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Sample records for del mediador penal

  1. Differentiating among penal states.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    This review article assesses Loïc Wacquant's contribution to debates on penality, focusing on his most recent book, Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity (Wacquant 2009), while setting its argument in the context of his earlier Prisons of Poverty (1999). In particular, it draws on both historical and comparative methods to question whether Wacquant's conception of 'the penal state' is adequately differentiated for the purposes of building the explanatory account he proposes; about whether 'neo-liberalism' has, materially, the global influence which he ascribes to it; and about whether, therefore, the process of penal Americanization which he asserts in his recent writings is credible.

  2. The Penalized Profile Sampler

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, GUANG; KOSOROK, MICHAEL R.

    2010-01-01

    The penalized profile sampler for semiparametric inference is an extension of the profile sampler method [9] obtained by profiling a penalized log-likelihood. The idea is to base inference on the posterior distribution obtained by multiplying a profiled penalized log-likelihood by a prior for the parametric component, where the profiling and penalization are applied to the nuisance parameter. Because the prior is not applied to the full likelihood, the method is not strictly Bayesian. A benefit of this approximately Bayesian method is that it circumvents the need to put a prior on the possibly infinite-dimensional nuisance components of the model. We investigate the first and second order frequentist performance of the penalized profile sampler, and demonstrate that the accuracy of the procedure can be adjusted by the size of the assigned smoothing parameter. The theoretical validity of the procedure is illustrated for two examples: a partly linear model with normal error for current status data and a semiparametric logistic regression model. Simulation studies are used to verify the theoretical results. PMID:20431712

  3. [ITT with the penal direction].

    PubMed

    Oustric, Stéphane; Grill, Stéphane; Telmon, Norbert

    2009-10-20

    to evaluate the knowledge and the practice of the general practitioners of the French region of Midi Pyrénées evaluation fixing of the total disablement of work (ITT). inquire of practice by anonymous self-administered questionnaire near 500 drawn general practitioners of the area Midi the Pyrenees to the fate. This questionnaire comprised four parts (profile of the doctor, self-assessment of the occupation as regards drafting of certificate of aggravated assault and fixing of the ITT, questions of theoretical knowledge concerning the ITT, evaluation of knowledge in analysis of clinical situations). 266 questionnaires out of 500 (53.2%) answered and exploitable between March and July 2006. The sample of doctors is representative of the medical population of the area Midi Pyrénées; 91.8% of the doctors write the certificates of aggravated assault and 80% determine the total disablement of work; 20% know the significance of initials ITT to the penal direction of the term, 94% know the legal consequences of the duration of the penal ITT, 87% in the case of know the rule of the "8 days" voluntary violences. In 24% of the errors, at least one of the two victims presented in the practical case profited one duration of ITT higher than 8 days. this investigation confirms the major place of the general practitioner in the drafting of the initial medical certificate of aggravated assault and in the fixing of the total disablement of work to the penal direction of the term. However, there is a margin of important progress, in terms of professional practices, between the fixation of the duration of total working incapacity and the duration of medical certificate concerning the victim. The maintenance of a continuous medical training as regards medico-legal practice appears important for all the experts in ambulatory exercise of first recourse.

  4. Analyzing large datasets with bootstrap penalization.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kuangnan; Ma, Shuangge

    2017-03-01

    Data with a large p (number of covariates) and/or a large n (sample size) are now commonly encountered. For many problems, regularization especially penalization is adopted for estimation and variable selection. The straightforward application of penalization to large datasets demands a "big computer" with high computational power. To improve computational feasibility, we develop bootstrap penalization, which dissects a big penalized estimation into a set of small ones, which can be executed in a highly parallel manner and each only demands a "small computer". The proposed approach takes different strategies for data with different characteristics. For data with a large p but a small to moderate n, covariates are first clustered into relatively homogeneous blocks. The proposed approach consists of two sequential steps. In each step and for each bootstrap sample, we select blocks of covariates and run penalization. The results from multiple bootstrap samples are pooled to generate the final estimate. For data with a large n but a small to moderate p, we bootstrap a small number of subjects, apply penalized estimation, and then conduct a weighted average over multiple bootstrap samples. For data with a large p and a large n, the natural marriage of the previous two methods is applied. Numerical studies, including simulations and data analysis, show that the proposed approach has computational and numerical advantages over the straightforward application of penalization. An R package has been developed to implement the proposed methods. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sums of bonds. 24.148 Section 24.148 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Penal sums of bonds. The penal sums of bonds prescribed in this part are as follows: Bond Basis Penal...

  6. Race Making in a Penal Institution.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a ground-level investigation into the lives of penal inmates, linking the literature on race making and penal management to provide an understanding of racial formation processes in a modern penal institution. Drawing on 135 days of ethnographic data collected as an inmate in a Southern California county jail system, the author argues that inmates are subjected to two mutually constitutive racial projects--one institutional and the other microinteractional. Operating in symbiosis within a narrative of risk management, these racial projects increase (rather than decrease) incidents of intraracial violence and the potential for interracial violence. These findings have implications for understanding the process of racialization and evaluating the effectiveness of penal management strategies.

  7. Iterative Brinkman penalization for remeshed vortex methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Leonard, Anthony; Walther, Jens Honoré

    2015-01-01

    We introduce an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in remeshed vortex methods. In the proposed method, the Brinkman penalization is applied iteratively only in the neighborhood of the body. This allows for using significantly larger time steps, than what is customary in the Brinkman penalization, thus reducing its computational cost while maintaining the capability of the method to handle complex geometries. We demonstrate the accuracy of our method by considering challenging benchmark problems such as flow past an impulsively started cylinder and normal to an impulsively started and accelerated flat plate. We find that the present method enhances significantly the accuracy of the Brinkman penalization technique for the simulations of highly unsteady flows past complex geometries.

  8. Penalized variable selection in competing risks regression.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhixuan; Parikh, Chirag R; Zhou, Bingqing

    2017-07-01

    Penalized variable selection methods have been extensively studied for standard time-to-event data. Such methods cannot be directly applied when subjects are at risk of multiple mutually exclusive events, known as competing risks. The proportional subdistribution hazard (PSH) model proposed by Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496-509, 1999) has become a popular semi-parametric model for time-to-event data with competing risks. It allows for direct assessment of covariate effects on the cumulative incidence function. In this paper, we propose a general penalized variable selection strategy that simultaneously handles variable selection and parameter estimation in the PSH model. We rigorously establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed penalized estimators and modify the coordinate descent algorithm for implementation. Simulation studies are conducted to demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method. Data from deceased donor kidney transplants from the United Network of Organ Sharing illustrate the utility of the proposed method.

  9. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  10. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Irving

    1974-01-01

    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  11. NCAA Penalizes Fewer Teams than Expected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Libby

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) has penalized fewer teams than it expected this year over athletes' poor academic performance. For years, officials with the NCAA have predicted that strikingly high numbers of college sports teams could be at risk of losing scholarships this year because of their…

  12. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Irving

    1974-01-01

    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  13. An Iterative Brinkman penalization for particle vortex methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, J. H.; Hejlesen, M. M.; Leonard, A.; Koumoutsakos, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present an iterative Brinkman penalization method for the enforcement of the no-slip boundary condition in vortex particle methods. This is achieved by implementing a penalization of the velocity field using iteration of the penalized vorticity. We show that using the conventional Brinkman penalization method can result in an insufficient enforcement of solid boundaries. The specific problems of the conventional penalization method is discussed and three examples are presented by which the method in its current form has shown to be insufficient to consistently enforce the no-slip boundary condition. These are: the impulsively started flow past a cylinder, the impulsively started flow normal to a flat plate, and the uniformly accelerated flow normal to a flat plate. The iterative penalization algorithm is shown to give significantly improved results compared to the conventional penalization method for each of the presented flow cases.

  14. Volume penalization to model falling leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai

    2007-11-01

    Numerical modeling of solid bodies moving through viscous incompressible fluid is considered. The 2D Navier-Stokes equations, written in the vorticity-streamfunction formulation, are discretized using a Fourier pseudo-spectral scheme with adaptive time-stepping. Solid obstacles of arbitrary shape are taken into account using the volume penalization method. Time- dependent penalization is implemented, making the method capable of solving problems where the obstacle follows an arbitrary motion. Numerical simulations of falling leaves are performed, using the above model supplemented by the discretized ODEs describing the motion of a solid body subjected to external forces and moments. Various regimes of the free fall are explored, depending on the physical parameters and initial conditions. The influence of the Reynolds number on the transition between fluttering and tumbling is investigated, showing the stabilizing effect of viscosity.

  15. Marginal longitudinal semiparametric regression via penalized splines

    PubMed Central

    Kadiri, M. Al; Carroll, R.J.; Wand, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the marginal longitudinal nonparametric regression problem and some of its semiparametric extensions. We point out that, while several elaborate proposals for efficient estimation have been proposed, a relative simple and straightforward one, based on penalized splines, has not. After describing our approach, we then explain how Gibbs sampling and the BUGS software can be used to achieve quick and effective implementation. Illustrations are provided for nonparametric regression and additive models. PMID:21037941

  16. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penal sum of bond. 25.93... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers....164(c)(2), the penal sum of the brewers bond must be equal to 10 percent of the maximum amount of tax...

  17. Robert Garrett, Tasmanian penal colony surgeon: alcoholism, medical misadventure and the penal colony of Sarah Island.

    PubMed

    Stride, P

    2011-09-01

    Robert Garrett emigrated from Scotland to Van Diemen's Land (now Tasmania) in 1822. Within a few months of arrival he was posted to the barbaric penal colony in Macquarie Harbour, known as Sarah Island. His descent into alcoholism, medical misadventure and premature death were related to his largely unsupported professional environment and were, in many respects, typical of those subjected to this experience.

  18. [Criminalistic and penal problems with "dyadic deaths"].

    PubMed

    Kaliszczak, Paweł; Kunz, Jerzy; Bolechała, Filip

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a supplement to the article "Medico legal problems of dyadic death" elaborated by the same authors. Recalling the cases presented there. It is also an attempt to present the basic criminalistic, penal and definitional problems of dyadic death called also postagressional suicide. Criminalistic problems of dyadic death were presented in view of widely known "rule of seven golden questions"--what?, where?, when?, how?, why?, what method? and who? Criminalistic analysis of cases makes some differences in conclusions but it seemed interesting to match both--criminalistc and forensic points of views to the presented material.

  19. [Analysis of selected changes in project the penal code].

    PubMed

    Berent, Jarosław; Jurczyk, Agnieszka P; Szram, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the authors have analysed selected proposals of changes in the project of amendments in the penal code. Special attention has been placed on problem of the legality of the "comma" in art. 156 of the penal code. In this matter also a review of court jurisdiction has been made.

  20. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  1. 27 CFR 19.245 - Bonds and penal sums of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bonds and penal sums of... Bonds and penal sums of bonds. The bonds, and the penal sums thereof, required by this subpart, are as follows: Penal Sum Type of bond Basis Minimum Maximum (a) Operations bond: (1) One plant bond— (i...

  2. Dielectric function parameterization by penalized splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhachev, Dmitriy V.

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the penalized spline (P-spline) approach to restrict flexibility of dielectric function parameterization by B-splines and prevent overfitting of the ellipsometric data. The penalty degree is easily controlled by a certain smoothing parameter. The P-spline approach offers a number of advantages over well-established B-spline parameterization. First of all, it typically uses an equidistant knot arrangement which simplifies the construction of the roughness penalties and makes it computationally efficient. Since P-splines possess the "power of the penalty" property, a selection of the number of knots is no longer crucial, as long as there is a minimum knot number to capture all significant spatial variability of the data curves. We demonstrate the proposed approach by real-data application with ellipsometric spectra from aluminum-coated sample.

  3. Recovering Velocity Distributions Via Penalized Likelihood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David

    1997-07-01

    Line-of-sight velocity distributions are crucial for unravelling the dynamics of hot stellar systems. We present a new formalism based on penalized likelihood for deriving such distributions from kinematical data, and evaluate the performance of two algorithms that extract N(V) from absorption-line spectra and from sets of individual velocities. Both algorithms are superior to existing ones in that the solutions are nearly unbiased even when the data are so poor that a great deal of smoothing is required. In addition, the discrete-velocity algorithm is able to remove a known distribution of measurement errors from the estimate of N(V). The formalism is used to recover the velocity distribution of stars in five fields near the center of the globular cluster omega Centauri.

  4. Penalized feature selection and classification in bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian

    2008-01-01

    In bioinformatics studies, supervised classification with high-dimensional input variables is frequently encountered. Examples routinely arise in genomic, epigenetic and proteomic studies. Feature selection can be employed along with classifier construction to avoid over-fitting, to generate more reliable classifier and to provide more insights into the underlying causal relationships. In this article, we provide a review of several recently developed penalized feature selection and classification techniques—which belong to the family of embedded feature selection methods—for bioinformatics studies with high-dimensional input. Classification objective functions, penalty functions and computational algorithms are discussed. Our goal is to make interested researchers aware of these feature selection and classification methods that are applicable to high-dimensional bioinformatics data. PMID:18562478

  5. Penalized estimation for proportional hazards models with current status data.

    PubMed

    Lu, Minggen; Li, Chin-Shang

    2017-09-05

    We provide a simple and practical, yet flexible, penalized estimation method for a Cox proportional hazards model with current status data. We approximate the baseline cumulative hazard function by monotone B-splines and use a hybrid approach based on the Fisher-scoring algorithm and the isotonic regression to compute the penalized estimates. We show that the penalized estimator of the nonparametric component achieves the optimal rate of convergence under some smooth conditions and that the estimators of the regression parameters are asymptotically normal and efficient. Moreover, a simple variance estimation method is considered for inference on the regression parameters. We perform 2 extensive Monte Carlo studies to evaluate the finite-sample performance of the penalized approach and compare it with the 3 competing R packages: C1.coxph, intcox, and ICsurv. A goodness-of-fit test and model diagnostics are also discussed. The methodology is illustrated with 2 real applications. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Guide to Assistance In Penal and Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus; Gordon, Theodore

    1973-01-01

    Lists the more significant federal assistance programs relating to penal and correctional reform which may serve as a guide for environmental health specialists who are beginning to assume much broader responsibilities in institutional environmental quality. (JR)

  7. A Guide to Assistance In Penal and Correctional Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus; Gordon, Theodore

    1973-01-01

    Lists the more significant federal assistance programs relating to penal and correctional reform which may serve as a guide for environmental health specialists who are beginning to assume much broader responsibilities in institutional environmental quality. (JR)

  8. Penalized Bregman divergence for large-dimensional regression and classification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunming; Jiang, Yuan; Chai, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Regularization methods are characterized by loss functions measuring data fits and penalty terms constraining model parameters. The commonly used quadratic loss is not suitable for classification with binary responses, whereas the loglikelihood function is not readily applicable to models where the exact distribution of observations is unknown or not fully specified. We introduce the penalized Bregman divergence by replacing the negative loglikelihood in the conventional penalized likelihood with Bregman divergence, which encompasses many commonly used loss functions in the regression analysis, classification procedures and machine learning literature. We investigate new statistical properties of the resulting class of estimators with the number pn of parameters either diverging with the sample size n or even nearly comparable with n, and develop statistical inference tools. It is shown that the resulting penalized estimator, combined with appropriate penalties, achieves the same oracle property as the penalized likelihood estimator, but asymptotically does not rely on the complete specification of the underlying distribution. Furthermore, the choice of loss function in the penalized classifiers has an asymptotically relatively negligible impact on classification performance. We illustrate the proposed method for quasilikelihood regression and binary classification with simulation evaluation and real-data application. PMID:22822248

  9. Incorporating scientific knowledge into phenotype development: penalized latent class regression.

    PubMed

    Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Zandi, Peter P

    2011-03-30

    The field of psychiatric genetics is hampered by the lack of a clear taxonomy for disorders. Building on the work of Houseman and colleagues (Feature-specific penalized latent class analysis for genomic data. Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series, Working Paper 22, 2005), we describe a penalized latent class regression aimed at allowing additional scientific information to influence the estimation of the measurement model, while retaining the standard assumption of non-differential measurement. In simulation studies, ridge and LASSO penalty functions improved the precision of estimates and, in some cases of differential measurement, also reduced bias. Class-specific penalization enhanced separation of latent classes with respect to covariates, but only in scenarios where there was a true separation. Penalization proved to be less computationally intensive than an analogous Bayesian analysis by a factor of 37. This methodology was then applied to data from normal elderly subjects from the Cache County Study on Memory and Aging. Addition of APO-E genotype and a number of baseline clinical covariates improved the dementia prediction utility of the latent classes; application of class-specific penalization improved precision while retaining that prediction utility. This methodology may be useful in scenarios with large numbers of collinear covariates or in certain cases where latent class model assumptions are violated. Investigation of novel penalty functions may prove fruitful in further refining psychiatric phenotypes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Non-Concave Penalized Likelihood with NP-Dimensionality

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Lv, Jinchi

    2011-01-01

    Penalized likelihood methods are fundamental to ultra-high dimensional variable selection. How high dimensionality such methods can handle remains largely unknown. In this paper, we show that in the context of generalized linear models, such methods possess model selection consistency with oracle properties even for dimensionality of Non-Polynomial (NP) order of sample size, for a class of penalized likelihood approaches using folded-concave penalty functions, which were introduced to ameliorate the bias problems of convex penalty functions. This fills a long-standing gap in the literature where the dimensionality is allowed to grow slowly with the sample size. Our results are also applicable to penalized likelihood with the L1-penalty, which is a convex function at the boundary of the class of folded-concave penalty functions under consideration. The coordinate optimization is implemented for finding the solution paths, whose performance is evaluated by a few simulation examples and the real data analysis. PMID:22287795

  11. Compound Identification Using Penalized Linear Regression on Metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiqi; Wu, Dongfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Kim, Seongho

    2016-05-01

    Compound identification is often achieved by matching the experimental mass spectra to the mass spectra stored in a reference library based on mass spectral similarity. Because the number of compounds in the reference library is much larger than the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) values so that the data become high dimensional data suffering from singularity. For this reason, penalized linear regressions such as ridge regression and the lasso are used instead of the ordinary least squares regression. Furthermore, two-step approaches using the dot product and Pearson's correlation along with the penalized linear regression are proposed in this study.

  12. Compound Identification Using Penalized Linear Regression on Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ruiqi; Wu, Dongfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Kim, Seongho

    2014-01-01

    Compound identification is often achieved by matching the experimental mass spectra to the mass spectra stored in a reference library based on mass spectral similarity. Because the number of compounds in the reference library is much larger than the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) values so that the data become high dimensional data suffering from singularity. For this reason, penalized linear regressions such as ridge regression and the lasso are used instead of the ordinary least squares regression. Furthermore, two-step approaches using the dot product and Pearson’s correlation along with the penalized linear regression are proposed in this study. PMID:27212894

  13. Survival Analysis by Penalized Regression and Matrix Factorization

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yeuntyng; Hayashida, Morihiro; Akutsu, Tatsuya

    2013-01-01

    Because every disease has its unique survival pattern, it is necessary to find a suitable model to simulate followups. DNA microarray is a useful technique to detect thousands of gene expressions at one time and is usually employed to classify different types of cancer. We propose combination methods of penalized regression models and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) for predicting survival. We tried L 1- (lasso), L 2- (ridge), and L 1-L 2 combined (elastic net) penalized regression for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients' microarray data and found that L 1-L 2 combined method predicts survival best with the smallest logrank P value. Furthermore, 80% of selected genes have been reported to correlate with carcinogenesis or lymphoma. Through NMF we found that DLBCL patients can be divided into 4 groups clearly, and it implies that DLBCL may have 4 subtypes which have a little different survival patterns. Next we excluded some patients who were indicated hard to classify in NMF and executed three penalized regression models again. We found that the performance of survival prediction has been improved with lower logrank P values. Therefore, we conclude that after preselection of patients by NMF, penalized regression models can predict DLBCL patients' survival successfully. PMID:23737722

  14. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penal sum of bond. 25.93 Section 25.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...), effective Feb. 22, 2011 to Feb. 24, 2014. ...

  15. Education--Penal Institutions: U. S. and Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerle, Ken

    Penal systems of European countries vary in educational programs and humanizing efforts. A high percentage of Soviet prisoners, many incarcerated for ideological/religious beliefs, are confined to labor colonies. All inmates are obligated to learn a trade, one of the qualifications for release being evidence of some trade skill. Swedish…

  16. Indian NGO challenges penal code prohibition of "unnatural offences".

    PubMed

    Csete, Joanne

    2002-07-01

    On 7 December 2001, the Naz Foundation (India) Trust (NFIT), a non-governmental organization based in New Delhi, filed a petition in the Delhi High Court to repeal the "unnatural offences" section of the Indian Penal Code that criminalizes men who have sex with men.

  17. [Arterial hypertension in females engaged into penal system work].

    PubMed

    Tagirova, M M; El'garov, A A; Shogenova, A B; Murtazov, A M

    2010-01-01

    The authors proved significant prevalence of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis risk factors in women engaged into penal system work--so these values form cardiovascular risk caused by environmental parameters. Teveten and Nebilet were proved effective in the examinees with arterial hypertension.

  18. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

  19. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar year during the period of the bond on beer: (i) Removed for transfer to the brewery from other breweries...

  20. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... tax at the rates prescribed by law, on the maximum quantity of beer used in the production of... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar...

  1. 27 CFR 25.93 - Penal sum of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... tax at the rates prescribed by law, on the maximum quantity of beer used in the production of... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Bonds and Consents of Surety § 25.93 Penal sum of bond. (a)(1) Brewers... calculated at the rates prescribed by law which the brewer will become liable to pay during a calendar...

  2. Crime and Punishment: Are Copyright Violators Ever Penalized?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carrie

    2004-01-01

    Is there a Web site that keeps track of copyright Infringers and fines? Some colleagues don't believe that copyright violators are ever penalized. This question was asked by a reader in a question and answer column of "School Library Journal". Carrie Russell is the American Library Association's copyright specialist, and she will answer selected…

  3. Penal managerialism from within: implications for theory and research.

    PubMed

    Cheliotis, Leonidas K

    2006-01-01

    Unlike the bulk of penological scholarship dealing with managerialist reforms, this article calls for greater theoretical and research attention to the often pernicious impact of managerialism on criminal justice professionals. Much in an ideal-typical fashion, light is shed on: the reasons why contemporary penal bureaucracies endeavor systematically to strip criminal justice work of its inherently affective nature; the structural forces that ensure control over officials; the processes by which those forces come into effect; and the human consequences of submission to totalitarian bureaucratic milieus. It is suggested that the heavy preoccupation of present-day penality with the predictability and calculability of outcomes entails the atomization of professionals and the dehumanization of their work. This is achieved through a kaleidoscope of direct and indirect mechanisms that naturalize and/or legitimate acquiescence.

  4. A Two-Step Penalized Regression Method with Networked Predictors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chong; Pan, Wei; Shen, Xiaotong

    2011-01-01

    Penalized regression incorporating prior dependency structure of predictors can be effective in high-dimensional data analysis (Li and Li 2008). Pan, Xie and Shen (2010) proposed a penalized regression method for better outcome prediction and variable selection by smoothing parameters over a given predictor network, which can be applied to analysis of microarray data with a given gene network. In this paper, we develop two modifications to their method for further performance enhancement. First, we employ convex programming and show its improved performance over an approximate optimization algorithm implemented in their original proposal. Second, we perform bias reduction after initial variable selection through a new penalty, leading to better parameter estimates and outcome prediction. Simulations have demonstrated substantial performance improvement of the proposed modifications over the original method. PMID:23795219

  5. Reduced rank regression via adaptive nuclear norm penalization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kun; Dong, Hongbo; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Summary We propose an adaptive nuclear norm penalization approach for low-rank matrix approximation, and use it to develop a new reduced rank estimation method for high-dimensional multivariate regression. The adaptive nuclear norm is defined as the weighted sum of the singular values of the matrix, and it is generally non-convex under the natural restriction that the weight decreases with the singular value. However, we show that the proposed non-convex penalized regression method has a global optimal solution obtained from an adaptively soft-thresholded singular value decomposition. The method is computationally efficient, and the resulting solution path is continuous. The rank consistency of and prediction/estimation performance bounds for the estimator are established for a high-dimensional asymptotic regime. Simulation studies and an application in genetics demonstrate its efficacy. PMID:25045172

  6. Bootstrap Enhanced Penalized Regression for Variable Selection with Neuroimaging Data.

    PubMed

    Abram, Samantha V; Helwig, Nathaniel E; Moodie, Craig A; DeYoung, Colin G; MacDonald, Angus W; Waller, Niels G

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in fMRI research highlight the use of multivariate methods for examining whole-brain connectivity. Complementary data-driven methods are needed for determining the subset of predictors related to individual differences. Although commonly used for this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression may not be ideal due to multi-collinearity and over-fitting issues. Penalized regression is a promising and underutilized alternative to OLS regression. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric bootstrap quantile (QNT) approach for variable selection with neuroimaging data. We use real and simulated data, as well as annotated R code, to demonstrate the benefits of our proposed method. Our results illustrate the practical potential of our proposed bootstrap QNT approach. Our real data example demonstrates how our method can be used to relate individual differences in neural network connectivity with an externalizing personality measure. Also, our simulation results reveal that the QNT method is effective under a variety of data conditions. Penalized regression yields more stable estimates and sparser models than OLS regression in situations with large numbers of highly correlated neural predictors. Our results demonstrate that penalized regression is a promising method for examining associations between neural predictors and clinically relevant traits or behaviors. These findings have important implications for the growing field of functional connectivity research, where multivariate methods produce numerous, highly correlated brain networks.

  7. STRONG ORACLE OPTIMALITY OF FOLDED CONCAVE PENALIZED ESTIMATION

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Xue, Lingzhou; Zou, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Folded concave penalization methods have been shown to enjoy the strong oracle property for high-dimensional sparse estimation. However, a folded concave penalization problem usually has multiple local solutions and the oracle property is established only for one of the unknown local solutions. A challenging fundamental issue still remains that it is not clear whether the local optimum computed by a given optimization algorithm possesses those nice theoretical properties. To close this important theoretical gap in over a decade, we provide a unified theory to show explicitly how to obtain the oracle solution via the local linear approximation algorithm. For a folded concave penalized estimation problem, we show that as long as the problem is localizable and the oracle estimator is well behaved, we can obtain the oracle estimator by using the one-step local linear approximation. In addition, once the oracle estimator is obtained, the local linear approximation algorithm converges, namely it produces the same estimator in the next iteration. The general theory is demonstrated by using four classical sparse estimation problems, i.e., sparse linear regression, sparse logistic regression, sparse precision matrix estimation and sparse quantile regression. PMID:25598560

  8. STRONG ORACLE OPTIMALITY OF FOLDED CONCAVE PENALIZED ESTIMATION.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Xue, Lingzhou; Zou, Hui

    2014-06-01

    Folded concave penalization methods have been shown to enjoy the strong oracle property for high-dimensional sparse estimation. However, a folded concave penalization problem usually has multiple local solutions and the oracle property is established only for one of the unknown local solutions. A challenging fundamental issue still remains that it is not clear whether the local optimum computed by a given optimization algorithm possesses those nice theoretical properties. To close this important theoretical gap in over a decade, we provide a unified theory to show explicitly how to obtain the oracle solution via the local linear approximation algorithm. For a folded concave penalized estimation problem, we show that as long as the problem is localizable and the oracle estimator is well behaved, we can obtain the oracle estimator by using the one-step local linear approximation. In addition, once the oracle estimator is obtained, the local linear approximation algorithm converges, namely it produces the same estimator in the next iteration. The general theory is demonstrated by using four classical sparse estimation problems, i.e., sparse linear regression, sparse logistic regression, sparse precision matrix estimation and sparse quantile regression.

  9. Structured fusion lasso penalized multi-state models.

    PubMed

    Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Kneib, Thomas

    2016-11-10

    Multi-state models generalize survival or duration time analysis to the estimation of transition-specific hazard rate functions for multiple transitions. When each of the transition-specific risk functions is parametrized with several distinct covariate effect coefficients, this leads to a model of potentially high dimension. To decrease the parameter space dimensionality and to work out a clear image of the underlying multi-state model structure, one can either aim at setting some coefficients to zero or to make coefficients for the same covariate but two different transitions equal. The first issue can be approached by penalizing the absolute values of the covariate coefficients as in lasso regularization. If, instead, absolute differences between coefficients of the same covariate on different transitions are penalized, this leads to sparse competing risk relations within a multi-state model, that is, equality of covariate effect coefficients. In this paper, a new estimation approach providing sparse multi-state modelling by the aforementioned principles is established, based on the estimation of multi-state models and a simultaneous penalization of the L1 -norm of covariate coefficients and their differences in a structured way. The new multi-state modelling approach is illustrated on peritoneal dialysis study data and implemented in the R package penMSM. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. [Guideline 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions'].

    PubMed

    Westra, Michel; de Haan, Hein A; Arends, Marleen T; van Everdingen, Jannes J E; Klazinga, Niek S

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the policy on care for prisoners who are addicted to opiates is still heterogeneous. The recent guidelines entitled 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions' should contribute towards unambiguous and more evidence-based treatment for this group. In addition, it should improve and bring the care pathways within judicial institutions and mainstream healthcare more into line with one another. Each rational course of medicinal treatment will initially be continued in the penal institution. In penal institutions the help on offer is mainly focused on abstinence from illegal drugs while at the same time limiting the damage caused to the health of the individual user. Methadone is regarded at the first choice for maintenance therapy. For patient safety, this is best given in liquid form in sealed cups of 5 mg/ml once daily in the morning. Recently a combination preparation containing buprenorphine and naloxone - a complete opiate antagonist - has become available. On discontinuation of opiate maintenance treatment intensive follow-up care is necessary. During this period there is considerable risk of a potentially lethal overdose. Detoxification should be coupled with psychosocial or medicinal intervention aimed at preventing relapse. Naltrexone is currently the only available opiate antagonist for preventing relapse. In those addicted to opiates, who also take benzodiazepines without any indication, it is strongly recommended that these be reduced and discontinued. This can be achieved by converting the regular dosage into the equivalent in diazepam and then reducing this dosage by a maximum of 25% a week.

  11. Bootstrap Enhanced Penalized Regression for Variable Selection with Neuroimaging Data

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Samantha V.; Helwig, Nathaniel E.; Moodie, Craig A.; DeYoung, Colin G.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Waller, Niels G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in fMRI research highlight the use of multivariate methods for examining whole-brain connectivity. Complementary data-driven methods are needed for determining the subset of predictors related to individual differences. Although commonly used for this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression may not be ideal due to multi-collinearity and over-fitting issues. Penalized regression is a promising and underutilized alternative to OLS regression. In this paper, we propose a nonparametric bootstrap quantile (QNT) approach for variable selection with neuroimaging data. We use real and simulated data, as well as annotated R code, to demonstrate the benefits of our proposed method. Our results illustrate the practical potential of our proposed bootstrap QNT approach. Our real data example demonstrates how our method can be used to relate individual differences in neural network connectivity with an externalizing personality measure. Also, our simulation results reveal that the QNT method is effective under a variety of data conditions. Penalized regression yields more stable estimates and sparser models than OLS regression in situations with large numbers of highly correlated neural predictors. Our results demonstrate that penalized regression is a promising method for examining associations between neural predictors and clinically relevant traits or behaviors. These findings have important implications for the growing field of functional connectivity research, where multivariate methods produce numerous, highly correlated brain networks. PMID:27516732

  12. [Qualification of persons taking part in psychiatric opinion-giving in a penal trial].

    PubMed

    Zgryzek, K

    1998-01-01

    Introduction of new Penal code by the Parliament brings about the necessity of conducting a detailed analysis of particular legal solutions in the code. The authors present an analysis of selected issues included in the Penal Code, referring to proof from the opinion of psychiatric experts, particularly those regarding professional qualifications of persons appointed by the court in a penal trial to assess mental health state of definite persons (a witness, a victim, the perpetrator). It was accepted that the only persons authorized the conduct psychiatric examination in a penal trial are those with at least first degree specialization in psychiatry.

  13. The geology of the Penal/Barrackpore field, onshore Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, B.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The Penal/Barrackpore field was discovered in 1938 and is located in the southern subbasin of onshore Trinidad. It is one of a series of northeast-southwest trending en echelon middle Miocene anticlinal structures that was later accentuated by late Pliocene transpressional folding. The middle Miocene Herrera and Karamat turbiditic sandstones are the primary reservoir rock in the subsurface anticline of the Penal/Barrackpore field. These turbidites were sourced from the north and deposited within the marls and clays of the Cipero Formation. The Karamat sandstones are followed in vertical stratigraphic succession by the shales and boulder beds of the Lengua formation, the turbidites and deltaics of the lower and middle Cruse, and the deltaics of the upper Cruse, the Forest, and the Morne L'Enfer formations. Relative movement of the South American and Caribbean plates climaxed in the middle Miocene compressive tectonic event and produced an imbricate pattern of southward-facing basement-involved thrusts. The Pliocene deltaics were sourced by erosion of Miocene highs to the north and the South American landmass to the south. These deltaics exhibit onlap onto the preexisting Miocene highs. The late Pliocene transpression also coincides with the onset of oil migration along faults, diapirs, and unconformities from the Cretaceous Naparima Hill source. The Lengua Formation and the upper Forest clays are considered effect seals. Hydrocarbon trapping is structurally and stratigraphically controlled, with structure being the dominant trapping mechanism. Ultimate recoverable reserves for the Penal/Barrackpore field are estimated at 127.9 MMBO and 628.8 bcf. The field is presently owned and operated by the Trinidad and Tobago Oil Company Limited (TRINTOC).

  14. The neoliberal state and the penalization of misery.

    PubMed

    Jinkings, Isabella

    2011-01-01

    The strategy adopted by the neoliberal state to maintain social order and safeguard private property in a context of economic deregulation and social precariousness has destroyed the welfare state and aggravated poverty, depriving the masses of any form of social protection while subjecting them to repression. The reinforcement of the repressive state apparatus is associated with the social instability provoked by the lack of social policies, the degradation of living conditions for the great majority of the population, and the amplification of income and property inequalities both in the so-called capitalist periphery and in the richest industrialized countries. The penalization of misery is revealed as a new expression of class domination.

  15. Haplotype Estimation from Fuzzy Genotypes Using Penalized Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Uh, Hae-Won; Eilers, Paul H. C.

    2011-01-01

    The Composite Link Model is a generalization of the generalized linear model in which expected values of observed counts are constructed as a sum of generalized linear components. When combined with penalized likelihood, it provides a powerful and elegant way to estimate haplotype probabilities from observed genotypes. Uncertain (“fuzzy”) genotypes, like those resulting from AFLP scores, can be handled by adding an extra layer to the model. We describe the model and the estimation algorithm. We apply it to a data set of accurate human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to a data set of fuzzy tomato AFLP scores. PMID:21931662

  16. Haplotype estimation from fuzzy genotypes using penalized likelihood.

    PubMed

    Uh, Hae-Won; Eilers, Paul H C

    2011-01-01

    The Composite Link Model is a generalization of the generalized linear model in which expected values of observed counts are constructed as a sum of generalized linear components. When combined with penalized likelihood, it provides a powerful and elegant way to estimate haplotype probabilities from observed genotypes. Uncertain ("fuzzy") genotypes, like those resulting from AFLP scores, can be handled by adding an extra layer to the model. We describe the model and the estimation algorithm. We apply it to a data set of accurate human single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to a data set of fuzzy tomato AFLP scores.

  17. 43 CFR 4170.2-1 - Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act. 4170.2-1 Section 4170.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued...-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Penalties § 4170.2-1 Penal provisions under the Taylor Grazing Act. Under section 2 of...

  18. 49 CFR 26.47 - Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall goals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet... Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting § 26.47 Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall... rule, because your DBE participation falls short of your overall goal, unless you have failed to...

  19. 27 CFR 19.957 - Instructions to compute bond penal sum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Instructions to compute bond penal sum. 19.957 Section 19.957 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Bonds § 19.957 Instructions to compute bond penal sum. (a) Medium plants. To find the...

  20. Penalized spline estimation for functional coefficient regression models.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yanrong; Lin, Haiqun; Wu, Tracy Z; Yu, Yan

    2010-04-01

    The functional coefficient regression models assume that the regression coefficients vary with some "threshold" variable, providing appreciable flexibility in capturing the underlying dynamics in data and avoiding the so-called "curse of dimensionality" in multivariate nonparametric estimation. We first investigate the estimation, inference, and forecasting for the functional coefficient regression models with dependent observations via penalized splines. The P-spline approach, as a direct ridge regression shrinkage type global smoothing method, is computationally efficient and stable. With established fixed-knot asymptotics, inference is readily available. Exact inference can be obtained for fixed smoothing parameter λ, which is most appealing for finite samples. Our penalized spline approach gives an explicit model expression, which also enables multi-step-ahead forecasting via simulations. Furthermore, we examine different methods of choosing the important smoothing parameter λ: modified multi-fold cross-validation (MCV), generalized cross-validation (GCV), and an extension of empirical bias bandwidth selection (EBBS) to P-splines. In addition, we implement smoothing parameter selection using mixed model framework through restricted maximum likelihood (REML) for P-spline functional coefficient regression models with independent observations. The P-spline approach also easily allows different smoothness for different functional coefficients, which is enabled by assigning different penalty λ accordingly. We demonstrate the proposed approach by both simulation examples and a real data application.

  1. Rival-model penalized self-organizing map.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yiu-ming; Law, Lap-tak

    2007-01-01

    As a typical data visualization technique, self-organizing map (SOM) has been extensively applied to data clustering, image analysis, dimension reduction, and so forth. In a conventional adaptive SOM, it needs to choose an appropriate learning rate whose value is monotonically reduced over time to ensure the convergence of the map, meanwhile being kept large enough so that the map is able to gradually learn the data topology. Otherwise, the SOM's performance may seriously deteriorate. In general, it is nontrivial to choose an appropriate monotonically decreasing function for such a learning rate. In this letter, we therefore propose a novel rival-model penalized self-organizing map (RPSOM) learning algorithm that, for each input, adaptively chooses several rivals of the best-matching unit (BMU) and penalizes their associated models, i.e., those parametric real vectors with the same dimension as the input vectors, a little far away from the input. Compared to the existing methods, this RPSOM utilizes a constant learning rate to circumvent the awkward selection of a monotonically decreased function for the learning rate, but still reaches a robust result. The numerical experiments have shown the efficacy of our algorithm.

  2. Middle Micoene sandstone reservoirs of the Penal/Barrackpore field

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, B.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The Penal/Barrackpore field was discovered in 1938 and is located in the southern subbasin of onshore Trinidad. The accumulation is one of a series of northeast-southwest trending en echelon middle Miocene anticlinal structures that was later accentuated by late Pliocene transpressional folding. Relative movement of the South American and Caribbean plates climaxed in the middle Miocene compressive tectonic event and produced an imbricate pattern of southward-facing basement-involved thrusts. Further compressive interaction between the plates in the late Pliocene produced a transpressive tectonic episode forming northwest-southeast oriented transcurrent faults, tear faults, basement thrust faults, lystric normal faults, and detached simple folds with infrequent diapiric cores. The middle Miocene Herrera and Karamat turbiditic sandstones are the primary reservoir rock in the subsurface anticline of the Penal/Barrackpore field. These turbidites were sourced from the north and deposited within the marls and clays of the Cipero Formation. Miocene and Pliocene deltaics and turbidites succeed the Cipero Formation vertically, lapping into preexisting Miocene highs. The late Pliocene transpression also coincides with the onset of oil migration along faults, diapirs, and unconformities from the Cretaceous Naparima Hill source. The Lengua Formation and the upper Forest clays are considered effective seals. Hydrocarbon trapping is structurally and stratigraphically controlled, with structure being the dominant trapping mechanism. Ultimate recoverable reserves for the field are estimated at 127.9 MMBo and 628.8 bcf. The field is presently owned and operated by the Trinidad and Tobago Oil Company Limited (TRINTOC).

  3. Penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2006-08-01

    Detecting cancerous lesions is one major application in emission tomography. In this paper, we study penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for this important clinical task. Compared to analytical reconstruction methods, statistical approaches can improve the image quality by accurately modelling the photon detection process and measurement noise in imaging systems. To explore the full potential of penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection, we derived simplified theoretical expressions that allow fast evaluation of the detectability of a random lesion. The theoretical results are used to design the regularization parameters to improve lesion detectability. We conducted computer-based Monte Carlo simulations to compare the proposed penalty function, conventional penalty function, and a penalty function for isotropic point spread function. The lesion detectability is measured by a channelized Hotelling observer. The results show that the proposed penalty function outperforms the other penalty functions for lesion detection. The relative improvement is dependent on the size of the lesion. However, we found that the penalty function optimized for a 5 mm lesion still outperforms the other two penalty functions for detecting a 14 mm lesion. Therefore, it is feasible to use the penalty function designed for small lesions in image reconstruction, because detection of large lesions is relatively easy.

  4. Gene set selection via LASSO penalized regression (SLPR).

    PubMed

    Frost, H Robert; Amos, Christopher I

    2017-07-07

    Gene set testing is an important bioinformatics technique that addresses the challenges of power, interpretation and replication. To better support the analysis of large and highly overlapping gene set collections, researchers have recently developed a number of multiset methods that jointly evaluate all gene sets in a collection to identify a parsimonious group of functionally independent sets. Unfortunately, current multiset methods all use binary indicators for gene and gene set activity and assume that a gene is active if any containing gene set is active. This simplistic model limits performance on many types of genomic data. To address this limitation, we developed gene set Selection via LASSO Penalized Regression (SLPR), a novel mapping of multiset gene set testing to penalized multiple linear regression. The SLPR method assumes a linear relationship between continuous measures of gene activity and the activity of all gene sets in the collection. As we demonstrate via simulation studies and the analysis of TCGA data using MSigDB gene sets, the SLPR method outperforms existing multiset methods when the true biological process is well approximated by continuous activity measures and a linear association between genes and gene sets. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. A characteristic based volume penalization method for general evolution problems applied to compressible viscous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2014-04-01

    In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O

  6. GLOBAL SOLUTIONS TO FOLDED CONCAVE PENALIZED NONCONVEX LEARNING

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongcheng; Yao, Tao; Li, Runze

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with solving nonconvex learning problems with folded concave penalty. Despite that their global solutions entail desirable statistical properties, there lack optimization techniques that guarantee global optimality in a general setting. In this paper, we show that a class of nonconvex learning problems are equivalent to general quadratic programs. This equivalence facilitates us in developing mixed integer linear programming reformulations, which admit finite algorithms that find a provably global optimal solution. We refer to this reformulation-based technique as the mixed integer programming-based global optimization (MIPGO). To our knowledge, this is the first global optimization scheme with a theoretical guarantee for folded concave penalized nonconvex learning with the SCAD penalty (Fan and Li, 2001) and the MCP penalty (Zhang, 2010). Numerical results indicate a significant outperformance of MIPGO over the state-of-the-art solution scheme, local linear approximation, and other alternative solution techniques in literature in terms of solution quality. PMID:27141126

  7. Statutory disclosure in article 280 of the Turkish Penal Code.

    PubMed

    Büken, Erhan; Sahinoğlu, Serap; Büken, Nüket Ornek

    2006-11-01

    A new Turkish Penal Code came into effect on 1 June 2005. Article 280 concerns health care workers' failure to report a crime. This article removes the responsibility from health care workers to maintain confidentiality, but also removes patients' right to confidentiality. It provides for up to one year of imprisonment for a health care worker who, while on duty, finds an indication that a crime might have been committed by a patient and who does not inform the responsible authorities about it. This forces the health care worker to divulge the patient's confidential information. A patient who thinks he or she may be accused of a crime may therefore not seek medical help, which is the universal right of every person. The article is therefore contrary to medical ethics, oaths taken by physicians and nurses, and the understanding of patient confidentiality.

  8. Morphological weighted penalized least squares for background correction.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong; Zhan, De-Jian; Wang, Jia-Jun; Huang, Jing; Xu, Qing-Song; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zheng, Yi-Bao; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Wang, Hong

    2013-08-21

    Backgrounds existing in the analytical signal always impair the effectiveness of signals and compromise selectivity and sensitivity of analytical methods. In order to perform further qualitative or quantitative analysis, the background should be corrected with a reasonable method. For this purpose, a new automatic method for background correction, which is based on morphological operations and weighted penalized least squares (MPLS), has been developed in this paper. It requires neither prior knowledge about the background nor an iteration procedure or manual selection of a suitable local minimum value. The method has been successfully applied to simulated datasets as well as experimental datasets from different instruments. The results show that the method is quite flexible and could handle different kinds of backgrounds. The proposed MPLS method is implemented and available as an open source package at http://code.google.com/p/mpls.

  9. The Penal Code (Amendment) Act 1989 (Act A727), 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    In 1989, Malaysia amended its penal code to provide that inducing an abortion is not an offense if the procedure is performed by a registered medical practitioner who has determined that continuation of the pregnancy would risk the life of the woman or damage her mental or physical health. Additional amendments include a legal description of the conditions which constitute the act of rape. Among these conditions is intercourse with or without consent with a woman under the age of 16. Malaysia fails to recognize rape within a marriage unless the woman is protected from her husband by judicial decree or is living separately from her husband according to Muslim custom. Rape is punishable by imprisonment for a term of 5-20 years and by whipping.

  10. [Between law and psychiatry: homosexuality in the project of the Swiss penal code (1918)].

    PubMed

    Delessert, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    In 1942 the Swiss penal code depenalises homosexual acts between agreeing adults under some conditions. The genesis of the penal article shows that it was constructed before the First World War and bears marks of the forensic theories of the turn of the century. Both by direct contacts and the authority of its eminent figures, Swiss psychiatry exerts an unquestionable influence on the depenalisation. The conceptualisation of homosexuality is also strongly influenced by the German psychiatric theories and discussed in reference to Germanic law. By the penal article, the Swiss lawyers and psychiatrists link the homosexual question with the determination of the irresponsibility of criminal mental patients and degeneracy.

  11. [Some consequences of the application of the new Swiss penal code on legal psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Gasser, Jacques; Gravier, Bruno

    2007-09-19

    The new text of the Swiss penal code, which entered into effect at the beginning of 2007, has many incidences on the practice of the psychiatrists realizing expertises in the penal field or engaged in the application of legal measures imposing a treatment. The most notable consequences of this text are, on the one hand, a new definition of the concept of penal irresponsibility which is not necessarily any more related to a psychiatric diagnosis and, on the other hand, a new definition of legal constraints that justice can take to prevent new punishable acts and which appreciably modifies the place of the psychiatrists in the questions binding psychiatric care and social control.

  12. Penal harm medicine: state tort remedies for delaying and denying health care to prisoners.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, M S

    1999-01-01

    In prison and jail subcultures, custodial personnel are committed to the penal harm movement, which seeks to inflict pain on prisoners. Conversely, correctional medical personnel are sworn to the Hippocratic Oath and are committed to alleviating prisoners' suffering. The Hippocratic Oath is violated when correctional medical workers adopt penal harm mandates and inflict pain on prisoners. By analyzing lawsuits filed by prisoners under state tort law, this article shows how the penal harm movement co-opts some correctional medical employees into abandoning their treatment and healing mission, thus causing denial or delay of medical treatment to prisoners.

  13. [Mental illness in Brazilian penal law: legal irresponsibility, potentiality for danger/aggressiveness and safety policies].

    PubMed

    Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Nery Filho, Antônio

    2002-01-01

    Psychiatric information and practice are closely related with the field of criminal law, questioning classical penal law premises, such as responsibility and freewill. We have analyzed the articles related to mental health in Brazilian penal laws, since Código Criminal do Império do Brazil (Brazilian Empire criminal laws) from 1830. Our objective is to describe the structuring of a legal status for the mentally ill in Brazil, as well as the model of penal intervention in the lives of those considered as 'dangerous' and 'irresponsible'. In order to do so, we have analyzed not only specific articles on penal law, but also texts by specialized analysts. In addition, we have discussed the concepts that keep mentally-ill criminals in a rather ambiguous situation, i.e. legal irresponsibility, potential aggressiveness and safety policies.

  14. Recent changes in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code relevant to medical profession.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Swapnil S; Kumar, Lavlesh; Mestri, S C

    2010-02-01

    Some sections in Criminal Procedure Code and Indian Penal Code have a direct binding on medical practitioner. With changing times, few of them have been revised and these changes are presented in this article.

  15. Adaptive wavelet simulation of global ocean dynamics using a new Brinkman volume penalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevlahan, N. K.-R.; Dubos, T.; Aechtner, M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to easily enforce solid-wall boundary conditions in the presence of complex coastlines, we propose a new mass and energy conserving Brinkman penalization for the rotating shallow water equations. This penalization does not lead to higher wave speeds in the solid region. The error estimates for the penalization are derived analytically and verified numerically for linearized one-dimensional equations. The penalization is implemented in a conservative dynamically adaptive wavelet method for the rotating shallow water equations on the sphere with bathymetry and coastline data from NOAA's ETOPO1 database. This code could form the dynamical core for a future global ocean model. The potential of the dynamically adaptive ocean model is illustrated by using it to simulate the 2004 Indonesian tsunami and wind-driven gyres.

  16. On the advancement of therapeutic penality: therapeutic authority, personality science and the therapeutic community.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ruari-Santiago

    2017-09-01

    In this article I examine the advancement of therapeutic penality in the UK, a penal philosophy that reimagines prison policy, practices and environments utilising psychological knowledge. Adopting a historical approach, I show how modern therapeutic penality is linked to the emergence of personality science in the nineteenth century and the development of the democratic therapeutic community (DTC) model in the twentieth century. I outline how at the turn of the twenty-first century a catalytic event generated a moral panic that led the British government to mobilise psychological knowledge and technologies in an attempt to manage dangerous people with severe personality disorder. Tracing subsequent developments, I argue psychological ways of talking, thinking and acting have obtained unparalleled salience in domains of penality and, in turn, radically transformed the conditions of imprisonment. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  17. Feasibility of using Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method for Shape and Topology Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2009-11-01

    In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape and topology optimization of fluid flows. Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid in complex geometries (where grid resolution varies both in space and time time), while Brinkman volume penalization allows easy variation of flow geometry without using body-fitted meshes by simply changing the shape of the penalization region. The use of Brinkman volume penalization approach allow seamless transition from shape to topology optimization by combining it with level set approach and increasing the size of the optimization space. The approach is demonstrated for shape optimization of a variety of fluid flows by optimizing single cost function (time averaged Drag coefficient) using covariance matrix adaptation (CMA) evolutionary algorithm.

  18. Penalizing Hospitals for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Readmissions

    PubMed Central

    Au, David H.

    2014-01-01

    In October 2014, the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) will expand its Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP) to include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Under the new policy, hospitals with high risk-adjusted, 30-day all-cause unplanned readmission rates after an index hospitalization for a COPD exacerbation will be penalized with reduced reimbursement for the treatment of Medicare beneficiaries. In this perspective, we review the history of the HRRP, including the recent addition of COPD to the policy. We critically assess the use of 30-day all-cause COPD readmissions as an accountability measure, discussing potential benefits and then highlighting the substantial drawbacks and potential unintended consequences of the measure that could adversely affect providers, hospitals, and patients with COPD. We conclude by emphasizing the need to place the 30-day COPD readmission measure in the context of a reconceived model for postdischarge quality and review several frameworks that could help guide this process. PMID:24460431

  19. Conditional bias-penalized optimal estimation for QPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.

    2011-12-01

    Most precipitation estimation techniques employ some form of optimal estimation, which usually targets unbiasedness and minimum error variance. Because these properties generally hold only in the unconditional sense, the resulting estimates are subject to conditional biases that may be unacceptably large. A prime example is precipitation analysis using rain gauge data for which, e.g., kriging may significantly underestimate heavy precipitation and, albeit less consequentially, overestimate very light precipitation. In this presentation, we introduce an extremely simple extension to the widely used optimal estimation techniques of simple and ordinary kriging, referred to herein as conditional bias-penalized kriging (CBPK), which minimizes explicitly conditional bias in addition to unconditional error variance. To understand the properties and performance characteristics of CBPK, we carried out numerical experiments in which normal and lognormal random fields of varying spatial correlation scale and rain gauge network density are synthetically generated, and the estimates are cross-validated; the results are summarized in this presentation. Also presented are generalization of CBPK in the framework of classical optimal linear estimation theory, and how it may be used in multisensor QPE.

  20. Numerical modeling of flexible insect wings using volume penalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engels, Thomas; Kolomenskiy, Dmitry; Schneider, Kai; Sesterhenn, Joern

    2012-11-01

    We consider the effects of chordwise flexibility on the aerodynamic performance of insect flapping wings. We developed a numerical method for modeling viscous fluid flows past moving deformable foils. It extends on the previously reported model for flows past moving rigid wings (J Comput Phys 228, 2009). The two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with the no-slip boundary conditions imposed by the volume penalization method. The deformable wing section is modeled using a non-linear beam equation. We performed numerical simulations of heaving flexible plates. The results showed that the optimal stroke frequency, which maximizes the mean thrust, is lower than the resonant frequency, in agreement with the experiments by Ramananarivo et al. (PNAS 108(15), 2011). The oscillatory part of the force only increases in amplitude when the frequency increases, and at the optimal frequency it is about 3 times larger than the mean force. We also study aerodynamic interactions between two heaving flexible foils. This flow configuration corresponds to the wings of dragonflies. We explore the effects of the phase difference and spacing between the fore- and hind-wing.

  1. pPXF: Penalized Pixel-Fitting stellar kinematics extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappellari, Michele

    2012-10-01

    pPXF is an IDL (and free GDL or FL) program which extracts the stellar kinematics or stellar population from absorption-line spectra of galaxies using the Penalized Pixel-Fitting method (pPXF) developed by Cappellari & Emsellem (2004, PASP, 116, 138). Additional features implemented in the pPXF routine include: Optimal template: Fitted together with the kinematics to minimize template-mismatch errors. Also useful to extract gas kinematics or derive emission-corrected line-strengths indexes. One can use synthetic templates to study the stellar population of galaxies via "Full Spectral Fitting" instead of using traditional line-strengths.Regularization of templates weights: To reduce the noise in the recovery of the stellar population parameters and attach a physical meaning to the output weights assigned to the templates in term of the star formation history (SFH) or metallicity distribution of an individual galaxy.Iterative sigma clipping: To clean the spectra from residual bad pixels or cosmic rays.Additive/multiplicative polynomials: To correct low frequency continuum variations. Also useful for calibration purposes.

  2. Act No. 62, Penal Code, 29 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains various provisions of the 1987 Cuban Penal Code. Chapter 6 of Title 8 (crimes against life and bodily integrity) outlaws abortion and sets prison terms for its performance under various circumstances. Chapter 7 sets a penalty of five to 12 years imprisonment for performing a sterilization procedure. Chapter 8 outlines the penalties for abandonment of minors and incompetent or helpless people. Under Title 9 (crimes against individual rights), Chapter 8 renders it illegal to discriminate on the grounds of sex, race, color, or national origin. Chapter 1 of Title 11 deals with crimes against the normal development of sexual relations, setting penalties for rape, pederasty with violence, and lascivious abuse. Chapter 2 covers crimes against the normal development of the family such as incest, sexual relations with a minor, bigamy, illegal marriage, and substitution of one child for another. Chapter 3 places penalties for crimes against the normal development of childhood and youth, such as the corruption of minors, the neglect of minors, and the failure to support minors.

  3. Polygenic scores via penalized regression on summary statistics.

    PubMed

    Mak, Timothy Shin Heng; Porsch, Robert Milan; Choi, Shing Wan; Zhou, Xueya; Sham, Pak Chung

    2017-09-01

    Polygenic scores (PGS) summarize the genetic contribution of a person's genotype to a disease or phenotype. They can be used to group participants into different risk categories for diseases, and are also used as covariates in epidemiological analyses. A number of possible ways of calculating PGS have been proposed, and recently there is much interest in methods that incorporate information available in published summary statistics. As there is no inherent information on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in summary statistics, a pertinent question is how we can use LD information available elsewhere to supplement such analyses. To answer this question, we propose a method for constructing PGS using summary statistics and a reference panel in a penalized regression framework, which we call lassosum. We also propose a general method for choosing the value of the tuning parameter in the absence of validation data. In our simulations, we showed that pseudovalidation often resulted in prediction accuracy that is comparable to using a dataset with validation phenotype and was clearly superior to the conservative option of setting the tuning parameter of lassosum to its lowest value. We also showed that lassosum achieved better prediction accuracy than simple clumping and P-value thresholding in almost all scenarios. It was also substantially faster and more accurate than the recently proposed LDpred. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. [Treatment of spontaneous dissociated vertical deviation with the pharmacological penalization of the fixing eye].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Yllanes, María Estela; Galicia-Castillo, Blanca Adriana; Pérez-Pérez, José Fernando

    2005-01-01

    Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) is a common innervational entity frequently found in patients with congenital endotropia. It is characterized as being bilateral, asymmetric, and to a greater extent, in the non-fixating eye. It can be compensatory or non-compensatory. In the majority of cases, surgery is the treatment of choice, but spontaneous appearance of DVD is a common occurrence after surgery, sometimes to a degree similar to that prior to surgery. Our aim was to evaluate the behavior of dissociated vertical deviation with penalization of the fixating eye. An experimental and longitudinal study was conducted in which patients with spontaneous DVD were included, whether or not associated with horizontal deviation, with or without previous surgery. Atropine (1%) was applied every 24 h in the fixating eye for 3 months and DVD presence, magnitude, and spontaneity were evaluated at 15 days, 1 month, 3 months, and 1 month after penalization suspension. Eight patients were included. DVD magnitude decreased with penalization (p = 0.02) and remained unchanged when atropine was suspended (p = 0.6). With regard to decompensatory phases, DVD shifted from spontaneous to non-spontaneous during penalization (p = 0.01); when this was eliminated, deviation showed decompensation again (p = 0.03). Fixating eye penalization with 1% atropine reduces DVD magnitude and decompensatory phases during follow-up.

  5. Penalized Spline: a General Robust Trajectory Model for ZIYUAN-3 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H.; Zou, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Owing to the dynamic imaging system, the trajectory model plays a very important role in the geometric processing of high resolution satellite imagery. However, establishing a trajectory model is difficult when only discrete and noisy data are available. In this manuscript, we proposed a general robust trajectory model, the penalized spline model, which could fit trajectory data well and smooth noise. The penalized parameter λ controlling the smooth and fitting accuracy could be estimated by generalized cross-validation. Five other trajectory models, including third-order polynomials, Chebyshev polynomials, linear interpolation, Lagrange interpolation and cubic spline, are compared with the penalized spline model. Both the sophisticated ephemeris and on-board ephemeris are used to compare the orbit models. The penalized spline model could smooth part of noise, and accuracy would decrease as the orbit length increases. The band-to-band misregistration of ZiYuan-3 Dengfeng and Faizabad multispectral images is used to evaluate the proposed method. With the Dengfeng dataset, the third-order polynomials and Chebyshev approximation could not model the oscillation, and introduce misregistration of 0.57 pixels misregistration in across-track direction and 0.33 pixels in along-track direction. With the Faizabad dataset, the linear interpolation, Lagrange interpolation and cubic spline model suffer from noise, introducing larger misregistration than the approximation models. Experimental results suggest the penalized spline model could model the oscillation and smooth noise.

  6. Penalized differential pathway analysis of integrative oncogenomics studies.

    PubMed

    van Wieringen, Wessel N; van de Wiel, Mark A

    2014-04-01

    Through integration of genomic data from multiple sources, we may obtain a more accurate and complete picture of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. We discuss the integration of DNA copy number and mRNA gene expression data from an observational integrative genomics study involving cancer patients. The two molecular levels involved are linked through the central dogma of molecular biology. DNA copy number aberrations abound in the cancer cell. Here we investigate how these aberrations affect gene expression levels within a pathway using observational integrative genomics data of cancer patients. In particular, we aim to identify differential edges between regulatory networks of two groups involving these molecular levels. Motivated by the rate equations, the regulatory mechanism between DNA copy number aberrations and gene expression levels within a pathway is modeled by a simultaneous-equations model, for the one- and two-group case. The latter facilitates the identification of differential interactions between the two groups. Model parameters are estimated by penalized least squares using the lasso (L1) penalty to obtain a sparse pathway topology. Simulations show that the inclusion of DNA copy number data benefits the discovery of gene-gene interactions. In addition, the simulations reveal that cis-effects tend to be over-estimated in a univariate (single gene) analysis. In the application to real data from integrative oncogenomic studies we show that inclusion of prior information on the regulatory network architecture benefits the reproducibility of all edges. Furthermore, analyses of the TP53 and TGFb signaling pathways between ER+ and ER- samples from an integrative genomics breast cancer study identify reproducible differential regulatory patterns that corroborate with existing literature.

  7. [Extramural research funds and penal law--status of legislation].

    PubMed

    Ulsenheimer, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    After decades of smooth functioning, the cooperation of physicians and hospitals with the industry (much desired from the side of the government in the interest of clinical research) has fallen in legal discredit due to increasingly frequent criminal inquires and proceedings for unduly privileges, corruption, and embezzlement. The discredit is so severe that the industry funding for clinical research is diverted abroad to an increasing extent. The legal elements of embezzlement assume the intentional violation of the entrusted funds against the interest of the customer. Undue privileges occur when an official requests an advantage in exchange for a service (or is promised one or takes one) in his or somebody else's interest. The elements of corruption are then given when the receiver of the undue privilege provides an illegal service or takes a discretionary decision under the influence of the gratuity. The tension between the prohibition of undue privileges (as regulated by the penal law) and the granting of extramural funds (as regulated by the administrative law in academic institutions) can be reduced through a high degree of transparency and the start of control possibilities--public announcement and authorization by the officials--as well as through exact documentation and observance of the principles of separation of interests and moderation. With the anti-corruption law of 1997, it is possible to charge of corruption also physicians employed in private institutions. In contrast, physicians in private practice are not considered in the above criminal facts. They can only be charged of misdemeanor, or called to respond to the professional board, on the basis of the law that regulates advertising for medicinal products (Heilmittelwerbegesetz).

  8. Penalized multivariate linear mixed model for longitudinal genome-wide association studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    We consider analysis of Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data, which involves multiple longitudinal traits and dense genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We use a multivariate linear mixed model to account for the covariance of random effects and multivariate residuals. We divide the SNPs into groups according to the genes they belong to and score them using weighted sum statistics. We propose a penalized approach for genetic variant selection at the gene level. The overall modeling and penalized selection method is referred to as the penalized multivariate linear mixed model. Cross-validation is used for tuning parameter selection. A resampling approach is adopted to evaluate the relative stability of the identified genes. Application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 data shows that the proposed approach can effectively select markers associated with phenotypes at gene level.

  9. From moral theory to penal attitudes and back: a theoretically integrated modeling approach.

    PubMed

    de Keijser, Jan W; van der Leeden, Rien; Jackson, Janet L

    2002-01-01

    From a moral standpoint, we would expect the practice of punishment to reflect a solid and commonly shared legitimizing framework. Several moral legal theories explicitly aim to provide such frameworks. Based on the theories of Retributivism, Utilitarianism, and Restorative Justice, this article first sets out to develop a theoretically integrated model of penal attitudes and then explores the extent to which Dutch judges' attitudes to punishment fit the model. Results indicate that penal attitudes can be measured in a meaningful way that is consistent with an integrated approach to moral theory. The general structure of penal attitudes among Dutch judges suggests a streamlined and pragmatic approach to legal punishment that is identifiably founded on the separate concepts central to moral theories of punishment. While Restorative Justice is frequently presented as an alternative paradigm, results show it to be smoothly incorporated within the streamlined approach. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Iterative Brinkman penalization for simulation of impulsively started flow past a sphere and a circular disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spietz, Henrik Juul; Hejlesen, Mads Mølholm; Walther, Jens Honoré

    2017-05-01

    We present a Brinkman penalization method for three-dimensional (3D) flows using particle vortex methods, improving the existing technique by means of an iterative process. We perform simulations to study the impulsively started flow past a sphere at Re = 1000 and normal to a circular disc at Re = 500. The simulation results obtained for the flow past a sphere are found in qualitative good agreement with previously published results obtained using respectively a 3D vortex penalization method and a 3D vortex method combined with an accurate boundary element method. From the results obtained for the flow normal to a circular disc it is found that the iterative method enables the use of a time step that is one order of magnitude larger than required by the standard non-iterative Brinkman penalization method.

  11. 40 CFR 33.410 - Can a recipient be penalized for failing to meet its fair share objectives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... failing to meet its fair share objectives? 33.410 Section 33.410 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.410 Can a recipient be penalized for failing to meet its fair share objectives? A recipient cannot be penalized, or treated by EPA...

  12. [Art. 192 Polish Penal Code--lawyers comments and medical practice].

    PubMed

    Swiatek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Art. 192 was enacted in the Polish Penal Code in 1997. Performance of a "medical intervention" without the patient's consent has been penalized. The binding norm is not generally acclaimed in medical circles, but lawyers seem very interested in them. In essence the regulation is clear in medical circles but teaching of lawyers has its differences. Inconsistent interpretation are concerned with objectivity of legal protection, extent of disposition of the legal norm and other determinant factors. The literature does not permit for an unambiguous and effective interpretation of this regulation. Urgent amendment of this law is necessary.

  13. [New penal law from the point of forensic psychiatry and psychology].

    PubMed

    Gierowski, J K; Szymusik, A

    1998-01-01

    The article discusses selected psychiatric and psychological problems in the new Penal Code in Poland. The authors focussed on the issues like definition of inaccountability and highly limited accountability, the principles of determining and realizing preventive measures, problems regarding competence of experts issuing opinions on mental health state of a perpetrator as well as the necessity of detention. The presented attempt at evaluation of the new penal regulations is a selection performed in a subjective way in accord with the authors' preferences, convictions and views.

  14. Identifying gene-environment and gene-gene interactions using a progressive penalization approach.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zhao, Hongyu; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-05-01

    In genomic studies, identifying important gene-environment and gene-gene interactions is a challenging problem. In this study, we adopt the statistical modeling approach, where interactions are represented by product terms in regression models. For the identification of important interactions, we adopt penalization, which has been used in many genomic studies. Straightforward application of penalization does not respect the "main effect, interaction" hierarchical structure. A few recently proposed methods respect this structure by applying constrained penalization. However, they demand very complicated computational algorithms and can only accommodate a small number of genomic measurements. We propose a computationally fast penalization method that can identify important gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and respect a strong hierarchical structure. The method takes a stagewise approach and progressively expands its optimization domain to account for possible hierarchical interactions. It is applicable to multiple data types and models. A coordinate descent method is utilized to produce the entire regularized solution path. Simulation study demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed method. We analyze a lung cancer prognosis study with gene expression measurements and identify important gene-environment interactions.

  15. Identifying gene-environment and gene-gene interactions using a progressive penalization approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ruoqing; Zhao, Hongyu; Ma, Shuangge

    2015-01-01

    In genomic studies, identifying important gene-environment and gene-gene interactions is a challenging problem. In this study, we adopt the statistical modeling approach, where interactions are represented by product terms in regression models. For the identification of important interactions, we adopt penalization, which has been used in many genomic studies. Straightforward application of penalization does not respect the “main effect, interaction” hierarchical structure. A few recently proposed methods respect this structure by applying constrained penalization. However, they demand very complicated computational algorithms and can only accommodate a small number of genomic measurements. We propose a computationally fast penalization method that can identify important gene-environment and gene-gene interactions and respect a strong hierarchical structure. The method takes a stagewise approach and progressively expands its optimization domain to account for possible hierarchical interactions. It is applicable to multiple data types and models. A coordinate descent method is utilized to produce the entire regularized solution path. Simulation study demonstrates the superior performance of the proposed method. We analyze a lung cancer prognosis study with gene expression measurements and identify important gene-environment interactions. PMID:24723356

  16. biospear: an R package for biomarker selection in penalized Cox regression.

    PubMed

    Ternès, Nils; Rotolo, Federico; Michiels, Stefan

    2017-09-12

    The R package biospear allows selecting the biomarkers with the strongest impact on survival and on the treatment effect in high-dimensional Cox models, and estimating expected survival probabilities. Most of the implemented approaches are based on penalized regression techniques. The package is available on the CRAN. ( https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=biospear ). stefan.michiels@gustaveroussy.fr.

  17. 36 CFR 1200.16 - Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... misusing the official seals and logos? 1200.16 Section 1200.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION GENERAL RULES OFFICIAL SEALS Penalties for Misuse of NARA Seals and Logos § 1200.16 Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos? (a) Seals. (1) If...

  18. Low-rank approximations with sparse factors II: Penalized methods with discrete Newton-like iterations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenyue; Zha, Hongyuan; Simon, Horst

    2006-07-31

    In this paper, we developed numerical algorithms for computing sparse low-rank approximations of matrices, and we also provided a detailed error analysis of the proposed algorithms together with some numerical experiments. The low-rank approximations are constructed in a certain factored form with the degree of sparsity of the factors controlled by some user-specified parameters. In this paper, we cast the sparse low-rank approximation problem in the framework of penalized optimization problems. We discuss various approximation schemes for the penalized optimization problem which are more amenable to numerical computations. We also include some analysis to show the relations between the original optimization problem and the reduced one. We then develop a globally convergent discrete Newton-like iterative method for solving the approximate penalized optimization problems. We also compare the reconstruction errors of the sparse low-rank approximations computed by our new methods with those obtained using the methods in the earlier paper and several other existing methods for computing sparse low-rank approximations. Numerical examples show that the penalized methods are more robust and produce approximations with factors which have fewer columns and are sparser.

  19. 7 CFR 1484.73 - Are Cooperators penalized for failing to make required contributions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are Cooperators penalized for failing to make required contributions? 1484.73 Section 1484.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORT PROGRAMS PROGRAMS TO HELP...

  20. The Role of the Environmental Health Specialist in the Penal and Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; Gordon, Theodore J.

    1976-01-01

    Implementing a health and hygiene program in penal systems necessitates coordinating the entire staff. Health specialists could participate in facility planning and management, policy formation, and evaluation of medical care, housekeeping, and food services. They could also serve as liaisons between correctional staff and governmental or…

  1. The Role of the Environmental Health Specialist in the Penal and Correctional System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bailus, Jr.; Gordon, Theodore J.

    1976-01-01

    Implementing a health and hygiene program in penal systems necessitates coordinating the entire staff. Health specialists could participate in facility planning and management, policy formation, and evaluation of medical care, housekeeping, and food services. They could also serve as liaisons between correctional staff and governmental or…

  2. 36 CFR 1200.16 - Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... misusing the official seals and logos? 1200.16 Section 1200.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... Logos § 1200.16 Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos? (a) Seals. (1) If you... and to other provisions of law as applicable. (b) Logos. If you use the official logos, replicas...

  3. 36 CFR 1200.16 - Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... misusing the official seals and logos? 1200.16 Section 1200.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... Logos § 1200.16 Will I be penalized for misusing the official seals and logos? (a) Seals. (1) If you... and to other provisions of law as applicable. (b) Logos. If you use the official logos, replicas...

  4. 49 CFR 26.47 - Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall goals?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Can recipients be penalized for failing to meet overall goals? 26.47 Section 26.47 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PARTICIPATION BY DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS ENTERPRISES IN DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Goals, Good Faith Efforts, and Counting §...

  5. Accounting for linkage disequilibrium in genome-wide association studies: A penalized regression method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Kai; Ma, Shuangge; Huang, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Penalized regression methods are becoming increasingly popular in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identifying genetic markers associated with disease. However, standard penalized methods such as LASSO do not take into account the possible linkage disequilibrium between adjacent markers. We propose a novel penalized approach for GWAS using a dense set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The proposed method uses the minimax concave penalty (MCP) for marker selection and incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD) information by penalizing the difference of the genetic effects at adjacent SNPs with high correlation. A coordinate descent algorithm is derived to implement the proposed method. This algorithm is efficient in dealing with a large number of SNPs. A multi-split method is used to calculate the p-values of the selected SNPs for assessing their significance. We refer to the proposed penalty function as the smoothed MCP and the proposed approach as the SMCP method. Performance of the proposed SMCP method and its comparison with LASSO and MCP approaches are evaluated through simulation studies, which demonstrate that the proposed method is more accurate in selecting associated SNPs. Its applicability to real data is illustrated using heterogeneous stock mice data and a rheumatoid arthritis.

  6. Analyzing Association Mapping in Pedigree-Based GWAS Using a Penalized Multitrait Mixed Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Yang, Can; Shi, Xingjie; Li, Cong; Huang, Jian; Zhao, Hongyu; Ma, Shuangge

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the identification of many genetic variants associated with complex diseases in the past 10 years. Penalization methods, with significant numerical and statistical advantages, have been extensively adopted in analyzing GWAS. This study has been partly motivated by the analysis of Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) 18 data, which have two notable characteristics. First, the subjects are from a small number of pedigrees and hence related. Second, for each subject, multiple correlated traits have been measured. Most of the existing penalization methods assume independence between subjects and traits and can be suboptimal. There are a few methods in the literature based on mixed modeling that can accommodate correlations. However, they cannot fully accommodate the two types of correlations while conducting effective marker selection. In this study, we develop a penalized multitrait mixed modeling approach. It accommodates the two different types of correlations and includes several existing methods as special cases. Effective penalization is adopted for marker selection. Simulation demonstrates its satisfactory performance. The GAW 18 data are analyzed using the proposed method. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  7. "They're Here to Follow Orders, Not to Think:" Some Notes on Academic Freedom in Penal Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcard, Thomas E.; Watts-LaFontaine, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    Addresses basic issues that arise when an instructor who teaches college-level courses to inmates in a penal institution reflects upon that teaching experience. Presents questions that must be examined by those teaching prison inmates. (JOW)

  8. "They're Here to Follow Orders, Not to Think:" Some Notes on Academic Freedom in Penal Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcard, Thomas E.; Watts-LaFontaine, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    Addresses basic issues that arise when an instructor who teaches college-level courses to inmates in a penal institution reflects upon that teaching experience. Presents questions that must be examined by those teaching prison inmates. (JOW)

  9. Postcolonial penality: Liberty and repression in the shadow of independence, India c. 1947

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This article reports primary archival data on the colonial penal history of British India and its reconfiguration into the postcolonial Indian state. It introduces criminologists to frameworks through which postcolonial scholars have sought to make sense of the continuities and discontinuities of rule across the colonial/postcolonial divide. The article examines the postcolonial life of one example of colonial penal power, known as the criminal tribes policy, under which more than three million Indian subjects of British rule were restricted in their movements, subject to a host of administrative rules and sometimes severe punishments, sequestered in settlements and limited in access to legal redress. It illustrates how at the birth of the postcolonial Indian state, encompassing visions of a liberal, unfettered and free life guaranteed in a new Constitution and charter of Fundamental Rights, freedom for some was to prove as elusive as citizens as it had been as subjects. PMID:28503082

  10. Penalized regression procedures for variable selection in the potential outcomes framework

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Debashis; Zhu, Yeying; Coffman, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    A recent topic of much interest in causal inference is model selection. In this article, we describe a framework in which to consider penalized regression approaches to variable selection for causal effects. The framework leads to a simple ‘impute, then select’ class of procedures that is agnostic to the type of imputation algorithm as well as penalized regression used. It also clarifies how model selection involves a multivariate regression model for causal inference problems, and that these methods can be applied for identifying subgroups in which treatment effects are homogeneous. Analogies and links with the literature on machine learning methods, missing data and imputation are drawn. A difference LASSO algorithm is defined, along with its multiple imputation analogues. The procedures are illustrated using a well-known right heart catheterization dataset. PMID:25628185

  11. [Group Lasso Penalized Classifier for Diagnosis of Diseases with Categorical Data].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjia; Xue, Fang

    2015-10-01

    Six kinds of erythemato-squamous diseases have been common skin diseases, but the diagnosis of them has always been a problem. The quantitative data processing method is not suitable for erythemato-squamous data because they are categorical qualitative data. This paper proposed a new method based on group lasso penalized classification for the feature selection and classification for erythemato-squamous data with categorical qualitative data. The first categorical data of 33 dimensions were changed by the virtual code, and then 34th dimension age data were discretized and changed by the virtual code. Then the encoded data were grouped according to class group and variable group. Lastly Group Lasso penalized classification was executed. The classified accuracy of 10-fold cross validation was 98.88% ± 0.002 3%. Compared with those of other method in the literature, this new method is simpler, and better for effect and efficiency, and has stronger interpretability and stronger stability.

  12. [Development of a questionnaire to assess user satisfaction of a penal mediation program (CSM-P)].

    PubMed

    Manzano Blanquez, Juan; Soria Verde, Miguel Angel; Armadans Tremolosa, Inmaculada

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to elaborate an instrument (CSM-P), valid for victims and aggressors, to assess satisfaction of individuals participating in a penal mediation program (VOM). The instrument was administered to a sample of 213 subjects, randomly chosen from the pool of participants in a VOM program of Catalonian Justice Department. Data analysis of the questionnaire shows an internal consistency of .88 (Cronbach's alpha). The dimensionality of the questionnaire is structured in a single factor that accounts for 61.45% of the variance. The instrument has proven its utility for assessing the satisfaction of the participants in a penal mediation program. Validation of the instrument in similar populations should be performed and it should be adapted to other contexts where assessing user satisfaction in a mediation program is necessary.

  13. L1-Penalized N-way PLS for subset of electrodes selection in BCI experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseyev, Andrey; Moro, Cecile; Faber, Jean; Wyss, Alexander; Torres, Napoleon; Mestais, Corinne; Benabid, Alim Louis; Aksenova, Tetiana

    2012-08-01

    Recently, the N-way partial least squares (NPLS) approach was reported as an effective tool for neuronal signal decoding and brain-computer interface (BCI) system calibration. This method simultaneously analyzes data in several domains. It combines the projection of a data tensor to a low dimensional space with linear regression. In this paper the L1-Penalized NPLS is proposed for sparse BCI system calibration, allowing uniting the projection technique with an effective selection of subset of features. The L1-Penalized NPLS was applied for the binary self-paced BCI system calibration, providing selection of electrodes subset. Our BCI system is designed for animal research, in particular for research in non-human primates.

  14. [Changes in legal status in the field of civil and penal doctor's liability].

    PubMed

    Dukiet-Nagórska, T

    1999-01-01

    The author discusses the effects of organization changes in the range of health care, which took place in Poland, on the penal and civil liability of doctors. Her opinion refers also to the amendment of the penal code. The author emphasizes wider than before possibility of the doctor's liability for harm caused to a person or for the infringing of patient's rights. She also draws our attention to the description of offences pertaining to doctors, contained in the new panel code. The author proposes to work out the standards of procedure with the patient (based on the model of treatment standards)--according to the specific nature of particular sections of medicine or clinics. She expresses her conviction about the need to initiate changes in the legal status through the joint actions of doctors and lawyers.

  15. A marginal approach to reduced-rank penalized spline smoothing with application to multilevel functional data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huaihou; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Choi, H. Alex

    2014-01-01

    Multilevel functional data is collected in many biomedical studies. For example, in a study of the effect of Nimodipine on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), patients underwent multiple 4-hour treatment cycles. Within each treatment cycle, subjects’ vital signs were reported every 10 minutes. This data has a natural multilevel structure with treatment cycles nested within subjects and measurements nested within cycles. Most literature on nonparametric analysis of such multilevel functional data focus on conditional approaches using functional mixed effects models. However, parameters obtained from the conditional models do not have direct interpretations as population average effects. When population effects are of interest, we may employ marginal regression models. In this work, we propose marginal approaches to fit multilevel functional data through penalized spline generalized estimating equation (penalized spline GEE). The procedure is effective for modeling multilevel correlated generalized outcomes as well as continuous outcomes without suffering from numerical difficulties. We provide a variance estimator robust to misspecification of correlation structure. We investigate the large sample properties of the penalized spline GEE estimator with multilevel continuous data and show that the asymptotics falls into two categories. In the small knots scenario, the estimated mean function is asymptotically efficient when the true correlation function is used and the asymptotic bias does not depend on the working correlation matrix. In the large knots scenario, both the asymptotic bias and variance depend on the working correlation. We propose a new method to select the smoothing parameter for penalized spline GEE based on an estimate of the asymptotic mean squared error (MSE). We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine property of the proposed estimator under different correlation structures and sensitivity of the variance estimation to the choice

  16. A marginal approach to reduced-rank penalized spline smoothing with application to multilevel functional data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huaihou; Wang, Yuanjia; Paik, Myunghee Cho; Choi, H Alex

    2013-10-01

    Multilevel functional data is collected in many biomedical studies. For example, in a study of the effect of Nimodipine on patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), patients underwent multiple 4-hour treatment cycles. Within each treatment cycle, subjects' vital signs were reported every 10 minutes. This data has a natural multilevel structure with treatment cycles nested within subjects and measurements nested within cycles. Most literature on nonparametric analysis of such multilevel functional data focus on conditional approaches using functional mixed effects models. However, parameters obtained from the conditional models do not have direct interpretations as population average effects. When population effects are of interest, we may employ marginal regression models. In this work, we propose marginal approaches to fit multilevel functional data through penalized spline generalized estimating equation (penalized spline GEE). The procedure is effective for modeling multilevel correlated generalized outcomes as well as continuous outcomes without suffering from numerical difficulties. We provide a variance estimator robust to misspecification of correlation structure. We investigate the large sample properties of the penalized spline GEE estimator with multilevel continuous data and show that the asymptotics falls into two categories. In the small knots scenario, the estimated mean function is asymptotically efficient when the true correlation function is used and the asymptotic bias does not depend on the working correlation matrix. In the large knots scenario, both the asymptotic bias and variance depend on the working correlation. We propose a new method to select the smoothing parameter for penalized spline GEE based on an estimate of the asymptotic mean squared error (MSE). We conduct extensive simulation studies to examine property of the proposed estimator under different correlation structures and sensitivity of the variance estimation to the choice

  17. [Civil prodedure or penal procedure in the event of medical fault].

    PubMed

    du Jardin, J

    2004-01-01

    The author specifies the rules and the vocabulary of the civil and penal procedures. He points out the characteristics of the medical act and the failures that a medical practitioner can be blamed for. He defines the notions of the duty of best efforts and the duty to achieve a specific result. The role of the expert is touched upon. The article is supplemented by significant case-law decisions and a list of recent textbooks.

  18. Comparison of sinogram- and image-domain penalized-likelihood image reconstruction estimators.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Phillip A; La Rivière, Patrick J

    2011-08-01

    In recent years, the authors and others have been exploring the use of penalized-likelihood sinogram-domain smoothing and restoration approaches for emission and transmission tomography. The motivation for this strategy was initially pragmatic: to provide a more computationally feasible alternative to fully iterative penalized-likelihood image reconstruction involving expensive backprojections and reprojections, while still obtaining some of the benefits of the statistical modeling employed in penalized-likelihood approaches. In this work, the authors seek to compare the two approaches in greater detail. The sinogram-domain strategy entails estimating the "ideal" line integrals needed for reconstruction of an activity or attenuation distribution from the set of noisy, potentially degraded tomographic measurements by maximizing a penalized-likelihood objective function. The objective function models the data statistics as well as any degradation that can be represented in the sinogram domain. The estimated line integrals can then be input to analytic reconstruction algorithms such as filtered backprojection (FBP). The authors compare this to fully iterative approaches maximizing similar objective functions. The authors present mathematical analyses based on so-called equivalent optimization problems that establish that the approaches can be made precisely equivalent under certain restrictive conditions. More significantly, by use of resolution-variance tradeoff studies, the authors show that they can yield very similar performance under more relaxed, realistic conditions. The sinogram- and image-domain approaches are equivalent under certain restrictive conditions and can perform very similarly under more relaxed conditions. The match is particularly good for fully sampled, high-resolution CT geometries. One limitation of the sinogram-domain approach relative to the image-domain approach is the difficulty of imposing additional constraints, such as image non-negativity.

  19. An efficient iterative penalization method using recycled Krylov subspaces and its application to impulsively started flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, T.; Winckelmans, G.; Chatelain, P.

    2017-10-01

    We formulate the penalization problem inside a vortex particle-mesh method as a linear system. This system has to be solved at every wall boundary condition enforcement within a time step. Furthermore, because the underlying problem is a Poisson problem, the solution of this linear system is computationally expensive. For its solution, we here use a recycling iterative solver, rBiCGStab, in order to reduce the number of iterations and therefore decrease the computational cost of the penalization step. For the recycled subspace, we use the orthonormalized previous solutions as only the right hand side changes from the solution at one time to the next. This method is validated against benchmark results: the impulsively started cylinder, with validation at low Reynolds number (Re = 550) and computational savings assessments at moderate Reynolds number (Re = 9500); then on a flat plate benchmark (Re = 1000). By improving the convergence behavior, the approach greatly reduces the computational cost of iterative penalization, at a moderate cost in memory overhead.

  20. Penalization, bias reduction, and default priors in logistic and related categorical and survival regressions.

    PubMed

    Greenland, Sander; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-10-15

    Penalization is a very general method of stabilizing or regularizing estimates, which has both frequentist and Bayesian rationales. We consider some questions that arise when considering alternative penalties for logistic regression and related models. The most widely programmed penalty appears to be the Firth small-sample bias-reduction method (albeit with small differences among implementations and the results they provide), which corresponds to using the log density of the Jeffreys invariant prior distribution as a penalty function. The latter representation raises some serious contextual objections to the Firth reduction, which also apply to alternative penalties based on t-distributions (including Cauchy priors). Taking simplicity of implementation and interpretation as our chief criteria, we propose that the log-F(1,1) prior provides a better default penalty than other proposals. Penalization based on more general log-F priors is trivial to implement and facilitates mean-squared error reduction and sensitivity analyses of penalty strength by varying the number of prior degrees of freedom. We caution however against penalization of intercepts, which are unduly sensitive to covariate coding and design idiosyncrasies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Legal probation of juvenile offenders after release from penal reformative training].

    PubMed

    Urbaniok, Frank; Rossegger, Astrid; Fegert, Jörg; Rubertus, Michael; Endrass, Jérôme

    2007-01-01

    Over recent years, there has been an increase in adolescent delinquency in Germany and Switzerland. In this context, the episodic character of the majority of adolescent delinquency is usually pointed out; however, numerous studies show high re-offending rates for released adolescents. The goal of this study is to examine the legal probation of juvenile delinquents after release from penal reformative training. In this study, the legal probation of adolescents committed to the AEA Uitikon, in the Canton of Zurich, between 1974 and 1986 was scrutinized by examining extracts from their criminal record as of 2003. The period of catamnesis was thus between 17 and 29 years. Overall, 71% of offenders reoffended, 29% with a violent or sexual offence. Bivariate logistic regression showed that the kind of offence committed had no influence on the probability of recidivism. If commitment to the AEA was due to a single offence (as opposed to serial offences), the risk of recidivism was reduced by 71% (OR=0.29). The results of the study show that young delinquents sentenced and committed to penal reformative training have a high recidivism risk. Furthermore, the results point out the importance of the evaluation of the offense-preventive efficacy of penal measures.

  2. Monitoring seasonal influenza epidemics by using internet search data with an ensemble penalized regression model

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pi; Zhang, Jianjun; Wang, Li; Yang, Shaoyi; Luo, Ganfeng; Deng, Changyu; Wen, Ye; Zhang, Qingying

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal influenza epidemics cause serious public health problems in China. Search queries-based surveillance was recently proposed to complement traditional monitoring approaches of influenza epidemics. However, developing robust techniques of search query selection and enhancing predictability for influenza epidemics remains a challenge. This study aimed to develop a novel ensemble framework to improve penalized regression models for detecting influenza epidemics by using Baidu search engine query data from China. The ensemble framework applied a combination of bootstrap aggregating (bagging) and rank aggregation method to optimize penalized regression models. Different algorithms including lasso, ridge, elastic net and the algorithms in the proposed ensemble framework were compared by using Baidu search engine queries. Most of the selected search terms captured the peaks and troughs of the time series curves of influenza cases. The predictability of the conventional penalized regression models were improved by the proposed ensemble framework. The elastic net regression model outperformed the compared models, with the minimum prediction errors. We established a Baidu search engine queries-based surveillance model for monitoring influenza epidemics, and the proposed model provides a useful tool to support the public health response to influenza and other infectious diseases. PMID:28422149

  3. SNP Selection in Genome-Wide Association Studies via Penalized Support Vector Machine with MAX Test

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinseog; Kim, Dennis (Dong Hwan); Jung, Sin-Ho

    2013-01-01

    One of main objectives of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) is to develop a prediction model for a binary clinical outcome using single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which can be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and for better understanding of the relationship between the disease and SNPs. Penalized support vector machine (SVM) methods have been widely used toward this end. However, since investigators often ignore the genetic models of SNPs, a final model results in a loss of efficiency in prediction of the clinical outcome. In order to overcome this problem, we propose a two-stage method such that the the genetic models of each SNP are identified using the MAX test and then a prediction model is fitted using a penalized SVM method. We apply the proposed method to various penalized SVMs and compare the performance of SVMs using various penalty functions. The results from simulations and real GWAS data analysis show that the proposed method performs better than the prediction methods ignoring the genetic models in terms of prediction power and selectivity. PMID:24174989

  4. [Alternative imporisonment measures in the penal legislation of the Socialist Republic of Poland].

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, S; Sclafani, F

    1976-01-01

    On April 19th, 1969 the People's Poland Parliament adopted a new penal legislation consisting of a Penal Code, a Code of Criminal Procedure and an executory Penal Code, which all came into force January 1st, 1970. The distinctive peculiarity of the above mentioned Codes, as the Authors have pointed out, is that they conform to the recent political, social and economic democratization of Poland and to the structure and dynamics of delinquency in this country. In examining the measures concerning educational rehabilitation provided for by the penal law in question, the Authors have started discussing questions like restriction on personal freedom, conditional suspension of criminal procedings, supervision of the convict who has been given the benefice of conditional suspension of the execution of sentence or of conditional release and supervision of the recidivist as well as points related to warranty and postjail care. Though these measures show some similarity to those provided for by bourgeois penal legislations, they result from a quite anthithetic ideology according to which punishment has to perform a double function of defence of working-class achievements as well as of an effective rehabilitation of the convict. A detailed analysis of the theoretical premises and of the actual carrying out of these measures shows, the Authors say, that though they represent only a further stage in the development of socio-juridical progress, they are put in conformity with the criminal policy's trends and the politico-ideological contents of a socialist government. They testify therefore an actual effort to make social rehabilitation of the convict possible in that they prevent the exertion of all negative psycho-pathogenic influences of jail environment on the convict, especially in case of slight crimes. The ultimate importance of these measures is that they can be considered an articulate attempt to promote actual social rehabilitation of the convict and therefore they are

  5. Prediction accuracy and variable selection for penalized cause-specific hazards models.

    PubMed

    Saadati, Maral; Beyersmann, Jan; Kopp-Schneider, Annette; Benner, Axel

    2017-08-01

    We consider modeling competing risks data in high dimensions using a penalized cause-specific hazards (CSHs) approach. CSHs have conceptual advantages that are useful for analyzing molecular data. First, working on hazards level can further understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms that drive transition hazards. Second, CSH models can be used to extend the multistate framework for high-dimensional data. The CSH approach is implemented by fitting separate proportional hazards models for each event type (iCS). In the high-dimensional setting, this might seem too complex and possibly prone to overfitting. Therefore, we consider an extension, namely "linking" the separate models by choosing penalty tuning parameters that in combination yield best prediction of the incidence of the event of interest (penCR). We investigate whether this extension is useful with respect to prediction accuracy and variable selection. The two approaches are compared to the subdistribution hazards (SDH) model, which is an established method that naturally achieves "linking" by working on incidence level, but loses interpretability of the covariate effects. Our simulation studies indicate that in many aspects, iCS is competitive to penCR and the SDH approach. There are some instances that speak in favor of linking the CSH models, for example, in the presence of opposing effects on the CSHs. We conclude that penalized CSH models are a viable solution for competing risks models in high dimensions. Linking the CSHs can be useful in some particular cases; however, simple models using separately penalized CSH are often justified. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Elastic SCAD as a novel penalization method for SVM classification tasks in high-dimensional data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Classification and variable selection play an important role in knowledge discovery in high-dimensional data. Although Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithms are among the most powerful classification and prediction methods with a wide range of scientific applications, the SVM does not include automatic feature selection and therefore a number of feature selection procedures have been developed. Regularisation approaches extend SVM to a feature selection method in a flexible way using penalty functions like LASSO, SCAD and Elastic Net. We propose a novel penalty function for SVM classification tasks, Elastic SCAD, a combination of SCAD and ridge penalties which overcomes the limitations of each penalty alone. Since SVM models are extremely sensitive to the choice of tuning parameters, we adopted an interval search algorithm, which in comparison to a fixed grid search finds rapidly and more precisely a global optimal solution. Results Feature selection methods with combined penalties (Elastic Net and Elastic SCAD SVMs) are more robust to a change of the model complexity than methods using single penalties. Our simulation study showed that Elastic SCAD SVM outperformed LASSO (L1) and SCAD SVMs. Moreover, Elastic SCAD SVM provided sparser classifiers in terms of median number of features selected than Elastic Net SVM and often better predicted than Elastic Net in terms of misclassification error. Finally, we applied the penalization methods described above on four publicly available breast cancer data sets. Elastic SCAD SVM was the only method providing robust classifiers in sparse and non-sparse situations. Conclusions The proposed Elastic SCAD SVM algorithm provides the advantages of the SCAD penalty and at the same time avoids sparsity limitations for non-sparse data. We were first to demonstrate that the integration of the interval search algorithm and penalized SVM classification techniques provides fast solutions on the optimization of tuning

  7. [The unitary interpretation of article 34 interjection first of the Argentinean Penal Code in forensic psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Godoy, Roberto L M

    2009-01-01

    The present essay is intended to oppose to the bipartite thesis of the capacity of penal culpability ("to be able to understand the criminality of the act or to be able to direct the actions"), a unitary thesis in which it seems biopsychologically impossible to direct the behaviour towards an object that hasn't been previously understood, nor a complete divorce of action from understanding (as it results from a maximum integration of the intellective, volitive and affective spheres of a dynamic psyche).

  8. [The concept of insanity in Danish penal and mental health codes].

    PubMed

    Brandt-Christensen, Mette; Bertelsen, Aksel

    2010-04-26

    The medical terms insanity and psychosis are used synonymously to describe a condition with substantial changes in the "total" personality and loss of realism. In the 10th revision of the diagnostic classification system ICD-10 (1994) the intention was to replace the term "psychosis" with "psychotic" to indicate the presence of hallucinations and delusions. However, in Danish legislation - most importantly in the penal code and the Mental Health Act - the term "insanity" is still in use. This difference has lead to diagnostic uncertainty, especially in clinical and forensic psychiatric practice.

  9. Variable selection in semiparametric cure models based on penalized likelihood, with application to breast cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Peng, Yingwei; Tu, Dongsheng; Liang, Hua

    2012-10-30

    Survival data with a sizable cure fraction are commonly encountered in cancer research. The semiparametric proportional hazards cure model has been recently used to analyze such data. As seen in the analysis of data from a breast cancer study, a variable selection approach is needed to identify important factors in predicting the cure status and risk of breast cancer recurrence. However, no specific variable selection method for the cure model is available. In this paper, we present a variable selection approach with penalized likelihood for the cure model. The estimation can be implemented easily by combining the computational methods for penalized logistic regression and the penalized Cox proportional hazards models with the expectation-maximization algorithm. We illustrate the proposed approach on data from a breast cancer study. We conducted Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. We used and compared different penalty functions in the simulation studies.

  10. 45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to... Provisions Addressing Individual Responsibility? § 261.15 Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to... based on an individual's refusal to engage in required work if the individual is a single...

  11. 45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to... Provisions Addressing Individual Responsibility? § 261.15 Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to... based on an individual's refusal to engage in required work if the individual is a single...

  12. Relationship between Training Programs being Offered in State and Federal Penal Institutions and the Unfilled Job Openings in the Major Occupations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, John Thomas

    Excluding military installations, training programs in state and federal penal institutions were surveyed, through a mailed checklist, to test the hypotheses that (1) training programs in penal institutions were not related to the unfilled job openings by major occupations in the United States, and (2) that training programs reported would have a…

  13. 45 CFR 261.15 - Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to work because he or she cannot find child care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to... Provisions Addressing Individual Responsibility? § 261.15 Can a family be penalized if a parent refuses to... based on an individual's refusal to engage in required work if the individual is a single custodial...

  14. Relationship between Training Programs being Offered in State and Federal Penal Institutions and the Unfilled Job Openings in the Major Occupations in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, John Thomas

    Excluding military installations, training programs in state and federal penal institutions were surveyed, through a mailed checklist, to test the hypotheses that (1) training programs in penal institutions were not related to the unfilled job openings by major occupations in the United States, and (2) that training programs reported would have a…

  15. School Crime Handbook. Summary of California Penal and Civil Laws Pertaining to Crimes Committed against Persons or Property on School Grounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento.

    This handbook was prepared to ensure that, as required by section 626.1 of the California Penal Code in 1984, "students, parents, and all school officials and employees have access to a concise, easily understandable summary of California penal and civil law pertaining to crimes committed against persons or property on school grounds."…

  16. Sample size calculation through the incorporation of heteroscedasticity and dependence for a penalized t-statistic in microarray experiments.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Akihiro; Hamada, Chikuma; Yoshimura, Isao

    2012-01-01

    When identifying the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in microarray data, we often observe heteroscedasticity between groups and dependence among genes. Incorporating these factors is necessary for sample size calculation in microarray experiments. A penalized t-statistic is widely used to improve the identifiability of DEGs. We develop a formula to calculate sample size with dependence adjustment for the penalized t-statistic. Sample size is determined on the basis of overall power under certain conditions to maintain a certain false discovery rate. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated by numerical studies using both simulated data and real data.

  17. Evaluating penalized logistic regression models to predict Heat-Related Electric grid stress days

    DOE PAGES

    Bramer, Lisa M.; Rounds, J.; Burleyson, C. D.; ...

    2017-09-22

    Understanding the conditions associated with stress on the electricity grid is important in the development of contingency plans for maintaining reliability during periods when the grid is stressed. In this paper, heat-related grid stress and the relationship with weather conditions were examined using data from the eastern United States. Penalized logistic regression models were developed and applied to predict stress on the electric grid using weather data. The inclusion of other weather variables, such as precipitation, in addition to temperature improved model performance. Several candidate models and combinations of predictive variables were examined. A penalized logistic regression model which wasmore » fit at the operation-zone level was found to provide predictive value and interpretability. Additionally, the importance of different weather variables observed at various time scales were examined. Maximum temperature and precipitation were identified as important across all zones while the importance of other weather variables was zone specific. In conclusion, the methods presented in this work are extensible to other regions and can be used to aid in planning and development of the electrical grid.« less

  18. Penalized Composite Quasi-Likelihood for Ultrahigh-Dimensional Variable Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bradic, Jelena; Fan, Jianqing; Wang, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    Summary In high-dimensional model selection problems, penalized least-square approaches have been extensively used. This paper addresses the question of both robustness and efficiency of penalized model selection methods, and proposes a data-driven weighted linear combination of convex loss functions, together with weighted L1-penalty. It is completely data-adaptive and does not require prior knowledge of the error distribution. The weighted L1-penalty is used both to ensure the convexity of the penalty term and to ameliorate the bias caused by the L1-penalty. In the setting with dimensionality much larger than the sample size, we establish a strong oracle property of the proposed method that possesses both the model selection consistency and estimation efficiency for the true non-zero coefficients. As specific examples, we introduce a robust method of composite L1-L2, and optimal composite quantile method and evaluate their performance in both simulated and real data examples. PMID:21589849

  19. Predicting pregnancy outcomes using longitudinal information: a penalized splines mixed-effects model approach.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Rolando; Fuentes, Claudio; Meza, Cristian; Lee, Dae-Jin; Arribas-Gil, Ana

    2017-02-19

    We propose a semiparametric nonlinear mixed-effects model (SNMM) using penalized splines to classify longitudinal data and improve the prediction of a binary outcome. The work is motivated by a study in which different hormone levels were measured during the early stages of pregnancy, and the challenge is using this information to predict normal versus abnormal pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this paper is to compare models and estimation strategies on the basis of alternative formulations of SNMMs depending on the characteristics of the data set under consideration. For our motivating example, we address the classification problem using a particular case of the SNMM in which the parameter space has a finite dimensional component (fixed effects and variance components) and an infinite dimensional component (unknown function) that need to be estimated. The nonparametric component of the model is estimated using penalized splines. For the parametric component, we compare the advantages of using random effects versus direct modeling of the correlation structure of the errors. Numerical studies show that our approach improves over other existing methods for the analysis of this type of data. Furthermore, the results obtained using our method support the idea that explicit modeling of the serial correlation of the error term improves the prediction accuracy with respect to a model with random effects, but independent errors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Penalized likelihood PET image reconstruction using patch-based edge-preserving regularization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guobao; Qi, Jinyi

    2012-12-01

    Iterative image reconstruction for positron emission tomography (PET) can improve image quality by using spatial regularization that penalizes image intensity difference between neighboring pixels. The most commonly used quadratic penalty often oversmoothes edges and fine features in reconstructed images. Nonquadratic penalties can preserve edges but often introduce piece-wise constant blocky artifacts and the results are also sensitive to the hyper-parameter that controls the shape of the penalty function. This paper presents a patch-based regularization for iterative image reconstruction that uses neighborhood patches instead of individual pixels in computing the nonquadratic penalty. The new regularization is more robust than the conventional pixel-based regularization in differentiating sharp edges from random fluctuations due to noise. An optimization transfer algorithm is developed for the penalized maximum likelihood estimation. Each iteration of the algorithm can be implemented in three simple steps: an EM-like image update, an image smoothing and a pixel-by-pixel image fusion. Computer simulations show that the proposed patch-based regularization can achieve higher contrast recovery for small objects without increasing background variation compared with the quadratic regularization. The reconstruction is also more robust to the hyper-parameter than conventional pixel-based nonquadratic regularizations. The proposed regularization method has been applied to real 3-D PET data.

  1. Across-Platform Imputation of DNA Methylation Levels Incorporating Nonlocal Information Using Penalized Functional Regression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guosheng; Huang, Kuan-Chieh; Xu, Zheng; Tzeng, Jung-Ying; Conneely, Karen N; Guan, Weihua; Kang, Jian; Li, Yun

    2016-05-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mark involved in both normal development and disease progression. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation. However, DNA methylation profiling often employs different designs and platforms with varying resolution, which hinders joint analysis of methylation data from multiple platforms. In this study, we propose a penalized functional regression model to impute missing methylation data. By incorporating functional predictors, our model utilizes information from nonlocal probes to improve imputation quality. Here, we compared the performance of our functional model to linear regression and the best single probe surrogate in real data and via simulations. Specifically, we applied different imputation approaches to an acute myeloid leukemia dataset consisting of 194 samples and our method showed higher imputation accuracy, manifested, for example, by a 94% relative increase in information content and up to 86% more CpG sites passing post-imputation filtering. Our simulated association study further demonstrated that our method substantially improves the statistical power to identify trait-associated methylation loci. These findings indicate that the penalized functional regression model is a convenient and valuable imputation tool for methylation data, and it can boost statistical power in downstream epigenome-wide association study (EWAS).

  2. Application of Penalized Regression Techniques in Modelling Insulin Sensitivity by Correlated Metabolic Parameters.

    PubMed

    Göbl, Christian S; Bozkurt, Latife; Tura, Andrea; Pacini, Giovanni; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Mittlböck, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce penalized estimation techniques in clinical investigations of diabetes, as well as to assess their possible advantages and limitations. Data from a previous study was used to carry out the simulations to assess: a) which procedure results in the lowest prediction error of the final model in the setting of a large number of predictor variables with high multicollinearity (of importance if insulin sensitivity should be predicted) and b) which procedure achieves the most accurate estimate of regression coefficients in the setting of fewer predictors with small unidirectional effects and moderate correlation between explanatory variables (of importance if the specific relation between an independent variable and insulin sensitivity should be examined). Moreover a special focus is on the correct direction of estimated parameter effects, a non-negligible source of error and misinterpretation of study results. The simulations were performed for varying sample size to evaluate the performance of LASSO, Ridge as well as different algorithms for Elastic Net. These methods were also compared with automatic variable selection procedures (i.e. optimizing AIC or BIC).We were not able to identify one method achieving superior performance in all situations. However, the improved accuracy of estimated effects underlines the importance of using penalized regression techniques in our example (e.g. if a researcher aims to compare relations of several correlated parameters with insulin sensitivity). However, the decision which procedure should be used depends on the specific context of a study (accuracy versus complexity) and moreover should involve clinical prior knowledge.

  3. [Forensic medicine approach to bone fractures in the framework of the new Turkish penal code].

    PubMed

    Karbeyaz, Kenan; Gündüz, Tarık; Balcı, Yasemin

    2010-09-01

    "Fractures of the body" is a new definition in which the punishment for "aggravated injury in the end" is delineated in the new Turkish Penal Code (Article 87, Section 3). In the current study, we intended to evaluate the fact-evaluation reports of injuries with broken bones in the framework of the new Turkish Penal Code, which went into effect on 1 June 2005. Of the 842 forensic reports of our Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Department of Forensic Medicine, 306 cases with bone fractures were determined between 1 June 2005 and 31 December 2008. Traffic accidents were determined as the most common cause of all broken bone cases (n=183, 59.8%). One hundred and eight of the cases (35.3%) were determined to have fracture in the head area, with life endangered in 61.1% (n=187) of all cases. All traumatic phenomena are considered judicial cases. Forensic experts need to report on institutions to ensure they are complying with the regulations, and their work in this area is widely considered to be useful. However, in current circumstances, the doctor responsible for all forensic reports required to edit the case should be applied to broken bones to not fall into the legal procedures and practices need-to-know basis.

  4. Sex offender punishment and the persistence of penal harm in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Leon, Chrysanthi S

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. has dramatically revised its approach to punishment in the last several decades. In particular, people convicted of sex crimes have experienced a remarkable expansion in social control through a wide-range of post-conviction interventions. While this expansion may be largely explained by general punishment trends, there appear to be unique factors that have prevented other penal reforms from similarly modulating sex offender punishment. In part, this continuation of a "penal harm" approach to sex offenders relates to the past under-valuing of sexual victimization. In the "bad old days," the law and its agents sent mixed messages about sexual violence and sexual offending. Some sexual offending was mere nuisance, some was treatable, and a fraction "deserved" punishment equivalent to other serious criminal offending. In contrast, today's sex offender punishment schemes rarely distinguish formally among gradations of harm or dangerousness. After examining incarceration trends, this article explores the historical context of the current broad brush approach and reviews the unintended consequences. Altogether, this article reinforces the need to return to differentiation among sex offenders, but differentiation based on science and on the experience-based, guided discretion of experts in law enforcement, corrections, and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Maximum penalized likelihood estimation in semiparametric mark-recapture-recovery models.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Théo; Langrock, Roland; Kneib, Thomas; King, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the semiparametric modeling of mark-recapture-recovery data where the temporal and/or individual variation of model parameters is explained via covariates. Typically, in such analyses a fixed (or mixed) effects parametric model is specified for the relationship between the model parameters and the covariates of interest. In this paper, we discuss the modeling of the relationship via the use of penalized splines, to allow for considerably more flexible functional forms. Corresponding models can be fitted via numerical maximum penalized likelihood estimation, employing cross-validation to choose the smoothing parameters in a data-driven way. Our contribution builds on and extends the existing literature, providing a unified inferential framework for semiparametric mark-recapture-recovery models for open populations, where the interest typically lies in the estimation of survival probabilities. The approach is applied to two real datasets, corresponding to gray herons (Ardea cinerea), where we model the survival probability as a function of environmental condition (a time-varying global covariate), and Soay sheep (Ovis aries), where we model the survival probability as a function of individual weight (a time-varying individual-specific covariate). The proposed semiparametric approach is compared to a standard parametric (logistic) regression and new interesting underlying dynamics are observed in both cases.

  6. A comparative study of the effects of using normalized patches for penalized likelihood tomographic reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xue; Lee, Soo-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Patch-based regularization methods, which have proven useful not only for image denoising, but also for tomographic reconstruction, penalize image roughness based on the intensity differences between two nearby patches. However, when two patches are not considered to be similar in the general sense of similarity but still have similar features in a scaled domain after normalizing the two patches, the difference between the two patches in the scaled domain is smaller than the intensity difference measured in the standard method. Standard patch-based methods tend to ignore such similarities due to the large intensity differences between the two patches. In this work, for patch-based penalized likelihood tomographic reconstruction, we propose a new approach to the similarity measure using the normalized patch differences as well as the intensity-based patch differences. A normalized patch difference is obtained by normalizing and scaling the intensity-based patch difference. To selectively take advantage of the standard patch (SP) and normalized patch (NP), we use switching schemes that can select either SP or NP based on the gradient of a reconstructed image. In this case the SP is selected for restoring large-scaled piecewise-smooth regions, while the NP is selected for preserving the contrast of fine details. The numerical experiments using software phantom demonstrate that our proposed methods not only improve overall reconstruction accuracy in terms of the percentage error, but also reveal better recovery of fine details in terms of the contrast recovery coefficient.

  7. Characteristic-based Volume Penalization Method for Arbitrary Mach Flows Around Moving and Deforming Complex Geometry Obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimov, Nurlybek; Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2015-11-01

    A novel volume penalization method to enforce immersed boundary conditions in Navier-Stokes and Euler equations is presented. Previously, Brinkman penalization has been used to introduce solid obstacles modeled as porous media, although it is limited to Dirichlet-type conditions on velocity and temperature. This method builds upon Brinkman penalization by allowing Neumann conditions to be applied in a general fashion. Correct boundary conditions are achieved through characteristic propagation into the thin layer inside of the obstacle. Inward pointing characteristics ensure nonphysical solution inside the obstacle does not propagate outside to the fluid. Dirichlet boundary conditions are enforced similarly to Brinkman method. Penalization parameters act on a much faster timescale than the characteristic timescale of the flow. Main advantage of the method is systematic means of the error control. This talk is focused on the progress that was made towards the extension of the method to the 3D flows around irregular shapes. This work was supported by ONR MURI on Soil Blast Modeling.

  8. Setting the Standard. International Forum on Education in Penal Systems Conference Proceedings (Adelaide, Australia, April 5-7, 1998).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmens, Bob, Ed.; Cook, Sandy, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers presented at an international forum on education in penal systems. The following papers are included: "Burning" (Craig W.J. Minogue); "The Acquisition of Cognitive Skills as a Means of Recidivism Reduction: A Former Prisoner's Perspective" (Trevor Darryl Doherty); "CEA (Correctional…

  9. The Change Grid and the Active Client: Challenging the Assumptions of Change Agentry in the Penal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klofas, John; Duffee, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Reexamines the assumptions of the change grid regarding the channeling of masses of clients into change strategies programs. Penal organizations specifically select and place clients so that programs remain stable, rather than sequence programs to meet the needs of clients. (Author)

  10. The Change Grid and the Active Client: Challenging the Assumptions of Change Agentry in the Penal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klofas, John; Duffee, David E.

    1981-01-01

    Reexamines the assumptions of the change grid regarding the channeling of masses of clients into change strategies programs. Penal organizations specifically select and place clients so that programs remain stable, rather than sequence programs to meet the needs of clients. (Author)

  11. 40 CFR 33.410 - Can a recipient be penalized for failing to meet its fair share objectives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can a recipient be penalized for... UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.410 Can a recipient be... faith efforts requirements described in subpart C of this part....

  12. 40 CFR 33.410 - Can a recipient be penalized for failing to meet its fair share objectives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can a recipient be penalized for... UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.410 Can a recipient be... faith efforts requirements described in subpart C of this part....

  13. 40 CFR 33.410 - Can a recipient be penalized for failing to meet its fair share objectives?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Can a recipient be penalized for... UNITED STATES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS Fair Share Objectives § 33.410 Can a recipient be... faith efforts requirements described in subpart C of this part....

  14. $L^1$ penalization of volumetric dose objectives in optimal control of PDEs

    DOE PAGES

    Barnard, Richard C.; Clason, Christian

    2017-02-11

    This work is concerned with a class of PDE-constrained optimization problems that are motivated by an application in radiotherapy treatment planning. Here the primary design objective is to minimize the volume where a functional of the state violates a prescribed level, but prescribing these levels in the form of pointwise state constraints leads to infeasible problems. We therefore propose an alternative approach based on L1 penalization of the violation that is also applicable when state constraints are infeasible. We establish well-posedness of the corresponding optimal control problem, derive first-order optimality conditions, discuss convergence of minimizers as the penalty parameter tendsmore » to infinity, and present a semismooth Newton method for their efficient numerical solution. Finally, the performance of this method for a model problem is illustrated and contrasted with an alternative approach based on (regularized) state constraints.« less

  15. L1 penalization of volumetric dose objectives in optimal control of PDEs

    DOE PAGES

    Barnard, Richard C.; Clason, Christian

    2017-02-11

    This work is concerned with a class of PDE-constrained optimization problems that are motivated by an application in radiotherapy treatment planning. Here the primary design objective is to minimize the volume where a functional of the state violates a prescribed level, but prescribing these levels in the form of pointwise state constraints leads to infeasible problems. We therefore propose an alternative approach based on L1 penalization of the violation that is also applicable when state constraints are infeasible. We establish well-posedness of the corresponding optimal control problem, derive first-order optimality conditions, discuss convergence of minimizers as the penalty parameter tendsmore » to infinity, and present a semismooth Newton method for their efficient numerical solution. Finally, the performance of this method for a model problem is illustrated and contrasted with an alternative approach based on (regularized) state constraints.« less

  16. Penalized splines for smooth representation of high-dimensional Monte Carlo datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehorn, Nathan; van Santen, Jakob; Lafebre, Sven

    2013-09-01

    Detector response to a high-energy physics process is often estimated by Monte Carlo simulation. For purposes of data analysis, the results of this simulation are typically stored in large multi-dimensional histograms, which can quickly become both too large to easily store and manipulate and numerically problematic due to unfilled bins or interpolation artifacts. We describe here an application of the penalized spline technique (Marx and Eilers, 1996) [1] to efficiently compute B-spline representations of such tables and discuss aspects of the resulting B-spline fits that simplify many common tasks in handling tabulated Monte Carlo data in high-energy physics analysis, in particular their use in maximum-likelihood fitting.

  17. ℓ(1)-penalized linear mixed-effects models for high dimensional data with application to BCI.

    PubMed

    Fazli, Siamac; Danóczy, Márton; Schelldorfer, Jürg; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2011-06-15

    Recently, a novel statistical model has been proposed to estimate population effects and individual variability between subgroups simultaneously, by extending Lasso methods. We will for the first time apply this so-called ℓ(1)-penalized linear regression mixed-effects model for a large scale real world problem: we study a large set of brain computer interface data and through the novel estimator are able to obtain a subject-independent classifier that compares favorably with prior zero-training algorithms. This unifying model inherently compensates shifts in the input space attributed to the individuality of a subject. In particular we are now for the first time able to differentiate within-subject and between-subject variability. Thus a deeper understanding both of the underlying statistical and physiological structures of the data is gained.

  18. Phase retrieval from noisy data based on minimization of penalized I-divergence.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kerkil; Lanterman, Aaron D

    2007-01-01

    We study noise artifacts in phase retrieval based on minimization of an information-theoretic discrepancy measure called Csiszár's I-divergence. We specifically focus on adding Poisson noise to either the autocorrelation of the true image (as in astronomical imaging through turbulence) or the squared Fourier magnitudes of the true image (as in x-ray crystallography). Noise effects are quantified via various error metrics as signal-to-noise ratios vary. We propose penalized minimum I-divergence methods to suppress the observed noise artifacts. To avoid computational difficulties arising from the introduction of a penalty, we adapt Green's one-step-late approach for use in our minimum I-divergence framework.

  19. Adaptive rival penalized competitive learning and combined linear predictor model for financial forecast and investment.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y M; Leung, W M; Xu, L

    1997-01-01

    We propose a prediction model called Rival Penalized Competitive Learning (RPCL) and Combined Linear Predictor method (CLP), which involves a set of local linear predictors such that a prediction is made by the combination of some activated predictors through a gating network (Xu et al., 1994). Furthermore, we present its improved variant named Adaptive RPCL-CLP that includes an adaptive learning mechanism as well as a data pre-and-post processing scheme. We compare them with some existing models by demonstrating their performance on two real-world financial time series--a China stock price and an exchange-rate series of US Dollar (USD) versus Deutschmark (DEM). Experiments have shown that Adaptive RPCL-CLP not only outperforms the other approaches with the smallest prediction error and training costs, but also brings in considerable high profits in the trading simulation of foreign exchange market.

  20. The effect of health and penal harm on aging female prisoners' views of dying in prison.

    PubMed

    Deaton, Dayron; Aday, Ronald H; Wahidin, Azrini

    With tougher sentencing laws, an increasing number of individuals are finding themselves spending their final years of life in prison. Drawing on a sample of 327 women over the age of 50 incarcerated in five Southern states, the present study investigates the relationship between numerous health variables and the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Qualitatively, the article also provides personal accounts from inmates that serve to reinforce death fears when engaging the prison health care system. Participants reported a mean of 6.40 on the TDAS indicating a substantial degree of death anxiety when compared to community samples. Both mental and physical health measures were important indicators of death anxiety. Qualitative information discovered that respondents' concerns about dying in prison were often influenced by the perceived lack of adequate health care and the indifference of prison staff and other instances of penal harm.

  1. [Dilemmas of expert opinion and coercive treatment according to section sign 64 German penal code].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Klaus; Mielke, Reinhard; Dressing, Harald

    2006-11-01

    Compulsory admissions according to section sign 64 German penal code are rising. There is also a dramatic increase in dropout-rates with regard to coercive therapeutic interventions in forensic facilities specialized in the treatment of offenders addicted to drugs or alcohol. By means of two case histories dilemmas of expert opinion and coercive treatment of offenders addicted to drugs or alcohol are illustrated. Consideration of current results in addiction research should be an obligatory element of expert opinion and coercive treatment programmes in forensic facilities to provide for sufficient quality standards. Even when strict quality criteria are considered failures in placement of offenders with drug or alcohol addiction can not be ruled out. Besides scientific criteria a variety of other factors may influence the decision to coercive drug addiction therapy in a forensic facility e. g. jurisdiction or even tactical statements of the offender.

  2. On Sparse representation for Optimal Individualized Treatment Selection with Penalized Outcome Weighted Learning

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael; Zeng, Donglin; Zhao, Yingqi; Laber, Eric; Yuan, Ming

    2015-01-01

    As a new strategy for treatment which takes individual heterogeneity into consideration, personalized medicine is of growing interest. Discovering individualized treatment rules (ITRs) for patients who have heterogeneous responses to treatment is one of the important areas in developing personalized medicine. As more and more information per individual is being collected in clinical studies and not all of the information is relevant for treatment discovery, variable selection becomes increasingly important in discovering individualized treatment rules. In this article, we develop a variable selection method based on penalized outcome weighted learning through which an optimal treatment rule is considered as a classification problem where each subject is weighted proportional to his or her clinical outcome. We show that the resulting estimator of the treatment rule is consistent and establish variable selection consistency and the asymptotic distribution of the estimators. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated via simulation studies and an analysis of chronic depression data. PMID:25883393

  3. Nonparametric Maximum Penalized Likelihood Estimation of a Density from Arbitrarily Right-Censored Observations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    and second Fr~ chet derivatives of 3(v) 1 n L(v) are given by (Tapia, 1971) n d I n(xi) n (1- d )I X I iv MxZ) ’-t)dt -2 < v,rn and n d 2. (X-n j~i (v)i...8217 first APLE; SurvivaZ e.t..a- tion; Random censor-hip; Nonparaet"c density estimation; Reliability. AB STRACT D Based on arbitrarily right-censored...functional 0: H(n) -I R. Given the arbitrarily right-censored sample (xi,dt), i11,2,... ,n, the #-penalized likelihood of v c H(n) is defined by %I n d

  4. Multi-energy penalized maximum-likelihood reconstruction for x-ray security imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politte, David G.; Lu, Jingwei; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.; Johnson, Eric; Bosch, Carl

    2017-05-01

    X-ray imaging for security screening is a challenging application that requires simultaneous satisfaction of seemingly incompatible constraints, including low cost, high throughput, and reliable detection of threats. We take a principled computational imaging approach to system design. Mathematical models of the underlying physics and a Huber-class penalty function yield a penalized maximum-likelihood problem. We extend our iterative algorithm for computing linear attenuation coefficients to use multiple energy bins in the SureScan x1000, which has an unconventional, fixed-source geometry. The goal is to maintain the spatial resolution of the single-energy reconstruction while providing information for material characterization used for detection of threats.

  5. A penalized likelihood approach to estimate within-household contact networks from egocentric data

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Gail E.; Hens, Niel

    2013-01-01

    Summary Acute infectious diseases are transmitted over networks of social contacts. Epidemic models are used to predict the spread of emergent pathogens and compare intervention strategies. Many of these models assume equal probability of contact within mixing groups (homes, schools, etc.), but little work has inferred the actual contact network, which may influence epidemic estimates. We develop a penalized likelihood method to infer contact networks within households, a key area for disease transmission. Using egocentric surveys of contact behavior in Belgium, we estimate within-household contact networks for six different age compositions. Our estimates show dependency in contact behavior and vary substantively by age composition, with fewer contacts occurring in older households. Our results are relevant for epidemic models used to make policy recommendations. PMID:23935218

  6. A penalized linear and nonlinear combined conjugate gradient method for the reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shang; Bai, Jing; Song, Xiaolei; Wang, Hongkai; Lau, Jaclyn

    2007-01-01

    Conjugate gradient method is verified to be efficient for nonlinear optimization problems of large-dimension data. In this paper, a penalized linear and nonlinear combined conjugate gradient method for the reconstruction of fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is presented. The algorithm combines the linear conjugate gradient method and the nonlinear conjugate gradient method together based on a restart strategy, in order to take advantage of the two kinds of conjugate gradient methods and compensate for the disadvantages. A quadratic penalty method is adopted to gain a nonnegative constraint and reduce the illposedness of the problem. Simulation studies show that the presented algorithm is accurate, stable, and fast. It has a better performance than the conventional conjugate gradient-based reconstruction algorithms. It offers an effective approach to reconstruct fluorochrome information for FMT.

  7. Next Generation Statistical Genetics: Modeling, Penalization, and Optimization in High-Dimensional Data

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Kenneth; Papp, Jeanette C.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Sobel, Eric M.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical genetics is undergoing the same transition to big data that all branches of applied statistics are experiencing. With the advent of inexpensive DNA sequencing, the transition is only accelerating. This brief review highlights some modern techniques with recent successes in statistical genetics. These include: (a) lasso penalized regression and association mapping, (b) ethnic admixture estimation, (c) matrix completion for genotype and sequence data, (d) the fused lasso and copy number variation, (e) haplotyping, (f) estimation of relatedness, (g) variance components models, and (h) rare variant testing. For more than a century, genetics has been both a driver and beneficiary of statistical theory and practice. This symbiotic relationship will persist for the foreseeable future. PMID:24955378

  8. Application of Penalized Regression Techniques in Modelling Insulin Sensitivity by Correlated Metabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Göbl, Christian S.; Bozkurt, Latife; Tura, Andrea; Pacini, Giovanni; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Mittlböck, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to introduce penalized estimation techniques in clinical investigations of diabetes, as well as to assess their possible advantages and limitations. Data from a previous study was used to carry out the simulations to assess: a) which procedure results in the lowest prediction error of the final model in the setting of a large number of predictor variables with high multicollinearity (of importance if insulin sensitivity should be predicted) and b) which procedure achieves the most accurate estimate of regression coefficients in the setting of fewer predictors with small unidirectional effects and moderate correlation between explanatory variables (of importance if the specific relation between an independent variable and insulin sensitivity should be examined). Moreover a special focus is on the correct direction of estimated parameter effects, a non-negligible source of error and misinterpretation of study results. The simulations were performed for varying sample size to evaluate the performance of LASSO, Ridge as well as different algorithms for Elastic Net. These methods were also compared with automatic variable selection procedures (i.e. optimizing AIC or BIC).We were not able to identify one method achieving superior performance in all situations. However, the improved accuracy of estimated effects underlines the importance of using penalized regression techniques in our example (e.g. if a researcher aims to compare relations of several correlated parameters with insulin sensitivity). However, the decision which procedure should be used depends on the specific context of a study (accuracy versus complexity) and moreover should involve clinical prior knowledge. PMID:26544569

  9. Identification of Sparse Neural Functional Connectivity using Penalized Likelihood Estimation and Basis Functions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Dong; Wang, Haonan; Tu, Catherine Y.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.

    2013-01-01

    One key problem in computational neuroscience and neural engineering is the identification and modeling of functional connectivity in the brain using spike train data. To reduce model complexity, alleviate overfitting, and thus facilitate model interpretation, sparse representation and estimation of functional connectivity is needed. Sparsities include global sparsity, which captures the sparse connectivities between neurons, and local sparsity, which reflects the active temporal ranges of the input-output dynamical interactions. In this paper, we formulate a generalized functional additive model (GFAM) and develop the associated penalized likelihood estimation methods for such a modeling problem. A GFAM consists of a set of basis functions convolving the input signals, and a link function generating the firing probability of the output neuron from the summation of the convolutions weighted by the sought model coefficients. Model sparsities are achieved by using various penalized likelihood estimations and basis functions. Specifically, we introduce two variations of the GFAM using a global basis (e.g., Laguerre basis) and group LASSO estimation, and a local basis (e.g., B-spline basis) and group bridge estimation, respectively. We further develop an optimization method based on quadratic approximation of the likelihood function for the estimation of these models. Simulation and experimental results show that both group-LASSO-Laguerre and group-bridge-B-spline can capture faithfully the global sparsities, while the latter can replicate accurately and simultaneously both global and local sparsities. The sparse models outperform the full models estimated with the standard maximum likelihood method in out-of-sample predictions. PMID:23674048

  10. A comparison of "life threatening injury" concept in the Turkish Penal Code and trauma scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Fedakar, Recep; Aydiner, Ahmet Hüsamettin; Ercan, Ilker

    2007-07-01

    To compare accuracy and to check the suitability of the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), the Revised Trauma Score (RTS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS), the New Injury Severity Score (NISS) and the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), the scoring systems widely used in international trauma studies, in the evaluation of the "life threatening injury" concept established by the Turkish Penal Code. The age, sex, type of trauma, type and localizations of wounds, GCS, RTS, ISS, NISS and TRISS values, the decision of life threatening injury of 627 trauma patients admitted to Emergency Department of the Uludag University Medical School Hospital in year 2003 were examined. A life-threatening injury was present in 35.2% of the cases examined. GCS, RTS, ISS, NISS and TRISS confirmed the decision of life threatening injury with percentages of 74.8%, 76.9%, 88.7%, 86.6% and 68.6%, respectively. The best cut-off point 14 was determined in the ISS system with 79.6% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity. All of the cases with sole linear skull fracture officially decided as life threatening injury had an ISS of 5, a NISS of 6 and the best scores of GCS (15), RTS (7.8408) and TRISS (100%). ISS and NISS appeared to be the best trauma scoring systems that can be used for the decision of life threatening injury, compared with GCS, RTS and TRISS. Thus, ISS and NISS can be acceptable for using the evaluation of the life threatening injury concept established by the Turkish Penal Code.

  11. dPIRPLE: A Joint Estimation Framework for Deformable Registration and Penalized-Likelihood CT Image Reconstruction using Prior Images

    PubMed Central

    Dang, H.; Wang, A. S.; Sussman, Marc S.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Stayman, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Sequential imaging studies are conducted in many clinical scenarios. Prior images from previous studies contain a great deal of patient-specific anatomical information and can be used in conjunction with subsequent imaging acquisitions to maintain image quality while enabling radiation dose reduction (e.g., through sparse angular sampling, reduction in fluence, etc.). However, patient motion between images in such sequences results in misregistration between the prior image and current anatomy. Existing prior-image-based approaches often include only a simple rigid registration step that can be insufficient for capturing complex anatomical motion, introducing detrimental effects in subsequent image reconstruction. In this work, we propose a joint framework that estimates the 3D deformation between an unregistered prior image and the current anatomy (based on a subsequent data acquisition) and reconstructs the current anatomical image using a model-based reconstruction approach that includes regularization based on the deformed prior image. This framework is referred to as deformable prior image registration, penalized-likelihood estimation (dPIRPLE). Central to this framework is the inclusion of a 3D B-spline-based free-form-deformation model into the joint registration-reconstruction objective function. The proposed framework is solved using a maximization strategy whereby alternating updates to the registration parameters and image estimates are applied allowing for improvements in both the registration and reconstruction throughout the optimization process. Cadaver experiments were conducted on a cone-beam CT testbench emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. Superior reconstruction accuracy and image quality were demonstrated using the dPIRPLE algorithm as compared to more traditional reconstruction methods including filtered backprojection, penalized-likelihood estimation (PLE), prior image penalized-likelihood estimation (PIPLE) without registration

  12. Religious counseling in the penal context: strategies of trust and establishment of trusting relationships in a context of distrust.

    PubMed

    Brandner, Tobias

    2013-06-01

    The paper describes how distrust shapes the network of relationships between the different agents in the penal context, among inmates, between inmates and their family, between inmates and staff, between counselors and staff, and between inmates and counselors, and discusses how counseling strategies need to be adjusted to counter the effects of the institutional and biographical context of distrust. The paper is based on many years of participation and observation in the context of Hong Kong.

  13. dPIRPLE: a joint estimation framework for deformable registration and penalized-likelihood CT image reconstruction using prior images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, H.; Wang, A. S.; Sussman, Marc S.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Stayman, J. W.

    2014-09-01

    Sequential imaging studies are conducted in many clinical scenarios. Prior images from previous studies contain a great deal of patient-specific anatomical information and can be used in conjunction with subsequent imaging acquisitions to maintain image quality while enabling radiation dose reduction (e.g., through sparse angular sampling, reduction in fluence, etc). However, patient motion between images in such sequences results in misregistration between the prior image and current anatomy. Existing prior-image-based approaches often include only a simple rigid registration step that can be insufficient for capturing complex anatomical motion, introducing detrimental effects in subsequent image reconstruction. In this work, we propose a joint framework that estimates the 3D deformation between an unregistered prior image and the current anatomy (based on a subsequent data acquisition) and reconstructs the current anatomical image using a model-based reconstruction approach that includes regularization based on the deformed prior image. This framework is referred to as deformable prior image registration, penalized-likelihood estimation (dPIRPLE). Central to this framework is the inclusion of a 3D B-spline-based free-form-deformation model into the joint registration-reconstruction objective function. The proposed framework is solved using a maximization strategy whereby alternating updates to the registration parameters and image estimates are applied allowing for improvements in both the registration and reconstruction throughout the optimization process. Cadaver experiments were conducted on a cone-beam CT testbench emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. Superior reconstruction accuracy and image quality were demonstrated using the dPIRPLE algorithm as compared to more traditional reconstruction methods including filtered backprojection, penalized-likelihood estimation (PLE), prior image penalized-likelihood estimation (PIPLE) without registration, and

  14. Task-based detectability in CT image reconstruction by filtered backprojection and penalized likelihood estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Gang, Grace J.; Stayman, J. Webster; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Nonstationarity is an important aspect of imaging performance in CT and cone-beam CT (CBCT), especially for systems employing iterative reconstruction. This work presents a theoretical framework for both filtered-backprojection (FBP) and penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction that includes explicit descriptions of nonstationary noise, spatial resolution, and task-based detectability index. Potential utility of the model was demonstrated in the optimal selection of regularization parameters in PL reconstruction. Methods: Analytical models for local modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise-power spectrum (NPS) were investigated for both FBP and PL reconstruction, including explicit dependence on the object and spatial location. For FBP, a cascaded systems analysis framework was adapted to account for nonstationarity by separately calculating fluence and system gains for each ray passing through any given voxel. For PL, the point-spread function and covariance were derived using the implicit function theorem and first-order Taylor expansion according toFessler [“Mean and variance of implicitly defined biased estimators (such as penalized maximum likelihood): Applications to tomography,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 5(3), 493–506 (1996)]. Detectability index was calculated for a variety of simple tasks. The model for PL was used in selecting the regularization strength parameter to optimize task-based performance, with both a constant and a spatially varying regularization map. Results: Theoretical models of FBP and PL were validated in 2D simulated fan-beam data and found to yield accurate predictions of local MTF and NPS as a function of the object and the spatial location. The NPS for both FBP and PL exhibit similar anisotropic nature depending on the pathlength (and therefore, the object and spatial location within the object) traversed by each ray, with the PL NPS experiencing greater smoothing along directions with higher noise. The MTF of FBP

  15. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-01

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects.

  16. Penalized discriminant analysis for the detection of wild-grown and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Tan, Tuck Lee

    2016-04-15

    An effective and simple analytical method using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to distinguish wild-grown high-quality Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum) from cultivated one is of essential importance for its quality assurance and medicinal value estimation. Commonly used chemical and analytical methods using full spectrum are not so effective for the detection and interpretation due to the complex system of the herbal medicine. In this study, two penalized discriminant analysis models, penalized linear discriminant analysis (PLDA) and elastic net (Elnet),using FTIR spectroscopy have been explored for the purpose of discrimination and interpretation. The classification performances of the two penalized models have been compared with two widely used multivariate methods, principal component discriminant analysis (PCDA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA). The Elnet model involving a combination of L1 and L2 norm penalties enabled an automatic selection of a small number of informative spectral absorption bands and gave an excellent classification accuracy of 99% for discrimination between spectra of wild-grown and cultivated G. lucidum. Its classification performance was superior to that of the PLDA model in a pure L1 setting and outperformed the PCDA and PLSDA models using full wavelength. The well-performed selection of informative spectral features leads to substantial reduction in model complexity and improvement of classification accuracy, and it is particularly helpful for the quantitative interpretations of the major chemical constituents of G. lucidum regarding its anti-cancer effects.

  17. Shape Optimization for Drag Reduction in Linked Bodies using Evolution Strategies and the Hybrid Wavelet Collocation - Brinkman Penalization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, Oleg V.; Gazzola, Mattia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2010-11-01

    In this talk we discuss preliminary results for the use of hybrid wavelet collocation - Brinkman penalization approach for shape optimization for drag reduction in flows past linked bodies. This optimization relies on Adaptive Wavelet Collocation Method along with the Brinkman penalization technique and the Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). Adaptive wavelet collocation method tackles the problem of efficiently resolving a fluid flow on a dynamically adaptive computational grid, while a level set approach is used to describe the body shape and the Brinkman volume penalization allows for an easy variation of flow geometry without requiring body-fitted meshes. We perform 2D simulations of linked bodies in order to investigate whether flat geometries are optimal for drag reduction. In order to accelerate the costly cost function evaluations we exploit the inherent parallelism of ES and we extend the CMA-ES implementation to a multi-host framework. This framework allows for an easy distribution of the cost function evaluations across several parallel architectures and it is not limited to only one computing facility. The resulting optimal shapes are geometrically consistent with the shapes that have been obtained in the pioneering wind tunnel experiments for drag reduction using Evolution Strategies by Ingo Rechenberg.

  18. A comparative study of penalization and phase field methods for the solution of the diffusion equation in complex geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauriello, Gerardo; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2015-02-01

    We present a comparative study of penalization and phase field methods for the solution of the diffusion equation in complex geometries embedded using simple Cartesian meshes. The two methods have been widely employed to solve partial differential equations in complex and moving geometries for applications ranging from solid and fluid mechanics to biology and geophysics. Their popularity is largely due to their discretization on Cartesian meshes thus avoiding the need to create body-fitted grids. At the same time, there are questions regarding their accuracy and it appears that the use of each one is confined by disciplinary boundaries. Here, we compare penalization and phase field methods to handle problems with Neumann and Robin boundary conditions. We discuss extensions for Dirichlet boundary conditions and in turn compare with methods that have been explicitly designed to handle Dirichlet boundary conditions. The accuracy of all methods is analyzed using one and two dimensional benchmark problems such as the flow induced by an oscillating wall and by a cylinder performing rotary oscillations. This comparative study provides information to decide which methods to consider for a given application and their incorporation in broader computational frameworks. We demonstrate that phase field methods are more accurate than penalization methods on problems with Neumann boundary conditions and we present an error analysis explaining this result.

  19. The "other" side of labor reform: accounts of incarceration and resistance in the Straits Settlements penal system, 1825-1873.

    PubMed

    Pieris, Anoma

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the transportation of prisoners to the Straits Settlements and the reformative capacity of the penal labor regime assumed a uniform subject, an impoverished criminal, who could be disciplined and accordingly civilized through labor. Stamford Raffles, as lieutenant governor of Benkulen, believed that upon realizing the advantages of the new colony, criminals would willingly become settlers. These two colonial prerogatives of labor and population categorized transportees into laboring classes where their exploitation supposedly brought mutual benefit. The colonized was collectively homogenized as a class of laborers and evidence to the contrary, of politically challenging and resistant individuals was suppressed. This paper focuses on two prisoners who were incriminated during the anti-colonial rebellions of the mid-nineteenth century and were transported to the Straits Settlements. Nihal Singh, a political prisoner from Lahore, was incarcerated in isolation to prevent his martyrdom and denied the supposed benefits of labor reform. Conversely, Tikiri Banda Dunuwille, a lawyer from Ceylon was sent to labor in Melaka as a form of humiliation. Tikiri’s many schemes to evade labor damned him in the eyes of the authorities. The personal histories of these two individuals expose how colonial penal policy recognized and manipulated individual differences during a time of rising anti-colonial sentiment. The experiences of these prisoners, the response of their communities and the voices of their descendents offer us a very different entry point into colonial penal history.

  20. Regularization parameter selection for penalized-likelihood list-mode image reconstruction in PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Niu, Xiaofeng; Asma, Evren; Wang, Wenli; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-06-01

    Penalized likelihood (PL) reconstruction has demonstrated potential to improve image quality of positron emission tomography (PET) over unregularized ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) algorithm. However, selecting proper regularization parameters in PL reconstruction has been challenging due to the lack of ground truth and variation of penalty functions. Here we present a method to choose regularization parameters using a cross-validation log-likelihood (CVLL) function. This new method does not require any knowledge of the true image and is directly applicable to list-mode PET data. We performed statistical analysis of the mean and variance of the CVLL. The results show that the CVLL provides an unbiased estimate of the log-likelihood function calculated using the noise free data. The predicted variance can be used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between CVLL values. The proposed method was validated using simulation studies and also applied to real patient data. The reconstructed images using optimum parameters selected by the proposed method show good image quality visually.

  1. Efficient Drug-Pathway Association Analysis via Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong; Yang, Can; Hather, Greg; Liu, Ray; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional drug discovery practice usually follows the "one drug - one target" approach, seeking to identify drug molecules that act on individual targets, which ignores the systemic nature of human diseases. Pathway-based drug discovery recently emerged as an appealing approach to overcome this limitation. An important first step of such pathway-based drug discovery is to identify associations between drug molecules and biological pathways. This task has been made feasible by the accumulating data from high-throughput transcription and drug sensitivity profiling. In this paper, we developed "iPaD", an integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition method to identify drug-pathway associations through jointly modeling of such high-throughput transcription and drug sensitivity data. A scalable bi-convex optimization algorithm was implemented and gave iPaD tremendous advantage in computational efficiency over current state-of-the-art method, which allows it to handle the ever-growing large-scale data sets that current method cannot afford to. On two widely used real data sets, iPaD also significantly outperformed the current method in terms of the number of validated drug-pathway associations that were identified. The Matlab code of our algorithm publicly available at http://licong-jason.github.io/iPaD/.

  2. Act Amending [and] Promulgating the Penal Code (No. 8), 10 August 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of Thailand's 1987 Act Amending [and] Promulgating the Penal Code to deal with crimes against women and children. The Act sets specific punishments for raping a girl under age 15 and more severe penalties for raping a girl under age 13. If the rape is carried out by several accomplices threatening to use weapons, the perpetrators will be sentenced to life imprisonment. If the rape occurred with the minor girl's permission and the Court permits the two to marry, the punishment will be negated (the perpetrator will be released from prison if already serving his sentence). If a rape results in serious injuries or death to the victim, the punishment is more severe and may include life imprisonment or death, depending upon the age of the victim. The Act further outlaws commission of obscene acts against a person under 15 years old; pandering; pimping; child abduction and kidnapping; child trafficking; and torture of children, sick persons, or elderly persons. In each case, specific punishments are assigned.

  3. CALIBRATING NON-CONVEX PENALIZED REGRESSION IN ULTRA-HIGH DIMENSION

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Kim, Yongdai; Li, Runze

    2014-01-01

    We investigate high-dimensional non-convex penalized regression, where the number of covariates may grow at an exponential rate. Although recent asymptotic theory established that there exists a local minimum possessing the oracle property under general conditions, it is still largely an open problem how to identify the oracle estimator among potentially multiple local minima. There are two main obstacles: (1) due to the presence of multiple minima, the solution path is nonunique and is not guaranteed to contain the oracle estimator; (2) even if a solution path is known to contain the oracle estimator, the optimal tuning parameter depends on many unknown factors and is hard to estimate. To address these two challenging issues, we first prove that an easy-to-calculate calibrated CCCP algorithm produces a consistent solution path which contains the oracle estimator with probability approaching one. Furthermore, we propose a high-dimensional BIC criterion and show that it can be applied to the solution path to select the optimal tuning parameter which asymptotically identifies the oracle estimator. The theory for a general class of non-convex penalties in the ultra-high dimensional setup is established when the random errors follow the sub-Gaussian distribution. Monte Carlo studies confirm that the calibrated CCCP algorithm combined with the proposed high-dimensional BIC has desirable performance in identifying the underlying sparsity pattern for high-dimensional data analysis. PMID:24948843

  4. Multipollutant measurement error in air pollution epidemiology studies arising from predicting exposures with penalized regression splines.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Silas; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D; Szpiro, Adam A

    2016-11-01

    Air pollution epidemiology studies are trending towards a multi-pollutant approach. In these studies, exposures at subject locations are unobserved and must be predicted using observed exposures at misaligned monitoring locations. This induces measurement error, which can bias the estimated health effects and affect standard error estimates. We characterize this measurement error and develop an analytic bias correction when using penalized regression splines to predict exposure. Our simulations show bias from multi-pollutant measurement error can be severe, and in opposite directions or simultaneously positive or negative. Our analytic bias correction combined with a non-parametric bootstrap yields accurate coverage of 95% confidence intervals. We apply our methodology to analyze the association of systolic blood pressure with PM2.5 and NO2 in the NIEHS Sister Study. We find that NO2 confounds the association of systolic blood pressure with PM2.5 and vice versa. Elevated systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with increased PM2.5 and decreased NO2. Correcting for measurement error bias strengthened these associations and widened 95% confidence intervals.

  5. CALIBRATING NON-CONVEX PENALIZED REGRESSION IN ULTRA-HIGH DIMENSION.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Kim, Yongdai; Li, Runze

    2013-10-01

    We investigate high-dimensional non-convex penalized regression, where the number of covariates may grow at an exponential rate. Although recent asymptotic theory established that there exists a local minimum possessing the oracle property under general conditions, it is still largely an open problem how to identify the oracle estimator among potentially multiple local minima. There are two main obstacles: (1) due to the presence of multiple minima, the solution path is nonunique and is not guaranteed to contain the oracle estimator; (2) even if a solution path is known to contain the oracle estimator, the optimal tuning parameter depends on many unknown factors and is hard to estimate. To address these two challenging issues, we first prove that an easy-to-calculate calibrated CCCP algorithm produces a consistent solution path which contains the oracle estimator with probability approaching one. Furthermore, we propose a high-dimensional BIC criterion and show that it can be applied to the solution path to select the optimal tuning parameter which asymptotically identifies the oracle estimator. The theory for a general class of non-convex penalties in the ultra-high dimensional setup is established when the random errors follow the sub-Gaussian distribution. Monte Carlo studies confirm that the calibrated CCCP algorithm combined with the proposed high-dimensional BIC has desirable performance in identifying the underlying sparsity pattern for high-dimensional data analysis.

  6. Improving lesion detectability in PET imaging with a penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangerin, Kristen A.; Ahn, Sangtae; Ross, Steven G.; Kinahan, Paul E.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra M.

    2015-03-01

    Ordered Subset Expectation Maximization (OSEM) is currently the most widely used image reconstruction algorithm for clinical PET. However, OSEM does not necessarily provide optimal image quality, and a number of alternative algorithms have been explored. We have recently shown that a penalized likelihood image reconstruction algorithm using the relative difference penalty, block sequential regularized expectation maximization (BSREM), achieves more accurate lesion quantitation than OSEM, and importantly, maintains acceptable visual image quality in clinical wholebody PET. The goal of this work was to evaluate lesion detectability with BSREM versus OSEM. We performed a twoalternative forced choice study using 81 patient datasets with lesions of varying contrast inserted into the liver and lung. At matched imaging noise, BSREM and OSEM showed equivalent detectability in the lungs, and BSREM outperformed OSEM in the liver. These results suggest that BSREM provides not only improved quantitation and clinically acceptable visual image quality as previously shown but also improved lesion detectability compared to OSEM. We then modeled this detectability study, applying both nonprewhitening (NPW) and channelized Hotelling (CHO) model observers to the reconstructed images. The CHO model observer showed good agreement with the human observers, suggesting that we can apply this model to future studies with varying simulation and reconstruction parameters.

  7. Theoretical study of penalized-likelihood image reconstruction for region of interest quantification.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jinyi; Huesman, Ronald H

    2006-05-01

    Region of interest (ROI) quantification is an important task in emission tomography (e.g., positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography). It is essential for exploring clinical factors such as tumor activity, growth rate, and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Statistical image reconstruction methods based on the penalized maximum-likelihood (PML) or maximum a posteriori principle have been developed for emission tomography to deal with the low signal-to-noise ratio of the emission data. Similar to the filter cut-off frequency in the filtered backprojection method, the regularization parameter in PML reconstruction controls the resolution and noise tradeoff and, hence, affects ROI quantification. In this paper, we theoretically analyze the performance of ROI quantification in PML reconstructions. Building on previous work, we derive simplified theoretical expressions for the bias, variance, and ensemble mean-squared-error (EMSE) of the estimated total activity in an ROI that is surrounded by a uniform background. When the mean and covariance matrix of the activity inside the ROI are known, the theoretical expressions are readily computable and allow for fast evaluation of image quality for ROI quantification with different regularization parameters. The optimum regularization parameter can then be selected to minimize the EMSE. Computer simulations are conducted for small ROIs with variable uniform uptake. The results show that the theoretical predictions match the Monte Carlo results reasonably well.

  8. Quantitative comparison of OSEM and penalized likelihood image reconstruction using relative difference penalties for clinical PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sangtae; Ross, Steven G.; Asma, Evren; Miao, Jun; Jin, Xiao; Cheng, Lishui; Wollenweber, Scott D.; Manjeshwar, Ravindra M.

    2015-08-01

    Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) is the most widely used algorithm for clinical PET image reconstruction. OSEM is usually stopped early and post-filtered to control image noise and does not necessarily achieve optimal quantitation accuracy. As an alternative to OSEM, we have recently implemented a penalized likelihood (PL) image reconstruction algorithm for clinical PET using the relative difference penalty with the aim of improving quantitation accuracy without compromising visual image quality. Preliminary clinical studies have demonstrated visual image quality including lesion conspicuity in images reconstructed by the PL algorithm is better than or at least as good as that in OSEM images. In this paper we evaluate lesion quantitation accuracy of the PL algorithm with the relative difference penalty compared to OSEM by using various data sets including phantom data acquired with an anthropomorphic torso phantom, an extended oval phantom and the NEMA image quality phantom; clinical data; and hybrid clinical data generated by adding simulated lesion data to clinical data. We focus on mean standardized uptake values and compare them for PL and OSEM using both time-of-flight (TOF) and non-TOF data. The results demonstrate improvements of PL in lesion quantitation accuracy compared to OSEM with a particular improvement in cold background regions such as lungs.

  9. Regularization parameter selection for penalized-likelihood list-mode image reconstruction in PET.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengxi; Zhou, Jian; Niu, Xiaofeng; Asma, Evren; Wang, Wenli; Qi, Jinyi

    2017-06-21

    Penalized likelihood (PL) reconstruction has demonstrated potential to improve image quality of positron emission tomography (PET) over unregularized ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) algorithm. However, selecting proper regularization parameters in PL reconstruction has been challenging due to the lack of ground truth and variation of penalty functions. Here we present a method to choose regularization parameters using a cross-validation log-likelihood (CVLL) function. This new method does not require any knowledge of the true image and is directly applicable to list-mode PET data. We performed statistical analysis of the mean and variance of the CVLL. The results show that the CVLL provides an unbiased estimate of the log-likelihood function calculated using the noise free data. The predicted variance can be used to verify the statistical significance of the difference between CVLL values. The proposed method was validated using simulation studies and also applied to real patient data. The reconstructed images using optimum parameters selected by the proposed method show good image quality visually.

  10. Provision 280 of the Turkish Penal Code: infringes on physician's dignity.

    PubMed

    Izgi, M Cumhur; Oguz, N Yasemin

    2010-09-01

    Every medical interference could be interpreted as an intervention into one's physical integrity and physical autonomy. This fact has brought along the necessity of determining the responsibilities of physicians, apotheosized throughout history from time to time, and to define the limits of the medical profession. The Turkish Penal Code (TPC) is the kind of legislation that imposes such limits. A revised version of the TPC has been in effect since June 1st, 2005. Ever since its enforcement, the TPC has attracted fierce criticism from several counts. However, Provision 280 is considered to be the most problematic one with regard to medical ethics. Along with several critical aspects, this provision stipulates almost a psychological violence for all health care professionals, particularly for the physicians as a matter of intervening with human dignity. The above-mentioned provision 280 needs to be annulled promptly in order to prevent physicians from remaining under psychological pressure while practicing their professions, as well as maintaining the moral values of the profession.

  11. Ethical issues in forensic psychiatry in penal and other correctional facilities.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert

    2010-09-01

    Forensic mental health practitioners, especially psychiatrists working in jails, prisons or other correctional facilities, face special problems that are unlike others encountered in bioethics. Literature published during the past year shows that the forensic psychiatrist has to adhere to role clarity: as a physician, he is primarily obligated to the treatment and well being of the incarcerated patients and is not exclusively an agent of social control. Moreover, the general conditions in a therapeutic setting (e.g. dealing with medical confidentiality) have to be clear and transparent to the patients. Different ethical models building a fitting framework for forensic practice are used. Forensic psychiatric practice in penal and other correctional facilities poses particular ethical dilemmas. There is a great need for international humanitarian law, which serves both to protect vulnerable prisoners and to shield health professionals who treat prisoners with respect and dignity from abuse or penalty. It must be a common objective to find the right balance between protection from exploitation and access to research beneficial to prisoners.

  12. A label field fusion bayesian model and its penalized maximum rand estimator for image segmentation.

    PubMed

    Mignotte, Max

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a novel segmentation approach based on a Markov random field (MRF) fusion model which aims at combining several segmentation results associated with simpler clustering models in order to achieve a more reliable and accurate segmentation result. The proposed fusion model is derived from the recently introduced probabilistic Rand measure for comparing one segmentation result to one or more manual segmentations of the same image. This non-parametric measure allows us to easily derive an appealing fusion model of label fields, easily expressed as a Gibbs distribution, or as a nonstationary MRF model defined on a complete graph. Concretely, this Gibbs energy model encodes the set of binary constraints, in terms of pairs of pixel labels, provided by each segmentation results to be fused. Combined with a prior distribution, this energy-based Gibbs model also allows for definition of an interesting penalized maximum probabilistic rand estimator with which the fusion of simple, quickly estimated, segmentation results appears as an interesting alternative to complex segmentation models existing in the literature. This fusion framework has been successfully applied on the Berkeley image database. The experiments reported in this paper demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient in terms of visual evaluation and quantitative performance measures and performs well compared to the best existing state-of-the-art segmentation methods recently proposed in the literature.

  13. Penalized weighted least-squares image reconstruction for dual energy X-ray transmission tomography.

    PubMed

    Sukovic, P; Clinthorne, N H

    2000-11-01

    We present a dual-energy (DE) transmission computed tomography (CT) reconstruction method. It is statistically motivated and features nonnegativity constraints in the density domain. A penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) objective function has been chosen to handle the non-Poisson noise added by amorphous silicon (aSi:H) detectors. A Gauss-Seidel algorithm has been used to minimize the objective function. The behavior of the method in terms of bias/standard deviation tradeoff has been compared to that of a DE method that is based on filtered back projection (FBP). The advantages of the DE PWLS method are largest for high noise and/or low flux cases. Qualitative results suggest this as well. Also, the reconstructed images of an object with opaque regions are presented. Possible applications of the method are: attenuation correction for positron emission tomography (PET) images, various quantitative computed tomography (QCT) methods such as bone mineral densitometry (BMD), and the removal of metal streak artifacts.

  14. Incorporating Predictor Network in Penalized Regression with Application to Microarray Data

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Wei; Xie, Benhuai; Shen, Xiaotong

    2012-01-01

    Summary We consider penalized linear regression, especially for “large p, small n” problems, for which the relationships among predictors are described a priori by a network. A class of motivating examples includes modeling a phenotype through gene expression profiles while accounting for coordinated functioning of genes in the form of biological pathways or networks. To incorporate the prior knowledge of the similar effect sizes of neighboring predictors in a network, we propose a grouped penalty based on the Lγ-norm that smoothes the regression coefficients of the predictors over the network. The main feature of the proposed method is its ability to automatically realize grouped variable selection and exploit grouping effects. We also discuss effects of the choices of the γ and some weights inside the Lγ-norm. Simulation studies demonstrate the superior finite sample performance of the proposed method as compared to Lasso, elastic net and a recently proposed network-based method. The new method performs best in variable selection across all simulation set-ups considered. For illustration, the method is applied to a microarray dataset to predict survival times for some glioblastoma patients using a gene expression dataset and a gene network compiled from some KEGG pathways. PMID:19645699

  15. Comparative behaviour of the Dynamically Penalized Likelihood algorithm in inverse radiation therapy planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llacer, Jorge; Solberg, Timothy D.; Promberger, Claus

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents a description of tests carried out to compare the behaviour of five algorithms in inverse radiation therapy planning: (1) The Dynamically Penalized Likelihood (DPL), an algorithm based on statistical estimation theory; (2) an accelerated version of the same algorithm; (3) a new fast adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) algorithm; (4) a conjugate gradient method; and (5) a Newton gradient method. A three-dimensional mathematical phantom and two clinical cases have been studied in detail. The phantom consisted of a U-shaped tumour with a partially enclosed 'spinal cord'. The clinical examples were a cavernous sinus meningioma and a prostate case. The algorithms have been tested in carefully selected and controlled conditions so as to ensure fairness in the assessment of results. It has been found that all five methods can yield relatively similar optimizations, except when a very demanding optimization is carried out. For the easier cases, the differences are principally in robustness, ease of use and optimization speed. In the more demanding case, there are significant differences in the resulting dose distributions. The accelerated DPL emerges as possibly the algorithm of choice for clinical practice. An appendix describes the differences in behaviour between the new ASA method and the one based on a patent by the Nomos Corporation.

  16. Bayesian penalized log-likelihood ratio approach for dose response clinical trial studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuanyuan; Cai, Chunyan; Sun, Liangrui; He, Jianghua

    2017-02-13

    In literature, there are a few unified approaches to test proof of concept and estimate a target dose, including the multiple comparison procedure using modeling approach, and the permutation approach proposed by Klingenberg. We discuss and compare the operating characteristics of these unified approaches and further develop an alternative approach in a Bayesian framework based on the posterior distribution of a penalized log-likelihood ratio test statistic. Our Bayesian approach is much more flexible to handle linear or nonlinear dose-response relationships and is more efficient than the permutation approach. The operating characteristics of our Bayesian approach are comparable to and sometimes better than both approaches in a wide range of dose-response relationships. It yields credible intervals as well as predictive distribution for the response rate at a specific dose level for the target dose estimation. Our Bayesian approach can be easily extended to continuous, categorical, and time-to-event responses. We illustrate the performance of our proposed method with extensive simulations and Phase II clinical trial data examples.

  17. Evaluation of penalty design in penalized maximum-likelihood image reconstruction for lesion detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Ferrero, Andrea; Hagge, Rosalie J.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Qi, Jinyi

    2014-03-01

    Detecting cancerous lesions is a major clinical application in emission tomography. In previous work, we have studied penalized maximum-likelihood (PML) image reconstruction for the detection task, where we used a multiview channelized Hotelling observer (mvCHO) to assess the lesion detectability in 3D images. It mimics the condition where a human observer examines three orthogonal views of a 3D image for lesion detection. We proposed a method to design a shift-variant quadratic penalty function to improve the detectability of lesions at unknown locations, and validated it using computer simulations. In this study we evaluated the bene t of the proposed penalty function for lesion detection using real data. A high-count real patient data with no identi able tumor inside the eld of view was used as the background data. A Na-22 point source was scanned in air at variable locations and the point source data were superimposed onto the patient data as arti cial lesions after being attenuated by the patient body. Independent Poisson noise was added to the high-count sinograms to generate 200 pairs of lesion-present and lesion-absent data sets, each mimicking a 5-minute scans. Lesion detectability was assessed using a multiview CHO and a human observer two alternative forced choice (2AFC) experiment. The results showed that the optimized penalty can improve lesion detection over the conventional quadratic penalty function.

  18. A cost-function approach to rival penalized competitive learning (RPCL).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinwen; Wang, Taijun

    2006-08-01

    Rival penalized competitive learning (RPCL) has been shown to be a useful tool for clustering on a set of sample data in which the number of clusters is unknown. However, the RPCL algorithm was proposed heuristically and is still in lack of a mathematical theory to describe its convergence behavior. In order to solve the convergence problem, we investigate it via a cost-function approach. By theoretical analysis, we prove that a general form of RPCL, called distance-sensitive RPCL (DSRPCL), is associated with the minimization of a cost function on the weight vectors of a competitive learning network. As a DSRPCL process decreases the cost to a local minimum, a number of weight vectors eventually fall into a hypersphere surrounding the sample data, while the other weight vectors diverge to infinity. Moreover, it is shown by the theoretical analysis and simulation experiments that if the cost reduces into the global minimum, a correct number of weight vectors is automatically selected and located around the centers of the actual clusters, respectively. Finally, we apply the DSRPCL algorithms to unsupervised color image segmentation and classification of the wine data.

  19. Penalized or Protected? Gender and the Consequences of Nonstandard and Mismatched Employment Histories

    PubMed Central

    Pedulla, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Millions of workers are employed in positions that deviate from the full-time, standard employment relationship or work in jobs that are mismatched with their skills, education, or experience. Yet, little is known about how employers evaluate workers who have experienced these employment arrangements, limiting our knowledge about how part-time work, temporary agency employment, and skills underutilization affect workers’ labor market opportunities. Drawing on original field and survey experiment data, I examine three questions: (1) What are the consequences of having a nonstandard or mismatched employment history for workers’ labor market opportunities? (2) Are the effects of nonstandard or mismatched employment histories different for men and women? and (3) What are the mechanisms linking nonstandard or mismatched employment histories to labor market outcomes? The field experiment shows that skills underutilization is as scarring for workers as a year of unemployment, but that there are limited penalties for workers with histories of temporary agency employment. Additionally, although men are penalized for part-time employment histories, women face no penalty for part-time work. The survey experiment reveals that employers’ perceptions of workers’ competence and commitment mediate these effects. These findings shed light on the consequences of changing employment relations for the distribution of labor market opportunities in the “new economy.” PMID:27182069

  20. Simultaneous Multiple Response Regression and Inverse Covariance Matrix Estimation via Penalized Gaussian Maximum Likelihood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wonyul; Liu, Yufeng

    2012-10-01

    Multivariate regression is a common statistical tool for practical problems. Many multivariate regression techniques are designed for univariate response cases. For problems with multiple response variables available, one common approach is to apply the univariate response regression technique separately on each response variable. Although it is simple and popular, the univariate response approach ignores the joint information among response variables. In this paper, we propose three new methods for utilizing joint information among response variables. All methods are in a penalized likelihood framework with weighted L(1) regularization. The proposed methods provide sparse estimators of conditional inverse co-variance matrix of response vector given explanatory variables as well as sparse estimators of regression parameters. Our first approach is to estimate the regression coefficients with plug-in estimated inverse covariance matrices, and our second approach is to estimate the inverse covariance matrix with plug-in estimated regression parameters. Our third approach is to estimate both simultaneously. Asymptotic properties of these methods are explored. Our numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed methods perform competitively in terms of prediction, variable selection, as well as inverse covariance matrix estimation.

  1. Decree amending and adding various provisions to the Penal Code for the Federal District with respect to local jurisdiction and to the Penal Code for the whole Republic with respect to federal jurisdiction, 29 December 1988. [Selected provisions].

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Mexico's decree amending and adding various provisions to the penal code for the federal district, with respect to local jurisdiction, and to the penal code for the whole republic, with respect to federal jurisdiction, December 29, 1988, among other things, amends the penal code to strengthen provisions relating to sex crimes. Among the provisions are the following: anyone procuring or facilitating the corruption of a minor (under 18) or a person lacking capacity, by means of sexual acts, or who induces him to engage in begging, drunkenness, drug addiction, or some other vice; to form part of an unlawful association; or to commit whatever crimes will be imprisoned for 3-8 years and subjected to a fine. The sentence shall be enhanced if the minor or incapacitated person forms a habit due to repeated acts of corruption. Whoever encourages or facilitates a person's engaging in prostitution or obtains or delivers a person for the purpose of prostitution will be imprisoned for 2-9 years and fined. Pandering will be punished with imprisonment for 2-9 years and a fine. Whoever, without consent and without the purpose of achieving intercourse, performs on her a sexual act with lascivious intent, or forces her to perform it, will be sentenced to "15 days to 1 year's or to 10-40 days' community service work." If physical or moral violence is used, the penalty will be 2-7 years imprisonment. Performing the above act on a person under age 12 or on someone unable to resist increases the punishment. Whoever uses physical or moral violence to have intercourse with a person of whatever sex shall be imprisoned 8-14 years; using an object other than a penis either vaginally or anally on either a male or a female will result in imprisonment of 1-5 years. If the victim is under age 12, unable to resist, or if 2 or more persons commit the crime, an enhanced punishment will result.

  2. SU-E-J-133: Autosegmentation of Linac CBCT: Improved Accuracy Via Penalized Likelihood Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To improve the quality of kV X-ray cone beam CT (CBCT) for use in radiotherapy delivery assessment and re-planning by using penalized likelihood (PL) iterative reconstruction and auto-segmentation accuracy of the resulting CBCTs as an image quality metric. Methods: Present filtered backprojection (FBP) CBCT reconstructions can be improved upon by PL reconstruction with image formation models and appropriate regularization constraints. We use two constraints: 1) image smoothing via an edge preserving filter, and 2) a constraint minimizing the differences between the reconstruction and a registered prior image. Reconstructions of prostate therapy CBCTs were computed with constraint 1 alone and with both constraints. The prior images were planning CTs(pCT) deformable-registered to the FBP reconstructions. Anatomy segmentations were done using atlas-based auto-segmentation (Elekta ADMIRE). Results: We observed small but consistent improvements in the Dice similarity coefficients of PL reconstructions over the FBP results, and additional small improvements with the added prior image constraint. For a CBCT with anatomy very similar in appearance to the pCT, we observed these changes in the Dice metric: +2.9% (prostate), +8.6% (rectum), −1.9% (bladder). For a second CBCT with a very different rectum configuration, we observed +0.8% (prostate), +8.9% (rectum), −1.2% (bladder). For a third case with significant lateral truncation of the field of view, we observed: +0.8% (prostate), +8.9% (rectum), −1.2% (bladder). Adding the prior image constraint raised Dice measures by about 1%. Conclusion: Efficient and practical adaptive radiotherapy requires accurate deformable registration and accurate anatomy delineation. We show here small and consistent patterns of improved contour accuracy using PL iterative reconstruction compared with FBP reconstruction. However, the modest extent of these results and the pattern of differences across CBCT cases suggest that

  3. Integration Analysis of Three Omics Data Using Penalized Regression Methods: An Application to Bladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Silvia; Real, Francisco X; Kogevinas, Manolis; Carrato, Alfredo; Chanock, Stephen J; Malats, Núria; Van Steen, Kristel

    2015-12-01

    Omics data integration is becoming necessary to investigate the genomic mechanisms involved in complex diseases. During the integration process, many challenges arise such as data heterogeneity, the smaller number of individuals in comparison to the number of parameters, multicollinearity, and interpretation and validation of results due to their complexity and lack of knowledge about biological processes. To overcome some of these issues, innovative statistical approaches are being developed. In this work, we propose a permutation-based method to concomitantly assess significance and correct by multiple testing with the MaxT algorithm. This was applied with penalized regression methods (LASSO and ENET) when exploring relationships between common genetic variants, DNA methylation and gene expression measured in bladder tumor samples. The overall analysis flow consisted of three steps: (1) SNPs/CpGs were selected per each gene probe within 1Mb window upstream and downstream the gene; (2) LASSO and ENET were applied to assess the association between each expression probe and the selected SNPs/CpGs in three multivariable models (SNP, CPG, and Global models, the latter integrating SNPs and CPGs); and (3) the significance of each model was assessed using the permutation-based MaxT method. We identified 48 genes whose expression levels were significantly associated with both SNPs and CPGs. Importantly, 36 (75%) of them were replicated in an independent data set (TCGA) and the performance of the proposed method was checked with a simulation study. We further support our results with a biological interpretation based on an enrichment analysis. The approach we propose allows reducing computational time and is flexible and easy to implement when analyzing several types of omics data. Our results highlight the importance of integrating omics data by applying appropriate statistical strategies to discover new insights into the complex genetic mechanisms involved in disease

  4. Penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction for x-ray differential phase-contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Brendel, Bernhard; Teuffenbach, Maximilian von; Noël, Peter B.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Koehler, Thomas

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to propose a cost function with regularization to iteratively reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter images simultaneously from differential phase contrast (DPC) acquisitions, without the need of phase retrieval, and examine its properties. Furthermore this reconstruction method is applied to an acquisition pattern that is suitable for a DPC tomographic system with continuously rotating gantry (sliding window acquisition), overcoming the severe smearing in noniterative reconstruction. Methods: We derive a penalized maximum likelihood reconstruction algorithm to directly reconstruct attenuation, phase, and scatter image from the measured detector values of a DPC acquisition. The proposed penalty comprises, for each of the three images, an independent smoothing prior. Image quality of the proposed reconstruction is compared to images generated with FBP and iterative reconstruction after phase retrieval. Furthermore, the influence between the priors is analyzed. Finally, the proposed reconstruction algorithm is applied to experimental sliding window data acquired at a synchrotron and results are compared to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. Results: The results show that the proposed algorithm significantly increases image quality in comparison to reconstructions based on phase retrieval. No significant mutual influence between the proposed independent priors could be observed. Further it could be illustrated that the iterative reconstruction of a sliding window acquisition results in images with substantially reduced smearing artifacts. Conclusions: Although the proposed cost function is inherently nonconvex, it can be used to reconstruct images with less aliasing artifacts and less streak artifacts than reconstruction methods based on phase retrieval. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used to reconstruct images of sliding window acquisitions with negligible smearing artifacts.

  5. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Shaojie; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-09-15

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of 'salt-and-pepper' noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  6. Incorporation of noise and prior images in penalized-likelihood reconstruction of sparse data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yifu; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Stayman, J. Webster

    2012-03-01

    Many imaging scenarios involve a sequence of tomographic data acquisitions to monitor change over time - e.g., longitudinal studies of disease progression (tumor surveillance) and intraoperative imaging of tissue changes during intervention. Radiation dose imparted for these repeat acquisitions present a concern. Because such image sequences share a great deal of information between acquisitions, using prior image information from baseline scans in the reconstruction of subsequent scans can relax data fidelity requirements of follow-up acquisitions. For example, sparse data acquisitions, including angular undersampling and limited-angle tomography, limit exposure by reducing the number of acquired projections. Various approaches such as prior-image constrained compressed sensing (PICCS) have successfully incorporated prior images in the reconstruction of such sparse data. Another technique to limit radiation dose is to reduce the x-ray fluence per projection. However, many methods for reconstruction of sparse data do not include a noise model accounting for stochastic fluctuations in such low-dose measurements and cannot balance the differing information content of various measurements. In this paper, we present a prior-image, penalized-likelihood estimator (PI-PLE) that utilizes prior image information, compressed-sensing penalties, and a Poisson noise model for measurements. The approach is applied to a lung nodule surveillance scenario with sparse data acquired at low exposures to illustrate performance under cases of extremely limited data fidelity. The results show that PI-PLE is able to greatly reduce streak artifacts that otherwise arise from photon starvation, and maintain high-resolution anatomical features, whereas traditional approaches are subject to streak artifacts or lower-resolution images.

  7. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaojie; Tang, Xiangyang

    2012-09-01

    The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of "salt-and-pepper" noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain multiscale decomposition, the proposed method is

  8. C-arm perfusion imaging with a fast penalized maximum-likelihood approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frysch, Robert; Pfeiffer, Tim; Bannasch, Sebastian; Serowy, Steffen; Gugel, Sebastian; Skalej, Martin; Rose, Georg

    2014-03-01

    Perfusion imaging is an essential method for stroke diagnostics. One of the most important factors for a successful therapy is to get the diagnosis as fast as possible. Therefore our approach aims at perfusion imaging (PI) with a cone beam C-arm system providing perfusion information directly in the interventional suite. For PI the imaging system has to provide excellent soft tissue contrast resolution in order to allow the detection of small attenuation enhancement due to contrast agent in the capillary vessels. The limited dynamic range of flat panel detectors as well as the sparse sampling of the slow rotating C-arm in combination with standard reconstruction methods results in limited soft tissue contrast. We choose a penalized maximum-likelihood reconstruction method to get suitable results. To minimize the computational load, the 4D reconstruction task is reduced to several static 3D reconstructions. We also include an ordered subset technique with transitioning to a small number of subsets, which adds sharpness to the image with less iterations while also suppressing the noise. Instead of the standard multiplicative EM correction, we apply a Newton-based optimization to further accelerate the reconstruction algorithm. The latter optimization reduces the computation time by up to 70%. Further acceleration is provided by a multi-GPU implementation of the forward and backward projection, which fulfills the demands of cone beam geometry. In this preliminary study we evaluate this procedure on clinical data. Perfusion maps are computed and compared with reference images from magnetic resonance scans. We found a high correlation between both images.

  9. Preconditioned alternating projection algorithm for solving the penalized-likelihood SPECT reconstruction problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Si; Zhang, Jiahan; Krol, Andrzej; Schmidtlein, C Ross; Feiglin, David; Xu, Yuesheng

    2017-06-01

    The authors recently developed a preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for solving the penalized-likelihood SPECT reconstruction problem. The proposed algorithm can solve a wide variety of non-differentiable optimization models. This work is dedicated to comparing the performance of PAPA with total variation (TV) regularization (TV-PAPA) and a novel forward-backward algorithm with nested expectation maximization (EM)-TV iteration scheme (FB-EM-TV). Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate multiple noise realizations of the fan-beam collimated SPECT data for a piecewise constant phantom with warm background, and hot and cold spheres with uniform activities at two noise levels. They were reconstructed using the aforementioned algorithms with attenuation, scatter, distance-dependent collimator blurring and sensitivity corrections. Noise suppressing performance, lesion detectability, lesion contrast, contrast recovery coefficient, convergence speed and selection of optimal parameters were evaluated. The conventional EM algorithms with TV post-filter (TVPF-EM) and Gaussian post-filter (GPF-EM) were used as benchmarks. The TV-PAPA and FB-EM-TV demonstrated similar performance in all investigated categories. Both algorithms outperformed TVPF-EM in terms of image noise suppression, lesion detectability, lesion contrast and convergence speed. We established that the optimal parameters versus information density approximately followed power laws, which offers a guidance in parameter selection for reconstruction methods. For the simulated SPECT data, TV-PAPA and FB-EM-TV produced qualitatively and quantitatively similar images. They performed better than the benchmark TVPF-EM and GPF-EM, with only limited loss of lesion contrast. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaojie; Tang, Xiangyang

    2012-01-01

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of “salt-and-pepper” noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  11. Identifying drug-pathway association pairs based on L1L2,1-integrative penalized matrix decomposition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Qin; Gao, Ying-Lian; Liu, Jin-Xing; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Kong, Xiang-Zhen

    2017-07-18

    The traditional methods of drug discovery follow the "one drug-one target" approach, which ignores the cellular and physiological environment of the action mechanism of drugs. However, pathway-based drug discovery methods can overcome this limitation. This kind of method, such as the Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition (iPaD) method, identifies the drug-pathway associations by taking the lasso-type penalty on the regularization term. Moreover, instead of imposing the L1-norm regularization, the L2,1-Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition (L2,1-iPaD) method imposes the L2,1-norm penalty on the regularization term. In this paper, based on the iPaD and L2,1-iPaD methods, we propose a novel method named L1L2,1-iPaD (L1L2,1-Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition), which takes the sum of the L1-norm and L2,1-norm penalties on the regularization term. Besides, we perform permutation test to assess the significance of the identified drug-pathway association pairs and compute the P-values. Compared with the existing methods, our method can identify more drug-pathway association pairs which have been validated in the CancerResource database. In order to identify drug-pathway associations which are not validated in the CancerResource database, we retrieve published papers to prove these associations. The results on two real datasets prove that our method can achieve better enrichment for identified association pairs than the iPaD and L2,1-iPaD methods.

  12. Identifying drug-pathway association pairs based on L1L2,1-integrative penalized matrix decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong-Qin; Gao, Ying-Lian; Liu, Jin-Xing; Zheng, Chun-Hou; Kong, Xiang-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    The traditional methods of drug discovery follow the “one drug-one target” approach, which ignores the cellular and physiological environment of the action mechanism of drugs. However, pathway-based drug discovery methods can overcome this limitation. This kind of method, such as the Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition (iPaD) method, identifies the drug-pathway associations by taking the lasso-type penalty on the regularization term. Moreover, instead of imposing the L1-norm regularization, the L2,1-Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition (L2,1-iPaD) method imposes the L2,1-norm penalty on the regularization term. In this paper, based on the iPaD and L2,1-iPaD methods, we propose a novel method named L1L2,1-iPaD (L1L2,1-Integrative Penalized Matrix Decomposition), which takes the sum of the L1-norm and L2,1-norm penalties on the regularization term. Besides, we perform permutation test to assess the significance of the identified drug-pathway association pairs and compute the P-values. Compared with the existing methods, our method can identify more drug-pathway association pairs which have been validated in the CancerResource database. In order to identify drug-pathway associations which are not validated in the CancerResource database, we retrieve published papers to prove these associations. The results on two real datasets prove that our method can achieve better enrichment for identified association pairs than the iPaD and L2,1-iPaD methods. PMID:28624800

  13. [The impact of the contingents of penal system onto the tuberculosis epidemiological situation on the regional level].

    PubMed

    Sazykina, I G

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the special contingents of penal system on the tuberculosis epidemiological indicators in a particular region. The findings testify that under the conditions existed in the Orenburgskaya oblast the negative effect of the contingents of the sentence execution service of the Russian Federation on the tuberculosis epidemiological indicators is rather strong and besides is significantly higher in comparison with the average values typical for the Russian Federation. This kind of epidemiological analysis would be useful for functioning of the organizational and methodical services of other regional tuberculosis dispensers for the purpose of developing well-grounded additional managerial decisions.

  14. Penalized estimation in latent Markov models, with application to monitoring serum calcium levels in end-stage kidney insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2017-09-01

    We introduce a penalized likelihood form for latent Markov models. We motivate its use for biomedical applications where the sample size is in the order of the tens, or at most hundreds, and there are only few repeated measures. The resulting estimates never break down, while spurious solutions are often obtained by maximizing the likelihood itself. We discuss model choice based on the Takeuchi Information Criterion. Simulations and a real-data application to monitoring serum Calcium levels in end-stage kidney disease are used for illustration. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Reconstruction of difference in sequential CT studies using penalized likelihood estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmorteza, A.; Dang, H.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Stayman, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of anatomical change and other differences is important in sequential computed tomography (CT) imaging, where a high-fidelity patient-specific prior image is typically present, but is not used, in the reconstruction of subsequent anatomical states. Here, we introduce a penalized likelihood (PL) method called reconstruction of difference (RoD) to directly reconstruct a difference image volume using both the current projection data and the (unregistered) prior image integrated into the forward model for the measurement data. The algorithm utilizes an alternating minimization to find both the registration and reconstruction estimates. This formulation allows direct control over the image properties of the difference image, permitting regularization strategies that inhibit noise and structural differences due to inconsistencies between the prior image and the current data. Additionally, if the change is known to be local, RoD allows local acquisition and reconstruction, as opposed to traditional model-based approaches that require a full support field of view (or other modifications). We compared the performance of RoD to a standard PL algorithm, in simulation studies and using test-bench cone-beam CT data. The performances of local and global RoD approaches were similar, with local RoD providing a significant computational speedup. In comparison across a range of data with differing fidelity, the local RoD approach consistently showed lower error (with respect to a truth image) than PL in both noisy data and sparsely sampled projection scenarios. In a study of the prior image registration performance of RoD, a clinically reasonable capture ranges were demonstrated. Lastly, the registration algorithm had a broad capture range and the error for reconstruction of CT data was 35% and 20% less than filtered back-projection for RoD and PL, respectively. The RoD has potential for delivering high-quality difference images in a range of sequential clinical

  16. Reconstruction of difference in sequential CT studies using penalized likelihood estimation

    PubMed Central

    Pourmorteza, A; Dang, H; Siewerdsen, J H; Stayman, J W

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of anatomical change and other differences is important in sequential computed tomography (CT) imaging, where a high-fidelity patient-specific prior image is typically present, but is not used, in the reconstruction of subsequent anatomical states. Here, we introduce a penalized likelihood (PL) method called reconstruction of difference (RoD) to directly reconstruct a difference image volume using both the current projection data and the (unregistered) prior image integrated into the forward model for the measurement data. The algorithm utilizes an alternating minimization to find both the registration and reconstruction estimates. This formulation allows direct control over the image properties of the difference image, permitting regularization strategies that inhibit noise and structural differences due to inconsistencies between the prior image and the current data.Additionally, if the change is known to be local, RoD allows local acquisition and reconstruction, as opposed to traditional model-based approaches that require a full support field of view (or other modifications). We compared the performance of RoD to a standard PL algorithm, in simulation studies and using test-bench cone-beam CT data. The performances of local and global RoD approaches were similar, with local RoD providing a significant computational speedup. In comparison across a range of data with differing fidelity, the local RoD approach consistently showed lower error (with respect to a truth image) than PL in both noisy data and sparsely sampled projection scenarios. In a study of the prior image registration performance of RoD, a clinically reasonable capture ranges were demonstrated. Lastly, the registration algorithm had a broad capture range and the error for reconstruction of CT data was 35% and 20% less than filtered back-projection for RoD and PL, respectively. The RoD has potential for delivering high-quality difference images in a range of sequential clinical

  17. Mental health/illness and prisons as place: frontline clinicians׳ perspectives of mental health work in a penal setting.

    PubMed

    Wright, Nicola; Jordan, Melanie; Kane, Eddie

    2014-09-01

    This article takes mental health and prisons as its two foci. It explores the links between social and structural aspects of the penal setting, the provision of mental healthcare in prisons, and mental health work in this environment. This analysis utilises qualitative interview data from prison-based fieldwork undertaken in Her Majesty׳s Prison Service, England. Two themes are discussed: (1) the desire and practicalities of doing mental health work and (2) prison staff as mental health work allies. Concepts covered include equivalence, training, ownership, informal communication, mental health knowledge, service gatekeepers, case identification, and unmet need. Implications for practice are (1) the mental health knowledge and understanding of prison wing staff could be appraised and developed to improve mental healthcare and address unmet need. Their role as observers and gatekeepers could be considered. (2) The realities of frontline mental health work for clinicians in the penal environment should be embraced and used to produce and implement improved policy and practice guidance, which is in better accord with the actuality of the context - both socially and structurally.

  18. [Forensic addiction treatment in Germany (section 64 of the penal code): three therapeutically and predicatively relevant clusters of drinkers].

    PubMed

    Schalast, Norbert; Kösters, Cornelia; Demmerling, Rita; Mushoff, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    According to section 64 of the German penal code, offenders may be sentenced to compulsory addiction treatment in forensic mental hospitals. An expert witness assesses each candidate regarding the prognosis of treatment. Frequently, optimistic assessments are not confirmed, and approximately half of the patients are returned to prison. The study aims at learning more about patients' characteristics relevant for treatment outcome by considering subgroups of patients. 150 drinkers treated according to art. 64 were interviewed and psychologically assessed in an early stage of treatment. Therapists reported on treatment outcome. A cluster analysis was conducted. Like in former research, 3 considerably differing subgroups of patients could be identified. A "multi-problem" subgroup with early onset of severe behavior problems has a very small chance to profit from treatment. In this group of offenders, the prospects of a detention according to art. 64 of the penal code should be assessed very critically. On the other hand, efforts must be taken to refine treatment methods adequate for this high risk group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. A premodern legacy: the "easy" criminalization of homosexual acts between women in the Finnish Penal Code of 1889.

    PubMed

    Löfström, J

    1998-01-01

    Homosexual acts between women were criminalized in Finland in the 1889 Penal Code which also criminalized men's homosexual acts for the first time explicitly in Finnish legislation. The inclusion of women in the Penal Code took place without much ado. In the article it is argued that the uncomplicated juxtaposing of men and women was due to the legacy of a cultural pattern where man and woman, as categories, were not in an all-pervasive polarity to each other, for example, in sexual subjectivity. A cultural pattern of low gender polarization was typical of preindustrial rural culture, and it can help us apprehend also certain other features in contemporary Finnish social and political life, for example, women obtaining a general franchise and eligibility for the parliament first in the world, in 1906. A modern image of "public man" and "private woman" was only making its way in Finnish society; hence, there was not much anxiety at women's entry in politics, or, for that matter, at their potential for (homo)sexual subjectivity becoming recognized publicly in criminal law.

  20. [Does restriction of sexual freedom according to article 169 of the Penal Code serve the mentally ill?].

    PubMed

    Rutkowski, R

    1994-01-01

    Article 169 of the penal code imposes a ban on sexual contacts with a person, who is fully or to a significant degree deprived of the ability to recognize the meaning of his/her actions or to control his/her behaviour. A partner of a mentally retarded or mentally ill person, who engages fully in biologically and culturally appropriate sexual activity, can become criminally liable, receiving up to 10 years of freedom loss. The freedom of the insane and persons with strongly diminished mental ability is supposed to be a protected "good". The Polish Psychiatric Society tabled a motion in favour of abolishing this regulation, but the penal code reform committee did not accept this postulate. It is worth noting that sexual partnership constitutes both for men and women an irreplaceable human right. Nature itself does not exclude the mentally ill from the mystery of life which is unpredictable in its destiny. It should be added that some of the mentally ill identify hope for further living with the hope of keeping an intimate partnership.

  1. Simulation of confined magnetohydrodynamic flows with Dirichlet boundary conditions using a pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Jorge A.; Leroy, Matthieu; Bos, Wouter J.T.; Schneider, Kai

    2014-10-01

    A volume penalization approach to simulate magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows in confined domains is presented. Here the incompressible visco-resistive MHD equations are solved using parallel pseudo-spectral solvers in Cartesian geometries. The volume penalization technique is an immersed boundary method which is characterized by a high flexibility for the geometry of the considered flow. In the present case, it allows to use other than periodic boundary conditions in a Fourier pseudo-spectral approach. The numerical method is validated and its convergence is assessed for two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic (HD) and MHD flows, by comparing the numerical results with results from literature and analytical solutions. The test cases considered are two-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow, the z-pinch configuration, three dimensional Orszag–Tang flow, Ohmic-decay in a periodic cylinder, three-dimensional Taylor–Couette flow with and without axial magnetic field and three-dimensional Hartmann-instabilities in a cylinder with an imposed helical magnetic field. Finally, we present a magnetohydrodynamic flow simulation in toroidal geometry with non-symmetric cross section and imposing a helical magnetic field to illustrate the potential of the method.

  2. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? (a) If the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based on... penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? 286.150 Section...

  3. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  4. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? (a) If the individual is a single custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based on... penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s)he cannot find child care? 286.150 Section 286.150...

  5. The Risk Assessment Program and the Court of Penal Execution in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Folino, Jorge O; Marengo, Claudio M; Marchiano, Susana E; Ascazibar, Mariel

    2004-02-01

    This study describes the working of a new system that supervises the execution of the punishment phase in the Province of Buenos Aires, Argentina; namely, the Court of Penal Execution, as well as the risk assessment program. It also reports the results of the violent recidivism baseline risk assessment carried out in candidates for conditional release. The cohort studied was recruited during 18 months in the Judicial Department of La Plata, taking into consideration psychopathological and criminological variables. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Historical, Clinical, and Risk Management--20 (HCR-20), and the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG), among others, were used as measures. During the study period, 65 candidates for conditional release were part of the baseline assessment, and they constitute the population of this study. The measures' mean scores were PCL-R, 20.57; HCR-20, 18.58; VRAG, 12.17.

  6. [Patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia].

    PubMed

    Kutscher, S; Schiffer, B; Seifert, D

    2009-02-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the development of the number of patients with schizophrenia in detention (section 63 German Penal Code) in North Rhine-Westphalia and the characterization of these patients. Patients with schizophrenia are examined, by using a standardized questionnaire answered by the attending psychiatrist or psychologist (n = 531). During the last 12 years the number of patients with schizophrenia in forensic-psychiatric hospitals has increased three times, whereas the number of patients with other diagnoses heightened only twofold. The patients with schizophrenia showed high rates of psychiatric comorbidities (substance disorders 73.9 %, personality disorders 17.2 %), previous inpatient treatments (78.3 % with a mean of 7.5 stays) and previous convictions (63.4 %). Almost half of these convictions (46.6 %) were violent offences (e. g. assault, homicide). Possible explanations for this development are discussed.

  7. The new bundled payment program for joint replacement may unfairly penalize hospitals that treat patients with medical comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Ellimoottil, Chad; Ryan, Andrew M.; Hou, Hechuan; Dupree, James M.; Hallstrom, Brian; Miller, David C.

    2017-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently implemented the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model. While many stakeholders are enthusiastic that the program will reduce spending for joint replacement, others are concerned that the program will unintentionally penalize hospitals that treat medically complex patients. This concern stems from the fact that the program may not include a mechanism to sufficiently account for patient complexity (i.e., risk adjustment). Using Medicare claims, we examined this concern and found an inverse association between patient complexity and year-end bonuses (i.e., reconciliation payments). Specifically, reconciliation payments were reduced by $827 per episode for each standard deviation increase in a hospital’s patient complexity (p<0.01). Moreover, we found that risk adjustment could increase reconciliation payments to some hospitals by as much as $114,184 annually. Our findings suggest that CMS should include risk adjustment in the CJR model and future bundled payment programs. PMID:27605647

  8. Penalized Multi-Way Partial Least Squares for Smooth Trajectory Decoding from Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Recording

    PubMed Central

    Eliseyev, Andrey; Aksenova, Tetiana

    2016-01-01

    In the current paper the decoding algorithms for motor-related BCI systems for continuous upper limb trajectory prediction are considered. Two methods for the smooth prediction, namely Sobolev and Polynomial Penalized Multi-Way Partial Least Squares (PLS) regressions, are proposed. The methods are compared to the Multi-Way Partial Least Squares and Kalman Filter approaches. The comparison demonstrated that the proposed methods combined the prediction accuracy of the algorithms of the PLS family and trajectory smoothness of the Kalman Filter. In addition, the prediction delay is significantly lower for the proposed algorithms than for the Kalman Filter approach. The proposed methods could be applied in a wide range of applications beyond neuroscience. PMID:27196417

  9. Penalized Multimarker vs. Single-Marker Regression Methods for Genome-Wide Association Studies of Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hui; Breheny, Patrick; Imam, Netsanet; Liu, Yongmei; Hoeschele, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans are still predominantly analyzed using single-marker association methods. As an alternative to single-marker analysis (SMA), all or subsets of markers can be tested simultaneously. This approach requires a form of penalized regression (PR) as the number of SNPs is much larger than the sample size. Here we review PR methods in the context of GWAS, extend them to perform penalty parameter and SNP selection by false discovery rate (FDR) control, and assess their performance in comparison with SMA. PR methods were compared with SMA, using realistically simulated GWAS data with a continuous phenotype and real data. Based on these comparisons our analytic FDR criterion may currently be the best approach to SNP selection using PR for GWAS. We found that PR with FDR control provides substantially more power than SMA with genome-wide type-I error control but somewhat less power than SMA with Benjamini–Hochberg FDR control (SMA-BH). PR with FDR-based penalty parameter selection controlled the FDR somewhat conservatively while SMA-BH may not achieve FDR control in all situations. Differences among PR methods seem quite small when the focus is on SNP selection with FDR control. Incorporating linkage disequilibrium into the penalization by adapting penalties developed for covariates measured on graphs can improve power but also generate more false positives or wider regions for follow-up. We recommend the elastic net with a mixing weight for the Lasso penalty near 0.5 as the best method. PMID:25354699

  10. Penalized multimarker vs. single-marker regression methods for genome-wide association studies of quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hui; Breheny, Patrick; Imam, Netsanet; Liu, Yongmei; Hoeschele, Ina

    2015-01-01

    The data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans are still predominantly analyzed using single-marker association methods. As an alternative to single-marker analysis (SMA), all or subsets of markers can be tested simultaneously. This approach requires a form of penalized regression (PR) as the number of SNPs is much larger than the sample size. Here we review PR methods in the context of GWAS, extend them to perform penalty parameter and SNP selection by false discovery rate (FDR) control, and assess their performance in comparison with SMA. PR methods were compared with SMA, using realistically simulated GWAS data with a continuous phenotype and real data. Based on these comparisons our analytic FDR criterion may currently be the best approach to SNP selection using PR for GWAS. We found that PR with FDR control provides substantially more power than SMA with genome-wide type-I error control but somewhat less power than SMA with Benjamini-Hochberg FDR control (SMA-BH). PR with FDR-based penalty parameter selection controlled the FDR somewhat conservatively while SMA-BH may not achieve FDR control in all situations. Differences among PR methods seem quite small when the focus is on SNP selection with FDR control. Incorporating linkage disequilibrium into the penalization by adapting penalties developed for covariates measured on graphs can improve power but also generate more false positives or wider regions for follow-up. We recommend the elastic net with a mixing weight for the Lasso penalty near 0.5 as the best method.

  11. LBP-based penalized weighted least-squares approach to low-dose cone-beam computed tomography reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ming; Wang, Huafeng; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Gu, Xianfeng; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-03-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has attracted growing interest of researchers in image reconstruction. The mAs level of the X-ray tube current, in practical application of CBCT, is mitigated in order to reduce the CBCT dose. The lowering of the X-ray tube current, however, results in the degradation of image quality. Thus, low-dose CBCT image reconstruction is in effect a noise problem. To acquire clinically acceptable quality of image, and keep the X-ray tube current as low as achievable in the meanwhile, some penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS)-based image reconstruction algorithms have been developed. One representative strategy in previous work is to model the prior information for solution regularization using an anisotropic penalty term. To enhance the edge preserving and noise suppressing in a finer scale, a novel algorithm combining the local binary pattern (LBP) with penalized weighted leastsquares (PWLS), called LBP-PWLS-based image reconstruction algorithm, is proposed in this work. The proposed LBP-PWLS-based algorithm adaptively encourages strong diffusion on the local spot/flat region around a voxel and less diffusion on edge/corner ones by adjusting the penalty for cost function, after the LBP is utilized to detect the region around the voxel as spot, flat and edge ones. The LBP-PWLS-based reconstruction algorithm was evaluated using the sinogram data acquired by a clinical CT scanner from the CatPhan® 600 phantom. Experimental results on the noiseresolution tradeoff measurement and other quantitative measurements demonstrated its feasibility and effectiveness in edge preserving and noise suppressing in comparison with a previous PWLS reconstruction algorithm.

  12. Will hypertension performance measures used for pay-for-performance programs penalize those who care for medically complex patients?

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Laura A.; Woodard, LeChauncy D.; Henderson, Louise M.; Urech, Tracy H.; Pietz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Background There is concern that performance measures, patient ratings of their care, and pay-for-performance programs may penalize health care providers of patients with multiple chronic co-existing conditions. We examined the impact of co-existing conditions on the quality of care for hypertension and patient perception of overall quality of their health care. Methods and Results 141,609 veterans with hypertension were classified into 4 condition groups: those with hypertension-concordant (diabetes, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia) and/or discordant (arthritis, depression, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) conditions, or neither. We measured blood pressure control at the index visit, overall good quality of care for hypertension including a follow-up interval, and patient ratings of satisfaction with their care. Association between condition type and number of co-existing conditions on receipt of overall good quality of care were assessed using logistic regression. Relationship between patient assessment and objective measures of quality was assessed. Of the cohort, 49.5% had concordant-only comorbidities, 8.7% had discordant-only comorbidities, 25.9% had both, and 16.0% had none. Odds of receiving overall good quality after adjusting for age were higher for those with concordant comorbidities (odds ratio [OR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.70–1.87), discordant comorbidities (OR, 1.32; 95% CI 1.23–1.41) or both (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 2.13–2.38), compared with neither. Findings did not change after adjusting for illness severity and/or number of primary care and specialty care visits. Patient assessment of quality did not vary by the presence of coexisting conditions and was not related to objective ratings of quality of care. Conclusions Contrary to expectation, patients with greater complexity had higher odds of receiving high quality care for hypertension. Subjective ratings of care did not vary with the presence or absence of the comorbid

  13. Multiscale Penalized Weighted Least-Squares Sinogram Restoration for Low-Dose X-Ray Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Lu, Hongbing; Wen, Junhai; Liang, Zhengrong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel multiscale penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) method for restoration of low-dose computed tomography (CT) sinogram. The method utilizes wavelet transform for the multiscale or multi-resolution analysis on the sinogram. Specifically, the Mallat-Zhong's wavelet transform is applied to decompose the sinogram to different resolution levels. At each decomposed resolution level, a PWLS criterion is applied to restore the noise-contaminated wavelet coefficients, where the penalty is adaptive to each resolution scale and the weight is updated by an exponential relationship between the data variance and mean at each scale and location. The proposed PWLS method is based on the observations that (1) noise in CT sinogram after logarithm transform and calibration can be modeled as signal-dependent variables and the sample variance depends on the sample mean by an exponential relationship; and (2) noise reduction can be more effective when it is adaptive to different resolution levels. The effectiveness of the proposed multiscale PWLS method is validated by both computer simulations and experimental studies. The gain by multiscale approach over single-scale means is quantified by noise-resolution tradeoff measures. PMID:17946172

  14. Concurrent multi-scale design optimization of composite frame structures using the Heaviside penalization of discrete material model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Duan, Zunyi; Lund, Erik; Zhao, Guozhong

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the concurrent multi-scale optimization design of frame structure composed of glass or carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. In the composite frame structure, the fiber winding angle at the micro-material scale and the geometrical parameter of components of the frame in the macro-structural scale are introduced as the independent variables on the two geometrical scales. Considering manufacturing requirements, discrete fiber winding angles are specified for the micro design variable. The improved Heaviside penalization discrete material optimization interpolation scheme has been applied to achieve the discrete optimization design of the fiber winding angle. An optimization model based on the minimum structural compliance and the specified fiber material volume constraint has been established. The sensitivity information about the two geometrical scales design variables are also deduced considering the characteristics of discrete fiber winding angles. The optimization results of the fiber winding angle or the macro structural topology on the two single geometrical scales, together with the concurrent two-scale optimization, is separately studied and compared in the paper. Numerical examples in the paper show that the concurrent multi-scale optimization can further explore the coupling effect between the macro-structure and micro-material of the composite to achieve an ultra-light design of the composite frame structure. The novel two geometrical scales optimization model provides a new opportunity for the design of composite structure in aerospace and other industries.

  15. Noise reduction for low-dose helical CT by 3D penalized weighted least-squares sinogram smoothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Tianfang; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-03-01

    Helical computed tomography (HCT) has several advantages over conventional step-and-shoot CT for imaging a relatively large object, especially for dynamic studies. However, HCT may increase X-ray exposure significantly to the patient. This work aims to reduce the radiation by lowering the X-ray tube current (mA) and filtering the low-mA (or dose) sinogram noise. Based on the noise properties of HCT sinogram, a three-dimensional (3D) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) objective function was constructed and an optimal sinogram was estimated by minimizing the objective function. To consider the difference of signal correlation among different direction of the HCT sinogram, an anisotropic Markov random filed (MRF) Gibbs function was designed as the penalty. The minimization of the objection function was performed by iterative Gauss-Seidel updating strategy. The effectiveness of the 3D-PWLS sinogram smoothing for low-dose HCT was demonstrated by a 3D Shepp-Logan head phantom study. Comparison studies with our previously developed KL domain PWLS sinogram smoothing algorithm indicate that the KL+2D-PWLS algorithm shows better performance on in-plane noise-resolution trade-off while the 3D-PLWS shows better performance on z-axis noise-resolution trade-off. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies by using channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) shows that 3D-PWLS and KL+2DPWLS algorithms have similar performance on detectability in low-contrast environment.

  16. Development and validation of clinical prediction models: marginal differences between logistic regression, penalized maximum likelihood estimation, and genetic programming.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Kristel J M; Siccama, Ivar; Vergouwe, Yvonne; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Debray, T P A; Keijzer, Maarten; Grobbee, Diederick E; Moons, Karel G M

    2012-04-01

    Many prediction models are developed by multivariable logistic regression. However, there are several alternative methods to develop prediction models. We compared the accuracy of a model that predicts the presence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) when developed by four different methods. We used the data of 2,086 primary care patients suspected of DVT, which included 21 candidate predictors. The cohort was split into a derivation set (1,668 patients, 329 with DVT) and a validation set (418 patients, 86 with DVT). Also, 100 cross-validations were conducted in the full cohort. The models were developed by logistic regression, logistic regression with shrinkage by bootstrapping techniques, logistic regression with shrinkage by penalized maximum likelihood estimation, and genetic programming. The accuracy of the models was tested by assessing discrimination and calibration. There were only marginal differences in the discrimination and calibration of the models in the validation set and cross-validations. The accuracy measures of the models developed by the four different methods were only slightly different, and the 95% confidence intervals were mostly overlapped. We have shown that models with good predictive accuracy are most likely developed by sensible modeling strategies rather than by complex development methods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. SkyFACT: high-dimensional modeling of gamma-ray emission with adaptive templates and penalized likelihoods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, Emma; Weniger, Christoph; Calore, Francesca

    2017-08-01

    We present SkyFACT (Sky Factorization with Adaptive Constrained Templates), a new approach for studying, modeling and decomposing diffuse gamma-ray emission. Like most previous analyses, the approach relies on predictions from cosmic-ray propagation codes like GALPROP and DRAGON. However, in contrast to previous approaches, we account for the fact that models are not perfect and allow for a very large number (gtrsim 105) of nuisance parameters to parameterize these imperfections. We combine methods of image reconstruction and adaptive spatio-spectral template regression in one coherent hybrid approach. To this end, we use penalized Poisson likelihood regression, with regularization functions that are motivated by the maximum entropy method. We introduce methods to efficiently handle the high dimensionality of the convex optimization problem as well as the associated semi-sparse covariance matrix, using the L-BFGS-B algorithm and Cholesky factorization. We test the method both on synthetic data as well as on gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, |l|<90o and |b|<20o, as observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We finally define a simple reference model that removes most of the residual emission from the inner Galaxy, based on conventional diffuse emission components as well as components for the Fermi bubbles, the Fermi Galactic center excess, and extended sources along the Galactic disk. Variants of this reference model can serve as basis for future studies of diffuse emission in and outside the Galactic disk.

  18. [Remarks about the position of the medico-legal expert in imperative regulations in the Penal and Civil Codes].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Nowak, Agnieszka; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Kobek, Mariusz

    2005-01-01

    In the monograph 'Medico-legal opinions--essays on theory', prof. K. Jaegermann wrote that 'the use of an expert requires theoretical or fairly clear knowledge about the mutual relationship between judge and expert'. In his opinion knowledge of this kind plays a significant role in estimating the usefulness of so-called expert evidence. Practical knowledge about the relationship between the judge and expert is necessary but not a decisive condition not only for a lawyer to be a judge but also for a physician to be a medico-legal expert. An expert can be not only a person appointed by the court but must also possess proper knowledge in a particular field, namely, the required professional and specialist qualifications and must also considered to be impartial. On the basis of the analysis of law in force and imperative regulations in Penal and Civil Codes, the authors have presented remarks relating to the expert's status as well as the lack of judicial control over the activity of experts appointed by court. Verification of professional qualifications in court experts and a reduction of those appointed 'ad hoc' are suggested. In the authors opinion co-operation between lawyers and experts should be improved. It is also essential to introduce statutory legal protection of court experts as well as to undertake activities leading to equaling the status of Polish court experts to that of other European countries.

  19. [Security measures in the penal code, in the opinions of expert psychiatrists and some problems in their applications].

    PubMed

    Hajdukiewicz, Danuta

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to remind expert psychiatrists, the three basic elements required for the application of security measures such as placing the convict in a psychiatric hospital. They are: 1) An act was of serious social damage, 2) the damage was committed in a state of non-liability, 3) there is a high risk of the person repeating the act of similar social damage. The fulfilment of these three is an obligation for the court to apply the security measure of placing the person in a psychiatric hospital (art. 94 section 1 of the penal code). Practice shows that experts have difficulties in these evaluations, which in turn results in faults in directing for placement withoutjust cause, or in turn-there is no directing, even though there are causes for it. There is a huge need for legal regulations on these manners, after the forensic psychiatric observation ends. The non-liable delinquent who committed an act of serious social damage is in risk of committing this act once more, whilst he is not in custody. The issue is in showing a legal basis for keeping the non-liable delinquent from such an act in a psychiatric hospital, in spite of ending the observation, until the legal sentence on the security measure is in place.

  20. [Medico-legal opinions in penal cases provided by clinicians and forensic medicine specialists--comparative analysis].

    PubMed

    Chowaniec, Czesław; Chowaniec, Małgorzata; Nowak, Agnieszka

    2005-01-01

    From the practice of the Forensic Medicine Department, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice it appears that in criminal cases the level of medico-legal opinions provided by experts appointed by the district court or 'ad hoc' is very low. The analysis of the chosen files shoved a divergence of opinions given to the adopted motions as well as numerous offences to regulations in the nature of a consultative error. In the paper the authors have made an attempt to appraise causes of the above mentioned problems such as: 1. the lack of medico-legal knowledge and experience in court experts. 2. excessive ease of registration to the panel of court experts and the lack of processes which verify the qualifications of experts. 3. the lack of judicial control over expert's opinions and common acceptance of their work. 4. ignorance of the obligatory penal law. 5. ignorance of the basic rules for giving medico-legal opinions (legal consequences, casual nexus). 6. excessive but groundless self-confidence in experts. 7. the lack of a correct way of thinking and conclusion making. The aim of the paper was to pay close attention to the absolute need of verification of court experts' qualifications and work.

  1. IPF-LASSO: Integrative L 1-Penalized Regression with Penalty Factors for Prediction Based on Multi-Omics Data

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Fuchs, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    As modern biotechnologies advance, it has become increasingly frequent that different modalities of high-dimensional molecular data (termed “omics” data in this paper), such as gene expression, methylation, and copy number, are collected from the same patient cohort to predict the clinical outcome. While prediction based on omics data has been widely studied in the last fifteen years, little has been done in the statistical literature on the integration of multiple omics modalities to select a subset of variables for prediction, which is a critical task in personalized medicine. In this paper, we propose a simple penalized regression method to address this problem by assigning different penalty factors to different data modalities for feature selection and prediction. The penalty factors can be chosen in a fully data-driven fashion by cross-validation or by taking practical considerations into account. In simulation studies, we compare the prediction performance of our approach, called IPF-LASSO (Integrative LASSO with Penalty Factors) and implemented in the R package ipflasso, with the standard LASSO and sparse group LASSO. The use of IPF-LASSO is also illustrated through applications to two real-life cancer datasets. All data and codes are available on the companion website to ensure reproducibility. PMID:28546826

  2. Generalized Linear Mixed Models for Binary Data: Are Matching Results from Penalized Quasi-Likelihood and Numerical Integration Less Biased?

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Andrea; Platt, Robert; Atherton, Juli

    2014-01-01

    Background Over time, adaptive Gaussian Hermite quadrature (QUAD) has become the preferred method for estimating generalized linear mixed models with binary outcomes. However, penalized quasi-likelihood (PQL) is still used frequently. In this work, we systematically evaluated whether matching results from PQL and QUAD indicate less bias in estimated regression coefficients and variance parameters via simulation. Methods We performed a simulation study in which we varied the size of the data set, probability of the outcome, variance of the random effect, number of clusters and number of subjects per cluster, etc. We estimated bias in the regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters as estimated via PQL and QUAD. We ascertained if similarity of estimated regression coefficients, odds ratios and variance parameters predicted less bias. Results Overall, we found that the absolute percent bias of the odds ratio estimated via PQL or QUAD increased as the PQL- and QUAD-estimated odds ratios became more discrepant, though results varied markedly depending on the characteristics of the dataset Conclusions Given how markedly results varied depending on data set characteristics, specifying a rule above which indicated biased results proved impossible. This work suggests that comparing results from generalized linear mixed models estimated via PQL and QUAD is a worthwhile exercise for regression coefficients and variance components obtained via QUAD, in situations where PQL is known to give reasonable results. PMID:24416249

  3. Noise suppression for dual-energy CT via penalized weighted least-square optimization with similarity-based regularization

    SciTech Connect

    Harms, Joseph; Wang, Tonghe; Petrongolo, Michael; Zhu, Lei; Niu, Tianye

    2016-05-15

    Purpose: Dual-energy CT (DECT) expands applications of CT imaging in its capability to decompose CT images into material images. However, decomposition via direct matrix inversion leads to large noise amplification and limits quantitative use of DECT. Their group has previously developed a noise suppression algorithm via penalized weighted least-square optimization with edge-preservation regularization (PWLS-EPR). In this paper, the authors improve method performance using the same framework of penalized weighted least-square optimization but with similarity-based regularization (PWLS-SBR), which substantially enhances the quality of decomposed images by retaining a more uniform noise power spectrum (NPS). Methods: The design of PWLS-SBR is based on the fact that averaging pixels of similar materials gives a low-noise image. For each pixel, the authors calculate the similarity to other pixels in its neighborhood by comparing CT values. Using an empirical Gaussian model, the authors assign high/low similarity value to one neighboring pixel if its CT value is close/far to the CT value of the pixel of interest. These similarity values are organized in matrix form, such that multiplication of the similarity matrix to the image vector reduces image noise. The similarity matrices are calculated on both high- and low-energy CT images and averaged. In PWLS-SBR, the authors include a regularization term to minimize the L-2 norm of the difference between the images without and with noise suppression via similarity matrix multiplication. By using all pixel information of the initial CT images rather than just those lying on or near edges, PWLS-SBR is superior to the previously developed PWLS-EPR, as supported by comparison studies on phantoms and a head-and-neck patient. Results: On the line-pair slice of the Catphan{sup ©}600 phantom, PWLS-SBR outperforms PWLS-EPR and retains spatial resolution of 8 lp/cm, comparable to the original CT images, even at 90% reduction in noise

  4. Numerical discretization-based estimation methods for ordinary differential equation models via penalized spline smoothing with applications in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi; Kumar, Arun

    2012-06-01

    Differential equations are extensively used for modeling dynamics of physical processes in many scientific fields such as engineering, physics, and biomedical sciences. Parameter estimation of differential equation models is a challenging problem because of high computational cost and high-dimensional parameter space. In this article, we propose a novel class of methods for estimating parameters in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, which is motivated by HIV dynamics modeling. The new methods exploit the form of numerical discretization algorithms for an ODE solver to formulate estimating equations. First, a penalized-spline approach is employed to estimate the state variables and the estimated state variables are then plugged in a discretization formula of an ODE solver to obtain the ODE parameter estimates via a regression approach. We consider three different order of discretization methods, Euler's method, trapezoidal rule, and Runge-Kutta method. A higher-order numerical algorithm reduces numerical error in the approximation of the derivative, which produces a more accurate estimate, but its computational cost is higher. To balance the computational cost and estimation accuracy, we demonstrate, via simulation studies, that the trapezoidal discretization-based estimate is the best and is recommended for practical use. The asymptotic properties for the proposed numerical discretization-based estimators are established. Comparisons between the proposed methods and existing methods show a clear benefit of the proposed methods in regards to the trade-off between computational cost and estimation accuracy. We apply the proposed methods t an HIV study to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approaches.

  5. Numerical Discretization-Based Estimation Methods for Ordinary Differential Equation Models via Penalized Spline Smoothing with Applications in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi; Kumar, Arun

    2012-01-01

    Summary Differential equations are extensively used for modeling dynamics of physical processes in many scientific fields such as engineering, physics, and biomedical sciences. Parameter estimation of differential equation models is a challenging problem because of high computational cost and high-dimensional parameter space. In this paper, we propose a novel class of methods for estimating parameters in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, which is motivated by HIV dynamics modeling. The new methods exploit the form of numerical discretization algorithms for an ODE solver to formulate estimating equations. First a penalized-spline approach is employed to estimate the state variables and the estimated state variables are then plugged in a discretization formula of an ODE solver to obtain the ODE parameter estimates via a regression approach. We consider three different order of discretization methods, Euler’s method, trapezoidal rule and Runge-Kutta method. A higher order numerical algorithm reduces numerical error in the approximation of the derivative, which produces a more accurate estimate, but its computational cost is higher. To balance the computational cost and estimation accuracy, we demonstrate, via simulation studies, that the trapezoidal discretization-based estimate is the best and is recommended for practical use. The asymptotic properties for the proposed numerical discretization-based estimators (DBE) are established. Comparisons between the proposed methods and existing methods show a clear benefit of the proposed methods in regards to the trade-off between computational cost and estimation accuracy. We apply the proposed methods to an HIV study to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approaches. PMID:22376200

  6. Task-driven tube current modulation and regularization design in computed tomography with penalized-likelihood reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, G. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Stayman, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: This work applies task-driven optimization to design CT tube current modulation and directional regularization in penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction. The relative performance of modulation schemes commonly adopted for filtered-backprojection (FBP) reconstruction were also evaluated for PL in comparison. Methods: We adopt a task-driven imaging framework that utilizes a patient-specific anatomical model and information of the imaging task to optimize imaging performance in terms of detectability index (d'). This framework leverages a theoretical model based on implicit function theorem and Fourier approximations to predict local spatial resolution and noise characteristics of PL reconstruction as a function of the imaging parameters to be optimized. Tube current modulation was parameterized as a linear combination of Gaussian basis functions, and regularization was based on the design of (directional) pairwise penalty weights for the 8 in-plane neighboring voxels. Detectability was optimized using a covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy algorithm. Task-driven designs were compared to conventional tube current modulation strategies for a Gaussian detection task in an abdomen phantom. Results: The task-driven design yielded the best performance, improving d' by ~20% over an unmodulated acquisition. Contrary to FBP, PL reconstruction using automatic exposure control and modulation based on minimum variance (in FBP) performed worse than the unmodulated case, decreasing d' by 16% and 9%, respectively. Conclusions: This work shows that conventional tube current modulation schemes suitable for FBP can be suboptimal for PL reconstruction. Thus, the proposed task-driven optimization provides additional opportunities for improved imaging performance and dose reduction beyond that achievable with conventional acquisition and reconstruction.

  7. Simulation studies as designed experiments: the comparison of penalized regression models in the "large p, small n" setting.

    PubMed

    Chaibub Neto, Elias; Bare, J Christopher; Margolin, Adam A

    2014-01-01

    New algorithms are continuously proposed in computational biology. Performance evaluation of novel methods is important in practice. Nonetheless, the field experiences a lack of rigorous methodology aimed to systematically and objectively evaluate competing approaches. Simulation studies are frequently used to show that a particular method outperforms another. Often times, however, simulation studies are not well designed, and it is hard to characterize the particular conditions under which different methods perform better. In this paper we propose the adoption of well established techniques in the design of computer and physical experiments for developing effective simulation studies. By following best practices in planning of experiments we are better able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of competing algorithms leading to more informed decisions about which method to use for a particular task. We illustrate the application of our proposed simulation framework with a detailed comparison of the ridge-regression, lasso and elastic-net algorithms in a large scale study investigating the effects on predictive performance of sample size, number of features, true model sparsity, signal-to-noise ratio, and feature correlation, in situations where the number of covariates is usually much larger than sample size. Analysis of data sets containing tens of thousands of features but only a few hundred samples is nowadays routine in computational biology, where "omics" features such as gene expression, copy number variation and sequence data are frequently used in the predictive modeling of complex phenotypes such as anticancer drug response. The penalized regression approaches investigated in this study are popular choices in this setting and our simulations corroborate well established results concerning the conditions under which each one of these methods is expected to perform best while providing several novel insights.

  8. Task-Driven Tube Current Modulation and Regularization Design in Computed Tomography with Penalized-Likelihood Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Gang, G. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.; Stayman, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This work applies task-driven optimization to design CT tube current modulation and directional regularization in penalized-likelihood (PL) reconstruction. The relative performance of modulation schemes commonly adopted for filtered-backprojection (FBP) reconstruction were also evaluated for PL in comparison. Methods We adopt a task-driven imaging framework that utilizes a patient-specific anatomical model and information of the imaging task to optimize imaging performance in terms of detectability index (d’). This framework leverages a theoretical model based on implicit function theorem and Fourier approximations to predict local spatial resolution and noise characteristics of PL reconstruction as a function of the imaging parameters to be optimized. Tube current modulation was parameterized as a linear combination of Gaussian basis functions, and regularization was based on the design of (directional) pairwise penalty weights for the 8 in-plane neighboring voxels. Detectability was optimized using a covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy algorithm. Task-driven designs were compared to conventional tube current modulation strategies for a Gaussian detection task in an abdomen phantom. Results The task-driven design yielded the best performance, improving d’ by ~20% over an unmodulated acquisition. Contrary to FBP, PL reconstruction using automatic exposure control and modulation based on minimum variance (in FBP) performed worse than the unmodulated case, decreasing d’ by 16% and 9%, respectively. Conclusions This work shows that conventional tube current modulation schemes suitable for FBP can be suboptimal for PL reconstruction. Thus, the proposed task-driven optimization provides additional opportunities for improved imaging performance and dose reduction beyond that achievable with conventional acquisition and reconstruction. PMID:27110053

  9. Prevalence of mental disorders at admission to the penal justice system in emerging countries: a study from Chile.

    PubMed

    Mundt, A P; Kastner, S; Larraín, S; Fritsch, R; Priebe, S

    2016-10-01

    Previous mental health surveys conducted in prisons within emerging countries recruited samples of all prisoners at any single point in time. However, this sampling strategy results in an overrepresentation of long-term prisoners as compared with those studies recruiting from all admissions over time. This study aimed to assess mental disorders in consecutively admitted prisoners soon after admission, in order to address service needs of people with short-term imprisonments and people at early stages of imprisonment. Disorders were assessed in a sample of 229 male and 198 female prisoners, consecutively committed to the penal justice system in Santiago de Chile, using the structured Mini-Neuropsychiatric interview. Prevalence rates were calculated as per cent values. Ninety-five per cent confidence intervals were calculated for the proportions. Illicit drug and/or alcohol use disorders in the year prior to admission were present in 173 (76%) male and 64 (32%) female prisoners. The substances most frequently causing addiction were cocaine-based products in 108 (47%) male and 42 (21%) female prisoners. Current major depression was present in 124 (54%) male and 86 (43%) female prisoners, and current non-affective psychotic disorders in 18 (8%) male and in 10 (5%) female prisoners. High suicidal risk was present in 64 (28%) male prisoners and in 29 (15%) female prisoners. When consecutive prisoners are assessed at admission, rates of mental health and substance use disorders were higher than in previous studies in emerging countries that had sampled from all existing prisoners at a time. Affective disorders and suicide risk appear more prevalent than in admission studies conducted in Western high-income countries. Previous research may have systematically underestimated the extent of mental health problems in prisoners, which poses a major public health challenge in emerging countries.

  10. Simulation Studies as Designed Experiments: The Comparison of Penalized Regression Models in the “Large p, Small n” Setting

    PubMed Central

    Chaibub Neto, Elias; Bare, J. Christopher; Margolin, Adam A.

    2014-01-01

    New algorithms are continuously proposed in computational biology. Performance evaluation of novel methods is important in practice. Nonetheless, the field experiences a lack of rigorous methodology aimed to systematically and objectively evaluate competing approaches. Simulation studies are frequently used to show that a particular method outperforms another. Often times, however, simulation studies are not well designed, and it is hard to characterize the particular conditions under which different methods perform better. In this paper we propose the adoption of well established techniques in the design of computer and physical experiments for developing effective simulation studies. By following best practices in planning of experiments we are better able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of competing algorithms leading to more informed decisions about which method to use for a particular task. We illustrate the application of our proposed simulation framework with a detailed comparison of the ridge-regression, lasso and elastic-net algorithms in a large scale study investigating the effects on predictive performance of sample size, number of features, true model sparsity, signal-to-noise ratio, and feature correlation, in situations where the number of covariates is usually much larger than sample size. Analysis of data sets containing tens of thousands of features but only a few hundred samples is nowadays routine in computational biology, where “omics” features such as gene expression, copy number variation and sequence data are frequently used in the predictive modeling of complex phenotypes such as anticancer drug response. The penalized regression approaches investigated in this study are popular choices in this setting and our simulations corroborate well established results concerning the conditions under which each one of these methods is expected to perform best while providing several novel insights. PMID:25289666

  11. A pseudo-penalized quasi-likelihood approach to the spatial misalignment problem with non-normal data.

    PubMed

    Lopiano, Kenneth K; Young, Linda J; Gotway, Carol A

    2014-09-01

    Spatially referenced datasets arising from multiple sources are routinely combined to assess relationships among various outcomes and covariates. The geographical units associated with the data, such as the geographical coordinates or areal-level administrative units, are often spatially misaligned, that is, observed at different locations or aggregated over different geographical units. As a result, the covariate is often predicted at the locations where the response is observed. The method used to align disparate datasets must be accounted for when subsequently modeling the aligned data. Here we consider the case where kriging is used to align datasets in point-to-point and point-to-areal misalignment problems when the response variable is non-normally distributed. If the relationship is modeled using generalized linear models, the additional uncertainty induced from using the kriging mean as a covariate introduces a Berkson error structure. In this article, we develop a pseudo-penalized quasi-likelihood algorithm to account for the additional uncertainty when estimating regression parameters and associated measures of uncertainty. The method is applied to a point-to-point example assessing the relationship between low-birth weights and PM2.5 levels after the onset of the largest wildfire in Florida history, the Bugaboo scrub fire. A point-to-areal misalignment problem is presented where the relationship between asthma events in Florida's counties and PM2.5 levels after the onset of the fire is assessed. Finally, the method is evaluated using a simulation study. Our results indicate the method performs well in terms of coverage for 95% confidence intervals and naive methods that ignore the additional uncertainty tend to underestimate the variability associated with parameter estimates. The underestimation is most profound in Poisson regression models.

  12. Hybrid grid-particle methods and Penalization: A Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury approach to compute 3D viscous flows using FFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelin, Robin; Poncet, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Particle methods are very convenient to compute transport equations in fluid mechanics as their computational cost is linear and they are not limited by convection stability conditions. To achieve large 3D computations the method must be coupled to efficient algorithms for velocity computations, including a good treatment of non-homogeneities and complex moving geometries. The Penalization method enables to consider moving bodies interaction by adding a term in the conservation of momentum equation. This work introduces a new computational algorithm to solve implicitly in the same step the Penalization term and the Laplace operators, since explicit computations are limited by stability issues, especially at low Reynolds number. This computational algorithm is based on the Sherman-Morrison-Woodbury formula coupled to a GMRES iterative method to reduce the computations to a sequence of Poisson problems: this allows to formulate a penalized Poisson equation as a large perturbation of a standard Poisson, by means of algebraic relations. A direct consequence is the possibility to use fast solvers based on Fast Fourier Transforms for this problem with good efficiency from both the computational and the memory consumption point of views, since these solvers are recursive and they do not perform any matrix assembling. The resulting fluid mechanics computations are very fast and they consume a small amount of memory, compared to a reference solver or a linear system resolution. The present applications focus mainly on a coupling between transport equation and 3D Stokes equations, for studying biological organisms motion in a highly viscous flows with variable viscosity.

  13. Development and evaluation of convergent and accelerated penalized SPECT image reconstruction methods for improved dose-volume histogram estimation in radiopharmaceutical therapy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lishui; Hobbs, Robert F; Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C

    2014-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) dosimetry has the potential to provide better prediction of response of normal tissues and tumors and is based on 3D estimates of the activity distribution in the patient obtained from emission tomography. Dose-volume histograms (DVHs) are an important summary measure of 3D dosimetry and a widely used tool for treatment planning in radiation therapy. Accurate estimates of the radioactivity distribution in space and time are desirable for accurate 3D dosimetry. The purpose of this work was to develop and demonstrate the potential of penalized SPECT image reconstruction methods to improve DVHs estimates obtained from 3D dosimetry methods. The authors developed penalized image reconstruction methods, using maximum a posteriori (MAP) formalism, which intrinsically incorporate regularization in order to control noise and, unlike linear filters, are designed to retain sharp edges. Two priors were studied: one is a 3D hyperbolic prior, termed single-time MAP (STMAP), and the second is a 4D hyperbolic prior, termed cross-time MAP (CTMAP), using both the spatial and temporal information to control noise. The CTMAP method assumed perfect registration between the estimated activity distributions and projection datasets from the different time points. Accelerated and convergent algorithms were derived and implemented. A modified NURBS-based cardiac-torso phantom with a multicompartment kidney model and organ activities and parameters derived from clinical studies were used in a Monte Carlo simulation study to evaluate the methods. Cumulative dose-rate volume histograms (CDRVHs) and cumulative DVHs (CDVHs) obtained from the phantom and from SPECT images reconstructed with both the penalized algorithms and OS-EM were calculated and compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. The STMAP method was applied to patient data and CDRVHs obtained with STMAP and OS-EM were compared qualitatively. The results showed that the penalized algorithms substantially

  14. Absorbing devaluation: Pemex penalized

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-30

    Shock from Mexico`s international finance debacle has created a ripple across the global pond, affecting trading markets from Buenos Aires to Hong Kong. Mexican consumers must cope with a currency that can purchase 40% fewer imported goods than it could seven weeks ago. The Mexican government has taken austerity measures controlling prices on staple consumer items designed to prevent rampant inflation. State oil company Petroleos Mexicanos is left exposed to some of the costs of the peso devaluation to supply Mexican gasoline markets with imported supply. However, Mexico`s flexible tax structure allows Pemex to divert the cost throughout its operations.

  15. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  16. Optimization of image reconstruction for yttrium-90 SIRT on a LYSO PET/CT system using a Bayesian penalized likelihood reconstruction algorithm.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Lisa M; Bradley, Kevin M; Boardman, Philip; Hallam, Aida; McGowan, Daniel R

    2016-09-29

    Imaging on a gamma camera with Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) following selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) may allow for verification of treatment delivery but suffers relatively poor spatial resolution and imprecise dosimetry calculation. (90)Y Positron Emission Tomography (PET) / Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is possible on 3D, time-of-flight machines however images are usually poor due to low count statistics and noise. A new PET reconstruction software using a Bayesian penalized likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm (termed Q.Clear) released by GE was investigated using phantom and patient scans to optimize the reconstruction for post-SIRT imaging and clarify if this leads to an improvement in clinical image quality using (90)Y.

  17. Penalized Cox regression analysis in the high-dimensional and low-sample size settings, with applications to microarray gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Gui, Jiang; Li, Hongzhe

    2005-07-01

    An important application of microarray technology is to relate gene expression profiles to various clinical phenotypes of patients. Success has been demonstrated in molecular classification of cancer in which the gene expression data serve as predictors and different types of cancer serve as a categorical outcome variable. However, there has been less research in linking gene expression profiles to the censored survival data such as patients' overall survival time or time to cancer relapse. It would be desirable to have models with good prediction accuracy and parsimony property. We propose to use the L(1) penalized estimation for the Cox model to select genes that are relevant to patients' survival and to build a predictive model for future prediction. The computational difficulty associated with the estimation in the high-dimensional and low-sample size settings can be efficiently solved by using the recently developed least-angle regression (LARS) method. Our simulation studies and application to real datasets on predicting survival after chemotherapy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma demonstrate that the proposed procedure, which we call the LARS-Cox procedure, can be used for identifying important genes that are related to time to death due to cancer and for building a parsimonious model for predicting the survival of future patients. The LARS-Cox regression gives better predictive performance than the L(2) penalized regression and a few other dimension-reduction based methods. We conclude that the proposed LARS-Cox procedure can be very useful in identifying genes relevant to survival phenotypes and in building a parsimonious predictive model that can be used for classifying future patients into clinically relevant high- and low-risk groups based on the gene expression profile and survival times of previous patients.

  18. [Selected legal aspects of the protection of the unborn child in the light of the draft amendment to the Polish Penal Code].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Moniak; Spaczyński, Robert Z

    2015-10-01

    Criminal Law Codification Commission, acting at the Ministry of Justice prepared proposals for amendments in the Polish Penal Code, related to offenses against life and health that were presented to the public in 2013. The draft provides for the protection of the child in the prenatal stage, introducing a new category of the entity to be protected, which is "unborn child" and "unborn child able to live outside the mother's body". These regulations provide for mothers criminal liability and responsibility of the medical staff (a doctor), as well as the child's father to the extent in which he is obliged to take steps aimed at rescuing the fetus. It is doctor's responsibility to show particular care for human health and life since a doctor has special medical knowledge and that is regulated by art. 30 of the act on professions of doctor and dentist. The proposed rule changes were not brought before the legislature in the current term of the Sejm (2011-2015), but due to the development of medicine, including obstetrical ultrasound, which enables visualization of a child that moves in the womb and is treated as a separate entity with distinct personal features the grounds are given for the opinion that the issue of the legal status of the unborn child, particularly in the context of causing death of a child in the last phase before birth as a result of medical malpractice or other external factors will be back in the public discussion.

  19. Elder abuse in Europe's "most elderly" city: an assessment of the phenomenon and an analysis of the data from the Penal Court of Genoa from 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Molinelli, Andrea; Ventura, Francesco; Pinto, Sara Lo; Drommi, Martina; De Stefano, Francesco

    2017-03-06

    In Italy, 5% of the elderly are estimated to have suffered abuse. While the Penal Code refers to generic types of abuse, such as physical and psychological maltreatment, abandonment and financial fraud, it does not specifically protect the elderly as a category. To assess the frequency and modalities of elder abuse in Genoa and its Province, and to compare these data with those reported in the literature, in order to provide a picture of the current situation that can be used by the authorities to combat this phenomenon. We analysed the first-degree verdicts issued by the Court of Genoa regarding accusations of physical, psychological and moral abuse and maltreatment of elderly subjects (over 65 years) in the period 2010-2015. Only 85 of the 4028 court verdicts analysed involved elderly persons: 19 cases of domestic maltreatment, 3 of abuse of the means of correction or discipline, 18 of personal injury, 5 of abandonment and 40 of circumvention (deceiving someone, especially an elderly or mentally impaired person, to obtain a profit). A gap was observed between the number of crimes reported to the judicial authorities (tip of the iceberg) and the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon in the literature. There is a need both to create a network of protection for the elderly involving medical and judicial specialists and to train healthcare professionals to better recognise and report cases of maltreatment.

  20. Penalized weighted least-squares approach to sinogram noise reduction and image reconstruction for low-dose X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Li, Tianfang; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-10-01

    Reconstructing low-dose X-ray computed tomography (CT) images is a noise problem. This work investigated a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) approach to address this problem in two dimensions, where the WLS considers first- and second-order noise moments and the penalty models signal spatial correlations. Three different implementations were studied for the PWLS minimization. One utilizes a Markov random field (MRF) Gibbs functional to consider spatial correlations among nearby detector bins and projection views in sinogram space and minimizes the PWLS cost function by iterative Gauss-Seidel algorithm. Another employs Karhunen-Loève (KL) transform to de-correlate data signals among nearby views and minimizes the PWLS adaptively to each KL component by analytical calculation, where the spatial correlation among nearby bins is modeled by the same Gibbs functional. The third one models the spatial correlations among image pixels in image domain also by a MRF Gibbs functional and minimizes the PWLS by iterative successive over-relaxation algorithm. In these three implementations, a quadratic functional regularization was chosen for the MRF model. Phantom experiments showed a comparable performance of these three PWLS-based methods in terms of suppressing noise-induced streak artifacts and preserving resolution in the reconstructed images. Computer simulations concurred with the phantom experiments in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff and detectability in low contrast environment. The KL-PWLS implementation may have the advantage in terms of computation for high-resolution dynamic low-dose CT imaging.

  1. Penalized linear discriminant analysis and Discrete AdaBoost to distinguish human hair metal profiles: The case of adolescents residing near Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Abbruzzo, A; Tamburo, E; Varrica, D; Dongarrà, G; Mineo, A

    2016-06-01

    The research focus of the present paper was twofold. First, we tried to document that human intake of trace elements is influenced by geological factors of the place of residence. Second, we showed that the elemental composition of human hair is a useful screening tool for assessing people's exposure to potentially toxic substances. For this purpose, we used samples of human hair from adolescents and applied two robust statistical approaches. Samples from two distinct geological and environmental sites were collected: the first one was characterized by the presence of the active volcano Mt. Etna (ETNA group) and the second one lithologically made up of sedimentary rocks (SIC group). Chemical data were statistically processed by Penalized Linear Discriminant Analysis (pLDA) and Discrete AdaBoost (DAB). The separation between the two groups turned out well, with few overlaps accounting for less than 5%. The chemical variables that better distinguished ETNA group from SIC group were As, Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb, Sr, U and V. Both pLDA and DAB allowed us to characterize the elements most closely related to the volcanic contribution (As, U and V) and those (Cd, Co, Li, Mo, Rb and Sr) prevalently influenced by the geology of the area where SIC samples were collected. We conclude that the geological characteristics of the area of residence constitute a key factor in influencing the potential exposure to trace elements. Hair analysis coupled with robust statistical methods can be effectively used as a screening procedure to identify areas at great environmental risk.

  2. Pre-computed backprojection based penalized-likelihood (PPL) reconstruction with an edge-preserved regularizer for stationary Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shiyu; Inscoe, Christy R.; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Chen, Ying

    2014-03-01

    Stationary Digital Breast Tomosynthesis (sDBT) is a carbon nanotube based breast imaging device with fast data acquisition and decent projection resolution to provide three dimensional (3-D) volume information. To- mosynthesis 3-D image reconstruction is faced with the challenges of the cone beam geometry and the incomplete and nonsymmetric sampling due to the sparse views and limited view angle. Among all available reconstruction methods, statistical iterative method exhibits particular promising since it relies on an accurate physical and statistical model with prior knowledge. In this paper, we present the application of an edge-preserved regularizer to our previously proposed precomputed backprojection based penalized-likelihood (PPL) reconstruction. By using the edge-preserved regularizer, our experiments show that through tuning several parameters, resolution can be retained while noise is reduced significantly. Compared to other conventional noise reduction techniques in image reconstruction, less resolution is lost in order to gain certain noise reduction, which may benefit the research of low dose tomosynthesis.

  3. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.

  4. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  5. Penalized Weighted Least-Squares Approach to Sinogram Noise Reduction and Image Reconstruction for Low-Dose X-Ray Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Tianfang; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-01-01

    Reconstructing low-dose X-ray CT (computed tomography) images is a noise problem. This work investigated a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) approach to address this problem in two dimensions, where the WLS considers first- and second-order noise moments and the penalty models signal spatial correlations. Three different implementations were studied for the PWLS minimization. One utilizes a MRF (Markov random field) Gibbs functional to consider spatial correlations among nearby detector bins and projection views in sinogram space and minimizes the PWLS cost function by iterative Gauss-Seidel algorithm. Another employs Karhunen-Loève (KL) transform to de-correlate data signals among nearby views and minimizes the PWLS adaptively to each KL component by analytical calculation, where the spatial correlation among nearby bins is modeled by the same Gibbs functional. The third one models the spatial correlations among image pixels in image domain also by a MRF Gibbs functional and minimizes the PWLS by iterative successive over-relaxation algorithm. In these three implementations, a quadratic functional regularization was chosen for the MRF model. Phantom experiments showed a comparable performance of these three PWLS-based methods in terms of suppressing noise-induced streak artifacts and preserving resolution in the reconstructed images. Computer simulations concurred with the phantom experiments in terms of noise-resolution tradeoff and detectability in low contrast environment. The KL-PWLS implementation may have the advantage in terms of computation for high-resolution dynamic low-dose CT imaging. PMID:17024831

  6. [Evaluating the functional impairment of assault survivors in a judicial context: frequency of aggravating factors according to the French Penal Code and evidence for heterogeneous medical practice].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick; Dedouit, Fabrice; Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Bourokba, Nacer; Rougé-Maillart, Clotilde; Tournel, Gilles

    2012-11-01

    In cases of assault and battery, the French Penal Code considers some aggravating factors. No data are available on the frequency of aggravating factors. Our main objective was to determine this frequency. A secondary objective was to present the evaluation in several forensic medicine units of the duration of the victims' inability to fulfil their usual daily activities, in days of "Total incapacity to work" (TIW). Data were collected from six forensic medicine units on 300 evaluations of assaults survivors: aggravating factors, characteristics of the victims and of the assaults, results of medical examination, and determinants of TIW. Aggravating factors were present in most cases (232 of 300, 77%). Median duration of TIW was 2 days (range: 0-60). Medical evaluation ended in the absence of TIW in 0 to 56% of cases in the 6 units (Chi(2), P<0.0001). Forensic physicians considered that they had not evaluated the victims' mental state in 63 of 300 cases (21%). This rate varied significantly from one unit to another (P<0.0001). Determinants of TIW were primarily traumatic injuries in 45% of cases and functional impairment in 55%. Such proportions varied from one unit to another (P=0.01). Mental state impairment was the main determinant of TIW in 0 to 23% of cases (P=0.009). The present study documented the high frequency of aggravating factors and the heterogeneity of forensic evaluation in cases of assault and battery. Identifying determinants of TIW in everyday practice can participate in the development of national guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Medico-legal and legal-penal aspects of expert opinions and adjudication in cases of intoxications with intoxicating agents and ethanol-like intoxicants.

    PubMed

    Ćwiklińska, M; Teresiński, G; Buszewicz, G

    2015-01-01

    The available legal regulations in Poland do not define the concentration thresholds enabling to differentiate between the states of "after-use" versus "under the influence" of a drug, as it is in the case of alcohol. The aim of the study was to analyse jurisdiction in cases regarding the evaluation of the effects of intoxicating agents and ethanol-like intoxicants and to identify ambiguities and gaps in the applicable regulations leading to problems in preparing expert opinions. The material included the opinions of experts in the field of toxicology and forensic medicine made by the Department of Forensic Medicine in Lublin in the years 2009-2011 and records obtained in the process of inquiry from the regional prosecutor's offices and courts in 52 cases. Amongst 52 cases in which the ordered toxicology examinations demonstrated the presence of intoxicating agents in drivers' blood (tetrahydrocannabinols in 39 and amphetamine in 21 cases) in 2 cases petty offence proceedings were instituted (Art. 87 of the Petty Offence Code) although high concentrations of xenobiotics indicated the state of being "under the influence" of a narcotic drug (Art. 178a of the Penal Code). Three cases were discontinued despite expert opinions that the drivers were at least in the after-narcotic use state. In only 3 cases were witnesses asked to provide testimony about the circumstances of the driver's conduct. The analysis has demonstrated that judicial bodies expect forensic expertise based exclusively on toxicological examination results; when expert findings are inconclusive, they only administer litigations opportunistically applying the principle of the presumption of innocence understood literally. Considering the above, threshold values of "use" and "influence" of the most commonly detected drugs should be urgently determined.

  8. Development and application of a volume penalization immersed boundary method for the computation of blood flow and shear stresses in cerebral vessels and aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Mikhal, Julia; Geurts, Bernard J

    2013-12-01

    A volume-penalizing immersed boundary method is presented for the simulation of laminar incompressible flow inside geometrically complex blood vessels in the human brain. We concentrate on cerebral aneurysms and compute flow in curved brain vessels with and without spherical aneurysm cavities attached. We approximate blood as an incompressible Newtonian fluid and simulate the flow with the use of a skew-symmetric finite-volume discretization and explicit time-stepping. A key element of the immersed boundary method is the so-called masking function. This is a binary function with which we identify at any location in the domain whether it is 'solid' or 'fluid', allowing to represent objects immersed in a Cartesian grid. We compare three definitions of the masking function for geometries that are non-aligned with the grid. In each case a 'staircase' representation is used in which a grid cell is either 'solid' or 'fluid'. Reliable findings are obtained with our immersed boundary method, even at fairly coarse meshes with about 16 grid cells across a velocity profile. The validation of the immersed boundary method is provided on the basis of classical Poiseuille flow in a cylindrical pipe. We obtain first order convergence for the velocity and the shear stress, reflecting the fact that in our approach the solid-fluid interface is localized with an accuracy on the order of a grid cell. Simulations for curved vessels and aneurysms are done for different flow regimes, characterized by different values of the Reynolds number (Re). The validation is performed for laminar flow at Re = 250, while the flow in more complex geometries is studied at Re = 100 and Re = 250, as suggested by physiological conditions pertaining to flow of blood in the circle of Willis.

  9. Low-mAs X-ray CT image reconstruction by adaptive-weighted TV-constrained penalized re-weighted least-squares

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Jianhua; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Background The negative effects of X-ray exposure, such as inducing genetic and cancerous diseases, has arisen more attentions. Objective This paper aims to investigate a penalized re-weighted least-square (PRWLS) strategy for low-mAs X-ray computed tomography image reconstruction by incorporating an adaptive weighted total variation (AwTV) penalty term and a noise variance model of projection data. Methods An AwTV penalty is introduced in the objective function by considering both piecewise constant property and local nearby intensity similarity of the desired image. Furthermore, the weight of data fidelity term in the objective function is determined by our recent study on modeling variance estimation of projection data in the presence of electronic background noise. Results The presented AwTV-PRWLS algorithm can achieve the highest full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) measurement, for data conditions of (1) full-view 10mA acquisition and (2) sparse-view 80mA acquisition. In comparison between the AwTV/TV-PRWLS strategies and the previous reported AwTV/TV-projection onto convex sets (AwTV/TV-POCS) approaches, the former can gain in terms of FWHM for data condition (1), but cannot gain for the data condition (2). Conclusions In the case of full-view 10mA projection data, the presented AwTV-PRWLS shows potential improvement. However, in the case of sparse-view 80mA projection data, the AwTV/TV-POCS shows advantage over the PRWLS strategies. PMID:25080113

  10. Inverse determination of the penalty parameter in penalized weighted least-squares algorithm for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing; Guan, Huaiqun; Solberg, Timothy

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: A statistical projection restoration algorithm based on the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion can substantially improve the image quality of low-dose CBCT images. The performance of PWLS is largely dependent on the choice of the penalty parameter. Previously, the penalty parameter was chosen empirically by trial and error. In this work, the authors developed an inverse technique to calculate the penalty parameter in PWLS for noise suppression of low-dose CBCT in image guided radiotherapy (IGRT). Methods: In IGRT, a daily CBCT is acquired for the same patient during a treatment course. In this work, the authors acquired the CBCT with a high-mAs protocol for the first session and then a lower mAs protocol for the subsequent sessions. The high-mAs projections served as the goal (ideal) toward, which the low-mAs projections were to be smoothed by minimizing the PWLS objective function. The penalty parameter was determined through an inverse calculation of the derivative of the objective function incorporating both the high and low-mAs projections. Then the parameter obtained can be used for PWLS to smooth the noise in low-dose projections. CBCT projections for a CatPhan 600 and an anthropomorphic head phantom, as well as for a brain patient, were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique. Results: The penalty parameter in PWLS was obtained for each CBCT projection using the proposed strategy. The noise in the low-dose CBCT images reconstructed from the smoothed projections was greatly suppressed. Image quality in PWLS-processed low-dose CBCT was comparable to its corresponding high-dose CBCT. Conclusions: A technique was proposed to estimate the penalty parameter for PWLS algorithm. It provides an objective and efficient way to obtain the penalty parameter for image restoration algorithms that require predefined smoothing parameters.

  11. Predicting Future Self-Reported Motor Vehicle Collisions in Subjects with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Using the Penalized Support Vector Machine Method.

    PubMed

    Yuki, Kenya; Asaoka, Ryo; Awano-Tanabe, Sachiko; Ono, Takeshi; Shiba, Daisuke; Murata, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    We predict the likelihood of a future motor vehicle collision (MVC) from visual function data, attitudes to driving, and past MVC history using the penalized support vector machine (pSVM) in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Patients with POAG were screened prospectively for eligibility and 185 were analyzed in this study. Self-reported MVCs of all participants were recorded for 3 years from the baseline using a survey questionnaire every 12 months. A binocular integrated visual field (IVF) was calculated for each patient by merging a patient's monocular Humphrey Field Analyzer (HFA) visual fields (VFs). The IVF was divided into six regions, based on eccentricity and the right or left hemifield, and the average of the total deviation (TD) values in each of these six areas was calculated. Then, the future MVCs were predicted using various variables, including age, sex, 63 variables of 52 TD values, mean of the TD values, visual acuities (VAs), six sector average TDs with (predpenSVM_all) and without (predpenSVM_basic) the attitudes in driving, and also past MVC history, using the pSVM method, applying the leave-one-out cross validation. The relationship between predpenSVM_basic and the future MVC approached significance (odds ratio = 1.15, [0.99-1.29], P = 0.064, logistic regression). A significant relationship was observed between predpenSVM_all and the future MVC (odds ratio = 1.21, P = 0.0015). It was useful to predict future MVCs in patients with POAG using visual function metrics, patients' attitudes to driving, and past MVC history, using the pSVM. Careful consideration is needed when predicting future MVCs in POAG patients using visual function, and without driving attitude and MVC history.

  12. Non-Uniform Object-Space Pixelation (NUOP) for Penalized Maximum-Likelihood Image Reconstruction for a Single Photon Emission Microscope System

    PubMed Central

    Meng, L. J.; Li, Nan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a non-uniform object-space pixelation (NUOP) approach for image reconstruction using the penalized maximum likelihood methods. This method was developed for use with a single photon emission microscope (SPEM) system that offers an ultrahigh spatial resolution for a targeted local region inside mouse brain. In this approach, the object-space is divided with non-uniform pixel sizes, which are chosen adaptively based on object-dependent criteria. These include (a) some known characteristics of a target-region, (b) the associated Fisher Information that measures the weighted correlation between the responses of the system to gamma ray emissions occurred at different spatial locations, and (c) the linear distance from a given location to the target-region. In order to quantify the impact of this non-uniform pixelation approach on image quality, we used the Modified Uniform Cramer-Rao bound (MUCRB) to evaluate the local resolution-variance and bias-variance tradeoffs achievable with different pixelation strategies. As demonstrated in this paper, an efficient object-space pixelation could improve the speed of computation by 1–2 orders of magnitude, whilst maintaining an excellent reconstruction for the target-region. This improvement is crucial for making the SPEM system a practical imaging tool for mouse brain studies. The proposed method also allows rapid computation of the first and second order statistics of reconstructed images using analytical approximations, which is the key for the evaluation of several analytical system performance indices for system design and optimization.

  13. Deriving adaptive MRF coefficients from previous normal-dose CT scan for low-dose image reconstruction via penalized weighted least-squares minimization

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao; Han, Hao; Wang, Jing; Ma, Jianhua; Liu, Yan; Moore, William; Liang, Zhengrong

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated computed tomography (CT) scans are required for some clinical applications such as image-guided interventions. To optimize radiation dose utility, a normal-dose scan is often first performed to set up reference, followed by a series of low-dose scans for intervention. One common strategy to achieve the low-dose scan is to lower the x-ray tube current and exposure time (mAs) or tube voltage (kVp) setting in the scanning protocol, but the resulted image quality by the conventional filtered back-projection (FBP) method may be severely degraded due to the excessive noise. Penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) image reconstruction has shown the potential to significantly improve the image quality from low-mAs acquisitions, where the penalty plays an important role. In this work, the authors' explore an adaptive Markov random field (MRF)-based penalty term by utilizing previous normal-dose scan to improve the subsequent low-dose scans image reconstruction. Methods: In this work, the authors employ the widely-used quadratic-form MRF as the penalty model and explore a novel idea of using the previous normal-dose scan to obtain the MRF coefficients for adaptive reconstruction of the low-dose images. In the coefficients determination, the authors further explore another novel idea of using the normal-dose scan to obtain a scale map, which describes an optimal neighborhood for the coefficients determination such that a local uniform region has a small spread of frequency spectrum and, therefore, a small MRF window, and vice versa. The proposed penalty term is incorporated into the PWLS image reconstruction framework, and the low-dose images are reconstructed via the PWLS minimization. Results: The presented adaptive MRF based PWLS algorithm was validated by physical phantom and patient data. The experimental results demonstrated that the presented algorithm is superior to the PWLS reconstruction using the conventional Gaussian MRF penalty or the edge

  14. Power of multifactor dimensionality reduction and penalized logistic regression for detecting gene-gene Interaction in a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a growing awareness that interaction between multiple genes play an important role in the risk of common, complex multi-factorial diseases. Many common diseases are affected by certain genotype combinations (associated with some genes and their interactions). The identification and characterization of these susceptibility genes and gene-gene interaction have been limited by small sample size and large number of potential interactions between genes. Several methods have been proposed to detect gene-gene interaction in a case control study. The penalized logistic regression (PLR), a variant of logistic regression with L2 regularization, is a parametric approach to detect gene-gene interaction. On the other hand, the Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (MDR) is a nonparametric and genetic model-free approach to detect genotype combinations associated with disease risk. Methods We compared the power of MDR and PLR for detecting two-way and three-way interactions in a case-control study through extensive simulations. We generated several interaction models with different magnitudes of interaction effect. For each model, we simulated 100 datasets, each with 200 cases and 200 controls and 20 SNPs. We considered a wide variety of models such as models with just main effects, models with only interaction effects or models with both main and interaction effects. We also compared the performance of MDR and PLR to detect gene-gene interaction associated with acute rejection(AR) in kidney transplant patients. Results In this paper, we have studied the power of MDR and PLR for detecting gene-gene interaction in a case-control study through extensive simulation. We have compared their performances for different two-way and three-way interaction models. We have studied the effect of different allele frequencies on these methods. We have also implemented their performance on a real dataset. As expected, none of these methods were consistently better for all

  15. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  16. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  17. Ácaros del mango

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Los ácaros constituyen un grupo abundante y diverso que ocupa diferentes hábitats en árboles frutales y la estructura y disposición del follaje y ramas del mango, contribuyen significativamente a que se presente gran diversidad de ácaros benéficos y dañinos asociados a esta especie frutal. En Colomb...

  18. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  19. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  20. Conservacion de truchas del Pacifico

    Treesearch

    Brooke E. Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    La historia de las truchas del Pacífico, pertenecientes al género Oncorhynchus, es una historia muy interesante que se basa en la persistencia y diversificación de sus especies debido, en gran parte, al dinamismo propio que existe en su medio ambiente. Desde el oeste de Norteamérica, extendiéndose hasta el este de Asia, las truchas del Pacífico han experimentado la...

  1. MO-G-17A-07: Improved Image Quality in Brain F-18 FDG PET Using Penalized-Likelihood Image Reconstruction Via a Generalized Preconditioned Alternating Projection Algorithm: The First Patient Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidtlein, CR; Beattie, B; Humm, J; Li, S; Wu, Z; Xu, Y; Zhang, J; Shen, L; Vogelsang, L; Feiglin, D; Krol, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the performance of a new penalized-likelihood PET image reconstruction algorithm using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation (TV) sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty. Simulated and brain patient data sets were analyzed. Methods: This work represents an extension of the preconditioned alternating projection algorithm (PAPA) for emission-computed tomography. In this new generalized algorithm (GPAPA), the penalty term is expanded to allow multiple components, in this case the sum of the 1st to 4th order gradients, to reduce artificial piece-wise constant regions (“staircase” artifacts typical for TV) seen in PAPA images penalized with only the 1st order gradient. Simulated data were used to test for “staircase” artifacts and to optimize the penalty hyper-parameter in the root-mean-squared error (RMSE) sense. Patient FDG brain scans were acquired on a GE D690 PET/CT (370 MBq at 1-hour post-injection for 10 minutes) in time-of-flight mode and in all cases were reconstructed using resolution recovery projectors. GPAPA images were compared PAPA and RMSE-optimally filtered OSEM (fully converged) in simulations and to clinical OSEM reconstructions (3 iterations, 32 subsets) with 2.6 mm XYGaussian and standard 3-point axial smoothing post-filters. Results: The results from the simulated data show a significant reduction in the 'staircase' artifact for GPAPA compared to PAPA and lower RMSE (up to 35%) compared to optimally filtered OSEM. A simple power-law relationship between the RMSE-optimal hyper-parameters and the noise equivalent counts (NEC) per voxel is revealed. Qualitatively, the patient images appear much sharper and with less noise than standard clinical images. The convergence rate is similar to OSEM. Conclusions: GPAPA reconstructions using the 1{sub 1}-norm total-variation sum of the 1st through 4th-order gradients as the penalty show great promise for the improvement of image quality over that currently achieved

  2. Advanced predictive methods for wine age prediction: Part I - A comparison study of single-block regression approaches based on variable selection, penalized regression, latent variables and tree-based ensemble methods.

    PubMed

    Rendall, Ricardo; Pereira, Ana Cristina; Reis, Marco S

    2017-08-15

    In this paper we test and compare advanced predictive approaches for estimating wine age in the context of the production of a high quality fortified wine - Madeira Wine. We consider four different data sets, namely, volatile, polyphenols, organic acids and the UV-vis spectra. Each one of these data sets contain chemical information of a different nature and present diverse data structures, namely a different dimensionality, level of collinearity and degree of sparsity. These different aspects may imply the use of different modelling approaches in order to better explore the data set's information content, namely their predictive potential for wine age. This happens to be so, because different regression methods have different prior assumptions regarding the predictors, response variable(s) and the data generating mechanism, which may or may not find good adherence to the case study under analysis. In order to cover a wide range of modelling domains, we have incorporated in this work methods belonging to four very distinct classes of approaches that cover most applications found in practice: linear regression with variable selection, penalized regression, latent variables regression and tree-based ensemble methods. We have also developed a rigorous comparison framework based on a double Monte Carlo cross-validation scheme, in order to perform the relative assessment of the performance of the various methods. Upon comparison, models built using the polyphenols and volatile composition data sets led to better wine age predictions, showing lower errors under testing conditions. Furthermore, the results obtained for the polyphenols data set suggest a more sparse structure that can be further explored in order to reduce the number of measured variables. In terms of regression methods, tree-based methods, and boosted regression trees in particular, presented the best results for the polyphenols, volatile and the organic acid data sets, suggesting a possible presence of a

  3. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  4. Torres del Paine National Park

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Grinding glaciers and granite peaks mingle in Chile’s Torres del Paine National Park. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this summertime image of the park on January 21, 2013. This image shows just a portion of the park, including Grey Glacier and the mountain range of Cordillera del Paine. The rivers of glacial ice in Torres del Paine National Park grind over bedrock, turning some of that rock to dust. Many of the glaciers terminate in freshwater lakes, which are rich with glacial flour that colors them brown to turquoise. Skinny rivers connect some of the lakes to each other (image upper and lower right). Cordillera del Paine rises between some of the wide glacial valleys. The compact mountain range is a combination of soaring peaks and small glaciers, most notably the Torres del Paine (Towers of Paine), three closely spaced peaks emblematic of the mountain range and the larger park. By human standards, the mountains of Cordillera del Paine are quite old. But compared to the Rocky Mountains (70 million years old), and the Appalachians (about 480 million years), the Cordillera del Paine are very young—only about 12 million years old. A study published in 2008 described how scientists used zircon crystals to estimate the age of Cordillera del Paine. The authors concluded that the mountain range was built in three pulses, creating a granite laccolith, or dome-shaped feature, more than 2,000 meters (7,000 feet) thick. NASA Earth Observatory image created by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using Advanced Land Imager data from the NASA EO-1 team. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: EO-1 - ALI View more info: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=80266 Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA

  5. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  6. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  7. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  8. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  9. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  10. [Genetic expertise and the penal process].

    PubMed

    Choclán Montalvo, J A

    1998-01-01

    The author reflects on the major forensic biology issues related to human genome analysis. He also discusses, from the comparative law perspective, the extent to which genetic test evidence is binding on judges. He concludes with a discussion of the influence of genetic research on people's fundamental rights.

  11. Sparse brain network using penalized linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyekyoung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hyejin; Kim, Boong-Nyun; Chung, Moo K.

    2011-03-01

    Sparse partial correlation is a useful connectivity measure for brain networks when it is difficult to compute the exact partial correlation in the small-n large-p setting. In this paper, we formulate the problem of estimating partial correlation as a sparse linear regression with a l1-norm penalty. The method is applied to brain network consisting of parcellated regions of interest (ROIs), which are obtained from FDG-PET images of the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) children and the pediatric control (PedCon) subjects. To validate the results, we check their reproducibilities of the obtained brain networks by the leave-one-out cross validation and compare the clustered structures derived from the brain networks of ASD and PedCon.

  12. Penile nodules in the penal system.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jack; Horowitz, David

    2012-05-01

    The insertion of inert spherical objects under the skin of the penile shaft with the intent of enhancing the sexual experience of one's partner has been reported mostly among Southeast Asian men. This practice is gaining popularity among the Hispanic jail population and prison inmates in southern California. We present a case series of 4 inmate patients with genital modifications (artificial penis nodules [APNs]), including one patient with vitiligo that was induced by his APN. Additionally, we review the literature pertaining to this practice and the relevant clinical implications.

  13. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  14. Dust formation in Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenavrin, V. I.; Taranova, O. G.; Tatarnikov, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the result of the IR photometry of Nova Del 2013 obtained at the Crimean Station (Nauchny, Ukraine) of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. JHKLM photometry was carried out with 125-cm telescope using a InSb-photometer on:

  15. Gonadal dysgenesis in del (18p) syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, A.; Fouquet, F.

    1995-07-17

    We report on a girl with syndromal gonadal dysgenesis and a de novo del (18p). Genetic factors controlling gonadal development are located not only on the X chromosome, but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on 18p. We conclude that patients with del (18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico: la influencia del clima, el substrato y la topografia

    Treesearch

    William Gould; Michael E. Jimenez; Gary Potts; Maya Quinones; Sebastian Martinuzzi

    2008-01-01

    El mapa de unidades del paisaje de Puerto Rico representa variaciones climaticas, topograficas y del substrato mediante la integracion de seis zonas climaticas (Ewel y Whitmore, 1973), seis substratos (Bawiec, 2001; USGS, 2005), cinco posiciones topograficas, o topoformas (Martinuzzi et al. 2007), y cuerpos de agua (USGS 2005). Los substratos representan el conjunto...

  17. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  18. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  19. del universe from string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shou-Long; Feng, Xing-Hui; Wei, Hao; Lü, H.

    2017-05-01

    The Gödel universe is a direct product of a line and a three-dimensional spacetime we call G_α . In this paper, we show that the Gödel metrics can arise as exact solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-Axion, Einstein-Proca-Axion, or Freedman-Schwarz gauged supergravity theories. The last option allows us to embed the Gödel universe in string theory. The ten-dimensional spacetime is a direct product of a line and the nine-dimensional one of an S^3× S^3 bundle over G_α , and it can be interpreted as some decoupling limit of the rotating D1/D5/D5 intersection. For some appropriate parameter choice, the nine-dimensional metric becomes an AdS_3× S^3 bundle over squashed 3-sphere. We also study the properties of the Gödel black holes that are constructed from the double Wick rotations of the Gödel metrics.

  20. [Penal and non-penal legislative policy in relation to human biotechnology].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2007-01-01

    The Spanish legislator has introduced a set of legislative novelties in the field of human biotechnology or is about to do so. This will be done either through the reform of some laws or through the approval of new laws, that is, without previous regulatory references available. The greater part of these novelties turn on research with cells or cell lines of human origin, specifically those from human embryos and through the use of diverse techniques, such as reproductive cloning and non-reproductive ('therapeutic') cloning.

  1. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements.

  2. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  3. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  4. [Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru: 25 years].

    PubMed

    Celestino Fernández, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    In this article is described in a very summarized form the history of the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú (RGP) that dates from the same origins of the Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, when based in October 30 of 1952 already glimpse the presence of the RGP as the official organ for the publication for studies of doctors of the society or foreign guests. We spent 29 years, and this idea becomes reality; and today the RGP turns to their XXV anniversary. The RGP, to locate itself as the Peruvian medical publication best reputation.

  5. Manual del McVCO 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  6. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  7. Comunidades de la Cuenca Baja del Río Merrimack

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Lista de todas las comunidades que se incluyen en los límites 8, 10 y 12 del código de unidades hidrológicas (HUC) para la cuenca del río Merrimack y las ubicaciones de la ciudad de las estaciones de control de calidad del agua de la EPA.

  8. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  9. Del Mod System. 1972 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.

    The overall aim of the Del Mod System is the improvement of science programs taught in Delaware schools; it is a working agreement among the University of Delaware, Delaware Technical and Community College, Delaware State College, State Department of Public Instruction, industry, and the schools. It was formed to bring about changes in science…

  10. Hopeful (protein InDel) monsters?

    PubMed

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-10

    In this issue of Structure, Arpino and colleagues describe in atomic detail how a protein stomachs a deletion within a helix, an event that rarely occurs in nature or in the lab. Can insertions and deletions (InDels) trigger dramatic structural transitions? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  12. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  13. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  14. Antenatal Rh prophylaxis is unnecessary for "Asia type" DEL women.

    PubMed

    Shao, Chao-Peng; Xu, Hua; Xu, Qun; Sun, Guo-Dong; Li, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Wei; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Zhong; Zhou, Ying; Li, Dan; Zhuang, Nai-Bao

    2010-10-01

    Generally Rh-negative patients need to be transfused with Rh-negative red blood cells. For pregnant women carrying Rh-positive fetus, the antenatal anti-D detection and Rh immunoglobulin prophylaxis are required worldwide. In East Asia, a RhD variant, termed "Asia type" DEL, was found in approximately 30% of apparent Rh-negative individuals. The antigenic and molecular properties of the DEL were previously defined. Few data discuss whether DEL could be immunized by D antigen clinically although DEL was reported arousing alloimmunization to true Rh-negative patients. To determine whether the DEL variant can be immunized to the D antigen, we retrospectively evaluated 104 Rh-negative pregnancies with allo-anti-D antibodies, and we also tracked 199 consecutive apparent Rh-negative pregnant women, with a history of gestations or parturitions but not subject to anti-D gamma-globulin prophylaxis, for evidence of allo-anti-D. The DEL variant was first excluded by ccee phenotypes and then identified through PCR analysis or sequencing. In the retrospective study, we expected to find 30 DEL variants, yet none of the anti-D alloimmunized women were DEL-positive. And in the second group, none of 44 DEL-positive women versus 38 of 155 (24.5%) true Rh-negative women (those excluding DEL) formed allo-anti-D. The data indicate that the "Asia type" DEL variant does not appear at risk of alloimmunization to the D antigen. It strongly suggests that the antenatal Rh immune globulin prophylaxis is unnecessary for DEL women. Furthermore, it implicates that the "Asia type" DEL may be deemed Rh-positive safely for clinical transfusion therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  16. A Description of Del Mod and Its Final Evaluation, Final Report, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Charlotte H.; Bolig, John R.

    This monograph presents an overview of five Del Mod System final reports, comments by the project director, financial structure of the Del Mod System, and descriptions of Del Mod Projects. The Del Mod System was concerned with changing the science and mathematics education programs in the state of Delaware. Between 1970 and 1976, Del Mod conducted…

  17. Kurt Gödels Brünner Verwandte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dora

    2007-11-01

    The author of this memoir Dora Müller (born 1920) belongs - as well as Kurt Gödel-to the German minority playing an important role in the past life of Brno. The marriage of his son included her among the Gödels collaterals. She was chemist, but also pianist, historician, participant of antinacist movement and iniciator of Czech-German understanding after war. Following her personal experiences, remembrances of Gödels relatives and documental materials, she evokes the atmosphere of broader family milieu of Kurt Gödel.

  18. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  19. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  20. UBVJHKLM photometry of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlak, A. M.; Shenavrin, I. V.; Tatarnikov, M. A.; Tatarnikova, A. A.

    2013-08-01

    We present the results of the optical and IR photometry of Nova Del 2013 obtained at the Crimean Station (Nauchny, Ukraine) of the Sternberg Astronomical Institute. UBV photometry was carried out with 60-cm Zeiss telescope using a photoelectric photometer on August 15.94 UT: U=4.54+/-0.02, B=5.07+/-0.01, V=5.05+/-0.01; on August 16.80 UT: U=4.54+/-0.01, B=4.85+/-0.02, V=4.68+/-0.01; on August 16.86 UT: U=4.66+/-0.01, B=4.92+/-0.01, V=4.73+/-0.01.

  1. FISH and SNP-A karyotyping in myelodysplastic syndromes: improving cytogenetic detection of del(5q), monosomy 7, del(7q), trisomy 8, and del(20q)

    PubMed Central

    Makishima, Hideki; Rataul, Manjot; Gondek, Lukasz P.; Huh, Jungwon; Cook, James R.; Theil, Karl S.; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Kuczkowski, Elizabeth; O’Keefe, Christine; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P.

    2009-01-01

    Cytogenetic aberrations identified by metaphase cytogenetics (MC) have important diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic roles in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) complements MC by the ability to evaluate large numbers of both interphase and metaphase nuclei. However, clinically practical FISH strategies are limited to detection of known lesions. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A)-based karyotyping can reveal unbalanced defects with superior resolution over MC and FISH and identify segmental uniparental disomy (UPD) undetectable by either method. Using a standardized approach, we focused our investigation on detection of -5/del(5q), -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and del(20q) in patients with MDS (N=52), MDS/myeloproliferative overlap syndromes (N=7) and acute myeloid leukemia (N=15) using MC, FISH and SNP-A karyotyping. The detection rate for del(5q) was 30%, 32% and 32% by MC, FISH, and SNP-A, respectively. No single method detected all defects, and detection rates improved when all methods were used. The rate for detection of del(5q) increased incrementally to 35% (MC+FISH), 38% (MC+SNP-A), 38% (FISH+SNP-A) and 39% (all 3 methods). Similar findings were observed for -7/del(7q), trisomy 8 and -20/del(20q). We conclude that MC, FISH and SNP-A are complementary techniques that, when applied and interpreted together, can improve the diagnostic yield for identifying genetic lesions in MDS and contribute to the better description of abnormal karyotypes. PMID:19758696

  2. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  3. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  4. Research and Evaluation Within the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.

    Described is the Del Mod System, its inception, the fundings associated with it, and its objectives. A number of projects have already been completed and implemented. This monograph describes the evaluations of such projects and of the Del Mod systems-approach to science education. The area of evaluation and the method of data collection (with…

  5. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  6. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  7. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from...

  10. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention.

  11. Polarimetry of the Nova V339 Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhovskoy, D. N.; Antonyuk, K. A.; Belan, S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Polarimetric UBVRI observations of the Nova V339 Del during the 5-108 days following the maximum of the outburst of 2013 reveal a variability in the degree of linear polarization with an amplitude of about 0.2%. The character of the variability in the polarization parameters during the period up to 30 days after the maximum is indicative of a nonspherical diffuse shell, with a geometry that is more likely bipolar than disk-shaped. In the early nebular stage (30-100 days after the maximum) a variability in the position angle of the intrinsic polarization was observed that suggests that the shape of the shell deviates from axial symmetry.

  12. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function.

  13. Wave maps from Gödel's universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Magliaro, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Using a result by Koch (1988 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 307 827-41) we realize Gödel's universe G_{α }^{4}=({{{R}}^{4}},{{g}_{α}}) as the total space of a principal {R}-bundle over a strictly pseudo-convex CR manifold M3 and exploit the analogy between {{g}_{Yalpha;}} and Fefferman's metric {{F}_{θ}} (Fefferman 1976 Ann. Math. 103 395-416 104 393-4) to show that for any {R}-invariant wave map Φ of G_{α}^{4} into a Riemannian manifold N, the corresponding base map φ :{{M}^{3}}\\to N is subelliptic harmonic, with respect to a canonical choice of contact form θ on M3. We show that the subelliptic Jacobi operator J_{b}^{φ} of ϕ has a discrete Dirichlet spectrum on any bounded domain D\\subset {{M}^{3}} supporting the Poincaré inequality on \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN) and Kondrakov compactness, i.e. compactness of the embedding \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ }^{-1}}TN)\\hookrightarrow {{L}^{2}}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN). We exhibit an explicit solution π :G_{α}^{4}\\to {{M}^{3}} to the wave map system on G_{α}^{4}, of index in{{d}^{Ω}}(π)\\geqslant 1 for any bounded domain Ω \\subset G_{α}^{4}. Mounoud's distance (Mounoud 2001 Differ. Geom. Appl. 15 47-57) d_{{{G}_{0}}, Ω }^{∞}({{g}_{α }}, {{F}_{θ}}) is bounded below by a constant depending only on the rotation frequency of Gödel's universe, thus giving a measure of the bias of {{g}_{α}} from being Fefferman like in the region Ω \\subset {{{R}}^{4}}.

  14. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  15. Características del viento en estrellas Be derivadas del perfil Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R.; Cidale, L.

    El estudio teórico de perfiles Hα y su variabilidad en estrellas Be ha sido frecuentemente desarrollado en base a modelos de envolturas circunestelares inhomogéneas, donde la geometría del material es responsable de la forma del perfil dependiendo de la dirección de observación. Nosotros damos una interpretación alternativa y proponemos que la mayoría de las propiedades de esta línea tienen origen en la base de un viento estelar y de una estructura cromosférica anexa a la fotósfera. Encontramos que típicos perfiles Hα en Be, como son los llamados pole-on y winebottle, pueden ser reproducidos cualitativamente sin recurrir a la existencia de una envoltura asimétrica. Analizamos como la línea Hα permite identificar la posible estructura del viento en la región donde éste se inicia.

  16. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  17. The Del Mod System: An External Evaluation, Final Report, Volume IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Donald W.; And Others

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This volume deals with the evaluation of the Del Mod System. Included are the following: (1) Del Mod Responsive Evaluation; (2) Evaluation Outcomes; (3) Validation of the Del Mod Responsive Evaluation Process; and (4) Conclusions. Appendices include: (A)…

  18. A Descriptive Analysis of the Del Mod System's Field Agent Component, Final Report, Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golts, Uldis R.

    This monograph describes the field agent of the Delaware Del Mod System. The following sections are included in the report: (1) The Duties and Activities of the Del Mod System Field Agents; (2) The Field Agents' Mode of Operation; (3) The Conduct of Projects; (4) The Hiring and Training of Del Mod Field Agents; (5) The Administration of Del Mod…

  19. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  20. On some structure results for Gödel-type spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaue, Matthias; Scherfner, Mike

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we prove structure results on Gödel-type spacetimes, which we understand as stationary charged perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with geodesic flow. Given in a standard product form, we investigate relations between the vorticity and the geometry of the fiber. For the four dimensional case in particular, we classify the Gödel-type spacetimes with constant vorticity scalar. We give a complete list of the solutions, which provides a generalization of an observation by Gödel, proved later by Ozsváth: The Gödel spacetime and Einstein's static universe are the only stationary Λ-dust solutions of Einstein's equations with positive energy density that are spatially homogeneous.

  1. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  3. Extreme Environments in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, C.; D'Antoni, H.; Burgess, S.; Zamora, J.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    The upper timberline of the Andes Cordillera on the island of Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America is an environment subject to extreme conditions. In order to further understand this environment, ecosystem parameters were measured within two transects of the Andes at Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco. The measurements included pH, soil temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen, sodium and potassium concentration, chlorophyll absorbance, and irradiance in the ultraviolet range (200-400 nm). These data comprise a survey that serves as a baseline for an intensive research program. Chlorophyll concentration and soil data were within the range of our observations at several other sites, from Lapataia Bay on the southwestern boundary with Chile, through the eastern end of Lake Fagnano. However, unusual levels of solar irradiance were found in the open sites of both transects while those in the forest exhibited lower UV values, suggesting strong absorption and/or reflection by the forest canopy. High levels of UV radiation damage important biomolecules and may be partially responsible for the presence of life forms such as the krummholz belt in the upper timberline. These UV values may be due to the effects of global ozone depletion and the ozone hole. The low temperatures, strong winds, snow and ice-covered soil and especially the exposure to UV radiation make this area an extreme environment for life.

  4. Penalized model-based clustering with unconstrained covariance matrices

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui; Pan, Wei; Shen, Xiaotong

    2010-01-01

    Clustering is one of the most useful tools for high-dimensional analysis, e.g., for microarray data. It becomes challenging in presence of a large number of noise variables, which may mask underlying clustering structures. Therefore, noise removal through variable selection is necessary. One effective way is regularization for simultaneous parameter estimation and variable selection in model-based clustering. However, existing methods focus on regularizing the mean parameters representing centers of clusters, ignoring dependencies among variables within clusters, leading to incorrect orientations or shapes of the resulting clusters. In this article, we propose a regularized Gaussian mixture model permitting a treatment of general covariance matrices, taking various dependencies into account. At the same time, this approach shrinks the means and covariance matrices, achieving better clustering and variable selection. To overcome one technical challenge in estimating possibly large covariance matrices, we derive an E-M algorithm utilizing the graphical lasso (Friedman et al 2007) for parameter estimation. Numerical examples, including applications to microarray gene expression data, demonstrate the utility of the proposed method. PMID:20463857

  5. Penal Innovation in New Zealand: He Ara Hou.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbold, Greg; Eskridge, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Explores prison history/development in New Zealand, focusing on recent implementation of progressive prison operation/management program, He Ara Hou. Notes extremely positive results of program, such as higher administrative efficiency; greatly decreased levels of internal disorder; competent, stable workforce; and human product whose senses of…

  6. Gene and pathway identification with Lp penalized Bayesian logistic regression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Gartenhaus, Ronald B; Tan, Ming; Jiang, Feng; Jiao, Xiaoli

    2008-01-01

    Background Identifying genes and pathways associated with diseases such as cancer has been a subject of considerable research in recent years in the area of bioinformatics and computational biology. It has been demonstrated that the magnitude of differential expression does not necessarily indicate biological significance. Even a very small change in the expression of particular gene may have dramatic physiological consequences if the protein encoded by this gene plays a catalytic role in a specific cell function. Moreover, highly correlated genes may function together on the same pathway biologically. Finally, in sparse logistic regression with Lp (p < 1) penalty, the degree of the sparsity obtained is determined by the value of the regularization parameter. Usually this parameter must be carefully tuned through cross-validation, which is time consuming. Results In this paper, we proposed a simple Bayesian approach to integrate the regularization parameter out analytically using a new prior. Therefore, there is no longer a need for parameter selection, as it is eliminated entirely from the model. The proposed algorithm (BLpLog) is typically two or three orders of magnitude faster than the original algorithm and free from bias in performance estimation. We also define a novel similarity measure and develop an integrated algorithm to hunt the regulatory genes with low expression changes but having high correlation with the selected genes. Pathways of those correlated genes were identified with DAVID . Conclusion Experimental results with gene expression data demonstrate that the proposed methods can be utilized to identify important genes and pathways that are related to cancer and build a parsimonious model for future patient predictions. PMID:18834526

  7. Penalized or Privileged? Sexual Identity, Gender, and Postsecondary Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leigh E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature on educational attainment indicates that there is both a female advantage and an LGB bonus: women are more likely to have earned bachelor's degrees than men, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are more likely to have earned a bachelor's degree than heterosexuals. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  8. Counseling Interventions for Adolescents and Young People in Penal Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiriakidis, Stavros

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on the counseling interventions for adolescents and young people held in custody. The study analyses the social effects of imprisonment, the incapacitation effects of custody, the need for delivering counseling in custody. In addition it reviews evidence regarding the effects of delivering counseling interventions in…

  9. PRAMS: a systematic method for evaluating penal institutions under litigation.

    PubMed

    Wills, Cheryl D

    2007-01-01

    Forensic psychiatrists serve as expert witnesses in litigation involving the impact of conditions of confinement, including mental health care delivery, on the emotional well-being of institutionalized persons. Experts review volumes of data before formulating opinions and preparing reports. The author has developed PRAMS, a method for systematically reviewing and presenting data during mental health litigation involving detention and corrections facilities. The PRAMS method divides the examination process into five stages: paper review, real-world view, aggravating circumstances, mitigating circumstances, and supplemental information. PRAMS provides the scaffolding on which a compelling picture of an institution's system of care may be constructed and disseminated in reports and during courtroom testimony. Also, PRAMS enhances the organization, analysis, publication, and presentation of salient findings, thereby coordinating the forensic psychiatrist's efforts to provide expert opinions regarding complex systems of mental health care.

  10. [Penal liability from retained foreign body inside the surgical site].

    PubMed

    Angiò, L G; Ventura Spagnolo, E; Pirrone, G; Cardia, G

    2011-03-01

    The Authors focus on the liability of the surgery team members in the case they inadvertently forget behind in the patient's body a foreign object, which causes injuries and/or death. The Authors underline that, according to the current case law regarding medical malpractice, both the main surgeon and their assistant/subordinate are liable for engaging in a markedly imprudent and/or negligent conduct, such as not double-checking scrupulously the surgical site before its closure in order to highlight forgotten foreign bodies. As well, the Authors underline that either the circulator nurse or the theatre nurse can be considered punishable by law when that medical error occurs, even if they are responsible for the count of the instruments used in the course of the surgery. Conversely, the main surgeon and his or her assistant are always directly responsible, due to the fact that the nurses' count procedure represents merely an additional control measure, without substituting at all the check the surgeons must obligatory conduct on the surgical site. Finally, the Authors point out that, as the count procedure is performed by the members of a surgical team, where a hierarchy-based relationship rules, the main surgeon is the liable for any preventable and avoidable adverse event provoked by the nursing staff as a consequence of the objective responsibility due to culpa in eligendo and culpa in vigilando.

  11. Current aspects of penal surgical liability in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I; Papadodima, Stavroula A; Spiliopoulou, Chara A

    2013-05-01

    The surgeon may face in every day practice issues that may render him liable. The legal liability usually emerges due to the negligence exhibited during the preoperative, the operative and the postoperative stage. The surgeon, as any doctor, isn't liable for the result, but he is responsible for the correct diagnosis and therapeutic treatment, always according to the principles of the Medical science and to the possibilities available to him in every specific case (facilities and time). The continuous education about the issues of his speciality, the adaptation of scientifically approved techniques, the correct monitoring of the patient, both preoperatively and postoperatively, and finally the good communication with the patient are necessary for the proper practice of Medicine; but also constitute the "shield" of the surgeon against any possible legal conflict. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RECONSTRUCTING DNA COPY NUMBER BY PENALIZED ESTIMATION AND IMPUTATION.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongyang; Lange, Kenneth; Ophoff, Roel; Sabatti, Chiara

    2010-12-01

    Recent advances in genomics have underscored the surprising ubiquity of DNA copy number variation (CNV). Fortunately, modern genotyping platforms also detect CNVs with fairly high reliability. Hidden Markov models and algorithms have played a dominant role in the interpretation of CNV data. Here we explore CNV reconstruction via estimation with a fused-lasso penalty as suggested by Tibshirani and Wang [Biostatistics 9 (2008) 18-29]. We mount a fresh attack on this difficult optimization problem by the following: (a) changing the penalty terms slightly by substituting a smooth approximation to the absolute value function, (b) designing and implementing a new MM (majorization-minimization) algorithm, and (c) applying a fast version of Newton's method to jointly update all model parameters. Together these changes enable us to minimize the fused-lasso criterion in a highly effective way.We also reframe the reconstruction problem in terms of imputation via discrete optimization. This approach is easier and more accurate than parameter estimation because it relies on the fact that only a handful of possible copy number states exist at each SNP. The dynamic programming framework has the added bonus of exploiting information that the current fused-lasso approach ignores. The accuracy of our imputations is comparable to that of hidden Markov models at a substantially lower computational cost.

  13. Maximum Likelihood, Profile Likelihood, and Penalized Likelihood: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Stephen R.; Chu, Haitao; Greenland, Sander

    2014-01-01

    The method of maximum likelihood is widely used in epidemiology, yet many epidemiologists receive little or no education in the conceptual underpinnings of the approach. Here we provide a primer on maximum likelihood and some important extensions which have proven useful in epidemiologic research, and which reveal connections between maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. For a given data set and probability model, maximum likelihood finds values of the model parameters that give the observed data the highest probability. As with all inferential statistical methods, maximum likelihood is based on an assumed model and cannot account for bias sources that are not controlled by the model or the study design. Maximum likelihood is nonetheless popular, because it is computationally straightforward and intuitive and because maximum likelihood estimators have desirable large-sample properties in the (largely fictitious) case in which the model has been correctly specified. Here, we work through an example to illustrate the mechanics of maximum likelihood estimation and indicate how improvements can be made easily with commercial software. We then describe recent extensions and generalizations which are better suited to observational health research and which should arguably replace standard maximum likelihood as the default method. PMID:24173548

  14. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Vinegar Plant Bond, TTB F 5510.2 Not less than the tax on all wine on hand, in transit, or unaccounted for... contiguous wine vinegar plant with a wine bond that does not cover the operation may file a consent of surety to extend the terms of the wine bond in lieu of filing a wine vinegar plant bond. (26 U.S.C....

  15. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Vinegar Plant Bond, TTB F 5510.2 Not less than the tax on all wine on hand, in transit, or unaccounted for... contiguous wine vinegar plant with a wine bond that does not cover the operation may file a consent of surety to extend the terms of the wine bond in lieu of filing a wine vinegar plant bond. (26 U.S.C....

  16. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Vinegar Plant Bond, TTB F 5510.2 Not less than the tax on all wine on hand, in transit, or unaccounted for... contiguous wine vinegar plant with a wine bond that does not cover the operation may file a consent of surety to extend the terms of the wine bond in lieu of filing a wine vinegar plant bond. (26 U.S.C....

  17. 27 CFR 24.148 - Penal sums of bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Vinegar Plant Bond, TTB F 5510.2 Not less than the tax on all wine on hand, in transit, or unaccounted for... contiguous wine vinegar plant with a wine bond that does not cover the operation may file a consent of surety to extend the terms of the wine bond in lieu of filing a wine vinegar plant bond. (26 U.S.C....

  18. Independent motion detection with a rival penalized adaptive particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Stefan; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Aggregation of pixel based motion detection into regions of interest, which include views of single moving objects in a scene is an essential pre-processing step in many vision systems. Motion events of this type provide significant information about the object type or build the basis for action recognition. Further, motion is an essential saliency measure, which is able to effectively support high level image analysis. When applied to static cameras, background subtraction methods achieve good results. On the other hand, motion aggregation on freely moving cameras is still a widely unsolved problem. The image flow, measured on a freely moving camera is the result from two major motion types. First the ego-motion of the camera and second object motion, that is independent from the camera motion. When capturing a scene with a camera these two motion types are adverse blended together. In this paper, we propose an approach to detect multiple moving objects from a mobile monocular camera system in an outdoor environment. The overall processing pipeline consists of a fast ego-motion compensation algorithm in the preprocessing stage. Real-time performance is achieved by using a sparse optical flow algorithm as an initial processing stage and a densely applied probabilistic filter in the post-processing stage. Thereby, we follow the idea proposed by Jung and Sukhatme. Normalized intensity differences originating from a sequence of ego-motion compensated difference images represent the probability of moving objects. Noise and registration artefacts are filtered out, using a Bayesian formulation. The resulting a posteriori distribution is located on image regions, showing strong amplitudes in the difference image which are in accordance with the motion prediction. In order to effectively estimate the a posteriori distribution, a particle filter is used. In addition to the fast ego-motion compensation, the main contribution of this paper is the design of the probabilistic filter for real-time detection and tracking of independently moving objects. The proposed approach introduces a competition scheme between particles in order to ensure an improved multi-modality. Further, the filter design helps to generate a particle distribution which is homogenous even in the presence of multiple targets showing non-rigid motion patterns. The effectiveness of the method is shown on exemplary outdoor sequences.

  19. [Quality assurance based on civil and penal law].

    PubMed

    Bock, R W

    1998-01-01

    The term "quality assurance" primarily concerns the provisions of professional regulations and law relating to health service physicians. It would be too sweeping to regard liability or criminal law as normative parameters for guaranteeing quality assurance in the narrower sense. Nevertheless, along with expert opinions sought within the context of relevant lawsuits, court rulings under civil law and criminal law in effect constitute an indirect form of "quality control". As a consequence, many court decisions act as a standard for the future. Civil law is concerned with determining whether the patient has received the quality of medical service to which he is entitled; for all intents and purposes, the same applies to the judgement of medical treatment under criminal law, whereby all cases, whether civil or criminal, concern diagnostic and therapeutic practice in specific treatment situations, the organisation of treatment and the provision of information. With regard to these areas, a contribution can therefore be made to quality assurance by observing pertinent civil and criminal judicature.

  20. Consumer Education. An Introductory Unit for Inmates in Penal Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoele, Henry H.; And Others

    This introductory consumer education curriculum outline contains materials designed to help soon-to-be-released prisoners to develop an awareness of consumer concerns and to better manage their family lives. Each of the four units provided includes lesson objectives, suggested contents, suggested teaching methods, handouts, and tests. The unit on…

  1. Penalized Likelihood for General Semi-Parametric Regression Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    should be stressed that q, while it may be somewhat less than n, will still be ’large’, and parametric estimation of £ will not be appropriate...Partial spline models for the semi- parametric estimation of functions of several variables, in Statistical Analysis of Time Series, Tokyo: Institute of

  2. Generalized Additive Models, Cubic Splines and Penalized Likelihood.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-22

    in case control studies ). All models in the table include dummy variable to account for the matching. The first 3 lines of the table indicate that OA...Ausoc. Breslow, N. and Day, N. (1980). Statistical methods in cancer research, volume 1- the analysis of case - control studies . International agency

  3. Space-Time Event Sparse Penalization for Magneto-/Electroencephalography

    PubMed Central

    Bolstad, Andrew; Van Veen, Barry; Nowak, Robert

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a new spatio-temporal method for M/EEG source reconstruction based on the assumption that only a small number of events, localized in space and/or time, are responsible for the measured signal. Each space-time event is represented using a basis function expansion which reflects the most relevant (or measurable) features of the signal. This model of neural activity leads naturally to a Bayesian likelihood function which balances the model fit to the data with the complexity of the model, where the complexity is related to the number of included events. A novel Expectation-Maximization algorithm which maximizes the likelihood function is presented. The new method is shown to be effective on several MEG simulations of neurological activity as well as data from a self-paced finger tapping experiment. PMID:19457366

  4. Penalized or Privileged? Sexual Identity, Gender, and Postsecondary Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leigh E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature on educational attainment indicates that there is both a female advantage and an LGB bonus: women are more likely to have earned bachelor's degrees than men, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are more likely to have earned a bachelor's degree than heterosexuals. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  5. Confirming and Improving Ross Variable Star RV Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sanchez, Rick; Palser, Sage; Schultze, Kendra; Kenney, Jessica; Thompson, Briana; DeCoster, Richard; Mills, Frank; Osborn, Wayne; Hoette, Vivian L.; Skynet Junior Scholars; Stone Edge Observatory

    2017-01-01

    RV Del is an intrinsic pulsating variable star in the constellation Delphinus, discovered by Ross (1926). The AAVSO list RV Del as a RRAB type of variable star. RV Del has been found to have a magnitude that varies from 12.9 - 14.2 and a period of 11.9553 hours.The purpose of our research of RV Del is to confirm and improve previous results as well as explore different methods to engage middle school students in the scientific method and astronomy. The SKYNET network of telescopes allows students to request images from a group of international research class telescopes. The telescope request process allows students first-hand experience in astronomy while the data analysis allows students to understand advance software systems to produce publishable results. Data is being gathered using the SKYNET network and Stone Edge Observatory to gather photometry of RV Del and create a new light curve. Findings will be presented the January 2017 AAS.

  6. NONCONVEX REGULARIZATION FOR SHAPE PRESERVATION

    SciTech Connect

    CHARTRAND, RICK

    2007-01-16

    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  7. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  8. May Gödel's Ideas Be Addressed Philosophically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokulil, Miloš

    2007-11-01

    del emphasised philosophy as an important tool in science. Much less is known about his religious background. We should bear in mind that our evaluational perspective differs very much from the one in which Gödel lived. He was personally sure that there must be another existence after death-an afterlife (''of unlimited life span''). As a ''Baptized Lutheran'' he did not include ''Trinity'' in his creed. He was also certain that mind is separate from matter. This text tries to include Libet's ''readiness potential'' into the debate concerning the specificity of the mind. Neither Gödel's identification of materialism with mechanism nor his vision of the ''spirit'' are a viable solution of the problem.

  9. The novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation in a family with prelingual sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael B; Grigoriadou, Maria; Koutroumpe, Maria; Kokotas, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.

  10. Mejoras en la exactitud del reloj de ángulo horario del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Para aumentar la exactitud en el control del ángulo horario del telescopio, se está implementando el uso de un reloj con una precisión de 1/100 seg. En conjunto con el encoder que otorga la posición con un acierto de 0,012 seg. de arco, se podrá implementar otro dígito en el reloj de ángulo horario con la posibilidad de ver las décimas. Esto, sumado a la precisión ya lograda en declinación, permitirá realizar offsets con mayor exactitud.

  11. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  12. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  13. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  14. Development of the Hα profile in Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storrs, Alex; Mahmoudian, T.

    2014-01-01

    We report observations of the Hα profile of Nova Del 2013, with resolving power R = 3000. Starting in late August the expected P Cygni profile (blueshifted absorption) was observed. Beginning in September a redshifted absorption appears and strengthens through the month. We will report observations through fall and discuss possible causes of these features.

  15. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  17. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  18. Reproductive biology of the Del Norte salamander (Plethodon elongatus).

    Treesearch

    Clara A. Wheeler; Hartwell H. Welsh Jr.; Lisa M. Ollivier

    2013-01-01

    We examined seasonal reproductive patterns of the Del Norte Salamander, Plethodon elongatus, in mixed conifer and hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Seasonal size differences in reproductive structures suggested that maximum spermatogenic activity occurred during the late summer, with spermatozoa transfer to the...

  19. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  20. Del Mod: A State-Wide System for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Daniel C.

    This is a retrospective account of the Del Mod System, a statewide project to improve science and mathematics education in the elementary and secondary schools of Delaware. The project functioned from 1970-76 under the auspices of a committee including the presidents of institutions of higher education, the state superintendent of public…

  1. 77 FR 50080 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice.... The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  2. Del Mod at a Glance, Volume 3. 1973-1974 Annual Report for the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.

    A synopsis of the 1973-74 annual report for the Del Mod System is presented. The activities described were conducted by the University of Delaware, Delaware State College, Delaware Technical and Community College, and the Department of Public Instruction. Activities of field agents, several local district projects, and individual teacher grants…

  3. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  4. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  5. Genomic Copy Number Variations in the Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients with del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Kim, Young-Mi; Wang, Xianfu; Li, Yan; Lu, Xianglan; Sternenberger, Andrea R.; Li, Shibo; Lee, Ji-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The most common chromosomal abnormalities in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q). When -5/del(5q) and -7/del(7q) coexist in patients, a poor prognosis is typically associated. Given that -5/del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) often are accompanied with additional recurrent chromosomal alterations, genetic change(s) on the accompanying chromosome(s) other than chromosomes 5 and 7 may be important factor(s) affecting leukemogenesis and disease prognosis. Using an integrated analysis of karyotype, FISH and array CGH results in this study, we evaluated the smallest region of overlap (SRO) of chromosomes 5 and 7 as well as copy number alterations (CNAs) on the other chromosomes. Moreover, the relationship between the CNAs and del(5q) and -7/del(7q) was investigated by categorizing the cases into three groups based on the abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 7 [group I: cases only with del(5q), group II: cases only with -7/del(7q) and group III: concurrent del(5q) and del(7q) cases]. The overlapping SRO of chromosome 5 from groups I and III was 5q31.1-33.1 and of chromosome 7 from groups II and III was 7q31.31-q36.1. A total of 318 CNAs were observed; ~ 78.3% of them were identified on chromosomes other than chromosomes 5 and 7, which were defined as 'other CNAs'. Group III was a distinctive group carrying the most high number (HN) CNAs, cryptic CNAs and 'other CNAs'. The loss of TP53 was highly associated with del(5q). The loss of ETV6 was specifically associated with group III. These CNAs or genes may play a secondary role in disease progression and should be further evaluated for their clinical significance and influence on therapeutic approaches in patients with MDS/AML carrying del(5q) and/or -7/del(7q) in large-scale, patient population study. PMID:26392809

  6. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

  7. The first century of the "clinica del lavoro" in Milan.

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Foà, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The Clinica del Lavoro was created in Milan at the beginning of the 20th century by Luigi Devotto, who deemed it essential for physicians and health researchers to get involved in the life and health problems of working populations. The main roles of the Clinica del Lavoro were to educate medical students and train physicians; study actual workplaces, examine health and safety hazards and their noxious effects; and create initiatives and services to protect and promote workers' health. Important scientific contributions were made in several fields, including chemical carcinogenesis, effects of mineral and biologicalfibers, mechanism of action of silica dust, methods for the detection and measurements of toxic substances in both the work environment and workers' biological media.

  8. El ``Aula del Cel'': astronomy approaching high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.; Gómez Collado, M.; Gallego Calvente, A. T.

    The “Aula del Cel” is a project carried out by the Astronomical Obsevatory of the University of Valencia, Spain. It offers high-school teachers a tool for teaching Astronomy to 10 to 17 year-old students. Different programs, experiments, and audiovisual presentations have been prepared by a team formed both by professional astronomers and teachers, and are offered in a format chosen to suit each particular age and curriculum group. Special sessions have been designed for students with special needs (for example blind or autistic children) in close contact with the pedagogical teams responsible for their education. Nearly three thousand students have already visited the “Aula del Cel” over the first six months that it has been offered to the school community.

  9. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  10. 3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY RECENT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  13. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  14. [Validazione del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire, un questionario diagnostico autosomministrato per il gioco d'azzardo patologico basato sui criteri del DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Pascucci, Marco; de Waure, Chiara; Bellomo, Antonello; Conte, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Il DSM-5 presenta delle modifiche nei criteri diagnostici per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, rispetto alla precedente edizione del manuale; è pertanto necessario sviluppare nuovi strumenti diagnostici. Questo studio ha valutato le caratteristiche psicometriche del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire (GDSQ), un questionario sviluppato per l'autosomministrazione, basato sui criteri diagnostici del DSM-IV e del DSM-5 per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, misurandone la validità e la consistenza interna e sottoponendo il questionario all'analisi delle componenti principali. Metodi. 71 pazienti reclutati da un ambulatorio dedicato al gioco d'azzardo patologico e 70 controlli sono stati valutati con il GDSQ, con il South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) e con valutazione psichiatrica. Risultati. Il test ha mostrato una buona sensibilità, specificità, consistenza interna, correlazione con il SOGS. L'esclusione del criterio degli atti illeciti e l'abbassamento del punteggio di cut-off a quattro criteri positivi, come suggerito dal DSM-5, migliora la sensibilità e consistenza interna del test. Discussione e conclusioni. Il GDSQ può essere considerato un utile test di screening per il gioco d'azzardo patologico. Inoltre, questo studio conferma il miglioramento nell'accuratezza diagnostica dei criteri elencati nella quinta edizione del Manuale Diagnostico e Statistico dei Disturbi Mentali rispetto alla precedente edizione.

  15. Max brödel: illustrating healed valve ring abscesses.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Thomas, Caroline Bedell; Hutchins, Grover M

    2005-09-01

    A 14-year-old adolescent girl presented with severe congestive heart failure, progressive throughout 3 months. A precordial thrill, machinery-like murmur, and right bundle branch block were noted. Death occurred despite digitalis and diuretic therapy and removal of pleural and ascitic fluid. The autopsy revealed 2 multilocular cystic structures in the interventricular septum consistent with being spontaneously drained valve ring abscesses. One of these lesions formed a fistulous communication that penetrated through the interventricular septum between the right aortic sinus of Valsalva and the crista supraventricularis that connected to the right ventricle. Another lesion, an adjacent separate but similar cystlike structure, communicated only with the left ventricular cavity. Although the cause of these lesions is uncertain, it seems probable that they are the residue of spontaneously drained and healed valve ring abscesses. Max Brödel, a medical illustrator and the first director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at The Johns Hopkins University, drew previously unpublished figures of this patient's cardiac lesions. These illustrations exhibit Brödel's superb command of both art and medicine essential to his ability to make complex anatomic relationships demonstrable. We discuss Brödel's career and his influence on both the art and science of medicine.

  16. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  17. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  18. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  19. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  20. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  1. El bosque estatal del nuevo milenio antes y después del huracán Georges

    Treesearch

    A.E. Lugo; E. Román Nunci; M. Quinones; H. Marcano Vega; I. Vicéns

    2005-01-01

    We studied changes that occurred between 1997 and 2005 on a secondary wet subtropical urban forest in the University of Puerto Rico’s Botanical Garden (Bosque Estatal del Nuevo Milenio). Hurricane Georges passed south of the forest on November 21, 1998 with 127 km/h winds. The study consisted of identifying species in 40 plots of 254 m2 each, measuring the diameter at...

  2. The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma

  3. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de

  4. The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-03-11

    The Cuernos del Paine mountains in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile, during NASA's AirSAR 2004 campaign. AirSAR 2004 is a three-week expedition in Central and South America by an international team of scientists that is using an all-weather imaging tool, called the Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR), located onboard NASA's DC-8 airborne laboratory. Scientists from many parts of the world are combining ground research with NASA's AirSAR technology to improve and expand on the quality of research they are able to conduct. Founded in 1959, Torres del Paine National Park encompasses 450,000 acres in the Patagonia region of Chile. This region is being studied by NASA using a DC-8 equipped with an Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AirSAR) developed by scientists from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This is a very sensitive region that is important to scientists because the temperature has been consistently rising causing a subsequent melting of the region’s glaciers. AirSAR will provide a baseline model and unprecedented mapping of the region. This data will make it possible to determine whether the warming trend is slowing, continuing or accelerating. AirSAR will also provide reliable information on ice shelf thickness to measure the contribution of the glaciers to sea level.

  5. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  6. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  7. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  8. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  9. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1B Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D’Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)–S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment: Perk haploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/− compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition, Perk deficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non–Schwann-cell autonomous manner. PMID:27095827

  10. Perk Ablation Ameliorates Myelination in S63del-Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1B Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Musner, Nicolò; Sidoli, Mariapaola; Zambroni, Desireè; Del Carro, Ubaldo; Ungaro, Daniela; D'Antonio, Maurizio; Feltri, Maria L; Wrabetz, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    In peripheral nerves, P0 glycoprotein accounts for more than 20% of myelin protein content. P0 is synthesized by Schwann cells, processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enters the secretory pathway. However, the mutant P0 with S63 deleted (P0S63del) accumulates in the ER lumen and induces a demyelinating neuropathy in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B (CMT1B)-S63del mice. Accumulation of P0S63del in the ER triggers a persistent unfolded protein response. Protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is an ER stress sensor that phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2alpha) in order to attenuate protein synthesis. We have shown that increasing phosphophorylated-eIF2alpha (P-eIF2alpha) is a potent therapeutic strategy, improving myelination and motor function in S63del mice. Here, we explore the converse experiment:Perkhaploinsufficiency reduces P-eIF2alpha in S63del nerves as expected, but surprisingly, ameliorates, rather than worsens S63del neuropathy. Motor performance and myelin abnormalities improved in S63del//Perk+/- compared with S63del mice. These data suggest that mechanisms other than protein translation might be involved in CMT1B/S63del neuropathy. In addition,Perkdeficiency in other cells may contribute to demyelination in a non-Schwann-cell autonomous manner. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Effect of GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG genetic polymorphisms on risk of congenital deafness in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Zhong, M; Chen, J; Yan, Y L; Lin, X F; Li, X

    2017-02-08

    Congenital deafness is a serious and irreversible condition in humans. The GJB2 gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Its 235delC and 30-35delG polymorphisms are reported to be associated with risk of hereditary deafness. However, the effect of the interaction between GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG and environmental factors on congenital deafness has not been described. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on congenital deafness risk, and their interaction with maternal and other environmental factors in the development of this disease. Between March 2014 and May 2015, 118 patients with congenital deafness and 242 healthy controls were enrolled into our study. Compared with the GG genotype, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the 235delC GC and CC genotypes were 4.66 (1.77-13.07) and 8.28 (2.06-47.52), respectively. Individuals harboring the GC+CC genotypes were at a greatly increased risk of congenital deafness compared to those with the GG genotype (OR = 5.65, 95%CI = 2.54-13.18). However, no significant relationship was established between the 30-35delG variant and this disease. The 235delC polymorphism exhibited an interaction with use of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in conferring susceptibility to congenital deafness (chi-square = 8.76, P = 0.003). In conclusion, our study suggests that the GJB2 235delC polymorphism, but not the 30-35delG variant, contributes to congenital deafness susceptibility in the Chinese population examined, and demonstrates an interaction with consumption of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in exerting this effect.

  12. The highly prevalent BRCA2 mutation c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is located in a mutational hotspot and has multiple origins.

    PubMed

    Infante, Mar; Durán, Mercedes; Acedo, Alberto; Sánchez-Tapia, Eva María; Díez-Gómez, Beatriz; Barroso, Alicia; García-González, María; Feliubadaló, Lídia; Lasa, Adriana; de la Hoya, Miguel; Esteban-Cardeñosa, Eva; Díez, Orland; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Godino, Javier; Teulé, Alexandre; Osorio, Ana; Lastra, Enrique; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Miner, Cristina; Velasco, Eladio A

    2013-11-01

    BRCA2-c.2808_2811del (3036delACAA) is one of the most reported germ line mutations in non-Ashkenazi breast cancer patients. We investigated its genetic origin in 51 Spanish carrier families that were genotyped with 11 13q polymorphic markers. Three independent associated haplotypes were clearly distinguished accounting for 23 [west Castilla y León (WCL)], 20 [east Castilla y León (ECL)] and 6 (South of Spain) families. Mutation age was estimated with the Disequilibrium Mapping using Likelihood Estimation software in a range of 45-68 and 45-71 generations for WCL and ECL haplotypes, respectively. The most prevalent variants, c.2808_2811del and c.2803G > A, were located in a double-hairpin loop structure (c.2794-c.2825) predicted by Quikfold that was proposed as a mutational hotspot. To check this hypothesis, random mutagenesis was performed over a 923 bp fragment of BRCA2, and 86 DNA variants were characterized. Interestingly, three mutations reported in the mutation databases (c.2680G > A, c.2944del and c.2957dup) were replicated and 20 affected the same position with different nucleotide changes. Moreover, five variants were placed in the same hairpin loop of c.2808_2811del, and one affected the same position (c.2808A > G). In conclusion, our results support that at least three different mutational events occurred to generate c.2808_2811del. Other highly prevalent DNA variants, such as BRCA1-c.68_69delAG, BRCA2-c.5946delT and c.8537delAG, are concentrated in hairpin loops, suggesting that these structures may represent mutational hotspots.

  13. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  14. The probable quadruple systems FK Aql and FZ Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliullina, A. I.

    2017-07-01

    Orbital-period variations of the eclipsing binaries FK Aql and FZ Del are analyzed. For each of the systems, a superposition of two cyclic variations of their orbital periods is found. FK Aql may be a quadruple system that contains two more bodies, besides the eclipsing binary, with masses M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 1.47 M ⊙, and the corresponding periods 15 and 82 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.75 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 15 yrs, or with a third body of mass M 3 ⩾ 1.30 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 82 yrs. FZ Del may be a quadruple system with the additional componentmasses M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and M 4 ⩾ 0.3 M ⊙, with the periods 10.2 and 53.7 yrs. This could also be a triple system with a third-body mass M 3 ⩾ 0.2 M ⊙ and a period of the long-period orbit P 3 = 10.2 yrs. In both systems, the residual period variations could be due to magnetic cycles of the secondary. The period variations of the eclipsing binary FZ Del could also be due to apsidal motion, together with the influence of a third body or the effects of magnetic activity.

  15. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  16. Albedo polarimétrico de asteroides del grupo Hungaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Benavidez, P.

    La región del cinturón de asteroides en donde se encuentra el grupo de los Hungarias (a= 1.79 a 1.98 UA, i=15 a 40 grados) es la única zona donde es común encontrar objetos de tipo taxonómico E, caracterizados por altos albedos, colores relativamente neutros y espectros sin detalles. Este tipo de asteroides está relacionado espectralmente con ciertos meteoritos (aubritas) que indican la existencia de episodios de gran calentamiento que ocurrieron durante la formación del Sistema Solar. Como el espectro de los asteroides de tipo E es idéntico a los de tipo M y P, la única forma de clasificar un asteroide en alguno de estos tres tipos taxonómicos es mediante el albedo. En este trabajo se presentan resultados preliminares sobre la determinación polarimétrica de albedos para objetos de este grupo utilizando el polarímetro CASPROF de CASLEO.

  17. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  18. Modeling landscapes and past vegetation patterns of New Mexico's Rio Del Oso Valley

    Treesearch

    Richard D. Periman

    2005-01-01

    Humans have interacted with the landscape and ecosystem of New Mexico's Rio del Oso Valley for thousands of years. Throughout the Holocene, various cultures have dramatically affected and altered the Rio del Oso. An interdisciplinary research approach, incorporating geomorphology, paleobotany, archaeology, and history, provides a broad range of methodologies and...

  19. Statistical Comparisons of Pre and Post Del Mod Data, Final Report, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolig, John R.; Wall, Charles A.

    This is one of five volumes prepared to describe various aspects of the Del Mod System. This report attempts to compare baseline data gathered in 1970-71 to post experimental data gathered in 1975-76. Sections include analyses of achievement test scores, research conducted under the auspices of the Del Mod System, and a follow-up study of…

  20. The Role of the State Department of Public Instruction in the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiher, John F.

    This is one of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System). The State Department of Public Instruction is the agency that represents the public schools of Delaware. The two branches of the state department with which Del Mod interacts are the Instructional Services…

  1. 78 FR 74008 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Del Rio, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Del Rio, TX AGENCY: Federal... Rio, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new circling approach requirements at... Del Rio, TX, area, creating additional controlled airspace at Laughlin AFB (78 FR 52716) Docket No...

  2. 60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. C.J.T., photographer December 23, 1955 KLAMATH RIVER BRIDGE, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #538, KLAMATH RIVER BR. FROM SO. END, 12/23/55, C.J.T. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  3. 61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    61. M.C., photographer June 22, 1951 KLAMATH, DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. DN-1-A #452 NORTHERLY THROUGH KLAMATH FROM STA. 325+50, 6/22/51, M.C. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  4. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Del Valle Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Roselin; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Del Valle Bilingual Education Program of Del Valle, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  5. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  6. 62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION D, HIGHWAY 1. REDWOOD CLEARING ON EXISTING LINE, 1-DN-71-A #26, R.L.T. 11-1-34. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  7. A novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Connexin 26 gene causes non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Rahmati, Mohammad; Fazli, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Connexin 26 (Cx26) gene are a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in different populations. In the present study, an Iranian patient with bilateral hearing loss underwent molecular analysis for the causative mutation. DNA studies were performed for the Cx26 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. We describe a novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).

  8. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  9. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  10. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  11. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  12. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  13. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  14. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  15. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  16. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  17. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  18. Taphonomy of guanaco bones in Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis Alberto

    1990-11-01

    Guanaco carcasses are deposited in great quantities in Cabo San Pablo, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), as a result of winter stress. Taphonomic studies indicate that the gnawing action of foxes on guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) carcasses produces only very tenuous marks on the bones. Lack of sustained interest in the carcasses by carnivores results in slow disarticulation. The articulated and disarticulated bones are exposed to heavy trampling by guanacos, a process that produces vertical migration of small/dense bones and fracturing of the most weathered bones. An understanding of this ongoing process is important for local archaeology, since modern bones are migrating into archaeological contexts. A regional approach to taphonomy is the most appropriate instrument to solve this and other related problems.

  19. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic

  20. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  1. The hydrothermal system of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, D.A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Nevado del Ruiz is an andesitic stratovolcano located 150 km northwest of Bogota, Columbia characterized by a large hydrothermal system with two very distinctive types of water: acid sulfate waters, and bicarbonate and neutral chloride waters. The waters within each group fall in well-defined lines on compositional cross plots with an apparent lack of mixing between the two water types. The acid sulfate waters appear to be related to the north-west striking and seismically active Villamaria-Termales fault. The neutral chloride waters are clustered to the west and south-east of the volcano. The bicarbonate waters are more widespread. Several hydrothermally-altered samples from Nevado del Ruiz volcano hydrothermal system were analyzed using X-ray diffraction techniques. It was possible to distinguish two sets of mineral assemblages which correspond to the two water types. The acid sulfate waters produce cristobalite, sulfates, hematite or pyrite, sulfur and minor amounts of trydimite, kaolinite, smectite, and illite. The alteration products at the neutral chloride and bicarbonate waters include mainly carbonates and cristobalite. Simulation of the reaction between the hydrothermal fluids and the basaltic andesites of the lower volcanic units at Ruiz using the computer program CHILLER yielded mineral assemblages which are consistent with the observed alteration mineralogy. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and helium and sulfur isotopes suggest that the acid sulfate waters have an important magmatic contribution. The composition of the neutral chloride an bicarbonate waters suggests mineral equilibria with feldspars and carbonates. Both types of waters appear to be the product of mixing of high salinity end members with different proportions of meteoric water. Linear variations in composition of the gases discharged at Ruiz suggested that the gas phase also represents mixing. Faults and contacts play a key role in the circulation of fluids at Ruiz.

  2. Deficiency of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) aggravates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-03-07

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease wherein lung parenchyma is gradually and irreversibly replaced with collagen. The molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood and the only effective treatment available is lung transplantation. To test if Del-1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, may be implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in wild type (WT) and Del-1(-/-) mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Del-1 expression in the lung was decreased in the WT mice treated with bleomycin compared to control mice. In addition, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis increased collagen deposition and TGF-β production in the lung of Del-1(-/-) mice. Finally, Del-1(-/-) mice treated with bleomycin displayed higher weight loss and greater mortality than did WT mice identically treated. These findings suggest that Del-1 may negatively regulate development of pulmonary fibrosis. Further delineation of a role for Del-1 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis will broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and hopefully help develop potential therapeutics.

  3. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  4. Observaciones del CH interestelar y el continuo en 3,3 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C. A.; Combi, J. A.; Pöppel, W.; Benaglia, P.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    Se informa sobre el proyecto que se lleva a cabo en el IAR con el propósito de observar las líneas hiperfinas del estado fundamental del CH y el continuo en la banda de 3,3 GHz. El nuevo receptor construído en nuestro laboratorio para tal fin se instaló sobre uno de los radiotelescopios, funcionando conjuntamente con los sistemas de procesamiento actuales del IAR. Los resultados de las primeras observaciones, realizadas tanto en las líneas espectrales como en el continuo sobre fuentes conocidas, fueron satisfactorios.

  5. General nonextremal rotating charged Gödel black holes in minimal five-dimensional gauged supergravity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuang-Qing

    2008-03-28

    I present the general exact solutions for nonextremal rotating charged black holes in the Gödel universe of five-dimensional minimal supergravity theory. They are uniquely characterized by four nontrivial parameters: namely, the mass m, the charge q, the Kerr equal rotation parameter a, and the Gödel parameter j. I calculate the conserved energy, angular momenta, and charge for the solutions and show that they completely satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics. I also study the symmetry and separability of the Hamilton-Jacobi and the massive Klein-Gordon equations in these Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Gödel black hole backgrounds.

  6. Spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her and HR Del

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyogin, L.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper considers the formation of the spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her (1934) and HR Del (1967). It is shown that the existence of polar caps is due to the influence of the second component of the system on the angular distribution of the mass shell depth of the mainshell. The ratio of the mass shell depth in the equatorial ring and in the polar caps is 1.13 for DQ Her and 2.7 for HR Del. The ratio of the maximal densities in the equatorial ring and the polar caps is of order 3 for DQ Her and of order 70 for HR Del.

  7. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  8. Strong gravitational lensing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gödel black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, J.; Naji, J.; Vaez, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter we investigate the strong gravitational lansing in a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein Gödel black hole. The deflection angle is considered by the logarithmic term proposed by Bozza et al. Then we study the variation of deflection angle and its parameters abar and bbar. We suppose that the supermassive black hole in the galaxy center can be considered by a charged squashed Kaluza-Klein black hole in a Gödel background. Then by the relations between lensing parameters and observables, we estimate the observables for different values of charge, extra dimension and Gödel parameters.

  9. Max Brödel's contributions to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D

    1986-11-01

    Max Brödel arrived in the United States in 1894 to work as a medical illustrator at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He brought with him an extensive background in medical sciences and illustration. This allowed him to develop an advanced style and technique that would greatly influence the profession of medical illustration. Much of Brödel's work concerned the head and neck region and is of particular interest to otolaryngologists. This article reviews the historical aspects of Brödel's career and highlights his contributions to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

  10. A Silicate Inclusion in Puente del Zacate, a IIIA Iron Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Moore, Carleton B.; Steele, Ian M.

    1996-09-01

    The IIIA and IIIB iron meteorites are considered to have formed in the cores of asteroids. A silicate inclusion within the IIIA meteorite Puente del Zacate consisting of olivine (Fa_4), low-calcium pyroxene (Fs_6Wo_1), chromium diopside (Fs_3Wo47), plagioclase (An14Or_4), graphite, troilite, chromite, daubreelite, and iron metal resembles inclusions in IAB iron meteorites. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Puente del Zacate inclusion is like chromite and phosphate inclusions in other IIIA and IIIB irons. The Puente del Zacate inclusion may have been derived from the lower mantle of the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  11. RASTREO DEL CANCER COLORRECTAL CONOCIMIENTO Y ACTITUD DE LA POBLACION

    PubMed Central

    CASAL, ENRIQUE R.; VELAZQUEZ, ELIZABETH N.; MEJIA, RAUL M.; CUNEO, ALDO; PEREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%). Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27), sigmoideoscopía (11) y colonoscopía (20). Una mayoría afirmó que “se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara” (95%), o “no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje” (87%). Contestar afirmativamente que “los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes” se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37) p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica. PMID:19414294

  12. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  13. Pleiotropic mechanisms of action of lenalidomide efficacy in del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Heise, Carla; Carter, Troy; Schafer, Peter; Chopra, Rajesh

    2010-10-01

    Lenalidomide has demonstrated clinical activity in myelodysplastic syndromes, particularly in patients with a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 5 (del[5q] abnormality). It has a direct effect on the del(5q) clone, which may contribute to its ability to induce cytogenetic responses. Lenalidomide also stimulates erythropoiesis, leading to erythroid responses in certain patients. Other effects include immunomodulation, anti-inflammatory effects and angiogenesis inhibition. New findings indicate that lenalidomide modulates key genes located within the del(5q) region, including tumor suppressor genes, and regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and cell membrane. Its effects on cytoskeleton regulation may explain its direct antitumor and immunomodulatory effects. This article provides an overview of the known effects of lenalidomide and new insights into its activity in del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes.

  14. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 1 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 1 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  15. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 4 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 4 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  16. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 2 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 2 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  17. HAER DEL,3MILF.V,2 (sheet 3 of 4) Mispillion Lighthouse, South ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER DEL,3-MILF.V,2- (sheet 3 of 4) - Mispillion Lighthouse, South bank of Mispillion River at its confluence with Delaware River at northeast end of County Road 203, 7 miles east of Milford, Milford, Sussex County, DE

  18. Fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion and the Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. Q.; de S. Oliveira, J. R.; Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze Dirac fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion. We also consider the Gödel-type space-times embedded in a topological defect background. We show that relativistic bound states solutions to the Dirac equation can be obtained by dealing with three cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion, where a cosmic string passes through these three cases of the space-time. We obtain the relativistic energy levels for all cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion with a cosmic string, where we show that there exists an analogy with the Landau levels for Dirac particles. We also show that the presence of torsion in the space-time yields new contributions to the relativistic spectrum of energies and that the presence of the topological defect modifies the degeneracy of the relativistic energy levels.

  19. 90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115117 South El Paso St.,east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Paso Del Norte Hotel, 115-117 South El Paso St.,east facade, west side of street - South El Paso Street Historic District, South El Paso, South Oregon & South Santa Fe Streets, El Paso, El Paso County, TX

  20. Multi-InDel Analysis for Ancestry Inference of Sub-Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kuan; Ye, Yi; Luo, Tao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM). In this study, we performed a genome-wide scan for multi-InDels as AIM. After examining the FST distributions in the 1000 Genomes Database, 12 candidates were selected and validated for eastern Asian populations. A multiplexed assay was developed as a panel to genotype 12 multi-InDel markers simultaneously. Ancestry component analysis with STRUCTURE and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to estimate its capability for ancestry inference. Furthermore, ancestry assignments of trial individuals were conducted. It proved to be very effective when 210 samples from Han and Tibetan individuals in China were tested. The panel consisting of multi-InDel markers exhibited considerable potency in ancestry inference, and was suggested to be applied in forensic practices and genetic population studies. PMID:28004788

  1. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether ‘classical’ signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10365.001 PMID:26701908

  2. CHEK2 c.1100delC allele is rarely identified in Greek breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Paraskevi; Fostira, Florentia; Papamentzelopoulou, Myrto; Michelli, Maria; Panopoulos, Christos; Fountzilas, George; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis

    2015-04-01

    The CHEK2 gene encodes a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and the DNA repair mechanism. CHEK2 germline mutations are associated with increased risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. From a clinical perspective, the most significant mutation identified is the c.1100delC mutation, which is associated with an approximately 25% lifetime breast cancer risk. The distribution of this mutation shows wide geographical variation; it is more prevalent in the Northern European countries and less common, or even absent, in Southern Europe. In order to estimate the frequency of the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation in Greek breast cancer patients, we genotyped 2,449 patients (2,408 females and 41 males), which was the largest series ever tested for c.1100delC. The mean age of female and male breast cancer diagnosis was 49 and 59 years, respectively. All patients had previously tested negative for the Greek BRCA1 founder and recurrent mutations. The CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was detected in 0.16% (4 of 2,408) of females, all of whom were diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 50 years. Only one c.1100delC carrier was reported with breast cancer family history. The present study indicates that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation does not contribute substantially to hereditary breast cancer in patients of Greek descent.

  3. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Iorio, Francesco; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-12-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether 'classical' signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect.

  4. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  5. Estudio multiespectral del remanente de supernova W 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Velázquez, P.; Castelletti, G.

    Se presentan observaciones en continuo de radio con muy alta resolución angular y sensibilidad del remanente de supernova (RSN) W28. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el interferómetro Very Large Array (Estados Unidos), en las configuraciones C y D, en 1415 y 324 MHz. Por la gran extensión de este remanente (diámetro ~ 1o), las observaciones en 1415 MHz se realizaron en modo mosaico, combinando 48 apuntamientos diferentes en una única imagen. En ambas frecuencias los datos se procesaron con el agregado de observaciones de menor resolución angular, a fin de recuperar información en todas las frecuencias espaciales y obtener estimaciones precisas de densidad de flujo. Las imágenes resultantes muestran por primera vez la presencia de extensiones con forma de arco, cuya naturaleza se investiga. Las observaciones en radio se comparan con una imagen óptica de W28, y con la emisión en rayos X, observada con el satélite ROSAT. Este remanente muestra una clara morfología híbrida, tipo cáscara en frecuencias de radio y de centro lleno en las bandas óptica y de rayos X blandos.

  6. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  7. [Health profile of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social workers].

    PubMed

    Velasco-Contreras, María Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the association between risk factors, dietary habits, physical activity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, in the presence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis, and cancer, in health care workers (and other categories of employees) of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). From March to December 2009, 20,000 surveys were conducted among randomly selected workers on 35 IMSS delegations. The variables of the study included affiliation, sex, age employment status, registration of known diseases, smoking, nicotine addiction, risk drinking, alcohol addiction, eating and exercise habits. Workers with poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle smoking and alcohol abuse are more frequently exposed to the presence of obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus and these in turn to cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, myocardial infarction, cerebral vascular disease and liver cirrhosis. This study shows that IMSS workers have a high exposure to risk factors associated with the presence of chronic diseases and their complications. It is necessary to enable them to improve significantly their health profile.

  8. Castelvecchio and Castiglione del Lago: Two new Italian iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggi Cecchi, V.; Pratesi, G.; Caporali, S.; Herd, C. D. K.; Chen, G.

    2017-08-01

    Until 2016 only 38 Italian meteorites have been classified and published on the Meteoritical Bulletin Database. Among these, only 4 were irons. We here report the results of the analyses performed on two iron meteorites recovered in Italy. The first one, Castiglione del Lago, weighing 667g, was recovered in 1970. The textural features observed by means of both optical microscope and SEM, as well as SEM-EDX and ICP-MS analyses, allowed to classify it as IAB-MG iron. The second one, named Castelvecchio, has been recovered at Lignana, near Pontito, in August 2015. In the same locality a fireball was witnessed on October 23, 1986, by Mario Goiorani, a meteorite collector. The main mass, weighing 49.5g, was recovered inside a hollow. A chip, observed with both optical metallographic microscope and SEM, displayed no kamacite lamellae at the centimetric scale, suggesting a classification as IIAB iron. This classification was confirmed by ICP-MS analyses. Both meteorites have been approved by the Meteoritical Society in 2016 and published in the on-line Meteoritical Bulletin Database (https://www.lpi.usra.edu/meteor).

  9. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  10. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  11. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  12. Use of multi-InDels as novel markers to analyze 13 X-chromosome haplotype loci for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangyao; Ye, Yi; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have been proposed to identify insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphisms in humans for forensic genetic studies. However, the discriminatory power of InDels is limited by the poor polymorphisms of diallelic markers. To improve their discriminatory power, we developed multi-InDel, a novel autosomal marker comprising more than two InDel loci that are tightly linked by their physical position and combined into a specific marker by a pair of PCR primers. This strategy gives at least three haplotypes for each multi-InDel marker. Such markers can be potentially very useful in forensic applications. In this study, we focused on multi-InDel markers located on X chromosome (ChrX). A multiplex system with 13 multi-InDel markers, including 28 InDel loci in ChrX, was developed. To validate the multi-InDel panel, the haplotype distribution in a population sample and in a set of pedigrees was investigated. This study demonstrates usefulness of these markers for individual identification and relationship studies. We highlight the fact that the multi-InDel markers located on ChrX can provide new supporting information for complex kinship testing. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Determinacion del error sistematico del momentum de muones producidos por interacciones neutrino-nucleon en el detector MINER$\

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz Bautista, Gonzalo A.

    2015-11-29

    El Modelo Estandar describe todas las partculas observadas en el naturaleza hasta el momento as como las caractersticas que gobiernan a las interacciones fundamentales entre ellas. En especial es posible identicar a las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, las cuales bajo determinadas condiciones de temperatura y energa pueden ser descritas a traves de una sola teora que engloba a ambas. A esta teora se le denomina electrodebil y tiene como nalidad caracterizar las propiedades de la interaccion maniesta a partir de la mezcla de las interacciones electromagnetica y debil, la que tambien lleva como nombre interaccion electrodebil. Particularmente, los neutrinos son de especial interes ya que, por un lado, interactuan por medio de la interaccion debil muy raramente en comparacion con otras partculas y, por el otro, no son acertadamente descritos por el Modelo Estandar. Por medio de observaciones experimentales que demostraban que los neutrinos cambian de sabor al propagarse, fenomeno llamado oscilaciones de neutrinos, se pudo llegar a la conclusion de que la implicancia de este fenomeno da como consecuencia que los neutrinos efectivamente s tienen masa, algo que entra en contradiccion con la descripcion inicial del Modelo Estandar, el cual los describe como partculas sin masa. Es de esta manera que las oscilaciones de neutrinos han sido y siguen siendo en la actualidad objeto de interes en la Fsica de Altas Energas tanto teorica como experimental. A n de poder realizar mediciones precisas de oscilaciones de neutrinos, los experimentos encargados de estas mediciones deben tratar de reducir sus incertidumbres en lo posible. Una de estas proviene de la caracterizacion de las secciones de choque de los neutrinos cuando interactuan con la materia, particularmente los nucleones al interior de los nucleos atomicos. El experimento MINERA esta orientado, entre otras cosas, a hacer una correcta caracterizacion de secciones de choque neutrino-nucleon por medio del estudio de

  14. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  15. Del Mod at a Glance, Volume 2. A Synopsis of the 1972-73 Annual Report for the Del Mod System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas M.

    A synopsis of the 1972-73 annual report for the Del Mod System is presented together with a brief description of the projects within the local schools. Individual teacher research projects are listed by teacher name, school district, and project title. Field agent programs and some conclusions and recommendations about their work are described.…

  16. Magma-tectonic Interaction at Laguna del Maule, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keranen, K. M.; Peterson, D. E.; Miller, C. A.; Garibaldi, N.; Tikoff, B.; Williams-Jones, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (LdM), Chile, the largest concentration of rhyolite <20 kyr globally, exhibits crustal deformation at rates higher than any non-erupting volcano. The interaction of large magmatic systems with faulting is poorly understood, however, the Chaitén rhyolitic system demonstrated that faults can serve as magma pathways during an eruption. We present a complex fault system at LdM in close proximity to the magma reservoir. In March 2016, 18 CHIRP seismic reflection lines were acquired at LdM to identify faults and analyze potential spatial and temporal impacts of the fault system on volcanic activity. We mapped three key horizons on each line, bounding sediment packages between Holocene onset, 870 ybp, and the present date. Faults were mapped on each line and offset was calculated across key horizons. Our results indicate a system of normal-component faults in the northern lake sector, striking subparallel to the mapped Troncoso Fault SW of the lake. These faults correlate to prominent magnetic lineations mapped by boat magnetic data acquired February 2016 which are interpreted as dykes intruding along faults. We also imaged a vertical fault, interpreted as a strike-slip fault, and a series of normal faults in the SW lake sector near the center of magmatic inflation. Isochron and fault offset maps illuminate areas of growth strata and indicate migration and increase of fault activity from south to north through time. We identify a domal structure in the SW lake sector, coincident with an area of low magnetization, in the region of maximum deformation from InSAR results. The dome experienced 10 ms TWT ( 10 meters) of uplift throughout the past 16 kybp, which we interpret as magmatic inflation in a shallow magma reservoir. This inflation is isolated to a 1.5 km diameter region in the hanging wall of the primary normal fault system, indicating possible fault-facilitated inflation.

  17. Predicting Nonspecific Ion Binding Using DelPhi

    PubMed Central

    Petukh, Marharyta; Zhenirovskyy, Maxim; Li, Chuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Ions are an important component of the cell and affect the corresponding biological macromolecules either via direct binding or as a screening ion cloud. Although some ion binding is highly specific and frequently associated with the function of the macromolecule, other ions bind to the protein surface nonspecifically, presumably because the electrostatic attraction is strong enough to immobilize them. Here, we test such a scenario and demonstrate that experimentally identified surface-bound ions are located at a potential that facilitates binding, which indicates that the major driving force is the electrostatics. Without taking into consideration geometrical factors and structural fluctuations, we show that ions tend to be bound onto the protein surface at positions with strong potential but with polarity opposite to that of the ion. This observation is used to develop a method that uses a DelPhi-calculated potential map in conjunction with an in-house-developed clustering algorithm to predict nonspecific ion-binding sites. Although this approach distinguishes only the polarity of the ions, and not their chemical nature, it can predict nonspecific binding of positively or negatively charged ions with acceptable accuracy. One can use the predictions in the Poisson-Boltzmann approach by placing explicit ions in the predicted positions, which in turn will reduce the magnitude of the local potential and extend the limits of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In addition, one can use this approach to place the desired number of ions before conducting molecular-dynamics simulations to neutralize the net charge of the protein, because it was shown to perform better than standard screened Coulomb canned routines, or to predict ion-binding sites in proteins. This latter is especially true for proteins that are involved in ion transport, because such ions are loosely bound and very difficult to detect experimentally. PMID:22735539

  18. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  19. Resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.

    2015-12-01

    In March of 2015 we mapped the resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep in the inner California borderlands using a deep towed electromagnetic (EM) source and receiver array. Located in the San Diego trough at a depth of 1km, the seep site is on the flank of a mound associated with a transpressive step in the San Diego trough fault. The seep site has previously been associated with seafloor pockmarks, acoustic wipeouts, chemosynthetic communities, and active methane bubble venting. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are performed by deep-towing an EM source that is transmitting a known signal; this signal is detected by towed receivers. This transmitted signal is altered by the electrical properties of the surrounding environment. Compared to seismic methods, EM methods are largely insensitive to free gas, making it an especially useful tool for detecting electrically resistive methane hydrate in areas of active gas venting. We used a 50m dipole transmitting 100A, with 3-axis electric field receivers spaced at 130m, 230m, 330m, and 430m behind the transmitter dipole center. The receiver data are inverted using MARE2DEM, a finite element 2D inversion routine. The inversion results show the background resistivity of the trough sediments to be about 1-2 ohmm, and are largely featureless outside of the seep site. However at the seep site we see a decanter-shaped 100 ohmm resistor whose base is 100m below the seafloor, and 1km wide at its widest. This feature narrows at the top to form a pipe structure about 200m wide that extends to the seafloor. These resistive structures are interpreted to be methane hydrate resulting from methane rich fluid flow along faults associated with the transpressional system that brackets the seep site.

  20. Incidence of early-onset dementia in Mar del Plata.

    PubMed

    Sanchez Abraham, M; Scharovsky, D; Romano, L M; Ayala, M; Aleman, A; Sottano, E; Etchepareborda, I; Colla Machado, C; García, M I; Gonorazky, S E

    2015-03-01

    Early-onset dementia (EOD) is defined as dementia with onset before the age of 65 years. EOD is increasingly recognised as an important clinical and social problem with devastating consequences for patients and caregivers. Determine the annual crude incidence rate and the specific incidence rates by sex and age in patients with EOD, and the standardised rate using the last national census of the population of Argentina (NCPA), from 2010. Hospital Privado de Comunidad, Mar del Plata, Argentina, attends a closed population and is the sole healthcare provider for 17 614 people. Using the database pertaining to the Geriatric Care department, we identified all patients diagnosed with EOD between 1 January, 2005 and 31 December, 2011. EOD was defined as dementia diagnosed in patients younger than 65. The study period yielded 14 patients diagnosed with EOD out of a total of 287 patients evaluated for memory concerns. The crude annual incidence of EOD was 11 per 100 000/year (CI 95%: 6.25-19.1): 17 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 7.2-33.1) in men and 8 per 100 000 (CI 95%: 3.4-17.2) in women. We observed a statistically significant increase when comparing incidence rates between patients aged 21 to <55 years and ≥ 55 to <65 years (3 vs 22 per 100 000, P=.0014). The rate adjusted by NCPA census data was 5.8 cases of EOD habitants/year. This study, conducted in a closed population, yielded an EOD incidence rate of 11 per 100 000 inhabitants/year. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first prospective epidemiological study in Argentina and in Latin America. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting nonspecific ion binding using DelPhi.

    PubMed

    Petukh, Marharyta; Zhenirovskyy, Maxim; Li, Chuan; Li, Lin; Wang, Lin; Alexov, Emil

    2012-06-20

    Ions are an important component of the cell and affect the corresponding biological macromolecules either via direct binding or as a screening ion cloud. Although some ion binding is highly specific and frequently associated with the function of the macromolecule, other ions bind to the protein surface nonspecifically, presumably because the electrostatic attraction is strong enough to immobilize them. Here, we test such a scenario and demonstrate that experimentally identified surface-bound ions are located at a potential that facilitates binding, which indicates that the major driving force is the electrostatics. Without taking into consideration geometrical factors and structural fluctuations, we show that ions tend to be bound onto the protein surface at positions with strong potential but with polarity opposite to that of the ion. This observation is used to develop a method that uses a DelPhi-calculated potential map in conjunction with an in-house-developed clustering algorithm to predict nonspecific ion-binding sites. Although this approach distinguishes only the polarity of the ions, and not their chemical nature, it can predict nonspecific binding of positively or negatively charged ions with acceptable accuracy. One can use the predictions in the Poisson-Boltzmann approach by placing explicit ions in the predicted positions, which in turn will reduce the magnitude of the local potential and extend the limits of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In addition, one can use this approach to place the desired number of ions before conducting molecular-dynamics simulations to neutralize the net charge of the protein, because it was shown to perform better than standard screened Coulomb canned routines, or to predict ion-binding sites in proteins. This latter is especially true for proteins that are involved in ion transport, because such ions are loosely bound and very difficult to detect experimentally. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by

  2. Screening for F508del as a first step in the molecular diagnosis of cystic fibrosis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Bertuzzo, Carmen Silvia; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Ribeiro, Antônio Fernando; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relevance of screening for the F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene as a first step in the genetic diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) by associating the genotype with various clinical variables. METHODS: We evaluated 180 CF patients regarding the F508del mutation. The clinical data were obtained from the medical records of the patients and from interviews with their parents or legal guardians. RESULTS: Of the 180 patients studied, 65 (36.1%) did not carry the F508del mutation (group 0 [G0]), 67 (37.2%) were F508del heterozygous (G1), and 48 (26.7%) were F508del homozygous (G2). All three groups showed associations with the clinical variables. Homozygosis was associated with younger patients, younger age at CF diagnosis, and younger age at the first isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), as well as with higher prevalence of pancreatic insufficiency (PI) and non-mucoid PA (NMPA) colonization. In comparison with G1+G2 patients, G0 patients were older; first experienced clinical symptoms, digestive disease, and pulmonary disease at an older age; were older at CF diagnosis and at first PA isolation; and had a lower prevalence of PI and meconium ileus, as well as of colonization by NMPA, mucoid PA, and Burkholderia cepacia. In G1 patients, values were intermediate for age at CF diagnosis; age at first PA isolation, first pulmonary symptoms, and first clinical manifestations; MPA colonization; and OR for PI. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of F508del in 63.9% of the patients studied showed that this can be a useful tool as a first step in the genetic diagnosis of CF. The F508del genotype was associated with clinical severity of the disease, especially with the variables related to CF onset. PMID:23857699

  3. The Icelandic founder mutation BRCA2 999del5: analysis of expression

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelsdottir, Evgenia K; Valgeirsdottir, Sigridur; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Rafnar, Thorunn

    2004-01-01

    Introduction A founder mutation in the BRCA2 gene (BRCA2 999del5) accounts for 7–8% of female breast cancers and for 40% of male breast cancers in Iceland. If expressed, the mutant gene would encode a protein consisting of the first 256 amino acids of the BRCA2 protein. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this mutant protein is produced in heterozygous individuals and, if so, what might be the functional consequences of mutant protein production. Methods The presence of BRCA2 999del5 transcripts in fibroblasts from heterozygous individuals was assayed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing. The potential protein-coding portion of BRCA2 999del5 was cloned into the pIND(SP1)/V5-His vector and expressed in COS7 cells. The presence of the mutant protein in cell lysates from heterozygous fibroblasts and from COS7 cells was tested by a number of methods including immunoprecipitation, affinity purification with nickel-coated agarose beads, Western blotting and ELISA, using antibodies to the N-terminal end of BRCA2, antiserum specific for the 16 nonrelevant amino acids at the carboxyl end and antibodies to fusion partners of recombinant proteins. Results The frequency of the BRCA2 999del5 transcript in heterozygous fibroblasts was about one-fifth of the wild-type transcript; however, no mutant protein could be detected. Overexpression of BRCA2 999del5 mRNA in COS7 cells failed to produce a mutant protein unless degradation by proteasomes was blocked. Conclusion Our results show that the protein product of BRCA2 999del5 is extremely unstable. Therefore, an increase in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 999del5 carriers is due to haploinsufficiency at the BRCA2 locus. PMID:15217494

  4. The Icelandic founder mutation BRCA2 999del5: analysis of expression.

    PubMed

    Mikaelsdottir, Evgenia K; Valgeirsdottir, Sigridur; Eyfjord, Jorunn E; Rafnar, Thorunn

    2004-01-01

    A founder mutation in the BRCA2 gene (BRCA2 999del5) accounts for 7-8% of female breast cancers and for 40% of male breast cancers in Iceland. If expressed, the mutant gene would encode a protein consisting of the first 256 amino acids of the BRCA2 protein. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this mutant protein is produced in heterozygous individuals and, if so, what might be the functional consequences of mutant protein production. The presence of BRCA2 999del5 transcripts in fibroblasts from heterozygous individuals was assayed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing. The potential protein-coding portion of BRCA2 999del5 was cloned into the pIND(SP1)/V5-His vector and expressed in COS7 cells. The presence of the mutant protein in cell lysates from heterozygous fibroblasts and from COS7 cells was tested by a number of methods including immunoprecipitation, affinity purification with nickel-coated agarose beads, Western blotting and ELISA, using antibodies to the N-terminal end of BRCA2, antiserum specific for the 16 nonrelevant amino acids at the carboxyl end and antibodies to fusion partners of recombinant proteins. The frequency of the BRCA2 999del5 transcript in heterozygous fibroblasts was about one-fifth of the wild-type transcript; however, no mutant protein could be detected. Overexpression of BRCA2 999del5 mRNA in COS7 cells failed to produce a mutant protein unless degradation by proteasomes was blocked. Our results show that the protein product of BRCA2 999del5 is extremely unstable. Therefore, an increase in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 999del5 carriers is due to haploinsufficiency at the BRCA2 locus.

  5. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC associated breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Muranen, Taru A.; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Schoemaker, Minouk; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hillemans, Peter; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W.M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations conferring a 2–3 fold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Methods With genotype data of 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. Results The PRS conferred an odds ratio (OR) of 1.59 [95% CI 1.21–2.09] per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 [1.55–1.62] for non-carriers. No evidence for deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 [0.86–4.78] for CHEK2*1100delC carriers placing them to the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 [0.16–1.74], indicating life-time risk close to population average. Conclusion Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify the carriers at a high life-time risk for clinical actions. PMID:27711073

  6. Telomere dynamics in patients with del (5q) MDS before and under treatment with lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Beier, Fabian; Masouleh, Behzad Kharabi; Buesche, Guntram; Ventura Ferreira, Monica S; Schneider, Rebekka K; Ziegler, Patrick; Wilop, Stefan; Vankann, Lucia; Gattermann, Norbert; Platzbecker, Uwe; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Götze, Katharina S; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Haase, Detlef; Kreipe, Hans; Panse, Jens; Blasco, Maria A; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2015-09-21

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with an acquired, isolated deletion of chromosome 5q (del (5q) MDS), represent a clonal disorder of hematopoiesis and a clinically distinct entity of MDS. Treatment of del (5q) MDS with the drug lenalidomide has significantly improved quality of life leading to transfusion independence and complete cytogenetic response rates (CCR) in the majority of patients. Telomeres are located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and are linked to replicative history/potential as well as genetic (in) stability of hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we analyzed telomere length (TL) dynamics before and under lenalidomide treatment in the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow of del (5q) patients enrolled in the LEMON-5 study (NCT01081431). Hematopoietic cells from del (5q) MDS patients were characterized by significantly shortened TL compared to age-matched healthy controls. Telomere loss was more accelerated in patients with longer disease duration (>2 years) and more pronounced cytopenias. Sequential analysis under lenalidomide treatment revealed that previously shortened TL in peripheral blood cells was significantly "elongated" towards normal levels within the first six months suggesting a shift from clonal del (5q) cells towards normal hematopoiesis in lenalidomide treated MDS patients. Taken together our findings suggest that the development of the del (5q) clone is associated with accelerated telomere shortening at diagnosis. However, upon induction of CCR and reoccurrence of normal hematopoiesis, the lack of a persistent TL deficit argues against telomere-mediated genetic instability neither as a disease-promoting event of del (5q) MDS nor for lenalidomide mediated development of secondary primary malignancies of the hematopoietic system in responding patients.

  7. Prevalence of 35delG and Met34Thr GJB2 variants in Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Dória, Mariana; Neto, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana Cristina; Barros, Henrique; Fernandes, Susana; Moura, Carla Pinto

    2015-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence of 35delG and Met34Thr variants in a Portuguese children's community sample and to compare these frequencies with nonsyndromic hearing-loss patients. 502 children were randomly selected among the 8647 participants of the Portuguese birth cohort Generation XXI, and screened for Met34Thr and 35delG variants in the GJB2 gene. These variants were also studied on 89 index-cases, observed in the Clinic of "Hereditary Hearing-loss" in Saint John's Hospital Center, presenting a mild to profound nonsyndromic hearing-loss. Among the 502 children from Generation XXI, 10 were heterozygous for the 35delG variant (95% Confidence Interval 1.03-3.68) and 1 homozygous (95% Confidence Interval 0.01-1.24). Other 10 children presented heterozygosity for the Met34Thr variant (95% Confidence Interval 1.03-3.68). No homozygous for the Met34Thr or compound heterozygotes (35delG/Met34Thr) were found. In the total of 89 nonsyndromic hearing-loss patients, 5 (95% Confidence Interval 2.11-12.8) were heterozygous and 7 (95% Confidence Interval 3.61-15.6) were homozygous for the 35delG variant. The Met34Thr variant was found in 4 patients, 2 heterozygous (95% Confidence Interval 0.13-8.31) and 2 homozygous (95% Confidence Interval 0.13-8.31). The carrier frequency of 35delG and Met34Thr variants in a Portuguese sample was 1 in 50. Our data suggests that the 35delG mutation has an association with deafness. For the Met34Thr variant, no association was observed. However, Met34Thr seemed to conform to an additive model in hearing-loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  9. Modelo semi-empírico de protuberancia solar a partir del diagnóstico de densidades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J. C.; Rovira, M.

    A partir de la observación del espectro del quintuplete de C III alrededor de 1175 Å, se ha realizado el diagnóstico de la densidad y presión electrónica, basado en el cálculo del cociente de las intensidades observadas. Una vez establecida la densidad electrónica, y con el cálculo de las velocidades Doppler, hemos investigado el flujo de masa en la protuberancia en función de la temperatura. Estableciendo como hipótesis la conservación del número de partículas que ingresan y salen del cuerpo de la protuberancia, se investiga la variación del área de un tubo de flujo semi-empírico en función de la temperatura. A partir de dicho diagnóstico, se examina el comportamiento del radio del tubo magnético en función de la temperatura, los que dan cuenta de la abertura de las líneas de campo magnético que confinan el plasma y de la divergencia del campo magnético en diferentes alturas de la atmósfera solar.

  10. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Sáez, María Soledad; Pascual Jimeno, Aitziber; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Polo-López, Rocío; Echeburúa Odriozola, Enrique

    2016-07-19

    Introducción: los problemas relacionados con el peso constituyen un problema importante de salud pública debido a su alta prevalencia y a las adversas consecuencias que tienen para la salud.Objetivo: el objetivo principal de este estudio fue analizar si la depresión y la ansiedad tienen un papel mediador en la relación entre la insatisfacción corporal y las conductas de control del peso en chicas adolescentes con sobrepeso.Material y métodos: en el estudio participaron 140 mujeres de 16 a 20 años con sobrepeso. Las participantes tuvieron que cumplimentar la escala de insatisfacción corporal del EDI-2, las escalas de ansiedad y depresión del GHQ-28 y una adaptación de las escalas del EAT survey para evaluar las conductas de control del peso. Para los análisis estadísticos se utilizaron métodos de diferencias de medias, correlaciones y de mediación secuencial.Resultados: las adolescentes con sobrepeso y alta insatisfacción corporal presentaban más sintomatología ansiosa y depresiva, así como mayor cantidad de conductas de control del peso. Los resultados del análisis de mediación secuencial evidencian que el efecto de la insatisfacción corporal en las conductas de control del peso está parcialmente mediado por las variables depresión y ansiedad. Mientras que la sintomatología ansiosa presenta efectos directos e indirectos sobre las conductas de control de peso, la sintomatología depresiva solamente presenta un efecto indirecto.Conclusiones:los resultados del estudio destacan el rol mediador de la sintomatología depresiva y, especialmente, de la ansiedad en el desarrollo de conductas no saludables de control del peso.

  11. Frequency of DEL phenotype in RhD negative donor population of north India.

    PubMed

    Samir, Sazia; Jain, Ashish; Marwaha, Neelam

    2015-08-01

    There is a paucity of data for DEL phenotype in the Indian population. Ours is a tertiary care Regional Blood Transfusion Centre in north India collecting more than 50,000 blood units out of which 8-9% are RhD negative donors. To determine the frequency of DEL phenotype in RhD negative blood donor population at our centre. A total of 200 RhD-negative blood donor samples were included in this study which was conducted over a period of 4 months (October 2013 to January 2014). All these blood samples were tested for extended Rh typing including C, E, c and e antigens and also for adsorption elution testing. The heat elution method at 56 °C in water bath for 10 minutes was utilized. The eluate and the last wash supernatant were used for indirect antiglobulin test against O RhD positive and O RhD negative cells by gel technique using the LISS Coombs' AHG gel cards (Biorad, Morat, Switzerland). Those donor samples which were found positive on adsorption elution testing were also further investigated by gel technique for Direct Antiglobulin test (DAT), Weak D testing and Auto Control test. Out of the total 200 Rh D negative donor samples tested, 3 (1.5%) samples were found to give positive result and, thus, were the DEL phenotypes. It was found that 20 (10%) donor samples were positive for C antigen, 5 (2.5%) for E antigen, 200 (100%) for c antigen and 200 (100%) for e antigen. Among the DEL negative (= 197), 193 (98%) were E antigen negative and only 4 (2%) were E antigen positive, whereas among the DEL positive samples (= 3), 2 (66.6%) were E antigen negative and 1 (33.3%) was E antigen positive. The C antigen positivity was only in 2 (66.6%) individuals in the DEL positive group and 178 (90.3%) in the DEL negative samples. All the three samples which were found to be positive as DEL phenotype also gave negative result for DAT, Weak D testing and Auto Control. The frequency of DEL phenotype in north Indian RhD negative donor population is 1.5%. Copyright

  12. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  13. Using Del-1 to Tip the Angiogenic Balance in Endothelial Cells in Modular Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Ciucurel, Ema C.; Vlahos, Alexander E.

    2014-01-01

    Modular tissue engineering is a method of building vascularized tissue-engineered constructs. Submillimeter-sized collagen pieces (modules) coated with a layer of endothelial cells (EC; vascular component), and with embedded functional cells, are self-assembled into a larger, three-dimensional tissue. In this study, we examined the use of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), an extracellular matrix protein with proangiogenic properties, as a means of tipping the angiogenic balance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporated in modular tissue-engineered constructs. The motivation was to enhance the vascularization of these constructs upon transplantation in vivo, in this case, without the use of exogenous mesenchymal stromal cells. EC were transduced using a lentiviral construct to overexpress Del-1. The Del-1 EC formed more sprouts in a fibrin gel sprouting assay in vitro compared with eGFP (control) transduced EC, as expected. Del-1 EC had a distinct profile of gene expression (upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9], urokinase-type plasminogen activator [uPA/PLAU], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF-A], and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]; downregulation of angiopoietin-2 [Ang2]), also supporting the notion of “tipping the angiogenic balance”. On the other hand, contrary to our expectations, when Del-1 EC-coated modules were implanted subcutaneously in a severe combined immunodeficient/beige animal model, the proangiogenic effect of Del-1 was less remarkable. There was only a small increase in the number of blood vessels formed in Del-1 implants compared with the eGFP implants, and only few blood vessels formed at the implant site in both cases. This was presumed due to limited EC survival after transplantation. We speculate that if we could improve EC survival in our study (for example, by adding other prosurvival factors or supporting cells), we would see a greater Del-1-induced angiogenic benefit in vivo as a

  14. High mountain soils and periglacial features at the Torres del Paine, National Park Torres del Paine, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senra, Eduardo; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Gjorup, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The Torres del Paine National Park (TPNP) is located on the southern limit of the Andean Southern Ice Field, part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena region, in the province of Ultima Esperanza. The TPNP has a very heterogeneous climate due to orographic influence and wet air masses from the Pacific. The geology is basically Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks and Miocene granitic plutons and batholiths. We studied the main soils and geoenvironments of Mt Ferrier mountain and its surroundings, based on soils , landforms and vegetation aspects. The geoenvironmental stratification was based on the combined variation and integration of pedo-litho-geomorphological features with the vegetation. WE used detailed geological maps, a DEM and slope maps and WorlView II satellite images. Fifteen soils profiles were sampled and classified according to Soil Taxonomy (2010) at all genovironments, ranging from 50 m a.s.l to the at high plateau just below the permanent snowline, under periglacial conditions (~1004m asl). Three soil temperature and moisture monitoring sites were set, allowing for 24 consecutive months (2011 to 2013). Seven geoenvironments were identified with distinct soil and landform characteristics, all with a similar geological substrate. The landform and vegetation have a strong connection with the landscape dynamic, controlling erosional and depositional processes, resulting from glacier advances and retreats in the Late Quaternary. Wind blown materials is widespread, in the form of loess material, accumulating in the higher parts of the landscape. On the other hand, accumulation of organic matter in the water-saturated depressions is common in all altitudes. Generally the soils are acidic and dystrophic, with little exceptions. The following geoenvironments were identified: Periglacial Tundra, Loess slopes, Talus and scarpmentd, Fluvio-glacial terraces, Fluvio-lacustrine plains, Moraines and Paleodunes. The regional pedology show the occurrence of five soil

  15. Del1 Knockout Mice Developed More Severe Osteoarthritis Associated with Increased Susceptibility of Chondrocytes to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Tran, Misha C.; Bhatia, Namrata J.; Hsing, Alexander W.; Chen, Carol; LaRussa, Marie F.; Fattakhov, Ernst; Rashidi, Vania; Jang, Kyu Yun; Choo, Kevin J.; Nie, Xingju; Mathy, Jonathan A.; Longaker, Michael T.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Helms, Jill A.; Yang, George P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identified significant expression of the matricellular protein, DEL1, in hypertrophic and mature cartilage during development. We hypothesized that this tissue-specific expression indicated a biological role for DEL1 in cartilage biology. Methods Del1 KO and WT mice had cartilage thickness evaluated by histomorphometry. Additional mice underwent medial meniscectomy to induce osteoarthritis, and were assayed at 1 week for apoptosis by TUNEL staining and at 8 weeks for histology and OA scoring. In vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed on primary chondrocytes. Results Deletion of the Del1 gene led to decreased amounts of cartilage in the ears and knee joints in mice with otherwise normal skeletal morphology. Destabilization of the knee led to more severe OA compared to controls. In vitro, DEL1 blocked apoptosis in chondrocytes. Conclusion Osteoarthritis is among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and increasing in incidence as our population ages. Initiation begins with an injury resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators. Excessive production of inflammatory mediators results in apoptosis of chondrocytes. Because of the limited ability of chondrocytes to regenerate, articular cartilage deteriorates leading to the clinical symptoms including severe pain and decreased mobility. No treatments effectively block the progression of OA. We propose that direct modulation of chondrocyte apoptosis is a key variable in the etiology of OA, and therapies aimed at preventing this important step represent a new class of regenerative medicine targets. PMID:27505251

  16. BRCA1 4153delA founder mutation in Russian ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krylova, Nadezhda Yu; Lobeiko, Oksana S; Sokolenko, Anna P; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Rozanov, Maxim E; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Gergova, Madina M; Porhanova, Tatiana V; Urmancheyeva, Adel F; Maximov, Sergey Ya; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2006-09-15

    The BRCA1 4153delA allele is frequently referred to as the Russian founder mutation, as it was initially detected in several cancer families from Moscow. Our earlier studies have demonstrated 1% occurrence of BRCA1 4153delA heterozygosity in familial and/or early-onset and/or bilateral Russian breast cancer (BC) patients. Since literature data suggest that the 4153delA variant is more associated with ovarian cancer (OC) than with BC, we expected to reveal a highly elevated frequency of this genotype in Russian ovarian cancer series. However, real-time allele-specific PCR genotyping has detected only two BRCA1 4153delA carriers out of 177 unselected OC patients (1.1%). Both these carriers were early-onset and had serous carcinomas of grade 3. Thus, our study supports neither the Russian origin of BRCA1 4153delA mutation, nor its selectivity towards ovarian versus breast cancer predisposition.

  17. Multiplex pyrosequencing of InDel markers for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bus, Magdalena M; Karas, Ognjen; Allen, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) technology is commonly used for fragment length separation of markers in forensic DNA analysis. In this study, pyrosequencing technology was used as an alternative and rapid tool for the analysis of biallelic InDel (insertion/deletion) markers for individual identification. The DNA typing is based on a subset of the InDel markers that are included in the Investigator(®) DIPplex Kit, which are sequenced in a multiplex pyrosequencing analysis. To facilitate the analysis of degraded DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments were kept short in the primer design. Samples from individuals of Swedish origin were genotyped using the pyrosequencing strategy and analysis of the Investigator(®) DIPplex markers with CE. A comparison between the pyrosequencing and CE data revealed concordant results demonstrating a robust and correct genotyping by pyrosequencing. Using optimal marker combination and a directed dispensation strategy, five markers could be multiplexed and analyzed simultaneously. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that multiplex InDel pyrosequencing analysis is possible. However, further studies on degraded samples, lower DNA quantities, and mixtures will be required to fully optimize InDel analysis by pyrosequencing for forensic applications. Overall, although CE analysis is implemented in most forensic laboratories, multiplex InDel pyrosequencing offers a cost-effective alternative for some applications.

  18. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  19. VEGF: a modifier of the del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome?

    PubMed

    Stalmans, Ingeborg; Lambrechts, Diether; De Smet, Frederik; Jansen, Sandra; Wang, Jian; Maity, Sunit; Kneer, Paige; von der Ohe, Maren; Swillen, Ann; Maes, Christa; Gewillig, Marc; Molin, Daniel G M; Hellings, Peter; Boetel, Thurid; Haardt, Maartin; Compernolle, Veerle; Dewerchin, Mieke; Plaisance, Stephane; Vlietinck, Robert; Emanuel, Beverly; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Scambler, Peter; Morrow, Bernice; Driscol, Deborah A; Moons, Lieve; Esguerra, Camila V; Carmeliet, Geert; Behn-Krappa, Annett; Devriendt, Koen; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Simon J; Carmeliet, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11 (del22q11) causes thymic, parathyroid, craniofacial and life-threatening cardiovascular birth defects in 1 in 4,000 infants. The del22q11 syndrome is likely caused by haploinsufficiency of TBX1, but its variable expressivity indicates the involvement of additional modifiers. Here, we report that absence of the Vegf164 isoform caused birth defects in mice, reminiscent of those found in del22q11 patients. The close correlation of birth and vascular defects indicated that vascular dysgenesis may pathogenetically contribute to the birth defects. Vegf interacted with Tbx1, as Tbx1 expression was reduced in Vegf164-deficient embryos and knocked-down vegf levels enhanced the pharyngeal arch artery defects induced by tbx1 knockdown in zebrafish. Moreover, initial evidence suggested that a VEGF promoter haplotype was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular birth defects in del22q11 individuals. These genetic data in mouse, fish and human indicate that VEGF is a modifier of cardiovascular birth defects in the del22q11 syndrome.

  20. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schürpf, Thomas; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Jin-huan; Wang, Rui; Springer, Timothy A.; Wang, Jia-huai

    2012-11-13

    Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.