in vitro to blastocyst in the presence or absence of myo-Ins and analyzed for activation of the PKB/Akt pathway, known to modulate proliferation/survival cellular processes. In parallel, blastocyst-stage embryos were transferred into pseudopregnant females and allowed to develop to term and until weaning. Results obtained provide evidence that myo-Ins induces cellular pathways involving Akt and show that (a) exposure of preimplantation embryos to myo-Ins increases the number of blastocysts available for uterine transfer and of delivered animals and (b) the developmental patterns of mice obtained from embryos cultured in the presence or absence of myo-Ins, up to three weeks of age, overlap. These data further identify myo-Ins as a possibly important supplement for human preimplantation embryo culture in assisted reproduction technology. PMID:27698667

  5. Inositol phosphate pathway controls transcription of telomeric expression sites in trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Cestari, Igor; Stuart, Ken

    2015-05-26

    African trypanosomes evade clearance by host antibodies by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. They transcribe only one VSG gene at a time from 1 of about 20 telomeric expression sites (ESs). They undergo antigenic variation by switching transcription between telomeric ESs or by recombination of the VSG gene expressed. We show that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway controls transcription of telomeric ESs and VSG antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Conditional knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase (TbPIP5K) or phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase (TbPIP5Pase) or overexpression of phospholipase C (TbPLC) derepresses numerous silent ESs in T. brucei bloodstream forms. The derepression is specific to telomeric ESs, and it coincides with an increase in the number of colocalizing telomeric and RNA polymerase I foci in the nucleus. Monoallelic VSG transcription resumes after reexpression of TbPIP5K; however, most of the resultant cells switched the VSG gene expressed. TbPIP5K, TbPLC, their substrates, and products localize to the plasma membrane, whereas TbPIP5Pase localizes to the nucleus proximal to telomeres. TbPIP5Pase associates with repressor/activator protein 1 (TbRAP1), and their telomeric silencing function is altered by TbPIP5K knockdown. These results show that specific steps in the IP pathway control ES transcription and antigenic switching in T. brucei by epigenetic regulation of telomere silencing.

  6. Multibody cofactor and substrate molecular recognition in the myo-inositol monophosphatase enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Ferruz, Noelia; Tresadern, Gary; Pineda-Lucena, Antonio; De Fabritiis, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    Molecular recognition is rarely a two-body protein-ligand problem, as it often involves the dynamic interplay of multiple molecules that together control the binding process. Myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a drug target for bipolar disorder, depends on 3 Mg2+ ions as cofactor for its catalytic activity. Although the crystallographic pose of the pre-catalytic complex is well characterized, the binding process by which substrate, cofactor and protein cooperate is essentially unknown. Here, we have characterized cofactor and substrate cooperative binding by means of large-scale molecular dynamics. Our study showed the first and second Mg2+ ions identify the binding pocket with fast kinetics whereas the third ion presents a much higher energy barrier. Substrate binding can occur in cooperation with cofactor, or alone to a binary or ternary cofactor-IMPase complex, although the last scenario occurs several orders of magnitude faster. Our atomic description of the three-body mechanism offers a particularly challenging example of pathway reconstruction, and may prove particularly useful in realistic contexts where water, ions, cofactors or other entities cooperate and modulate the binding process. PMID:27440438

  7. Functional architecture of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in restricted spaces of myoendothelial projections.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, Jonathan; Taylor, Mark S; Bonev, Adrian D; Hannah, Rachael M; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Shui, Bo; Tallini, Yvonne; Kotlikoff, Michael I; Nelson, Mark T

    2008-07-15

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) release through inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP(3)Rs) regulates the function of virtually every mammalian cell. Unlike ryanodine receptors, which generate local Ca(2+) events ("sparks") that transmit signals to the juxtaposed cell membrane, a similar functional architecture has not been reported for IP(3)Rs. Here, we have identified spatially fixed, local Ca(2+) release events ("pulsars") in vascular endothelial membrane domains that project through the internal elastic lamina to adjacent smooth muscle membranes. Ca(2+) pulsars are mediated by IP(3)Rs in the endothelial endoplasmic reticulum of these membrane projections. Elevation of IP(3) by the endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, increased the frequency of Ca(2+) pulsars, whereas blunting IP(3) production, blocking IP(3)Rs, or depleting endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) inhibited these events. The elementary properties of Ca(2+) pulsars were distinct from ryanodine-receptor-mediated Ca(2+) sparks in smooth muscle and from IP(3)-mediated Ca(2+) puffs in Xenopus oocytes. The intermediate conductance, Ca(2+)-sensitive potassium (K(Ca)3.1) channel also colocalized to the endothelial projections, and blockage of this channel caused an 8-mV depolarization. Inhibition of Ca(2+) pulsars also depolarized to a similar extent, and blocking K(Ca)3.1 channels was without effect in the absence of pulsars. Our results support a mechanism of IP(3) signaling in which Ca(2+) release is spatially restricted to transmit intercellular signals.

  8. 5′-Inositol phosphatase SHIP2 recruits Mena to stabilize invadopodia for cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Zaoui, Kossay; Huang, Bruce H.; Sangwan, Veena; Gertler, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    Invadopodia are specialized membrane protrusions that support degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) by cancer cells, allowing invasion and metastatic spread. Although early stages of invadopodia assembly have been elucidated, little is known about maturation of invadopodia into structures competent for ECM proteolysis. The localized conversion of phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)-triphosphate and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol(3,4)-bisphosphate at invadopodia is a key determinant for invadopodia maturation. Here we investigate the role of the 5′-inositol phosphatase, SHIP2, and reveal an unexpected scaffold function of SHIP2 as a prerequisite for invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation. Through biochemical and structure-function analyses, we identify specific interactions between SHIP2 and Mena, an Ena/VASP-family actin regulatory protein. We demonstrate that SHIP2 recruits Mena, but not VASP, to invadopodia and that disruption of SHIP2–Mena interaction in cancer cells leads to attenuated capacity for ECM degradation and invasion in vitro, as well as reduced metastasis in vivo. Together, these findings identify SHIP2 as a key modulator of carcinoma invasiveness and a target for metastatic disease. PMID:27597754

  9. 5'-Inositol phosphatase SHIP2 recruits Mena to stabilize invadopodia for cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Rajadurai, Charles V; Havrylov, Serhiy; Coelho, Paula P; Ratcliffe, Colin D H; Zaoui, Kossay; Huang, Bruce H; Monast, Anie; Chughtai, Naila; Sangwan, Veena; Gertler, Frank B; Siegel, Peter M; Park, Morag

    2016-09-12

    Invadopodia are specialized membrane protrusions that support degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) by cancer cells, allowing invasion and metastatic spread. Although early stages of invadopodia assembly have been elucidated, little is known about maturation of invadopodia into structures competent for ECM proteolysis. The localized conversion of phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)-triphosphate and accumulation of phosphatidylinositol(3,4)-bisphosphate at invadopodia is a key determinant for invadopodia maturation. Here we investigate the role of the 5'-inositol phosphatase, SHIP2, and reveal an unexpected scaffold function of SHIP2 as a prerequisite for invadopodia-mediated ECM degradation. Through biochemical and structure-function analyses, we identify specific interactions between SHIP2 and Mena, an Ena/VASP-family actin regulatory protein. We demonstrate that SHIP2 recruits Mena, but not VASP, to invadopodia and that disruption of SHIP2-Mena interaction in cancer cells leads to attenuated capacity for ECM degradation and invasion in vitro, as well as reduced metastasis in vivo. Together, these findings identify SHIP2 as a key modulator of carcinoma invasiveness and a target for metastatic disease.

  10. Inositol phosphate pathway controls transcription of telomeric expression sites in trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Igor; Stuart, Ken

    2015-01-01

    African trypanosomes evade clearance by host antibodies by periodically changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. They transcribe only one VSG gene at a time from 1 of about 20 telomeric expression sites (ESs). They undergo antigenic variation by switching transcription between telomeric ESs or by recombination of the VSG gene expressed. We show that the inositol phosphate (IP) pathway controls transcription of telomeric ESs and VSG antigenic switching in Trypanosoma brucei. Conditional knockdown of phosphatidylinositol 5-kinase (TbPIP5K) or phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatase (TbPIP5Pase) or overexpression of phospholipase C (TbPLC) derepresses numerous silent ESs in T. brucei bloodstream forms. The derepression is specific to telomeric ESs, and it coincides with an increase in the number of colocalizing telomeric and RNA polymerase I foci in the nucleus. Monoallelic VSG transcription resumes after reexpression of TbPIP5K; however, most of the resultant cells switched the VSG gene expressed. TbPIP5K, TbPLC, their substrates, and products localize to the plasma membrane, whereas TbPIP5Pase localizes to the nucleus proximal to telomeres. TbPIP5Pase associates with repressor/activator protein 1 (TbRAP1), and their telomeric silencing function is altered by TbPIP5K knockdown. These results show that specific steps in the IP pathway control ES transcription and antigenic switching in T. brucei by epigenetic regulation of telomere silencing. PMID:25964327

  11. The menstrual cycle regularization following D-chiro-inositol treatment in PCOS women: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Dondi, Giulia; Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Cianci, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is characterized by irregular cycles, hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovary at ultrasound and insulin resistance. The effectiveness of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) treatment in improving insulin resistance in PCOS patients has been confirmed in several reports. The objective of this study was to retrospectively analyze the effect of DCI on menstrual cycle regularity in PCOS women. This was a retrospective study of patients with irregular cycles who were treated with DCI. Of all PCOS women admitted to our centre, 47 were treated with DCI and had complete medical charts. The percentage of women reporting regular menstrual cycles significantly increased with increasing duration of DCI treatment (24% and 51.6% at a mean of 6 and 15 months of treatment, respectively). Serum AMH levels and indexes of insulin resistance significantly decreased during the treatment. Low AMH levels, high HOMA index, and the presence of oligomenorrhea at the first visit were the independent predictors of obtaining regular menstrual cycle with DCI. In conclusion, the use of DCI is associated to clinical benefits for many women affected by PCOS including the improvement in insulin resistance and menstrual cycle regularity. Responders to the treatment may be identified on the basis of menstrual irregularity and hormonal or metabolic markers.

  12. The inositol phosphatase SHIP controls Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in vivo.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Jennifer L; Sly, Laura M; Krystal, Gerald; Finlay, B Brett

    2008-07-01

    The SH2 domain-containing inositol 5'-phosphatase, SHIP, negatively regulates various hematopoietic cell functions and is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis. However, whether SHIP plays a role in controlling bacterial infections in vivo remains unknown. Salmonella enterica causes human salmonellosis, a disease that ranges in severity from mild gastroenteritis to severe systemic illness, resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The susceptibility of ship(+/+) and ship(-/-) mice and bone marrow-derived macrophages to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium infection was compared. ship(-/-) mice displayed an increased susceptibility to both oral and intraperitoneal serovar Typhimurium infection and had significantly higher bacterial loads in intestinal and systemic sites than ship(+/+) mice, indicating a role for SHIP in the gut-associated and systemic pathogenesis of serovar Typhimurium in vivo. Cytokine analysis of serum from orally infected mice showed that ship(-/-) mice produce lower levels of Th1 cytokines than do ship(+/+) animals at 2 days postinfection, and in vitro analysis of supernatants taken from infected bone marrow-derived macrophages derived to mimic the in vivo ship(-/-) alternatively activated (M2) macrophage phenotype correlated with these data. M2 macrophages were the predominant population in vivo in both oral and intraperitoneal infections, since tissue macrophages within the small intestine and peritoneal macrophages from ship(-/-) mice showed elevated levels of the M2 macrophage markers Ym1 and Arginase 1 compared to ship(+/+) cells. Based on these data, we propose that M2 macrophage skewing in ship(-/-) mice contributes to ineffective clearance of Salmonella in vivo.

  13. Autoinhibition of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) and activation by soluble inositol hexakisphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Vogan, Erik M; Nocka, Laura M; Rosen, Connor E; Zorn, Julie A; Harrison, Stephen C; Kuriyan, John

    2015-01-01

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), a Tec-family tyrosine kinase, is essential for B-cell function. We present crystallographic and biochemical analyses of Btk, which together reveal molecular details of its autoinhibition and activation. Autoinhibited Btk adopts a compact conformation like that of inactive c-Src and c-Abl. A lipid-binding PH-TH module, unique to Tec kinases, acts in conjunction with the SH2 and SH3 domains to stabilize the inactive conformation. In addition to the expected activation of Btk by membranes containing phosphatidylinositol triphosphate (PIP3), we found that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6), a soluble signaling molecule found in both animal and plant cells, also activates Btk. This activation is a consequence of a transient PH-TH dimerization induced by IP6, which promotes transphosphorylation of the kinase domains. Sequence comparisons with other Tec-family kinases suggest that activation by IP6 is unique to Btk. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06074.001 PMID:25699547

  14. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate kinase from Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Baños-Sanz, Jose Ignacio; Villate, Maider; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Brearley, Charles Alistair; González, Beatriz

    2010-01-01

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate kinase (IP5 2-K) is an enzyme involved in inositol metabolism that synthesizes IP6 (inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate) from inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (IP5) and ATP. IP6 is the major phosphorus reserve in plants, while in mammals it is involved in multiple cellular events such as DNA editing and chromatin remodelling. In addition, IP6 is the precursor of other highly phosphorylated inositols which also play highly relevant roles. IP5 2-K is the only enzyme that phosphorylates the 2-OH axial position of the inositide and understanding its molecular mechanism of substrate specificity is of great interest in cell biology. IP5 2-K from Arabidopsis thaliana has been expressed in Escherichia coli as two different fusion proteins and purified. Both protein preparations yielded crystals of different quality, always in the presence of IP6. The best crystals obtained for X-ray crystallographic analysis belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.124, b = 113.591, c = 142.478 Å. Several diffraction data sets were collected for the native enzyme and two heavy-atom derivatives using a synchrotron source. PMID:20057083

  15. Effects of glucose on sorbitol pathway activation, cellular redox, and metabolism of myo-inositol, phosphoinositide, and diacylglycerol in cultured human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, T P; Porcellati, F; Kato, K; Stevens, M J; Sherman, W R; Greene, D A

    1994-01-01

    Sorbitol (aldose reductase) pathway flux in diabetes perturbs intracellular metabolism by two putative mechanisms: reciprocal osmoregulatory depletion of other organic osmolytes e.g., myo-inositol, and alterations in NADPH/NADP+ and/or NADH/NAD+. The "osmolyte" and "redox" hypotheses predict secondary elevations in CDP-diglyceride, the rate-limiting precursor for phosphatidylinositol synthesis, but through different mechanisms: the "osmolyte" hypothesis via depletion of intracellular myo-inositol (the cosubstrate for phosphatidylinositol-synthase) and the "redox" hypothesis through enhanced de novo synthesis from triose phosphates. The osmolyte hypothesis predicts diminished phosphoinositide-derived arachidonyl-diacylglycerol, while the redox hypothesis predicts increased total diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid. In high aldose reductase expressing retinal pigment epithelial cells, glucose-induced, aldose reductase inhibitor-sensitive CDP-diglyceride accumulation and inhibition of 32P-incorporation into phosphatidylinositol paralleled myo-inositol depletion (but not cytoplasmic redox, that was unaffected by glucose) and depletion of arachidonyl-diacylglycerol. 3 mM pyruvate added to the culture medium left cellular redox unaltered, but stimulated Na(+)-dependent myo-inositol uptake, accumulation, and incorporation into phosphatidylinositol. These results favor myo-inositol depletion rather than altered redox as the primary cause of glucose-induced aldose reductase-related defects in phospholipid metabolism in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. Images PMID:8201009

  16. Ectopic Expression of a Glycine soja myo-Inositol Oxygenase Gene (GsMIOX1a) in Arabidopsis Enhances Tolerance to Alkaline Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Sun, Xiaoli; Duanmu, Huizi; Yu, Yang; Liu, Ailin; Xiao, Jialei; Zhu, Yanming

    2015-01-01

    Myo-inositol participates in various aspects of plant physiology, and myo-inositol oxygenase is the key enzyme of the myo-inositol oxygenation pathway. Previous studies indicated that myo-inositol oxygenase may play a role in plant responses to abiotic stresses. In this study, we focused on the functional characterization of GsMIOX1a, a remarkable alkaline stress-responsive gene of Glycine soja 07256, based on RNA-seq data. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we demonstrated that GsMIOX1a is rapidly induced by alkaline stress and expressed predominantly in flowers. We also elucidated the positive function of GsMIOX1a in the alkaline response in the wild type, atmiox1 mutant as well as GsMIOX1a-overexpressing Arabidopsis. We determined that atmiox1 mutant decreased Arabidopsis tolerance to alkaline stress, whereas GsMIOX1a overexpression increased tolerance. Moreover, the expression levels of some alkaline stress-responsive and inducible marker genes, including H+-Ppase, NADP-ME, KIN1 and RD29B, were also up-regulated in GsMIOX1a overexpression lines compared with the wild type and atmiox1 mutant. Together, these results suggest that the GsMIOX1a gene positively regulates plant tolerance to alkaline stress. This is the first report to demonstrate that ectopic expression of myo-inositol oxygenase improves alkaline tolerance in plants. PMID:26091094

  17. Effects of inositol, inositol-generating phytase B applied alone, and in combination with 6-phytase A to phosphorus-deficient diets on laying performance, eggshell quality, yolk cholesterol, and fatty acid deposition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zyla, K; Mika, M; Duliński, R; Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J; Pustkowiak, H; Piironen, J

    2012-08-01

    Phytase B, a product of Aspergillus niger phyB gene expressed in Trichoderma reesei, which increased myo-inositol concentrations in 20 mM sodium phytate solution 7.5-fold during 120-min incubation, a combination of phytase B with 6-phytase A, and pure myo-inositol were tested as feed supplements in Bovans Brown laying hens. In the 2-factorial experiment (2×5), birds from wk 50 to 62 were fed 2 basal diets, corn-soybean (CSM) or wheat-soybean (WSM), using 12 one-hen cages per treatment. For both basal diets, the dietary treatments included negative control (0.08% nonphytate P in CSM, 0.13% nonphytate P in WSM; NC); internal control groups, NC+0.04% nonphytate P from monocalcium phosphate, MCP (IC); NC+0.1% of myo-inositol (Inos), NC+phytase B at 1,300 units of phytase B-acid phosphatase activity (AcPU)/kg (PhyB), NC+phytase B at 1,300 AcPU/kg+6-phytase A at 300 FTU/kg (PhyA+B). Feed intake, laying performance, and eggshell quality were determined. The total lipid and cholesterol contents as well as fatty acid profile were assessed in egg yolks collected from hens fed CSM diets, as was fatty acid profile. The hens fed the WSM diet consumed significantly more feed, laid a higher mass of eggs daily with higher mean weights, and had a higher hen-day egg production than the birds receiving the CSM diets. Similarly, higher values for yolk weights, shell weights, shell thickness, shell density, and breaking strengths were determined in the eggs laid by the hens fed the WSM diets. In hens fed either the CSM diets with phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, enhanced feed intakes, egg mass, and hen-day egg production were recorded. Phytases also enhanced the eggshell quality parameters in the hens fed both variants of the diets. Phytase B alone, or in combination with 6-phytase A, reduced the total lipid and cholesterol concentrations in egg yolks collected from the hens fed the CSM diets, whereas the combination of both phytases improved the n-6:n-3

  18. Studies on the properties of myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate 5-phosphatase and myo-inositol monophosphatase in bovine iris sphincter smooth muscle: effects of okadaic acid and protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Akhtar, R A; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1994-05-26

    In bovine iris sphincter, myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) 5-phosphatase and myo-inositol 1-phosphate (IP1) monophosphatase are mainly localized in the microsomal and soluble fractions, respectively. Studies on the properties of these enzymes can be summarized as follows. (1) The microsomal IP3 5-phosphatase hydrolyzed IP3 to myo-inositol 1,4-bisphosphate with an apparent Km of 28 microM and Vmax of 32 nmol/min per mg protein. The IP1 monophosphatase in the soluble fraction hydrolyzed IP1 into free inositol with an apparent Km of 89 microM and Vmax of 7 nmol/min per mg protein. (2) IP3 5-phosphatase and IP1 monophosphatase had optimal pH values at 8.0 and 7.0, respectively. (3) Both enzymes required Mg2+ and their highest specific activities were at a cation concentration of 2 mM. (4) Ca2+ (> 0.5 microM) exerted an inhibitory effect on IP3 5-phosphatase activity, and marked inhibition (47%) was observed at a concentration of 10 microM. Higher concentrations of the cation (> 100 microM) were required to inhibit IP1 monophosphatase. (5) IP1 monophosphatase, but not IP3 5-phosphatase, was inhibited by Li+. Li+ had no effect on the contractile response in this smooth muscle. (6) Both enzymes were inhibited by ATP and by the thiol-blocking agent, disulfiram. In addition, thimerosal, a thiol reagent, also inhibited the IP3 5-phosphatase activity. (7) Protein phosphorylation of the microsomal and soluble fractions with PKA or PKC had no effect on the activities of these enzymes. (8) Okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor, had no effect on the activity of IP3 5-phosphatase. However, in the intact iris sphincter the toxin significantly reduced the carbachol-induced IP3 production, 1,2-diacylglycerol formation, measured as phosphatidic acid, and caused muscle relaxation.

  19. Comparison of Ca2+ mobilizing activities of cyclic ADP-ribose and inositol trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Dargie, P J; Agre, M C; Lee, H C

    1990-01-01

    We have previously shown that a metabolite of NAD+ generated by an enzyme present in sea urchin eggs and mammalian tissues can mobilize intracellular Ca2+ in the eggs. Structural determination established it to be a cyclized ADP-ribose, and the name cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) has been proposed. In this study, Ca2+ mobilizations induced by cADPR and inositol trisphosphate (IP3) in sea urchin egg homogenates were monitored with Ca2+ indicators and Ca2(+)-specific electrodes. Both methods showed that cADPR can release Ca2+ from egg homogenates. Evidence indicated that it did not act as a nonspecific Ca2(+)-ionophore or as a blocker of the microsomal Ca2(+)-transport; instead, it was likely to be operating through a specific receptor system. This was supported by its half-maximal effective concentration of 18 nM, which was 7 times lower than that of IP3. The receptor for cADPR appeared to be different from that of IP3 because heparin, an inhibitor of IP3 binding, had no effect on the cADPR action. The Ca2+ releases induced by cADPR and IP3 were not additive and had an inverse relationship, indicating overlapping stores were mobilized. Microinjection of cADPR into intact eggs induced transient intracellular Ca2+ changes and activated the cortical reaction. The in vivo effectiveness of cADPR was directly comparable with IP3 and neither required external Ca2+. In addition, both were effective in activating the eggs to undergo multiple nuclear cycles and DNA synthesis. These results suggest that cADPR could function as a second messenger in sea urchin eggs. Images PMID:2100201

  20. Antibodies to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 in patients with cerebellar disease

    PubMed Central

    Fouka, Penelope; Alexopoulos, Harry; Chatzi, Ioanna; Dedos, Skarlatos G.; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Politis, Panagiotis; Tzioufas, Athanasios

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe newly identified autoantibodies associated with cerebellar disorders. Design/Methods: We first screened the sera of 15 patients with cerebellar ataxia, without any known associated autoantibodies, with immunocytochemistry on mouse brain. After characterization and validation of a newly identified antibody, 85 additional patients with suspected autoimmune cerebellar disease were screened using a cell-based assay. Results: Immunoglobulin G from one of the first 15 patients demonstrated a distinct staining pattern on Purkinje neurons. This autoantibody, as characterized further by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, was binding inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 (IP3R1), an intracellular channel that mediates the release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Anti-IP3R1 specificity was then validated with a cell-based assay. On this basis, screening of 85 other patients with cerebellar disease revealed 2 additional IP3R1-positive patients. All 3 patients presented with cerebellar ataxia; the first was eventually diagnosed with primary progressive multiple sclerosis, the second had a homozygous CAG insertion at the gene TBP, and the third was thought to have a neurodegenerative disease. Conclusions: We independently identified an autoantibody against IP3R1, a protein highly expressed in Purkinje neurons, confirming an earlier report. Because a mouse knockout model for IP3R1 exhibits ataxia and epilepsy, this autoantibody may have a functional role. The heterogeneity of the antibody-positive patients suggests that this antibody may either have a direct involvement in disease pathogenesis or it is a surrogate marker secondary to cerebellar injury. Anti-IP3R1 antibodies should be further explored in various ataxic and epileptic syndromes as they may denote a marker of response to immunotherapies. PMID:27957507

  1. Identification of Functionally Critical Residues in the Channel Domain of Inositol Trisphosphate Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Bhanumathy, Cunnigaiper; da Fonseca, Paula C. A.; Morris, Edward P.; Joseph, Suresh K.

    2012-01-01

    We have combined alanine mutagenesis and functional assays to identify amino acid residues in the channel domain that are critical for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) channel function. The residues selected were highly conserved in all three IP3R isoforms and were located in the cytosolic end of the S6 pore-lining helix and proximal portion of the C-tail. Two adjacent hydrophobic amino acids (Ile-2588 and Ile-2589) at the putative cytosolic interface of the S6 helix inactivated channel function and could be candidates for the channel gate. Of five negatively charged residues mutated, none completely eliminated channel function. Of five positively charged residues mutated, only one inactivated the channel (Arg-2596). In addition to the previously identified role of a pair of cysteines in the C-tail (Cys-2610 and Cys-2613), a pair of highly conserved histidines (His-2630 and His-2635) were also essential for channel function. Expression of the H2630A and H2635A mutants (but not R2596A) produced receptors with destabilized interactions between the N-terminal fragment and the channel domain. A previously unrecognized association between the cytosolic C-tail and the TM 4,5-loop was demonstrated using GST pulldown assays. However, none of the mutations in the C-tail interfered with this interaction or altered the ability of the C-tail to assemble into dimers. Our present findings and recent information on IP3R structure from electron microscopy and crystallography are incorporated into a revised model of channel gating. PMID:23086950

  2. The inositol phosphatase SHIP-1 is negatively regulated by Fli-1 and its loss accelerates leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lakhanpal, Gurpreet K; Vecchiarelli-Federico, Laura M; Li, You-Jun; Cui, Jiu-Wei; Bailey, Monica L; Spaner, David E; Dumont, Daniel J; Barber, Dwayne L; Ben-David, Yaacov

    2010-07-22

    The activation of Fli-1, an Ets transcription factor, is the critical genetic event in Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV)-induced erythroleukemia. Fli-1 overexpression leads to erythropoietin-dependent erythroblast proliferation, enhanced survival, and inhibition of terminal differentiation, through activation of the Ras pathway. However, the mechanism by which Fli-1 activates this signal transduction pathway has yet to be identified. Down-regulation of the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1) is associated with erythropoietin-stimulated erythroleukemic cells and correlates with increased proliferation of transformed cells. In this study, we have shown that F-MuLV-infected SHIP-1 knockout mice display accelerated erythroleukemia progression. In addition, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated suppression of SHIP-1 in erythroleukemia cells activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK/MAPK) pathways, blocks erythroid differentiation, accelerates erythropoietin-induced proliferation, and leads to PI 3-K-dependent Fli-1 up-regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase assays confirmed that Fli-1 binds directly to an Ets DNA binding site within the SHIP-1 promoter and suppresses SHIP-1 transcription. These data provide evidence to suggest that SHIP-1 is a direct Fli-1 target, SHIP-1 and Fli-1 regulate each other in a negative feedback loop, and the suppression of SHIP-1 by Fli-1 plays an important role in the transformation of erythroid progenitors by F-MuLV.

  3. Identification of inhibitors of inositol 5-phosphatases through multiple screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Pirruccello, Michelle; Nandez, Ramiro; Idevall-Hagren, Olof; Alcazar-Roman, Abel; Abriola, Laura; Berwick, Shana Alexandra; Lucast, Louise; Morel, Dayna; De Camilli, Pietro

    2014-06-20

    Phosphoinositides are low abundance membrane phospholipids that have key roles in signaling, membrane trafficking, and cytoskeletal dynamics in all cells. Until recently, strategies for robust and quantitative development of pharmacological tools for manipulating phosphoinositide levels have focused selectively on PI(3,4,5)P3 due to the importance of this lipid in growth factor signaling and cell proliferation. However, drugs that affect levels of other phosphoinositides have potential therapeutic applications and will be powerful research tools. Here, we describe methodology for the high-throughput screening of small molecule modulators of the inositol 5-phosphatases, which dephosphorylate PI(4,5)P2 (the precursor for PI(3,4,5)P3) and PI(3,4,5)P3). We developed three complementary in vitro activity assays, tested hit compounds on a panel of 5-phosphatases, and monitored efficacy toward various substrates. Two prominent chemical scaffolds were identified with high nanomolar/low micromolar activity, with one class showing inhibitory activity toward all 5-phosphatases tested and the other selective activity toward OCRL and INPP5B, which are closely related to each other. One highly soluble OCRL/INPP5B-specific inhibitor shows a direct interaction with the catalytic domain of INPP5B. The efficacy of this compound in living cells was validated through its property to enhance actin nucleation at the cell cortex, a PI(4,5)P2 dependent process, and to inhibit PI(4,5)P2 dephosphorylation by OCRL (both overexpressed and endogenous enzyme). The assays and screening strategies described here are applicable to other phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes, at least several of which have major clinical relevance. Most importantly, this study identifies the first OCRL/INPP5B specific inhibitor and provides a platform for the design of more potent inhibitors of this family of enzymes.

  4. Activation of inositol trisphosphate-sensitive Ca2+ channels of sarcoplasmic reticulum from frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Isla, B A; Alcayaga, C; Marengo, J J; Bull, R

    1991-01-01

    1. The modulation by Ca2+ of the activation by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) of Ca2+ channels present in native sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes from frog skeletal muscle was studied after channel incorporation into planar phospholipid bilayers in the presence of Ca2+ or Ba2+ as current carrier species. 2. Channel activity expressed as fractional open time (Po) was low (less than or equal to 0.15) in the presence of varying free Ca2+ concentrations bathing the myoplasmic face of the channel (cis side), and did not increase significantly between 0.01 and 30 microM-Ca2+. 3. Channel activation mediated by IP3 could be elicited from free Ca2+ levels similar to those of resting skeletal muscle (about 0.1 microM) and was found to be strongly regulated by the free Ca2+ concentration present at the myoplasmic moiety of the channel. 4. Channel activation by 10 microM-IP3 depended on the Ca2+ concentration on the cis side. Po reached a maximum between pCa 7.0 and 6.0, but decreased at higher concentrations of free Ca2+. Thus, Ca2+ exerted a modulatory influence on IP3-mediated activation in a concentration range where the channel was insensitive to Ca2+. 5. The results indicate that Ca2+ ions act as modulators of IP3 efficacy to open the channel. This could arise from an interaction of Ca2+ with the channel gating mechanism or with the agonist binding site. PMID:1667801

  5. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in fasting and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiguo; Li, Gang; Goode, Jason; Paz, Jose C; Ouyang, Kunfu; Screaton, Robert; Fischer, Wolfgang H; Chen, Ju; Tabas, Ira; Montminy, Marc

    2012-04-08

    In the fasted state, increases in circulating glucagon promote hepatic glucose production through induction of the gluconeogenic program. Triggering of the cyclic AMP pathway increases gluconeogenic gene expression via the de-phosphorylation of the CREB co-activator CRTC2 (ref. 1). Glucagon promotes CRTC2 dephosphorylation in part through the protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated inhibition of the CRTC2 kinase SIK2. A number of Ser/Thr phosphatases seem to be capable of dephosphorylating CRTC2 (refs 2, 3), but the mechanisms by which hormonal cues regulate these enzymes remain unclear. Here we show in mice that glucagon stimulates CRTC2 dephosphorylation in hepatocytes by mobilizing intracellular calcium stores and activating the calcium/calmodulin-dependent Ser/Thr-phosphatase calcineurin (also known as PP3CA). Glucagon increased cytosolic calcium concentration through the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP(3)Rs), which associate with CRTC2. After their activation, InsP(3)Rs enhanced gluconeogenic gene expression by promoting the calcineurin-mediated dephosphorylation of CRTC2. During feeding, increases in insulin signalling reduced CRTC2 activity via the AKT-mediated inactivation of InsP(3)Rs. InsP(3)R activity was increased in diabetes, leading to upregulation of the gluconeogenic program. As hepatic downregulation of InsP(3)Rs and calcineurin improved circulating glucose levels in insulin resistance, these results demonstrate how interactions between cAMP and calcium pathways at the level of the InsP(3)R modulate hepatic glucose production under fasting conditions and in diabetes.

  6. Identification of a gene cluster enabling Lactobacillus casei BL23 to utilize myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Yebra, María Jesús; Zúñiga, Manuel; Beaufils, Sophie; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Deutscher, Josef; Monedero, Vicente

    2007-06-01

    Genome analysis of Lactobacillus casei BL23 revealed that, compared to L. casei ATCC 334, it carries a 12.8-kb DNA insertion containing genes involved in the catabolism of the cyclic polyol myo-inositol (MI). Indeed, L. casei ATCC 334 does not ferment MI, whereas strain BL23 is able to utilize this carbon source. The inserted DNA consists of an iolR gene encoding a DeoR family transcriptional repressor and a divergently transcribed iolTABCDG1G2EJK operon, encoding a complete MI catabolic pathway, in which the iolK gene probably codes for a malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase. The presence of iolK suggests that L. casei has two alternative pathways for the metabolism of malonic semialdehyde: (i) the classical MI catabolic pathway in which IolA (malonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) catalyzes the formation of acetyl-coenzyme A from malonic semialdehyde and (ii) the conversion of malonic semialdehyde to acetaldehyde catalyzed by the product of iolK. The function of the iol genes was verified by the disruption of iolA, iolT, and iolD, which provided MI-negative strains. By contrast, the disruption of iolK resulted in a strain with no obvious defect in MI utilization. Transcriptional analyses conducted with different mutant strains showed that the iolTABCDG1G2EJK cluster is regulated by substrate-specific induction mediated by the inactivation of the transcriptional repressor IolR and by carbon catabolite repression mediated by the catabolite control protein A (CcpA). This is the first example of an operon for MI utilization in lactic acid bacteria and illustrates the versatility of carbohydrate utilization in L. casei BL23.

  7. Comparison of calcium ionophore and receptor-activated inositol phosphate formation in primary glial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Wigginton, S A; Minneman, K P

    1991-11-13

    The possible role of Ca2+ influx in alpha 1-adrenoceptor-stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate [( 3H]InsP) formation was examined in primary cultures of glial cells from 1-day-old rat brain. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 caused a concentration- and time-dependent increase in [3H]InsP formation similar in magnitude to that caused by norepinephrine (NE). Responses to A23187 and NE were both completely dependent on extracellular Ca2+, with a similar concentration dependence. However, cadmium was more potent in blocking the response to A23187 than to NE. Lanthanum (1 mM) blocked the response to NE, although cobalt (5 mM) did not. The [3H]InsP response to A23187 was not additive with the response to NE or to the muscarinic agonist carbachol, although responses to NE and carbachol were addictive Both A23187 and ionomycin inhibited the additive stimulation caused by a combination of NE and carbachol, and this inhibition was potentiated by cadmium. Ionomycin stimulated [3H]InsP formation at concentrations lower than those inhibiting receptor-mediated responses, and this stimulation was not additive with responses to NE or carbachol. High-performance liquid chromatography separation showed similar patterns of [3H]InsPs formed in response to both Ca2+ ionophore and receptor agonists. These results raise the possibility that receptor-activated Ca2+ influx may be involved in stimulation of [3H]InsP formation in these cells.

  8. Type 1 and 3 inositol trisphosphate receptors are required for extra-embryonic vascular development.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Keiko; Nakazawa, Maki; Yamagishi, Chihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    The embryonic-maternal interface of the placental labyrinth, allantois, and yolk sac are vital during embryogenesis; however, the precise mechanism underlying the vascularization of these structures remains unknown. Herein we focus on the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3R), which are intracellular Ca(2+) release channels, in placentation. Double knockout (DKO) of type 1 and 3 IP3Rs (IP3R1 and IP3R3, respectively) in mice resulted in embryonic lethality around embryonic day (E) 11.5. Because IP3R1 and IP3R3 were co-expressed in endothelial cells in the labyrinth, allantois, and yolk sac, we investigated extra-embryonic vascular development in IP3R1- and IP3R3-DKO mice. The formation of chorionic plates and yolk sac vessels seemed dysregulated around the timing of the chorio-allantoic attachment, immediately followed by the disorganization of allantoic vessels, the decreased expression of the spongiotrophoblast cell marker Tpbpa and the growth retardation of the embryos in DKO mice. Fluorescent immunohistochemistry demonstrated downregulation of a vascular endothelial marker, CD31, in labyrinth embryonic vessels and poor elongation of extra-embryonic mesoderm into the labyrinth layer in DKO placenta, whereas the branching of the DKO chorionic trophoblast was initiated. In addition, allantoic and yolk sac vessels in extra-embryonic tissues were less remodeled in DKO mice. In vitro endothelial cord formation and migration activities of cultured vascular endothelial cells derived from human umbilical vein were downregulated under the inhibition of IP3R. Our results suggest that IP3R1 and IP3R3 are required for extra-embryonic vascularization in the placenta, allantois, and yolk sac. This is the first demonstration of the essential role of IP3/IP3Rs signaling in the development of the vasculature at the embryonic-maternal interface.

  9. Developmental Expression of Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate Receptor in the Post-Natal Rat Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W. J.; Yang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) has been established to be essential for hearing. However, the expression of IP3R in the cochlea in the period of auditory development remains unknown. We investigated the expression of IP3R in the developing rat cochlea using immunohistochemistry and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed its presence in the developing rat cochlea, and changes in IP3R protein expressions from the early post-natal period to adult. At birth (postnatal day 0, P0), IP3R expression was only found in Hensen’s cell. IP3R immunoreactivity first appeared in the sensory hair cells in the organ of Corti at P2. This localization was confirmed by means of double-labeling experiments with Myosin VIIA, a marker for cochlear hair cells. Colocalization of IP3R and Myosin VIIA from P2 to the second post-natal week suggested early expression of IP3R in developing inner and outer hair cells. Claudius’ cells near the spiral ligament were labelled for IP3R from P8 onwards. Transient IP3R expression was observed in the stria vascularis in early post-natal rat from P4 to P8. Spiral ganglion neurons also exhibited weaker IP3R fluorescence signals during post-natal development. The results of RT-PCR demonstrated that all three IP3R isoforms (IP3R1, IP3R2, and IP3R3) were present in rat cochlea during four different developmental stages of cochlea, from P0 to P28. Present immunohistochemical evidence for both change and maintenance of expression of IP3R during post-natal development of the rat cochlea indicated the possible involvement of IP3R-mediated calcium signaling in cochlear development. PMID:26150157

  10. Hydrogen peroxide down-regulates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor content through proteasome activation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Garrido, A; Boyano-Adánez, M C; Alique, M; Calleros, L; Serrano, I; Griera, M; Rodríguez-Puyol, D; Griendling, K K; Rodríguez-Puyol, M

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is implicated in the regulation of signaling pathways leading to changes in vascular smooth muscle function. Contractile effects produced by H(2)O(2) are due to the phosphorylation of myosin light chain kinase triggered by increases in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) from intracellular stores or influx of extracellular Ca(2+). One mechanism for mobilizing such stores involves the phosphoinositide pathway. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) by binding to a family of receptors (IP(3)Rs) on the endoplasmic-sarcoplasmic reticulum that act as ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels. IP(3)Rs can be rapidly ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome, causing a decrease in cellular IP(3)R content. In this study we show that IP(3)R(1) and IP(3)R(3) are down-regulated when vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) are stimulated by H(2)O(2), through an increase in proteasome activity. Moreover, we demonstrate that the decrease in IP(3)R by H(2)O(2) is accompanied by a reduction in calcium efflux induced by IP(3) in VSMC. Also, we observed that angiotensin II (ANGII) induces a decrease in IP(3)R by activation of NADPH oxidase and that preincubation with H(2)O(2) decreases ANGII-mediated calcium efflux and planar cell surface area in VSMC. The decreased IP(3) receptor content observed in cells was also found in aortic rings, which exhibited a decreased ANGII-dependent contraction after treatment with H(2)O(2). Altogether, these results suggest that H(2)O(2) mediates IP(3)R down-regulation via proteasome activity.

  11. Malignant H1299 tumour cells preferentially internalize iron-bound inositol hexakisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Helmis, Christina; Blechner, Christine; Lin, Hongying; Schweizer, Michaela; Mayr, Georg W; Nielsen, Peter; Windhorst, Sabine

    2013-10-22

    In colon enterocytes and in well-differentiated colon cancer CaCo-2 cells, InsP6 (inositol hexakisphosphate) inhibits iron uptake by forming extracellular insoluble iron/InsP6 complexes. In this study, we confirmed that CaCo-2 cells are not able to take up iron/InsP6 but, interestingly, found that the cells are able to internalize metal-free and Cr3+-bound InsP6. Thus, the inability of CaCo-2 cells to take up iron/InsP6 complexes seems to be due to the iron-bound state of InsP6. Since recently we demonstrated that the highly malignant bronchial carcinoma H1299 cells internalize and process InsP6, we examined whether these cells may be able to take up iron/InsP6 complexes. Indeed, we found that InsP6 dose-dependently increased uptake of iron and demonstrated that in the iron-bound state InsP6 is more effectively internalized than in the metal-free or Cr3+-bound state, indicating that H1299 cells preferentially take up iron/InsP6 complexes. Electron microscope and cell fraction assays indicate that after uptake H1299 cells mainly stored InsP6/iron in lysosomes as large aggregates, of which about 10% have been released to the cytosol. However, this InsP6-mediated iron transport had no significant effects on cell viability. This result together with our finding that the well-differentiated CaCo-2 cells did not, but the malignant H1299 cells preferentially took up iron/InsP6, may offer the possibility to selectively transport cytotoxic substances into tumour cells.

  12. Disruption of Renal Tubular Mitochondrial Quality Control by Myo-Inositol Oxygenase in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Ming; Usman, Irtaza M.; Sun, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is associated with oxidative stress and mitochondrial injury. Myo-inositol oxygenase (MIOX), a tubular-specific enzyme, modulates redox imbalance and apoptosis in tubular cells in diabetes, but these mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the role of MIOX in perturbation of mitochondrial quality control, including mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy/mitophagy, under high-glucose (HG) ambience or a diabetic state. HK-2 or LLC-PK1 cells subjected to HG exhibited an upregulation of MIOX accompanied by mitochondrial fragmentation and depolarization, inhibition of autophagy/mitophagy, and altered expression of mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagic proteins. Furthermore, dysfunctional mitochondria accumulated in the cytoplasm, which coincided with increased reactive oxygen species generation, Bax activation, cytochrome C release, and apoptosis. Overexpression of MIOX in LLC-PK1 cells enhanced the effects of HG, whereas MIOX siRNA or d-glucarate, an inhibitor of MIOX, partially reversed these perturbations. Moreover, decreasing the expression of MIOX under HG ambience increased PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 expression and the dependent mitofusin-2–Parkin interaction. In tubules of diabetic mice, increased MIOX expression and mitochondrial fragmentation and defective autophagy were observed. Dietary supplementation of d-glucarate in diabetic mice decreased MIOX expression, attenuated tubular damage, and improved renal functions. Notably, d-glucarate administration also partially attenuated mitochondrial fragmentation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis and restored autophagy/mitophagy in the tubular cells of these mice. These results suggest a novel mechanism linking MIOX to impaired mitochondrial quality control during tubular injury in the pathogenesis of DKD and suggest d-glucarate as a potential therapeutic agent for the amelioration of DKD. PMID:25270067

  13. The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP1 is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and enzymatically active in cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nalaskowski, Marcus M; Metzner, Anja; Brehm, Maria A; Labiadh, Sena; Brauer, Helena; Grabinski, Nicole; Mayr, Georg W; Jücker, Manfred

    2012-03-01

    The inositol 5-phosphatase SHIP1 is a negative regulator of signaling processes in hematopoietic cells. SHIP1 mediates its regulatory function after relocalization from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane where it converts its substrate PI(3,4,5)P(3) to PI(3,4)P(2) thereby terminating PI3-kinase mediated signaling. In addition, SHIP1 converts Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) to Ins(1,3,4)P(3) thereby regulating inositol phosphate metabolism. Here we report, that SHIP1 can be detected in nuclear puncta of Jurkat cells by confocal microscopy after expression of SHIP1 from a tetracycline inducible vector. SHIP1-containing nuclear puncta partially co-localize with FLASH, a multifunctional nuclear protein that has been linked to apoptotic signaling and transcriptional control. Nuclear localization was confirmed for endogenously expressed SHIP1 in the myeloid leukemia cell line TF1. In addition, enzymatically active SHIP1 was found in nuclear fractions of Jurkat cells with a similar specific activity as cytoplasmic SHIP1. Further analysis revealed that SHIP1 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein which is actively imported into and exported out of the nucleus. Nuclear import is mediated by two canonical nuclear localization signals (NLS) i.e. K(327)KSK and K(547)KLR. Mutational inactivation of each NLS motif inhibited nuclear import and reduced the proliferation of cells indicating a functional role of nuclear SHIP1 for cell growth. Our data indicate that SHIP1 is partly localized in the nucleus and suggest that SHIP1 plays a role for nuclear phosphoinositide and/or nuclear inositol phosphate signaling.

  14. Inositol 1,4-bisphosphate is an allosteric activator of muscle-type 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Mayr, G W

    1989-01-01

    The allosteric effects of various inositol biphosphate (InsP2) isomers and other inositol phosphates, of glycerophosphoinositol phosphates (GroPInsPx) and of phosphoinositides (PtdInsPx) on muscle-type 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK) were investigated. The binding of these substances to PFK was indirectly estimated by their ability to stabilize the tetrameric enzyme. At near-physiological concentrations of other allosteric effectors, muscle PFK was activated AMP-dependently by Ins(1,4)P2 (Ka = 43 microM), Ins(2,4)P2 (Ka = 70 microM) and GroPIns4P (Ka = 20 microM). These compounds activated PFK by a mechanism similar to that established for activating hexose bisphosphates. Indirect binding experiments indicated minimal Kd,app. values of about 5 microM for the binding of Ins(1,4)P2 in the presence of 0.1 mM-AMP at pH 7.4. This apparent affinity was comparable with that of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate and glucose 1,6-bisphosphate at identical conditions. The enzyme was also found to interact specifically with PtdIns4P (Kd,app. = 37 microM), the inositol phospholipid carrying Ins(1,4)P2 as its head group. The regulatory behaviour of muscle-type PFK in vitro and the concentrations of Ins(1,4)P2 in vivo (between 4 and greater than 50 nmol/g wet wt. of tissue) are consistent with the hypothesis that there is a functional interaction in vivo. Furthermore, a role of PtdIns4P in membrane compartmentation of PFK is suggested. Comparative experiments with liver PFK indicate that these regulatory properties may be relatively specific for the muscle isoform. Unlike muscle PFK, the liver isoform was slightly activated by sub-micromolar concentrations of Ins(1,4,5)P3. PMID:2541692

  15. Receptor-recognized alpha 2-macroglobulin-methylamine elevates intracellular calcium, inositol phosphates and cyclic AMP in murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Misra, U K; Chu, C T; Rubenstein, D S; Gawdi, G; Pizzo, S V

    1993-01-01

    Human plasma alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a tetrameric proteinase inhibitor, which undergoes a conformational change upon reaction with either a proteinase or methylamine. As a result, a receptor recognition site is exposed on each subunit of the molecule enabling it to bind to its receptors on macrophages. We have used Fura-2-loaded murine peritoneal macrophages and digital video fluorescence microscopy to examine the effects of receptor binding on second messenger levels. alpha 2M-methylamine caused a rapid 2-4-fold increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) within 5 s of binding to receptors. The agonists induced a focal increase in [Ca2+]i that spread out to other areas of the cell. The increase in [Ca2+]i was dependent on the alpha 2M-methylamine concentration and on the extracellular [Ca2+]. Both sinusoidal and transitory oscillations were observed, which varied from cell to cell. Neither alpha 2M nor boiled alpha 2M-methylamine, forms that are not recognized by the receptor, affected [Ca2+]i in peritoneal macrophages under identical conditions of incubation. The alpha 2M-methylamine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was accompanied by a rapid and transient increase in macrophage inositol phosphates, including inositol tris- and tetrakis-phosphates. Native alpha 2M did not stimulate a rise in inositol phosphates. Finally, binding of alpha 2M-methylamine to macrophages increased cyclic AMP transiently. Thus receptor-recognized alpha-macroglobulins behave as agonists whose receptor binding causes stimulation of signal transduction pathways. Images Figure 2 PMID:7681282

  16. Effect of exogenous phytase on feed inositol phosphate hydrolysis in an in vitro rumen fluid buffer system.

    PubMed

    Brask-Pedersen, D N; Glitsø, L V; Skov, L K; Lund, P; Sehested, J

    2011-02-01

    Three in vitro experiments using a rumen fluid buffer system were performed to investigate the effect of addition of 4 experimental phytases (Phy1, Phy2, Phy3, and Phy4) compared with no addition of phytase on feed inositol phosphate hydrolysis in wheat and rapeseed cake to determine which of the 4 phytases was most suitable under rumen-like conditions. The feedstuffs were incubated with a mixture of physiological buffer, ruminal fluid, and exogenous phytase at pH 6.2, after which the samples were incubated for different periods. Incubations were stopped using HCl, and the samples were analyzed for inositol phosphates via high performance ion chromatography. Addition of phytase (Phy1) resulted in enhanced degradation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) in rapeseed cake, whereas addition of exogenous phytase did not improve the degradation of InsP(6) in wheat. Only rapeseed cake was therefore used subsequently. All 4 phytases increased degradation of InsP(6) in rapeseed cake in the in vitro system, and degradability of InsP(6) increased with higher incubation time and higher phytase dosages, independent of phytase. Addition of 2 units of phytase per gram of substrate of the phytases Phy1, Phy2, Phy3, and Phy4 led to an undegraded InsP(6) content of 56, 49, 70, and 18%, respectively, when incubated with rapeseed cake for 6h, indicating that Phy2 and Phy4 were the most effective phytases. However, Phy2 had a higher specific activity than Phy4, as 60% of the original InsP(6) content was remaining after 3h when 5mg of enzyme protein per gram of substrate of Phy2 was added to rapeseed cake, whereas 150 mg of enzyme protein per gram of substrate of Phy4 was necessary to achieve a similar result. Therefore, Phy2 appeared to be most applicable under rumen-like conditions.

  17. Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR.

    PubMed

    Hatzack, F; Hübel, F; Zhang, W; Hansen, P E; Rasmussen, S K

    2001-03-01

    Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference. Co-inciding retention times indicated the presence of phytate, D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,3,4)P(4), D/L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4) and D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P(4) in PLP1B mutants as well as the parent variety. In grain extracts from mutant lines PLP1A, PLP2A and PLP3A unusual accumulations of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) were observed whereas phytate and the above-mentioned inositol phosphates were present in relatively small amounts. Assignment of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) was corroborated by precise co-chromatography with a commercial Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) standard and by NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of inositol phosphates during grain development revealed accumulation of phytate and D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4), which suggested the tetrakisphosphate compound to be an intermediate of phytate synthesis. This assumption was strengthened further by phytate degradation assays showing that D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) did not belong to the spectrum of degradation products generated by endogenous phytase activity. Metabolic scenarios leading to accumulation of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) in barley low-phytate mutants are discussed.

  18. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate Receptors in the Endoplasmic Reticulum: a Single-channel Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Don-On Daniel; Foskett, J. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    As an intracellular Ca2+ release channel at the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, the ubiquitous inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) receptor (InsP3R) plays a crucial role in the generation, propagation and regulation of intracellular Ca2+ signals that regulate numerous physiological and pathophysiological processes. This review provides a concise account of the fundamental single-channel properties of the InsP3R channel: its conductance properties and its regulation by InsP3 and Ca2+, its physiological ligands, studied using nuclear patch clamp electrophysiology. PMID:25555684

  19. Labeling cell surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins through cell metabolic engineering with artificial inositol derivatives**

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    Protein GPI anchorage to the cell surface is important for various biological processes, but GPI-anchored proteins are difficult to study. This paper developed an effective strategy for metabolic engineering of cell surface GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins by using inositol derivatives carrying an azido group. The azide-labeled GPIs and GPI-anchored proteins on live cells were then tagged with biotin via click reaction and with a fluorescent molecule. The strategy can be used to label GPI-anchored proteins with various tags for biological studies. PMID:26102235

  20. myo-Inositol phosphate isomers generated by the action of a phytate-degrading enzyme from Klebsiella terrigena on phytate.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Ralf; Carlsson, Nils-Gunnar

    2006-08-01

    For the first time a dual pathway for dephosphorylation of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by a histidine acid phytase was established. The phytate-degrading enzyme of Klebsiella terrigena degrades myo-inositol hexakisphosphate by stepwise dephosphorylation, preferably via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5, D-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, D-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-Ins(1,2)P2 and alternatively via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5, Ins(2,4,5,6)P4, D-Ins(2,4,5)P3, D-Ins(2,4)P2 to finally Ins(2)P. It was estimated that more than 98% of phytate hydrolysis occurs via D-Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5. Therefore, the phytate-degrading enzyme from K. terrigena has to be considered a 3-phytase (EC 3.1.3.8). A second dual pathway of minor importance could be proposed that is in accordance with the results obtained by analysis of the dephosphorylation products formed by the action of the phytate-degrading enzyme of K. terrigena on myo-inositol hexakisphosphate. It proceeds preferably via D-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P5, D-Ins(1,2,3,6)P4, Ins(1,2,3)P3, D-Ins(2,3)P2 and alternatively via D-Ins(1,2,3,5,6)P5, D-Ins(2,3,5,6)P4, D-Ins(2,3,5)P3, D-Ins(2,3)P2 to finally Ins(2)P. D-Ins(2,3,5,6)P4, D-Ins(2,3,5)P3, and D-Ins(2,4)P2 were reported for the first time as intermediates of enzymatic phytate dephosphorylation. A role of the phytate-degrading enzyme from K. terrigena in phytate breakdown could not be ruled out. Because of its cytoplasmatic localization and the suggestions for substrate recognition, D-Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 might be the natural substrate of this enzyme and, therefore, may play a role in microbial pathogenesis or cellular myo-inositol phosphate metabolism.

  1. The influence of extrusion process on myo-inositol phosphate content and profile in snacks containing rye bran.

    PubMed

    Gambuś, H; Matusz-Mirlak, A; Duliński, R; Ziobro, R; Golachowski, A

    2012-02-01

    The analysis of phytates in extrudates containing rye bran was done by a colorimetric method with the Wade reagent. The changes in profiles of myo-inositol phosphates indicate that, although no isomers with positive physiological functions (such as I(1,4,5)P3, I(1,2,3)P3 or I(1,3,4,5)P4) were formed, the beneficial impact of extrusion is the reduction of phytates, as compared to the raw material. The obtained snacks containing rye bran received acceptable to desirable sensory scores.

  2. A myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase gene, IbMIPS1, enhances salt and drought tolerance and stem nematode resistance in transgenic sweet potato.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Hong; Wang, Feibing; Si, Zengzhi; Huo, Jinxi; Xing, Lei; An, Yanyan; He, Shaozhen; Liu, Qingchang

    2016-02-01

    Myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (MIPS) is a key rate limiting enzyme in myo-inositol biosynthesis. The MIPS gene has been shown to improve tolerance to abiotic stresses in several plant species. However, its role in resistance to biotic stresses has not been reported. In this study, we found that expression of the sweet potato IbMIPS1 gene was induced by NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG), abscisic acid (ABA) and stem nematodes. Its overexpression significantly enhanced stem nematode resistance as well as salt and drought tolerance in transgenic sweet potato under field conditions. Transcriptome and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed that overexpression of IbMIPS1 up-regulated the genes involved in inositol biosynthesis, phosphatidylinositol (PI) and ABA signalling pathways, stress responses, photosynthesis and ROS-scavenging system under salt, drought and stem nematode stresses. Inositol, inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 ), phosphatidic acid (PA), Ca(2+) , ABA, K(+) , proline and trehalose content was significantly increased, whereas malonaldehyde (MDA), Na(+) and H2 O2 content was significantly decreased in the transgenic plants under salt and drought stresses. After stem nematode infection, the significant increase of inositol, IP3 , PA, Ca(2+) , ABA, callose and lignin content and significant reduction of MDA content were found, and a rapid increase of H2 O2 levels was observed, peaked at 1 to 2 days and thereafter declined in the transgenic plants. This study indicates that the IbMIPS1 gene has the potential to be used to improve the resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  3. Roles of phosphate recognition in inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IPK1) substrate binding and activation.

    PubMed

    Gosein, Varin; Miller, Gregory J

    2013-09-13

    Inositol phosphate kinases (IPKs) sequentially phosphorylate inositol phosphates (IPs) to yield a group of small signaling molecules involved in diverse cellular processes. IPK1 (inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase) phosphorylates inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate to inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate; however, the mechanism of IP recognition employed by IPK1 is currently unresolved. We demonstrated previously that IPK1 possesses an unstable N-terminal lobe in the absence of IP, which led us to propose that the phosphate profile of the IP was linked to stabilization of IPK1. Here, we describe a systematic study to determine the roles of the 1-, 3-, 5-, and 6-phosphate groups of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate in IP binding and IPK1 activation. The 5- and 6-phosphate groups were the most important for IP binding to IPK1, and the 1- and 3-phosphate groups were more important for IPK1 activation than the others. Moreover, we demonstrate that there are three critical residues (Arg-130, Lys-170, and Lys-411) necessary for IPK1 activity. Arg-130 is the only substrate-binding N-terminal lobe residue that can render IPK1 inactive; its 1-phosphate is critical for full IPK1 activity and for stabilization of the active conformation of IPK1. Taken together, our results support the model for recognition of the IP substrate by IPK1 in which (i) the 4-, 5-, and 6-phosphates are initially recognized by the C-terminal lobe, and subsequently, (ii) the interaction between the 1-phosphate and Arg-130 stabilizes the N-terminal lobe and activates IPK1. This model of IP recognition, believed to be unique among IPKs, could be exploited for selective inhibition of IPK1 in future studies that investigate the role of higher IPs.

  4. Effect of inositol, lecithin, vitamins (B12 with choline and E), and iodinated casein on induced fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome in laying chickens.

    PubMed

    Wolford, J H; Polin, D

    1975-07-01

    Egg production, liver lipid, and liver hemorrhagic score were not significantly altered by diets that contained inositol (at 1 or 2 g./kg. diet) and fed ad libitum, or force-fed to S.C. White Leghorn hens to produce fatty liver-hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS). FLHS was not prevented by lecithin, iodinated casein alone or with inositol. The vitamins B12, choline and E appeared to reduce FLHS and liver lipid in the one group tested. The dose-response relationship between feed intake, liver hemorrhagic score and liver lipid content was again demonstrated.

  5. Biological response of hepatomas to an extract of Fagopyrum esculentum M. (buckwheat) is not mediated by inositols or rutin.

    PubMed

    Curran, Julianne M; Stringer, Danielle M; Wright, Brenda; Taylor, Carla G; Przybylski, Roman; Zahradka, Peter

    2010-03-10

    Buckwheat contains d-chiro-inositol (D-CI) and myo-inositol (MI), possible insulin-mimetic compounds; thus, this study investigated the insulin-mimetic activities of a buckwheat concentrate (BWC), D-CI, and MI on insulin signal transduction pathways and glucose uptake with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. BWC stimulated phosphorylation of p42/44 extracellular-related kinase (p42/44 ERK) and its downstream target, p70(S6K), on Thr(421). In contrast, D-CI, MI, rutin, or its agylcone form, quercetin, did not activate these signal transduction proteins. Phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), another target of insulin, was also up-regulated upon BWC treatment. The effects of BWC on glucose uptake were subsequently investigated using H4IIE cells. Insulin and D-CI stimulated glucose uptake, whereas BWC inhibited basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Although results from this work suggest that BWC has insulin-mimetic effects on select protein phosphorylation events in H4IIE cells, D-CI and MI were not the active components responsible for the observed effects. The inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC suggests that buckwheat may affect hepatic glucose metabolism, possibly by inhibiting glucose flux. Furthermore, the fact that D-CI and MI stimulated glucose uptake in H4IIE cells suggests that other compounds are responsible for inhibition of glucose uptake by BWC.

  6. Synergism between Inositol Polyphosphates and TOR Kinase Signaling in Nutrient Sensing, Growth Control, and Lipid Metabolism in Chlamydomonas[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bradley S.; Li, Jia; Liu, Yu; Diamond, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of Rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling pathway in plants and algae has yet to be completely elucidated. We screened the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using insertional mutagenesis to find mutants that conferred hypersensitivity to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin. We characterized one mutant, vip1-1, that is predicted to encode a conserved inositol hexakisphosphate kinase from the VIP family that pyrophosphorylates phytic acid (InsP6) to produce the low abundance signaling molecules InsP7 and InsP8. Unexpectedly, the rapamycin hypersensitive growth arrest of vip1-1 cells was dependent on the presence of external acetate, which normally has a growth-stimulatory effect on Chlamydomonas. vip1-1 mutants also constitutively overaccumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs) in a manner that was synergistic with other TAG inducing stimuli such as starvation. vip1-1 cells had reduced InsP7 and InsP8, both of which are dynamically modulated in wild-type cells by TOR kinase activity and the presence of acetate. Our data uncover an interaction between the TOR kinase and inositol polyphosphate signaling systems that we propose governs carbon metabolism and intracellular pathways that lead to storage lipid accumulation. PMID:27600537

  7. Evidence of a role of inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase INPP5E in cilia formation in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Luo, Na; Lu, Jingping; Sun, Yang

    2012-12-15

    Inositol phosphatases are important regulators of cell signaling and membrane trafficking. Mutations in inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase, INPP5E, have been identified in Joubert syndrome, a rare congenital disorder characterized by midbrain malformation, retinitis pigmentosa, renal cysts, and polydactyly. Previous studies have implicated primary cilia abnormalities in Joubert syndrome, yet the role of INPP5E in cilia formation is not well understood. In this study, we examined the function of INPP5E in cilia development in zebrafish. Using specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown Inpp5e expression, we observed phenotypes of microphthalmia, pronephros cysts, pericardial effusion, and left-right body axis asymmetry. The Inpp5e morphant zebrafish exhibited shortened and decreased cilia formation in the Kupffer's vesicle and pronephric ducts as compared to controls. Epinephrine-stimulated melanosome trafficking was delayed in the Inpp5e zebrafish morphants. Expression of human INPP5E expression rescued the phenotypic defects in the Inpp5e morphants. Taken together, we showed that INPP5E is critical for the cilia development in zebrafish.

  8. Synergism between inositol polyphosphates and TOR kinase signaling in nutrient sensing, growth control and lipid metabolism in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Couso, Inmaculada; Evans, Bradley; Li, Jia; Liu, Yu; Ma, Fangfang; Diamond, Spencer; Allen, Doug K; Umen, James G

    2016-09-06

    The networks that govern carbon metabolism and control intracellular carbon partitioning in photosynthetic cells are poorly understood. Target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase is a conserved growth regulator that integrates nutrient signals and modulates cell growth in eukaryotes, though the TOR signaling pathway in plants and algae has yet to be completely elucidated. We screened the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas using insertional mutagenesis to find mutants that conferred hypersensitivity to the TOR inhibitor rapamycin. We characterized one mutant, vip1-1, that is predicted to encode a conserved inositol hexakisphosphate kinase from the VIP family that pyrophosphorylates phytic acid (InsP6) to produce the low abundance signaling molecules InsP7 and InsP8. Unexpectedly, the rapamycin hypersensitive growth arrest of vip1-1 cells was dependent on the presence of external acetate, which normally has a growth-stimulatory effect on Chlamydomonas. vip1-1 mutants also constitutively over-accumulated triacylglycerols (TAGs) in a manner that was synergistic with other TAG inducing stimuli such as starvation. vip1-1 cells had reduced InsP7 and InsP8, both of which are dynamically modulated in wild-type cells by TOR kinase activity and the presence of acetate. Our data uncover an interaction between the TOR kinase and inositol polyphosphate signaling systems that we propose governs carbon metabolism and intracellular pathways that lead to storage lipid accumulation.

  9. Inositol transporters AtINT2 and AtINT4 regulate arsenic accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Gui-Lan; Hu, Ying; Schneider, Sabine; McDermott, Joseph; Chen, Jian; Sauer, Norbert; Rosen, Barry P.; Daus, Birgit; Liu, Zijuan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a global environmental contaminant that threatens tens of millions people world-wide via food and water. Understanding how arsenic is accumulated in crop seeds is of critical importance. To date, membrane transport proteins catalyzing arsenic uptake by roots and translocation through xylem to shoots have been characterized. However, no transporters responsible for loading arsenic from xylem into phloem and further unloading into plant seeds have been identified. In this study we demonstrate that expressing the gene for either Arabidopsis thaliana inositol transporter AtINT2 or AtINT4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae leads to increased arsenic accumulation and elevated sensitivity to arsenite [As(III)], and Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing AtINT2 import As(III). When A. thaliana plants with disruptions in either AtINT2 or AtINT4 were supplemented with As(III) through roots, there was a substantial decrease in both the arsenic content in the phloem extrude and in total arsenic accumulation in siliques and seeds. Similarly, when As(III) is fed through the leaves, there was a very large decrease in arsenic accumulation in siliques and seeds compared with wild-type plants. These results clearly demonstrate that inositol transporters are responsible for As(III) loading into phloem, the key step regulating arsenic accumulation in seeds. PMID:27004129

  10. G/sub o/ protein of fat cells: role in hormonal regulation of agonist-stimulated phosphatidyl inositol breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Rapiejko, P.J.; Northup, J.K.; Malbon, C.C.

    1986-05-01

    Incubating rat fat cell membranes in the presence of (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and pertussis toxin (PT) results in the ADP-ribosylation of two peptides (M/sub r/ = 41,000 and 40,000). The 41,000-M/sub r/ peptide is the inhibitory G-protein of adenylate cyclase (G/sub i/). The 40,000-M/sub r/ peptide radiolabeled in the presence of (/sup 32/P)NAD/sup +/ and PT has been purified from rabbit heart and bovine brain, but has not been identified uniformly in membranes of fat cells. Two rabbit polyclonal antisera raised against the alpha-subunit of bovine brain G/sub o/ were used to probe the nature of the 40,000-M/sub r/ peptide in rat fat cell membranes that had been separated by gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and transferred electrophoretically to nitrocellulose. Both antisera specific for the alpha-subunit of G/sub o/ recognized the M/sub r/ = 40,000 peptide of fat cells that is ADP-ribosylated in the presence of PT. PT treatment of rat fat cells blocks epinephrine-stimulated inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP/sub 3/) generation. The inhibition of IP/sub 3/ generation by PT suggests a role for either G/sub i/ or G/sub o/ in receptor-mediated phosphatidyl inositol breakdown in the rat fat cell.

  11. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate binds to a specific receptor and releases microsomal calcium in the arterior pituitary gland

    SciTech Connect

    Guillemette, G.; Balla, T.; Baukal, A.J.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-12-01

    The properties of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP/sub 3/) receptor sites in the anterior pituitary were evaluated by binding studies with InsP/sub 3/ labeled with /sup 32/P to high specific radioactivity. Specific binding of Ins(/sup 32/P)P/sub 3/ was demonstrable in pituitary membrane preparations and was linearly proportional to the amount of membrane added over the range 0.5-2 mg of protein. Kinetic studies showed that specific InsP/sub 3/ binding was half-maximal in about 40 sec and reached a plateau after 15 min at 0/sup 0/C. Scatchard analysis of the binding data was consistent with a single set of high affinity sites. The specificity of Ins(/sup 32/P)P/sub 3/ binding to these sites was illustrated by the much weaker affinity for structural analogs such as inositol 1-phosphate, phytic acid, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, and fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. To assess the functional relevance of the InsP/sub 3/ binding sites, the Ca/sup 2 +/-releasing activity of InsP/sub 3/ was measured in pituitary membrane preparations. Under physiological conditions within the cytosol, the high-affinity InsP/sub 3/ binding sites characterized in pituitary membranes could serve as the putative receptors through which InsP/sub 3/ triggers Ca/sup 2 +/ mobilization in the anterior pituitary gland.

  12. Flow injection potentiometric system for the simultaneous determination of inositol phosphates and phosphate: phosphorus nutritional evaluation on seeds and grains.

    PubMed

    Parra, Aleix; Ramon, Meritxell; Alonso, Julián; Lemos, Sherlan G; Vieira, Edivan C; Nogueira, Ana R A

    2005-10-05

    A simple flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system, which uses a tubular cobalt electrode, has been developed for phosphorus nutritional evaluation of seeds and grains. Inorganic phosphorus, P(i), is determined using a 1 x 10(-2) mol.L(-1) potassium phthalate buffer solution adjusted at pH 4. A sensitivity of 47 mV/decade and an operating range from 10 to 1000 mg.L(-1) (1 x 10(-4)-1 x 10(-2) M) of dihydrogen phosphate are obtained. The inositol phosphates amount, which is referred to the organic phosphorus, P(org), is directly determined from extracts using a 1 x 10(-2) mol.L(-1) Tris-HCl buffer solution adjusted at pH 8. A sensitivity of 127 mV/decade and an operating range of 10-1000 mg.L(-1) (2.5 x 10(-4)-5 x 10(-3) M) of P(org) (expressed as inositol hexakisphosphoric acid monocalcium) are achieved. Some samples of seed and grain are analyzed by an ICP-OES and a spectrophotometric method to compare results to the developed flow system; no significant differences at the 95% confidence level are observed using a paired t test. Other samples such as animal nursing feed, soybean meal, and corn are also analyzed with the proposed FIP system, showing a good correlation to the ICP-OES values.

  13. The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A in regulating emotional behavior and amygdala function

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sooyoung; Kim, Il Hwan; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Kyungjoon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Kim, Eun Joo; Lee, Hyun Woo; Choi, June-seek; Son, Gi Hoon; Sun, Woong; Shin, Ki Soon; Kim, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate 3-kinase A (IP3K-A) is a molecule enriched in the brain and neurons that regulates intracellular calcium levels via signaling through the inositol trisphosphate receptor. In the present study, we found that IP3K-A expression is highly enriched in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which plays a pivotal role in the processing and expression of emotional phenotypes in mammals. Genetic abrogation of IP3K-A altered amygdala gene expression, particularly in genes involved in key intracellular signaling pathways and genes mediating fear- and anxiety-related behaviors. In agreement with the changes in amygdala gene expression profiles, IP3K-A knockout (KO) mice displayed more robust responses to aversive stimuli and spent less time in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, indicating high levels of innate fear and anxiety. In addition to behavioral phenotypes, decreased excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic current and reduced c-Fos immunoreactivity in the CeA of IP3K-A KO mice suggest that IP3K-A has a profound influence on the basal activities of fear- and anxiety-mediating amygdala circuitry. In conclusion, our findings collectively demonstrate that IP3K-A plays an important role in regulating affective states by modulating metabotropic receptor signaling pathways and neural activity in the amygdala. PMID:27053114

  14. Direct modification and regulation of a nuclear receptor-PIP2 complex by the nuclear inositol-lipid kinase IPMK

    PubMed Central

    Blind, Raymond D.; Suzawa, Miyuki; Ingraham, Holly A.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) is best known as a plasma membrane-bound regulatory lipid. While PIP2 and phosphoinositide-modifying enzymes coexist in the nucleus, their roles in the nucleus remain unclear. Here we show that the nuclear inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which functions both as an inositol- and a PI3-kinase, interacts with the nuclear receptor SF-1 (NR5A1) and phosphorylates its bound ligand, PIP2. IPMK failed to recognize SF-1/PIP2 after blocking or displacing PIP2 from SF-1’s large hydrophobic pocket. In contrast to IPMK, p110 catalytic subunits of type 1 PI3-kinases were inactive on SF-1/PIP2. These and other in vitro analyses demonstrated specificity of IPMK for the SF-1/PIP2 protein/lipid complex. Once generated, SF-1/PIP3 is readily dephosphorylated by the lipid phosphatase PTEN. Importantly, decreasing IPMK or increasing PTEN expression greatly reduced SF-1 transcriptional activity. This ability of lipid kinases and phosphatases to alter the activity and directly remodel a non-membrane protein/lipid complex such SF-1/PIP2, establishes a new pathway for promoting lipid-mediated signaling in the nucleus. PMID:22715467

  15. Relationship between stimulated phosphatidic acid production and inositol lipid hydrolysis in intestinal longitudinal smooth muscle from guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Mallows, R S; Bolton, T B

    1987-06-15

    Accumulation of [32P]phosphatidic acid (PA) and total [3H]inositol phosphates (IPs) was measured in the longitudinal smooth-muscle layer from guinea-pig small intestine. Stimulation with carbachol, histamine and substance P produced increases in accumulation of both [3H]IPs and [32P]PA over the same concentration range. The increase in [32P]PA accumulation in response to carbachol (1 microM-0.1 mM) was inhibited in the presence of atropine (0.5 microM). Buffering the external free [Ca2+] to 10 nM did not prevent the carbachol-stimulated increase in [32P]PA accumulation. Carbachol and Ca2+ appear to act synergistically to increase accumulation of [32P]PA. In contrast, although incubation with noradrenaline also increased accumulation of [3H]IPs, no increase in accumulation of [32P]PA could be detected. These results suggest that an increase in formation of IPs is not necessarily accompanied by an increase in PA formation, and imply the existence of receptor-modulated pathways regulating PA concentrations other than by phospholipase-C-catalysed inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.

  16. Influence of cyclic nucleotides (cAMP) on inositol phospholipid (InsPL) metabolism in cultured mesangial (MS) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Troyer, D.A.; Venkatachalam, M.A.; Bonventre, J.V.; Kreisberg, J.I.

    1986-03-01

    Elevation of cAMP inhibits hormone-induced contraction of MS cells, and in other cell types, reduces stimulated InsPL metabolism. The authors found that neither isobutylmethylxanthine (MIX, 0.5 mM), which increases MS cell cAMP levels 4-fold, nor forskolin (100 ..mu..M) altered vasopressin (VP, 10 nM) induced release of /sup 3/H-inositol trisphosphate from prelabelled MS cells. Also, maneuvers which elevated cAMP did not block the VP-induced rise of intracellular calcium as measured by quin-2. Further, neither MIX nor isoproterenol affected the stimulation of glycolysis by VP as measured by lactic acid production. MIX diminished VP stimulated /sup 32/P orthophosphate (/sup 32/P) incorporation into phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol. The /sup 32/P content in phosphoinositides of cells treated with MIX and VP was 65% of that in cells treated with VP only. However, the authors found that the specific activity of /sup 32/P in ATP in the presence of MIX + VP was 74% of that with VP alone. Thus, the apparent suppression of /sup 32/P incorporation due to MIX was attributable to a concurrent diminution of the specific activity of /sup 32/P in ATP. The authors conclude that increases of cAMP interfere with contraction distal to PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis, inositol phosphate release, calcium mobilization, and enhancement of glycolysis.

  17. Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) generated by IP5K mediates cullin-COP9 signalosome interactions and CRL function

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Paul C.; Ding, Yan; Liu, Zhiqing; Xu, Jing; Mao, Haibin; Barrow, James C.; Wei, Ning; Zheng, Ning; Snyder, Solomon H.; Rao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    The family of cullin-RING E3 Ligases (CRLs) and the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN) form dynamic complexes that mediate ubiquitylation of 20% of the proteome, yet regulation of their assembly/disassembly remains poorly understood. Inositol polyphosphates are highly conserved signaling molecules implicated in diverse cellular processes. We now report that inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is a major physiologic determinant of the CRL–CSN interface, which includes a hitherto unidentified electrostatic interaction between the N-terminal acidic tail of CSN subunit 2 (CSN2) and a conserved basic canyon on cullins. IP6, with an EC50 of 20 nM, acts as an intermolecular “glue,” increasing cullin–CSN2 binding affinity by 30-fold, thereby promoting assembly of the inactive CRL–CSN complexes. The IP6 synthase, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5 2-kinase (IPPK/IP5K) binds to cullins. Depleting IP5K increases the percentage of neddylated, active Cul1 and Cul4A, and decreases levels of the Cul1/4A substrates p27 and p21. Besides dysregulating CRL-mediated cell proliferation and UV-induced apoptosis, IP5K depletion potentiates by 28-fold the cytotoxic effect of the neddylation inhibitor MLN4924. Thus, IP5K and IP6 are evolutionarily conserved components of the CRL–CSN system and are potential targets for cancer therapy in conjunction with MLN4924. PMID:26976604

  18. A secreted salivary inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase from a blood-feeding insect: allosteric activation by soluble phosphoinositides and phosphatidylserine.

    PubMed

    Andersen, John F; Ribeiro, José M C

    2006-05-02

    Type II inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases (IPPs) act on both soluble inositol phosphate and phosphoinositide substrates. In many cases, these enzymes occur as multidomain proteins in which the IPP domain is linked to lipid-binding or additional catalytic domains. Rhodnius prolixus IPPRp exists as an isolated IPP domain which is secreted into the saliva of this blood-feeding insect. It shows selectivity for soluble and lipid substrates having a 1,4,5-trisphosphate substitution pattern while only poorly hydrolyzing substrates containing a D3 phosphate. With soluble diC8 PI(4,5)P(2) as a substrate, sigmoidal kinetics were observed, suggesting the presence of allosteric activation sites. Surprisingly, IPPRp-mediated hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P(2) and PI(3,4,5)P(3) was also stimulated up to 100-fold by diC8 PI(4)P and diC8 phosphatidylserine (PS). The activation kinetics were again sigmoidal, demonstrating that the allosteric sites recognize nonsubstrate phospholipids. Activation was positively cooperative, and analysis by the Hill equation suggests that at least three to four allosteric sites are present. In a vesicular system, hydrolysis of PI(4,5)P(2) followed a surface dilution kinetic model, and as expected, PS was found to be strongly stimulatory. If allosteric activation of type II IPPs by PI(4)P and PS is a widespread feature of the group, it may represent a novel regulatory mechanism for these important enzymes.

  19. Cellular delivery and photochemical release of a caged inositol-pyrophosphate induces PH-domain translocation in cellulo

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Igor; Thakor, Divyeshsinh T.; Vargas, Jessica R.; McKinlay, Colin J.; Hauke, Sebastian; Anstaett, Philipp; Camuña, Rafael C.; Bigler, Laurent; Gasser, Gilles; Schultz, Carsten; Wender, Paul A.; Jessen, Henning J.

    2016-01-01

    Inositol pyrophosphates, such as diphospho-myo-inositol pentakisphosphates (InsP7), are an important family of signalling molecules, implicated in many cellular processes and therapeutic indications including insulin secretion, glucose homeostasis and weight gain. To understand their cellular functions, chemical tools such as photocaged analogues for their real-time modulation in cells are required. Here we describe a concise, modular synthesis of InsP7 and caged InsP7. The caged molecule is stable and releases InsP7 only on irradiation. While photocaged InsP7 does not enter cells, its cellular uptake is achieved using nanoparticles formed by association with a guanidinium-rich molecular transporter. This novel synthesis and unprecedented polyphosphate delivery strategy enable the first studies required to understand InsP7 signalling in cells with controlled spatiotemporal resolution. It is shown herein that cytoplasmic photouncaging of InsP7 leads to translocation of the PH-domain of Akt, an important signalling-node kinase involved in glucose homeostasis, from the membrane into the cytoplasm. PMID:26842801

  20. Myo-inositol changes precede amyloid pathology and relate to APOE genotype in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Sundgren, Pia C.; Strandberg, Olof; Zetterberg, Henrik; Minthon, Lennart; Blennow, Kaj; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We aimed to test whether in vivo levels of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) metabolites myo-inositol (mI), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and choline are abnormal already during preclinical Alzheimer disease (AD), relating these changes to amyloid or tau pathology, and functional connectivity. Methods: In this cross-sectional multicenter study (a subset of the prospective Swedish BioFINDER study), we included 4 groups, representing the different stages of predementia AD: (1) cognitively healthy elderly with normal CSF β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42), (2) cognitively healthy elderly with abnormal CSF Aβ42, (3) patients with subjective cognitive decline and abnormal CSF Aβ42, (4) patients with mild cognitive decline and abnormal CSF Aβ42 (Ntotal = 352). Spectroscopic markers measured in the posterior cingulate/precuneus were considered alongside known disease biomarkers: CSF Aβ42, phosphorylated tau, total tau, [18F]-flutemetamol PET, f-MRI, and the genetic risk factor APOE. Results: Amyloid-positive cognitively healthy participants showed a significant increase in mI/creatine and mI/NAA levels compared to amyloid-negative healthy elderly (p < 0.05). In amyloid-positive healthy elderly, mI/creatine and mI/NAA correlated with cortical retention of [18F] flutemetamol tracer ( = 0.44, p = 0.02 and = 0.51, p = 0.01, respectively). Healthy elderly APOE ε4 carriers with normal CSF Aβ42 levels had significantly higher mI/creatine levels (p < 0.001) than ε4 noncarriers. Finally, elevated mI/creatine was associated with decreased functional connectivity within the default mode network (rpearson = −0.16, p = 0.02), independently of amyloid pathology. Conclusions: mI levels are elevated already at asymptomatic stages of AD. Moreover, mI/creatine concentrations were increased in healthy APOE ε4 carriers with normal CSF Aβ42 levels, suggesting that mI levels may reveal regional brain consequences of APOE ε4 before detectable amyloid pathology. PMID:27164711

  1. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors selectively localized to the acrosomes of mammalian sperm

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Calcium flux is required for the mammalian sperm acrosome reaction, an exocytotic event triggered by egg binding, which results in a dramatic rise in sperm intracellular calcium. Calcium-dependent membrane fusion results in the release of enzymes that facilitate sperm penetration through the zona pellucida during fertilization. We have characterized inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-gated calcium channels and upstream components of the phosphoinositide signaling system in mammalian sperm. Peptide antibodies colocalized G alpha q/11 and the beta 1 isoform of phospholipase C (PLC beta 1) to the anterior acrosomal region of mouse sperm. Western blotting using a polyclonal antibody directed against purified brain IP3 receptor (IP3R) identified a specific 260 kD band in 1% Triton X-100 extracts of rat, hamster, mouse and dog sperm. In each species, IP3R immunostaining localized to the acrosome cap. Scatchard analysis of [3H]IP3 binding to rat sperm sonicates revealed a curvilinear plot with high affinity (Kd = 26 nM, Bmax = 30 pmol/mg) and low affinity (Kd = 1.6 microM, Bmax = 550 pmol/mg) binding sites, reflecting among the highest receptor densities in mammalian tissue. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed the acrosomal localization in rat sperm. The IP3R fractionated with acrosomes by discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation and was enriched in the medium of acrosome- reacted sperm. ATP-dependent 45Ca2+ loading of digitonin permeabilized rat sperm was decreased by 45% in the presence of 10 microM IP3. The IP3-mediated release of calcium was blocked by heparin. Thapsigargin, a sequiterpene lactone inhibitor of the microsomal Ca(2+)-ATPase, stimulated the acrosome reaction of mouse sperm to the same extent as the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187. The failure of caffeine and ryanodine to affect calcium accumulation suggested that thapsigargin acted through an IP3-sensitive store. The presence of G alpha q/11, PLC beta 1 and a functional IP3R in the anterior acrosomal region

  2. A novel role for calmodulin: Ca2+-independent inhibition of type-1 inositol trisphosphate receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Cardy, T J; Taylor, C W

    1998-01-01

    Calmodulin inhibits both inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) binding to, and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release by, cerebellar IP3 receptors [Patel, Morris, Adkins, O'Beirne and Taylor (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S.A. 94, 11627-11632]. In the present study, full-length rat type-1 and -3 IP3 receptors were expressed at high levels in insect Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells and the effects of calmodulin were examined. In the absence of Ca2+, calmodulin caused a concentration-dependent and reversible inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors by decreasing their apparent affinity for IP3. The effect was not reproduced by high concentrations of troponin C, parvalbumin or S-100. Increasing the medium free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) inhibited [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 receptors, but the further inhibition caused by a submaximal concentration of calmodulin was similar at each [Ca2+]m. In the absence of Ca2+, 125I-calmodulin bound to a single site on each type-1 receptor subunit and to an additional site in the presence of Ca2+. There was no detectable binding of 125I-calmodulin to type-3 receptors and binding of [3H]IP3 was insensitive to calmodulin at all [Ca2+]m. Both peptide and conventional Ca2+-calmodulin antagonists affected neither [3H]IP3 binding directly nor the inhibitory effect of calmodulin in the absence of Ca2+, but each caused a [Ca2+]m-dependent reversal of the inhibition of [3H]IP3 binding caused by calmodulin. Camstatin, a peptide that binds to calmodulin equally well in the presence or absence of Ca2+, reversed the inhibitory effects of calmodulin on [3H]IP3 binding at all [Ca2+]m. We conclude that calmodulin specifically inhibits [3H]IP3 binding to type-1 IP3 receptors: the first example of a protein regulated by calmodulin in an entirely Ca2+-independent manner. Inhibition of type-1 IP3 receptors by calmodulin may dynamically regulate their sensitivity to IP3 in response to the changes in cytosolic free calmodulin concentration thought to accompany stimulation

  3. Confocal microfluorimetry of Ca2+ signals evoked in Xenopus oocytes by photoreleased inositol trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, I; Ivorra, I

    1993-01-01

    1. The subcellular characteristics of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-induced Ca2+ liberation were studied in Xenopus oocytes by the use of confocal microfluorimetry to monitor Ca2+ signals from minutely localized region of the cell in response to photorelease of InsP3 from a caged precursor. 2. Photorelease of increasing amounts of InsP3 by progressively longer light flashes evoked transient Ca2+ responses that appeared abruptly at a certain threshold duration, and then grew steeply over a narrow range of flash durations to reach a maximum. Further lengthening of flash duration gave no increase in size of the Ca2+ signals, but their rate of rise continued to increase and their duration became longer. Simultaneous measurements of Ca(2+)-activated Cl- currents showed a slightly higher threshold than the Ca2+ signal, and a more graded dependence upon flash duration. 3. The threshold flash durations required to evoke Ca2+ and membrane current signals grew by more than 100-fold as the area of the oocyte exposed to photolysis light was reduced from a square of 140 microns to 5 microns. 4. Ca2+ signals evoked by photoreleased InsP3 began following a dose-dependent latency that was as long as several seconds with low intensity light, but shortened to about 50 ms at maximum intensity. The extrapolated minimum latency with infinite photorelease of InsP3 was about 30 ms. 5. InsP3-evoked membrane currents began 30 ms or longer after the corresponding Ca2+ signals, whereas currents evoked by photorelease of Ca2+ from a caged precursor began within 5 ms of the onset of the light flash. 6. No differences in duration of InsP3-evoked Ca2+ signals were apparent when the confocal measuring spot was positioned close to the plasma membrane or about 10 microns more deeply into the oocyte. At both locations the Ca2+ signals were more prolonged than the associated membrane current signals. 7. Ca2+ signals to a test light flash were suppressed for about 2 s following a conditioning

  4. Prior Activation of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors Suppresses the Subsequent Induction of Long-Term Potentiation in Hippocampal CA1 Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujii, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Goto, Jun-Ichi; Fujiwara, Hiroki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) activated by preconditioning low-frequency afferent stimulation (LFS) in the subsequent induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA1 neurons in hippocampal slices from mature guinea pigs. Induction of LTP in the field excitatory postsynaptic potential or the population…

  5. Growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6) activates the inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate/diacylglycerol pathway in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    Mau, S E; Witt, M R; Bjerrum, O J; Saermark, T; Vilhardt, H

    1995-01-01

    Growth hormone-releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6) is known to stimulate secretion of growth hormone (GH) in vivo and in vitro in a variety of species. However, the cellular effects of GHRP-6 remain largely unknown. We have tested the influence of GHRP-6 on the inositol phospholipid second messenger system in cultured anterior pituitary cells. Cultured pituitary cells responded upon challenge with GHRP-6 with a dose-dependent release of GH. Moreover, incubation of GHRP-6 with pituitary cell cultures labelled with myo-[3H]inositol resulted in a dose-dependent rise in [3H]inositol phosphates. Brief stimulation of pituitary cells with GHRP-6 increased phosphorylation of MBP4-14, a specific protein kinase C substrate, when incubated with the cytosol- or plasma membrane fraction from the stimulated cells. Furthermore, introduction of MBP4-14 into the cytosol in digitonin permeabilized pituitary cells caused increased phosphorylation of this substrate. GHRP-6 induced a rise in intracellular Ca2+ in individual somatotrophs loaded with the Ca2+ indicator, Fura-2. Preincubation (3 min) with somatostatin (SRIF) diminished the Ca2+ spike elicited by GHRP-6, while no effect of SRIF was observed when added simultaneously with GHRP-6. These results indicate that GHRP-6-stimulated GH-secretion involves the diacylglycerol/inositol(1,4,5)trisphosphate pathway with a resulting rise in cytosolic Ca2+.

  6. Identification and quantification of inositol hexa-kis phosphate (IHP) in environmental samples at neutral pH using electro-spray ionization and raman spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorous (P) is a major contributor to eutophication of surface waters, yet a complete understanding of the P cycle remains elusive. Inositol hexa-kis phosphate (IHP) is the primary form of organic P in the environment and has been implicated as an important sink in aquatic and terrestrial sampl...

  7. Translocation of radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol from kernel to shoot of Zea mays L

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Either 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm of kernels of dark-grown Zea mays seedlings. The distribution of total radioactivity, radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid, and radiolabeled ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid, in the shoots was then determined. Differences were found in the distribution and chemical form of the radiolabeled indole-3-acetic acid in the shoot depending upon whether 5-[3H]indole-3-acetic acid or 5-[3H]indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol was applied to the endosperm. We demonstrated that indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol applied to the endosperm provides both free and ester conjugated indole-3-acetic acid to the mesocotyl and coleoptile. Free indole-3-acetic acid applied to the endosperm supplies some of the indole-3-acetic acid in the mesocotyl but essentially no indole-3-acetic acid to the coleoptile or primary leaves. It is concluded that free IAA from the endosperm is not a source of IAA for the coleoptile. Neither radioactive indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol nor IAA accumulates in the tip of the coleoptile or the mesocotyl node and thus these studies do not explain how the coleoptile tip controls the amount of IAA in the shoot.

  8. Thyroid-stimulating hormone stimulates increases in inositol phosphates as well as cyclic AMP in the FRTL-5 rat thyroid cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Field, J B; Ealey, P A; Marshall, N J; Cockcroft, S

    1987-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine whether thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin), a hormone known to increase cytosol concentrations of cyclic AMP, also stimulates the formation of inositol phosphates in thyroid cells. TSH and noradrenaline both stimulated [3H]inositol phosphate formation in a concentration-dependent manner in the rat thyroid cell line, FRTL-5 cells, which had been prelabelled with [3H]inositol. The threshold concentration of TSH required to stimulate inositol phosphate formation was more than 20 munits/ml, which is approx. 10(3)-fold greater than that required for cyclic AMP accumulation and growth in these cells. We also demonstrate that membranes prepared from FRTL-5 cells possess a guanine nucleotide-activatable polyphosphoinositide phosphodiesterase, which suggests that activation of inositide metabolism in these cells may be coupled to receptors by the G-protein, Gp. Our findings suggest that two second-messenger systems exist to mediate the action of TSH in the thyroid. PMID:2827631

  9. Trinuclear rare earth metal complexes based on 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis inositol as catalysts for the hydrolysis of phosphodiesters.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ahmed M; Calatayud Sala, José Miguel; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N

    2011-02-14

    Trinuclear rare-earth metal complexes [M₃(taciH₋₃)₂](3+) (M = La(3+), Y(3+)), based on a rigid polyamino-polyalcohol ligand 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci), are proven to be efficient catalysts for the hydrolysis of 2-hydroxypropyl-4-nitrophenyl phophate (HPNP), a commonly used RNA model system.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide mediated cold- and dehydration-induced myo-inositol phosphate synthase that confers multiple resistances to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jiali; Wang, Congying; Xiang, Bin; Han, Ruihong; Guo, Zhenfei

    2013-02-01

    myo-Inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) is the key enzyme of myo-inositol synthesis, which is a central molecule required for cell metabolism and plant growth as a precursor to a large variety of compounds. A full-length fragment of MfMIPS1 cDNA was cloned from Medicago falcata that is more cold-tolerant than Medicago sativa. While MfMIPS1 transcript was induced in response to cold, dehydration and salt stress, MIPS transcript and myo-inositol were maintained longer and at a higher level in M. falcata than in M. sativa during cold acclimation at 5 °C. MfMIPS1 transcript was induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2) O(2)) and nitric oxide (NO), but was not responsive to abscisic acid (ABA). Pharmacological experiments revealed that H(2) O(2) and NO are involved in the regulation of MfMIPS1 expression by cold and dehydration, but not by salt. Overexpression of MfMIPS1 in tobacco increased the MIPS activity and levels of myo-inositol, galactinol and raffinose, resulting in enhanced resistance to chilling, drought and salt stresses in transgenic tobacco plants. It is suggested that MfMIPS1 is induced by diverse environmental factors and confers resistance to various abiotic stresses.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis accompanies enhanced expression of multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1): a possible role for Minpp1 in cellular stress response.

    PubMed

    Kilaparty, Surya P; Agarwal, Rakhee; Singh, Pooja; Kannan, Krishnaswamy; Ali, Nawab

    2016-07-01

    Inositol polyphosphates represent a group of differentially phosphorylated inositol metabolites, many of which are implicated to regulate diverse cellular processes such as calcium mobilization, vesicular trafficking, differentiation, apoptosis, etc. The metabolic network of these compounds is complex and tightly regulated by various kinases and phosphatases present predominantly in the cytosol. Multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (Minpp1) is the only known endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal enzyme that hydrolyzes various inositol polyphosphates in vitro as well as in vivo conditions. However, access of the Minpp1 to cytosolic substrates has not yet been demonstrated clearly and hence its physiological function. In this study, we examined a potential role for Minpp1 in ER stress-induced apoptosis. We generated a custom antibody and characterized its specificity to study the expression of Minpp1 protein in multiple mammalian cells under experimentally induced cellular stress conditions. Our results demonstrate a significant increase in the expression of Minpp1 in response to a variety of cellular stress conditions. The protein expression was corroborated with the expression of its mRNA and enzymatic activity. Further, in an attempt to link the role of Minpp1 to apoptotic stress, we studied the effect of Minpp1 expression on apoptosis following silencing of the Minpp1 gene by its specific siRNA. Our results suggest an attenuation of apoptotic parameters following knockdown of Minpp1. Thus, in addition to its known role in inositol polyphosphate metabolism, we have identified a novel role for Minpp1 as a stress-responsive protein. In summary, our results provide, for the first time, a probable link between ER stress-induced apoptosis and Minpp1 expression.

  12. Reduction of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate affects the overall phosphoinositol pathway and leads to modifications in light signalling and secondary metabolism in tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Alimohammadi, Mohammad; de Silva, Kanishka; Ballu, Clarisse; Ali, Nawab; Khodakovskaya, Mariya V

    2012-01-01

    The phosphoinositol pathway is one of the major eukaryotic signalling pathways. The metabolite of the phosphoinositol pathway, inositol- (1,4,5) trisphosphate (InsP(3)), is a regulator of plant responses to a wide variety of stresses, including light, drought, cold, and salinity. It was found that the expression of InsP 5-ptase, the enzyme that hydrolyses InsP(3), also dramatically affects the levels of inositol phosphate metabolites and the secondary metabolites in transgenic tomato plants. Tomato plants expressing InsP 5-ptase exhibited a reduction in the levels of several important inositol phosphates, including InsP(1), InsP(2), InsP(3), and InsP(4). Reduced levels of inositol phosphates accompanied an increase in the accumulation of phenylpropanoids (rutin, chlorogenic acid) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the transgenic fruits of tomato plants. The enhanced accumulation of these metabolites in transgenic tomato plants was in direct correspondence with the observed up-regulation of the genes that express the key enzymes of ascorbic acid metabolism (myo-inositol oxygenase, MIOX; L-galactono-γ-lactone dehydrogenase, GLDH) and phenylpropanoid metabolism (chalcone synthase, CHS1; cinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate transferase, HCT). To understand the molecular links between the activation of different branches of plant metabolism and InsP(3) reduction in tomato fruits, the expression of transcription factors known to be involved in light signalling was analysed by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of LeHY5, SIMYB12, and LeELIP was found to be higher in fruits expressing InsP 5-ptase. These results suggest possible interconnections between phosphoinositol metabolism, light signalling, and secondary metabolism in plants. Our study also revealed the biotechnological potential for the genetic improvement of crop plants by the manipulation of the phosphoinositol pathway.

  13. Dimerization of inositol monophosphatase Mycobacterium tuberculosis SuhB is not constitutive, but induced by binding of the activator Mg2+

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Alistair K; Meng, Guoyu; Ghadbane, Hemza; Scott, David J; Dover, Lynn G; Nigou, Jérôme; Besra, Gurdyal S; Fütterer, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Background The cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains a wide range of phosphatidyl inositol-based glycolipids that play critical structural roles and, in part, govern pathogen-host interactions. Synthesis of phosphatidyl inositol is dependent on free myo-inositol, generated through dephosphorylation of myo-inositol-1-phosphate by inositol monophosphatase (IMPase). Human IMPase, the putative target of lithium therapy, has been studied extensively, but the function of four IMPase-like genes in M. tuberculosis is unclear. Results We determined the crystal structure, to 2.6 Å resolution, of the IMPase M. tuberculosis SuhB in the apo form, and analysed self-assembly by analytical ultracentrifugation. Contrary to the paradigm of constitutive dimerization of IMPases, SuhB is predominantly monomeric in the absence of the physiological activator Mg2+, in spite of a conserved fold and apparent dimerization in the crystal. However, Mg2+ concentrations that result in enzymatic activation of SuhB decisively promote dimerization, with the inhibitor Li+ amplifying the effect of Mg2+, but failing to induce dimerization on its own. Conclusion The correlation of Mg2+-driven enzymatic activity with dimerization suggests that catalytic activity is linked to the dimer form. Current models of lithium inhibition of IMPases posit that Li+ competes for one of three catalytic Mg2+ sites in the active site, stabilized by a mobile loop at the dimer interface. Our data suggest that Mg2+/Li+-induced ordering of this loop may promote dimerization by expanding the dimer interface of SuhB. The dynamic nature of the monomer-dimer equilibrium may also explain the extended concentration range over which Mg2+ maintains SuhB activity. PMID:17725819

  14. Characterization of inositol phospho-sphingolipid-phospholipase C 1 (Isc1) in Cryptococcus neoformans reveals unique biochemical features.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jennifer; Guillotte, Aimee; Luberto, Chiara; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2011-02-18

    In this work, we biochemically characterized inositol phosphosphingolipid-phospholipase C (Isc1) from the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Unlike Isc1 from other fungi and parasites which hydrolyze both fungal complex sphingolipids (IPC-PLC) and mammalian sphingomyelin (SM-PLC), C. neoformans Isc1 only exerts IPC-PLC activity. Genetic mutations thought to regulate substrate recognition in other Isc1 proteins do not restore SM-PLC activity of the cryptococcal enzyme. C. neoformans Isc1 regulates the level of complex sphingolipids and certain species of phytoceramide, especially when fungal cells are exposed to acidic stress. Since growth in acidic environments is required for C. neoformans to cause disease, this study has important implications for understanding of C. neoformans pathogenicity.

  15. Synaptotagmin 1 causes phosphatidyl inositol lipid-dependent actin remodeling in cultured non-neuronal and neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Roger

    2012-01-15

    Here we demonstrate that a dramatic actin polymerizing activity caused by ectopic expression of the synaptic vesicle protein synaptotagmin 1 that results in extensive filopodia formation is due to the presence of a lysine rich sequence motif immediately at the cytoplasmic side of the transmembrane domain of the protein. This polybasic sequence interacts with anionic phospholipids in vitro, and, consequently, the actin remodeling caused by this sequence is interfered with by expression of a phosphatidyl inositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2)-targeted phosphatase, suggesting that it intervenes with the function of PIP2-binding actin control proteins. The activity drastically alters the behavior of a range of cultured cells including the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and primary cortical mouse neurons, and, since the sequence is conserved also in synaptotagmin 2, it may reflect an important fine-tuning role for these two proteins during synaptic vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release.

  16. Inhibition of the Inositol Kinase Itpkb Augments Calcium Signaling in Lymphocytes and Reveals a Novel Strategy to Treat Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Andrew T.; Dahlberg, Carol; Sandberg, Mark L.; Wen, Ben G.; Beisner, Daniel R.; Hoerter, John A. H.; Parker, Albert; Schmedt, Christian; Stinson, Monique; Avis, Jacqueline; Cienfuegos, Cynthia; McPate, Mark; Tranter, Pamela; Gosling, Martin; Groot-Kormelink, Paul J.; Dawson, Janet; Pan, Shifeng; Tian, Shin-Shay; Seidel, H. Martin; Cooke, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging approaches to treat immune disorders target positive regulatory kinases downstream of antigen receptors with small molecule inhibitors. Here we provide evidence for an alternative approach in which inhibition of the negative regulatory inositol kinase Itpkb in mature T lymphocytes results in enhanced intracellular calcium levels following antigen receptor activation leading to T cell death. Using Itpkb conditional knockout mice and LMW Itpkb inhibitors these studies reveal that Itpkb through its product IP4 inhibits the Orai1/Stim1 calcium channel on lymphocytes. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of Itpkb results in elevated intracellular Ca2+ and induction of FasL and Bim resulting in T cell apoptosis. Deletion of Itpkb or treatment with Itpkb inhibitors blocks T-cell dependent antibody responses in vivo and prevents T cell driven arthritis in rats. These data identify Itpkb as an essential mediator of T cell activation and suggest Itpkb inhibition as a novel approach to treat autoimmune disease. PMID:26121493

  17. Regulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced Ca2+ release by reversible phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    VANDERHEYDEN, Veerle; DEVOGELAERE, Benoit; MISSIAEN, Ludwig; DE SMEDT, Humbert; BULTYNCK, Geert; PARYS, Jan B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) is a universal intracellular Ca2+-release channel. It is activated after cell stimulation and plays a crucial role in the initiation and propagation of the complex spatio-temporal Ca2+ signals that control cellular processes as different as fertilization, cell division, cell migration, differentiation, metabolism, muscle contraction, secretion, neuronal processing, and ultimately cell death. To achieve these various functions, often in a single cell, exquisite control of the Ca2+ release is needed. This review aims to highlight how protein kinases and protein phosphatases can interact with the IP3R or with associated proteins and so provide a large potential for fine tuning the Ca2+-release activity and for creating efficient Ca2+ signals in subcellular microdomains. PMID:19133301

  18. A theoretical model of slow wave regulation using voltage-dependent synthesis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.

    PubMed Central

    Imtiaz, Mohammad S; Smith, David W; van Helden, Dirk F

    2002-01-01

    A qualitative mathematical model is presented that examines membrane potential feedback on synthesis of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)), and its role in generation and modulation of slow waves. Previous experimental studies indicate that slow waves show voltage dependence, and this is likely to result through membrane potential modulation of IP(3). It is proposed that the observed response of the tissue to current pulse, pulse train, and maintained current injection can be explained by changes in IP(3), modulated through a voltage-IP(3) feedback loop. Differences underlying the tissue responses to current injections of opposite polarities are shown to be due to the sequence of events following such currents. Results from this model are consistent with experimental findings and provide further understanding of these experimental observations. Specifically, we find that membrane potential can induce, abolish, and modulate slow wave frequency by altering the excitability of the tissue through the voltage-IP(3) feedback loop. PMID:12324409

  19. Cholera Toxin Inhibits the T-Cell Antigen Receptor-Mediated Increases in Inositol Trisphosphate and Cytoplasmic Free Calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imboden, John B.; Shoback, Dolores M.; Pattison, Gregory; Stobo, John D.

    1986-08-01

    The addition of monoclonal antibodies to the antigen receptor complex on the malignant human T-cell line Jurkat generates increases in inositol trisphosphate and in the concentration of cytoplasmic free calcium. Exposure of Jurkat cells to cholera toxin for 3 hr inhibited these receptor-mediated events and led to a selective, partial loss of the antigen receptor complex from the cellular surface. None of the effects of cholera toxin on the antigen receptor complex were mimicked by the B subunit of cholera toxin or by increasing intracellular cAMP levels with either forskolin or 8-bromo cAMP. These results suggest that a cholera toxin substrate can regulate signal transduction by the T-cell antigen receptor.

  20. Identification of the coupling between skeletal muscle store-operated Ca2+ entry and the inositol trisphosphate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Launikonis, Bradley S.; Barnes, Melissa; Stephenson, D. George

    2003-01-01

    Examination of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOC) in single, mechanically skinned skeletal muscle cells by confocal microscopy shows that the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor acts as a sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca2+] sensor and mediates SOC by physical coupling without playing a key role in Ca2+ release from internal stores, as is the case with various cell types in which SOC was investigated previously. The results have broad implications for understanding the mechanism of SOC that is essential for cell function in general and muscle function in particular. Moreover, the study ascribes an important role to the IP3 receptors in skeletal muscle, the role of which with respect to Ca2+ homeostasis was ill defined until now. PMID:12601149

  1. Transient and sustained increases in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate precede the differential growth response in gravistimulated maize pulvini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, I. Y.; Heilmann, I.; Boss, W. F.; Davies, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The internodal maize pulvinus responds to gravistimulation with differential cell elongation on the lower side. As the site of both graviperception and response, the pulvinus is an ideal system to study how organisms sense changes in orientation. We observed a transient 5-fold increase in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) within 10 s of gravistimulation in the lower half of the pulvinus, indicating that the positional change was sensed immediately. Over the first 30 min, rapid IP3 fluctuations were observed between the upper and lower halves. Maize plants require a presentation time of between 2 and 4 h before the cells on the lower side of the pulvinus are committed to elongation. After 2 h of gravistimulation, the lower half consistently had higher IP3, and IP3 levels on the lower side continued to increase up to approximately 5-fold over basal levels before visible growth. As bending became visible after 8-10 h, IP3 levels returned to basal values. Additionally, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity in the lower pulvinus half increased transiently within 10 min of gravistimulation, suggesting that the increased IP3 production was accompanied by an up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate biosynthesis. Neither IP3 levels nor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase activity changed in pulvini halves from vertical control plants. Our data indicate the involvement of IP3 and inositol phospholipids in both short- and long-term responses to gravistimulation. As a diffusible second messenger, IP3 provides a mechanism to transmit and amplify the signal from the perceiving to the responding cells in the pulvinus, coordinating a synchronized growth response.

  2. Insulin-Mimicking Bioactivities of Acylated Inositol Glycans in Several Mouse Models of Diabetes with or without Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Susumu; Suzuki, Chitose; Hinokio, Yoshinori; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Katagiri, Hideki; Kanzaki, Makoto; Azev, Viatcheslav N.; Chakraborty, Nilanjana; d'Alarcao, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-mimetic species of low molecular weight are speculated to mediate some intracellular insulin actions. These inositol glycans, which are generated upon insulin stimulation from glycosylphosphatidylinositols, might control the activity of a multitude of insulin effector enzymes. Acylated inositol glycans (AIGs) are generated by cleavage of protein-free GPI precursors through the action of GPI-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) and D (GPI-PLD). We synthesized AIGs (IG-1, IG-2, IG-13, IG-14, and IG-15) and then evaluated their insulin-mimicking bioactivities. IG-1 significantly stimulated glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and rat isolated adipocytes dose-dependently. IG-2 significantly stimulated lipogenesis in rat isolated adipocytes dose-dependently. IG-15 also enhanced glycogen synthesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The administration of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose, increased glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscles and improved glucose tolerance in C57B6N mice with normal diets. The administration of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose in STZ-diabetic C57B6N mice. The treatment of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose, increased glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscles and improved glucose tolerance in C57B6N mice with high fat-diets and db/db mice. The long-term treatment of IG-1 decreased plasma glucose and reduced food intake and body weight in C57B6N mice with high fat-diets and ob/ob mice. Thus, IG-1 has insulin-mimicking bioactivities and improves glucose tolerance in mice models of diabetes with or without obesity. PMID:24971987

  3. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  4. Epidemiology of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea detected by Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Vincent C C; Yam, Wing-Cheong; Tsang, Lee-Lee; Yau, Miranda C Y; Siu, Gilman K H; Wong, Sally C Y; Chan, Jasper F W; To, Kelvin K W; Tse, Herman; Hung, Ivan F N; Tai, Josepha W M; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We studied the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella oxytoca-associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients in Hong Kong. Between 1 November 2009 and 30 April 2011, all inositol-fermenting colonies found on Simmons citrate agar supplemented with inositol, tryptophan, and bile salts (SCITB agar) used for the culturing of diarrheal stool samples were screened by a spot indole test for K. oxytoca. The overall sensitivity of SCITB agar plus the spot indole test (93.3%) for the detection of K. oxytoca in stool samples was superior to that of MacConkey agar (63.3%), while the specificities were 100% and 60.4%, respectively. The former achieved a 23-fold reduction in the workload and cost of subsequent standard biochemical identifications. Cytotoxin production and the clonality of K. oxytoca were determined by a cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay using HEp-2 cells and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Of 5,581 stool samples from 3,537 patients, K. oxytoca was cultured from 117/5,581 (2.1%) stool samples from 104/3,537 (2.9%) patients. Seventy-six of 104 (73.1%) patients with K. oxytoca had no copathogens in their diarrheal stool samples. Twenty-four (31.6%) of 76 patients carried cytotoxin-producing strains, which were significantly associated with antibiotic therapy after hospital admission (50% versus 21.2%; P = 0.01). Health care-associated diarrhea was found in 44 (42%) of 104 patients with K. oxytoca, but there was no epidemiological linkage suggestive of a nosocomial outbreak, and PFGE showed a diverse pattern. None of the patients with cytotoxin-producing K. oxytoca developed antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis, suggesting that K. oxytoca can cause a mild disease manifesting as uncomplicated antibiotic-associated diarrhea with winter seasonality.

  5. Hypotonicity-activated efflux of taurine and myo-inositol in rat inner medullary collecting duct cells: evidence for a major common pathway.

    PubMed

    Ruhfus, B; Kinne, R K

    1996-01-01

    To further characterize the hypotonicity-activated efflux pathways for the organic osmolytes taurine and myo-inositol in inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells tracer fluxes of taurine and myo-inositol were investigated. The time course of activation of both fluxes after exposure of cells isolated at 600 mosm to a hypotonic medium (300 mosm by omission of sucrose) was identical with a major increase of release within the first 10 min. All 'anion channel blockers' employed proved to be strong inhibitors of both fluxes. Inhibition of myo-inositol efflux by 0.5 mM NPPB and 0.1 mM dideoxyforskolin was not significantly different from that of taurine efflux (87.7 +/- 11.4 compared to 94.6 +/- 4.6% and 98.8 +/- 2.0 compared to 95.9 +/- 3.7%). However, SITS (0.5 and 0.01 mM), DIDS (0.5 and 0.01 mM), and niflumic acid (0.5 mM) inhibited myo-inositol efflux more strongly than taurine efflux. The respective values were 65.4 +/- 4 vs. 42.9 +/- 3.6% for 0.01 mM SITS, 65.7 +/- 4.2 vs. 45.8 +/- 2.0% for 0.01 mM DIDS, and 79.5 +/- 3.5 vs. 54.2 +/- 2.5% for 0.5 mM niflumic acid. Taurine as well as myo-inositol efflux were decreased to a similar extent by 10 mM extracellular ATP (26.9 +/- 6.3 vs. 29.8 +/- 17.7% inhibition), by 10 mM extracellular cAMP (52.8 +/- 9.8 vs. 60.1 +/- 17.2% inhibition) and by reduction of the intracellular ATP content employing 2-deoxy-D-glucose (31.9 +/- 5.9 vs. 40.4 +/- 13.6% inhibition). In polarized primary cell cultures taurine and myo-inositol were released during a hypotonic shock primarily across the basal-lateral membrane, the ratio of basolateral versus apical efflux was 4.1 for taurine and 3.9 for myo-inositol. Apical fluxes were more sensitive to 0.01 mM SITS or DIDS; this was particularly evident for apical myo-inositol efflux which was inhibited by 0.01 mM SITS by 84.1 +/- 5.9% compared to 43.5 +/- 13.1% inhibition of the basolateral efflux. Thus, taurine and myo-inositol efflux show to a great extent a similar cellular distribution

  6. Differentially expressed myo-inositol monophosphatase gene (CaIMP) in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) encodes a lithium-sensitive phosphatase enzyme with broad substrate specificity and improves seed germination and seedling growth under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh C; Salvi, Prafull; Kaur, Harmeet; Verma, Pooja; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Kamble, Nitin; Majee, Manoj

    2013-12-01

    myo-Inositol monophosphatase (IMP) is an essential enzyme in the myo-inositol metabolic pathway where it primarily dephosphorylates myo-inositol 1-phosphate to maintain the cellular inositol pool which is important for many metabolic and signalling pathways in plants. The stress-induced increased accumulation of inositol has been reported in a few plants including chickpea; however, the role and regulation of IMP is not well defined in response to stress. In this work, it has been shown that IMP activity is distributed in all organs in chickpea and was noticeably enhanced during environmental stresses. Subsequently, using degenerate oligonucleotides and RACE strategy, a full-length IMP cDNA (CaIMP) was cloned and sequenced. Biochemical study revealed that CaIMP encodes a lithium-sensitive phosphatase enzyme with broad substrate specificity, although maximum activity was observed with the myo-inositol 1-phosphate and l-galactose 1-phosphate substrates. Transcript analysis revealed that CaIMP is differentially expressed and regulated in different organs, stresses and phytohormones. Complementation analysis in Arabidopsis further confirmed the role of CaIMP in l-galactose 1-phosphate and myo-inositol 1-phosphate hydrolysis and its participation in myo-inositol and ascorbate biosynthesis. Moreover, Arabidopsis transgenic plants over-expressing CaIMP exhibited improved tolerance to stress during seed germination and seedling growth, while the VTC4/IMP loss-of-function mutants exhibited sensitivity to stress. Collectively, CaIMP links various metabolic pathways and plays an important role in improving seed germination and seedling growth, particularly under stressful environments.

  7. Determination of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil by gas chromatography and effect of severe drought conditions on their profiles.

    PubMed

    Mechri, Beligh; Tekaya, Meriem; Cheheb, Hechmi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a method for the analysis of mannitol, sorbitol and myo-inositol in olive tree roots and rhizospheric soil with gas chromatography. The analytical method consists of extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane:methanol (2:1, v/v) for soil samples and a mixture of ethanol:water (80:20) for root samples, silylation using pyridine, hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS). The recovery of mannitol sorbitol and myo-inositol (for extraction and analysis in dichloromethane:methanol and ethanol:water) was acceptable and ranged from 100.3 to 114.7%. The time of analysis was <24 min. Among identified polyols extracted from rhizosphere and roots of olive plants, mannitol was the major compound. A marked increase in mannitol content occurred in rhizosphere and roots of water-stressed plants, suggesting a much broader role of mannitol in stress response based on its ability to act as a compatible solute.

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of aromatic analogues of conduritol F, L-chiro-inositol, and dihydroconduritol F structurally related to the amaryllidaceae anticancer constituents.

    PubMed

    Kireev, Artem S; Nadein, Oleg N; Agustin, Vincent J; Bush, Nancy E; Evidente, Antonio; Manpadi, Madhuri; Ogasawara, Marcia A; Rastogi, Shiva K; Rogelj, Snezna; Shors, Scott T; Kornienko, Alexander

    2006-07-21

    Pancratistatin is a potent anticancer natural product, whose clinical evaluation is hampered by the limited natural abundance and the stereochemically complex structure undermining practical chemical preparation. Fifteen aromatic analogues of conduritol F, l-chiro-inositol, and dihydroconduritol F that possess four of the six pancratistatin stereocenters have been synthesized and evaluated for anticancer activity. These compounds serve as truncated pancratistatin analogues lacking the lactam ring B, but retaining the crucial C10a-C10b bond with the correct stereochemistry. The lack of activity of these compounds provides further insight into pancratistatin's minimum structural requirements for cytotoxicity, particularly the criticality of the intact phenanthridone skeleton. Significantly, these series provide rare examples of simple aromatic conduritol and inositol analogues and, therefore, this study expands the chemistry and biology of these important classes of compounds.

  9. Identification and Functional Implications of Sodium/Myo-inositol Cotransporter 1 in Pancreatic Beta-cells and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ting Li, Stephen Yu; Wai Cheng, Sam Tsz; Zhang, Dan; Leung, Po Sing

    2017-02-15

    Myo-inositol (MI), the precursor of the second messenger phosphoinositide (PI), mediates multiple cellular events. Rat islets exhibit active transport of MI, though the mechanism involved remains elusive. Here, we report, for the first time, the expression of sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter 1 (SMIT1) in rat islets and specifically, β-cells. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of SMIT impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by INS-1E cells, probably via down-regulation of PI signaling. Additionally, we found that SMIT1 expression in INS-1E cells and isolated islets was augmented by acute high-glucose exposure and reduced in chronic hyperglycemia conditions. In corroboration, chronic MI treatment improved the disease phenotypes of diabetic rats and islets. Based on our results, we postulate that the MI transporter SMIT1 is required to maintain a stable PI pool in β-cells in order that PI remains available despite its rapid turnover.

  10. Rapid and reliable quantitation of amino acids and myo-inositol in mouse brain by high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bathena, Sai P; Huang, Jiangeng; Epstein, Adrian A; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D; Alnouti, Yazen

    2012-04-15

    Amino acids and myo-inositol have long been proposed as putative biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases. Accurate measures and stability have precluded their selective use. To this end, a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method based on multiple reaction monitoring was developed to simultaneously quantify glutamine, glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), aspartic acid, N-acetyl aspartic acid, taurine, choline, creatine, phosphocholine and myo-inositol in mouse brain by methanol extractions. Chromatography was performed using a hydrophilic interaction chromatography silica column within in a total run time of 15 min. The validated method is selective, sensitive, accurate, and precise. The method has a limit of quantification ranging from 2.5 to 20 ng/ml for a range of analytes and a dynamic range from 2.5-20 to 500-4000 ng/ml. This LC-MS/MS method was validated for biomarker discovery in models of human neurological disorders.

  11. Detection of the myo-inositol 4.06-ppm resonance by selective J rewinding: application to human prefrontal cortex in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Changho; Ogilvie, Catherine J; Malykhin, Nikolai; Ngo, Jennifer T V; Hartfeil, Misha A W; Coupland, Nicholas J

    2005-12-01

    A new proton NMR single-voxel spectral editing strategy for the rapid measurement of myo-inositol in human brain is proposed. The spectral editing detects the 4.06-ppm, weakly coupled resonance by means of selective J rewinding. An 84.6-ms-long quadruple-resonance selective 180 degrees radiofrequency pulse, implemented within an adiabatic-refocused localization sequence, induces an in-phase triplet at 4.06 ppm, while eliminating the contribution from creatine, phosphorylethanolamine, lactate, and serine in this spectral region. The myo-inositol concentration in human prefrontal cortex is estimated to be 5.7 +/- 0.9 mumol/g (mean +/- SD, n = 7), with reference to NAA at 10 micromol/g.

  12. Inositol-1 (or 4)-monophosphatase from Glycine max embryo axes is a phosphatase with broad substrate specificity that includes phytate dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Islas-Flores, Ignacio; Villanueva, Marco A

    2007-04-01

    A phosphate-hydrolyzing activity from Glycine max embryo axes was purified by a series of chromatographic steps and electroelution from activity gels, and demonstrated to be an inositol-1 (or 4)-monophosphatase by partial internal amino acid sequence. This enzyme hydrolyzed ATP, sodium pyrophosphate (NaPPi), inositol hexakisphosphate, and inositol 1-monophosphate, but not p-nitrophenyl phosphate, ADP, AMP or glucose 6-P. Using NaPPi as substrate, the highly purified protein hydrolyzed up to 0.4 mmol phosphate min(-1) mg(-1) protein and had a Km(avg) of 235 microM for NaPPi. Since NaPPi is relatively inexpensive and readily available, we used this as substrate for the subsequent characterization. We observed the following: (a) specific inhibition by Li and NaF but not by butanedione monoxime, or orthovanadate; (b) activation by Cu(2+) and Mg(2+); (c) optimum activity at pH 7.4; and (d) temperature stability after 1-h incubations at 37-80 degrees C, with maximum activity at 37 degrees C. The partially purified protein was detected by in-gel activity assays and the band was electroeluted to yield a highly purified protein. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and native IEF-PAGE yielded a single major polypeptide of 29 kDa and pI approximately 5.9, respectively. In addition, in-gel activity from embryo axes and whole hypocotyls at early germination times revealed one high and one intermediate molecular weight isoform, but only the intermediate one corresponded to IMPase. Throughout the post-imbibition period, the activity of the high molecular weight isoform disappeared and IMPase increased, indicating an increasing expression of the enzyme as germination and growth proceeded. These data indicate that the inositol-1 (or 4)-monophosphatase present in the embryo axis of G. max has a wide phosphate substrate specificity, and may play an important role in phosphate metabolism during the germination process.

  13. Conformational changes in inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase upon substrate binding: role of N-terminal lobe and enantiomeric substrate preference.

    PubMed

    Baños-Sanz, José Ignacio; Sanz-Aparicio, Julia; Whitfield, Hayley; Hamilton, Chris; Brearley, Charles A; González, Beatriz

    2012-08-24

    Inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (IP(5) 2-K) catalyzes the synthesis of inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate from ATP and IP(5). Inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate is implicated in crucial processes such as mRNA export, DNA editing, and phosphorus storage in plants. We previously solved the first structure of an IP(5) 2-K, which shed light on aspects of substrate recognition. However, failure of IP(5) 2-K to crystallize in the absence of inositide prompted us to study putative conformational changes upon substrate binding. We have made mutations to residues on a region of the protein that produces a clasp over the active site. A W129A mutant allowed us to capture IP(5) 2-K in its different conformations by crystallography. Thus, the IP(5) 2-K apo-form structure displays an open conformation, whereas the nucleotide-bound form shows a half-closed conformation, in contrast to the inositide-bound form obtained previously in a closed conformation. Both nucleotide and inositide binding produce large conformational changes that can be understood as two rigid domain movements, although local changes were also observed. Changes in intrinsic fluorescence upon nucleotide and inositide binding are in agreement with the crystallographic findings. Our work suggests that the clasp might be involved in enzyme kinetics, with the N-terminal lobe being essential for inositide binding and subsequent conformational changes. We also show how IP(5) 2-K discriminates between inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate and 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate enantiomers and that substrate preference can be manipulated by Arg(130) mutation. Altogether, these results provide a framework for rational design of specific inhibitors with potential applications as biological tools for in vivo studies, which could assist in the identification of novel roles for IP(5) 2-K in mammals.

  14. Enzyme activities of Arabidopsis inositol polyphosphate kinases AtIPK2α and AtIPK2β are involved in pollen development, pollen tube guidance and embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Huadong; Zhong, Yujiao; Yang, Zhongnan; Xia, Huijun

    2015-06-01

    Inositol polyphosphate kinase (IPK2) is a key component of inositol polyphosphate signaling. There are two highly homologous inositol polyphosphate kinases (AtIPK2α and AtIPK2β) in Arabidopsis. Previous studies that overexpressed or reduced the expression of AtIPK2α and AtIPK2β revealed their roles in auxiliary shoot branching, abiotic stress responses and root growth. Here, we report that AtIPK2α and AtIPK2β act redundantly during pollen development, pollen tube guidance and embryogenesis. Single knock-out mutants of atipk2α and atipk2β were indistinguishable from the wild type, whereas the atipk2α atipk2β double mutant could not be obtained. Detailed genetic and cytological investigations showed that the mutation of AtIPK2α and AtIPK2β resulted in severely reduced transmission of male gametophyte as a result of abnormal pollen development and defective pollen tube guidance. In addition, the early embryo development of the atipk2α atipk2β double mutant was also aborted. Expressing either catalytically inactive or substrate specificity-altered variants of AtIPK2β could not rescue the male gametophyte and embryogenesis defects of the atipk2α atipk2β double mutant, implying that the kinase activity of AtIPK2 is required for pollen development, pollen tube guidance and embryogenesis. Taken together, our results provide genetic evidence for the requirement of inositol polyphosphate signaling in plant sexual reproduction.

  15. IpsA, a novel LacI-type regulator, is required for inositol-derived lipid formation in Corynebacteria and Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The development of new drugs against tuberculosis and diphtheria is focused on disrupting the biogenesis of the cell wall, the unique architecture of which confers resistance against current therapies. The enzymatic pathways involved in the synthesis of the cell wall by these pathogens are well understood, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Results Here, we characterize IpsA, a LacI-type transcriptional regulator conserved among Mycobacteria and Corynebacteria that plays a role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. IpsA triggers myo-inositol formation by activating ino1, which encodes inositol phosphate synthase. An ipsA deletion mutant of Corynebacterium glutamicum cultured on glucose displayed significantly impaired growth and presented an elongated cell morphology. Further studies revealed the absence of inositol-derived lipids in the cell wall and a complete loss of mycothiol biosynthesis. The phenotype of the C. glutamicum ipsA deletion mutant was complemented to different extend by homologs from Corynebacterium diphtheriae (dip1969) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (rv3575), indicating the conserved function of IpsA in the pathogenic species. Additional targets of IpsA with putative functions in cell wall biogenesis were identified and IpsA was shown to bind to a conserved palindromic motif within the corresponding promoter regions. Myo-inositol was identified as an effector of IpsA, causing the dissociation of the IpsA-DNA complex in vitro. Conclusions This characterization of IpsA function and of its regulon sheds light on the complex transcriptional control of cell wall biogenesis in the mycolata taxon and generates novel targets for drug development. PMID:24377418

  16. Leukotriene B/sub 4/ (LTB/sub 4/) induces formation of inositol-phosphates (IP's) in rat peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN's)

    SciTech Connect

    Chi-Rosso, G.; Crooke, S.T.; Mong, S.

    1986-05-01

    LTB/sub 4/ induced rapid breakdown of prelabeled inositol-phospholipids (PI) in rat PMN. Formation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-trisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/) was rapid, with a peak of 250-300% of the control level, after 5-15 sec of stimulation with LTB/sub 4/. Accumulation of (/sup 3/H)-inositol-bisphosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/) was rapid, peaking after 30 sec of stimulation. (/sup 3/H)-inositol-monophosphate ((/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/) accumulated gradually in the presence of LiCl. The kinetics of (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/, (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 2/ and (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 1/ accumulation suggested that LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in PMNs, activate phospholipase C which, in turn, induces hydrolysis of PI. The agonist activities of several LTB/sub 4/ analogs were employed to investigate the structure activity relationship of LTB/sub 4/ receptor mediated activation of PI hydrolysis. Increases in (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation were dependent upon the concentration of LTB/sub 4/ and the agonist analogs. The rank order potency of these analogs were equivalent to that of the pharmacological activity of LTB/sub 4/ agonists in the chemotaxis assay. Furthermore, the Islet activation protein (IAP) inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. The tumor promoting phorbomyristate ester also inhibited LTB/sub 4/ induced (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation. These results suggest LTB/sub 4/ may interact with receptors in rat PMNs, activate G/sub i/ protein regulated phospholipase C and induce (/sup 3/H)-IP/sub 3/ formation.

  17. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol mimic bradykinin effects on mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, D A; Higashida, H

    1988-01-01

    1. The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) as possible mediators of the membrane current responses of NG108-15 neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells to bradykinin (BK, Brown & Higashida, 1988b) has been tested using intracellular ionophoresis of InsP3 and external application of phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (OAG). 2. Intracellular ionophoresis of InsP3 into cells clamped at -30 to -50 mV produced (i) a transient outward current, (ii) a transient outward current followed by an inward current, or (iii) an inward current. All currents were accompanied by an increased input conductance. 3. The transient outward current reversed at between -80 and -90 mV. The reversal potential was shifted to more positive potentials on raising extracellular [K+], suggesting that it resulted from an increased K+ conductance. 4. The outward current was inhibited by apamin (0.4 microM) or d-tubocurarine (0.2-0.5 mM); these drugs also inhibit the outward current produced by BK or by intracellular Ca2+ injections (Brown & Higashida, 1988 a, b). The outward current was also slowly reduced in 0 mM [Ca2+] or 0.5 mM [Cd2+] plus 2 mM [Co2+] solution. 5. Ionophoretic injection of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, guanosine trisphosphate or inorganic phosphate did not evoke an outward current but produced only an inward current with an increased conductance, reversing at between -10 and -20 mV. 6. Bath application of PDBu (10 nM-1 microM) or OAG (1-10 microM) produced an inward current with a fall in input conductance. The inward current was voltage dependent and was accompanied by an inhibition of the time-dependent current relaxations associated with activation or deactivation of the voltage-dependent K+ current, IM. 7. PDBu did not clearly reduce the Ca2+ current or the Ca2+-dependent K+ current recorded in these cells. During superfusion with PDBu, the outward current produced by intracellular

  18. Coupling of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis to peptide hormone receptors expressed from adrenal and pituitary mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, R.P.; Catt, K.J.

    1987-12-01

    The expression of several neurotransmitter and drug receptors from injected exogenous mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes has been demonstrated by electrophysiological measurements of ion channel activation. The expression of specific receptors for peptide hormones in such a translation system would facilitate studies on the structure and regulation of cell-surface receptors as well as their coupling to membrane transduction mechanisms. The expression of receptors for calcium-mobilizing hormones in Xenopus oocytes was sought by analysis of phospholipid turnover in hormone-stimulated oocytes. For this purpose, Xenopus oocytes were injected with mRNA extracted from bovine adrenal and pituitary glands and incubated with myo-(/sup 3/H)inositol to label plasma-membrane phosphatidylinositol phosphates. The expression of functionally active receptors for angiotensin II (AII) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was demonstrated by the stimulation of (/sup 3/H)inositol phosphate production by AII and TRH in the mRNA-injected, (/sup 3/H)inositol-prelabeled oocytes. The ability of AII and TRH to act by way of newly synthesized receptors from mammalian endocrine tissues to stimulate phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate hydrolysis in Xenopus oocytes suggests a generalized and conserved mechanism of receptor coupling to the transduction mechanism responsible for activation of phospholipase C in the plasma membrane.

  19. The antiepileptic drug valproic acid and other medium-chain fatty acids acutely reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Orabi, Benoit; Deranieh, Rania M; Dham, Manik; Hoeller, Oliver; Shimshoni, Jakob A; Yagen, Boris; Bialer, Meir; Greenberg, Miriam L; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2012-01-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is the most widely prescribed epilepsy treatment worldwide, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Our previous work identified a previously unknown effect of VPA in reducing phosphoinositide production in the simple model Dictyostelium followed by the transfer of data to a mammalian synaptic release model. In our current study, we show that the reduction in phosphoinositide [PtdInsP (also known as PIP) and PtdInsP(2) (also known as PIP(2))] production caused by VPA is acute and dose dependent, and that this effect occurs independently of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, inositol recycling and inositol synthesis. In characterising the structural requirements for this effect, we also identify a family of medium-chain fatty acids that show increased efficacy compared with VPA. Within the group of active compounds is a little-studied group previously associated with seizure control, and analysis of two of these compounds (nonanoic acid and 4-methyloctanoic acid) shows around a threefold enhanced potency compared with VPA for protection in an in vitro acute rat seizure model. Together, our data show that VPA and a newly identified group of medium-chain fatty acids reduce phosphoinositide levels independently of inositol regulation, and suggest the reinvestigation of these compounds as treatments for epilepsy.

  20. A novel method for the purification of inositol phosphates from biological samples reveals that no phytate is present in human plasma or urine

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Miranda S. C.; Bulley, Simon J.; Pisani, Francesca; Irvine, Robin F.; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Inositol phosphates are a large and diverse family of signalling molecules. While genetic studies have discovered important functions for them, the biochemistry behind these roles is often not fully characterized. A key obstacle in inositol phosphate research in mammalian cells has been the lack of straightforward techniques for their purification and analysis. Here we describe the ability of titanium dioxide (TiO2) beads to bind inositol phosphates. This discovery allowed the development of a new purification protocol that, coupled with gel analysis, permitted easy identification and quantification of InsP6 (phytate), its pyrophosphate derivatives InsP7 and InsP8, and the nucleotides ATP and GTP from cell or tissue extracts. Using this approach, InsP6, InsP7 and InsP8 were visualized in Dictyostelium extracts and a variety of mammalian cell lines and tissues, and the effects of metabolic perturbation on these were explored. TiO2 bead purification also enabled us to quantify InsP6 in human plasma and urine, which led to two distinct but related observations. Firstly, there is an active InsP6 phosphatase in human plasma, and secondly, InsP6 is undetectable in either fluid. These observations seriously question reports that InsP6 is present in human biofluids and the advisability of using InsP6 as a dietary supplement. PMID:25808508

  1. Increased levels of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) protect HEK293 cells from tumor necrosis factor (alpha)- and Fas-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Verbsky, John; Majerus, Philip W

    2005-08-12

    The overexpression of inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate 5/6-kinase has recently been shown to protect HEK293 cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF(alpha))-induced apoptosis. This overexpression leads to an increase in the levels of both inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate (InsP5) and inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate (InsP6). Cells that overexpress InsP5 2-kinase have increased levels of InsP6 and are also protected from TNFalpha-induced apoptosis; furthermore, cells that express an RNA interference construct to the 2-kinase are deficient in InsP6 and are sensitized to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis. Therefore the protective effect of 5/6-kinase on TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis is due to an increase of InsP6 or to a metabolite derived from InsP6. Furthermore, we find that the InsP6 also protects from Fas-mediated apoptosis. No effect was seen in the endocytic rate of transferrin receptor, caspase 8 activity, or TNF receptor number at the cell surface. Cells that overexpress 2-kinase do show an increase in the amount of receptor-interacting protein (RIP), while cells with reduced InsP6 levels show relatively less RIP, providing a possible mechanism for the effect on apoptosis.

  2. Molecular and biochemical identification of inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase encoding mRNA variants in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jaeju; Saiardi, Adolfo; Greenwood, John S; Bewley, J Derek

    2014-05-01

    During seed development, phytic acid (PA) associated with mineral cations is stored as phytin and mobilized following germination in support of seedling growth. Two parallel biosynthetic pathways for PA have been proposed; yet the pathway is still poorly understood in terms of its regulation and the enzymes involved. Here, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) gene for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase (RcIPK1) has been identified. This encodes the enzyme implicated in catalyzing the final reaction in PA biosynthesis, and its expression is enhanced in isolated germinated embryos by application of phosphate and myo-inositol (Ins). Even though only one copy of the RcIPK1 gene is present in the genome, numerous RNA variants are present, most likely due to alternative splicing. These are translated into six closely related protein isoforms according to in silico analysis. Functional analyses using yeast ipk1Δ revealed that only three of the mRNA variants can rescue a temperature-sensitive growth phenotype of this strain. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the synthesized inositol phosphates demonstrated that the ability to complement the missing yeast IPK1 enzyme is associated with the production of enzyme activity. The three active isoforms possess unique conserved motifs important for IPK1 catalytic activity.

  3. Inositol's and other nutraceuticals' synergistic actions counteract insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome: state-of-the-art and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Paul, Cristiana; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Maniglio, Paolo; Triolo, Onofrio; Brady, David M

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), type II diabetes (T2D) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been progressively increasing. Insulin resistance (InsR) seems to play a key role in a majority of phenotypes of these conditions, altering metabolic homeostasis, within muscle, liver, adipose and other tissues. Hyperinsulinemia is often associated with InsR and causes hormonal imbalances especially within ovaries and adrenals. Inositol is a polyalcohol, naturally occurring as nine stereoisomers, including D-chiro-inositol (DCI) and myo-inositol (MI), which have prominent roles in the metabolism of glucose and free fatty acids. MI and DCI have been classified as insulin-sensitizers and seem to adequately counteract several InsR-related metabolic alterations with a safe nutraceutical profile. Based on our analysis of selected studies that investigated MI and/or DCI, we conclude that supplementation with MI and/or DCI complement each other in their metabolic actions and act in synergy with other insulin sensitizing drugs and/or nutraceuticals. Nevertheless, considering the possible severe bias due to different methodologies across published studies, we conclude that there is a need for further studies on larger cohorts and with greater statistical power. These should further clarify outcomes and suitable therapeutic dosages of MI and DCI, possibly based on each patient's clinical status.

  4. Functional Role of Intracellular Calcium Receptor Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Type 1 in Rat Hippocampus after Neonatal Anoxia.

    PubMed

    Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Takada, Silvia Honda; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Dias, Natália Myuki Moralles; de Campos, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente; Bretherick, Talitha Amanda Sanches; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown. This study focused on the functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in rat hippocampus after neonatal anoxia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decrease of IP3R1 gene expression 24 hours after neonatal anoxia. We detected that IP3R1 accumulates specially in CA1, and this spatial pattern did not change after neonatal anoxia. Interestingly, we observed that anoxia triggers translocation of IP3R1 to nucleus in hippocampal cells. We were able to observe that anoxia changes distribution of IP3R1 immunofluorescence signals, as revealed by cluster size analysis. We next examined the role of IP3R1 in the neuronal cell loss triggered by neonatal anoxia. Intrahippocampal injection of non-specific IP3R1 blocker 2-APB clearly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade C and Tunel positive cells, revealing that activation of IP3R1 increases cell death after neonatal anoxia. Finally, we aimed to disclose mechanistics of IP3R1 in cell death. We were able to determine that blockade of IP3R1 did not reduced the distribution and pixel density of activated caspase 3-positive cells, indicating that the participation of IP3R1 in neuronal cell loss is not related to classical caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, this study may contribute to new perspectives in the investigation of

  5. Inositol Pyrophosphate Profiling of Two HCT116 Cell Lines Uncovers Variation in InsP8 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chunfang; Wilson, Miranda S. C.; Jessen, Henning J.; Saiardi, Adolfo; Shears, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    The HCT116 cell line, which has a pseudo-diploid karotype, is a popular model in the fields of cancer cell biology, intestinal immunity, and inflammation. In the current study, we describe two batches of diverged HCT116 cells, which we designate as HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL. Using both gel electrophoresis and HPLC, we show that HCT116UCL cells contain 6-fold higher levels of InsP8 than HCT116NIH cells. This observation is significant because InsP8 is one of a group of molecules collectively known as ‘inositol pyrophosphates’ (PP-InsPs)—highly ‘energetic’ and conserved regulators of cellular and organismal metabolism. Variability in the cellular levels of InsP8 within divergent HCT116 cell lines could have impacted the phenotypic data obtained in previous studies. This difference in InsP8 levels is more remarkable for being specific; levels of other inositol phosphates, and notably InsP6 and 5-InsP7, are very similar in both HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines. We also developed a new HPLC procedure to record 1-InsP7 levels directly (for the first time in any mammalian cell line); 1-InsP7 comprised <2% of total InsP7 in HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines. The elevated levels of InsP8 in the HCT116UCL lines were not due to an increase in expression of the PP-InsP kinases (IP6Ks and PPIP5Ks), nor to a decrease in the capacity to dephosphorylate InsP8. We discuss how the divergent PP-InsP profiles of the newly-designated HCT116NIH and HCT116UCL lines should be considered an important research opportunity: future studies using these two lines may uncover new features that regulate InsP8 turnover, and may also yield new directions for studying InsP8 function. PMID:27788189

  6. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated inositol phosphate formation in hepatocytes is abolished by pertussis toxin and phorbol esters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.M.; Garrison, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The EGF-stimulated rise in intracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ (Ca/sup 2 +/)/sub i/ and Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent protein phosphorylation events in isolated hepatocytes are blocked by pertussis toxin and phorbol ester pretreatment. The present study characterized the EGF-stimulated formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/) in hepatocytes using HPLC methodology to separate the InsP/sub 3/ isomers. Both 66 nM EGF and 10 nM angiotensin II (ANG II) caused a rapid increase in the Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ isomer although EGF-stimulated formation was smaller. At a concentration of ANG II (0.1 nM) which gave an equivalent rise in (Ca/sup 2 +/)/sub i/ as 66 nM EGF, the kinetics and magnitude of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ formation were similar. EGF or ANG II-stimulated formation of the Ins(1,3,4)P/sub 3/ isomer was more gradual and increased beyond the level of Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ after 60 sec. The initial EGF and ANG II-stimulated increase in both InsP/sub 3/ isomers was not affected by removing external Ca/sup 2 +/ with a 10-fold excess of EGTA. Pretreatment of rats with pertussis toxin for 72 hrs blocked the ability of EGF to increase Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ but did not affect the increase due to ANG II. Three main pretreatment of cells with 1 ..mu..g/ml phorbol 12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) also inhibited the EGF-stimulated Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ formation. PMA slightly attenuated Ins(1,4,5)P/sub 3/ formation stimulated by 0.1 nM ANG II but not enough to affect the Ca/sup 2 +/ signal. These data suggest that the signal transduction system used by EGF receptors to increase Ins (1,4,5)P/sub 3/ in hepatocytes is somehow different from that used by ANG II receptors.

  7. Functional Role of Intracellular Calcium Receptor Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Type 1 in Rat Hippocampus after Neonatal Anoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Takada, Silvia Honda; Cardoso, Débora Sterzeck; Dias, Natália Myuki Moralles; de Campos, Beatriz Crossiol Vicente; Bretherick, Talitha Amanda Sanches; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ferraz, Mariana Sacrini Ayres

    2017-01-01

    Anoxia is one of the most prevalent causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality, especially in preterm neonates, constituting an important public health problem due to permanent neurological sequelae observed in patients. Oxygen deprivation triggers a series of simultaneous cascades, culminating in cell death mainly located in more vulnerable metabolic brain regions, such as the hippocampus. In the process of cell death by oxygen deprivation, cytosolic calcium plays crucial roles. Intracellular inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) are important regulators of cytosolic calcium levels, although the role of these receptors in neonatal anoxia is completely unknown. This study focused on the functional role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 (IP3R1) in rat hippocampus after neonatal anoxia. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed a decrease of IP3R1 gene expression 24 hours after neonatal anoxia. We detected that IP3R1 accumulates specially in CA1, and this spatial pattern did not change after neonatal anoxia. Interestingly, we observed that anoxia triggers translocation of IP3R1 to nucleus in hippocampal cells. We were able to observe that anoxia changes distribution of IP3R1 immunofluorescence signals, as revealed by cluster size analysis. We next examined the role of IP3R1 in the neuronal cell loss triggered by neonatal anoxia. Intrahippocampal injection of non-specific IP3R1 blocker 2-APB clearly reduced the number of Fluoro-Jade C and Tunel positive cells, revealing that activation of IP3R1 increases cell death after neonatal anoxia. Finally, we aimed to disclose mechanistics of IP3R1 in cell death. We were able to determine that blockade of IP3R1 did not reduced the distribution and pixel density of activated caspase 3-positive cells, indicating that the participation of IP3R1 in neuronal cell loss is not related to classical caspase-mediated apoptosis. In summary, this study may contribute to new perspectives in the investigation of

  8. Ruthenium and osmium complexes of hemilabile chiral monophosphinite ligands derived from 1D-pinitol or 1D-chiro-inositol as catalysts for asymmetric hydrogenation reactions.

    PubMed

    Slade, Angela T; Lensink, Cornelis; Falshaw, Andrew; Clark, George R; Wright, L James

    2014-12-07

    The monophosphinite ligands, 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclopentylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P1), 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-isopropylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P2), 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclohexylidene-3-O-methyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P3), and 1D-1,2;5,6-di-O-cyclopentylidene-3-O-ethyl-4-O-diphenylphosphino-chiro-inositol (D-P4), can be conveniently prepared from the chiral natural products 1D-pinitol or 1D-chiro-inositol. On treatment of toluene solutions of RuCl2(PPh3)3 with two mole equivalents of the ligands D-PY (Y = 1-4) the complexes RuCl2(D-P1)2 (1), RuCl2(D-P2)2 (4), RuCl2(D-P3)2 (5), or RuCl2(D-P4)2 (6), respectively, are formed. Similarly, treatment of OsCl2(PPh3)3 with D-P1 gives OsCl2(D-P1)2 (7). The single crystal X-ray structure determination of 1 reveals that each D-P1 ligand coordinates to ruthenium through phosphorus and the oxygen atom of the methoxyl group. Treatment of 1 with excess LiBr or LiI results in metathesis of the chloride ligands and RuBr2(D-P1)2 (2) or RuI2(D-P1)2 (3), respectively, are formed. Exposure of a solution of 1 to carbon monoxide results in the very rapid formation of RuCl2(CO)2(D-P1)2 (8), thereby demonstrating the ease with which the oxygen donors are displaced from the metal and hence the hemilabile nature of the two bidentate D-P1 ligands in 1. Preliminary studies indicate that 1-7 act as catalysts for the asymmetric hydrogenation reactions of acetophenone and 3-quinuclidinone to give the corresponding alcohols in generally high conversions but low enantiomeric excesses.

  9. Inframolecular acid base studies of the tris and tetrakis myo-inositol phosphates including the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozol, Hélène; Blum-Held, Corinne; Guédat, Philippe; Maechling, Clarisse; Lanners, Steve; Schlewer, Gilbert; Spiess, Bernard

    2002-12-01

    The intrinsic acid-base properties of the phosphate groups of three myo-inositol derivatives which display the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif, i.e. (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3)P 3), (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3,6-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3,6)P 4), and (±)- myo-inositol 1,2,3,5-tetrakisphosphate (Ins(1,2,3,5)P 4) are reported. The studies were performed in 0.2 M KCl solution at 37 °C, near physiological ionic strength and temperature. In addition, in order to shed light on the transition metal complexation properties of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, the influence of the Zn 2+ cations on its 31P NMR titration curves was investigated. From the titration curves as well as from the determined protonation microconstants, it appears that for Ins(1,2,3)P 3, the two lateral P1 and P3 phosphates strongly contribute to stabilise a proton on the central P2 phosphate. However, in the fully deprotonated form of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, P1 and P3 repulse each other so that they establish hydrogen bonds with, respectively, their neighbouring OH6 and OH4 hydroxyls. The 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif of Ins(1,2,3,5)P 4 behaves very similarly to that of Ins(1,2,3)P 3 indicating a poor interaction with the distant P5 phosphate. By contrast, moving a phosphate group from position 5 to position 6 on the myo-inositol ring as in Ins(1,2,3,6)P 4, leads to major changes in the basicity and cooperativity of the phosphate groups. Finally, the presence of Zn 2+ cations has a marked influence on the 31P NMR titration curves of Ins(1,2,3)P 3, leading to the conclusion that two equatorial phosphates, assisted by a middle axial one, afford an optimal chelating moiety that is able to occupy all sites of the metal coordination polyhedron which could be the reason for its antioxidant properties.

  10. Activation of PLC by an endogenous cytokine (GBP) in Drosophila S3 cells and its application as a model for studying inositol phosphate signalling through ITPK1.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yixing; Wu, Shilan; Wang, Huanchen; Hayakawa, Yoichi; Bird, Gary S; Shears, Stephen B

    2012-12-01

    Using immortalized [3H]inositol-labelled S3 cells, we demonstrated in the present study that various elements of the inositol phosphate signalling cascade are recruited by a Drosophila homologue from a cytokine family of so-called GBPs (growth-blocking peptides). HPLC analysis revealed that dGBP (Drosophila GBP) elevated Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels 9-fold. By using fluorescent Ca2+ probes, we determined that dGBP initially mobilized Ca2+ from intracellular pools; the ensuing depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by dGBP subsequently activated a Ca2+ entry pathway. The addition of dsRNA (double-stranded RNA) to knock down expression of the Drosophila Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor almost completely eliminated mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores by dGBP. Taken together, the results of the present study describe a classical activation of PLC (phospholipase C) by dGBP. The peptide also promoted increases in the levels of other inositol phosphates with signalling credentials: Ins(1,3,4,5)P4, Ins(1,4,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5. These results greatly expand the regulatory repertoire of the dGBP family, and also characterize S3 cells as a model for studying the regulation of inositol phosphate metabolism and signalling by endogenous cell-surface receptors. We therefore created a cell-line (S3ITPK1) in which heterologous expression of human ITPK (inositol tetrakisphosphate kinase) was controlled by an inducible metallothionein promoter. We found that dGBP-stimulated S3ITPK1 cells did not synthesize Ins(3,4,5,6)P4, contradicting a hypothesis that the PLC-coupled phosphotransferase activity of ITPK1 [Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5+Ins(1,3,4)P3→Ins(3,4,5,6)P4+Ins(1,3,4,6)P4] is driven solely by the laws of mass action [Chamberlain, Qian, Stiles, Cho, Jones, Lesley, Grabau, Shears and Spraggon (2007) J. Biol. Chem. 282, 28117-28125]. This conclusion represents a fundamental breach in our understanding of ITPK1 signalling.

  11. Purification and characterization of insulin-mimetic inositol phosphoglycan-like molecules from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Pañeda, C.; Villar, A. V.; Alonso, A.; Goñi, F. M.; Varela, F.; Brodbeck, U.; León, Y.; Varela-Nieto, I.; Jones, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Signal transduction through the hydrolysis of glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) leading to the release of the water-soluble inositol phosphoglycan (IPG) molecules has been demonstrated to be important for mediating some of the actions of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present study, GPI from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds has been purified and partially characterized on the basis of its chromatographic properties and its compositional analysis. RESULTS: The results indicate that it shows similarities to GPI previously isolated from other sources such as rat liver. IPG was generated from L. sativus seed GPI by hydrolysis with a GPI-specific phospholipase D (GPI-PLD). This IPG inhibited protein kinase A (PKA) in an in vitro assay, caused cell proliferation in explanted cochleovestibular ganglia (CVG), and decreased 8-Br-cAMP-induced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) mRNA expression in cultured hepatoma cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that L. sativus seed IPG possess insulin-mimetic activities. This may explain why L. sativus seeds have been used in some traditional medicines to ameliorate diabetic symptoms. PMID:11683370

  12. Aberrant calcium signaling by transglutaminase-mediated posttranslational modification of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Kozo; Terauchi, Akiko; Nakamura, Kyoko; Higo, Takayasu; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Nagisa; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Nakamura, Takeshi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2014-09-23

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) in the endoplasmic reticulum mediates calcium signaling that impinges on intracellular processes. IP3Rs are allosteric proteins comprising four subunits that form an ion channel activated by binding of IP3 at a distance. Defective allostery in IP3R is considered crucial to cellular dysfunction, but the specific mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that a pleiotropic enzyme transglutaminase type 2 targets the allosteric coupling domain of IP3R type 1 (IP3R1) and negatively regulates IP3R1-mediated calcium signaling and autophagy by locking the subunit configurations. The control point of this regulation is the covalent posttranslational modification of the Gln2746 residue that transglutaminase type 2 tethers to the adjacent subunit. Modification of Gln2746 and IP3R1 function was observed in Huntington disease models, suggesting a pathological role of this modification in the neurodegenerative disease. Our study reveals that cellular signaling is regulated by a new mode of posttranslational modification that chronically and enzymatically blocks allosteric changes in the ligand-gated channels that relate to disease states.

  13. Characterization of a flatworm inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate receptor (IP₃R) reveals a role in reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Liu, Xiaolong; Chan, John D; Marchant, Jonathan S

    2013-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) are intracellular Ca²⁺ channels that elevate cytoplasmic Ca²⁺ in response to the second messenger IP3. Here, we describe the identification and in vivo functional characterization of the planarian IP₃R, the first intracellular Ca²⁺ channel to be defined in flatworms. A single IP₃R gene in Dugesia japonica encoded a 2666 amino acid protein (Dj.IP₃R) that shared well conserved structural features with vertebrate IP₃R counterparts. Expression of an NH₂-terminal Dj.IP₃R region (amino acid residues 223-585) recovered high affinity ³H-IP₃ binding (0.9±0.1 nM) which was abolished by a single point mutation of an arginine residue (R495L) important for IP₃ coordination. In situ hybridization revealed that Dj.IP₃R mRNA was most strongly expressed in the pharynx and optical nerve system as well as the reproductive system in sexualized planarians. Consistent with this observed tissue distribution, in vivo RNAi of Dj.IP₃R resulted in a decreased egg-laying behavior suggesting Dj.IP₃R plays an upstream role in planarian reproductive physiology.

  14. Postsynaptic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling maintains presynaptic function of parallel fiber–Purkinje cell synapses via BDNF

    PubMed Central

    Furutani, Kazuharu; Okubo, Yohei; Kakizawa, Sho; Iino, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    The maintenance of synaptic functions is essential for neuronal information processing, but cellular mechanisms that maintain synapses in the adult brain are not well understood. Here, we report an activity-dependent maintenance mechanism of parallel fiber (PF)–Purkinje cell (PC) synapses in the cerebellum. When postsynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) or inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) signaling was chronically inhibited in vivo, PF–PC synaptic strength decreased because of a decreased transmitter release probability. The same effects were observed when PF activity was inhibited in vivo by the suppression of NMDA receptor-mediated inputs to granule cells. PF–PC synaptic strength similarly decreased after the in vivo application of an antibody against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Furthermore, the weakening of synaptic connection caused by the blockade of mGluR–IP3 signaling was reversed by the in vivo application of BDNF. These results indicate that a signaling cascade comprising PF activity, postsynaptic mGluR–IP3 signaling and subsequent BDNF signaling maintains presynaptic functions in the mature cerebellum. PMID:16709674

  15. Modulatory role of D-chiro-inositol (DCI) on LH and insulin secretion in obese PCOS patients.

    PubMed

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Santagni, Susanna; Rattighieri, Erika; Chierchia, Elisa; Despini, Giulia; Marini, Giulia; Prati, Alessia; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2014-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine condition that affects fertility through oligo-ovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic morphology of the ovaries. Since it has been demonstrated a high incidence of insulin resistance in PCOS patients, our study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the integrative treatment with D-chiro-inositol (DCI) (500 mg die, per os, for 12 weeks) on hormonal parameters and insulin sensitivity in a group of overweight/obese PCOS patients (body mass index; BMI > 26). After the treatment, interval several endocrine parameters improved (luteinizing hormone [LH], LH/follicle stimulating hormone [FSH], androstenedione and insulin), insulin response to oral glucose tolerance test reported the significant improvement of insulin sensitivity as well as the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced (10 µg, in bolus) LH response. BMI decreased, though no lifestyle modification was requested. When data were analyzed according to the presence or absence of first-grade diabetic relatives, PCOS patients with diabetic relatives showed greater improvement after DCI administration. In conclusion DCI administration is effective in restoring better insulin sensitivity and an improved hormonal pattern in obese hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients, in particular, in hyperinsulinemic PCOS patients who have diabetic relatives.

  16. Myeloid cell-specific inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I knockout mice impair bacteria clearance in a murine peritonitis model.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Shin; Nigorikawa, Kiyomi; Sasaki, Junko; Hazeki, Kaoru; Kasuu, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Takehiko; Hazeki, Osamu

    2016-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling has been implicated in the anti-inflammatory response in a mouse model of endotoxemia and sepsis. The present study focused on the role of inositol polyphosphate-4-phosphatase type I (Inpp4a), which dephosphorylates PtdIns(3,4)P2 to PtdIns(3)P, in bacterial infections. We prepared myeloid cell-specific Inpp4a-conditional knockout mice. Macrophages from these mice showed increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS or Escherichia coli in vitro The Inpp4a knockout mice survived for a shorter time than wild type mice after i.p. infection with E. coli, with less production of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, E. coli clearance from blood and lung was significantly impaired in the knockout mice. A likely mechanism is that the Inpp4a-catalyzed dephosphorylation of PtdIns(3,4)P2 down-regulates Akt pathways, which, in turn, increases the production of inflammatory mediators. This mechanism at least fits the decreased E. coli clearance and short survival in the Inpp4a knockout mice.

  17. Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting Parasite Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Inhibits Mammalian Host Cell Invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Muneaki; Nara, Takeshi; Hirawake, Hiroko; Morales, Jorge; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2014-02-01

    Chagas disease is caused by an intracellular parasitic protist, Trypanosoma cruzi. As there are no highly effective drugs against this agent that also demonstrate low toxicity, there is an urgent need for development of new drugs to treat Chagas disease. We have previously demonstrated that the parasite inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (TcIP3R) is crucial for invasion of the mammalian host cell by T. cruzi. Here, we report that TcIP3R is a short-lived protein and that its expression is significantly suppressed in trypomastigotes. Treatment of trypomastigotes, an infective stage of T. cruzi, with antisense oligonucleotides specific to TcIP3R deceased TcIP3R protein levels and impaired trypomastigote invasion of host cells. Due to the resulting instability and very low expression level of TcIP3R in trypomastigotes indicates that TcIP3R is a promising target for antisense therapy in Chagas disease.

  18. Inhibition of 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E improves insulin signal transduction in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Daniela F; Coope, Andressa; Caricilli, Andrea M; Prada, Patricia O; Saad, Mario J; Velloso, Licio A; Araujo, Eliana P

    2013-05-01

    The 72 kDa inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase E (72k-5ptase) controls signal transduction through the catalytic dephosphorylation of the 5-position of membrane-bound phosphoinositides. The reduction of 72k-5ptase expression in the hypothalamus results in improved hypothalamic insulin signal transduction and reduction of food intake and body mass. Here, we evaluated the tissue distribution and the impact of obesity on the expression of 72k-5ptase in peripheral tissues of experimental animals. In addition, insulin signal transduction and action were determined in an animal model of obesity and insulin resistance treated with an antisense (AS) oligonucleotide that reduces 72k-5ptase expression. In lean Wistar rats, 72k-5ptase mRNA and protein are found in highest levels in heart, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue. In three distinct models of obesity, Wistar rats, Swiss mice fed on high-fat diet, and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice, the expression of 72k-5ptase is increased in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The treatment of obese Wistar rats with an anti-72k-5ptase AS oligonucleotide results in significant reduction of 72k-5ptase catalytic activity, which is accompanied by reduced food intake and body mass and improved insulin signal transduction and action as determined by immunoblotting and clamp studies respectively. 72k-5ptase expression is increased in obesity and its AS inhibition resulted in a significant improvement in insulin signal transduction and restoration of glucose homeostasis.

  19. Unique precipitation and exocytosis of a calcium salt of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in larval Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Irigoín, Florencia; Casaravilla, Cecilia; Iborra, Francisco; Sim, Robert B; Ferreira, Fernando; Díaz, Alvaro

    2004-12-15

    The ubiquitous intracellular molecule myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) is present extracellularly in the hydatid cyst wall (HCW) of the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus. This study shows that extracellular IP6 is present as its solid calcium salt, in the form of deposits that are observed, at the ultrastructural level, as naturally electron dense granules some tens of nanometers in diameter. The presence of a calcium salt of IP6 in these structures was determined by two different electron microscopy techniques: (i) the analysis of the spatial distribution of phosphorus and calcium in the outer, acellular layer of the HCW (the laminated layer, LL) through electron energy loss spectroscopy, and (ii) the observation, by transmission electron microscopy, of HCW that were selectively depleted of IP6 by treatment with EGTA or phytase, an enzyme that catalyses the dephosphorylation of IP6. The deposits of the IP6-Ca(II) salt are also observed inside membrane vesicles in cells of the germinal layer (the inner, cellular layer of the HCW), indicating that IP6 precipitates with calcium within a cellular vesicular compartment and is then secreted to the LL. Thus, much as in plants (that produce vesicular IP6 deposits), the existence of transporters for IP6 or its precursors in internal membranes is needed to explain the compound's cellular localisation in E. granulosus.

  20. myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate is a major component of an extracellular structure in the parasitic cestode Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed Central

    Irigoín, Florencia; Ferreira, Fernando; Fernández, Cecilia; Sim, Robert B; Díaz, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    myo-Inositol hexakisphosphate (IP(6)) is an abundant intracellular component of animal cells. In this study we describe the presence of extracellular IP(6) in the hydatid cyst wall (HCW) of the larval stage of the cestode parasite Echinococcus granulosus. The HCW comprises an inner cellular layer and an outer, acellular (laminated) layer up to 2 mm in thickness that protects the parasite from host immune cells. A compound, subsequently identified as IP(6), was detected in and purified from an HCW extract on the basis of its capacity to inhibit complement activation. The identification of the isolated compound was carried out by a combination of NMR, MS and TLC. The majority of IP(6) in the HCW was found in the acellular layer, with only a small fraction of the compound being extracted from cells. In the laminated layer, IP(6) was present in association with calcium, and accounted for up to 15% of the total dry mass of the HCW. IP(6) was not detected in any other structures or stages of the parasite. Our results imply that IP(6) is secreted by the larval stage of the parasite in a polarized fashion towards the interface with the host. This is the first report of the secretion of IP(6), and the possible implications beyond the biology of E. granulosus are discussed. PMID:11853537

  1. In Vitro Antioxidant Treatment of Semen Samples in Assisted Reproductive Technology: Effects of Myo-Inositol on Nemaspermic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Papale, Palma; Della Ragione, Antonietta; Quaranta, Giuseppa; Russo, Giovanni; Russo, Sabatino

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility and the poor quality of sperm seem to be influenced by oxidative stress. In particular, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) mainly produced by morphologically altered spermatozoa affect sperm motility, morphology, and integrity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Myo-Inositol (Myo-Ins) on a number of parameters such as viscosity and total and progressive motility of spermatozoa, in order to better validate its possible practical application in vitro, in order to improve the capacitation protocols commonly used in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). A total of 100 fresh and 25 thawed semen samples were analyzed in vitro prior to and after addition of Myo-Ins. Treatment of samples with Myo-Ins showed an increase in the sperm total and progressive motility in both fresh and thawed samples. Furthermore, Myo-Ins proved to be well tolerated by spermatozoa in vitro, demonstrating that it can be efficiently and safely used as antioxidant in the laboratory practice and for preparation of semen samples in ART. PMID:27672392

  2. The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor of cerebellum. Mn2+ permeability and regulation by cytosolic Mn2+

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (InsP3R), an intracellular calcium release channel, is found in virtually all cells and is abundant in the cerebellum. We used Mn2+ as a tool to study two aspects of the cerebellar InsP3R. First, to investigate the structure of the ion pore, Mn2+ permeation through the channel was determined. We found that Mn2+ can pass through the InsP3R; the selectivity sequence for divalent cations is Ba2+ > Sr2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Mn2+. Second, to begin characterization of the cytosolic regulatory sites responsible for the Ca(2+)-dependent modulation of InsP3R function, the ability of Mn2+ to replace Ca2+ was investigated. We show that Mn2+, as Ca2+, modulates InsP3R activity with a bell-shaped dependence where the affinity of the activation site of the InsP3R is similar for both ions, but higher concentrations of Mn2+ were necessary to inhibit the channel. These results suggest that the two regulatory sites are structurally distinct. Our findings are also important for the understanding of cellular responses when Mn2+ is used to quench the intracellular fluorescence of Ca2+ indicator dyes. PMID:8854341

  3. A novel hydroxyapatite film coated with ionic silver via inositol hexaphosphate chelation prevents implant-associated infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funao, Haruki; Nagai, Shigenori; Sasaki, Aya; Hoshikawa, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Masaya; Aizawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2016-03-01

    Various silver-coated implants have been developed to prevent implant-associated infections, and have shown dramatic effects in vitro. However, the in vivo results have been inconsistent. Recent in vitro studies showed that silver exerts antibacterial activity by mediating the generation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of oxygen. To maintain its antibacterial activity in vivo, the silver should remain in an ionic state and be stably bound to the implant surface. Here, we developed a novel bacteria-resistant hydroxyapatite film in which ionic silver is immobilized via inositol hexaphosphate chelation using a low-heat immersion process. This bacteria-resistant coating demonstrated significant antibacterial activity both in vitro and in vivo. In a murine bioluminescent osteomyelitis model, no bacteria were detectable 21 days after inoculation with S. aureus and placement of this implant. Serum interleukin-6 was elevated in the acute phase in this model, but it was significantly lower in the ionic-silver group than the control group on day 2. Serum C-reactive protein remained significantly higher in the control group than the ionic-silver group on day 14. Because this coating is produced by a low-heat immersion process, it can be applied to complex structures of various materials, to provide significant protection against implant-associated infections.

  4. Size-dependent sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and orthophosphate on nano-γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yupeng; Koopal, Luuk K; Li, Wei; Zheng, Anmin; Yang, Jun; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2015-08-01

    The effects of particle size (5, 35 and 70nm) on the sorption of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (IHP) and inorganic phosphate (KH2PO4, Pi) on γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles were investigated using batch sorption experiments, zeta potential measurements and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The results show that the maximum sorption densities (μmolm(-2)) for IHP and Pi increase with decreasing γ-Al2O3 particle size. The sorption affinity of γ-Al2O3 for IHP and Pi generally increases with decreasing particle size, and the sorption affinity for IHP is approximately one order of magnitude greater than that for Pi. In our experimental time scale, surface complexation is the main mechanism for IHP and Pi sorption on large size γ-Al2O3. While an additional surface precipitation mechanism, indicated by solid-state (31)P and (27)Al NMR data, is partly responsible for the greater sorption density on very small size γ-Al2O3. Compared with Pi, the effect of particle size on the sorption of IHP is more pronounced. The results suggest a size-dependent surface reactivity of Al2O3 nanoparticles with Pi/IHP. The underlying mechanism will also be relevant for other small nanosize (hydr)oxide particles and is important for our understanding of the role of small nanoparticles in controlling the mobility and fate of organic and inorganic phosphates in the environment.

  5. Hormone-induced calcium oscillations depend on cross-coupling with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate oscillations.

    PubMed

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Bartlett, Paula J; Politi, Antonio; Burnett, Paul; Metzger, Walson; Johnston, Jane; Joseph, Suresh K; Höfer, Thomas; Thomas, Andrew P

    2014-11-20

    Receptor-mediated oscillations in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) could originate either directly from an autonomous Ca(2+) feedback oscillator at the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor or as a secondary consequence of IP3 oscillations driven by Ca(2+) feedback on IP3 metabolism. It is challenging to discriminate these alternatives, because IP3 fluctuations could drive Ca(2+) oscillations or could just be a secondary response to the [Ca(2+)]i spikes. To investigate this problem, we constructed a recombinant IP3 buffer using type-I IP3 receptor ligand-binding domain fused to GFP (GFP-LBD), which buffers IP3 in the physiological range. This IP3 buffer slows hormone-induced [IP3] dynamics without changing steady-state [IP3]. GFP-LBD perturbed [Ca(2+)]i oscillations in a dose-dependent manner: it decreased both the rate of [Ca(2+)]i rise and the speed of Ca(2+) wave propagation and, at high levels, abolished [Ca(2+)]i oscillations completely. These data, together with computational modeling, demonstrate that IP3 dynamics play a fundamental role in generating [Ca(2+)]i oscillations and waves.

  6. D-chiro-inositol found in Cucurbita ficifolia (Cucurbitaceae) fruit extracts plays the hypoglycaemic role in streptozocin-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tao; Wang, Qin

    2006-11-01

    Cucurbita ficifolia is commonly used as an antihyperglycaemic agent in Asia. However, the mechanism of its action is unknown. Chemically synthesized D-chiro-inositol (D-CI), a component of an insulin mediator, has been demonstrated to have antihyperglycaemic effects in rats. In this study, we found that C. ficifolia contained fairly high levels of D-CI, thus, C. ficifolia may be a natural source of D-CI for reducing blood glucose concentrations in diabetics. We evaluated C. ficifolia fruit extract, containing D-CI, for its antihyperglycaemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of C. ficifolia fruit extract containing 10 or 20 mg D-CI kg(-1) body weight for 30 days resulted in significantly lowered levels of blood glucose, and increased levels of hepatic glycogen, total haemoglobin and plasma insulin. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed in fasted diabetic and normal rats, in which there was a significant improvement in blood glucose tolerance in the diabetic rats treated with C. ficifolia fruit extract. The effects were compared with 20 mg kg(-1) body weight chemically synthesized D-CI. Findings from this study demonstrated that C. ficifolia fruit extract was an effective source of D-CI for its hypoglycaemic effects in rats, and therefore may be useful in the treatment of diabetes.

  7. A novel hydroxyapatite film coated with ionic silver via inositol hexaphosphate chelation prevents implant-associated infection

    PubMed Central

    Funao, Haruki; Nagai, Shigenori; Sasaki, Aya; Hoshikawa, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Takashi; Okada, Yasunori; Koyasu, Shigeo; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Masaya; Aizawa, Mamoru; Matsumoto, Morio; Ishii, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Various silver-coated implants have been developed to prevent implant-associated infections, and have shown dramatic effects in vitro. However, the in vivo results have been inconsistent. Recent in vitro studies showed that silver exerts antibacterial activity by mediating the generation of reactive oxygen species in the presence of oxygen. To maintain its antibacterial activity in vivo, the silver should remain in an ionic state and be stably bound to the implant surface. Here, we developed a novel bacteria-resistant hydroxyapatite film in which ionic silver is immobilized via inositol hexaphosphate chelation using a low-heat immersion process. This bacteria-resistant coating demonstrated significant antibacterial activity both in vitro and in vivo. In a murine bioluminescent osteomyelitis model, no bacteria were detectable 21 days after inoculation with S. aureus and placement of this implant. Serum interleukin-6 was elevated in the acute phase in this model, but it was significantly lower in the ionic-silver group than the control group on day 2. Serum C-reactive protein remained significantly higher in the control group than the ionic-silver group on day 14. Because this coating is produced by a low-heat immersion process, it can be applied to complex structures of various materials, to provide significant protection against implant-associated infections. PMID:26984477

  8. Caveolae from luminal plasmalemma of rat lung endothelium: microdomains enriched in caveolin, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and inositol trisphosphate receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, J E; Oh, P; Jacobson, B S; Dvorak, A M

    1995-01-01

    A distinctive feature of many endothelia is an abundant population of noncoated plasmalemmal vesicles, or caveolae. Caveolae have been implicated in many important cellular processes, including transcytosis, endocytosis, potocytosis, and even signal transduction. Because caveolae have not been purified from endothelial cell surfaces, little is known directly about their structure and function in the endothelium. To delineate the transport role of these caveolae, we purified them from isolated luminal endothelial plasma membranes of rat lung. The rat lung luminal endothelial cell surfaces were isolated after coating them, in situ, with positively charged colloidal silica. The caveolae were then separated from these coated membranes and purified to yield a homogeneous population of morphologically distinct vesicles enriched in the structural protein caveolin. As with caveolae found on the endothelial cell surface in vivo, these highly purified caveolae contained the plasmalemmal Ca(2+)-ATPase and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate surface receptors. By contrast, other plasma membrane proteins were excluded from the caveolae, including angiotensin-converting enzyme, beta-actin, and band 4.1. The purified caveolae appeared to represent specific microdomains of the cell surface with their own unique molecular topography. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:7878055

  9. Crystal Structure of the Ligand Binding Suppressor Domain of Type 1 Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bosanac, Ivan; Yamazaki, Haruka; Matsu-ura, Toru; Michikawa, Takayuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2010-11-10

    Binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP{sub 3}) to the amino-terminal region of IP{sub 3} receptor promotes Ca{sup 2+} release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Within the amino terminus, the first 220 residues directly preceding the IP{sub 3} binding core domain play a key role in IP{sub 3} binding suppression and regulatory protein interaction. Here we present a crystal structure of the suppressor domain of the mouse type 1 IP{sub 3} receptor at 1.8 {angstrom}. Displaying a shape akin to a hammer, the suppressor region contains a Head subdomain forming the {beta}-trefoil fold and an Arm subdomain possessing a helix-turn-helix structure. The conserved region on the Head subdomain appeared to interact with the IP{sub 3} binding core domain and is in close proximity to the previously proposed binding sites of Homer, RACK1, calmodulin, and CaBP1. The present study sheds light onto the mechanism underlying the receptor's sensitivity to the ligand and its communication with cellular signaling proteins.

  10. Type 1 inositol trisphosphate receptor regulates cerebellar circuits by maintaining the spine morphology of purkinje cells in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Takeyuki; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Le, Tung Dinh; Hashikawa, Tsutomu; Hirono, Moritoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Nagao, Soichi; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-24

    The structural maintenance of neural circuits is critical for higher brain functions in adulthood. Although several molecules have been identified as regulators for spine maintenance in hippocampal and cortical neurons, it is poorly understood how Purkinje cell (PC) spines are maintained in the mature cerebellum. Here we show that the calcium channel type 1 inositol trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) in PCs plays a crucial role in controlling the maintenance of parallel fiber (PF)-PC synaptic circuits in the mature cerebellum in vivo. Significantly, adult mice lacking IP3R1 specifically in PCs (L7-Cre;Itpr1(flox/flox)) showed dramatic increase in spine density and spine length of PCs, despite having normal spines during development. In addition, the abnormally rearranged PF-PC synaptic circuits in mature cerebellum caused unexpectedly severe ataxia in adult L7-Cre;Itpr1(flox/flox) mice. Our findings reveal a specific role for IP3R1 in PCs not only as an intracellular mediator of cerebellar synaptic plasticity induction, but also as a critical regulator of PF-PC synaptic circuit maintenance in the mature cerebellum in vivo; this mechanism may underlie motor coordination and learning in adults.

  11. Functional drug screening reveals anticonvulsants as enhancers of mTOR-independent autophagic killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through inositol depletion.

    PubMed

    Schiebler, Mark; Brown, Karen; Hegyi, Krisztina; Newton, Sandra M; Renna, Maurizio; Hepburn, Lucy; Klapholz, Catherine; Coulter, Sarah; Obregón-Henao, Andres; Henao Tamayo, Marcela; Basaraba, Randall; Kampmann, Beate; Henry, Katherine M; Burgon, Joseph; Renshaw, Stephen A; Fleming, Angeleen; Kay, Robert R; Anderson, Karen E; Hawkins, Phillip T; Ordway, Diane J; Rubinsztein, David C; Floto, Rodrigo Andres

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains a major challenge to global health made worse by the spread of multidrug resistance. We therefore examined whether stimulating intracellular killing of mycobacteria through pharmacological enhancement of macroautophagy might provide a novel therapeutic strategy. Despite the resistance of MTB to killing by basal autophagy, cell-based screening of FDA-approved drugs revealed two anticonvulsants, carbamazepine and valproic acid, that were able to stimulate autophagic killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis within primary human macrophages at concentrations achievable in humans. Using a zebrafish model, we show that carbamazepine can stimulate autophagy in vivo and enhance clearance of M. marinum, while in mice infected with a highly virulent multidrug-resistant MTB strain, carbamazepine treatment reduced bacterial burden, improved lung pathology and stimulated adaptive immunity. We show that carbamazepine induces antimicrobial autophagy through a novel, evolutionarily conserved, mTOR-independent pathway controlled by cellular depletion of myo-inositol. While strain-specific differences in susceptibility to in vivo carbamazepine treatment may exist, autophagy enhancement by repurposed drugs provides an easily implementable potential therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant mycobacterial infection.

  12. Investigation of the effect of inositol trisphosphate in skinned skeletal muscle fibres with functional excitation-contraction coupling.

    PubMed

    Posterino, G S; Lamb, G D

    1998-01-01

    The effect of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) was investigated in mechanically skinned fibres which had the endogenous level of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ and in which the normal excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling mechanism was still functional. Application of 50 or 100 microM IP3 failed to induce a detectable force response in any such skinned fibre from either the extensor digitorum longus muscle of the rat or iliofibularis muscle of the toad, irrespective of whether the fibre was: (a) in its normally polarized, resting state; (b) chronically depolarized to inactivate the voltage sensors; (c) paralysed with D600; or (d) depolarized to threshold for force activation. Furthermore, the size of the response to subsequent depolarization or exposure to caffeine (2mM) or reduced myoplasmic [Mg2+] indicated that little if any Ca2+ had been lost from the SR during the period of IP3 exposure (> or = 1 min). Also, IP3 did not induce a detectable force response when SR Ca2+ uptake was potently inhibited with 20 microM TBQ. Exposure to IP3 (50 microM) slightly potentiated the peak force response to depolarization in toad fibres, and this was probably because of an accompanying small increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. These results appear inconsistent with the proposal that IP3 acts as the second messenger in E-C coupling in skeletal muscle.

  13. Endogenous TRPV1 stimulation leads to the activation of the inositol phospholipid pathway necessary for sustained Ca(2+) oscillations.

    PubMed

    Pecze, László; Blum, Walter; Henzi, Thomas; Schwaller, Beat

    2016-12-01

    Sensory neuron subpopulations as well as breast and prostate cancer cells express functional transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) ion channels; however little is known how TRPV1 activation leads to biological responses. Agonist-induced activation of TRPV1 resulted in specific spatiotemporal patterns of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals in breast and prostate cancer-derived cells. Capsaicin (CAPS; 50μM) evoked intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations and/or intercellular Ca(2+) waves in all cell lines. As evidenced in prostate cancer Du 145 cells, oscillations were largely dependent on the expression of functional TRPV1 channels in the plasma membrane, phospholipase C activation and on the presence of extracellular Ca(2+) ions. Concomitant oscillations of the mitochondrial matrix Ca(2+) concentration resulted in mitochondria energization evidenced by increased ATP production. CAPS-induced Ca(2+) oscillations also occurred in a subset of sensory neurons, yet already at lower CAPS concentrations (1μM). Stimulation of ectopically expressed TRPV1 channels in CAPS-insensitive NIH-3T3 cells didn't provoke CAPS-triggered Ca(2+) oscillations; rather it resulted in low-magnitude, long-lasting elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. This indicates that sole TRPV1 activation is not sufficient to generate Ca(2+) oscillations. Instead the initial TRPV1-mediated signal leads to the activation of the inositol phospholipid pathway. This in turn suffices to generate a biologically relevant frequency-modulated Ca(2+) signal.

  14. Effect of tricyclic antidepressants on transmitter-stimulated inositol phosphate production in rat brain cortex in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, S.; Enna, S.J.

    1986-03-01

    Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) have anticholinergic and ..cap alpha..-adrenergic blocking properties. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of amitriptyline, imipramine, and desipramine on inositol phosphate accumulation, a brain second messenger system associated with cholinergic and adrenergic receptors. Whereas the TCAs were 28 to 400-fold weaker than atropine as inhibitors of /sup 3/H-QNB binding to brain cholinergic receptors, they were 600 to 2000-fold less active than atropine as inhibitors of carbachol-stimulated IP accumulation in brain. In contrast, the relative potencies of the TCAs and prazosin to inhibit norepinephrine-stimulated IP accumulation and /sup 3/H-prazosin binding appeared to be similar in the two assays. The results suggest pharmacological differences between the cholinergic receptors labeled in the ONB binding assay and those mediating the IP response, whereas the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptors appear to be similar in the two systems. Since atropine is considered a nonselective muscarinic antagonist, it is possible that the TCAs may differentiate between cholinergic receptor subtypes, which may be an important component of their clinical response.

  15. Analysis of free and total myo-inositol in foods, feeds, and infant formula by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection, including a novel total extraction using microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis and enzymatic treatment.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, David; Pritchard, Ted; Foy, Pamela; King, Kathryn; Mitchell, Barbara; Austad, John; Winters, Doug; Sullivan, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    A method for the analysis of free and total myo-inositol in foods, feeds, and infant formulas has been developed and validated using high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The option of a free myo-inositol determination or a complete total myo-inositol determination from main bound sources can be achieved. These sources include phytates, lower'phosphorylated forms, and phosphatidylinositol. This approach gives the option for subtraction of myo-inositol from nonbioavailable sources when it is quantified using other methods if a total bioavailable myo-inositol result is desired for nutritional labeling of a product. The free analysis was validated in a milk-based infant formula, giving RSD(R) of 2.29% and RSD, of 2.06%. A mean recovery of 97.9% was achieved from various spike levels of myo-inositol. Certified National Institute of Standards and Technology reference material verified the method's compatibility and specificity. Two different total analyses were validated in a soy-based infant formula and compared. One technique involved using a conventional acid hydrolysis with autoclave incubation for 6 h, while the other used a novel technique of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis with enzymatic treatment that can minimize extraction to 1 day. The autoclave analysis had RSD(R) of 2.08% and RSDr of 1.55%, along with a mean spike recovery of 102.1% at various myo-inositol spike levels. The microwave/enzyme total analysis had RSD(R) of 4.34% and RSD, of 4.70%, along with a mean spike recovery of 104.2% at various spike levels of myo-inositol. Main sources of myo-inositol including phytic acid and phosphatidylinositol were tested with both total analyses. Mean recoveries of phytic acid and phosphatidylinositol through the autoclave total analysis were 90.4 and 98.3%, respectively. Mean spike recoveries for these same sources in soy- based infant formula through the microwave/enzyme total analysis were 97.2 and 96

  16. Effects of exogenous inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) on the levels of InsP(6) and of inositol trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in malignant cells, tissues and biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Grases, Felix; Simonet, Bartolomé M; Vucenik, Ivana; Perelló, Joan; Prieto, Rafael M; Shamsuddin, AbulKalam M

    2002-08-16

    InsP(6) is abundant in cereals and legumes. InsP(6) and lower inositol phosphates, in particular InsP(3), participate in important intracellular processes. In addition, InsP(6) possess significant health benefits, such as anti-cancer effect, kidney stones prevention, lowering serum cholesterol. Because of the insensitivity of existing methods for determination of non-radiolabeled inositol phosphates, little is known about the natural occurrence, much less on the concentrations of InsP(6) and InsP(3) in biological samples. Using gas chromatography-mass detection analysis of HPLC chromatographic fractions, we report a measurement of unlabeled total InsP(3) and InsP(6) (a) as they occur within cells culture, tissues, and plasma, and (b) their changes depending on the presence of exogenous InsP(6). When rats were fed on a purified diet in which InsP(6) was undetectable (AIN-76A) the levels of InsP(6) in brain were 3.35 +/- 0.57 (SE) micromol.kg(-1) and in plasma 0.023 +/- 0.008 (SE) micromol.l(-1). The presence of InsP(6) in diet dramatically influenced its levels in brain and in plasma. When rats were given an InsP(6)-sufficient diet (AIN-76A + 1% InsP(6)), the levels of InsP(6) were about 100-fold higher in brain tissues (36.8 +/- 1.8 (SE)) than in plasma (0.29 +/- 0.02 (SE)); InsP(6) concentrations were 8.5-fold higher than total InsP(3) concentrations in either plasma (0.033 +/- 0.012 (SE)) and brain (4.21 +/- 0.55 (SE)). When animals were given an InsP(6)-poor diet (AIN-76A only), there was a 90% decrease in InsP(6) content in both brain tissue and plasma (p < 0.001); however, there was no change in the level of total InsP(3). In non-stimulated malignant cells (MDA-MB 231 and K562) the InsP(6) contents were 16.2 +/- 9.1 (SE) micromol.kg(-1) for MDA-MB 231 cells and 15.6 +/- 2.7 (SE) for K 562 cells. These values were around 3-fold higher than those of InsP(3) (4.8 +/- 0.5 micromol.kg(-1) and 6.9 +/- 0.1 (SE) for MDA-MB 231 and K562 cells respectively). Treatment

  17. Inositol phosphates in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone tissue are stereochemically similar to the products of breakdown of InsP6 in vitro by wheat-bran phytase.

    PubMed

    Brearley, C A; Hanke, D E

    1996-08-15

    Partisphere SAX HPLC analysis of endogenous inositol phosphates in [3H]inositol-labelled barley aleurone tissue revealed a range of isomers, including D- and/or L-Ins3P, D- and/or L-Ins(1,4)P2, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2)P2, a third unidentified InsP2, Ins(1,2,3)P3, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,6)P3, D-and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4)P4, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P4, Ins(1,3,4,5,6)P5, D- and/or L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5, Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P5, InsP6 and a molecule with the chromatographic properties of an inositol pyrophosphate. The striking match between the identities of the stereoisomers, and in some cases enantiomers, detected in vivo and those stereoisomers produced in vitro by the action of wheat-bran phytase on InsP6 [Cosgrove (1980) Inositol Phosphates: Their Chemistry, Bio-chemistry and Physiology. Elsevier, Amsterdam] strongly suggests that most of the inositol phosphates identified are products of the breakdown of InsP4 by endogenous phytase(s) with stereospecificity similar to that of the wheat-bran enzyme(s).

  18. Tumour cells can employ extracellular Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6) and multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1 (MINPP1) dephosphorylation to improve their proliferation.

    PubMed

    Windhorst, Sabine; Lin, Hongying; Blechner, Christine; Fanick, Werner; Brandt, Laura; Brehm, Maria A; Mayr, Georg W

    2013-02-15

    InsP(6) [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P6; phytate] is the most abundant inositol phosphate in mammalian cells with cytosolic/nuclear concentrations of up to 50 μM. We noticed that InsP6 in culture medium at a concentration of ≤50 μM significantly stimulates H1299 tumour cell growth, whereas larger concentrations of InsP6 inhibit growth. A detailed study of the fate of 30 μM InsP6 added to H199 cells revealed a major fraction of InsP6 initially precipitates as cell-surface metal complexes, but becomes slowly re-solubilized by extracellular dephosphorylation first to InsP3 isomers and subsequently to free myo-inositol. The precipitated metal-InsP6 complex is endocytosed in a receptor-independent but intact-glycocalyx-dependent manner and appears in lysosomes, where it is immediately dephosphorylated to Ins(1,2,4,5,6)P5 and very slowly to free inositol. By RNA knockdown, we identified secreted and lysosome targeted MINPP1 (multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase 1), the mammalian 3-phytase, to be essentially involved both in extracellular and in lysosomal InsP6 dephosphorylation. The results of the present study indicate that tumour cells employ this enzyme to utilize the micronutrients myo-inositol and metal-phosphate when encountering extracellular InsP6 and thus to enhance their growth potential.

  19. Altered expression of type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor in the Ngsk Prnp deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, H P; Choi, J K; Shin, H Y; Jeon, Y C; Jeong, B H; Lee, H G; Kim, J I; Choi, E K; Carp, R I; Kim, Y S

    2010-05-19

    Doppel protein (Dpl) is a paralog of the cellular form of prion protein (PrP(C)). Its ectopic expression in the CNS elicits significant cerebellar Purkinje cell degeneration in some lines of PrP knockout mice. However, little is known about the Dpl-mediated neurodegenerative mechanism. To understand the molecular and intracellular pathways underlying Purkinje cell degeneration, here, we investigated the regulation of calcium-release channel protein, type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R1) gene in Ngsk mice. These knockout mice express high levels of Dpl and eventually develop cerebellar degeneration. We observed that the expression level of IP(3)R1 gene is reduced in the cerebella of Ngsk mice as early as 3 months of age compared with age-matched controls along with the reduction in DNA binding activity of nuclear factor of activated-T cells (NFAT) which is transcription factor of IP(3)R1. Notably, expression of PrP restored the reduced DNA binding activity of NFATc4 by Dpl. Reduced expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and ionotropic glutamate receptor subtype 2 or B (GluR2), which are regulated by NFATc4, were also restored by PrP expression. In light of these findings, we suggest a mechanism for Dpl-mediated Purkinje cell degeneration linked to reduced gene expression of proteins related to neuronal activity. Decrease in IP(3)R1 gene expression may lead to functional deficits and ultimately death of Purkinje cells in Ngsk mice.

  20. HERPUD1 protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through downregulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Felipe; Parra, Valentina; Torrealba, Natalia; Navarro-Marquez, Mario; Gatica, Damian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Pennanen, Christian; Quiroga, Clara; Chiong, Mario; Caesar, Christa; Taylor, W Robert; Molgó, Jordi; Martin, Alejandra San; Jaimovich, Enrique; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine-inducible, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1 (HERPUD1), an ER resident protein, is upregulated in response to ER stress and Ca2+ homeostasis deregulation. HERPUD1 exerts cytoprotective effects in various models, but its role during oxidative insult remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HERPUD1 contributes to cytoprotection in response to redox stress and participates in mediating the stress-dependent signaling pathways. Our data showed that HERPUD1 protein levels increased in HeLa cells treated for 30 min with H2O2 or angiotensin II and in aortic tissue isolated from mice treated with angiotensin II for 3 weeks. Cell death was higher in HERPUD1 knockdown (sh-HERPUD1) in HeLa cells treated with H2O2 in comparison with control (sh-Luc) HeLa cells. This effect was abolished by the intracellular Ca2+ chelating agent BAPTA-AM or the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) antagonist xestospongin B, suggesting that the response to H2O2 was dependent on intracellular Ca2+ stores and the ITPR. Ca2+ kinetics showed that sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells exhibited greater and more sustained cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ increases than sh-Luc HeLa cells. This higher sensitivity of sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells to H2O2 was prevented with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. We concluded that the HERPUD1-mediated cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress depends on the ITPR and Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria. PMID:26616647

  1. HERPUD1 protects against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through downregulation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Felipe; Parra, Valentina; Torrealba, Natalia; Navarro-Marquez, Mario; Gatica, Damian; Bravo-Sagua, Roberto; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Pennanen, Christian; Quiroga, Clara; Chiong, Mario; Caesar, Christa; Taylor, W Robert; Molgó, Jordi; San Martin, Alejandra; Jaimovich, Enrique; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Homocysteine-inducible, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-inducible, ubiquitin-like domain member 1 (HERPUD1), an ER resident protein, is upregulated in response to ER stress and Ca(2+) homeostasis deregulation. HERPUD1 exerts cytoprotective effects in various models, but its role during oxidative insult remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HERPUD1 contributes to cytoprotection in response to redox stress and participates in mediating stress-dependent signaling pathways. Our data showed that HERPUD1 protein levels increased in HeLa cells treated for 30 min with H2O2 or angiotensin II and in aortic tissue isolated from mice treated with angiotensin II for 3 weeks. Cell death was higher in HERPUD1 knockdown (sh-HERPUD1) HeLa cells treated with H2O2 in comparison with control (sh-Luc) HeLa cells. This effect was abolished by the intracellular Ca(2+) chelating agent BAPTA-AM or the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR) antagonist xestospongin B, suggesting that the response to H2O2 was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+) stores and the ITPR. Ca(2+) kinetics showed that sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells exhibited greater and more sustained cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases than sh-Luc HeLa cells. This higher sensitivity of sh-HERPUD1 HeLa cells to H2O2 was prevented with the mitochondrial permeability transition pore inhibitor cyclosporine A. We concluded that the HERPUD1-mediated cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress depends on the ITPR and Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to mitochondria.

  2. Defining the Stoichiometry of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Binding Required to Initiate Ca2+ Release

    PubMed Central

    Alzayady, Kamil J.; Wang, Liwei; Chandrasekhar, Rahul; Wagner, Larry E.; Van Petegem, Filip; Yule, David I.

    2016-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are tetrameric intracellular Ca2+-release channels with each subunit containing a binding site for IP3 in the N-terminus. We provide evidence that four IP3 molecules are required to activate the channel under diverse conditions. Comparing the concentration-response relationship for binding and Ca2+ release suggested that IP3Rs are maximally occupied by IP3 before substantial Ca2+ release occurs. We showed that ligand binding–deficient subunits acted in a dominant-negative manner when coexpressed with wild-type monomers in the chicken immune cell line DT40-3KO, which lacks all three genes encoding IP3R subunits, and confirmed the same effect in an IP3R-null human cell line (HEK-3KO) generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Using dimeric and tetrameric concatenated IP3Rs with increasing numbers of binding-deficient subunits, we addressed the obligate ligand stoichiometry. The concatenated IP3Rs with four ligand-binding sites exhibited Ca2+ release and electrophysiological properties of native IP3Rs. However, IP3 failed to activate IP3Rs assembled from concatenated dimers consisting of one binding-competent and one binding-deficient mutant subunit. Similarly, IP3Rs containing two monomers of IP3R2short, an IP3 binding-deficient splice variant, were nonfunctional. Concatenated tetramers containing only three binding competent ligand-binding sites were nonfunctional under a wide range of activating conditions. These data provide definitive evidence that IP3-induced Ca2+ release only occurs when each IP3R monomer within the tetramer is occupied by IP3, thereby ensuring fidelity of Ca2+ release. PMID:27048566

  3. Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase II (INPP4B) is associated with chemoresistance and poor outcome in AML.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Sewa; Fleming, Shaun; Cummings, Nik; Rynkiewicz, Natalie K; Ooms, Lisa M; Nguyen, Nhu-Y N; Teh, Tse-Chieh; Avery, Sharon; McManus, Julie F; Papenfuss, Anthony T; McLean, Catriona; Guthridge, Mark A; Mitchell, Christina A; Wei, Andrew H

    2015-04-30

    Phosphoinositide signaling regulates diverse cellular functions. Phosphoinositide-3 kinase (PI3K) generates PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 and PtdIns(3,4)P2, leading to the activation of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways. Termination of phosphoinositide signaling requires hydrolysis of inositol ring phosphate groups through the actions of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 3-phosphatase (PTEN), PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 5-phosphatases (eg, SHIP), and PtdIns(3,4)P2 4-phosphatases (eg, INPP4B). The biological relevance of most of these phosphoinositide phosphatases in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains poorly understood. Mass spectrometry-based gene expression profiling of 3-, 4- and 5-phosphatases in human AML revealed significant overexpression of INPP4B. Analysis of an expanded panel of 205 AML cases at diagnosis revealed INPP4B overexpression in association with reduced responses to chemotherapy, early relapse, and poor overall survival, independent of other risk factors. Ectopic overexpression of INPP4B conferred leukemic resistance to cytosine arabinoside (ara-C), daunorubicin, and etoposide. Expression of a phosphatase inert variant (INPP4B C842A) failed to abrogate resistance of AML cells to chemotherapy in vitro or in vivo. In contrast, targeted suppression of endogenously overexpressed INPP4B by RNA interference sensitized AML cell lines and primary AML to chemotherapy. These findings demonstrate a previously unsuspected and clinically relevant role for INPP4B gain of function as a mediator of chemoresistance and poor survival outcome in AML independent of its phosphoinositide phosphatase function.

  4. D-chiro-inositol-enriched tartary buckwheat bran extract lowers the blood glucose level in KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Shan, Fang; Bian, Junsheng; Chen, Feng; Wang, Mingfu; Ren, Guixing

    2008-11-12

    D-chiro-inositol (DCI) is an active compound in tartary buckwheat [Fagopyrum tataricum (L.) Gaench] with an insulin-like bioactivity. The present study was performed to (i) prepare DCI-enriched tartary buckwheat bran extract (TBBE), (ii) evaluate its acute toxicity in mice, and (iii) examine its blood glucose lowering activity in diabetic mice. It was found that steaming buckwheat bran in an autoclave at 1.6 MPa and 120 degrees C for 60 min could significantly enrich the DCI level in TBBE from 0.03 to 0.22% and further to 22% after passage of the TBBE through activated carbon and ion exchange resins. An acute toxicity test demonstrated that the LD 50 of TBBE was >20 g/kg of body weight in mice, suggesting that TBBE was in general nontoxic and safe in mice. Male KK-A(y) mice (type 2 diabetic) and C57BL/6 mice (the control) were used to investigate the antidiabetic activity of TBBE. In KK-A(y) mice, the blood glucose, plasma C-peptide, glucagon, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly higher than those in the C57BL/6 mice. In addition, KK-A(y) mice showed an obvious decrease in insulin immunoreactivity in the pancreas. The present study clearly demonstrated that oral administration of DCI-enriched TBBE could lower plasma glucose, C-peptide, glucagon, triglyceride, and BUN, improve glucose tolerance, and enhance insulin immunoreactivity in KK-A(y) mice.

  5. Coordination, microprotonation equilibria and conformational changes of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate with pertinence to its biological function.

    PubMed

    Veiga, Nicolás; Torres, Julia; Macho, Israel; Gómez, Kerman; González, Gabriel; Kremer, Carlos

    2014-11-21

    Within all the eukaryotic cells there is an important group of biomolecules that has been potentially related to signalling functions: the myo-inositol phosphates (InsPs). In nature, the most abundant member of this family is the so called InsP6 (phytate, L(12-)), for which our group has strived in the past to elucidate its intricate chemical behaviour. In this work we expand on our earlier findings, shedding light on the inframolecular details of its protonation and complexation processes. We evaluate systematically the chemical performance of InsP6 in the presence and absence of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, through (31)P NMR measurements, in a non-interacting medium and over a wide pH range. The analysis of the titration curves by means of a model based on the cluster expansion method allows us to describe in detail the distribution of the different protonated microspecies of the ligand. With the aid of molecular modelling tools, we assess the energetic and geometrical characteristics of the protonation sequence and the conformational transition suffered by InsP6 as the pH changes. By completely characterizing the protonation pattern, conformation and geometry of the metal complexes, we unveil the chemical and structural basis behind the influence that the physiologically relevant cations, Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) have over the phytate chemical reactivity. This information is essential in the process of gaining reliable structural knowledge about the most important InsP6 species in the in vitro and in vivo experiments, and how these features modulate their probable biological functions.

  6. Allosteric activation of protein phosphatase 2C by D-chiro-inositol-galactosamine, a putative mediator mimetic of insulin action.

    PubMed

    Brautigan, D L; Brown, M; Grindrod, S; Chinigo, G; Kruszewski, A; Lukasik, S M; Bushweller, J H; Horal, M; Keller, S; Tamura, S; Heimark, D B; Price, J; Larner, A N; Larner, J

    2005-08-23

    Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in skeletal muscle proceeds predominantly through a nonoxidative pathway with glycogen synthase as a rate-limiting enzyme, yet the mechanisms for insulin activation of glycogen synthase are not understood despite years of investigation. Isolation of putative insulin second messengers from beef liver yielded a pseudo-disaccharide consisting of pinitol (3-O-methyl-d-chiro-inositol) beta-1,4 linked to galactosamine chelated with Mn(2+) (called INS2). Here we show that chemically synthesized INS2 has biological activity that significantly enhances insulin reduction of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin diabetic rats. We used computer modeling to dock INS2 onto the known three-dimensional crystal structure of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Modeling and FlexX/CScore energy minimization predicted a unique favorable site on PP2C for INS2 in a surface cleft adjacent to the catalytic center. Binding of INS2 is predicted to involve formation of multiple H-bonds, including one with residue Asp163. Wild-type PP2C activity assayed with a phosphopeptide substrate was potently stimulated in a dose-dependent manner by INS2. In contrast, the D163A mutant of PP2C was not activated by INS2. The D163A mutant and wild-type PP2C in the absence of INS2 had the same Mn(2+)-dependent phosphatase activity with p-nitrophenyl phosphate as a substrate, showing that this mutation did not disrupt the catalytic site. We propose that INS2 allosterically activates PP2C, fulfilling the role of a putative mediator mimetic of insulin signaling to promote protein dephosphorylation and metabolic responses.