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Sample records for del precio spot

  1. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  2. SPOT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jason T.; Welsh, Sam J.; Farinetti, Antonio L.; Wegner, Tim; Blakeslee, James; Deboeck, Toni F.; Dyer, Daniel; Corley, Bryan M.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine; Kramer, Leonard; Zimmerman, Patrick L.; Khatri, Reshma

    2010-01-01

    A Spacecraft Position Optimal Tracking (SPOT) program was developed to process Global Positioning System (GPS) data, sent via telemetry from a spacecraft, to generate accurate navigation estimates of the vehicle position and velocity (state vector) using a Kalman filter. This program uses the GPS onboard receiver measurements to sequentially calculate the vehicle state vectors and provide this information to ground flight controllers. It is the first real-time ground-based shuttle navigation application using onboard sensors. The program is compact, portable, self-contained, and can run on a variety of UNIX or Linux computers. The program has a modular objec-toriented design that supports application-specific plugins such as data corruption remediation pre-processing and remote graphics display. The Kalman filter is extensible to additional sensor types or force models. The Kalman filter design is also strong against data dropouts because it uses physical models from state and covariance propagation in the absence of data. The design of this program separates the functionalities of SPOT into six different executable processes. This allows for the individual processes to be connected in an a la carte manner, making the feature set and executable complexity of SPOT adaptable to the needs of the user. Also, these processes need not be executed on the same workstation. This allows for communications between SPOT processes executing on the same Local Area Network (LAN). Thus, SPOT can be executed in a distributed sense with the capability for a team of flight controllers to efficiently share the same trajectory information currently being computed by the program. SPOT is used in the Mission Control Center (MCC) for Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and International Space Station Program (ISSP) operations, and can also be used as a post -flight analysis tool. It is primarily used for situational awareness, and for contingency situations.

  3. Dark Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Dark spots (left) and 'fans' appear to scribble dusty hieroglyphics on top of the Martian south polar cap in two high-resolution Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Camera images taken in southern spring. Each image is about 3-kilometers wide (2-miles).

  4. Defrosting Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    3 October 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows dark, defrosting spots formed on a polygon-cracked plain in the south polar region of Mars. The surface was covered with carbon dioxide frost during the previous winter. In spring, the material begins to sublime away, creating a pattern of dark spots that sometimes have wind streaks emanating from them, as wind carries away or erodes the frost.

    Location near: 87.2oS, 28.4oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  5. Mongolian spots.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Mongolian spots (MS) are birthmarks that are present at birth and their most common location is sacrococcygeal or lumbar area. Lesions may be single or multiple and usually involve < 5% total body surface area. They are macular and round, oval or irregular in shape. The color varies from blue to greenish, gray, black or a combination of any of the above. The size varies from few to more than 20 centimetres. Pigmentation is most intense at the age of one year and gradually fades thereafter. It is rarely seen after the age of 6 years. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although regarded as benign, recent data suggest that MS may be associated with inborn errors of metabolism and neurocristopathies. Mongolian spots usually resolve by early childhood and hence no treatment is generally needed if they are located in the sacral area. However, sometimes it may be required for extrasacral lesions for cosmesis.

  6. Southern Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots

    This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Are 'hot spots' hot spots?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulger, Gillian R.

    2012-07-01

    The term 'hot spot' emerged in the 1960s from speculations that Hawaii might have its origins in an unusually hot source region in the mantle. It subsequently became widely used to refer to volcanic regions considered to be anomalous in the then-new plate tectonic paradigm. It carried with it the implication that volcanism (a) is emplaced by a single, spatially restricted, mongenetic melt-delivery system, assumed to be a mantle plume, and (b) that the source is unusually hot. This model has tended to be assumed a priori to be correct. Nevertheless, there are many geological ways of testing it, and a great deal of work has recently been done to do so. Two fundamental problems challenge this work. First is the difficulty of deciding a 'normal' mantle temperature against which to compare estimates. This is usually taken to be the source temperature of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). However, Earth's surface conduction layer is ˜200 km thick, and such a norm is not appropriate if the lavas under investigation formed deeper than the 40-50 km source depth of MORB. Second, methods for estimating temperature suffer from ambiguity of interpretation with composition and partial melt, controversy regarding how they should be applied, lack of repeatability between studies using the same data, and insufficient precision to detect the 200-300 °C temperature variations postulated. Available methods include multiple seismological and petrological approaches, modelling bathymetry and topography, and measuring heat flow. Investigations have been carried out in many areas postulated to represent either (hot) plume heads or (hotter) tails. These include sections of the mid-ocean spreading ridge postulated to include ridge-centred plumes, the North Atlantic Igneous Province, Iceland, Hawaii, oceanic plateaus, and high-standing continental areas such as the Hoggar swell. Most volcanic regions that may reasonably be considered anomalous in the simple plate-tectonic paradigm have been

  8. Mongolian blue spots (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mongolian blue spots are flat bluish- to bluish-gray skin markings commonly appearing at birth or shortly ... back and also can appear on the shoulders. Mongolian spots are benign and are not associated with ...

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of ...

  10. Drug Delivery: Enabling Technology for Drug Discovery and Development. iPRECIO Micro Infusion Pump: Programmable, Refillable, and Implantable.

    PubMed

    Tan, Tsung; Watts, Stephanie W; Davis, Robert Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Successful drug delivery using implantable pumps may be found in over 12,500 published articles. Their versatility in delivering continuous infusion, intermittent or complex infusion protocols acutely or chronically has made them ubiquitous in drug discovery and basic research. The recent availability of iPRECIO(®), a programmable, refillable, and implantable infusion pump has made it possible to carry out quantitative pharmacology (PKPD) in single animals. When combined with specialized catheters, specific administration sites have been selected. When combined with radiotelemetry, the physiologic gold standard, more sensitive and powerful means of detecting drug induced therapeutic, and/or adverse effects has been possible. Numerous application examples are cited from iPRECIO(®) use in Japan, United States, and Europe with iPRECIO(®) as an enabling drug delivery device where the refillable and programmability functionality were key benefits. The ability to start/stop drug delivery and to have control periods prior dosing made it possible to have equivalent effects at a much lower dose than previously studied. Five different iPRECIO(®) applications are described in detail with references to the original work where the implantable, refillable, and programmable benefits are demonstrated with their different end-points.

  11. Hot Spot Cosmic Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    cosmic objects. Notes [1]: The new results are described in a research paper, "Particle Accelerators in the Hot Spots of Radio Galaxy 3C 445, Imaged with the VLT" by M. Almudena Prieto (ESO, Garching, Germany), Gianfranco Brunetti (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy) and Karl-Heinz Mack (Istituto de Radioastronomia del CNR, Bologna, Italy; ASTRON/NFRA, Dwingeloo, The Netherlands; Radioastronomisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Germany), that recently appeared in the research journal Science (Vol. 298, pp. 193-195). [2]: When electrons - which are electrically charged - move through a magnetic field, they spiral along the lines of force. Electrons of high energy spiral very rapidly, at speeds near the speed of light. Under such conditions, the electrons emit highly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The intensity of this radiation is related to the strength of the magnetic field and the number and energy distribution of the electrons caught in this field. Many cosmic radio sources have been found to emit synchrotron radiation - one of the best examples is the famous Crab Nebula, depicted in ESO PR Photo 40f/99. ESO PR Photo 26/02 may be reproduced, if credit is given to the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and the US National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO).

  12. The Earth's Hot Spots.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vink, Gregory E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Hot spots are isolated areas of geologic activity where volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and upwelling currents occur far from plate boundaries. These mantle plumes are relatively stable and crustal plates drift over them. The nature and location of hot spots (with particular attention to the Hawaiian Islands and Iceland) are discussed. (DH)

  13. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  14. Mononucleosis spot test

    MedlinePlus

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  15. Lincoln's Spot Resolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1988-01-01

    Examines the events leading to and immediately following the declaration of war on Mexico in 1846. Includes the second and third pages of Abraham Lincoln's "Spot Resolutions" and presents teaching suggestions for interpreting the document and assessing public opinion. (GEA)

  16. SPOT4 Management Centre

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrune, Yves; Labbe, X.; Roussel, A.; Vielcanet, P.

    1994-01-01

    In the context of the CNES SPOT4 program CISI is particularly responsible for the development of the SPOT4 Management Centre, part of the SPOT4 ground control system located at CNES Toulouse (France) designed to provide simultaneous control over two satellites. The main operational activities are timed to synchronize with satellite visibilities (ten usable passes per day). The automatic capability of this system is achieved through agenda services (sequence of operations as defined and planned by operator). Therefore, the SPOT4 Management Centre offers limited, efficient and secure human interventions for supervision and decision making. This paper emphasizes the main system characteristics as degree of automation, level of dependability and system parameterization.

  17. Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162265.html Scientists Spot 'Teetotaler' Gene Discovery might one day lead to drugs to ... HealthDay News) -- Scientists say they've identified a gene variant that dampens the desire to drink alcohol. ...

  18. IR Spot Weld Inspect

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jian; Feng, Zhili

    2014-01-01

    In automotive industry, destructive inspection of spot welds is still the mandatory quality assurance method due to the lack of efficient non-destructive evaluation (NDE) tools. However, it is costly and time-consuming. Recently at ORNL, a new NDE prototype system for spot weld inspection using infrared (IR) thermography has been developed to address this problem. This software contains all the key functions that ensure the NDE system to work properly: system input/output control, image acquisition, data analysis, weld quality database generation and weld quality prediction, etc.

  19. Rolling Spot Welder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Garret E.; Fonteyne, Steve L.

    1990-01-01

    Wheeled tool speeds tack-welding operations. Spotwelds foil to parts in preparation for brazing. Includes electrode wheel rolling across foil. Welding current in electrode pulsed as electrode moves along, making series of uniformly-spaced low-current spot welds.

  20. Bacterial leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot has been reported in Australia (Queensland), Egypt, El Salvador, India, Japan, Nicaragua, Sudan, and the United States (Florida, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, and Wisconsin). It occasionally causes locally severe defoliation and post-emergence damping-off and stunting. The disease is...

  1. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  2. Arc spot grouping: An entanglement of arc spot cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kajita, Shin; Hwangbo, Dogyun; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tsventoukh, Mikhail M.; Barengolts, Sergey A.

    2014-12-21

    In recent experiments, clear transitions in velocity and trail width of an arc spot initiated on nanostructured tungsten were observed on the boundary of the thick and thin nanostructured layer regions. The velocity of arc spot was significantly decreased on the thick nanostructured region. It was suggested that the grouping decreased the velocity of arc spot. In this study, we try to explain the phenomena using a simple random walk model that has properties of directionality and self-avoidance. And grouping feature was added by installing an attractive force between spot cells with dealing with multi-spots. It was revealed that an entanglement of arc spot cells decreased the spot velocity, and spot cells tend to stamp at the same location many times.

  3. TV spots' impact.

    PubMed

    El-bakly, S

    1994-09-01

    The Information, Education and Communication (IEC) Center of the State Information Service was established in 1979 for the purpose of providing information to the people on the population issue. The Ministry of Information has accorded the State Information Service free TV and radio air time for family planning dramas and spots. In the early years information campaigns were organized to make people aware of the population problem by slogans, songs, and cartoons. Around 1984 misconceptions about family planning and contraceptives were attacked through a number of TV and radio spots. A few years later 21 spots on specific contraceptive methods were broadcast which were aired for three years over 3000 times. They were extremely successful. The impact of these TV spots was one of the major reasons why the contraceptive prevalence rate increased from 30% in 1984 to 38% in 1988 and 47% in 1992. Spots were also broadcast about the social implications of large families. The TV soap opera "And The Nile Flows On", with the family planning message interwoven into it, was very well received by the target audience. A program entitled "Wedding of the Month" features couples who know family planning well. The most successful radio program is a 15-20 minute long quiz show for residents of the villages where the Select Villages Project is being implemented. The State Information Service has 60 local information centers in the 26 governorates of Egypt that make plans for the family planning campaign. In 1992 the Minya Initiative, a family planning project was implemented in the Minya Governorate. As a result, the contraceptive prevalence rate rose from 22% to 30% over 18 months. A new project, the Select Village Project, was developed in 1993 that replicates the Minya Initiative on the village level in other governorates. This new project that was implemented in sixteen governorates.

  4. Poisson Spot with Magnetic Levitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Matthew; Everhart, Michael; D'Arruda, Jose

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe a unique method for obtaining the famous Poisson spot without adding obstacles to the light path, which could interfere with the effect. A Poisson spot is the interference effect from parallel rays of light diffracting around a solid spherical object, creating a bright spot in the center of the shadow.

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Lacz, N L; Schwartz, R A; Kapila, R

    2006-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an unusual but important dermatological condition to identify without hesitation. The classic triad of headache, fever, and a rash that begins on the extremities and travels proximally to involve the trunk is found in a majority of patients. The cutaneous centripetal pattern is a result of cell to cell migration by the causative organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Such individuals should receive prompt antimicrobial therapy and supportive care to avoid serious and potentially fatal complications.

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kamper, C A; Chessman, K H; Phelps, S J

    1988-02-01

    The epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever are reviewed. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a severe infection caused by Rickettsia rickettsii transmitted to man by various species of ticks. High-incidence areas exist in the southeast and south central United States. Only 60-70% of patients with the disease report a history of tick bite or exposure to tick-infested areas. The disease is initially characterized by fever, headache, gastrointestinal complaints, myalgia, and a generalized rash. In several days generalized vasculitis may lead to periorbital edema and nonpitting edema of the face and extremities. Central nervous system involvement is common. Because signs and symptoms associated with the disease are nonspecific, the diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Traditionally diagnostic confirmation relied on serologic testing, but an indirect fluorescent antibody assay will soon be commercially available. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is usually treated with the rickettsiostatic agents chloramphenicol or tetracycline, but few comparative data on these agents in patients with the disease are available. For patients who cannot tolerate oral medications, intravenous chloramphenicol sodium succinate is the preferred treatment; chloramphenicol is also the drug of choice for children less than eight years of age. Otherwise, oral tetracycline hydrochloride is the drug of choice. Antibiotic therapy should be continued for 7-10 days or until the patient is afebrile for two to five days. All cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever must be reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The best ways to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease are to increase awareness of its signs and symptoms and to prevent exposure to ticks.

  7. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  8. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever].

    PubMed

    Reinauer, K M; Jaschonek, K; Kusch, G; Heizmann, W R; Döller, P C; Jenss, H

    1990-01-12

    After returning from a holiday in the USA a 24-year-old man fell ill with diarrhoea, high fever and marked rash including the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. When a history of a tick bite in the USA was elicited, a rickettsial infection was suspected. Treatment with doxycycline, 100 mg twice daily, was instituted finally and the fever slowly resolved. The patient became completely well again within four weeks. Serological tests confirmed the diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  9. Dark Spots and Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As winter turns to spring at the south polar ice cap of Mars, the rising sun reveals dark spots and fans emerging from the cold polar night. Using visual images (left) and temperature data (right) from the Thermal Emission Imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, scientists have built a new model for the origin of the dark markings. Scientists propose the markings come from dark sand and dust strewn by high-speed jets of carbon-dioxide gas. These erupt from under a layer of carbon-dioxide ice that forms each Martian winter.

  10. Configurable hot spot fixing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Masanari; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Mashita, Hiromitsu; Aburada, Ryota; Furuta, Nozomu; Kotani, Toshiya

    2014-03-01

    Hot spot fixing (HSF) method has been used to fix many hot spots automatically. However, conventional HSF based on a biasing based modification is difficult to fix many hot spots under a low-k1 lithography condition. In this paper we proposed a new HSF, called configurable hotspot fixing system. The HSF has two major concepts. One is a new function to utilize vacant space around a hot spot by adding new patterns or extending line end edges around the hot spot. The other is to evaluate many candidates at a time generated by the new functions. We confirmed the proposed HSF improves 73% on the number of fixing hot spots and reduces total fixing time by 50% on a device layout equivalent to 28nm-node. The result shows the proposed HSF is effective for layouts under the low-k1 lithography condition.

  11. Turbulent spots in hypervelocity flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, Joseph S.; Leyva, Ivett A.; Shepherd, Joseph E.

    2017-04-01

    The turbulent spot propagation process in boundary layer flows of air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and air/carbon dioxide mixtures in thermochemical nonequilibrium at high enthalpy is investigated. Experiments are performed in a hypervelocity reflected shock tunnel with a 5-degree half-angle axisymmetric cone instrumented with flush-mounted fast-response coaxial thermocouples. Time-resolved and spatially demarcated heat transfer traces are used to track the propagation of turbulent bursts within the mean flow, and convection rates at approximately 91, 74, and 63% of the boundary layer edge velocity, respectively, are observed for the leading edge, peak, and trailing edge of the spots. A simple model constructed with these spot propagation parameters is used to infer spot generation rates from observed transition onset to completion distance. Spot generation rates in air and nitrogen are estimated to be approximately twice the spot generation rates in air/carbon dioxide mixtures.

  12. Jovian Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A recently discovered black spot in Jupiter's clouds is darker than any feature ever before observed on the giant planet. The spot may be the result of a downward spiraling wind that blows away high clouds and reveals deeper, very dark cloud layers. These three panels depict the same area of Jupiter's atmosphere. A map of Jovian temperatures near 250 millibar pressure (top) panel is derived from the photopolarimeter-radiometer instrument on NASA's Galileo Jupiter orbiter. This map is compared with maps derived from images of the same area in visible light (middle panel)and thermal radiation sensitive to cloud-top temperatures (bottom panel).

    The single downward-pointing arrow in the top panel indicates the location of a warm area that corresponds to the position of a so-called 'black spot'(shown in the middle panel), a feature that is about a year old. Features this dark are rare on Jupiter. The bottom panel, sensitive to temperatures at Jupiter's cloud tops, shows this feature as a bright object, meaning that upper-level cold clouds are missing - allowing us to see deeper into Jupiter's warmer interior. The dark visible appearance of the feature than most likely represents the color of very deep clouds. The warm temperatures and cloud-free conditions imply that this feature is a region where dry upper-atmospheric gas is being forced to converge, is warmed up and then forced to descend, clearing out clouds. It is the opposite of wet, upwelling gas in areas such as Jupiter's Great Red Spot or white ovals. On the other hand, it is unlike the dry and relatively cloudless feature into which the Galileo probe descended in 1995, because that region had the same temperatures as its surroundings and did not appear nearly as dark as this new spot.

    The temperatures sampled by the photopolarimeter radiometer are near the top of Jupiter's troposphere, where wind motions control the atmosphere. The top row of arrows shows the location of temperature waves in a warm region

  13. Resolving stellar surface spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Carroll, T.; Rice, J. B.; Savanov, I. S.

    Doppler imaging of stellar surfaces is a novel technique with similarities to medical brain tomography (instead of a fixed brain and a rotating scanner, astronomers have a fixed spectrograph and a rotating brain, star of course). The number of free (internal) parameters is of the order of the number of surface grid points and only constrained by the number of input data points. This obviously ill-posed situation requires modern inversion algorithms with penalty functions of the form of maximum entropy or Tikhonov etc.. We present a brief status review of our Doppler imaging codes at AIP that span from temperature and spot-filling-factor mapping to full Stokes-based magnetic field mapping.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2007-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a life-threatening disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, an obligately intracellular bacterium that is spread to human beings by ticks. More than a century after its first clinical description, this disease is still among the most virulent human infections identified, being potentially fatal even in previously healthy young people. The diagnosis of RMSF is based on the patient's history and a physical examination, and often presents a dilemma for clinicians because of the non-specific presentation of the disease in its early course. Early empirical treatment is essential to prevent severe complications or a fatal outcome, and treatment should be initiated even in unconfirmed cases. Because there is no vaccine available against RMSF, avoidance of tick-infested areas is still the best way to prevent the infection.

  15. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marylin; Orejuela, Leonora; Fuya, Patricia; Carrillo, Pilar; Hernandez, Jorge; Parra, Edgar; Keng, Colette; Small, Melissa; Olano, Juan P; Bouyer, Donald; Castaneda, Elizabeth; Walker, David; Valbuena, Gustavo

    2007-07-01

    We investigated 2 fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that occurred in 2003 and 2004 near the same locality in Colombia where the disease was first reported in the 1930s. A retrospective serosurvey of febrile patients showed that > 21% of the serum samples had antibodies aaainst spotted fever group rickettsiae.

  16. Saturn's Hot Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the sharpest image of Saturn's temperature emissions taken from the ground; it is a mosaic of 35 individual exposures made at the W.M. Keck I Observatory, Mauna Kea, Hawaii on Feb. 4, 2004.

    The images to create this mosaic were taken with infrared radiation. The mosaic was taken at a wavelength near 17.65 microns and is sensitive to temperatures in Saturn's upper troposphere. The prominent hot spot at the bottom of the image is right at Saturn's south pole. The warming of the southern hemisphere was expected, as Saturn was just past southern summer solstice, but the abrupt changes in temperature with latitude were not expected. The tropospheric temperature increases toward the pole abruptly near 70 degrees latitude from 88 to 89 Kelvin (-301 to -299 degrees Fahrenheit) and then to 91 Kelvin (-296 degrees Fahrenheit) right at the pole.

    Ring particles are not at a uniform temperature everywhere in their orbit around Saturn. The ring particles are orbiting clockwise in this image. Particles are coldest just after having cooled down in Saturn's shadow (lower left). As they orbit Saturn, the particles increase in temperature up to a maximum (lower right) just before passing behind Saturn again in shadow.

    A small section of the ring image is missing because of incomplete mosaic coverage during the observing sequence.

  17. Single spots, unipolar magnetic regions, and pairs of spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.-I.

    2014-06-01

    McIntosh (1981) noted that sunspot pairs appear preferentially near the boundary of unipolar magnetic (UM) regions of opposite polarity. A large number of solar magnetograms from the Mount Wilson Observatory and the Kitt Peak Observatory during fairly quiet periods are examined to confirm his finding. In this study, it is also found collaterally that positive single spots appear in a positive UM region and vice versa. It is suggested thus that a pair of spots of opposite polarity is formed because two single spots develop in the vicinity of the boundary (the neutral line) of two UM regions of opposite polarity for polarity arrangement appropriate to the Hale law, namely, the Hale boundary. For these reasons, it is suggested that single spots and UM regions have significant meaning in solar magnetism.

  18. Weird Warm Spot on Exoplanet

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation illustrates an unexpected warm spot on the surface of a gaseous exoplanet. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered that the hottest part of the planet, shown here as bright, orange...

  19. Center Spot: Shoe Box Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jan

    1976-01-01

    This is the second "Center Spot" devoted to Jan Hoffman's "Shoe Box Science," a program that organizes manipulative materials so that children can identify, describe, order, construct, name and distinguish on their own.

  20. A Frameshift Mutation in KIT is Associated with White Spotting in the Arabian Camel

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Heather; Isaza, Ramiro; Mohamoud, Yasmin; Ahmed, Ayeda; Almathen, Faisal; Youcef, Cherifi; Gaouar, Semir; Antczak, Douglas F.; Brooks, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    While the typical Arabian camel is characterized by a single colored coat, there are rare populations with white spotting patterns. White spotting coat patterns are found in virtually all domesticated species, but are rare in wild species. Theories suggest that white spotting is linked to the domestication process, and is occasionally associated with health disorders. Though mutations have been found in a diverse array of species, fewer than 30 genes have been associated with spotting patterns, thus providing a key set of candidate genes for the Arabian camel. We obtained 26 spotted camels and 24 solid controls for candidate gene analysis. One spotted and eight solid camels were whole genome sequenced as part of a separate project. The spotted camel was heterozygous for a frameshift deletion in KIT (c.1842delG, named KITW1 for White spotting 1), whereas all other camels were wild-type (KIT+/KIT+). No additional mutations unique to the spotted camel were detected in the EDNRB, EDN3, SOX10, KITLG, PDGFRA, MITF, and PAX3 candidate white spotting genes. Sanger sequencing of the study population identified an additional five KITW1/KIT+ spotted camels. The frameshift results in a premature stop codon five amino acids downstream, thus terminating KIT at the tyrosine kinase domain. An additional 13 spotted camels tested KIT+/KIT+, but due to phenotypic differences when compared to the KITW1/KIT+ camels, they likely represent an independent mutation. Our study suggests that there are at least two causes of white spotting in the Arabian camel, the newly described KITW1 allele and an uncharacterized mutation. PMID:28282952

  1. Intermittency Models and Spot Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashworth, D. A.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental work at the University of Oxford Osney Lab has demonstrated characteristics of the late-stage transition process by the use of thin-film heat transfer gauges. The development of turbulent spots has been observed in a range of environments, including flat plates, turbine blade cascade tests and wake-passing experiments. These results were taken at Mach/Reynolds numbers and gas-to-wall temperature ratios representative of gas turbines. Analyses of the spot characteristics are consistent with measurements taken in low speed experiments, and support the Schubauer and Klebanoff type of turbulent spots. The addition of simulated wakes from upstream stages has been observed to be primarily superpositional for these tests.

  2. Poisson's spot and Gouy phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Paz, I. G.; Soldati, Rodolfo; Cabral, L. A.; de Oliveira, J. G. G.; Sampaio, Marcos

    2016-12-01

    Recently there have been experimental results on Poisson spot matter-wave interferometry followed by theoretical models describing the relative importance of the wave and particle behaviors for the phenomenon. We propose an analytical theoretical model for Poisson's spot with matter waves based on the Babinet principle, in which we use the results for free propagation and single-slit diffraction. We take into account effects of loss of coherence and finite detection area using the propagator for a quantum particle interacting with an environment. We observe that the matter-wave Gouy phase plays a role in the existence of the central peak and thus corroborates the predominantly wavelike character of the Poisson's spot. Our model shows remarkable agreement with the experimental data for deuterium (D2) molecules.

  3. Laser based spot weld characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  4. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Panama.

    PubMed

    Estripeaut, Dora; Aramburú, María Gabriela; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; Thompson, Herbert A; Dasch, Gregory A; Paddock, Christopher D; Zaki, Sherif; Eremeeva, Marina E

    2007-11-01

    We describe a fatal pediatric case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Panama, the first, to our knowledge, since the 1950s. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry, PCR, and isolation of Rickettsia rickettsii from postmortem tissues. Molecular typing demonstrated strong relatedness of the isolate to strains of R. rickettsii from Central and South America.

  5. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random...

  6. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4... LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.4 Spot audit. (a) In addition to regularly scheduled site audits, certified production sites will be subject to spot audits. (1) Random...

  7. Managing Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Minniear, Timothy D; Buckingham, Steven C

    2009-11-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the tick-borne bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. Symptoms range from moderate illness to severe illness, including cardiovascular compromise, coma and death. The disease is prevalent in most of the USA, especially during warmer months. The trademark presentation is fever and rash with a history of tick bite, although tick exposure is unappreciated in over a third of cases. Other signature symptoms include headache and abdominal pain. The antibiotic therapy of choice for R. rickettsii infection is doxycycline. Preventive measures for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other tick-borne diseases include: wearing long-sleeved, light colored clothing; checking for tick attachment and removing attached ticks promptly; applying topical insect repellent; and treating clothing with permethrin.

  8. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  9. Justifications shape ethical blind spots.

    PubMed

    Pittarello, Andrea; Leib, Margarita; Gordon-Hecker, Tom; Shalvi, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    To some extent, unethical behavior results from people's limited attention to ethical considerations, which results in an ethical blind spot. Here, we focus on the role of ambiguity in shaping people's ethical blind spots, which in turn lead to their ethical failures. We suggest that in ambiguous settings, individuals' attention shifts toward tempting information, which determines the magnitude of their lies. Employing a novel ambiguous-dice paradigm, we asked participants to report the outcome of the die roll appearing closest to the location of a previously presented fixation cross on a computer screen; this outcome would determine their pay. We varied the value of the die second closest to the fixation cross to be either higher (i.e., tempting) or lower (i.e., not tempting) than the die closest to the fixation cross. Results of two experiments revealed that in ambiguous settings, people's incorrect responses were self-serving. Tracking participants' eye movements demonstrated that people's ethical blind spots are shaped by increased attention toward tempting information.

  10. Systematic Propulsion Optimization Tools (SPOT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, Mark; Celestian, John

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a computer program written by senior-level Mechanical Engineering students at the University of Alabama in Huntsville which is capable of optimizing user-defined delivery systems for carrying payloads into orbit. The custom propulsion system is designed by the user through the input of configuration, payload, and orbital parameters. The primary advantages of the software, called Systematic Propulsion Optimization Tools (SPOT), are a user-friendly interface and a modular FORTRAN 77 code designed for ease of modification. The optimization of variables in an orbital delivery system is of critical concern in the propulsion environment. The mass of the overall system must be minimized within the maximum stress, force, and pressure constraints. SPOT utilizes the Design Optimization Tools (DOT) program for the optimization techniques. The SPOT program is divided into a main program and five modules: aerodynamic losses, orbital parameters, liquid engines, solid engines, and nozzles. The program is designed to be upgraded easily and expanded to meet specific user needs. A user's manual and a programmer's manual are currently being developed to facilitate implementation and modification.

  11. Downstream Development of a Laminar Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Naoki; Matsumoto, Akira

    It was well-known that a disturbance, introduced artificially into a supercritical laminar boundary layer along a flat plate, is still laminar in the initial stage of its downstream development. Thus, we named it a "laminar spot" because it resembles a turbulent spot though its velocity perturbation remains laminar. From velocity measurements using a rake-type 16-channel hot-wire probe, we found that in the first stage of the downstream development of a laminar spot, its maximum width was at 0.2δ (what is called the critical layer) and one-half of its lateral growth angle was about 5°, which is almost one-half that of a turbulent spot. We call this region a "laminar spot region". In the present study, we measured in detail the velocity field of a laminar spot using a new hot-wire probe in the laminar spot region. The results showed that a laminar spot consists of some hairpin vortices and some induced U-shaped vortices under the hairpin vortices. Because of the interaction of the velocities induced by the respective vortex legs, the legs of the U-shaped vortices were located at the outermost part of the spot. Moreover, the new vortex legs extended spanwise at about 4° as the spot traveled downstream. Consequently, we concluded that the laminar spot grew spanwise in accordance with the span of these vortex legs.

  12. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  13. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  14. Nonbright spot AVO: Two examples

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Kinman, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    Utilization of amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) attribute sections such as the product of the normal incidence trace and gradient trace have been used extensively in bright spot (Class 3) AVO analysis and interpretation. However, while these sections have often worked well with Class 3 responses they are not reliable indicators of non-bright spot (Class 2) seismic anomalies. Analyzing Class 2 seismic data with AVO products will: (1) not detect the gas-charged reservoir because of near-zero acoustic impedance contrast between the sands and encasing shales, or (2) yield an incorrect (negative) AVO product if the normal incidence and gradient values are opposite in sign. Class 2 offset responses are divided into two sub-categories: those with phase reversals (Class 2p) and those without phase reversals (Class 2). An AVO procedure for these types of Class 2 anomalies is presented through two examples. The technique better exploits the nature of the prestack response, yielding a more definitive AVO attribute section, and the technique is adaptive to both Class 2 and Class 2p responses. When compared to a conventionally processed relative amplitude seismic section with characteristically low amplitude responses for near-zero acoustic impedance sands, this procedure clearly denotes the presence of gas-charged pore fluids within the reservoir.

  15. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  16. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon Chul

    2013-01-01

    The Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a research prototype of a decision support tool for ATC tower controllers to assist in manging and controlling traffic on the surface of an airport. SARDA employs a scheduler to generate an optimal runway schedule and gate push-back - spot release sequence and schedule that improves efficiency of surface operations. The advisories for ATC tower controllers are displayed on an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system. The human-in-the-loop simulation of the SARDA tool was conducted for east operations of Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) to evaluate performance of the SARDA tool and human factors, such as situational awareness and workload. The results indicates noticeable taxi delay reduction and fuel savings by using the SARDA tool. Reduction in controller workload were also observed throughout the scenario runs. The future plan includes modeling and simulation of the ramp operations of the Charlotte International Airport, and develop a decision support tool for the ramp controllers.

  17. Instructor Debrief Training in SPOT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Orasanu, Judith; Villeda, Eric; Conners, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    One way to enhance the effectiveness of Special Purpose Operational Training' (SPOT) debriefing sessions may be for instructors to make explicit connections between the Crew Resource Management (CRM) concepts a carrier advocates and the behaviors displayed by the crew in question. A tool listing key behaviors from the scenario was devised, accompanied by an instructors' training session in which links were made between the behaviors and the underlying CRM processes they reflect. The aim of the tool is to assist instructors to focus the debriefing on the key SPOT/ CRM issues, in this case on planning. A second tool suggested ways to facilitate the discussion. Fourteen instructors at a major U.S. carrier took part in the training session and used the toolkit in their subsequent debriefs. Pre- and post-training debriefing samples from each instructor were compared to assess whether there were any changes in instructors' approaches to discussions in terms of the topics they covered and how they raised the points.

  18. Solar 'hot spots' are still hot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bai, Taeil

    1990-01-01

    Longitude distributions of solar flares are not random but show evidence for active zones (or hot spots) where flares are concentrated. According to a previous study, two hot spots in the northern hemisphere, which rotate with a synodic period of about 26.72 days, produced the majority of major flares, during solar cycles 20 and 21. The more prominent of these two hot spots is found to be still active during the rising part of cycle 22, producing the majority of northern hemisphere major flares. The synodic rotation period of this hot spot is 26.727 + or - 0.007 days. There is also evidence for hot spots in the southern hemisphere. Two hot spots separated by 180 deg are found to rotate with a period of 29.407 days, with one of them having persisted in the same locations during cycles 19-22 and the other, during cycles 20-22.

  19. Spotted bass Micropterus punctulatus (Rafinesque 1819)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Timothy N.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2015-01-01

    Three subspecies of Spotted Bass Micropterus punctulatus were historically recognized: the smaller Northern Spotted Bass M. p. punctulatus, the larger, longer-lived Alabama Spotted Bass M. p. henshalli, and the now invalidated Wichita Spotted Bass M. p. wichitae (Bailey and Hubbs 1940; Cofer 1995; Warren 2009; Rider and Maceina 2015, this volume). The subspecific status has been examined over the past decade as advanced genetic analyses have been developed (e.g., Kassler et al. 2002; Baker et al. 2008; Tringali et al. 2015, this volume). The American Fisheries Society has recently changed the designation of the Alabama Spotted Bass to a separate species, Alabama Bass M. henshalli (Page et al. 2013). The remainder of this paper will discuss the biology and conservation of only Spotted Bass. Both species have been observed to hybridize with other Micropterus spp. (Koppelman 1994; Pierce and Van Den Avyle 1997; Barwick et al. 2006).

  20. Integrating sustainable hunting in biodiversity protection in Central Africa: hot spots, weak spots, and strong spots.

    PubMed

    Fa, John E; Olivero, Jesús; Farfán, Miguel Ángel; Márquez, Ana Luz; Vargas, Juan Mario; Real, Raimundo; Nasi, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Wild animals are a primary source of protein (bushmeat) for people living in or near tropical forests. Ideally, the effect of bushmeat harvests should be monitored closely by making regular estimates of offtake rate and size of stock available for exploitation. However, in practice, this is possible in very few situations because it requires both of these aspects to be readily measurable, and even in the best case, entails very considerable time and effort. As alternative, in this study, we use high-resolution, environmental favorability models for terrestrial mammals (N = 165) in Central Africa to map areas of high species richness (hot spots) and hunting susceptibility. Favorability models distinguish localities with environmental conditions that favor the species' existence from those with detrimental characteristics for its presence. We develop an index for assessing Potential Hunting Sustainability (PHS) of each species based on their ecological characteristics (population density, habitat breadth, rarity and vulnerability), weighted according to restrictive and permissive assumptions of how species' characteristics are combined. Species are classified into five main hunting sustainability classes using fuzzy logic. Using the accumulated favorability values of all species, and their PHS values, we finally identify weak spots, defined as high diversity regions of especial hunting vulnerability for wildlife, as well as strong spots, defined as high diversity areas of high hunting sustainability potential. Our study uses relatively simple models that employ easily obtainable data of a species' ecological characteristics to assess the impacts of hunting in tropical regions. It provides information for management by charting the geography of where species are more or less likely to be at risk of extinction from hunting.

  1. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  2. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Hattwick, M A; Retailliau, H; O'Brien, R J; Slutzker, M; Fontaine, R E; Hanson, B

    1978-09-29

    Forty-four fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurring in 1974 were compared with 50 nonfatal cases of similar age, sex, date of onset, and place of occurrence. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment in fatal cases were substantially delayed compared with nonfatal cases. Several reasons for this delay were identified: (1) the rash appeared later in the course of illness in the fatal cases, often not until the patient was terminal, (2) a history of tick bite was less often obtained during life or obtained late in the clinical course in fatal cases, and (3) initial nonspecific symptoms or unexpected symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of more common diseases. Only two fatal cases were treated with either tetracycline or chloramphenicol before the sixth day of illness. Presumptive diagnosis of RMSF and initiation of tetracycline therapy before onset of rash may be necessary to reduce mortality.

  3. SU-E-T-510: Interplay Between Spots Sizes, Spot / Line Spacing and Motion in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, TK

    2015-06-15

    Purpose In proton beam configuration for spot scanning proton therapy (SSPT), one can define the spacing between spots and lines of scanning as a ratio of given spot size. If the spacing increases, the number of spots decreases which can potentially decrease scan time, and so can whole treatment time, and vice versa. However, if the spacing is too large, the uniformity of scanned field decreases. Also, the field uniformity can be affected by motion during SSPT beam delivery. In the present study, the interplay between spot/ line spacing and motion is investigated. Methods We used four Gaussian-shape spot sizes with 0.5cm, 1.0cm, 1.5cm, and 2.0cm FWHM, three spot/line spacing that creates uniform field profile which are 1/3*FWHM, σ/3*FWHM and 2/3*FWHM, and three random motion amplitudes within, +/−0.3mm, +/−0.5mm, and +/−1.0mm. We planned with 2Gy uniform single layer of 10×10cm2 and 20×20cm2 fields. Then, mean dose within 80% area of given field size, contrubuting MU per each spot assuming 1cGy/MU calibration for all spot sizes, number of spots and uniformity were calculated. Results The plans with spot/line spacing equal to or smaller than 2/3*FWHM without motion create ∼100% uniformity. However, it was found that the uniformity decreases with increased spacing, and it is more pronounced with smaller spot sizes, but is not affected by scanned field sizes. Conclusion It was found that the motion during proton beam delivery can alter the dose uniformity and the amount of alteration changes with spot size which changes with energy and spot/line spacing. Currently, robust evaluation in TPS (e.g. Eclipse system) performs range uncertainty evaluation using isocenter shift and CT calibration error. Based on presented study, it is recommended to add interplay effect evaluation to robust evaluation process. For future study, the additional interplay between the energy layers and motion is expected to present volumetric effect.

  4. Ambystoma maculatum (spotted salamander). Reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, Hardin; Hefner, Jeromi

    2012-01-01

    The Spotted Salamander is a wide-ranging salamander of the eastern United States that typically breeds in winter or early spring in ephemeral pools in lowland forests. Ambystoma maculatum is known to deposit 2-4 egg masses per year, each containing 1-250 eggs. As part of ongoing research into the ecology and reproductive biology of Spotted Salamanders in the Kisatchie District of Kisatchie National Forest in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana, USA, we have been counting the number of embryos per egg mass. We captured seven female A. maculatum in a small pool, six of which were still gravid. We took standard measurements, including SVL, and then implanted a Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT tag) into each adult female as was the protocol. About an hour after processing these animals we marked new A. maculatum egg masses found in the same small pool using PVC pin flags pushed carefully through the outer jelly. We did not have enough time to process them that evening, and it was not until a few days later that we photographed those masses. We discovered that one of the masses contained a PIT tag in the outer jelly that corresponded to one of the six gravid females that were marked that same evening. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PIT tags being the means, albeit coincidentally, by which a particular egg mass of Ambystoma maculatum has been assigned to a particular female. For our purposes, losing the PIT tag from the adult female is counter to the goals of our study of this population, and we will no longer be implanting PIT tags into gravid females.

  5. Strategic Improvements to TSA Spot Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Administration’s Screening Passengers by Observation Techniques (SPOT) program analyzes the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Office of Inspector...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iv ABSTRACT This study of Transportation Security Administration’s Screening Passengers by Observation Techniques ...area SME subject matter expert SPOT screening passengers by observation techniques TAC threat assessment capabilities TAD threat assessment

  6. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  7. HotSpot Software Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H; Homann, S G

    2009-03-12

    This Software Test Plan (STP) describes the procedures used to verify and validate that the HotSpot Health Physics Codes meet the requirements of its user base, which includes: (1) Users of the PC version of HotSpot conducting consequence assessment, hazard assessment and safety analysis calculations; and (2) Users of the NARAC Web and iClient software tools, which allow users to run HotSpot for consequence assessment modeling. This plan is intended to meet Critical Recommendation 2 from the Software Evaluation of HotSpot and DOE Safety Software Toolbox Recommendation for inclusion of HotSpot in the Department of Energy (DOE) Safety Software Toolbox. These users and sponsors of the HotSpot software and the organizations they represent constitute the intended audience for this document. HotSpot software is maintained for the Department of Energy Office of Emergency Operations by the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). An overview of HotSpot and NARAC are provided.

  8. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or...

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Woods, Charles R

    2013-04-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is typically undifferentiated from many other infections in the first few days of illness. Treatment should not be delayed pending confirmation of infection when Rocky Mountain spotted fever is suspected. Doxycycline is the drug of choice even for infants and children less than 8 years old.

  10. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cases of epidemic typhus have been documented in Argentina since 1919; however, no confirmed reports of spotted fever rickettsiosis were described in this country until 1999. We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (R...

  11. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever: Statistics and Epidemiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment Statistics and Epidemiology ...

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Spotted seatrout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kostecki, Paul T.

    1984-01-01

    The estuarine spotted seatrout, a primarily estuarine species, is one of the most important sport and commercial fishes in coastal Gulf of Mexico waters (Arnold et a1. 1976). Spotted seatrout rank second by weight in catches by U.S. saltwater sport fishermen (National Marine Fisheries Services 1981) .

  13. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  14. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  15. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  16. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  17. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  18. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  19. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  20. 7 CFR 28.415 - Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.415 Section 28... Spotted Color. Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Low Middling Color and Low Middling Spotted Color....

  1. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  2. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  3. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  4. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  5. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  6. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  7. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Middling Color and Middling Spotted Color....

  8. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  9. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  10. 7 CFR 28.411 - Good Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.411 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Good Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Good Middling Color and Good Middling Spotted Color....

  11. 7 CFR 28.412 - Strict Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.412 Section 28... Light Spotted Color. Strict Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Middling Color and Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  12. 7 CFR 28.413 - Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.413 Section 28.413... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Light Spotted Cotton § 28.413 Middling Light Spotted Color. Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between...

  13. Neptune's small dark spot (D2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This bulls-eye view of Neptune's small dark spot (D2) was obtained by Voyager 2's narrow-angle camera. Banding surrounding the feature indicates unseen strong winds, while structures within the bright spot suggest both active upwelling of clouds and rotation about the center. A rotation rate has not yet been measured, but the V-shaped structure near the right edge of the bright area indicates that the spot rotates clockwise. Unlike the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, which rotates counterclockwise, if the D2 spot on Neptune rotates clockwise, the material will be descending in the dark oval region. The fact that infrared data will yield temperature information about the region above the clouds makes this observation especially valuable. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  14. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Fernandez, Susana; Echenique, Gustavo A; Sumner, John W; Reeves, Will K; Zaki, Sherif R; Remondegui, Carlos E

    2008-04-01

    We describe the first molecular confirmation of Rickettsia rickettsii, the cause of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), from a tick vector, Amblyomma cajennense, and from a cluster of fatal spotted fever cases in Argentina. Questing A. cajennense ticks were collected at or near sites of presumed or confirmed cases of spotted fever rickettsiosis in Jujuy Province and evaluated by polymerase chain reaction assays for spotted fever group rickettsiae. DNA of R. rickettsii was amplified from a pool of A. cajennense ticks and from tissues of one of four patients who died during 2003-2004 after illnesses characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgias, and petechial rash. The diagnosis of spotted fever rickettsiosis was confirmed in the other patients by indirect immunofluorescence antibody and immunohistochemical staining techniques. These findings show the existence of RMSF in Argentina and emphasize the need for clinicians throughout the Americas to consider RMSF in patients with febrile rash illnesses.

  15. Fatal Israeli spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Yagupsky, P; Wolach, B

    1993-11-01

    We describe three Israeli children with fatal spotted fever. Clinical disease was characterized by irreversible shock, encephalopathy, renal failure, bleeding tendency, and death within 24 hours of admission. None of the patients had a history of tick bite, and no tache noire was noted. One child presented without rash, and the other two did not have antibodies to spotted-fever-group rickettsiae. The disease was confirmed by isolation of Rickettsia conorii from the patients' blood and tissues in cell cultures or from susceptible laboratory animals inoculated with human specimens. The present cases demonstrate the existence of a severe form of Israeli spotted fever in this population that resembles Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Because Israeli spotted fever may follow a quick, unpredictable, rapidly fatal clinical course, specific antimicrobial therapy should be promptly administered whenever the diagnosis is suspected.

  16. TEVA-SPOT Toolkit 1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan; Riesen, Lee Ann; Hart, William

    2007-07-26

    The TEVA-SPOT Toolkit (SPOT) supports the design of contaminant warning systems (CWSs) that use real-time sensors to detect contaminants in municipal water distribution networks. Specifically, SPOT provides the capability to select the locations for installing sensors in order to maximize the utility and effectiveness of the CWS. SPOT models the sensor placement process as an optimization problem, and the user can specify a wide range of performance objectives for contaminant warning system design, including population health effects, time to detection, extent of contamination, volume consumed and number of failed detections. For example, a SPOT user can integrate expert knowledge during the design process by specigying required sensor placements or designating network locations as forbidden. Further, cost considerations can be integrated by limiting the design with user-specified installation costs at each location.

  17. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J. M.; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-01-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations. PMID:26938537

  18. Laser Spot Detection Based on Reaction Diffusion.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Otero, Alejandro; Khikhlukha, Danila; Solano-Altamirano, J M; Dormido, Raquel; Duro, Natividad

    2016-03-01

    Center-location of a laser spot is a problem of interest when the laser is used for processing and performing measurements. Measurement quality depends on correctly determining the location of the laser spot. Hence, improving and proposing algorithms for the correct location of the spots are fundamental issues in laser-based measurements. In this paper we introduce a Reaction Diffusion (RD) system as the main computational framework for robustly finding laser spot centers. The method presented is compared with a conventional approach for locating laser spots, and the experimental results indicate that RD-based computation generates reliable and precise solutions. These results confirm the flexibility of the new computational paradigm based on RD systems for addressing problems that can be reduced to a set of geometric operations.

  19. Geo Spots and Vortex Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straser, Valentino

    2014-05-01

    ), when limited to particular regions, may have created in the past and perhaps still do to this day torsions in localized spots of the Earth's crust (Geo Spots), which over time have conditioned the distribution of tectonic stresses on the surface of the Earth at a regional scale.

  20. HUBBLE FINDS NEW DARK SPOT ON NEPTUNE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet. The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared. Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere. Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere. The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops. Credit: H. Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and NASA

  1. A Dark Spot on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This view taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft of Jupiter's icy moon Europa focuses on a dark, smooth region whose center is the lowest area in this image. To the west (left), it is bounded by a cliff and terraces, which might have been formed by normal faulting. The slopes toward the east (right) leading into the dark spot are gentle.

    Near the center of the dark area, it appears the dark materials have covered some of the bright terrain and ridges. This suggests that when the dark material was deposited, it may have been a fluid or an icy slush.

    Only a few impact craters are visible, with some of them covered or flooded by dark material. Some appear in groups, which may indicate that they are secondary craters formed by debris excavated during a larger impact event. A potential source for these is the nearby crater Mannann`an.

    North is to the top of the picture which is centered at 1 degree south latitude and 225 degrees west longitude. The images in this mosaic have been re-projected to 50 meters (55 yards) per picture element. They were obtained by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on March 29, 1998, during Galileo's fourteenth orbit of Jupiter, at ranges as close as 1940 kilometers (1,200 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Finding your innovation sweet spot.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Jacob; Horowitz, Roni; Levav, Amnon; Mazursky, David

    2003-03-01

    Most new product ideas are either uninspired or impractical. So how can developers hit the innovation sweet spot--far enough from existing products to attract real interest but close enough that they are feasible to make and market? They can apply five innovation patterns that manipulate existing components of a product and its immediate environment to come up with something both ingenious and viable, say the authors. The subtraction pattern works by removing product components, particularly those that seem desirable or indispensable. Think of the legless high chair that attaches to the kitchen table. The multiplication pattern makes one or more copies of an existing component, then alters those copies in some important way. For example, the Gillette double-bladed razor features a second blade that cuts whiskers at a slightly different angle. By dividing an existing product into its component parts--the division pattern--you can see something that was an integrated whole in an entirely different light. Think of the modern home stereo--it has modular speakers, tuners, and CD and tape players, which allow users to customize their sound systems. The task unification pattern involves assigning a new task to an existing product element or environmental attribute, thereby unifying two tasks in a single component. An example is the defrosting filament in an automobile windshield that also serves as a radio antenna. Finally, the attribute dependency pattern alters or creates the dependent relationships between a product and its environment. For example, by creating a dependent relationship between lens color and external lighting conditions, eyeglass developers came up with a lens that changes color when exposed to sunlight.

  3. Self-Checks Help Spot Melanoma's Return

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163682.html Self-Checks Help Spot Melanoma's Return Patient-detected symptoms were most common way ... Feb. 20, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Self-checks by melanoma skin cancer patients play an important role in ...

  4. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety for the Whole Family Evaluate Your Child's Lyme Disease Risk Lyme Disease Lyme Disease Hey! A Tick Bit Me! Bug Bites and Stings Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Lyme Disease Contact Us Print Resources Send to a friend ...

  5. Measuring microfocus focal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification (especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application); (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. When determining microfocus focal spot dimensions using unsharpness measurements both signal-to-noise (SNR) and magnification can be important. There is a maximum accuracy that is a function of SNR and therefore an optimal magnification. Greater than optimal magnification can be used but it will not increase accuracy.

  6. Interferometric diagnostics for magnetic spots detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligi, R.

    2014-09-01

    The signature of activity in general, and of stellar magnetic spots in particular, is present in every measurements, including interferometric ones. Indeed, stellar spots can be found on many stellar surfaces, their size and number varying according to their host's magnetic field and rotational velocity. To correctly determine stellar parameters, it is thus necessary to determine and extract stellar activity's signals. Interferometric observables are disturbed by activity, and this observing technique thus constitutes a good way of probing stellar surface. However, magnetic spots sometimes mimic other phenomenon, like a transiting exoplanet. In that case, the combination of several observing techniques, like photometry and interferometry, is mandatory to extract the planetary signal from the spot's one, and then characterize the exoplanet.

  7. How Many Spots Does a Cheetah Have?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Kristine M.

    2000-01-01

    Describes first grade students' mathematical investigation of the number of spots on a cheetah. The exploration of counting and estimation strategies that grew from the investigation gives evidence that mathematicians come in all ages. (ASK)

  8. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  9. White-spot disease of salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mazuranich, J.J.; Nielson, W.E.

    1959-01-01

     White-spot disease, sometimes referred to as coagulated-yolk disease, has been associated with excessive mortalities occurring among the fry and early fingerling stages of the fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytacha) at the U.S. Fish-Cultural Stations at Carson, Cook, Underwood, and Willard, Washington. This disease of eggs and fry should not be confused with the "white-spot" infection that is caused in fingerlings by members of the protozoan genus Ichthyophthirius.

  10. HotSpot Health Physics Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Homann, S. G.

    2013-04-18

    The HotSpot Health Physics Codes were created to provide emergency response personnel and emergency planners with a fast, field-portable set of software tools for evaluating insidents involving redioactive material. The software is also used for safety-analysis of facilities handling nuclear material. HotSpot provides a fast and usually conservative means for estimation the radiation effects associated with the short-term (less than 24 hours) atmospheric release of radioactive materials.

  11. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang; ...

    2017-02-10

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the $Z$-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relicmore » DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. As a result, the dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.« less

  12. Nonbright-spot AVO: Two examples

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Kinman, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    The use of amplitude variation with offset (AVO) attribute sections such as the product of the normal incidence trace (A) and the gradient trace (B) have been used extensively in bright spot AVO analysis and interpretation. However, while these sections have often worked well with low acoustic impedance bright spot responses, they are not reliable indicators of nonbright-spot seismic anomalies. Analyzing nonbright-spot seismic data with common AVO attribute sections will: (1) not detect the gas-charged reservoir because of near-zero acoustic impedance contrast between the sands and encasing shales, or (2) yield an incorrect (negative) AVO product if the normal incidence and gradient values are opposite in sign. The authors divide nonbright-spot AVO offset responses into two subcategories: those with phase reversals and those without. An AVO analysis procedure for these anomalies is presented through two examples. The procedure exploits the nature of the prestack response, yielding a more definitive AVO attribute section, and this technique is adaptive to both subcategories of nonbright-spot AVO responses. This technique identifies the presence of gas-charged pore fluids within the reservoir when compared to a conventionally processed, relative amplitude seismic section with characteristically low amplitude responses for near-zero acoustic impedance contrast sands.

  13. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang; Wu, Yongcheng

    2017-02-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. The dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  14. Canopy hot-spot as crop identifier

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Simmer, C.; Powers, B.J.

    1986-05-01

    Illuminating any reflective rough or structured surface by a directional light source results in an angular reflectance distribution that shows a narrow peak in the direction of retro-reflection. This is called the Heiligenschein or hot-spot of vegetation canopies and is caused by mutual shading of leaves. The angular intensity distribution of the hot-spot, its brightness and slope, are therefore indicators of the plant's geometry. We propose the use of hot-spot characteristics as crop identifiers in satellite remote sensing because the canopy hot-spot carries information about plant stand architecture that is more distinctive for different plant species than, for instance, their spectral reflectance characteristics. A simple three-dimensional Monte Carlo/ray tracing model and an analytic two-dimensional model are developed to estimate the angular distribution of the hot-spot as a function of the size of the plant leaves. The results show that the brightness-distribution and slope of the hot-spot change distinctively for different leaf sizes indicating a much more peaked maximum for the smaller leaves.

  15. Modeling deflagration waves out of hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives comes about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping through an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step, deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in the cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighboring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration waves may depend on both pressure and temperature. It depends on pressure for quasistatic loading near ambient temperature, and on temperature at high temperatures resulting from shock loading. From the simulation we obtain deflagration fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For 8 to 13 GPa shocks, the emanating fronts propagate as deflagration waves to consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels deflagration waves may interact with the sweeping shock to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds.

  16. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  17. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  18. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  19. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  20. 7 CFR 28.423 - Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Middling Spotted Color. 28.423 Section 28.423... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Spotted Cotton § 28.423 Middling Spotted Color. Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody...

  1. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-09-15

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  2. Hubble Finds New Dark Spot on Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has discovered a new great dark spot, located in the northern hemisphere of the planet Neptune. Because the planet's northern hemisphere is now tilted away from Earth, the new feature appears near the limb of the planet.

    The spot is a near mirror-image to a similar southern hemisphere dark spot that was discovered in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. In 1994, Hubble showed that the southern dark spot had disappeared.

    Like its predecessor, the new spot has high altitude clouds along its edge, caused by gasses that have been pushed to higher altitudes where they cool to form methane ice crystal clouds. The dark spot may be a zone of clear gas that is a window to a cloud deck lower in the atmosphere.

    Planetary scientists don t know how long lived this new feature might be. Hubble's high resolution will allow astronomers to follow the spot's evolution and other unexpected changes in Neptune's dynamic atmosphere.

    The image was taken on November 2, 1994 with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2, when Neptune was 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. Hubble can resolve features as small as 625 miles (1,000 kilometers) across in Neptune's cloud tops.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  3. Reaction of sorghum lines to zonate leaf spot and rough leaf spot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundant, frequent rains, along with humid and cloudy conditions during the early part of the 2015 growing season, provided conducive conditions for an unusually severe outbreak of zonate leaf spot and rough leaf spot in a block of sorghum lines at the Texas A&M AgriLife Research Farm, Burleson Coun...

  4. Superoscillating electron wave functions with subdiffraction spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remez, Roei; Tsur, Yuval; Lu, Peng-Han; Tavabi, Amir H.; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.; Arie, Ady

    2017-03-01

    Almost one and a half centuries ago, Abbe [Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 9, 413 (1873), 10.1007/BF02956173] and shortly after Lord Rayleigh [Philos. Mag. Ser. 5 8, 261 (1879), 10.1080/14786447908639684] showed that, when an optical lens is illuminated by a plane wave, a diffraction-limited spot with radius 0.61 λ /sinα is obtained, where λ is the wavelength and α is the semiangle of the beam's convergence cone. However, spots with much smaller features can be obtained at the focal plane when the lens is illuminated by an appropriately structured beam. Whereas this concept is known for light beams, here, we show how to realize it for a massive-particle wave function, namely, a free electron. We experimentally demonstrate an electron central spot of radius 106 pm, which is more than two times smaller than the diffraction limit of the experimental setup used. In addition, we demonstrate that this central spot can be structured by adding orbital angular momentum to it. The resulting superoscillating vortex beam has a smaller dark core with respect to a regular vortex beam. This family of electron beams having hot spots with arbitrarily small features and tailored structures could be useful for studying electron-matter interactions with subatomic resolution.

  5. Cartographic potential of SPOT image data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, R.

    1985-01-01

    In late 1985, the SPOT (Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre) satellite is to be launched by the Ariane rocket from French Guiana. This satellite will have two High Resolution Visible (HRV) line array sensor systems which are capable of providing monoscopic and stereoscopic coverage of the earth. Cartographic applications are related to the recording of stereo image data and the acquisition of 20-m data in a multispectral mode. One of the objectives of this study involves a comparison of the suitability of SPOT and TM image data for mapping urban land use/cover. Another objective is concerned with a preliminary assessment of the potential of SPOT image data for map revision when merged with conventional map sheets converted to raster formats.

  6. On turbulent spots in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John

    1991-01-01

    Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a database obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The flow inside the turbulent area has a strong resemblance to that found in the fully developed turbulent channel. Suitably defined mean and r.m.s. fluctuations as well as the internal shear-layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The breakdown process of the oblique waves is reminiscent of the secondary instability observed during transition to turbulence in channel and boundary-layer flows. Other detailed characteristics associated with the Poiseuille spot are presented and are compared with experimental results.

  7. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  8. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Brazil].

    PubMed

    del Sá DelFiol, Fernando; Junqueira, Fábio Miranda; da Rocha, Maria Carolina Pereira; de Toledo, Maria Inês; Filho, Silvio Barberato

    2010-06-01

    Although the number of confirmed cases of spotted fever has been declining in Brazil since 2005, the mortality rate (20% to 30%) is still high in comparison to other countries. This high mortality rate is closely related to the difficulty in making the diagnosis and starting the correct treatment. Only two groups of antibiotics have proven clinical effectiveness against spotted fever: chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. Until recently, the use of tetracyclines was restricted to adults because of the associated bone and tooth changes in children. Recently, however, the American Academy of Pediatrics and various researchers have recommended the use of doxycycline in children. In more severe cases, chloramphenicol injections are often preferred in Brazil because of the lack of experience with injectable tetracycline. Since early diagnosis and the adequate drug treatment are key to a good prognosis, health care professionals must be better prepared to recognize and treat spotted fever.

  9. On turbulent spots in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John

    1992-01-01

    Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plume Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a data base obtained from a direct numerical simulation. The spot is found to consist of two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. The flow inside the turbulent area has a strong resemblance to that found in the fully developed turbulent channel. Suitably defined mean and rms fluctuations as well as the internal shear layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area, the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The breakdown process of the oblique waves is reminiscent of the secondary instability observed during transition to turbulence in channel and boundary layer flows. Other detailed characteristics associated with the Poiseuille spot are presented and are compared with experimental results.

  10. Spots on AG Virginis - Paradigm or panacea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, S. A.; Rainger, P. P.; Hilditch, R. W.

    1990-12-01

    New photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eclipsing binary AG Vir are presented. Medium-resolution spectroscopy has allowed the measurement of velocities for the secondary component for the first time. The V light curve shows many of the features seen in previous studies of this system. A full analysis of the spectroscopic and photometric data has been made which suggests that the system is either in a marginal state of conatact or a deep-contact configuration depending on the type of spot model invoked. AG Vir constitutes an excellent example of the expected manifestations of spot activity on a light curve. It also demonstrates the ease with which the spot phenomenon can be invoked to explain the appearance of a light curve and to provide conflicting results. This study shows the necessity of a more thorough investigation of this system using Doppler-imaging techniques and simultaneous infrared and optical photometry.

  11. Development of hot spot fixer (HSF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Toshiya; Kyoh, Suigen; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Inazu, Takatoshi; Ikeuchi, Atsuhiko; Urakawa, Yukihiro; Inoue, Soichi; Morita, Etsuya; Klaver, Simon; Horiuchi, Takumi; Peeters, Johan; Kuramoto, Satoshi

    2006-03-01

    A new design for manufacturability (DfM) scheme with a lithography compliance check (LCC) and hot spot fixing (HSF) flow has been developed to guarantee design compliance for OPC and RET by combining lithography simulator, hot spot detector and layout modification tool. Hot spots highlighted by the LCC flow are removed by the HSF flow following modification rule consists of "Line-Sizing" (LS) and "Space-Sizing (SS)" that are resize value of line-width and space-width for the original pattern. In order to meet layout modification requirements at the pre- and post- tape out (T.O.) stages, the priorities individually set for the modification rules and the design rules, which provides flexibly to achieve the modification scheme desirable at each stage. For handling large data at a fast speed, Layout Analyzer (LA) and Layout Optimizer (LO) engines were combined with the HSF flow. LA is used to reconstruct the original hierarchy structure, clips off small parts of the layout that include hot spots from the original layout and sends those to LO in order to reduce the computational time and resource. LO optimizes the clipped off layout following the prioritized modification- and design-rules. The new DfM scheme was found to be quite effective for hot spot cleaning for 65nm node and beyond, since it was demonstrated that the HSF flow improved the lithography margin for the metal layer of 65nm node full-chip data by reducing number of hot spots to below 0.1% of original within about 12 hours, using 1CPU of commercially available workstation.

  12. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, III, A L

    2005-07-14

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a non-local equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  13. Statistical Hot Spot Model for Explosive Detonation

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols III, A L

    2004-05-10

    The Non-local Thermodynamic Equilibrium Statistical Hot Spot Model (NLTE SHS), a new model for explosive detonation, is described. In this model, the formation, ignition, propagation, and extinction of hot spots is explicitly modeled. The equation of state of the explosive mixture is treated with a nonlocal equilibrium thermodynamic assumption. A methodology for developing the parameters for the model is discussed, and applied to the detonation velocity diameter effect. Examination of these results indicates where future improvements to the model can be made.

  14. The simple spot-welding apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraoka, Takeshi

    1998-07-01

    A simple spot-welding apparatus has been developed for the fabrication of stable electrodes used in the measurement of transport properties in condensed matter physics. The apparatus is especially suited for the use of brittle and small sized samples of rare-earth intermetallic compounds (REICs). The spot welding is made by a sharp pulse (150 A and several μs), generated by the precise time generation IC in a capacitor discharge circuit, to avoid breaking the sample. Stable electrodes of six 15 μ Au wires can be made on a REIC sample with length less than 1 mm.

  15. Jorge Rivera congratulated for spotting misplaced pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jorge Rivera (with microphone) shares his thoughts after receiving congratulations for his observatory powers from NASA Administrator Dan Goldin (right). A NASA external tank mechanical engineer, Rivera is the one who spotted the misplaced lock pin on Shuttle Discovery Oct. 10, shortly before the intended launch of mission STS-92, causing a scrub for safety reasons.

  16. Jorge Rivera congratulated for spotting misplaced pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jorge Rivera (center) receives a plaque and congratulations for his observatory powers from Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach (right). A NASA external tank mechanical engineer, Rivera is the one who spotted the misplaced lock pin on Shuttle Discovery Oct. 10, shortly before the intended launch of mission STS-92, causing a scrub for safety reasons.

  17. The sweet spots in human communication.

    PubMed

    Salem, Philip

    2011-07-01

    In baseball, the sweet spot is a special place on a bat where the batter can hit the ball with the most power. It is the place where the performances of the batter and pitcher collide with maximum effect. It is the place where the dynamic tension between opponents leads to transformation. The dynamic tension in all living systems is between similarity and difference. Chaos and complexity scholars recognized this tension as amounts of information. When the amounts of information were high, but not too high, the system moved to the edge of chaos, to the complexity regime, to strange attractors, or to chaos, depending on the model. The sweet spot is that range of relative variety, just the proper mix of similarity and difference, leading to transformation. This essay contains a model of human communication as an emergent social process with its own sweet spots. The essay also includes a description of current literature highlighting tensions between similarity and difference, and there is an exploration of the potential to move from one basin of attraction to another. The primary constraints on finding communication sweet spots are paradigmatic - adopting a process orientation, discovering the proper parameters, bracketing sequences to define initial conditions, and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of various modeling techniques.

  18. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All...

  19. 9 CFR 149.4 - Spot audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spot audit. 149.4 Section 149.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... results as a result of testing of certified swine from that site at the slaughter facility. (b) All...

  20. Arc spot welding technique for underwater use

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, H.; Ide, Y.; Ogawa, Y.

    1995-12-31

    An arc spot welding equipment with special local cavity shroud was developed for underwater salvaging activity. Arc spot welding for lapped plates is an effective method to recover defects. This method in surface is so simple to use widely in the field of railways and chemical plants manufacturing. But there is some problems on the reliability of joint strength and bead shapes. A special arc spot nozzle to improve welding quality was developed. A small outlet of air jet at the bottom of the nozzle was created to maintain the swirl flow of shielding gas and certain rejection of excessive molten metal. This nozzle covers the welding part completely, then it also works as a local cavity shroud under water. This paper describes the design and function of the nozzle for CO{sub 2} arc spot welding system. A programmable controller manages the welding sequence of shielding gas flow, air jet flow, and arcing time. This welding gun is operated manually, but the operation is only to press the gun on the weld point. After that welding will proceed automatically, and arcing time is about three seconds. Whole time for welding which includes pre and post gas flow time is less than ten seconds for surface use, it is required some more additional pre drying process of welding point for underwater use to guarantee the high quality welding results. Fundamental analysis of welding conditions and the effects of air jet were considered.

  1. Turbulent Spots Inside the Turbulent Boundary Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarda, Jinhie; Wu, Xiaohua; Moin, Parviz; Lozano-Duran, Adrian; Wallace, James; Hickey, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    We present evidence that the buffer region of the canonical turbulent boundary layer is populated by locally generated turbulent spots, which cause strong indentations on the near-wall low-momentum streaks. This evidence is obtained from a spatially-developing direct numerical simulation carrying the inlet Blasius boundary layer through a bypass transition to the turbulent boundary layer state over a moderate Reynolds number range. The turbulent spots are structurally analogous to their transitional counter-parts but without any direct causality connection. High-pass filtered time-history records are used to calculate the period of turbulent spot detection and this period is compared to the boundary layer bursting period reported in hot-wire experiments. The sensitivity of the results to parameters such as the high pass filter frequency and the amplitude discriminator level is examined. The characteristics of these turbulent spots are also quantified using a spatial connectivity based conditional sampling technique. This evidence seems to be at odds with the notion that the buffer region is dominated by quasi-streamwise vortices, and contributes to the potential unification of the studies on near-wall turbulent boundary layer dynamics.

  2. THE SPACE PUBLIC OUTREACH TEAM (SPOT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Kathryn; National Radio Astronomy Observatory; Montana Space Grant Consortium; West Virginia Space Grant Consortium; NASA Independent Verification and Validation Center

    2014-01-01

    The Space Public Outreach Team (SPOT) has shown over 17 years of success in bringing astronomy and space science-themed presentations to approximately 10,000 students per year in Montana, and the program is now being piloted in West Virginia through a joint partnership between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), the West Virginia Space Grant Consortium, and NASA Independent Verification and Validation Center. SPOT recruits and trains undergraduate presenters from all over the state to learn interactive slide shows that highlight the state’s on-going and world-class space science research. Presenters then travel to K-12 schools to deliver these presentations and provide teachers additional supplemental information for when the SPOT team leaves. As a large-scale, low-cost, and sustainable program being implemented in both Montana and West Virginia, SPOT has the potential to become a nation-wide effort that institutions in other states can model to increase their education and public outreach presence.

  3. Easy Demonstration of the Poisson Spot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Many physics teachers have a set of slides of single, double and multiple slits to show their students the phenomena of interference and diffraction. Thomas Young's historic experiments with double slits were indeed a milestone in proving the wave nature of light. But another experiment, namely the Poisson spot, was also important historically and…

  4. Expert Blind Spot among Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Mitchell J.; Petrosino, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This study (N = 48) examined the relationship between preservice secondary teachers' subject-matter expertise in mathematics and their judgments of students' algebra problem-solving difficulty. As predicted by the "expert blind spot" hypothesis, participants with more advanced mathematics education, regardless of their program affiliation or…

  5. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  6. Hot-spot tectonics on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcewen, A. S.

    1985-01-01

    The thesis is that extensional tectonics and low-angle detachment faults probably occur on Io in association with the hot spots. These processes may occur on a much shorter timescale on Ion than on Earth, so that Io could be a natural laboratory for the study of thermotectonics. Furthermore, studies of heat and detachment in crustal extension on Earth and the other terresrial planets (especially Venus and Mars) may provide analogs to processes on Io. The geology of Io is dominated by volcanism and hot spots, most likely the result of tidal heating. Hot spots cover 1 to 2% of Io's surface, radiating at temperatures typically from 200 to 400 K, and occasionally up to 700K. Heat loss from the largest hot spots on Io, such as Loki Patera, is about 300 times the heat loss from Yellowstone, so a tremendous quantity of energy is available for volcanic and tectonic work. Active volcanism on Io results in a resurfacing rate as high as 10 cm per year, yet many structural features are apparent on the surface. Therefore, the tectonics must be highly active.

  7. The Power Company Hot-Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barresi, Joseph F.

    1984-03-01

    Just as your companies screen and monitor the market place to determine demand and the public's perception of product need, the power company is constantly faced with studying and forecasting the potential for load growth within it's franchised areas. This study and it's resultant forecast for growth has placed the power industry in a hot spot.

  8. Digital Sun Sensor Multi-Spot Operation

    PubMed Central

    Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    The operation and test of a multi-spot digital sun sensor for precise sun-line determination is described. The image forming system consists of an opaque mask with multiple pinhole apertures producing multiple, simultaneous, spot-like images of the sun on the focal plane. The sun-line precision can be improved by averaging multiple simultaneous measures. Nevertheless, the sensor operation on a wide field of view requires acquiring and processing images in which the number of sun spots and the related intensity level are largely variable. To this end, a reliable and robust image acquisition procedure based on a variable shutter time has been considered as well as a calibration function exploiting also the knowledge of the sun-spot array size. Main focus of the present paper is the experimental validation of the wide field of view operation of the sensor by using a sensor prototype and a laboratory test facility. Results demonstrate that it is possible to keep high measurement precision also for large off-boresight angles. PMID:23443388

  9. Spotting Junk Science A Classroom Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Brian

    2006-12-01

    This presentation is on an exercise in teaching non-science students to spot junk science and to be better consumers of scientific information. It is based upon critical analysis of the website advocating the theory of the solid surface of the sun. I will present examples of student work and solicit comments on how to improve the exercise.

  10. Two New Hot Spots on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on Galileo obtained this image of half of Io's disk in darkness on September 19, 1997. This image, at 5 microns, shows several hot spots on Io, which are volcanic regions of enhanced thermal emission. The area shown is part of the leading hemisphere of Io.

    Two new hot spots are shown and indicated in the image (New, and Shamshu). Neither of these hot spots were seen by NIMS or the Solid State Imaging Experiment, (SSI) prior to this observation, becoming only recently active. Several other previously known hot spots are labelled in the image. Galileo was at a distance of 342,000 km from Io when this observation was made.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Labruna, Marcelo B; Kamakura, Orson; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Horta, Mauricio C; Pacheco, Richard C

    2009-03-01

    Clinical illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in dogs has been reported solely in the United States. We report 2 natural clinical cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in dogs in Brazil. Each case was confirmed by seroconversion and molecular analysis and resolved after doxycycline therapy.

  12. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  13. Mutation hot spots in mammalian mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Galtier, Nicolas; Enard, David; Radondy, Yoan; Bazin, Eric; Belkhir, Khalid

    2006-02-01

    Animal mitochondrial DNA is characterized by a remarkably high level of within-species homoplasy, that is, phylogenetic incongruence between sites of the molecule. Several investigators have invoked recombination to explain it, challenging the dogma of maternal, clonal mitochondrial inheritance in animals. Alternatively, a high level of homoplasy could be explained by the existence of mutation hot spots. By using an exhaustive mammalian data set, we test the hot spot hypothesis by comparing patterns of site-specific polymorphism and divergence in several groups of closely related species, including hominids. We detect significant co-occurrence of synonymous polymorphisms among closely related species in various mammalian groups, and a correlation between the site-specific levels of variability within humans (on one hand) and between Hominoidea species (on the other hand), indicating that mutation hot spots actually exist in mammalian mitochondrial coding regions. The whole data, however, cannot be explained by a simple mutation hot spots model. Rather, we show that the site-specific mutation rate quickly varies in time, so that the same sites are not hypermutable in distinct lineages. This study provides a plausible mutation model that potentially accounts for the peculiar distribution of mitochondrial sequence variation in mammals without the need for invoking recombination. It also gives hints about the proximal causes of mitochondrial site-specific hypermutability in humans.

  14. Measuring microfocal spots using digital radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, David A; Ewert, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of microfocus spot size can be important for several reasons: (1) Quality assurance during manufacture of microfocus tubes; (2) Tracking performance and stability of microfocus tubes; (3) Determining magnification is especially important for digital radiography where the native spatial resolution of the digital system is not adequate for the application; and (4) Knowledge of unsharpness from the focal spot alone. The European Standard EN 12543-5 is based on a simple geometrical method of calculating focal spot size from unsharpness of high magnification film radiographs. The following equations are used for the focal spot size measurement: By similar triangles the following equations are presupposed: f/a = U/b and M = (a+b)/a. These equations can be combined to yield the well known expression: U = f(M - 1). Solving for f, f = U/(M-1). Therefore, the focal spot size, f, can be calculated by measuring the radiographic unsharpness and magnification of a known object. This is the basis for these tests. The European standard actually uses one-half of the unsharpness (which are then added together) from both sides of the object to avoid additional unsharpness contributions due to edge transmission unsharpness of the round test object (the outside of the object is measured). So the equation becomes f = (1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2})/(M-1). In practice 1/2 U is measured from the 50% to the 90% signal points on the transition profile from ''black'' to ''white,'' (positive image) or attenuated to unattenuated portion of the image. The 50% to 90% points are chosen as a best fit to an assumed Gaussian radiation distribution from the focal spot and to avoid edge transmission effects. 1/2 U{sub 1} + 1/2 U{sub 2} corresponds about to the full width at half height of a Gaussian focal spot. A highly absorbing material (Tungsten, Tungsten Alloy, or Platinum) is used for the object. Either wires or a sphere are used as the object to eliminate alignment issues. One

  15. The Little Red Spot: Closest View Yet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is a mosaic of three New Horizons images of Jupiter's Little Red Spot, taken with the spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) camera at 17:41 Universal Time on February 26 from a range of 3.5 million kilometers (2.1 million miles). The image scale is 17 kilometers (11 miles) per pixel, and the area covered measures 33,000 kilometers (20,000 miles) from top to bottom, two and one-half times the diameter of Earth.

    The Little Red Spot, a smaller cousin of the famous Great Red Spot, formed in the past decade from the merger of three smaller Jovian storms, and is now the second-largest storm on Jupiter. About a year ago its color, formerly white, changed to a reddish shade similar to the Great Red Spot, perhaps because it is now powerful enough to dredge up reddish material from deeper inside Jupiter. These are the most detailed images ever taken of the Little Red Spot since its formation, and will be combined with even sharper images taken by New Horizons 10 hours later to map circulation patterns around and within the storm.

    LORRI took the images as the Sun was about to set on the Little Red Spot. The LORRI camera was designed to look at Pluto, where sunlight is much fainter than it is at Jupiter, so the images would have been overexposed if LORRI had looked at the storm when it was illuminated by the noonday Sun. The dim evening illumination helped the LORRI camera obtain well-exposed images. The New Horizons team used predictions made by amateur astronomers in 2006, based on their observations of the motion of the Little Red Spot with backyard telescopes, to help them accurately point LORRI at the storm.

    These are among a handful of Jupiter system images already returned by New Horizons during its close approach to Jupiter. Most of the data being gathered by the spacecraft are stored onboard and will be downlinked to Earth during March and April 2007.

  16. Hyperspectral analysis of columbia spotted frog habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shive, J.P.; Pilliod, D.S.; Peterson, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Wildlife managers increasingly are using remotely sensed imagery to improve habitat delineations and sampling strategies. Advances in remote sensing technology, such as hyperspectral imagery, provide more information than previously was available with multispectral sensors. We evaluated accuracy of high-resolution hyperspectral image classifications to identify wetlands and wetland habitat features important for Columbia spotted frogs (Rana luteiventris) and compared the results to multispectral image classification and United States Geological Survey topographic maps. The study area spanned 3 lake basins in the Salmon River Mountains, Idaho, USA. Hyperspectral data were collected with an airborne sensor on 30 June 2002 and on 8 July 2006. A 12-year comprehensive ground survey of the study area for Columbia spotted frog reproduction served as validation for image classifications. Hyperspectral image classification accuracy of wetlands was high, with a producer's accuracy of 96 (44 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2002 data and 89 (41 wetlands) correctly classified with the 2006 data. We applied habitat-based rules to delineate breeding habitat from other wetlands, and successfully predicted 74 (14 wetlands) of known breeding wetlands for the Columbia spotted frog. Emergent sedge microhabitat classification showed promise for directly predicting Columbia spotted frog egg mass locations within a wetland by correctly identifying 72 (23 of 32) of known locations. Our study indicates hyperspectral imagery can be an effective tool for mapping spotted frog breeding habitat in the selected mountain basins. We conclude that this technique has potential for improving site selection for inventory and monitoring programs conducted across similar wetland habitat and can be a useful tool for delineating wildlife habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Revised Thorium Abundances for Lunar Red Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagerty, J. J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Vaniman, D. T.; Hawke, B. R.

    2005-01-01

    Lunar red spots are features on the nearside of the Moon that are characterized by high albedo and by a strong absorption in the ultraviolet. These red spots include the Gruithuisen domes, the Mairan domes, Hansteen Alpha, the southern portion of Montes Riphaeus, Darney Chi and Tau, Helmet, and an area near the Lassell crater. It has been suggested that many of the red spots are extrusive, nonmare, volcanic features that could be composed of an evolved lithlogy enriched in thorium. In fact, Hawke et al. used morphological characteristics to show that Hansteen Alpha is a nonmare volcanic construct. However, because the apparent Th abundances (6 - 7 ppm) were lower than that expected for evolved rock types, Hawke et al. concluded that Hansteen Alpha was composed of an unknown rock type. Subsequent studies by Lawrence et al. used improved knowledge of the Th spatial distribution for small area features on the lunar surface to revisit the interpretation of Th abundances at the Hansteen Alpha red spot. As part of their study, Lawrence et al. used a forward modeling technique to show that the Th abundance at Hansteen Alpha is not 6 ppm, but is more likely closer to 25 ppm, a value consistent with evolved lithologies. This positive correlation between the morphology and composition of Hansteen Alpha provides support for the presence of evolved lithologies on the lunar surface. It is possible, however, that Hansteen Alpha represents an isolated occurrence of non-mare volcanism. That is why we have chosen to use the forward modeling technique of Lawrence et al. to investigate the Th abundances at other lunar red spots, starting with the Gruithuisen domes. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. Tests to Spot 'Preemie' Birth Risk Ineffective in First Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_164081.html Tests to Spot 'Preemie' Birth Risk Ineffective in First Pregnancies Finding suggests other ... HealthDay News) -- Two tests that screen for preterm birth risk rarely spot trouble in first-time pregnancies, ...

  19. SPOT: How good for geology? A comparison with LANDSAT MSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sesoeren, A.

    1986-12-01

    Geological interpretation possibilities of SPOT MSS and LANDSAT MSS positive prints enlarged to the same scale were compared, using as a test area part of the Jebel Amour (Algeria). The SPOT imagery offers many advantages, filling the gap between remote sensing from space and aerial photography. The best results by visual interpretation are obtained in combining SPOT for the required details with LANDSAT for the synoptic veiw. Further improvements are expected from the use of SPOT stereo-pairs.

  20. Vibrational modes identify soft spots in a sheared disordered packing.

    PubMed

    Manning, M L; Liu, A J

    2011-09-02

    We analyze low-frequency vibrational modes in a two-dimensional, zero-temperature, quasistatically sheared model glass to identify a population of structural "soft spots" where particle rearrangements are initiated. The population of spots evolves slowly compared to the interval between particle rearrangements, and the soft spots are structurally different from the rest of the system. Our results suggest that disordered solids flow via localized rearrangements that tend to occur at soft spots, which are analogous to dislocations in crystalline solids.

  1. Turbulent Region Near Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color mosaics of the turbulent region west of Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The Great Red Spot is on the planetary limb on the right hand side of each mosaic. The region west (left) of the Great Red Spot is characterized by large, turbulent structures that rapidly change in appearance. The turbulence results from the collision of a westward jet that is deflected northward by the Great Red Spot into a higher latitude eastward jet. The large eddies nearest to the Great Red Spot are bright, suggesting that convection and cloud formation are active there.

    The top mosaic combines the violet (410 nanometers) and near infrared continuum (756 nanometers) filter images to create a mosaic similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundance of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The lower mosaic uses the Galileo imaging camera's three near-infrared (invisible) wavelengths (756 nanometers, 727 nanometers, and 889 nanometers displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Light blue clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are deep, and white clouds are high and thick. Purple most likely represents a high haze overlying a clear deep atmosphere. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    The mosaic is centered at 16.5 degrees south planetocentric latitude and 85 degrees west longitude. The north-south dimension of the Great Red Spot is approximately 11,000 kilometers. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. North is at the top of the picture. The images used were taken on June 26, 1997 at a range of 1.2 million kilometers (1.05 million miles) by the Solid State Imaging (SSI) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology

  2. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  3. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  4. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  5. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  6. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  7. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  8. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  9. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  10. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  11. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  12. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  13. 7 CFR 28.424 - Strict Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.424 Section 28.424 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  14. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  15. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a...

  16. 7 CFR 28.421 - Good Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Middling Spotted Color. 28.421 Section 28.421 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Good Middling Spotted Color is color which is better than Strict Middling Spotted Color....

  17. Spot-Welding Gun With Pivoting Twin-Collet Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Francis; Simpson, Gareth; Hoult, William S.

    1996-01-01

    Modified spot-welding gun includes pivoting twin-collet assembly that holds two spot-welding electrodes. Designed to weld highly conductive (30 percent gold) brazing-alloy foils to thin nickel alloy workpieces; also suitable for other spot-welding applications compatible with two-electrode configuration.

  18. Spot-Welding Gun Is Easy To Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Nguyen, Francis H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical-resistance spot-welding gun designed to produce more welds per unit time by decreasing technician's effort and fatigue. Vacuum cups on frame secure welding gun to workpiece while compressed air drives welding tip against workpiece to make spot resistance weld. When weld completed, vacuum in frame cups released so frame and gun moved to position of next spot weld.

  19. 7 CFR 27.93 - Bona fide spot markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bona fide spot markets. 27.93 Section 27.93... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.93 Bona fide spot markets. The following markets have been determined, after investigation, and are...

  20. 7 CFR 27.93 - Bona fide spot markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bona fide spot markets. 27.93 Section 27.93... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.93 Bona fide spot markets. The following markets have been determined, after investigation, and are...

  1. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A spot-film... medical purposes to position a radiographic film cassette to obtain radiographs during fluoroscopy....

  2. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A spot-film... medical purposes to position a radiographic film cassette to obtain radiographs during fluoroscopy....

  3. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A spot-film... medical purposes to position a radiographic film cassette to obtain radiographs during fluoroscopy....

  4. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A spot-film... medical purposes to position a radiographic film cassette to obtain radiographs during fluoroscopy....

  5. 21 CFR 892.1670 - Spot-film device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Spot-film device. 892.1670 Section 892.1670 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1670 Spot-film device. (a) Identification. A spot-film... medical purposes to position a radiographic film cassette to obtain radiographs during fluoroscopy....

  6. On the Spreading Rate and Structure of a Turbulent Spot.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-19

    ensemble-averaged spot. The particle trajectories led CCD to conclude that there are two vortex structures associated with an ensembled averaged spot . One transverse...virtual origin for the spot . One may chose the intersec- tion of _Z and a for the virtual origin because these loci represent the ex- treme

  7. Spot foreign exchange market and time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; Serva, M.

    2003-08-01

    We investigate high frequency price dynamics in foreign exchange market using data from Reuters information system (the dataset has been provided to us by Olsen and Associates). In our analysis we show that a naïve approach to the definition of price (for example using the spot mid price) may lead to wrong conclusions on price behavior as for example the presence of short term correlations for returns. For this purpose we introduce an algorithm which only uses the non arbitrage principle to estimate real prices from the spot ones. The new definition leads to returns which are not affected by spurious correlations. Furthermore, any apparent information (defined by using Shannon entropy) contained in the data disappears.

  8. Sweet spot supersymmetry and composite messengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2008-05-01

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenological effective Lagrangian of weak scale supersymmetry with a certain set of natural assumptions. This framework is designed to avoid problems in low-energy phenomenology and cosmology of supersymmetric models. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation, whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 105 GeV ≲Mmess ≲1010 GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields Nmess are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group.

  9. Sweet Spot Supersymmetry and Composite Messengers

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro

    2007-10-30

    Sweet spot supersymmetry is a phenomenologically and cosmologically perfect framework to realize a supersymmetric world at short distance. We discuss a class of dynamical models of supersymmetry breaking and its mediation whose low-energy effective description falls into this framework. Hadron fields in the dynamical models play a role of the messengers of the supersymmetry breaking. As is always true in the models of the sweet spot supersymmetry, the messenger scale is predicted to be 10{sup 5} GeV {approx}< M{sub mess} {approx}< 10{sup 10} GeV. Various values of the effective number of messenger fields N{sub mess} are possible depending on the choice of the gauge group.

  10. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  11. A case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Rubel, Barry S

    2007-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a serious, generalized infection that is spread to humans through the bite of infected ticks. It can be lethal but it is curable. The disease gets its name from the Rocky Mountain region where it was first identified in 1896. The fever is caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii and is maintained in nature in a complex life cycle involving ticks and mammals. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts and are not involved in the natural transmission cycle of this pathogen. The author examined a 47-year-old woman during a periodic recall appointment. The patient had no dental problems other than the need for routine prophylaxis but mentioned a recent problem with swelling of her extremities with an accompanying rash and general malaise and soreness in her neck region. Tests were conducted and a diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever was made.

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a clinician's dilemma.

    PubMed

    Masters, Edwin J; Olson, Gary S; Weiner, Scott J; Paddock, Christopher D

    2003-04-14

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is still the most lethal tick-vectored illness in the United States. We examine the dilemmas facing the clinician who is evaluating the patient with possible Rocky Mountain spotted fever, with particular attention to the following 8 pitfalls in diagnosis and treatment: (1) waiting for a petechial rash to develop before diagnosis; (2) misdiagnosing as gastroenteritis; (3) discounting a diagnosis when there is no history of a tick bite; (4) using an inappropriate geographic exclusion; (5) using an inappropriate seasonal exclusion; (6) failing to treat on clinical suspicion; (7) failing to elicit an appropriate history; and (8) failing to treat with doxycycline. Early diagnosis and proper treatment save lives.

  13. Automated Spot Weld Inspection using Infrared Thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Zhenzhen; Feng, Zhili

    2012-01-01

    An automated non-contact and non-destructive resistance spot weld inspection system based on infrared (IR) thermography was developed for post-weld applications. During inspection, a weld coupon was heated up by an auxiliary induction heating device from one side of the weld, while the resulting thermal waves on the other side were observed by an IR camera. The IR images were analyzed to extract a thermal signature based on normalized heating time, which was then quantitatively correlated to the spot weld nugget size. The use of normalized instead of absolute IR intensity was found to be useful in minimizing the sensitivity to the unknown surface conditions and environment interference. Application of the IR-based inspection system to different advanced high strength steels, thickness gauges and coatings were discussed.

  14. Strong transverse fields in delta-spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, Harold; Wang, Haimin

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic measurements of the strength and direction of transverse magnetic fields in six delta-spots are presented. The field direction is determined by the relative strength of the pi- and sigma-components at different polarizer orientations, and is, with one exception, parallel to the neutral line and as strong as the umbral field. Field strengths determined by line splitting are as high as 3980 G.

  15. Does alprostadil cream hit the spot?

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Alprostadil, a prostaglandin, has been marketed for many years as a urethral stick and an intracavernous injection for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.(1) It is now available in the form of a cream (Vitaros-Takeda). Adverts for the product declare: "Sex with no pills, pellets or needles. Spot on." In this article, we consider the evidence for alprostadil cream, and its place in the management of erectile dysfunction.

  16. Mongolian spots: How important are they?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Divya; Thappa, Devinder Mohan

    2013-11-16

    Mongolian spots (MS) are congenital birthmarks seen most commonly over the lumbosacral area. They are bluish-green to black in color and oval to irregular in shape. They are most commonly found in individuals of African or Asian ethnic background. Although these lesions resolve by one to two years of age, widespread, extrasacral and dark colored MS sometimes persist into adulthood. Aberrant MS over occiput, temple, mandibular area, shoulders and limbs may be confused with other dermal melanocytoses and bruises secondary to child abuse, thus necessitating documentation at birth. Although traditionally believed to be benign in nature, they have now been shown to co-exist with inborn errors of metabolism, most commonly GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type I (Hurler's disease), followed by mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter's syndrome), mucolipidosis, Niemann-Pick disease and mannosidosis. They have also been seen to co-exist with various vascular or other pigmented birthmarks like café-au-lait macules. Co-existing Mongolian spots and vascular birthmarks like nevus flammeus, nevus anemicus or nevus spilus is termed as phakomatosis pigmentovascularis. This review focuses on the important associations of Mongolian spots and stresses upon the importance of screening babies with extensive MS.

  17. First- and second-order Poisson spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, William R.; Shirley, Eric L.; Migdall, Alan L.; Polyakov, Sergey V.; Hendrix, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    Although Thomas Young is generally given credit for being the first to provide evidence against Newton's corpuscular theory of light, it was Augustin Fresnel who first stated the modern theory of diffraction. We review the history surrounding Fresnel's 1818 paper and the role of the Poisson spot in the associated controversy. We next discuss the boundary-diffraction-wave approach to calculating diffraction effects and show how it can reduce the complexity of calculating diffraction patterns. We briefly discuss a generalization of this approach that reduces the dimensionality of integrals needed to calculate the complete diffraction pattern of any order diffraction effect. We repeat earlier demonstrations of the conventional Poisson spot and discuss an experimental setup for demonstrating an analogous phenomenon that we call a "second-order Poisson spot." Several features of the diffraction pattern can be explained simply by considering the path lengths of singly and doubly bent paths and distinguishing between first- and second-order diffraction effects related to such paths, respectively.

  18. Hot spot conditions during cavitation in water

    SciTech Connect

    Didenko, Y.T.; McNamara, W.B. III; Suslick, K.S.

    1999-06-23

    Liquids irradiated with high-intensity ultrasound undergo acoustic cavitation--the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles. The energy stored during the growth of the bubble in the rarefaction phase of the acoustic field is released when the bubble violently collapses in the compression phase of the acoustic field, as acoustic noise, shock waves, chemical reactions, and the emission of light (sonoluminescence, SL). This violent collapse is predicted to generate a hot spot of thousands of Kelvin within the bubble, but, to date, there have been only a limited number of experimental measurements of the temperature of this hot spot. Although the SL of water has been studied for more than 50 years, the effective hot spot temperature during aqueous cavitation remains unresolved. Given the importance of aqueous cavitation (sonography and bioeffects of ultrasound, sonochemical remediation of aqueous pollutants, synthetic applications of sonochemistry, etc.), the authors decided to apply previous spectroscopic analysis of SL of nonaqueous liquids to aqueous solutions doped with small amounts of hydrocarbons. The authors have collected and analyzed excited-state C{sub 2} NBSL (multi-bubble sonoluminescence, light emission from the clouds of cavitating bubbles) spectra from mixtures of organic liquids in water at 20 kHz and find an effective emission temperature of 4,300 {+-} 200 K.

  19. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Santella, M. L.

    2009-11-13

    Friction stir spot welding techniques were developed to successfully join several advanced high strength steels. Two distinct tool materials were evaluated to determine the effect of tool materials on the process parameters and joint properties. Welds were characterized primarily via lap shear, microhardness, and optical microscopy. Friction stir spot welds were compared to the resistance spot welds in similar strength alloys by using the AWS standard for resistance spot welding high strength steels. As further comparison, a primitive cost comparison between the two joining processes was developed, which included an evaluation of the future cost prospects of friction stir spot welding in advanced high strength steels.

  20. Characterizing hot spots throughout the catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welti, N.; Lockington, D.; Jakeman, T.; Hunt, R.

    2012-04-01

    Few catchments in the world are left truly undisturbed. Rather, they are under anthropogenic stress for a variety of reasons ranging from climate forcing to meeting the basic water allocation needs of the population. Reduction in the number of inundation areas has significantly decreased the nutrient and organic matter retention capacity along the river corridor, with major consequences for the both the riverine and coastal ecosystems. Cumulative stress may build up to a "tipping point" which can cause a change or set of changes which could occur non-linearly. In order to mitigate the environmental stress on these ecosystems, management plans are created to balance the needs of the dependent populations and those of ecology. While these catchment-wide plans aim to improve the ecological function of aquatic areas over the large scale, this sledge-hammer approach ignores the inherent heterogeneity in the catchment. Societal (and policy) decisions involve more than abiotic quantification of water storage and flow. A more encompassing ecohydrological view facilitates a more rounded policy framework that has flexibility to accommodate multiple social drivers, and one that can accommodate an "ecosystem improvement" rather than single species improvement. Not every spot in the landscape is equally valuable for specific societal values. Areas of high activity may provide the resilience capacity necessary to prevent catastrophic changes. In times of ecological instability, ecosystem resilience is of paramount importance in maintaining essential ecosystem services. Hot spots of biogeochemical cycling will occur where unique situations arise, such as areas of surface and groundwater interaction, creating spots of localized, high activity. In order to understand the systems' potential to support various habitat niches in the large scale, the identification of specific hot spots or hot moments is necessary. A basal understanding of the concurrent biogeochemical cycles enables

  1. Star spot location estimation using Kalman filter for star tracker.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-bo; Yang, Jian-kun; Wang, Jiong-qi; Tan, Ji-chun; Li, Xiu-jian

    2011-04-20

    Star pattern recognition and attitude determination accuracy is highly dependent on star spot location accuracy for the star tracker. A star spot location estimation approach with the Kalman filter for a star tracker has been proposed, which consists of three steps. In the proposed approach, the approximate locations of the star spots in successive frames are predicted first; then the measurement star spot locations are achieved by defining a series of small windows around each predictive star spot location. Finally, the star spot locations are updated by the designed Kalman filter. To confirm the proposed star spot location estimation approach, the simulations based on the orbit data of the CHAMP satellite and the real guide star catalog are performed. The simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can filter out noises from the measurements remarkably if the sampling frequency is sufficient.

  2. Stability of the Boundary Layer and the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wygnanski, I.

    2007-01-01

    The similarity among turbulent spots observed in various transition experiments, and the rate in which they contaminate the surrounding laminar boundary layer is only cursory. The shape of the spot depends on the Reynolds number of the surrounding boundary layer and on the pressure gradient to which it and the surrounding laminar flow are exposed. The propagation speeds of the spot boundaries depend, in addition, on the location from which the spot originated and do not simply scale with the local free stream velocity. The understanding of the manner in which the turbulent manner in which the turbulent spot destabilizes the surrounding, vortical fluid is a key to the understanding of the transition process. We therefore turned to detailed observations near the spot boundaries in general and near the spanwise tip of the spot in particular.

  3. Detection of a non-Gaussian spot in WMAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, M.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva, P.; Cayón, L.

    2005-01-01

    An extremely cold and big spot in the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) 1-yr data is analysed. Our work is a continuation of a previous paper by Vielva et al. that reported the detection of non-Gaussianity, with a method based on the spherical Mexican hat wavelet (SMHW) technique. We study the spots at different thresholds on the SMHW coefficient maps, considering six estimators, namely the number of maxima, the number of minima, the numbers of hot and cold spots, and the number of pixels of those spots. At SMHW scales around 4° (10° on the sky), the data deviate from Gaussianity. The analysis is performed on all of the sky, the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and on four regions covering all of the sky. A cold spot at (b=-57°,l= 209°) is found to be the source of this non-Gaussian signature. We compare the spots of our data with 10000 Gaussian simulations, and conclude that only around 0.2 per cent of them present such a cold spot. Excluding this spot, the remaining map is compatible with Gaussianity, and even the excess of kurtosis in the paper by Vielva et al. is found to be due exclusively to this spot. Finally, we study whether the spot causing the observed deviation from Gaussianity could be generated by systematics or foregrounds. None of them seem to be responsible for the non-Gaussian detection.

  4. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre

    2005-05-27

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Several points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.

  5. Introgression and dispersal among spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies

    PubMed Central

    Funk, W Chris; Forsman, Eric D; Mullins, Thomas D; Haig, Susan M

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Population genetics plays an increasingly important role in the conservation and management of declining species, particularly for defining taxonomic units. Subspecies are recognized by several conservation organizations and countries and receive legal protection under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA). Two subspecies of spotted owls, northern (Strix occidentalis caurina) and Mexican (S. o. lucida) spotted owls, are ESA-listed as threatened, but the California (S. o. occidentalis) spotted owl is not listed. Thus, determining the boundaries of these subspecies is critical for effective enforcement of the ESA. We tested the validity of previously recognized spotted owl subspecies by analysing 394 spotted owls at 10 microsatellite loci. We also tested whether northern and California spotted owls hybridize as suggested by previous mitochondrial DNA studies. Our results supported current recognition of three subspecies. We also found bi-directional hybridization and dispersal between northern and California spotted owls centered in southern Oregon and northern California. Surprisingly, we also detected introgression of Mexican spotted owls into the range of northern spotted owls, primarily in the northern part of the subspecies’ range in Washington, indicating long-distance dispersal of Mexican spotted owls. We conclude with a discussion of the conservation implications of our study. PMID:25567499

  6. False Color Mosaic Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    False color representation of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) taken through three different near-infrared filters of the Galileo imaging system and processed to reveal cloud top height. Images taken through Galileo's near-infrared filters record sunlight beyond the visible range that penetrates to different depths in Jupiter's atmosphere before being reflected by clouds. The Great Red Spot appears pink and the surrounding region blue because of the particular color coding used in this representation. Light reflected by Jupiter at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane strongly absorbs is shown in red. Due to this absorption, only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (732 nm) where methane absorbs less strongly is shown in green. Lower clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength. Reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere is shown in blue: This light is reflected from the deepest clouds. Thus, the color of a cloud in this image indicates its height. Blue or black areas are deep clouds; pink areas are high, thin hazes; white areas are high, thick clouds. This image shows the Great Red Spot to be relatively high, as are some smaller clouds to the northeast and northwest that are surprisingly like towering thunderstorms found on Earth. The deepest clouds are in the collar surrounding the Great Red Spot, and also just to the northwest of the high (bright) cloud in the northwest corner of the image. Preliminary modeling shows these cloud heights vary over 30 km in altitude. This mosaic, of eighteen images (6 in each filter) taken over a 6 minute interval during the second GRS observing sequence on June 26, 1996, has been map-projected to a uniform grid of latitude and longitude. North is at the top.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet

  7. A Magic Spot in Genome Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rasouly, Aviram; Pani, Bibhusita; Nudler, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is the key DNA repair system that eliminates the majority of DNA helix-distorting lesions. RNA polymerase (RNAP) expedites the recognition of DNA damage by NER components via transcription-coupled DNA repair (TCR). In bacteria, a modified nucleotide ppGpp ('magic spot') is a pleiotropic second messenger that mediates the response to nutrient deficiencies by altering the initiation properties of RNAP. In this review, we discuss newly elucidated roles of guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate (ppGpp) in transcription elongation that couple this alarmone to DNA damage repair and maintenance.

  8. What's new in Rocky Mountain spotted fever?

    PubMed

    Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains an important illness despite an effective therapy because it is difficult to diagnose and is capable of producing a fatal outcome. The pathogenesis of RMSF remains, in large part, an enigma. However, recent research has helped shed light on this mystery. Importantly, the diagnosis of RMSF must be considered in all febrile patients who have known or possible exposure to ticks, especially if they live in or have traveled to endemic regions during warmer months. Decisions about giving empiric therapy to such patients are difficult and require skill and careful judgement.

  9. Roentgenographic abnormalities in Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    McCook, T A; Briley, C; Ravin, C E

    1982-02-01

    Rock Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is a tick-borne rickettsial disease which produces a widespread vasculitis. A mortality of 7% to 13% has been reported in the United States which is due at least in part to delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. The classic features of this disease include a history of tick bite with the clinical presentation of skin rash and fever in association with thrombocytopenia. Few reports have emphasized the radiologic chest abnormalities in this disease or their relationship to thrombocytopenia. We review 70 cases of RMSF with abnormal roentgenographic features and their pathologic correlation.

  10. Studies on Typhus and Spotted Fever.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    by block ntmber) Rickettsia , R. prowazekii, R. mooseri, typhus, R. rickettsii , Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rochalimaea guintana, trench fever, DNA...which appear to be the major target cells for the obligate intracellular parasitic bacteria of the genus Rickettsia . This would constitute a unique...Yes e Rickettsia rickettsii Sheila Smith Human GP2/E6/TC3/E2/TC4/E6 Yes f Ripley Human GP1/CE1/E1 Yes g Rickettsia tsutsugamushi Gilliam E141/M2/E2 No h

  11. Real prices from spot foreign exchange market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2004-12-01

    In this work we discuss the problem of price definition when using high frequency foreign exchange data. If one uses the spot mid price a strong autocorrelation of returns, at one lag, is found which is only due to microstructure effect and does not capture the real behavior of price dynamics. This autocorrelation increases the intraday volatility estimated from this type of data. To solve this problem we introduce an algorithm which is able, by using the no-arbitrage principle, of eliminating every microstructure effects.

  12. Inducibility of somatic colour and white spots in the mammalian spot test.

    PubMed

    Peter, S

    1980-03-01

    F1 embryos of the C57BL/6JHan x T-Stock were exposed to utero to 5, 10, 15 and 45 mg/kg b.w. of cyclophosphamide (CP) s.c. on the 10th day of pregnancy. 3-5 weeks post-partum the offspring were examined for the appearance of recessive coat-colour mosaics and white midventral spots (WMVS). The frequencies of the coloured spots were 0.93 and 2.59% at 5- and 10-mg/kg doses of CP, resp. These frequencies were dose-dependent, but the difference between the doses was not significant. No coloured spots were obtained with CP at 15 and 45 mg/kg. The frequencies of WMVS were much higher than those of coloured spots (1.40, 6.03 and 51.16%, resp.). The differences were highly significant. The reduction in the number of offspring compared with the raio of the offspring/female of the control (control = 100%) were 16.16, 22.72, 72.48 and 100% at the different doses of CP (5, 10, 15 and 45 mg/kg b.w.).

  13. Ammonium Hydrosulfide and Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R.; Chanover, N.; Simon, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The color and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) has been debated for more than a century. While there are numerous hypotheses for the origin of Jupiter's GRS, recent work suggests that the GRS's color could originate from multiple components (Carlson et al., 2012; Simon et al., submitted). In light of this, we have recently begun conducting in situ laboratory experiments that test whether ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, or its radiation decomposition products contribute to the GRS spectrum. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our most recent results, where we have studied the stability of NH4SH samples as a function of temperature using infrared and mass spectrometry. Funding for this work has been provided by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Outer Planets Research programs. ReferencesCarlson, R. W., K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, DPS, 44, 2012. Simon, A. A., J. Legarreta, F. Sanz-Requena, S. Perez-Hoyos, E. Garcia-Melendo, R. W. Carlson. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, submitted.

  14. SPOT4 Operational Control Center (CMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaouche, G.

    1993-01-01

    CNES(F) is responsible for the development of a new generation of Operational Control Center (CMP) which will operate the new heliosynchronous remote sensing satellite (SPOT4). This Operational Control Center takes large benefit from the experience of the first generation of control center and from the recent advances in computer technology and standards. The CMP is designed for operating two satellites all the same time with a reduced pool of controllers. The architecture of this CMP is simple, robust, and flexible, since it is based on powerful distributed workstations interconnected through an Ethernet LAN. The application software uses modern and formal software engineering methods, in order to improve quality and reliability, and facilitate maintenance. This software is table driven so it can be easily adapted to other operational needs. Operation tasks are automated to the maximum extent, so that it could be possible to operate the CMP automatically with very limited human interference for supervision and decision making. This paper provides an overview of the SPOTS mission and associated ground segment. It also details the CMP, its functions, and its software and hardware architecture.

  15. Beyond Binarity: Spots, Pulsations, and Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Cole; Prsa, A.

    2014-01-01

    We use the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (Prsa et al. 2011) to find and explore previously unstudied intrinsic stellar variability and stellar multiplicity. All but the highest-amplitude intrinsic variation in these systems is dominated by the eclipsing binary signature, however by fitting a physical model to the eclipsing binary signal and then subtracting this model from the lightcurve, we effectively remove binary effects and can search the residuals for other sources of variability. Using 120 stars for our sample, observed at a 1-min cadence by NASA's Kepler satellite (Borucki et al. 2009), we find low amplitude spot variation, pulsations, and background eclipsing binary stars. Frequencies derived from the spot variations and pulsations provide us with information on the rotation rates, internal structure and physical parameters of the stars that comprise each system. Using frequency and period relations derived by Tassoul (1980), we identify g-mode and p-mode pulsations from the derived signals. We apply asteroseismic methods to interpret these signals and determine the radii and masses of the system components, differential surface and interior rotation, and evolutionary state of these stars. Binary star modeling of these systems yields independent values of the masses, radii, and temperatures of both components, as well as any tidal deformation that may occur. By coupling these approaches, we aim able to construct a fully consistent model of the systems that undergo these variations. We highlight systems of particular interest and discuss frequently observed features in the power spectra.

  16. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-01

    Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels' colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  17. Spinning-Spot Shadowless TIRF Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ellefsen, Kyle L; Dynes, Joseph L; Parker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing near-membrane cellular structures and processes, including imaging of local Ca2+ transients with single-channel resolution. TIRF is most commonly implemented in epi-fluorescence mode, whereby laser excitation light is introduced at a spot near the periphery of the back focal plane of a high numerical aperture objective lens. However, this approach results in an irregular illumination field, owing to interference fringes and scattering and shadowing by cellular structures. We describe a simple system to circumvent these limitations, utilizing a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors to rapidly spin the laser spot in a circle at the back focal plane of the objective lens, so that irregularities average out during each camera exposure to produce an effectively uniform field. Computer control of the mirrors enables precise scanning at 200 Hz (5ms camera exposure times) or faster, and the scan radius can be altered on a frame-by-frame basis to achieve near-simultaneous imaging in TIRF, widefield and 'skimming plane' imaging modes. We demonstrate the utility of the system for dynamic recording of local inositol trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ signals and for imaging the redistribution of STIM and Orai proteins during store-operated Ca2+ entry. We further anticipate that it will be readily applicable for numerous other near-membrane studies, especially those involving fast dynamic processes.

  18. Spinning-Spot Shadowless TIRF Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ellefsen, Kyle L.; Dynes, Joseph L.; Parker, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing near-membrane cellular structures and processes, including imaging of local Ca2+ transients with single-channel resolution. TIRF is most commonly implemented in epi-fluorescence mode, whereby laser excitation light is introduced at a spot near the periphery of the back focal plane of a high numerical aperture objective lens. However, this approach results in an irregular illumination field, owing to interference fringes and scattering and shadowing by cellular structures. We describe a simple system to circumvent these limitations, utilizing a pair of galvanometer-driven mirrors to rapidly spin the laser spot in a circle at the back focal plane of the objective lens, so that irregularities average out during each camera exposure to produce an effectively uniform field. Computer control of the mirrors enables precise scanning at 200 Hz (5ms camera exposure times) or faster, and the scan radius can be altered on a frame-by-frame basis to achieve near-simultaneous imaging in TIRF, widefield and ‘skimming plane’ imaging modes. We demonstrate the utility of the system for dynamic recording of local inositol trisphosphate-mediated Ca2+ signals and for imaging the redistribution of STIM and Orai proteins during store-operated Ca2+ entry. We further anticipate that it will be readily applicable for numerous other near-membrane studies, especially those involving fast dynamic processes. PMID:26308212

  19. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  20. Not so hot "hot spots" in the oceanic mantle.

    PubMed

    Bonath, E

    1990-10-05

    Excess volcanism and crustal swelling associated with hot spots are generally attributed to thermal plumes upwelling from the mantle. This concept has been tested in the portion of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge between 34 degrees and 45 degrees (Azores hot spot). Peridotite and basalt data indicate that the upper mantle in the hot spot has undergone a high degree of melting relative to the mantle elsewhere in the North Atlantic. However, application of various geothermometers suggests that the temperature of equilibration of peridotites in the mantle was lower, or at least not higher, in the hot spot than elsewhere. The presence of H(2)O-rich metasomatized mantle domains, inferred from peridotite and basalt data, would lower the melting temperature of the hot spot mantle and thereby reconcile its high degree ofmelting with the lack of a mantle temperature anomaly. Thus, some so-called hot spots might be melting anomalies unrelated to abnormally high mantle temperature or thermal plumes.

  1. Bier’s spots with onset in childhood*

    PubMed Central

    Portocarrero, Larissa Karine Leite; Saraiva, Maria Isabel Ramos; Barbosa, Marcella Amaral Horta; Veronez, Isis Suga; Swiczar, Bethania Cabral Cavalli; Valente, Neusa Yuriko Sakai

    2016-01-01

    Bier spots are small, irregular, hypopigmented macules that are usually found on the arms and legs. The macules disappear when the limb is raised. Bier spots have been reported in association with a number of conditions but there is no consistent association to specific desease. Although they usually affect young adults, we report a case of Bier spots that began in childhood. As an asymptomatic and possibly transitional condition, the disease does not require treatment. PMID:28300906

  2. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  3. Dominant inheritance of overo spotting in paint horses.

    PubMed

    Bowling, A T

    1994-01-01

    Analysis of selected studbook records of the American Paint Horse Association, consisting of 687 foals sired by 13 overo stallions from non-overo mares, supports the inheritance of overo spotting as an autosomal dominant gene. More than one gene may control patterns registered as overo. Additional studies are necessary to explain the sporadic occurrence of overo spotting from nonspotted quarter horse parents and to confirm the inheritance of overo spotting in other breeds.

  4. Aerosol particle microphotography and glare-spot absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, S; Holler, S; Li, J H; Serpengüzel, A; Auffermann, W F; Hill, S C

    1995-04-01

    The relative intensities of glare spots in the image of an electrodynamically trapped aerosol droplet are measured experimentally with an aerosol particle microscope and calculated theoretically. The theoretical calculations are in good agreement with these experiments and indicate that the intensities of these spots are extremely sensitive to the imaginary part of the refractive index. Experimentally, we obtain the molecular absorption spectrum of an impurity within a droplet by recording the spectrum of an individual glare spot produced by broadband illumination.

  5. Dynamic Characterization of the CT Angiographic ‘Spot Sign’

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Santanu; Alhazzaa, Mohammed; Wasserman, Jason K.; Sun, Yang Yang; Stotts, Grant; Hogan, Mathew J.; Demchuk, Andrew; Aviv, Richard I.; Dowlatshahi, Dar

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Standard (static) CT angiography is used to identify the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) spot sign. We used dynamic CT-angiography to describe spot sign characteristics and measurement parameters over 60-seconds of image acquisition. Methods We prospectively identified consecutive patients presenting with acute ICH within 4.5 hours of symptom onset, and collected whole brain dynamic CT-angiography (dCTA). Spot parameters (earliest appearance, duration, maximum Hounsfield unit (HU), time to maximum HU, time to spot diagnostic definition, spot volume and hematoma volumes) were measured using volumetric analysis software. Result We enrolled 34 patients: three were excluded due to secondary causes of ICH. Of the remaining 31 patients there were 18 females (58%) with median age 70 (range 47–86) and baseline hematoma volume 33 ml (range 0.7–103 ml). Positive dCTA spot sign was present in 13 patients (42%) visualized as an expanding 3-dimensional structure temporally evolving its morphology over the scan period. Median time to spot appearance was 21 s (range 15–35 seconds). This method allowed tracking of spots evolution until the end of venous phase (active extravasation) with median duration of 39 s (range 25–45 seconds). The average density and time to maximum density was 204HU and 30.8 s (range 23–31 s) respectively. Median time to spot diagnosis was 20.8 s using either 100 or 120HU definitions. Conclusion Dynamic CTA allows a 3-dimensional assessment of spot sign formation during acute ICH, and captured higher spot sign prevalence than previously reported. This is the first study to describe and quantify spot sign characteristics using dCTA; these can be used in ongoing and upcoming ICH studies. PMID:24594897

  6. Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

    PubMed Central

    Yorzinski, Jessica L.; Platt, Michael L.; Adams, Geoffrey K.

    2015-01-01

    Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed natural images of butterflies and moths as well as images in which the eye-spots of these insects were modified. The eye-spots were modified by removing them, scrambling their colours, or replacing them with elliptical or triangular shapes that had either dark or light centres. Participants were generally more likely to look at, spend more time looking at and be faster to first fixate the eye-spots of butterflies and moths that were natural compared with ones that were modified, including the elliptical eye-spots with dark centres that most resembled eyes as well as the scrambled eye-spots that had the same contrast as the natural eye-spots. Participants were most likely to look at eye-spots that were numerous, had a large surface area and were located close to the insects' heads. Participants' pupils were larger when viewing eye-spots compared with the rest of the insects' body, suggesting a greater arousal when viewing eye-spots. Our results provide some support for the conspicuous signal hypothesis (and minimal support for the eye mimicry hypothesis) and suggest that eye-spots may be effective at deterring predators because they are highly conspicuous signals that draw attention. PMID:26543589

  7. Simultaneous velocity-surface heat transfer behavior of turbulent spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, D.; Smith, C. R.

    2002-06-01

    The properties of artificially initiated turbulent spots in a heated laminar boundary layer were investigated in a water channel facility. The instantaneous velocity field and surface heat transfer were determined simultaneously over a temporal sequence using a technique that combines traditional particle image velocimetry and thermochromic liquid crystal temperature measurements. The correlated results indicate that the highest surface heat transfer occurs in the trailing region of the spot where only the near-wall fluid is energetic. The results suggest that the "body" of the spot entrains, and subsequently recirculates, warm surface fluid within the spot, which reduces the effective heat transfer.

  8. Turbulent spot flow topology and mechanisms for surface heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatino, D. R.; Smith, C. R.

    The properties of artificially initiated turbulent spots over a heated plate were investigated in a water channel. The instantaneous velocity field and surface Stanton number were simultaneously established using a technique that combines particle image velocimetry and thermochromic liquid crystal thermography. Several characteristics of a spot are found to be similar to those of a turbulent boundary layer. The spacing of the surface heat transfer streak patterns within the middle or of a turbulent spot are comparable to the low-speed streak spacing within a turbulent boundary layer. Additionally, the surface shear stress in the same region of a spot is also found to be comparable to a turbulent boundary layer. However, despite these similarities, the heat transfer within the spot body is found to be markedly less than the heat transfer for a turbulent boundary layer. In fact, the highest surface heat transfer occurs at the trailing or calmed region of a turbulent spot, regardless of maturity. Using a modified set of similarity coordinates, instantaneous two-dimensional streamlines suggest that turbulent spots entrain and subsequently recirculate warm surface fluid, thereby reducing the effective heat transfer within the majority of the spot. It is proposed that energetic vortices next to the wall, near the trailing edge of the spot body, are able to generate the highest surface heat transfer because they have the nearest access to cooler free-stream fluid.

  9. Acute infectious purpura fulminans due to probable spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kundavaram, A; Francis, N R; Jude, A P J; Varghese, G N

    2014-01-01

    Purpura fulminans (PF) is associated with several infections, most notably with meningococcus, staphylococcus, and streptococcus infections. However, there are few reports of association of this entity with spotted fever from India. We report the case of a 55-year-old man who presented with fever, headache, and myalgia. On the seventh day of fever he developed nonblanching purple hemorrhagic purpura on the trunk and most prominently on the extremities consistent with purpura fulminans. Immunofluorescent assay confirmed the diagnosis of spotted fever. PF though common with rocky mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is rarely seen in association with Indian tick typhus, the usual cause of spotted fever in India.

  10. Spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus) envenoming.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Melanie; McLeod, Monique; White, Julian; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2007-01-01

    We report two cases of spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus) envenoming. One patient experienced localised burning pain around the bite and developed nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, upper abdominal cramping and diaphoresis. He was treated with intravenous fluids and antiemetics, but no antivenom, and was discharged 23 hours after the bite. The second patient developed a severe headache, blurred vision and mild nausea, associated with severe pain and swelling of the bitten limb that took 4 days to resolve. No antivenom was given and the patient had no sequelae. Neither patient developed significant coagulopathy, myolysis or neuromuscular paralysis. Bites by this species appear to cause effects similar to those of the more common red-bellied black snake (P. porphyriacus).

  11. SPOT satellite mapping of Ice Stream B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merry, Carolyn J.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous features of glaciological significance appear on two adjoining SPOT High Resolution Visible (HRV) images that cover the onset region of ice stream B. Many small-scale features, such as crevasses and drift plumes, have been previously observed in aerial photography. Subtle features, such as long flow traces that have not been mapped previously, are also clear in the satellite imagery. Newly discovered features include ladder-like runners and rungs within certain shear margins, flow traces that are parallel to ice flow, unusual crevasse patterns, and flow traces originating within shear margins. An objective of our work is to contribute to an understanding of the genesis of the features observed in satellite imagery. The genetic possibilities for flow traces, other lineations, bands of transverse crevasses, shear margins, mottles, and lumps and warps are described.

  12. Multiscale Simulation of Hot Spot Ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Laurence; Najjar, Fady; Howard, W. Michael; Manaa, M. Riad; Bastea, Sorin

    2011-06-01

    High explosive shock sensitivity is controlled by a combination of mechanical response, thermal properties, and chemical properties. How these properties interplay in realistic condensed energetic materials is not well understood. In this paper, we use a multiscale approach to achieve a realistic simulation of hot spot (void) ignition in a single crystal of the explosive 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB). The smallest length scale (<10 nm) of the multiscale model was treated quantum mechanically. We have conducted multiple simulations of the decomposition of the explosive TATB using density functional tight binding molecular dynamics (DFTB-MD). Nanoscale continuum simulations were performed of void ignition using the ALE3D hydrodynamic/thermal/chemical code. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a decision support tool to assist airline ramp controllers and ATC tower controllers to manage traffic on the airport surface to significantly improve efficiency and predictability in surface operations. The core function of the tool is the runway scheduler which generates an optimal solution for runway sequence and schedule of departure aircraft, which would minimize system delay and maximize runway throughput. The presentation also discusses the latest status of NASA's current surface research through a collaboration with an airline partner, where a tool is developed for airline ramp operators to assist departure pushback operations. The presentation describes the concept of the SARDA tool and results from human-in-the-loop simulations conducted in 2012 for Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport and 2014 for Charlotte airport ramp tower.

  14. Demography of Northern Spotted Owls in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zabel, Cynthia J.; Salmons, Susan E.; Forsman, Eric D.; Destefano, Stephen; Raphael, Martin G.; Gutierrez, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) are associated with lower elevation, commercially valuable, late-successional coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest. Meta-analyses of demographic parameters indicate that Northern Spotted Owl populations are declining throughout their range (Anderson and Burnham 1992, Burnham et al. this volume). Recent research has attempted to determine whether management activities have affected the viability of Spotted Owl populations, and results have led to development of conservation plans for the species (Dawson et al. 1987, Thomas et al. 1990, Murphy and Noon 1992, USDI 1992, Thomas et al. 1993b).In the Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (USDI 1992b) threats to the species were identified as small population sizes, declining populations, limited amounts of habitat, continued loss and fragmentation of habitat, geographically isolated populations, and predation and competition from other avian species. Weather and fire are natural processes that also may affect reproductive success of Spotted Owls. Weather may be a factor in the high annual variability in fecundity of Spotted Owls, as has been suggested for other predatory bird species (Newton, 1979, 1986). However, these factors have not been addressed in previous studies of Spotted Owls.Our objectives were to estimate survival, fecundity, and annual rates of population change (l) for resident, territorial female Spotted Owls at two study areas in the coastal mountains of southwestern Oregon. We tested if the amount of rainfall was correlated with reproduction of Spotted Owls. While surveying for Spotted Owls, we documented the increased presence of Barred Owls (Strix varia), a potential competitor of Spotted Owls.

  15. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  16. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  17. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  18. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  19. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  20. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  1. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  2. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  3. 7 CFR 28.422 - Strict Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Middling Spotted Color. 28.422 Section 28.422 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Strict Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of...

  4. 7 CFR 28.425 - Low Middling Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Low Middling Spotted Color. 28.425 Section 28.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Color. Low Middling Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples...

  5. On-The-Spot Design of a School for Religion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawyer, Frank D.

    This report describes the advantages and utilization of an architectural design technique known as on-the-spot design, which involves the production of basic plans (by a team of architects, city planners, and engineers) at the location where the project is to be constructed. On-the-spot design techniques are described for a dormitory for the…

  6. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.; Carpenter, Joseph A.; Warren, C. D.; Smith, Mark T.

    2008-12-28

    Experiments are continuing to evaluate the feasibility of friction stir spot welding advanced high-strength steels including, DP780, martensitic hot-stamp boron steel, and TRIP steels. Spot weld lap-shear strengths can exceed those required by industry standards such as AWS D8.1.

  7. Resistance spot welding of dispersion-strengthened nickel alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    To develop easily-applied production method for resistance spot welding use unrecrystallized sheet material, develop welding schedule that will produce a solid-state spot weld without recrystallizing sheet, and postheat to produce grain growth across weld line during recrystallization of sheet material.

  8. Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, D. S.; Kim, John; Alfredsson, P. Henrik

    1988-01-01

    In wall-bounded shear flows the transition to turbulence through localized disturbances goes through a pattern starting with a development of shear layers. The localized normal velocity fluctuations induce normal vorticity through the lift-up effect. These shear layers become unstable to secondary disturbances, and if the amplitudes of the disturbances are large enough, a turbulent spot develops. Investigations of the spot in boundary layers has shown that the turbulent part of the spot is very similar to a fully developed boundary layer. Wygnanski et al. (1976) showed that the mean profile at the center-symmetry plane has a logarithmic region and Johansson et al. (1987) showed that both the higher-order statistics and flow structures in the spot were the same as in the corresponding fully developed flow. In what respects the turbulence inside the Poiseuille spot is similar to fully developed turbulent channel flow is studied. The numerically simulated spot is used, where the characteristics inside the spot are compared to those of the wave packet in the wingtip area. A recent experimental investigation of the velocity field associated with the Poiseuille spot by Klingmann et al. is used for comparison.

  9. 7 CFR 28.414 - Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color. 28.414... Low Middling Light Spotted Color. Strict Low Middling Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Low Middling Color and Strict Low Middling Spotted Color....

  10. Travelers' Health: Rickettsial (Spotted and Typhus Fevers) and Related Infections (Anaplasmosis and Ehrlichiosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mediterranean spotted fever), R. rickettsii (known as both Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Brazilian spotted fever), O. tsutsugamushi (scrub typhus), ... and lymphadenopathy R. raoultii Tick Unknown Europe, Asia ... Mountain spotted fever, Brazilian spotted fever, febre maculosa, São Paulo exanthematic ...

  11. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  12. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  13. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  14. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  15. 7 CFR 28.416 - Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. 28.416... Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Light Spotted Color is color which in spot or color, or both, is between Strict Good Ordinary Color and Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color....

  16. Formation and expansion of dark spots in stratifying foam films

    SciTech Connect

    Kralchevsky, P.A.; Nikolov, A.D.; Wasan, D.T.; Ivanov, I.B. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago )

    1990-06-01

    The stratification of thin liquid films formed from micellar solutions or latex suspensions can be explained by layer-by-layer destruction of a colloid crystal structure inside the film. The stepwise decrease of the film thickness is due to appearance and growth of dark spots (of less thickness) in the film. This phenomenon is analyzed in the present paper, and an explanation is proposed. The driving force for the stepwise thinning of the film is attributed to the gradient of the chemical potential of micelles at the film periphery. Therefore, the appearance and expansion of spots in the film are controlled by the micellar self-diffusion, rather than by normal instabilities. The spots are considered as condensed states of vacancies in the micellar structure inside the film, and the appearance of dark spots is interpreted as a phase transition. This explanation of the mechanism of stratification phenomenon is supported by the data for formation and expansion of spots.

  17. Chromosomal context dependence of a eukaryotic recombinational hot spot.

    PubMed Central

    Ponticelli, A S; Smith, G R

    1992-01-01

    The single base-pair mutation M26 in the ade6 gene of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe creates a hot spot for meiotic homologous recombination. When DNA fragments containing M26 and up to 3.0 kilobases of surrounding DNA were moved to the ura4 gene or to a multicopy plasmid, M26 had no detectable hot spot activity. Our results indicate that nucleotide sequences at least 1 kilobase away from M26 are required for M26 hot spot activity and suggest that, as for transcriptional promoters, a second site or proper chromatin structure is required for activation of this eukaryotic recombinational hot spot. We discuss the implications of these results for studies of other meiotic recombinational hot spots and for gene targeting. PMID:1729693

  18. Intraday price dynamics in spot and derivatives markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Sik; Ryu, Doojin

    2014-01-01

    This study examines intraday relationships among the spot index, index futures, and the implied volatility index based on the VAR(1)-asymmetric BEKK-MGARCH model. Analysis of a high-frequency dataset from the Korean financial market confirms that there is a strong intraday market linkage between the spot index, KOSPI200 futures, and VKOSPI and that asymmetric volatility behaviour is clearly present in the Korean market. The empirical results indicate that the futures return shock affects the spot market more severely than the spot return shock affects the futures market, though there is a bi-directional causal relationship between the spot and futures markets. Our results, based on a high-quality intraday dataset, satisfy both the positive risk-return relationship and asymmetric volatility effect, which are not reconciled in the frameworks of previous studies.

  19. Optimization of resistance spot welding parameters for microalloyed steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viňáš, Ján; Kaščák, Ľuboš; Greš, Miroslav

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of resistance spot welding of hot-dip galvanized microalloyed steel sheets used in car body production. The spot welds were made with various welding currents and welding time values, but with a constant pressing force of welding electrodes. The welding current and welding time are the dominant characteristics in spot welding that affect the quality of spot welds, as well as their dimensions and load-bearing capacity. The load-bearing capacity of welded joints was evaluated by tensile test according to STN 05 1122 standard and dimensions and inner defects were evaluated by metallographic analysis by light optical microscope. Thewelding parameters of investigated microalloyed steel sheets were optimized for resistance spot welding on the pneumatic welding machine BPK 20.

  20. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, M. L.; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, Alan; Grant, Glenn J.; Dahl, Michael E.

    2009-09-15

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannneled DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1-10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rpm increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap-shear strengths exceeding 10.3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  1. Meteorology of Jupiter's Equatorial Hot Spots and Plumes from Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, David Sanghun; Showman, Adam P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are relatively cloud-free regions that emit strongly at 5 lm; improved knowledge of these features is crucial for fully understanding Galileo probe measurements taken during its descent through one. Hot spots are quasistable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but diffuse western edges serving as nebulous boundaries with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-like 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. These clouds travel at 150-200 m/s, much faster than the 100 m/s hot spot and plume drift speed. This raises the possibility that the scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. Most previously published zonal wind profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby wave controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed.

  2. A procedure to determine the planar integral spot dose values of proton pencil beam spots

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Aman; Sahoo, Narayan; Zhu, X. Ronald; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O.; Poenisch, Falk; Amos, Richard A.; Ciangaru, George; Titt, Uwe; Suzuki, Kazumichi; Mohan, Radhe; Gillin, Michael T.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Planar integral spot dose (PISD) of proton pencil beam spots (PPBSs) is a required input parameter for beam modeling in some treatment planning systems used in proton therapy clinics. The measurement of PISD by using commercially available large area ionization chambers, like the PTW Bragg peak chamber (BPC), can have large uncertainties due to the size limitation of these chambers. This paper reports the results of our study of a novel method to determine PISD values from the measured lateral dose profiles and peak dose of the PPBS. Methods: The PISDs of 72.5, 89.6, 146.9, 181.1, and 221.8 MeV energy PPBSs were determined by area integration of their planar dose distributions at different depths in water. The lateral relative dose profiles of the PPBSs at selected depths were measured by using small volume ion chambers and were investigated for their angular anisotropies using Kodak XV films. The peak spot dose along the beam's central axis (D{sub 0}) was determined by placing a small volume ion chamber at the center of a broad field created by the superposition of spots at different locations. This method allows eliminating positioning uncertainties and the detector size effect that could occur when measuring it in single PPBS. The PISD was then calculated by integrating the measured lateral relative dose profiles for two different upper limits of integration and then multiplying it with corresponding D{sub 0}. The first limit of integration was set to radius of the BPC, namely 4.08 cm, giving PISD{sub RBPC}. The second limit was set to a value of the radial distance where the profile dose falls below 0.1% of the peak giving the PISD{sub full}. The calculated values of PISD{sub RBPC} obtained from area integration method were compared with the BPC measured values. Long tail dose correction factors (LTDCFs) were determined from the ratio of PISD{sub full}/PISD{sub RBPC} at different depths for PPBSs of different energies. Results: The spot profiles were

  3. Features of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This montage features activity in the turbulent region of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS). Four sets of images of the GRS were taken through various filters of the Galileo imaging system over an 11.5 hour period on 26 June, 1996 Universal Time. The sequence was designed to reveal cloud motions. The top and bottom frames on the left are of the same area, northeast of the GRS, viewed through the methane (732 nm) filter but about 70 minutes apart. The top left and top middle frames are of the same area and at the same time, but the top middle frame is taken at a wavelength (886 nm) where methane absorbs more strongly. (Only high clouds can reflect sunlight in this wavelength.) Brightness differences are caused by the different depths of features in the two images. The bottom middle frame shows reflected light at a wavelength (757 nm) where there are essentially no absorbers in the Jovian atmosphere. The white spot is to the northwest of the GRS; its appearance at different wavelengths suggests that the brightest elements are 30 km higher than the surrounding clouds. The top and bottom frames on the right, taken nine hours apart and in the violet (415 nm) filter, show the time evolution of an atmospheric wave northeast of the GRS. Visible crests in the top right frame are much less apparent 9 hours later in the bottom right frame. The misalignment of the north-south wave crests with the observed northwestward local wind may indicate a shift in wind direction (wind shear) with height. The areas within the dark lines are 'truth windows' or sections of the images which were transmitted to Earth using less data compression. Each of the six squares covers 4.8 degrees of latitude and longitude (about 6000 square kilometers). North is at the top of each frame.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment

  4. 21st-Century talent spotting.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Aráoz, Claudio

    2014-06-01

    How can a person who seems so qualified for a position fail miserably in it? How can someone who clearly lacks relevant skills and experience succeed? The answer is potential, the ability to adapt and grow into increasingly complex roles and environments. For the past several decades, organizations have based their hiring decisions on competencies. But we have entered a new era of talent spotting. Geopolitics, business, industries, and jobs are changing so rapidly that it's impossible to predict the capabilities employees and leaders will need even a few years out. The question now is not whether people have the right skills; it's whether they have the potential to learn new ones. Research points to five markers of potential: a strong motivation to excel in the pursuit of challenging goals combined with the humility to put the group ahead of individual needs; an insatiable curiosity to explore new ideas and avenues; keen insight into connections that others don't see; a strong engagement with work and people; and the determination to overcome obstacles. Once organizations have hired true high potentials--a challenge, given the increasing scarcity of senior talent-and identified the ones they already have, it's crucial to focus on retaining them and on helping them live up to their potential by offering development opportunities that push them out of their comfort zones.

  5. Finite Cosmology and a CMB Cold Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.; Bjorken, J.D.; Overduin, J.M.; /Stanford U., HEPL

    2006-03-20

    The standard cosmological model posits a spatially flat universe of infinite extent. However, no observation, even in principle, could verify that the matter extends to infinity. In this work we model the universe as a finite spherical ball of dust and dark energy, and obtain a lower limit estimate of its mass and present size: the mass is at least 5 x 10{sup 23}M{sub {circle_dot}} and the present radius is at least 50 Gly. If we are not too far from the dust-ball edge we might expect to see a cold spot in the cosmic microwave background, and there might be suppression of the low multipoles in the angular power spectrum. Thus the model may be testable, at least in principle. We also obtain and discuss the geometry exterior to the dust ball; it is Schwarzschild-de Sitter with a naked singularity, and provides an interesting picture of cosmogenesis. Finally we briefly sketch how radiation and inflation eras may be incorporated into the model.

  6. Dark Dune Spots: possible biomarkers on Mars?

    PubMed

    Gánti, Tibor; Horváth, András; Bérczi, Szaniszló; Gesztesi, Albert; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2003-10-01

    Dark Dune Spots (DDSs) are transitional geomorphologic formations in the frost-covered polar regions of Mars. Our analysis of the transformations and arrangements of subsequent stages of DDSs into time sequence revealed their: (i) hole-like characteristics, (ii) development and formation from the bottom of the frosted layer till the disapperance of the latter, (iii) repeated (seasonal and annual) appearance in a pattern of multiple DDSs on the surface, and (iv) probable origin. We focused our studies on a model in which DDSs were interpreted as objects triggered by biological activity involved in the frosting and melting processes. We discuss two competing interpretations of DDSs: development by defrosting alone, and by defrosting and melting enhanced by the activity of Martian Surface Organisms (MSOs). MSOs are hypothetical Martian photosynthetic surface organisms thought to absorb sunlight. As a result they warm up by late winter and melt the ice around them, whereby their growth and reproduction become possible. The ice cover above the liquid water lens harbouring the MSOs provides excellent heat and UV insulation, prevents fast evaporation, and sustains basic living conditions until the ice cover exists. When the frost cover disappears MSOs go to a dormant, desiccated state. We propose further studies to be carried out by orbiters and landers travelling to Mars and by analysis of partial analogues on earth.

  7. SPOT 4 space magnetic recorder mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrien, A.; Vialatoux, E.; Lhermet, J. L.; Didier, A.

    1990-01-01

    The design of the SPOT 4 satellite will be quite different from the previous ones. The design of the new magnetic tape recorder, which was derived from industrial knowledge and mission requirements; the main technical characteristics of the recorder; and the mechanical subsystems of the recorder and their locations and contributions to the final performance are all discussed. The philosophy of the development program, required to achieve the desired performance and reliability for each flight model, is described, and information on the schedule and current development is presented. The components of the tape plate system, (the transmission belts, tape rollers of the recorders, and reel hub ball bearings) which are subjected to heavy mechanical operation, fatigue, and wear in the thermal environment of the mission, are discussed. For each of the components, a description of its function in the recorder is given, as well as the mechanical stress imposed during the various operational phases. The quality testing program, which was used to verify the design safety margins, is described. Finally, the first test results of a functioning model of the flight system are presented.

  8. Spherical primary optical telescope (SPOT) segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Christopher; Hagopian, John; DeMarco, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The spherical primary optical telescope (SPOT) project is an internal research and development program at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The goals of the program are to develop a robust and cost effective way to manufacture spherical mirror segments and demonstrate a new wavefront sensing approach for continuous phasing across the segmented primary. This paper focuses on the fabrication of the mirror segments. Significant cost savings were achieved through the design, since it allowed the mirror segments to be cast rather than machined from a glass blank. Casting was followed by conventional figuring at Goddard Space Flight Center. After polishing, the mirror segments were mounted to their composite assemblies. QED Technologies used magnetorheological finishing (MRF®) for the final figuring. The MRF process polished the mirrors while they were mounted to their composite assemblies. Each assembly included several magnetic invar plugs that extended to within an inch of the face of the mirror. As part of this project, the interaction between the MRF magnetic field and invar plugs was evaluated. By properly selecting the polishing conditions, MRF was able to significantly improve the figure of the mounted segments. The final MRF figuring demonstrates that mirrors, in the mounted configuration, can be polished and tested to specification. There are significant process capability advantes due to polishing and testing the optics in their final, end-use assembled state.

  9. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: a seasonal alert.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H

    1995-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever occurs during seasonal tick activity. A history of exposure to tick-containing habitats within the 3- to 12-day incubation period is a key epidemiological factor. The signs of fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, vomiting, and anorexia at onset of infection are difficult to distinguish from those of self-limited viral infections. Rash usually appears later and, if present, progresses through a sequence of stages and distribution that are never pathognomonic. The effects of disseminated Rickettsia rickettsii infection of endothelial cells include increased vascular permeability, edema, hypovolemia, hypotension, prerenal azotemia, and, in life-threatening cases, pulmonary edema, shock, acute tubular necrosis, and meningoencephalitis. In severe cases, fluid management is a challenge. The clinical diagnosis, which is difficult, is rarely assisted by laboratory findings because antibodies are usually detected only in convalescence, and immunohistologic methods for detection of rickettsiae are unavailable in most clinics. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice except for pregnant or allergic patients, who are treated with chloramphenicol.

  10. True Color of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Roughly true color image of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter as taken by the Galileo imaging system on June 26, 1996. Because the Galileo imaging system's wavelength sensitivities go beyond those of the human eye, this is only an approximation of what a human observer would have seen in place of the Galileo spacecraft. To simulate red as our eyes see it, the near-infrared filter (756 nm) image was used. To simulate blue as our eyes see it, the violet filter (410 nm) image was used. Finally, to simulate green as our eyes see it, a combination of 2/3 violet and 1/3 near-infrared was used. The result is an image that is similar in color to that seen when looking through a telescope at Jupiter with your eye, but allowing detail about 100 times finer to be visible! The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  11. Innovative problem solving by wild spotted hyenas.

    PubMed

    Benson-Amram, Sarah; Holekamp, Kay E

    2012-10-07

    Innovative animals are those able to solve novel problems or invent novel solutions to existing problems. Despite the important ecological and evolutionary consequences of innovation, we still know very little about the traits that vary among individuals within a species to make them more or less innovative. Here we examine innovative problem solving by spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in their natural habitat, and demonstrate for the first time in a non-human animal that those individuals exhibiting a greater diversity of initial exploratory behaviours are more successful problem solvers. Additionally, as in earlier work, we found that neophobia was a critical inhibitor of problem-solving success. Interestingly, although juveniles and adults were equally successful in solving the problem, juveniles were significantly more diverse in their initial exploratory behaviours, more persistent and less neophobic than were adults. We found no significant effects of social rank or sex on success, the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, behavioural persistence or neophobia. Our results suggest that the diversity of initial exploratory behaviours, akin to some measures of human creativity, is an important, but largely overlooked, determinant of problem-solving success in non-human animals.

  12. Verification of National Weather Service spot forecasts using surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Matthew Robert

    Software has been developed to evaluate National Weather Service spot forecasts issued to support prescribed burns and early-stage wildfires. Fire management officials request spot forecasts from National Weather Service Weather Forecast Offices to provide detailed guidance as to atmospheric conditions in the vicinity of planned prescribed burns as well as wildfires that do not have incident meteorologists on site. This open source software with online display capabilities is used to examine an extensive set of spot forecasts of maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, and maximum wind speed from April 2009 through November 2013 nationwide. The forecast values are compared to the closest available surface observations at stations installed primarily for fire weather and aviation applications. The accuracy of the spot forecasts is compared to those available from the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD). Spot forecasts for selected prescribed burns and wildfires are used to illustrate issues associated with the verification procedures. Cumulative statistics for National Weather Service County Warning Areas and for the nation are presented. Basic error and accuracy metrics for all available spot forecasts and the entire nation indicate that the skill of the spot forecasts is higher than that available from the NDFD, with the greatest improvement for maximum temperature and the least improvement for maximum wind speed.

  13. Hot-spot heating in central-station arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Hot spot tests performed on the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) verificaton array show that current imbalance occurs, resulting in significant hot spot heating. One cause of current imbalance is differences in the average shunt resistances of parallel cell strings due to cell shunt resistance variations. In depth hot spot tests are performed on the verification array with bypass diodes. The tests had several objectives: (1) a comparison of hot spot temperatures achieved under field conditions with those obtained with the present laboratory hot spot test using similar modules; (2) an assessment of current imbalance versus cross tie frequency; and (3) an assessment of different shadow patterns and shadow densities. Instrumented modules are used to vary the number of cross ties and to measure the test-cell current and back-bias voltage. The widths, lengths, and densities of the shadows are varied to maximize the back bias voltage at maximum power current. An infrared camera is used to indicate the existence of hot spots and estimate temperature increases in conjunction with thermocouples. The results of these hot spot tests indicate a sensitivity of back bias heating to the shadow size (amount of cell coverage) and density.

  14. Mammographic resolution: influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, E L; Donnelly, E; Eve, L; Atherton, J V; Asch, T

    1990-01-01

    The influence of focal spot intensity distribution and geometry upon mammographic image quality were evaluated. The modulation transfer functions (MTF's) for eight different intensity distributions were determined and plotted in a manner to eliminate the effects of magnification and focal spot dimension. The results indicated that the total cross-sectional area is important for focal spots with uniform intensity distributions and equivalent diameters. For equivalent focal spot dimensions, intensity distributions with edge bands were shown to have less spatial resolution than uniform intensity distributions. Focal spots with greater intensities towards their centers provided better resolution than either uniform intensity distributions or distributions with edge bands for equivalent sizes. The type of intensity distribution was also shown to affect the accuracy of star pattern measurements of focal spot size; this method of measurement is only precise for a uniform square intensity distribution. Errors obtained with several other intensity distributions were tabulated. The variations of the effective focal spot size with position along the anode-cathode axis were shown to be of a factor of approximately two to three. The combined effects of geometric blur and film/screen blur were present for various heights above the cassette tray on several different mammographic systems.

  15. Geographic variation and genetic structure in Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Wagner, R.S.; Forsman, E.D.; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    We examined genetic variation, population structure, and definition of conservation units in Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis). Spotted Owls are mostly non-migratory, long-lived, socially monogamous birds that have decreased population viability due to their occupation of highly-fragmented late successional forests in western North America. To investigate potential effects of habitat fragmentation on population structure, we used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) to examine genetic variation hierarchically among local breeding areas, subregional groups, regional groups, and subspecies via sampling of 21 breeding areas (276 individuals) among the three subspecies of Spotted Owls. Data from 11 variable bands suggest a significant relationship between geographic distance among local breeding groups and genetic distance (Mantel r = 0.53, P < 0.02) although multi-dimensional scaling of three significant axes did not identify significant grouping at any hierarchical level. Similarly, neighbor-joining clustering of Manhattan distances indicated geographic structure at all levels and identified Mexican Spotted Owls as a distinct clade. RAPD analyses did not clearly differentiate Northern Spotted Owls from California Spotted Owls. Among Northern Spotted Owls, estimates of population differentiation (FST) ranged from 0.27 among breeding areas to 0.11 among regions. Concordantly, within-group agreement values estimated via multi-response permutation procedures of Jaccarda??s distances ranged from 0.22 among local sites to 0.11 among regions. Pairwise comparisons of FST and geographic distance within regions suggested only the Klamath region was in equilibrium with respect to gene flow and genetic drift. Merging nuclear data with recent mitochondrial data provides support for designation of an Evolutionary Significant Unit for Mexican Spotted Owls and two overlapping Management Units for Northern and California Spotted Owls.

  16. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems. PMID:25302004

  17. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A.; Bednarek, Daniel R.; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The twodimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  18. Stellar activity with LAMOST - I. Spot configuration in Pleiades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiang-Song; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Jing-Kun; Chen, Yu-Qin; Bharat Kumar, Yerra

    2016-12-01

    We use the spectra of Pleiades and field stars from the LAMOST DR2 archive to study how spottedness and activity vary as a function of mass at young ages. We obtained the standard TiO band strength by measuring TiO bands near 7050 Å from LAMOST spectra (R ≈ 1800) for a large sample of field GKM dwarfs with solar metallicity. Analysis shows that active dwarfs, including those of late G and early K types, have extra TiO absorption compared to their inactive counterparts, indicating the presence of cool spots on their surface. Active late K and M dwarfs show deeper TiO2 and shallower TiO4 compared to inactive stars at a given TiO5, which could be partly explained through cool spots. We estimated the cool-spot fractional coverage for 304 Pleiades candidates by modelling their TiO2 (and TiO5) band strength with respect to the standard value. The results show that the surfaces of a large fraction of K- and M-type members have very large spot coverage (˜50 per cent). We analysed the correlation between spot coverage, rotation and the amplitude of light variation, and found spot coverage on slow rotators (Ro > 0.1) increases with decreasing Rossby number Ro. Interestingly, we detected a saturation-like feature for spot coverage in fast rotators with a saturation level of 40-50 per cent. In addition, the spot distribution in hotter fast rotators is more symmetrical compared to slow rotators. More interestingly, we detected a large spot coverage in many M-type members with no or little light variation. In the bigger picture, these results provide important constraints for the stellar dynamos of these cool active stars.

  19. Hot spot-ridge crest convergence in the northeast Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Karsten, J.L.; Delaney, J.R. )

    1989-01-10

    Evolution of the Juan de Fuca Ridge during the past 7 m.y. has been reconstructed taking into account both the propagating rift history and migration of the spreading center in the 'absolute' (fixed hot spot) reference frame. Northwestward migration of the spreading center (at a rate of 30 km/m.y.) has resulted in progressive encroachment of the ridge axis on the Cobb Hot Spot and westward jumping of the central third of the ridge axis more recently than 0.5 Ma. Seamounts in the Cobb-Eickelberg chain are predicted to display systematic variations in morphology and petrology, and a reduction in the age contrast between the edifice and underlying crust, as a result of the ridge axis approach. Relative seamount volumes also indicate that magmatic output of the hot spot varied during this interval, with a reduction in activity between 2.5 and 4.5 Ma, compared with relatively more robust activity before and after this period. Spatial relationships determined in this reconstruction allow hypotheses relating hot spot activity and rift propagation to be evaluated. In most cases, rift propagation has been directed away from the hot spot during the time period considered. Individual propagators show some reduction in propagation rate as separation between the propagating rift tip and hot spot increases, but cross comparison of multiple propagators does not uniformly display the same relationship. No obvious correlation exists between propagation rate and increasing proximity of the hot spot to the ridge axis or increasing hot spot output. Taken together, these observations do not offer compelling support for the concept of hot spot driven rift propagation. However, short-term reversals in propagation direction at the Cobb Offset coincide with activity of the Heckle melting anomaly, suggesting that local propagation effects may be related to excess magma supply at the ridge axis.

  20. Focal spot measurements using a digital flat panel detector.

    PubMed

    Jain, Amit; Panse, A; Bednarek, Daniel R; Rudin, Stephen

    2014-03-19

    Focal spot size is one of the crucial factors that affect the image quality of any x-ray imaging system. It is, therefore, important to measure the focal spot size accurately. In the past, pinhole and slit measurements of x-ray focal spots were obtained using direct exposure film. At present, digital detectors are replacing film in medical imaging so that, although focal spot measurements can be made quickly with such detectors, one must be careful to account for the generally poorer spatial resolution of the detector and the limited usable magnification. For this study, the focal spots of a diagnostic x-ray tube were measured with a 10-μm pinhole using a 194-μm pixel flat panel detector (FPD). The two-dimensional MTF, measured with the Noise Response (NR) Method was used for the correction for the detector blurring. The resulting focal spot sizes based on the FWTM (Full Width at Tenth Maxima) were compared with those obtained with a very high resolution detector with 8-μm pixels. This study demonstrates the possible effect of detector blurring on the focal spot size measurements with digital detectors with poor resolution and the improvement obtained by deconvolution. Additionally, using the NR method for measuring the two-dimensional MTF, any non-isotropies in detector resolution can be accurately corrected for, enabling routine measurement of non-isotropic x-ray focal spots. This work presents a simple, accurate and quick quality assurance procedure for measurements of both digital detector properties and x-ray focal spot size and distribution in modern x-ray imaging systems.

  1. Identification of and Remedial Approaches to Hot Spots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    New York – Coney Island , NY – Sea Bright, NJ (3 hot spots) • U.S. Army Engineer District, Philadelphia – Ocean City, NJ • U.S. Army Engineer... Island , NY. Coney Island , the westernmost barrier island on Long Island had its first beach nourishment in 1922-23. The latest U.S. Army Corps of...Figure 1. Location of beach-fill project hot spots discussed in paper Figure 2. Coney Island , NY hot spot location 5 ERDC/CHL CHETN-II-47 March

  2. Field emission properties of ultrasmall Zr spots on W

    SciTech Connect

    Fursey, G.N.; Glazanov, D.V.

    1995-05-01

    The aims of the investigation were to obtain small and supersmall Zr/ZrO spots on W surface, estimating the limit emission capabilities of such systems, and to analyze their physical mechanisms, which determine their stability. Ultrasmall Zr spots with radii of {approximately} 100 {Angstrom} were obtained. For such spots field emission current densities of {approximately} 10{sup 9} A/cm{sup 2} were achieved in stationary regime. The numerical simulation of the emitter heating in the three-dimensional axial-symmetrical model showed good qualitative agreement with the experimental results for both localized and nonlocalized emission. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  3. On-chip Hot Spot Remediation with Miniaturized Thermoelectric Coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Avram; Wang, Peng

    2009-08-01

    The rapid emergence of nanoelectronics, with the consequent rise in transistor density and switching speed, has led to a steep increase in chip heat flux and growing concern over the emergence of on-chip "hot spots" in microprocessors, along with such high flux regions in power electronic chips and LED's. Miniaturized thermoelectric coolers (μ-TEC's) are a most promising cooling technique for the remediation of such hot spots. This paper presents a comprehensive review of recent advances in novel applications of superlattice, mini-contact, and silicon-based miniaturized thermoelectric coolers in reducing the severity of on-chip hot spots.

  4. Ecology of tick vectors of American spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Burgdorfer, W

    1969-01-01

    The author reviews the natural history of the tick vectors of American spotted fever. The discussion concerns the ecology of the Rocky Mountain wood tick, Dermacentor andersoni, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, and the lone-star tick, Amblyomma americanum, all of which are proven vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever to man. Also included are the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris and Dermacentor parumapertus, which very rarely bite man but which are considered of importance in maintaining and distributing Rickettsia rickettsi, the etiological agent of Rocky Mountain spotted fever, in nature. Brief reference is also made to recently developed techniques for studying the ecology of tick vectors.

  5. A comparison of red spots in the atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, R. F.; Hockey, T. A.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager, Pioneer and ground-based astronomical and broadband photometric images of Jupiter are analyzed to compare the Great Red Spot (GRS) with the Little Red Spots (LRS) observed in the North Tropical Zone in 1976. Attention is given to the size and latitudinal positions and the color profiles. The red ovals are found to absorb strongly at blue and UV wavelengths, unlike red-brown belts. The movements of the GRS and the LRS coincided strongly with zonal wind profiles of the regions in which they are embedded. The meridional gradient of the zonal wind is the controlling factor in the lifetime of the red spots.

  6. Metallography of Battery Resistance Spot Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J. E.; Johannes, L. B.; Gonzalez, D.; Yayathi, S.; Figuered, J. M.; Darcy, E. C.; Bilc, Z. M.

    2015-01-01

    Li-ion cells provide an energy dense solution for systems that require rechargeable electrical power. However, these cells can undergo thermal runaway, the point at which the cell becomes thermally unstable and results in hot gas, flame, electrolyte leakage, and in some cases explosion. The heat and fire associated with this type of event is generally violent and can subsequently cause damage to the surrounding system or present a dangerous risk to the personnel nearby. The space flight environment is especially sensitive to risks particularly when it involves potential for fire within the habitable volume of the International Space Station (ISS). In larger battery packs such as Robonaut 2 (R2), numerous Li-ion cells are placed in parallel-series configurations to obtain the required stack voltage and desired run-time or to meet specific power requirements. This raises a second and less obvious concern for batteries that undergo certification for space flight use: the joining quality at the resistance spot weld of battery cells to component wires/leads and battery tabs, bus bars or other electronic components and assemblies. Resistance spot welds undergo materials evaluation, visual inspection, conductivity (resistivity) testing, destructive peel testing, and metallurgical examination in accordance with applicable NASA Process Specifications. Welded components are cross-sectioned to ensure they are free of cracks or voids open to any exterior surface. Pore and voids contained within the weld zone but not open to an exterior surface, and are not determined to have sharp notch like characteristics, shall be acceptable. Depending on requirements, some battery cells are constructed of aluminum canisters while others are constructed of steel. Process specific weld schedules must be developed and certified for each possible joining combination. The aluminum canisters' positive terminals were particularly difficult to weld due to a bi-metal strip that comes ultrasonically

  7. Cutaneous histopathology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Kao, G F; Evancho, C D; Ioffe, O; Lowitt, M H; Dumler, J S

    1997-11-01

    The dermatologic diagnosis of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is often presumptive; the clinical presentation includes skin rash and febrile illness with or without a clear history of tick bite. The characteristic cutaneous manifestations include a generalized skin eruption with purpuric, blanching or non-blanching macules and papules usually involving the extremities. Although skin biopsies are often performed to confirm the diagnosis, the spectrum of cutaneous histopathology in RMSF has not been well described. We studied a series of 26 cases of RMSF, of which 10 were surgical specimens and 16 were autopsies. The microscopic changes were correlated with the duration of illness. The main histopathologic feature was lymphohistiocytic capillaritis and venulitis with extravasation of erythrocytes, edema, predominantly perivascular and some interstitial infiltrate. Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) with neutrophilic infiltrate and nuclear dust was seen in 11 of 15 (73%) specimens from involved skin. These lesions with LCV also showed notable epidermal change including basal layer vacuolar degeneration with mild dermoepidermal interface lymphocytic exocytosis. Six lesions with LCV displayed focal fibrin thrombi and capillary wall necrosis. Apoptotic keratinocytes were noted in 3 lesions with LCV. Subepidermal blister was observed in the skin lesion of an autopsied patient with LCV changes. Another lesion of a fatal case with LCV also contained features of acute neutrophilic eccrine hidradenitis. Focal small nerve twig inflammation was noted in a third autopsy case with LCV. Plasma cells were seen in 6 of 34 specimens (18%); and eosinophils were observed in 3 (9%). The subcutaneous fat contained a mild perivascular inflammation and one case revealed focal lobular neutrophilic inflammation. Immunohistologic (IH) staining using polyclonal rabbit anti-Rickettsia rickettsii demonstrated positive staining of the organisms in the affected endothelial cells in all 12 cases

  8. Scattering of traveling spots in dissipative systems.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Yasumasa; Teramoto, Takashi; Ueda, Kei-Ichi

    2005-12-01

    One of the fundamental questions for self-organization in pattern formation is how spatial periodic structure is spontaneously formed starting from a localized fluctuation. It is known in dissipative systems that splitting dynamics is one of the driving forces to create many particle-like patterns from a single seed. On the way to final state there occur many collisions among them and its scattering manner is crucial to predict whether periodic structure is realized or not. We focus on the colliding dynamics of traveling spots arising in a three-component system and study how the transition of scattering dynamics is brought about. It has been clarified that hidden unstable patterns called "scattors" and their stable and unstable manifolds direct the traffic flow of orbits before and after collisions. The collision process in general can be decomposed into several steps and each step is controlled by such a scattor, in other words, a network among scattors forms the backbone for scattering dynamics. A variety of input-output relations comes from the complexity of the network as well as high Morse indices of the scattor. The change of transition manners is caused by the switching of the network from one structure to another, and such a change is caused by the singularities of scattors. We illustrate a typical example of the change of transition caused by the destabilization of the scattor. A new instability of the scattor brings a new destination for the orbit resulting in a new input-output relation, for instance, Hopf instability for the scattor of peanut type brings an annihilation.

  9. Obesity May Make Rheumatoid Arthritis Tough to Spot, Track

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_164558.html Obesity May Make Rheumatoid Arthritis Tough to Spot, Track Inflammation from excess weight ... HealthDay News) -- Blood tests to diagnose and monitor rheumatoid arthritis may be thrown off by obesity in women, ...

  10. Spot-Welding Gun With Adjustable Pneumatic Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed spot-welding gun equipped with pneumatic spring, which could be bellows or piston and cylinder, exerts force independent of position along stroke. Applies accurate controlled force to joint welded, without precise positioning at critical position within stroke.

  11. Forecasting Crude Oil Spot Price Using OECD Petroleum Inventory Levels

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a short-term monthly forecasting model of West Texas Intermediate crude oil spot price using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) petroleum inventory levels.

  12. HotRegion: a database of predicted hot spot clusters

    PubMed Central

    Cukuroglu, Engin; Keskin, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Hot spots are energetically important residues at protein interfaces and they are not randomly distributed across the interface but rather clustered. These clustered hot spots form hot regions. Hot regions are important for the stability of protein complexes, as well as providing specificity to binding sites. We propose a database called HotRegion, which provides the hot region information of the interfaces by using predicted hot spot residues, and structural properties of these interface residues such as pair potentials of interface residues, accessible surface area (ASA) and relative ASA values of interface residues of both monomer and complex forms of proteins. Also, the 3D visualization of the interface and interactions among hot spot residues are provided. HotRegion is accessible at http://prism.ccbb.ku.edu.tr/hotregion. PMID:22080558

  13. Geometric enumerated chrominance watermark embed for spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Robert; Reed, Alastair; Stach, John

    2013-03-01

    Most packaging is printed using spot colors to reduce cost, produce consistent colors, and achieve a wide color gamut on the package. Most watermarking techniques are designed to embed a watermark in cyan, magenta, yellow, and black for printed images or red, green, and blue for displayed digital images. Our method addresses the problem of watermarking spot color images. An image containing two or more spot colors is embedded with a watermark in two of the colors with the maximum signal strength within a user-selectable visibility constraint. The user can embed the maximum watermark signal while meeting the required visibility constraint. The method has been applied to the case of two spot colors and images have been produced that are more than twice as robust to Gaussian noise as a single color image embedded with a luminance-only watermark with the same visibility constraint.

  14. The "dumb spot" a special problem in countertransference.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, A E; Severino, S K

    1986-01-01

    A special kind of countertransference which we call the "dumb spot," has been observed and described. We have delineated "dumb spots" which are the result of unlearned theory, the result of learned but not accepted theory, and the result of learned, accepted but not used theory. Those "dumb spots" resulting from unlearned theory, especially in those areas where psychoanalysis is widening its scope of diagnostic categories, age range, and socioeconomic status, are not considered countertransference errors. Those "dumb spots" resulting from learned, accepted but not used theory, we feel do represent special cases of countertransference phenomena. Theory which is learned but not accepted must be differentiated into that which is not accepted as a result of intellectual judgment and that which cannot be accepted because it would require an alteration in the analyst's self or object representations.

  15. Effects of Shading on Cercospora Leaf Spot in Bigleaf Hydrangea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shading densities significantly affected severity of Cercospora leaf spot on bigleaf hydrangeas. In general, lower disease severities were associated with higher shading densities. However, significantly differences in disease severities among cultivars could not be detected in higher shading densi...

  16. Effects of Shading on Cercospora Leaf Spot in Bigleaf Hydrangea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shading densities significantly affected disease severities of Cercospora leaf spot on bigleaf hydrangeas. In general, lower disease severities were associated with higher shading densities. However, significantly differences in disease severities among cultivars could not be detected in higher sha...

  17. Effects of Shading on Cerospora Leaf Spot in Bigleaf Hydrangea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shading densities significantly affected disease severities of Cercospora leaf spot on bigleaf hydrangeas. In general, lower disease severities were associated with higher shading densities. However, significantly differences in disease severities among cultivars could not be detected in higher sha...

  18. G-spot augmentation with autologous fat transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Christian; Motamedi, Melodi; Hartmann, Uwe; Allert, Sixtus

    2015-01-01

    Lipofilling for G-spot augmentation is appealing because long-term persistence of the fat is expected to be very good. We report the case of a 29-year-old patient who requested G-spot augmentation to enhance sexual sensation. Autologous fat (8 cc) that was harvested from the trochanteric area was injected. Although there are few published data acknowledging the presence of the G-spot, the patient was satisfied with the procedure and no side effects occurred. Nevertheless, evaluation with standard questionnaires, such as Fragebogen zur Lebenszufriedenheit (FLZ) and Kurzfragebogen für sexuelle Probleme (KFSP-F), did not indicate the positive effects on subjective well-being and sexual parameters of a surgical G-spot augmentation. Studies comprising a larger series of patients are required before substantiated recommendations regarding the benefits and risks of this procedure will be possible. PMID:26401115

  19. Classification and immunohistochemical scoring of breast tissue microarray spots.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Telmo; McKenna, Stephen J; Robertson, Katherine; Thompson, Alastair

    2013-10-01

    Tissue microarrays (TMAs) facilitate the survey of very large numbers of tumors. However, the manual assessment of stained TMA sections constitutes a bottleneck in the pathologist's work flow. This paper presents a computational pipeline for automatically classifying and scoring breast cancer TMA spots that have been subjected to nuclear immunostaining. Spots are classified based on a bag of visual words approach. Immunohistochemical scoring is performed by computing spot features reflecting the proportion of epithelial nuclei that are stained and the strength of that staining. These are then mapped onto an ordinal scale used by pathologists. Multilayer perceptron classifiers are compared with latent topic models and support vector machines for spot classification, and with Gaussian process ordinal regression and linear models for scoring. Intraobserver variation is also reported. The use of posterior entropy to identify uncertain cases is demonstrated. Evaluation is performed using TMA images stained for progesterone receptor.

  20. PRACTICAL STRATEGIES FOR PROCESSING AND ANALYZING SPOTTED OLIGONUCLEOTIDE MICROARRAY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thoughtful data analysis is as important as experimental design, biological sample quality, and appropriate experimental procedures for making microarrays a useful supplement to traditional toxicology. In the present study, spotted oligonucleotide microarrays were used to profile...

  1. Hot spots of soil respiration in an Asian tropical rainforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohashi, Mizue; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2007-04-01

    Little is known about the variability in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil (soil respiration) in tropical rainforests. We studied temporal and spatial fluctuations of soil respiration in an intact Asian tropical rainforest. The values of soil respiration were distributed lognormally with mean and median values of 5.32 and 4.65 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Soil respiration varied little over time though highly in space. CO2 hot spots (>10 μmol m-2 s-1) were found with extremely high values (15-25 μmol m-2 s-1). Each CO2 hot spot occurred sporadically at different times and locations. It is hypothesized that animal activities are responsible for the hot spots. The impact of CO2 hot spots on total soil respiration was 10%, which is comparable to the estimation of net C balance in tropical rainforests.

  2. A keyword spotting model using perceptually significant energy features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umakanthan, Padmalochini

    The task of a keyword recognition system is to detect the presence of certain words in a conversation based on the linguistic information present in human speech. Such keyword spotting systems have applications in homeland security, telephone surveillance and human-computer interfacing. General procedure of a keyword spotting system involves feature generation and matching. In this work, new set of features that are based on the psycho-acoustic masking nature of human speech are proposed. After developing these features a time aligned pattern matching process was implemented to locate the words in a set of unknown words. A word boundary detection technique based on frame classification using the nonlinear characteristics of speech is also addressed in this work. Validation of this keyword spotting model was done using widely acclaimed Cepstral features. The experimental results indicate the viability of using these perceptually significant features as an augmented feature set in keyword spotting.

  3. Why sulfonamides are contraindicated in Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Ren, Vicky; Hsu, Sylvia

    2014-02-18

    Sulfonamide antibiotics are not effective for the treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Patients suspected of having RMSF based on history and physical exam should be treated with doxycycline and not a sulfonamide to avoid increased morbidity and mortality.

  4. Could a Blood Test Spot Autism in Childhood?

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164135.html Could a Blood Test Spot Autism in Childhood? Preliminary study was reportedly nearly 98 ... shown promise as a novel way to diagnose autism in children. The test appears to be nearly ...

  5. Creation of identical multiple focal spots with prescribed axial distribution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yanzhong; Zhan, Qiwen

    2015-10-01

    We present a scheme for the construction of coaxially equidistant multiple focal spots with identical intensity profiles for each individual focus and a predetermined number and spacing. To achieve this, the radiation field from an antenna is reversed and then gathered by high numerical aperture objective lenses. Radiation patterns from three types of line sources, i.e., the electric current, magnetic current and electromagnetic current distributions, with cosine-squared taper are respectively employed to generate predominately longitudinally polarized bright spots, azimuthally polarized doughnuts, and focal spots with a perfect spherically symmetric intensity distribution. The required illuminations at the pupil plane of a 4Pi focusing configuration for the creation of these identical multiple focal spots can be easily derived by solving the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field. These unique focal field distributions may find potential applications in laser direct writing and optical microscopy, as well as multiple-particle trapping, alignment, and acceleration along the optical axis.

  6. Rotational motion of traveling spots in dissipative systems.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuya; Nishiura, Yasumasa

    2009-10-01

    What is the origin of rotational motion? An answer is presented through the study of the dynamics for spatially localized spots near codimension 2 singularity consisting of drift and peanut instabilities. The drift instability causes a head-tail asymmetry in spot shape, and the peanut one implies a deformation from circular to peanut shape. Rotational motion of spots can be produced by combining these instabilities in a class of three-component reaction-diffusion systems. Partial differential equations dynamics can be reduced to a finite-dimensional one by projecting it to slow modes. Such a reduction clarifies the bifurcational origin of rotational motion of traveling spots in two dimensions in close analogy to the normal form of 1:2 mode interactions.

  7. Meetings with Registrants of Pet Spot-on Products

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about EPA efforts to mitigate adverse effects from spot-on products used on pets and the meetings the agency had with producers, or registrants of the products to discuss product-specific mitigation.

  8. In focus: spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, across perspectives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An effective response to the invasion of spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, requires proper taxonomic identification at the initial phase, understanding its basic biology and phenology, developing management tools, transferring information and technology quickly to user groups, and e...

  9. How to Spot a Common, Potentially Dangerous, Childhood Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162997.html How to Spot a Common, Potentially Dangerous, Childhood Illness Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ... age 2. But just because the infection is common doesn't mean it should be taken lightly, ...

  10. Demographic response of northern spotted owls to barred owl removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diller, V. Lowell; Hamm, Keith A; Early, Desiree A; Lamphear, David W; Katie Dugger,; Yackulic, Charles B.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Carlson, Peter C.; McDonald, Trent L.

    2016-01-01

    Federally listed as threatened in 1990 primarily because of habitat loss, the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) has continued to decline despite conservation efforts resulting in forested habitat being reserved throughout its range. Recently, there is growing evidence the congeneric invasive barred owl (Strix varia) may be responsible for the continued decline primarily by excluding spotted owls from their preferred habitat. We used a long-term demographic study for spotted owls in coastal northern California as the basis for a pilot barred owl removal experiment. Our demography study used capture–recapture, reproductive output, and territory occupancy data collected from 1990 to 2013 to evaluate trends in vital rates and populations. We used a classic before-after-control-impact (BACI) experimental design to investigate the demographic response of northern spotted owls to the lethal removal of barred owls. According to the best 2-species dynamic occupancy model, there was no evidence of differences in barred or northern spotted owl occupancy prior to the initiation of the treatment (barred owl removal). After treatment, barred owl occupancy was lower in the treated relative to the untreated areas and spotted owl occupancy was higher relative to the untreated areas. Barred owl removal decreased spotted owl territory extinction rates but did not affect territory colonization rates. As a result, spotted owl occupancy increased in the treated area and continued to decline in the untreated areas. Prior to and after barred owl removal, there was no evidence that average fecundity differed on the 2 study areas. However, the greater number of occupied spotted owl sites on the treated areas resulted in greater productivity in the treated areas based on empirical counts of fledged young. Prior to removal, survival was declining at a rate of approximately 0.2% per year for treated and untreated areas. Following treatment, estimated survival was 0.859 for

  11. SPOT-A SENSOR PLACEMENT OPTIMIZATION TOOL FOR ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    journal article This paper presents SPOT, a Sensor Placement Optimization Tool. SPOT provides a toolkit that facilitates research in sensor placement optimization and enables the practical application of sensor placement solvers to real-world CWS design applications. This paper provides an overview of SPOT’s key features, and then illustrates how this tool can be flexibly applied to solve a variety of different types of sensor placement problems.

  12. Identifying Recombination Hot Spots in the HIV-1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Redmond P.; Schlub, Timothy E.; Grimm, Andrew J.; Waugh, Caryll; Ellenberg, Paula; Chopra, Abha; Mallal, Simon; Cromer, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 infection is characterized by the rapid generation of genetic diversity that facilitates viral escape from immune selection and antiretroviral therapy. Despite recombination's crucial role in viral diversity and evolution, little is known about the genomic factors that influence recombination between highly similar genomes. In this study, we use a minimally modified full-length HIV-1 genome and high-throughput sequence analysis to study recombination in gag and pol in T cells. We find that recombination is favored at a number of recombination hot spots, where recombination occurs six times more frequently than at corresponding cold spots. Interestingly, these hot spots occur near important features of the HIV-1 genome but do not occur at sites immediately around protease inhibitor or reverse transcriptase inhibitor drug resistance mutations. We show that the recombination hot and cold spots are consistent across five blood donors and are independent of coreceptor-mediated entry. Finally, we check common experimental confounders and find that these are not driving the location of recombination hot spots. This is the first study to identify the location of recombination hot spots between two similar viral genomes with great statistical power and under conditions that closely reflect natural recombination events among HIV-1 quasispecies. IMPORTANCE The ability of HIV-1 to evade the immune system and antiretroviral therapy depends on genetic diversity within the viral quasispecies. Retroviral recombination is an important mechanism that helps to generate and maintain this genetic diversity, but little is known about how recombination rates vary within the HIV-1 genome. We measured recombination rates in gag and pol and identified recombination hot and cold spots, demonstrating that recombination is not random but depends on the underlying gene sequence. The strength and location of these recombination hot and cold spots can be used to improve models of

  13. Automated Spot Mammography for Improved Imaging of Dense Breasts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    Develop breast phantoms ................................................... 20 G) Task 7: Explore possible advantages of using stereo-spot mammo...performed an experiment in which we took full-field and stereo spot collimated images of a custom-made stereoscopic breast phantom (CIRS, Inc...didn’t receive a modular breast phantom from the manufacturer that came even close to meeting our design specifications until very late in the project

  14. Endangered Species. Spotted Owl Petition Evaluation Beset by Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    5Population viability analysis is a technique for determining the likelihood of species extinction under various conditions. Page 8 GAO/RCED-89-79 Spotted...alternative would lead to the species ’ extinction in the foresee- able future. * The draft also evaluated the five conditions the act requires to be...accepted a petition from an environmental organi- zation to list the spotted owl as an endangered species under the Endan- gered Species Act. Pursuant to

  15. Automated Segmentation and Classification of High Throughput Yeast Assay Spots

    PubMed Central

    Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Fotouhi, Farshad; Parrish, Jodi R.; Finley, Russell L.

    2009-01-01

    Several technologies for characterizing genes and proteins from humans and other organisms use yeast growth or color development as read outs. The yeast two-hybrid assay, for example, detects protein-protein interactions by measuring the growth of yeast on a specific solid medium, or the ability of the yeast to change color when grown on a medium containing a chromogenic substrate. Current systems for analyzing the results of these types of assays rely on subjective and inefficient scoring of growth or color by human experts. Here an image analysis system is described for scoring yeast growth and color development in high throughput biological assays. The goal is to locate the spots and score them in color images of two types of plates named “X-Gal” and “growth assay” plates, with uniformly placed spots (cell areas) on each plate (both plates in one image). The scoring system relies on color for the X-Gal spots, and texture properties for the growth assay spots. A maximum likelihood projection-based segmentation is developed to automatically locate spots of yeast on each plate. Then color histogram and wavelet texture features are extracted for scoring using an optimal linear transformation. Finally an artificial neural network is used to score the X-Gal and growth assay spots using the extracted features. The performance of the system is evaluated using spots of 60 images. After training the networks using training and validation sets, the system was assessed on the test set. The overall accuracies of 95.4% and 88.2% are achieved respectively for scoring the X-Gal and growth assay spots. PMID:17948730

  16. Analysis of the Dynamics of Jupiter's SSTB Spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Juberias, R.

    2006-12-01

    In the last decade, three of the larger anti-cyclonic spots in Jupiter's atmosphere, the White Ovals (WOS), merged into a single large oval rivaling in size (and recently in color) with the Great Red Spot (GRS). The observation and modeling of these events allowed us to gain some insight on the nature and dynamics of these features; yet, several important questions still remain unanswered. Is the evolution of the WOS representative of how the GRS came to be? To what extent, if any, is the dynamics of the spots in one latitudinal domain linked to the dynamics of spots in adjacent latitudinal domains? What is the role in the merger events of the cyclonic cells generally observed to be embedded between the anti-cyclones? Is the merger of the WOS a sign of a global weather cycle on Jupiter, like has been recently proposed? Similar mergers to those observed between the WOS have been reported to occur among the smaller white spots in the region immediately to the south, historically known as the South South Temperate Belt (SSTB). This region has one of the higher densities of spots per longitude in the planet, and a detailed study of its morphology and evolution should help us address the questions raised by the mergers of the WOS. We present an analysis of the morphology and dynamics of the vortices in this region based mostly on HST archived images, with support of some ground based images from the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers of Japan. Numerical simulations in which we explore the observed long-term evolution of the spots in the framework of vortex-streets are also presented. Finally, we try to reproduce the details observed in merger events between spots in this region. This work was supported by New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology new faculty start-up funds.

  17. On the burn topology of hot-spot-initiated reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Larry G; Zimmermann, Bjorn; Nichols, Albert L

    2009-01-01

    We determine the reaction progress function for an ideal hot spot model problem. The considered problem has an exact analytic solution that can derived from a reduction of Nichols statistical hot spot model. We perform numerical calculations to verify the analytic solution and to illustrate the error realized in real, finite systems. We show how the baseline problem, which does not distinguish between the reactant and product densities, can be scaled to handle general cases for which the two densities differ.

  18. Modelling propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partom, Yehuda

    2015-06-01

    It is widely accepted that shock initiation and detonation of heterogeneous explosives come about by a two-step process known as ignition and growth. In the first step a shock sweeping an explosive cell (control volume) creates hot spots that become ignition sites. In the second step deflagration waves (or burn waves) propagate out of those hot spots and transform the reactant in the cell into reaction products. The macroscopic (or average) reaction rate of the reactant in a cell depends on the speed of those deflagration waves and on the average distance between neighbouring hot spots. Here we simulate the propagation of deflagration waves out of hot spots on the mesoscale in axial symmetry using a 2D hydrocode, to which we add heat conduction and bulk reaction. The propagation speed of the deflagration wave depends on both pressure and temperature, where pressure dependence is dominant at low shock level, and temperature dependence is dominant at a higher shock level. From the simulation we obtain deflagration (or burn) fronts emanating out of the hot spots. For intermediate shock levels the deflagration waves consume the explosive between hot spots. For higher shock levels the deflagration waves strengthen to become detonation waves on the mesoscale. From the simulation results we extract average deflagration wave speeds and show how they depend on reaction rate and on other material parameters.

  19. On the relative intensity of Poisson’s spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisinger, T.; Leufke, P. M.; Gleiter, H.; Hahn, H.

    2017-03-01

    The Fresnel diffraction phenomenon referred to as Poisson’s spot or spot of Arago has, beside its historical significance, become relevant in a number of fields. Among them are for example fundamental tests of the super-position principle in the transition from quantum to classical physics and the search for extra-solar planets using star shades. Poisson’s spot refers to the positive on-axis wave interference in the shadow of any spherical or circular obstacle. While the spot’s intensity is equal to the undisturbed field in the plane wave picture, its intensity in general depends on a number of factors, namely the size and wavelength of the source, the size and surface corrugation of the diffraction obstacle, and the distances between source, obstacle and detector. The intensity can be calculated by solving the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral numerically, which however tends to be computationally expensive. We have therefore devised an analytical model for the on-axis intensity of Poisson’s spot relative to the intensity of the undisturbed wave field and successfully validated it both using a simple light diffraction setup and numerical methods. The model will be useful for optimizing future Poisson-spot matter-wave diffraction experiments and determining under what experimental conditions the spot can be observed.

  20. Study on the near-field recording spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xiandeng; Xia, You-xin; Huang, Hao; Xie, Changsheng; Wang, Haiwei

    2003-04-01

    Evanescent energy can be used to get extremely small optical spots. For the data storage applications, optical near field is defined in terms of Evanescent coupling between the system used to read or write data and recording layer. Near-field techniques can be applied to optical data storage systems to greatly increase recording density. So near-field recording technique has great potential in optical disc recording system and hybrid recording system. The characteristic of near-field recording spot is of vital importance in the data storage system basing the near-field theory, so it is absolutely necessary to be analyzed and measured. This paper analyses characteristic of near-field spots. The heat response time of the near field to overcome super paramagnetic effect is calculated basing the heat transfer theory. A novel measuring method for the diameter of near-field recording spot is also presented. Since the grain of the recording media is tiny enough, with the aid of atomic force microscope (AFM), near-field optical lithography can be accomplished. The diameter of near-field recording spot can be obtained by specifically designed computer either. So the relationship between the near-field recording spot diameter and the probe size of near-field recording system, the near field recording distance coupling between head and disc can be got.

  1. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-01-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  2. Hot-spot qualification testing of concentrator modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, C. C.; Sugimura, R. S.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a study to determine the hot-spot susceptibility of concentrator cells, to provide a hot-spot qualification test for concentrator modules, and to provide guidelines for reducing hot-spot susceptibility are presented. Hot-spot heating occurs in a photovoltaic module when the short-circuit current of a cell is lower than the string operating current, forcing the cell into reverse bias with a concurrent power dissipation. Although the basis for the concentrator-module hot-spot qualification test is the test developed for flat-plate modules, issues such as providing cell illumination introduce additional complexities into the testing procedure. The results indicate that the same general guidelines apply to protecting concentrator modules from hot-spot stressing as apply to flat-plate modules, and recommendations are made on the number of bypass diodes required per given number of series cells per module or source circuit. A method for determining the cell temperature in the laboratory or in the field is discussed.

  3. A measurement concept for hot-spot BRDFs from space

    SciTech Connect

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    Several concepts for canopy hot-spot measurements from space have been investigated. The most promising involves active illumination and bistatic detection that would allow hot-spot angular distribution (BRDF) measurements from space in a search-light mode. The concept includes a pointable illumination source, such as a laser operating at an atmospheric window wavelength, coupled with a number of high spatial-resolution detectors that are clustered around the illumination source in space, receiving photons nearly coaxial with the reto-reflection direction. Microwave control and command among the satellite cluster would allow orienting the direction of the laser beam as well as the focusing detectors simultaneously so that the coupled system can function like a search light with almost unlimited pointing capabilities. The concept is called the Hot-Spot Search-Light (HSSL) satellite. A nominal satellite altitude of 600 km will allow hot-spot BRDF measurements out to about 18 degrees phase angle. The distributed are taking radiometric measurements of the intensity wings of the hot-spot angular distribution without the need for complex imaging detectors. The system can be operated at night for increased signal-to-noise ratio. This way the hot-spot angular signatures can be quantified and parameterized in sufficient detail to extract the biophysical information content of plant architectures.

  4. Spot14/Spot14R expression may be involved in MSC adipogenic differentiation in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    WANG, QIFEI; YANG, JUNLIN; LIN, XIANG; HUANG, ZIFANG; XIE, CHAOFAN; FAN, HENGWEI

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different expression levels of thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP; Spot14)/S14 related, Mig12 (S14R) during bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) adipogenesis in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. MSCs were retrospectively isolated from AIS patients and controls, and adipogenic differentiation was induced. Total RNA was extracted for Affymetrix 3′-IVT expression profiling microarrays and compared with the results from healthy controls. The results were confirmed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) validation and the protein expression levels of Spot14 and its paralogous gene S14R by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. A total of 300 significantly altered mRNAs were detected (111 upregulated and 189 downregulated) and confirmed by RT-qPCR. The mRNA expression levels of seven genes, including Spot14, were altered by >2-fold in AIS patients. Spot14/S14R was selected for further investigation. The results of the western blotting demonstrated that mRNA and protein expression levels of Spot14/S14R were significantly higher in AIS patients than the controls (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated Spot14 was expressed in 85% (17/20 cases) in adipose tissue samples from AIS patients and 23.1% (3/13 cases) of adipose tissue samples from controls. The positive ratio of Spot14 in adipose tissue samples from AIS was significantly higher than the controls (P<0.001). The results of the present study indicated that Spot14/S14R were differently expressed in MSC adipogenesis in AIS patients, and they may be important in the abnormal adipogenic differentiation in AIS. PMID:27082501

  5. Impact of spot size on plan quality of spot scanning proton radiosurgery for peripheral brain lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dongxu Dirksen, Blake; Hyer, Daniel E.; Buatti, John M.; Sheybani, Arshin; Dinges, Eric; Felderman, Nicole; TenNapel, Mindi; Bayouth, John E.; Flynn, Ryan T.

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the plan quality of proton spot scanning (SS) radiosurgery as a function of spot size (in-air sigma) in comparison to x-ray radiosurgery for treating peripheral brain lesions. Methods: Single-field optimized (SFO) proton SS plans with sigma ranging from 1 to 8 mm, cone-based x-ray radiosurgery (Cone), and x-ray volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans were generated for 11 patients. Plans were evaluated using secondary cancer risk and brain necrosis normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). Results: For all patients, secondary cancer is a negligible risk compared to brain necrosis NTCP. Secondary cancer risk was lower in proton SS plans than in photon plans regardless of spot size (p = 0.001). Brain necrosis NTCP increased monotonically from an average of 2.34/100 (range 0.42/100–4.49/100) to 6.05/100 (range 1.38/100–11.6/100) as sigma increased from 1 to 8 mm, compared to the average of 6.01/100 (range 0.82/100–11.5/100) for Cone and 5.22/100 (range 1.37/100–8.00/100) for VMAT. An in-air sigma less than 4.3 mm was required for proton SS plans to reduce NTCP over photon techniques for the cohort of patients studied with statistical significance (p = 0.0186). Proton SS plans with in-air sigma larger than 7.1 mm had significantly greater brain necrosis NTCP than photon techniques (p = 0.0322). Conclusions: For treating peripheral brain lesions—where proton therapy would be expected to have the greatest depth-dose advantage over photon therapy—the lateral penumbra strongly impacts the SS plan quality relative to photon techniques: proton beamlet sigma at patient surface must be small (<7.1 mm for three-beam single-field optimized SS plans) in order to achieve comparable or smaller brain necrosis NTCP relative to photon radiosurgery techniques. Achieving such small in-air sigma values at low energy (<70 MeV) is a major technological challenge in commercially available proton therapy systems.

  6. ``Hot spots'' growth on single nanowire controlled by electric charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Shaobo; Liu, Xuehua; He, Ting; Tian, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Sun, Rui; He, Weina; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Ni, Weihai; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-06-01

    ``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a model based on Boltzmann distribution. In addition, the distance distribution here has an advantage in electron transfer and energy saving. Therefore, it's necessary to consider the functions of electric charge during the synthesis or application of nanomaterials.``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a

  7. Ceres' Yellow Spots - Observations with Dawn Framing Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Michael; Schäfer, Tanja; Cloutis, Edward A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Platz, Thomas; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Hoffmann, Martin; Thangjam, Guneshwar S.; Kneissl, Thomas; Nathues, Andreas; Mengel, Kurt; Williams, David A.; Kallisch, Jan; Ripken, Joachim; Russell, Christopher T.

    2016-04-01

    The Framing Camera (FC) onboard the Dawn spacecraft acquired several spectral data sets of (1) Ceres with increasing spatial resolution (up to 135 m/pixel with nearly global coverage). The FC is equipped with seven color filters (0.4-1.0 μm) plus one panchromatic ('clear') filter [1]. We produced spectral mosaics using photometrically corrected FC color filter images as described in [2]. Even early FC color mosaics obtained during Dawn's approach unexpectedly exhibited quite a diversity of surface materials on Ceres. Besides the ordinary cerean surface material, potentially composed of ammoniated phyllosilicates [3] or some other alteration product of carbonaceous chondrites [4], a large number of bright spots were found on Ceres [5]. These spots are substantially brighter than the average surface (exceeding its triple standard deviation), with the spots within Occator crater being the brightest and most prominent examples (reflectance more than 10 times the average of Ceres). We observed bright spots which are different by their obvious yellow color. This yellow color appears both in a 'true color' RGB display (R=0.65, G=0.55, B=0.44 μm) as well as in a false color display (R=0.97, G=0.75, B=0.44 μm) using a linear 2% stretch. Their spectra show a steep red slope between 0.44 and 0.55 μm (UV drop-off). On the contrary to these yellow spots, the vast majority of bright spots appears white in the aforementioned color displays and exhibit blue sloped spectra, except for a shallow UV drop-off. Thus, yellow spots are easily distinguishable from white spots and the remaining cerean surface by their high values in the ratio 0.55/0.44 μm. We found 8 occurrences of yellow spots on Ceres. Most of them (>70 individual spots) occur both inside and outside crater Dantu, where white spots are also found in the immediate vicinity. Besides Dantu, further occurrences with only a few yellow spots were found at craters Ikapati and Gaue. Less definite occurrences are found at 97

  8. Process window aware layout optimization using hot spot fixing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kyoh, Suigen; Kotani, Toshiya; Inoue, Soichi

    2007-03-01

    The feasibility of Hot Spot Fixing (HSF) system in DfM flow is studied and reported. Hot spot fixing using process simulation is indispensable under low-k1 lithography process for logic devices with advanced design rule (DR). Hot spot such as pinching, bridging, line-end shortening will occur, mainly depending on local pattern context. Proper calibration of DR, mask data preparation (MDP), resolution enhancement technique (RET) and optical proximity effect correction (OPC) will reduce potential hot spots. However, pattern layout variety is so enormous that, even with most careful calibration of every process, unexpected potential hot spots are occasionally left in the design layout 1-2. OPC optimization is useful for maximizing common process margin, but it cannot expand individual pattern's process margin without modification of design layout. So, at an early design stage, hot spot extraction using lithography compliance check (LCC) and manual modification of design at hot spots will be a simple and useful method. The problem is that, it is difficult to determine how to modify layout in order to be consistent with DR, MDP/OPC rule. For proper layout modification, intimate knowledge of the entire process would be necessary, and moreover, the modification work often tends to be iterative, and thus time-consuming. Therefore, using our automated HSF system in the cell design stage and also the chip design stage is helpful for fixing design layout while avoiding fatal hot spot occurrence, with enough process margin and also with short turnaround time (TAT) 3-4. The basic system flow in the developed system is as follows; LCC extracts potential hot spots, and the hot spots are categorized by lithography error mode, grade, and surrounding context. And then, hot spot modification instructor, taking the surrounding situation into consideration, generates modification guide for every hot spot. Design data is automatically modified according to the instruction at every hot

  9. 78 FR 53581 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Oregon Spotted Frog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... characteristic black spots covering the head, back, sides, and legs. The dark spots have ragged edges and light centers, usually associated with a tubercle or raised area of skin. These spots become larger and darker... closely related spotted frogs. Mottling with dark pigments and fragmentation of the superficial red...

  10. Epidemiology of Spotted Fever Group and Typhus Group Rickettsial Infection in the Amazon Basin of Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Brazilian spotted ...65: 329-334. 9. de Lemos ER, Machado RD, Coura JR. 1994. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in an endemic area in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Mem lnst Oswaldo...P, Carrillo P, Hernandez J, Parra E, Keng C. Small M, Olano JP, Bouyer D, Castaneda E, Walker D, Valbuena G. 2007. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

  11. Hot Spot Detection System Using Landsat 8/OLI Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, S.; Nakamura, R.; Oda, A.; Iijima, A.; Kouyama, T.; Iwata, T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed a simple algorithm and a Web-based visualizing system to detect hot spots using Landsat 8 OLI multispectral data as one of the applications of the real-time processing of Landsat 8 data. An empirical equation and radiometric and reflective thresholds were derived to detect hot spots using the OLI data at band 5 (0.865 μm) and band 7 (2.200 μm) based on the increase in spectral radiance at shortwave infrared (SWIR) region due to the emission from objects with high surface temperature. We surveyed typical patterns of surface spectra using the ASTER spectral library to delineate a threshold to distinguish hot spots from background surfaces. To adjust the empirical coefficients of our detection algorithm, we visually inspected the detected hot spots using 6593 Landsat 8 scenes, which cover eastern part of East Asia, taken from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014, displayed on a dedicated Web GIS system. Eventually we determined threshold equations which can theoretically detect hot spots at temperatures above 230 °C over isothermal pixels and hot spots as small as 1 m2 at temperatures of 1000 °C as the lowest temperature and the smallest subpixel coverage, respectively, for daytime scenes. The algorithm detected hot spots including wildfires, volcanos, open burnings and factories. 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat 8 enabled to detect wild fires and open burnings accompanied by clearer shapes of fire front lines than MODIS and VIIRS fire products. Although the 16-day revisit cycle of Landsat 8 is too long to effectively find unexpected wildfire or outbreak of eruption, the revisit cycle is enough to monitor temporally stable heat sources, such as continually erupting volcanos and factories. False detection was found over building rooftops, which have relatively smooth surfaces at longer wavelengths, when specular reflection occurred at the satellite overpass.

  12. How to Spot a Disrupted Galactic Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-03-01

    Many satellites dwarf galaxies and globular clusters are thought to be orbiting our galaxy, but detecting them can be a tricky business. In particular, satellites can be disrupted by the galactic potential and spread out into streams, making them so diffuse that were unable to spot them in photometric observations.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by John Vickers (Chinese Academy of Sciences) has cleverly worked around this difficulty by searching for groups of stars that have clustered velocities and metallicities differing from the background field.Searching Through StarsRadial velocity and metallicity of LAMOST stars near the physical location of Lamost 1. Circles are stars within 1.5 of the target location, small dots are stars within 5. [Vickers et al. 2016]The team trawled the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) catalog, which contains spectroscopic information for 2.5 million stars. Vickers and collaborators first hunted for stars that shared an approximate physical location and had similar velocities (because the stars of a satellite will maintain similar velocities even after the satellite is disrupted). Next, they discarded any of these clumps that didnt also share a similar metallicity.Vickers and collaborators then compared the resulting set of 21 candidate streams to catalogs of known globular clusters, open clusters, and nearby galaxies. Three of the candidate clumps, clustered in a 3 area on the sky, do not correspond to any known objects. The authors postulate that these are all part of a disrupted satellite, which they dub Lamost 1.Characterizing a Former ClusterFitting the spectroscopic data for the member stars, the authors are able to estimate a number of characteristics of Lamost 1, with the best fit implying an age of 11 Gyr, a total mass of about 20,000 solar masses, and a distance from us of about 8,500 light-years.Based on the stellar motions, the authors believe that the clump is on an eccentric

  13. Roll bar x-ray spot size measurement technique

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R. A.; Houck, T. L.

    1998-08-14

    A time dependent x-ray spot size measurement is critical to understanding beam target physics such as target plasma generated beam instabilities. The so-called roll bar measurement uses a heavy metal material which is optically thick to X-rays, to form a 1D shadow of the x-ray origination spot. This spot is where an energetic electron beam interacts with a high Z target to produce the x-rays. The material (the "roll bar") has a slight radius to avoid alignment problems. If a beam profile is assumed (or measured by other means), the equivalent x-ray spot size can be calculated from the x-ray shadow cast by the roll bar. Typically a radiographic film is exposed over the duration of the beam pulse, and the shadow is analyzed for a time integrated measurement. This paper explores various techniques to convert the x-rays to visible photons which can be imaged using a gated camera or streak camera for time evolved x-ray spot size. Data will be presented from the measurements on the ETA II induction linac.

  14. Division of aperture to reduce the focus spot size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liangyu; Li, Changchun; Yang, Huajun; Li, Yinzhu; Dai, Yaping; Xie, Hu; Wang, Gongyu; Zhu, Jianqiang

    2000-10-01

    In the investigation of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF), the high power laser beam must be focused on the target (focus plane) given. In the ICF indirect drivers, the target fixed in a cavity is cylinderal, there are the Deuterium and the Tritium in the target, the experiment result relatives with the temperature radiated in the cavity, and the temperature relatives with the laser energy power incided. Thus, it is key that there must be enough of energy incided, and the energy runs out barely. So, to increase the laser energy incided, the focus spot should be very small. Base on the design of focus optical systems of the SHENGUANG serial facilities and the theory analyses, as the diffraction of the light, the laser beam passing through the optical systems gets a spot on the focus plane. In order to reduce the edge of the main spot or the focus spot size, we advance a method of dividing aperture of the focusing optical system, the diffraction theory of light shows that the diffraction main spot is reduced, it indicates that the method of dividing the aperture may be recommended.

  15. Thermal Infrared Hot Spot and Dependence on Canopy Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, James A.; Ballard, Jerrell R., Jr.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We perform theoretical calculations of the canopy thermal infrared (TIR) hot spot using a first principles 3-D model described earlier. Various theoretical canopies of varying leaf size and for differing canopy height are used to illustrate the magnitude of the TIR effect. Our results are similar to predicted behavior in the reflective hot spot as a function of canopy geometry and comparable to TIR measurements from the literature and our own simple ground experiments. We apply the MODTRAN atmospheric code to estimate the at-sensor variation in brightness temperature with view direction in the solar principal plane. For simple homogeneous canopies, we predict canopy thermal infrared hot spot variations of 2 degrees C at the surface with respect to nadir viewing. Dependence on leaf size is weak as long as the ratio of leaf size to canopy height is maintained. However, the angular width of the hot spot increases as the ratio of leaf diameter to canopy height increases. Atmospheric effects minimize but do not eliminate the TIR hot spot at satellite altitudes.

  16. Fast spot-based multiscale simulations of granular drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Rycroft, Chris H.; Wong, Yee Lok; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2009-05-22

    We develop a multiscale simulation method for dense granular drainage, based on the recently proposed spot model, where the particle packing flows by local collective displacements in response to diffusing"spots'" of interstitial free volume. By comparing with discrete-element method (DEM) simulations of 55,000 spheres in a rectangular silo, we show that the spot simulation is able to approximately capture many features of drainage, such as packing statistics, particle mixing, and flow profiles. The spot simulation runs two to three orders of magnitude faster than DEM, making it an appropriate method for real-time control or optimization. We demonstrateextensions for modeling particle heaping and avalanching at the free surface, and for simulating the boundary layers of slower flow near walls. We show that the spot simulations are robust and flexible, by demonstrating that they can be used in both event-driven and fixed timestep approaches, and showing that the elastic relaxation step used in the model can be applied much less frequently and still create good results.

  17. LEOPARD syndrome: what are café noir spots?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bujaldón, Alfonso; Vazquez-Bayo, Carmen; Jimenez-Puya, Rafael; Galan-Gutierrez, Manuel; Moreno-Gimenez, José; Rodriguez-Garcia, Alfonso; Tercedor, Jesus; Velez-Garcia, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome (multiple lentigines syndrome) is most often characterized by multiple lentigines and cardiac conduction defects. Café noir spot is a term proposed, by analogy to café au lait spots, for the larger and darkly pigmented patches that are frequently observed in patients with this syndrome. Although presumed by some authors to represent lentigines, the histologic features of café noir spots have not been well documented in the literature. Only two previous cases have been reported in which a biopsy of the café noir spots than melanocytic nevi. We describe the histologic characteristics of seven café noir spots in six patients with lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome. Three lesions represented melanocytic nevi (one with dysplastic features), and four were compatible with lentigo simplex. These findings help our understanding of the histologic spectrum of pigmented lesions in lentigines, electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism, pulmonary stenosis, abnormalities of genitalia, retarded growth, and deafness syndrome.

  18. Friction Stir Spot Welding of DP780 Carbon Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Santella, Michael L; Hovanski, Yuri; Frederick, David Alan; Grant, Glenn J; Dahl, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir spot welds were made in uncoated and galvannealed DP780 sheets using polycrystalline boron nitride stir tools. The tools were plunged at either a single continuous rate or in two segments consisting of a relatively high rate followed by a slower rate of shorter depth. Welding times ranged from 1 to 10 s. Increasing tool rotation speed from 800 to 1600 rev min{sup -1} increased strength values. The 2-segment welding procedures also produced higher strength joints. Average lap shear strengths exceeding 10 {center_dot} 3 kN were consistently obtained in 4 s on both the uncoated and the galvannealed DP780. The likelihood of diffusion and mechanical interlocking contributing to bond formation was supported by metallographic examinations. A cost analysis based on spot welding in automobile assembly showed that for friction stir spot welding to be economically competitive with resistance spot welding the cost of stir tools must approach that of resistance spot welding electrode tips.

  19. Laser spot detection and characteristic analysis in space optical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jin; Kong, Chuiliu; Jing, Wenbo; Zhang, Dan; Jiang, Huilin

    2007-11-01

    In the space laser communication, the link of communication is builded in atmospheric random channel. the laser transmission is affected by the atmospheric turbulence seriously. The communication laser is modulated to circular polarized light in order to reduce the influence of the atmospheric turbulence. A several experiments are designed to validate that the circular polarized laser is available to reduce the communication noise in the space optical communication. The methods of the laser spot detection and spot parameter analysis is put forward in this paper: Firstly the subtraction of the background is used in image preprocessing in order to eliminate the influence of static background, then a series of methods such as the local dynamic threshold segmentation, edge extraction are used to detect and recognize the spot. Finally the parameters of the spot are calculated such as spot's average brightness, background's average brightness and the contrast gradient, and the characteristic of the laser communication is analyzed. The experiment results show that the circular polarized laser can enhance the contrast and improve the communication quality in the spatial optical communication. This method satisfies the request of real-time processing in communication, and is also effective and practical. practical.

  20. BIPOLAR MAGNETIC SPOTS FROM DYNAMOS IN STRATIFIED SPHERICAL SHELL TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jabbari, Sarah; Brandenburg, Axel; Kleeorin, Nathan; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2015-06-01

    Recent work by Mitra et al. (2014) has shown that in strongly stratified forced two-layer turbulence with helicity and corresponding large-scale dynamo action in the lower layer, and nonhelical turbulence in the upper, a magnetic field occurs in the upper layer in the form of sharply bounded bipolar magnetic spots. Here we extend this model to spherical wedge geometry covering the northern hemisphere up to 75° latitude and an azimuthal extent of 180°. The kinetic helicity and therefore also the large-scale magnetic field are strongest at low latitudes. For moderately strong stratification, several bipolar spots form that eventually fill the full longitudinal extent. At early times, the polarity of spots reflects the orientation of the underlying azimuthal field, as expected from Parker’s Ω-shaped flux loops. At late times their tilt changes such that there is a radial field of opposite orientation at different latitudes separated by about 10°. Our model demonstrates the spontaneous formation of spots of sizes much larger than the pressure scale height. Their tendency to produce filling factors close to unity is argued to be reminiscent of highly active stars. We confirm that strong stratification and strong scale separation are essential ingredients behind magnetic spot formation, which appears to be associated with downflows at larger depths.

  1. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  2. In search of ice-stream sticky spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The form drag of large bedrock bumps sticking into the base of an ice stream can produce effective 'sticky spots' supporting large basal shear stress. Bedrock regions surrounded by lubricating till at the same topographic level can cause sticky spots, but tend to collect lubricating water and thus are unlikely to support a shear stress of more than a few tenths of a bar unless they contain abundant large bumps. Raised regions on the ice-air surface also can cause moderate increases in the shear stress supported on the bed beneath. Surveys of large-scale bedrock roughness, strain grids across the margins of ice-surface highs, and possibly, water-pressure measurements in regions of thin or zero till would help identify and characterize sticky spots.

  3. Design of the smart scenic spot service platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Min; Wang, Shi-tai

    2015-12-01

    With the deepening of the smart city construction, the model "smart+" is rapidly developing. Guilin, the international tourism metropolis fast constructing need smart tourism technology support. This paper studied the smart scenic spot service object and its requirements. And then constructed the smart service platform of the scenic spot application of 3S technology (Geographic Information System (GIS), Remote Sensing (RS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)) and the Internet of things, cloud computing. Based on Guilin Seven-star Park scenic area as an object, this paper designed the Seven-star smart scenic spot service platform framework. The application of this platform will improve the tourists' visiting experience, make the tourism management more scientifically and standardly, increase tourism enterprises operating earnings.

  4. Kilauea volcano: the degassing of a hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, T.M.

    1986-03-01

    Hot spots such as Kilauea volcano can degas by a one-stage eruptive process or a two-stage process involving eruptive and noneruptive degassing. One stage degassing occurs during sustained summit eruptions and causes a direct environmental impact. Although generally less efficient than the one-stage degassing process, two stage degassing can cause 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater impact in just a few hours during flank eruptions. Hot spot volcanos with resupplied crustal magma chambers may be capable of maintaining an equivalent impact from CO/sub 2/ and S outgassing during both eruptive and noneruptive periods. On average, a hot spot volcano such as Kilauea is a minor polluter compared to man.

  5. Topolgy Agnostic Hot-Spot Avoidance with InfiniBand

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnu, Abhinav; Koop, Matthew J.; Moody, Adam; Mamidala, Amith; Narravula, Sundeep; Panda, Dhabaleswar K.

    2009-03-01

    InfiniBand has become a very popular interconnect, due to its advanced features and open standard. Large scale InfiniBand clusters are becoming very popular, as reflected by the TOP 500 supercomputer rankings. However, even with popular topologies like constant bi-section bandwidth Fat Tree, hot-spots may occur with InfiniBand, due to inappropriate configuration of network paths, presence of other jobs in the network and un-availability of adaptive routing. In this paper, we present a hot-spot avoidance layer (HSAL) for InfiniBand, which provides hot-spot avoidance using path bandwidth estimation and multi-pathing using LMC mechanism, without taking the network topology into account. We propose an adaptive striping policy with batch based striping and sorting approach, for efficient utilization of disjoint network paths. Integration of HSAL with MPI, the de facto programming model of clusters, shows promising results with collective communication primitives and MPI applications.

  6. Coulomb explosion of the hot spot of micropinches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Oreshkin, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that the generation of hard X-ray radiation, electron beam, and high energy ions that have been detected in experiments on compressing pinches can be related to the Coulomb explosion of a micropinch hot spot, which is formed due to the outflow of the material. In the outflow process, the plasma temperature in the hot spot increases and conditions appear for the transition of electrons to the regime of continuous acceleration. The exit of runaway electrons from the hot spot region leads to the creation of a positive bulk charge, then to a Coulomb explosion. Conditions under which electrons pass to the continuous acceleration regime have been determined and estimates of the ion kinetic energy upon a Coulomb explosion have been obtained.

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Hernández, Gerardo; Roldán, Jesús Felipe González; Milan, Néstor Saúl Hernández; Lash, R Ryan; Behravesh, Casey Barton; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-03-29

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, a tick-borne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is among the most lethal of all infectious diseases in the Americas. In Mexico, the disease was first described during the early 1940s by scientists who carefully documented specific environmental determinants responsible for devastating outbreaks in several communities in the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Durango, and Coahuila. These investigators also described the pivotal roles of domesticated dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (brown dog ticks) as drivers of epidemic levels of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. After several decades of quiescence, the disease re-emerged in Sonora and Baja California during the early 21st century, driven by the same environmental circumstances that perpetuated outbreaks in Mexico during the 1940s. This Review explores the history of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in Mexico, current epidemiology, and the multiple clinical, economic, and social challenges that must be considered in the control and prevention of this life-threatening illness.

  8. The Evolution of Modulated Wavetrains Into Turbulent Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaster, M.

    2007-01-01

    Experiment are being carried out to study the process by which th almost periodic disturbance waves generated naturally by the freestream evolve into turbulence. The boundary layer on a flat plate has been used for this study. The novelty of the approach is in the form of artificial excitation that is used. In this work the flow is excited artificially by deterministic white noise. The weak T-S wave created develops down stream, becomes nonlinear and blows up locally onto a highly distorted flow. These large local distortions of the mean flow allow very high frequency disturbances to grow and form into small turbulent spots. The spots arise from the excitation, and if the same noise sequence is repeated a spot will form at the same position and time instant relative to the excitation.

  9. SV Cam spot activity in February 2001 - March 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zboril, M.; Djurašević, G.

    2003-07-01

    We present the analysis of new BVR light curves for the active star SV Cam. The Roche model with spotted areas on the hotter primary component fits satisfactorily all filter observations yielding two spots in intermediate latitudes and covering about 1.5% each of the stellar surface. Both are ~ 1000 K cooler than surrounding photosphere. The comparison with an earlier season (January/February 2000) suggests that the spots probably evolved in area longitude and latitude but basic and preferred orientation from previous season is confirmed. Data are available only in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/406/193

  10. Variability of Jupiter's Five-Micron Hot Spot Inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Orton, G. S.; Wakefield, L.; Rogers, J. H.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Boydstun, K.

    2012-01-01

    Global upheavals on Jupiter involve changes in the albedo of entire axisymmetric regions, lasting several years, with the last two occurring in 1989 and 2006. Against this backdrop of planetary-scale changes, discrete features such as the Great Red Spot (GRS), and other vortices exhibit changes on shorter spatial- and time-scales. We track the variability of the discrete equatorial 5-micron hot spots, semi-evenly spaced in longitude and confined to a narrow latitude band centered at 6.5degN (southern edge of the North Equatorial Belt, NEB), abundant in Voyager images. Tantalizingly similar patterns were observed in the visible (bright plumes and blue-gray regions), where reflectivity in the red is anti-correlated with 5-microns thermal radiance. Ortiz et al. (1998, GRL, 103) characterized the latitude and drift rates of the hot spots, including the descent of the Galileo probe at the southern edge of a 5-micron hot spot, as the superposition of equatorial Rossby waves, with phase speeds between 99 - 103m/s, relative to System III. We note that the high 5-micron radiances correlate well but not perfectly with high 8.57-micron radiances. Because the latter are modulated primarily by changes in the upper ammonia (NH3) ice cloud opacity, this correlation implies that changes in the ammonia ice cloud field may be responsible for the variability seen in the 5-m maps. During the NEB fade (2011 - early 2012), however, these otherwise ubiquitous features were absent, an atmospheric state not seen in decades. The ongoing NEB revival indicates nascent 5-m hot spots as early as April 2012, with corresponding visible dark spots. Their continuing growth through July 2012 indicates the possit.le re-establishment of Rossby waves. The South Equatorial Belt (SEB) and NEB revivals began similarly with an instability that developed into a major outbreak, and many similarities in the observed propagation of clear regions.

  11. Bright spots among the world’s coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinner, Joshua E.; Huchery, Cindy; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Graham, Nicholas A. J.; McClanahan, Tim R.; Maina, Joseph; Maire, Eva; Kittinger, John N.; Hicks, Christina C.; Mora, Camilo; Allison, Edward H.; D'Agata, Stephanie; Hoey, Andrew; Feary, David A.; Crowder, Larry; Williams, Ivor D.; Kulbicki, Michel; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Edgar, Graham; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.; Sandin, Stuart A.; Green, Alison L.; Hardt, Marah J.; Beger, Maria; Friedlander, Alan; Campbell, Stuart J.; Holmes, Katherine E.; Wilson, Shaun K.; Brokovich, Eran; Brooks, Andrew J.; Cruz-Motta, Juan J.; Booth, David J.; Chabanet, Pascale; Gough, Charlie; Tupper, Mark; Ferse, Sebastian C. A.; Sumaila, U. Rashid; Mouillot, David

    2016-07-01

    Ongoing declines in the structure and function of the world’s coral reefs require novel approaches to sustain these ecosystems and the millions of people who depend on them. A presently unexplored approach that draws on theory and practice in human health and rural development is to systematically identify and learn from the ‘outliers’—places where ecosystems are substantially better (‘bright spots’) or worse (‘dark spots’) than expected, given the environmental conditions and socioeconomic drivers they are exposed to. Here we compile data from more than 2,500 reefs worldwide and develop a Bayesian hierarchical model to generate expectations of how standing stocks of reef fish biomass are related to 18 socioeconomic drivers and environmental conditions. We identify 15 bright spots and 35 dark spots among our global survey of coral reefs, defined as sites that have biomass levels more than two standard deviations from expectations. Importantly, bright spots are not simply comprised of remote areas with low fishing pressure; they include localities where human populations and use of ecosystem resources is high, potentially providing insights into how communities have successfully confronted strong drivers of change. Conversely, dark spots are not necessarily the sites with the lowest absolute biomass and even include some remote, uninhabited locations often considered near pristine. We surveyed local experts about social, institutional, and environmental conditions at these sites to reveal that bright spots are characterized by strong sociocultural institutions such as customary taboos and marine tenure, high levels of local engagement in management, high dependence on marine resources, and beneficial environmental conditions such as deep-water refuges. Alternatively, dark spots are characterized by intensive capture and storage technology and a recent history of environmental shocks. Our results suggest that investments in strengthening fisheries

  12. Jumping-droplet electronics hot-spot cooling

    DOE PAGES

    Oh, Junho; Birbarah, Patrick; Foulkes, Thomas; ...

    2017-03-20

    Demand for enhanced cooling technologies within various commercial and consumer applications has increased in recent decades due to electronic devices becoming more energy dense. This study demonstrates jumping-droplet based electric-field-enhanced (EFE) condensation as a potential method to achieve active hot spot cooling in electronic devices. To test the viability of EFE condensation, we developed an experimental setup to remove heat via droplet evaporation from single and multiple high power gallium nitride (GaN) transistors acting as local hot spots (4.6 mm x 2.6 mm). An externally powered circuit was developed to direct jumping droplets from a copper oxide (CuO) nanostructured superhydrophobicmore » surface to the transistor hot spots by applying electric fields between the condensing surface and the transistor. Heat transfer measurements were performed in ambient air (22-25°C air temperature, 20-45% relative humidity) to determine the effect of gap spacing (2-4 mm), electric field (50-250 V/cm), and heat flux (demonstrated to 13 W/cm2). EFE condensation was shown to enhance the heat transfer from the local hot spot by ≈ 200% compared to cooling without jumping and by 20% compared to non-EFE jumping. Dynamic switching of the electric field for a two-GaN system reveals the potential for active cooling of mobile hot spots. The opportunity for further cooling enhancement by the removal of non-condensable gases promises hot spot heat dissipation rates approaching 120 W/cm2. Finally, this work provides a framework for the development of active jumping droplet based vapor chambers and heat pipes capable of spatial and temporal thermal dissipation control.« less

  13. Spots and stripes: ecology and colour pattern evolution in butterflyfishes.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Fitzpatrick, John L; Merilaita, Sami

    2013-04-22

    The incredible diversity of colour patterns in coral reef fishes has intrigued biologists for centuries. Yet, despite the many proposed explanations for this diversity in coloration, definitive tests of the role of ecological factors in shaping the evolution of particular colour pattern traits are absent. Patterns such as spots and eyespots (spots surrounded by concentric rings of contrasting colour) have often been assumed to function for predator defence by mimicking predators' enemies' eyes, deflecting attacks or intimidating predators, but the evolutionary processes underlying these functions have never been addressed. Striped body patterns have been suggested to serve for both social communication and predator defence, but the impact of ecological constraints remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative analysis of colour pattern diversity in butterflyfishes (Family: Chaetodontidae), fishes with conspicuous spots, eyespots and wide variation in coloration. Using a dated molecular phylogeny of 95 species (approx. 75% of the family), we tested whether spots and eyespots have evolved characteristics that are consistent with their proposed defensive function and whether the presence of spots and body stripes is linked with species' body length, dietary complexity, habitat diversity or social behaviour. Contrary to our expectations, spots and eyespots appeared relatively recently in butterflyfish evolution and are highly evolutionarily labile, suggesting that they are unlikely to have played an important part in the evolutionary history of the group. Striped body patterns showed correlated evolution with a number of ecological factors including habitat type, sociality and dietary complexity. Our findings question the prevailing view that eyespots are an evolutionary response to predation pressure, providing a valuable counter example to the role of these markings as revealed in other taxa.

  14. Plasmonic electromagnetic hot spots temporally addressed by photoinduced molecular displacement.

    SciTech Connect

    Juan, M. L.; Plain, J.; Bachelot, R.; Vial, A.; Royer, P.; Gray, S. K.; Montgomery, J. M.; Wiederrecht, G. P.; Univ. de Technologie de Troyes

    2009-04-23

    We report the observation of temporally varying electromagnetic hot spots in plasmonic nanostructures. Changes in the field amplitude, position, and spatial features are induced by embedding plasmonic silver nanorods in the photoresponsive azo-polymer. This polymer undergoes cis?trans isomerization and wormlike transport within resonant optical fields, producing a time-varying local dielectric environment that alters the locations where electromagnetic hot spots are produced. Finite-difference time-domain and Monte Carlo simulations that model the induced field and corresponding material response are presented to aid in the interpretation of the experimental results. Evidence for propagating plasmons induced at the ends of the rods is also presented.

  15. Metamorphosis of a Hairpin Vortex into a Young Turbulent Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Joslin, Ronald D.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation was used to study the formation and growth of a hairpin vortex in a flat-plate boundary layer and its later development into a young turbulent spot. Fluid injection through a slit in the wall triggered the initial vortex. The legs of the vortex were stretched into a hairpin shape as it traveled downstream. Multiple hairpin vortex heads developed between the stretched legs. New vortices formed beneath the streamwise-elongated vortex legs. The continued development of additional vortices resulted in the formation of a traveling region of highly disturbed ow with an arrowhead shape similar to that of a turbulent spot.

  16. Two New Spotted Variables-HD 191262 and HD 191011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Henry, Gregory W.

    1992-11-01

    New 1988-1990 photometry in V and B with a 16 inch automatic telescope shows that both HD 191262, a previously known chromospherically active binary, and its comparison star HD 191011 are variable, with starspots judged to be the mechanism in both. In HD 191262 and 191011, respectively, spot rotation periods of 5d.4 < P < 5d.7 and 1 7d.4 < P < 23d.0 were found and differential rotation coefficients of k=0.054 and 0.28 were estimated. HD 191011, shown to be a KS giant about 475 parsecs away, had eight different spots present during the 2.5 years of observation.

  17. Genome of Drosophila suzukii, the Spotted Wing Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Joanna C.; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhao, Li; Hamm, Christopher A.; Cridland, Julie M.; Saelao, Perot; Hamby, Kelly A.; Lee, Ernest K.; Kwok, Rosanna S.; Zhang, Guojie; Zalom, Frank G.; Walton, Vaughn M.; Begun, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (spotted wing drosophila) has recently become a serious pest of a wide variety of fruit crops in the United States as well as in Europe, leading to substantial yearly crop losses. To enable basic and applied research of this important pest, we sequenced the D. suzukii genome to obtain a high-quality reference sequence. Here, we discuss the basic properties of the genome and transcriptome and describe patterns of genome evolution in D. suzukii and its close relatives. Our analyses and genome annotations are presented in a web portal, SpottedWingFlyBase, to facilitate public access. PMID:24142924

  18. Io hot spots - Infrared photometry of satellite occultations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, J. D.; Matson, D. L.; Sinton, W. M.; Howell, R. R.; Dyck, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Io's active hot spots, which are presently mapped on the basis of IR photometry of this moon's occultation by other Gallilean satellites, are obtained with greatest spatial resolution near the sub-earth point. A model is developed for the occultation lightcurves, and its fitting to the data defines the apparent path of the occulting satellite relative to Io; the mean error in apparent relative position of occulting satellites is of the order of 178 km. A heretofore unknown, 20-km diameter hot spot is noted on Io's leading hemisphere.

  19. Simple dynamical models of Neptune's Great Dark Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polivani, L. M.; Wisdom, J.; Dejong, E.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1990-01-01

    The large amplitude oscillations of the shape of Neptune's Great Dark Spot are well reproduced by simple dynamical models of an isolated vortex embedded in a background shear flow. From the time series of the aspect ratio and inclination of the vortex values are estimated for the background shear and the mean vorticity of the Great Dark Spot, and a lower bound is placed on the value of the Rossby deformation radius. These models imply the existence of a planetary-scale zone of deterministic chaotic advection in the atmosphere of Neptune.

  20. Laser guide star spot shrinkage for affordable wavefront sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Wilfried; Hugot, Emmanuel; Fusco, Thierry; Neichel, Benoit; Ferrari, Marc; Correia, Carlos; Pueyo, Laurent; Dohlen, Kjetil; Pascal, Sandrine; Vola, Pascal; Sauvage, Jean-François; El Hadi, Kacem; Gach, Jean Luc

    2016-07-01

    Innovative optical designs allow tackling the spot elongation issues in Shack-Hartman based laser guide star wavefront sensors. We propose two solutions using either a combination of two arrays of freeform microlenses, or a combination of freeform optics, to perform a shrinkage of the laser spots as well as a magnification of the SH focal plane. These approaches will drastically reduce the number of needed pixels, thus making possible the use of existing detectors. We present the recent advances on this activity as well as the estimation of performance, linearity and sensitivity of the compressed system in presence of aberrations.

  1. Best Color Image of Jupiter's Little Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This amazing color portrait of Jupiter's 'Little Red Spot' (LRS) combines high-resolution images from the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI), taken at 03:12 UT on February 27, 2007, with color images taken nearly simultaneously by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The LORRI images provide details as fine as 9 miles across (15 kilometers), which is approximately 10 times better than Hubble can provide on its own. The improved resolution is possible because New Horizons was only 1.9 million miles (3 million kilometers) away from Jupiter when LORRI snapped its pictures, while Hubble was more than 500 million miles (800 million kilometers) away from the Gas Giant planet.

    The Little Red Spot is the second largest storm on Jupiter, roughly 70% the size of the Earth, and it started turning red in late-2005. The clouds in the Little Red Spot rotate counterclockwise, or in the anticyclonic direction, because it is a high-pressure region. In that sense, the Little Red Spot is the opposite of a hurricane on Earth, which is a low-pressure region - and, of course, the Little Red Spot is far larger than any hurricane on Earth.

    Scientists don't know exactly how or why the Little Red Spot turned red, though they speculate that the change could stem from a surge of exotic compounds from deep within Jupiter, caused by an intensification of the storm system. In particular, sulfur-bearing cloud droplets might have been propelled about 50 kilometers into the upper level of ammonia clouds, where brighter sunlight bathing the cloud tops released the red-hued sulfur embedded in the droplets, causing the storm to turn red. A similar mechanism has been proposed for the Little Red Spot's 'older brother,' the Great Red Spot, a massive energetic storm system that has persisted for over a century.

    New Horizons is providing an opportunity to examine an 'infant' red storm system in detail, which may help scientists

  2. Biodiversity hot spot on a hot spot: novel extremophile diversity in Hawaiian fumaroles

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Kate; Cornell, Jennifer; Bizzoco, Richard W; Kelley, Scott T

    2015-01-01

    Fumaroles (steam vents) are the most common, yet least understood, microbial habitat in terrestrial geothermal settings. Long believed too extreme for life, recent advances in sample collection and DNA extraction methods have found that fumarole deposits and subsurface waters harbor a considerable diversity of viable microbes. In this study, we applied culture-independent molecular methods to explore fumarole deposit microbial assemblages in 15 different fumaroles in four geographic locations on the Big Island of Hawai'i. Just over half of the vents yielded sufficient high-quality DNA for the construction of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence clone libraries. The bacterial clone libraries contained sequences belonging to 11 recognized bacterial divisions and seven other division-level phylogenetic groups. Archaeal sequences were less numerous, but similarly diverse. The taxonomic composition among fumarole deposits was highly heterogeneous. Phylogenetic analysis found cloned fumarole sequences were related to microbes identified from a broad array of globally distributed ecotypes, including hot springs, terrestrial soils, and industrial waste sites. Our results suggest that fumarole deposits function as an “extremophile collector” and may be a hot spot of novel extremophile biodiversity. PMID:25565172

  3. Defrosting Polar Dunes--Dark Spots and Wind Streaks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The first time that the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC)team saw dark spots on defrosting dune surfaces was in August and September of 1998. At that time, it was the north polar seasonal frost cap that was subliming away (more recent images from 1999 have shown the south polar frosts). This picture (above) shows a small portion of the giant dune field that surrounds the north polar region, as it appeared on August 23, 1998. At the time, it was early northern spring and the dunes were still covered with winter frost.

    Dark spots had appeared on the north polar dunes, and many of them exhibited a radial or semi-radial pattern of dark streaks and streamers. At first, there was speculation that the streaks indicated that the defrosting process might somehow involve explosions! The dark spots seemed to resemble small craters with dark, radial ejecta. It seemed possible that frozen carbon dioxide trapped beneath water ice might somehow heat up, turn to gas, expand, and then 'explode' in either a small blast or at least a 'puff' of air similar to that which comes from the blowhole of a surfacing whale or seal.

    The image shown here changed the earlier impression. The dark spots and streaks do not result from explosions. The spots--though not well understood--represent the earliest stages of defrosting on the sand dunes. The streaks, instead of being caused by small explosions, are instead the result of wind. In this picture, the fine, dark streaks show essentially identical orientations from spot to spot (e.g., compare the spots seen in boxes (a) and (b)). Each ray of dark material must result from wind blowing from a particular direction--for example, all of the spots in this picture exhibit a ray that points toward the upper left corner of the image, and each of these rays indicates the same wind regime. Each spot also has a ray pointing toward the lower right and top/upper-right. These, too, must indicate periods when the wind was strong

  4. Motion Interplay as a Function of Patient Parameters and Spot Size in Spot Scanning Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Grassberger, Clemens; Dowdell, Stephen; Lomax, Antony; Sharp, Greg; Shackleford, James; Choi, Noah; Willers, Henning; Paganetti, Harald

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of respiratory motion on the treatment of lung tumors with spot scanning proton therapy. Methods and Materials: Four-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations were used to assess the interplay effect, which results from relative motion of the tumor and the proton beam, on the dose distribution in the patient. Ten patients with varying tumor sizes (2.6-82.3 cc) and motion amplitudes (3-30 mm) were included in the study. We investigated the impact of the spot size, which varies between proton facilities, and studied single fractions and conventionally fractionated treatments. The following metrics were used in the analysis: minimum/maximum/mean dose, target dose homogeneity, and 2-year local control rate (2y-LC). Results: Respiratory motion reduces the target dose homogeneity, with the largest effects observed for the highest motion amplitudes. Smaller spot sizes (σ ≈ 3 mm) are inherently more sensitive to motion, decreasing target dose homogeneity on average by a factor 2.8 compared with a larger spot size (σ ≈ 13 mm). Using a smaller spot size to treat a tumor with 30-mm motion amplitude reduces the minimum dose to 44.7% of the prescribed dose, decreasing modeled 2y-LC from 87.0% to 2.7%, assuming a single fraction. Conventional fractionation partly mitigates this reduction, yielding a 2y-LC of 71.6%. For the large spot size, conventional fractionation increases target dose homogeneity and prevents a deterioration of 2y-LC for all patients. No correlation with tumor volume is observed. The effect on the normal lung dose distribution is minimal: observed changes in mean lung dose and lung V{sub 20} are <0.6 Gy(RBE) and <1.7%, respectively. Conclusions: For the patients in this study, 2y-LC could be preserved in the presence of interplay using a large spot size and conventional fractionation. For treatments using smaller spot sizes and/or in the delivery of single fractions, interplay effects can lead to significant deterioration of

  5. Hot spot(s) of the lung in technetium-99m albumin colloid liver-spleen scintigraphy: case report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, W.J.; Brandenburg, S.; Coupal, J.J.; Sullivan, J.D.; Beeler, J.A.; Magoun, S.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1988-06-01

    The authors replaced /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid for /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid as a radiopharmaceutical for liver-spleen imaging and found two instances of hot spot(s) in the lung. The preparation procedure of albumin colloid is easier and more convenient as compared to that of sulfur colloid. Whereas replacement of /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid by /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid is inevitable, it should be emphasized that one should avoid blood withdrawal in the syringe containing albumin colloid to prevent formation of clot(s) during the venous puncture for /sup 99m/Tc albumin colloid.

  6. Effect of a hot spot on the strain response of an acoustically-loaded flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, L.R.; Jong, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies of the acoustic fatigue of heated plates have treated uniformly-heated plates. The current study examines the effect of a 'hot spot' on the acoustic fatigue of a simply-supported flat plate. The hot spot is provided by a concentration of hot gas and is 'applied' to the plate through a convection boundary condition on the upper surface of the plate. For simplicity, the hot spot is assumed to be rectangular with its sides parallel to the sides of the plate. The size of the hot spot, the location of the hot spot, and the temperature of the hot spot were all varied to see their effects. 18 references.

  7. Cranberries and Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii, commonly known as spotted wing drosophila (SWD), does not appear to like cranberries very much. Following multiple replicated trials using ripe, under-ripe, and over-ripe organic Wisconsin cranberries, SWD females would not (or could not) insert eggs into under-ripe or ripe cranb...

  8. Response of crapemyrtle varieties to Cercospora leaf spot, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crapemyrtle varieties, Lagerstroemia spp., were evaluated for Cercospora leaf spot in two field test evaluations, planted in either 2004 or 2011 at the Otis L. Floyd Nursery Research Center in McMinnville, TN. The experimental designs for both test evaluations were a randomized complete block design...

  9. Bacterial Leaf Spot of Parsley: Characterization of a New Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, a severe leaf spot disease on parsley has occurred throughout central coastal California and particularly in Monterey County. Two different bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii, and P. syringae pv. coriandricola) have been associated these outbreaks on parsley. Our research...

  10. Spotted wing drosophila: a new invasive pest of Mississippi berries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) Drosophila suzukii, a native fly of Southeast Asia, is a widely reported and highly invasive pest of fruit crops in North America and Mediterranean Europe. Between 2010 and 2011, SWD was confirmed in most States in eastern North America. During this same period, SWD was...

  11. Apparatus Would Position Bright Spot On Projection Screen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayman, Marc D.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed apparatus aims beam of visible light at wavelength lambda(2) to create bright spot at desired position in image on projection screen. Intended to replace handheld laser and flashlight pointers lecturers sometimes use to indicate features in projected images. Beam of light cannot be inadvertently aimed toward audience.

  12. Trend Analysis of the 1984 GOP Senatorial Spot.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, J. Gregory; Baukus, Robert A.

    This report of a study investigating the advertising strategies of various senatorial candidates and their results presents a trend analysis of GOP Senatorial advertisements aired on television throughout the United States during the 1984 national election campaign. One hundred and one campaign spots from all geographic regions were examined in…

  13. Blind spots for neutralino dark matter in the NMSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, Marcin; Olechowski, Marek; Szczerbiak, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    Spin-independent cross-section for neutralino dark matter scattering off nuclei is investigated in the NMSSM. Several classes of blind spots for direct detection of singlino-Higgsino dark matter are analytically identified, including such that have no analog in the MSSM. It is shown that mixing of the Higgs doublets with the scalar singlet has a big impact on the position of blind spots in the parameter space. In particular, this mixing allows for more freedom in the sign assignment for the parameters entering the neutralino mass matrix, required for a blind spot to occur, as compared to the MSSM or the NMSSM with decoupled singlet. Moreover, blind spots may occur for any composition of a singlino-Higgsino LSP. Particular attention is paid to cases with the singlet-dominated scalar lighter than the 125 GeV Higgs for which a vanishing tree-level spin-independent scattering cross-section may result from destructive interference between the Higgs and the singlet-dominated scalar exchange. Correlations of the spin-independent scattering cross-section with the Higgs observables are also discussed.

  14. Does Dark-Spot Syndrome Experimentally Transmit among Caribbean Corals?

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Carly J.; Jordán-Garza, Adán G.; Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half-century, coral diseases have contributed to the rapid decline of coral populations throughout the Caribbean region. Some coral diseases appear to be potentially infectious, yet little is known about their modes of transmission. This study experimentally tested whether dark-spot syndrome on Siderastrea siderea was directly or indirectly transmissible to neighboring coral colonies. We also tested whether open wounds were necessary to facilitate disease transmission. At the completion of the experiments, we sampled bacterial communities on diseased, exposed, and healthy coral colonies to determine whether bacterial pathogens had transmitted to the susceptible colonies. We saw no evidence of either direct or waterborne transmission of dark-spot syndrome, and corals that received lesions by direct contact with diseased tissue, healed and showed no signs of infection. There were no significant differences among bacterial communities on healthy, exposed, and diseased colonies, although nine individual ribotypes were significantly higher in diseased corals compared with healthy and exposed corals, indicating a lack of transmission. Although our experiments do not fully refute the possibility that dark-spot syndrome is infectious and transmissible, our results suggest that in situ macroscopic signs of dark-spot syndrome are not always contagious. PMID:26788918

  15. New public dataset for spotting patterns in medieval document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Sovann; Nicolas, Stéphane; Petitjean, Caroline; Jurie, Frédéric; Heutte, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    With advances in technology, a large part of our cultural heritage is becoming digitally available. In particular, in the field of historical document image analysis, there is now a growing need for indexing and data mining tools, thus allowing us to spot and retrieve the occurrences of an object of interest, called a pattern, in a large database of document images. Patterns may present some variability in terms of color, shape, or context, making the spotting of patterns a challenging task. Pattern spotting is a relatively new field of research, still hampered by the lack of available annotated resources. We present a new publicly available dataset named DocExplore dedicated to spotting patterns in historical document images. The dataset contains 1500 images and 1464 queries, and allows the evaluation of two tasks: image retrieval and pattern localization. A standardized benchmark protocol along with ad hoc metrics is provided for a fair comparison of the submitted approaches. We also provide some first results obtained with our baseline system on this new dataset, which show that there is room for improvement and that should encourage researchers of the document image analysis community to design new systems and submit improved results.

  16. Genetics and breeding of bacterial leaf spot resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot (BLS) caused by the pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians (Xcv) is a globally important disease of whole head and baby leaf lettuce that reduces crop yield and quality. Host resistance is the most feasible method to reduce disease losses. Screening Lactuca accessions has id...

  17. New spot-test for cyanide ion and cyanogen gas.

    PubMed

    Tobia, S K; Gawargious, Y A; El-Shahat, M F

    1973-05-01

    A new, rapid and simple spot test has been developed for detection of both cyanide ion and cyanogen gas. The cyanogen gas must first be converted into cyanide ion by reaction with sodium hydroxide. On addition of a Cu(II) solution the cyanocuprate(I) complex formed reduces the molybdate solution to molybdenum blue.

  18. Recombination spot identification Based on gapped k-mers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong; Xu, Yong; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Recombination is crucial for biological evolution, which provides many new combinations of genetic diversity. Accurate identification of recombination spots is useful for DNA function study. To improve the prediction accuracy, researchers have proposed several computational methods for recombination spot identification. The k-mer feature is one of the most useful features for modeling the properties and function of DNA sequences. However, it suffers from the inherent limitation. If the value of word length k is large, the occurrences of k-mers are closed to a binary variable, with a few k-mers present once and most k-mers are absent. This usually causes the sparse problem and reduces the classification accuracy. To solve this problem, we add gaps into k-mer and introduce a new feature called gapped k-mer (GKM) for identification of recombination spots. By using this feature, we present a new predictor called SVM-GKM, which combines the gapped k-mers and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for recombination spot identification. Experimental results on a widely used benchmark dataset show that SVM-GKM outperforms other highly related predictors. Therefore, SVM-GKM would be a powerful predictor for computational genomics. PMID:27030570

  19. Leaf spot on Tigergrass caused by Exserohilum rostratum in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tigergrass (Thysanoleana maxima) is a commercial containerized and landscape ornamental grass from the family Poaceae similar in appearance to bamboo. In the summer of 2006, a leaf spot was first noticed in a South Florida nursery, and the disease has since then been observed in several nurseries a...

  20. Predictive Capability for Hot Spot Ignition of Double Base Propellants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    propellants are composed of nitrocellulose and stirred with a reactive plasticizer liquid nitrate ester such as nitroglycerine which also affects the oxygen...Predictive Capability for Hot Spot Ignition of Double Base Propellants by Stephan R. Bilyk ARL-RP-261 August 2009...Ignition of Double Base Propellants Stephan R. Bilyk Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL A reprint from the 2006

  1. Spot brazing of aluminum to copper with a cover plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Junya; Miyazawa, Yasuyuki

    2014-08-01

    It is difficult to join dissimilar metals when an intermetallic compound is formed at the joining interface. Spot brazing can be accomplished in a short time by resistance heating. Therefore, it is said that the formation of a intermetallic compound can be prevented. In this study, aluminum and copper were joined by spot brazing with a cover plate. The cover plate was used to supply heat to base metals and prevent heat dissipation from the base metals. The ability to braze Al and Cu was investigated by observation and analysis. Pure aluminum (A1050) plate and oxygen-free copper (C1020) plate were used as base metals. Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler was used as the brazing filler metal. SPCC was employed as cover plate. Brazing was done with a micro spot welder under an argon gas atmosphere. Brazing ability was estimated by tensile shear strength and cross sectional microstructure observation. Al and Cu can be joined by spot brazing with Cu-Ni-Sn-P brazing filler and cover plate.

  2. Association Mapping of Spot Blotch Resistance in Wild Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is an important foliar disease of barley. The disease has been controlled for over 40 years through the deployment of cultivars with durable resistance derived from line 'NDB112.' Pathotypes of C. sativus with virulence for the NDB112 resistance have be...

  3. An update on sequence diversity of Impatiens necrotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an economically important viral pathogen for a wide range of plants, including greenhouse ornamental and vegetable crops. In many cases, symptoms induced by INSV are similar, though not identical, to those induced by Toma...

  4. Antiferromagnetism and hot spots in CeIn3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gor'Kov, L. P.; Grigoriev, P. D.

    2006-02-01

    Enormous mass enhancement at “hot spots” on the Fermi surface (FS) of CeIn3 has been reported at a strong magnetic field near its antiferromagnetic (AFM) quantum critical point [T. Ebihara , Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 246401 (2004)] and ascribed to anomalous spin fluctuations at these spots. The hot spots lie at the positions on FS where in nonmagnetic LaIn3 the narrow necks are protruded. In paramagnetic phase, CeIn3 has similar spectrum. We show that in the presence of AFM ordering its FS undergoes a topological change at the onset of AFM order that truncates the necks at the hot spots for one of the branches. The applied field leads to the logarithmic divergence of the dHvA effective mass when the electron trajectory passes near or through the neck positions. This effect explains the observed dHvA mass enhancement at the hot spots and leads to interesting predictions concerning the spin dependence of the effective electron mass. The (T,B) -phase diagram of CeIn3 , constructed in terms of the Landau functional, is in agreement with experiment.

  5. Eschar-associated Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Nanci; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Rozental, Tatiana; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Ramos, Eduardo Antonio G.; Favacho, Alexsandra R.M.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Dasch, Gregory A.; de Lemos, Elba R.S.

    2011-01-01

    In Brazil, Brazilian spotted fever was once considered the only tick-borne rickettsial disease. We report eschar-associated rickettsial disease that occurred after a tick bite. The etiologic agent is most related to Rickettsia parkeri, R. africae, and R. sibirica and probably widely distributed from São Paulo to Bahia in the Atlantic Forest. PMID:21291605

  6. Factors Influencing Phosphorous Cycling in Biogeochemical 'Hot Spots'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, M. T.; Buda, A. R.; Carrick, H. J.; Regan, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic alteration of the phosphorus (P) cycle has led to subsequent soil and water quality issues. For example, P build up in soils due to historic fertilizer application may become biologically available and exacerbate eutrophication and anoxia in nearby water bodies. In the humid Northeastern United States, storm runoff transports P and also stimulates biogeochemical processes, these locations are termed biogeochemical 'hot spots'. Many studies have looked at nitrogen and carbon cycling in biogeochemical hot spots but few have focused on P. We hypothesize the periodic wetting and drying of biogeochemical hot spots promotes a combination of abiotic and biotic processes that influence the mobility of P. To test this hypothesis, we took monthly soil samples (5 cm deep) from May to October in forest, pasture, and cropped land near Ithaca, NY. In-situ measurements taken with each sample included volumetric soil moisture and soil temperature. We also analyzed samples for 'runoff generated' phosphate, nitrate, and sulfate (from 0.01 M CaCl2 extraction), Fe(II), percent organic matter, pH, as well as oxalate extractable and total P, Al, and Fe. We used linear mixed effects models to test how runoff generated phosphate concentrations vary with soil moisture and whether other environmental factors strengthen/weaken this relationship. The knowledge gained from this study will improve our understanding of P cycling in biogeochemical hot spots and can be used to improve the effectiveness of agricultural management practices in the Northeastern United States.

  7. Hybridization between introduced spotted bass and smallmouth bass in reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, P.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Introductions of black basses Micropterus spp. beyond their native ranges have led to hybridization within the genus. In the southeastern USA, the potential for hybridization appears high because species introductions have been common in reservoirs. We determined the extent of hybridization between smallmouth bass M. dolomieu and spotted bass M. punctulatus in reservoirs in which introductions of either species into the native range of the other species had occurred. Three allozyme loci were used to distinguish the two species and their hybrids. Significant hybridization occurred in two of three reservoirs where introductions had been reported. In Lake Chatuge, Georgia-North Carolina, where the Alabama subspecies of spotted bass M.p. henshalli was introduced, 77 of 276 fish had hybrid genotypes, and only 2 fish had genotypes of the native smallmouth bass. In Thurlow Reservoir, Alabama, where smallmouth bass were introduced and Alabama spotted bass were native, 3 of 17 fish had hybrid genotypes. Only I fish with a possible hybrid genotype was identified in two reservoirs containing native smallmouth bass and northern spotted bass M.p. punctulatus.

  8. Investigating Biological Controls to Suppress Spotted Wing Drosophila Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spotted wing drosophila has become a major cherry pest in California. To develop sustainable management options for this highly mobile pest, we worked with cooperators at Oregon State University and the USDA to discover and import natural enemies of the fly from its native range in South Korea ...

  9. Simulations of Electron Transport in Laser Hot Spots

    SciTech Connect

    S. Brunner; E. Valeo

    2001-08-30

    Simulations of electron transport are carried out by solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the diffusive approximation. The system of a single laser hot spot, with open boundary conditions, is systematically studied by performing a scan over a wide range of the two relevant parameters: (1) Ratio of the stopping length over the width of the hot spot. (2) Relative importance of the heating through inverse Bremsstrahlung compared to the thermalization through self-collisions. As for uniform illumination [J.P. Matte et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 30 (1988) 1665], the bulk of the velocity distribution functions (VDFs) present a super-Gaussian dependence. However, as a result of spatial transport, the tails are observed to be well represented by a Maxwellian. A similar dependence of the distributions is also found for multiple hot spot systems. For its relevance with respect to stimulated Raman scattering, the linear Landau damping of the electron plasma wave is estimated for such VD Fs. Finally, the nonlinear Fokker-Planck simulations of the single laser hot spot system are also compared to the results obtained with the linear non-local hydrodynamic approach [A.V. Brantov et al., Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 2742], thus providing a quantitative limit to the latter method: The hydrodynamic approach presents more than 10% inaccuracy in the presence of temperature variations of the order delta T/T greater than or equal to 1%, and similar levels of deformation of the Gaussian shape of the Maxwellian background.

  10. California spotted owls: Chapter 5 in Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Suzanne C.; Brooks, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) are habitat specialists that are strongly associated with late-successional forests. For nesting and roosting, they require large trees and snags embedded in a stand with a complex forest structure (Blakesley et al. 2005, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, Verner et al. 1992b). In mixedconifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, California spotted owls typically nest and roost in stands with high canopy closure (≥75 percent) [Note: when citing studies, we use terminology consistent with Jennings et al. (1999), however, not all studies properly distinguish between canopy cover and closure and often use the terms interchangeably (see chapter 14 for clarification)] and an abundance of large trees (>24 in (60 cm) diameter at breast height [d.b.h.]) (Bias and Gutiérrez 1992, Gutiérrez et al. 1992, LaHaye et al. 1997, Moen and Gutiérrez 1997, Verner et al. 1992a). The California spotted owl guidelines (Verner et al. 1992b) effectively summarized much of the information about nesting and roosting habitat. Since that report, research on the California spotted owl has continued with much of the new information concentrated in five areas: population trends, barred owl (Strix varia) invasion, climate effects, foraging habitat, and owl response to fire.

  11. Does Dark-Spot Syndrome Experimentally Transmit among Caribbean Corals?

    PubMed

    Randall, Carly J; Jordán-Garza, Adán G; Muller, Erinn M; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half-century, coral diseases have contributed to the rapid decline of coral populations throughout the Caribbean region. Some coral diseases appear to be potentially infectious, yet little is known about their modes of transmission. This study experimentally tested whether dark-spot syndrome on Siderastrea siderea was directly or indirectly transmissible to neighboring coral colonies. We also tested whether open wounds were necessary to facilitate disease transmission. At the completion of the experiments, we sampled bacterial communities on diseased, exposed, and healthy coral colonies to determine whether bacterial pathogens had transmitted to the susceptible colonies. We saw no evidence of either direct or waterborne transmission of dark-spot syndrome, and corals that received lesions by direct contact with diseased tissue, healed and showed no signs of infection. There were no significant differences among bacterial communities on healthy, exposed, and diseased colonies, although nine individual ribotypes were significantly higher in diseased corals compared with healthy and exposed corals, indicating a lack of transmission. Although our experiments do not fully refute the possibility that dark-spot syndrome is infectious and transmissible, our results suggest that in situ macroscopic signs of dark-spot syndrome are not always contagious.

  12. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The prohibitions of section 9(a)(1)(A) through 9(a)(1)(G) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to...

  13. 50 CFR 223.211 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.211 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The prohibitions of section 9(a)(1)(A) through 9(a)(1)(G) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1538) relating to...

  14. 50 CFR 223.212 - Southern DPS of spotted seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Restrictions Applicable to Threatened Marine and Anadromous Species § 223.212 Southern DPS of spotted seal. The prohibitions of section 9(a)(1) of the ESA (16 U.S.C. 1538(a)(1)) relating to endangered species shall apply...

  15. Finding Bright-Spot Coordinates in Television Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, T. E.; Tietz, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Circuit provides data for computer to calculate coordinates of bright spot of light in video image. Calculation performed while image being scanned, and results available immediately at end of video frame. Video-processing circuit has variety of potential uses in commerce and industry. For example, locates tagged-parts on factory assembly line or track airplane landing lights.

  16. Bacterial Leaf Spot of Lettuce: Request for Samples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial leaf spot of lettuce caused by by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vitians has been affecting coastal California crops for many years and has become a chronic problem. Differences in pathogen genotypes have been demonstrated and correlated to disease responses on resistant and susceptible cultiv...

  17. Masculinized otoacoustic emissions in female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G; Weldele, Mary L; Glickman, Stephen E; Place, Ned J

    2006-08-01

    In humans and rhesus monkeys, click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) are stronger in females than in males, and there is considerable circumstantial evidence that this sex difference is attributable to the greater exposure to androgens prenatally in males. Because female spotted hyenas are highly androgenized beginning early in prenatal development, we expected an absence of sexual dimorphism in the CEOAEs of this species. The CEOAEs obtained from 9 male and 7 female spotted hyenas confirmed that expectation. The implication is that the marked androgenization to which female spotted hyenas are exposed masculinizes the cochlear mechanism responsible for CEOAEs. The CEOAEs measured in 3 male and 3 female hyenas that had been treated with anti-androgenic agents during prenatal development were stronger than the CEOAEs of the untreated animals, in accord with the implied inverse relationship between prenatal androgen exposure and the strength of the cochlear mechanisms producing CEOAEs. The CEOAEs of three ovariectomized females and two castrated males were essentially the same as those for the untreated females and males, suggesting that there is little or no activational effect of hormones on CEOAE strength in spotted hyenas. Distortion product OAEs (DPOAEs) also were measured. Those sex differences also were generally small (as they are in humans), and the effects of the anti-androgen agents were inconsistent. Thus, prenatal androgen exposure apparently does affect OAEs, but the effects appear to be greater for the reflection-based cochlear mechanism that underlies CEOAEs than for the nonlinear cochlear mechanism underlying DPOAEs.

  18. Otoacoustic emissions measured in spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, Dennis; Pasanen, Edward G.; Weldele, Mary L.; Glickman, Stephen E.; Place, Ned J.

    2003-10-01

    From birth, female spotted hyenas exhibit highly masculinized bodies and behaviors. Their external genitalia greatly resemble those of males, and they are behaviorally dominant over males. This marked masculinization raised the question of whether the otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) of female spotted hyenas also would be masculinized. Click-evoked OAEs were measured in six female and six male hyenas at two click levels. Also, distortion-product OAEs were measured at four or more primary levels in three frequency regions: 2, 3.5, and 5.0 kHz. Both CEOAEs and DPOAEs were strong in both sexes in spotted hyenas. In humans, both CEOAEs and DPOAEs are stronger in females than males and stronger in right ears than left. Unlike humans, both the CEOAEs and DPOAEs in female spotted hyenas were weaker than those in males, and unlike humans, OAEs were not stronger in right ears. The implication is that the same androgenizing processes that masculinize the body and behavior of female hyenas also masculinize those elements of the cochlea responsible for OAEs. That implication is being tested by measuring the OAEs of other hyenas in the Berkeley colony that were treated with antiandrogenic agents during fetal development. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  19. Lunar cold spots and crater production on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Bandfield, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    A new class of small, fresh impact craters has been recently identified on the Moon through the systematic mapping of lunar surface temperatures by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1]. These craters are distinguished by anomalously low nighttime temperatures at distances ~10-100 crater radii. This thermal behavior indicates that impacts modify the surrounding regolith surfaces making them highly insulating with little evidence for either significant deposition or erosion of surface material [2]. These thermophysically distinct surfaces, or "cold spots", appear to be common to all recent impacts and provide a means of uniquely identifying the most recent impact craters on the Moon. We have conducted a survey of the crater population associated with cold spots. Comparison with existing crater chronology models [e.g., 3] constrains the retention-age of the cold spots to ~200,000 yr with a size-frequency distribution (SFD) slope that is consistent with the modeled production function. This implies the rate at which cold spots fade to background levels is independent of initial cold spot size and that the SFD of crater production in the last 200 ka is similar to the long-term average used to establish modeled production functions, though the rate of cratering may have varied [4]. In addition, we observe a longitudinal heterogeneity in cold spot crater density that is consistent with that predicted to occur as a result of the Moon's synchronous rotation [5] and has been observed in the rayed crater population [6], with the cold spot density at the apex of motion (90°W) nearly twice that observed at the antapex (90°E).[1] Bandfield, J., et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00H02. [2] Bandfield, J., et al. (2014) Icarus, 231, 221-231. [3] Neukum, G., et al. (2001) SSR 96, 55-86. [4] Mazrouei, S. et al. (2015) LPSC 46, 2331. [5] Le Fleuvre, M., and Wieczorek, M. A. (2011) Icarus 214, 1-20. [6] Morota, T. and Furumoto, M. (2002) EPSL 206

  20. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-07-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful.

  1. Constraints on Io's interior from auroral spot oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Lorenz; Saur, Joachim; Retherford, Kurt D.; Blöcker, Aljona; Strobel, Darrell F.; Feldman, Paul D.

    2017-02-01

    The morphology of Io's aurora is dominated by bright spots near the equator that oscillate up and down in approximate correlation with the oscillating orientation of the Jovian magnetospheric field. Analyzing Hubble Space Telescope images, we find that the auroral spots oscillate in phase with the time-variable Jovian magnetic field at Io and that the amplitude of the spot oscillations is reduced by 15% (±5%) with respect to the amplitude of the magnetic field oscillation. We investigate the effects of Io's plasma interaction and magnetic induction in the moon's interior on the magnetic field topology and the aurora oscillations using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation and an analytical induction model. The results from the MHD simulation suggest that the plasma interaction has minor effects on the oscillations, while the magnetic induction generally reduces magnetic field oscillations near the surface. However, the analytical model shows that induction in any near-surface layer for which the skin depth is larger than the thickness—like a conductive magma ocean—would induce a phase shift, in conflict with the observations. Under the assumption that the spot oscillations represent the magnetic field oscillation, we constrain the conductance of a near-surface layer to 1 × 103 S or lower. A magma ocean with conductances of 104 S or higher as derived from Galileo magnetometer measurements would cause overly strong attenuation of the amplitude in addition to the irreconcilable phase shift. The observed weakly attenuated, in-phase spot oscillation is consistent with induction in a deep, highly conductive layer like Io's metallic core.

  2. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Markus; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs), we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only) and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status. PMID:26605791

  3. Show us your spots! Researchers need samples of bacterial leaf spots on celery, cilantro, parsley, and other crops.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 2002, a severe leaf spot disease on parsley has occurred throughout central coastal California and particularly in Monterey County. Three different bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii, P. syringae pv. coriandricola and an organism very closely related to P. viridiflava) have bee...

  4. Photoproduct frequency is not the major determinant of UV base substitution hot spots or cold spots in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brash, D.E.; Seetharam, S.; Kraemer, K.H.; Seidman, M.M.; Bredberg, A.

    1987-06-01

    The role of UV radiation-induced photoproducts in initiating base substitution mutations in human cells was examined by measuring photoproduct frequency distributions and mutations in a supF tRNA gene on a shuttle vector plasmid transfected into DNA repair-deficient cells (xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A) and into normal cells. Frequencies of cyclobutane dimers and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts varied by as much as 80-fold at different dipyrimidine sites within the gene. All transition mutations occurred at dipyrimidine sites, predominantly at cytosine, with a 17-fold variation in mutation frequency between different sites. Removal of greater than 99% of the cyclobutane dimers by in vitro photoreactivation before transfection reduced the mutation frequency while preserving the mutation distribution, indicating that (i) cytosine-containing cyclobutane dimers were the major mutagenic lesions at these sites and (ii) cytosine-containing non-cyclobutane dimer photoproducts were also mutagenic lesions. However, at individual dipyrimidine sites neither the frequency of cyclobutane dimers nor the frequency of pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6-4) photoproducts correlated with the mutation frequency, even in the absence of excision repair. Mutation hot spots occurred at sites with low or high frequency of photoproduct formation and mutation cold spots occurred at sites with many photoproducts. These results suggest that although photoproducts are required for UV mutagenesis, the prominence of most mutation hot spots and cold spots is primarily determined by DNA structural features rather than by the frequency of DNA photoproducts.

  5. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Markus; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs), we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs) and dried plasma spots (DPSs) as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only) and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  6. Utility of large spot binocular indirect laser delivery for peripheral photocoagulation therapy in children.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, Saranya C; Mohney, Brian G; Bang, Genie M; Link, Thomas P; Pulido, Jose S

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the utility of the large spot size (LSS) setting using a binocular laser indirect delivery system for peripheral ablation in children. One patient with bilateral retinopathy of prematurity received photocoagulation with standard spot size burns placed adjacently to LSS burns. Using a pixel analysis program called Image J on the Retcam picture, the areas of each retinal spot size were determined in units of pixels, giving a standard spot range of 805 to 1294 pixels and LSS range of 1699 to 2311 pixels. Additionally, fluence was calculated using theoretical retinal areas produced by each spot size: the standard spot setting was 462 mJ/mm2 and the LSS setting was 104 mJ/mm2. For eyes with retinopathy of prematurity, our study shows that LSS laser indirect delivery halves the number of spots required for treatment and reduces fluence by almost one-quarter, producing more uniform spots.

  7. Moving and jumping spot in a two-dimensional reaction–diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuangquan; Kolokolnikov, Theodore

    2017-04-01

    We consider a single spot solution for the Schnakenberg model in a two-dimensional unit disk in the singularly perturbed limit of a small diffusivity ratio. For large values of the reaction-time constant, this spot can undergo two different types of instabilities, both due to a Hopf bifurcation. The first type induces oscillatory instability in the height of the spot. The second type induces a periodic motion of the spot center. We use formal asymptotics to investigate when these instabilities are triggered, and which one dominates. In the parameter regime where spot motion occurs, we construct a periodic solution consisting of a rotating spot, and compute its radius of rotation and angular velocity. Detailed numerical simulations are performed to validate the asymptotic theory, including rotating spots. More complex, non-circular spot trajectories are also explored numerically.

  8. Genetic Dissection of Novel QTLs for Resistance to Leaf Spots and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Manish K.; Wang, Hui; Khera, Pawan; Vishwakarma, Manish K.; Kale, Sandip M.; Culbreath, Albert K.; Holbrook, C. Corley; Wang, Xingjun; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Baozhu

    2017-01-01

    Peanut is an important crop, economically and nutritiously, but high production cost is a serious challenge to peanut farmers as exemplified by chemical spray to control foliar diseases such as leaf spots and thrips, the vectors of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). The objective of this research was to map the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in one recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population of “Tifrunner × GT-C20” for identification of linked markers for marker-assisted breeding. Here, we report the improved genetic linkage map with 418 marker loci with a marker density of 5.3 cM/loci and QTLs associated with multi-year (2010–2013) field phenotypes of foliar disease traits, including early leaf spot (ELS), late leaf spot (LLS), and TSWV. A total of 42 QTLs were identified with phenotypic variation explained (PVE) from 6.36 to 15.6%. There were nine QTLs for resistance to ELS, 22 QTLs for LLS, and 11 QTLs for TSWV, including six, five, and one major QTLs with PVE higher than 10% for resistance to each disease, respectively. Of the total 42 QTLs, 34 were mapped on the A sub-genome and eight mapped on the B sub-genome suggesting that the A sub-genome harbors more resistance genes than the B sub-genome. This genetic linkage map was also compared with two diploid peanut physical maps, and the overall co-linearity was 48.4% with an average co-linearity of 51.7% for the A sub-genome and 46.4% for the B sub-genome. The identified QTLs associated markers and potential candidate genes will be studied further for possible application in molecular breeding in peanut genetic improvement for disease resistance. PMID:28197153

  9. The Shoemaker-Levy 9 spots on Jupiter: Their place in history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockey, T.

    1994-01-01

    Historical observations of Jupiter were studied in a search for descriptions or depictions of spots of a magnitude comparable to that produced by the impacts of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments with Jupiter in July 1994. No such record was found. With the possible exception of the Great Red Spot, the Shoemaker-Levy 9 'G' spot appears to be the most prominent jovian spot in history.

  10. Multiple disease resistance to four leaf spot diseases in winter wheat accessions from the USDA National Small Grains Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis), Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB) (Phaeosphaeria nodorum), spot blotch (Cochliobolus sativus) and Septoria tritici blotch (STB) (Mycosphaerella graminicola) are the most important leaf spot diseases impacting wheat production worldwide. Most commercially grow...

  11. Geochemical "Moats" around Near-ridge Hot Spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, A.; Langmuir, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    It has long been known that ridge basalts tend to become enriched in both isotopic and incompatible trace element ratios with proximity to a hot spot. Less recognized is that at a certain distance from the hot spot, samples are relatively depleted in moderately incompatible element ratios (e.g., Zr/Y, Dy/Yb) even as the enrichment in highly incompatible element ratios (e.g., Ba/La, La/Sm) persists. This leads in some cases to trace element patterns that are concave downward for moderately incompatible elements, indicating a depleted source, and concave upward for highly incompatible elements, indicating an enriched source. Clear offsets for samples near hot spots exist on plots such as Ba/La vs. Dy/Yb, and they also often have low Na8.0 for their depth. Areas where such geochemical characteristics occur are adjacent to hot spots—they form a kind of geochemical "moat" of combined depletion and enrichment. Moats can result from two sequential processes: first removal of a melt in the presence of garnet, leading to a source with low Dy/Yb, etc., followed by addition of a low-degree (low F) enriched melt to produce incompatible element and isotope enrichment. Two hypotheses for the moats are (1) they result from recent plume flow, where mantle that loses melt to the hot spot center is refertilized and enriched as it flows down the ridge. (2) Increased melting associated with a hot spot permits melting of ancient sources depleted by melt loss in the presence of garnet. High Hf isotopes for some moat samples from the N. Atlantic support model (2). Geochemical moats have global regularities. Using segment means from previous work, we show that the maximum distance of a moat segment from a hot spot correlates with plume flux normalized to spreading rate, with an R2 >0.9. A higher plume flux at slower spreading rates creates a larger moat. While high Hf isotopes are typical of N. Atlantic moat samples, this is not the case near Afar and Galapagos. This supports model (1

  12. Comparison of lunar red spots including the crater copernicus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Kaydash, V.; Rohacheva, L.; Korokhin, V.; Ivanov, M.; Velikodsky, Y.; Videen, G.

    2016-07-01

    The lunar red spots, Helmet, Hansteen Alpha, and the NW quadrant of the crater Copernicus, were selected for a complex comparative investigation of their characteristics measured by the spacecraft Clementine, LRO, and Chandrayaan-1. For the analysis we used the following parameters: the reflectance A(750 nm), color-ratio A(750 nm)/A(415 nm), parameter of optical micro-roughness (LRO WAC), parameters deduced from LRO Diviner data, optical maturity OMAT, abundance of FeO and TiO2 (Clementine UVVIS and LRO WAC data), oxygen content determined using Lunar Prospector data, and parameters characterizing the 0.95-μm and 2.2-μm bands of Fe2+ ions (crystal field bands), and 2.8-μm band of H2O/OH and/or Fe2+ ions. The red spots Helmet and Hansteen Alpha are considered to be extrusions of rhyolite composition, which can be attributed to the Nectarian period; we did not find contradictions of this assumption. As for the Copernicus red spot, this, perhaps, is a similar formation that has been destroyed by the impact. We demonstrate that the material of the Copernicus red spot probably has the same composition as the classical red spots Helmet and Hansteen Alpha. The distributions of the parameter of optical micro-roughness and optical maturity OMAT show that the Copernicus red anomaly was not formed during the long evolution of the lunar surface, but results from crater formation. We find several confirmations of the hypothesis that the Copernicus red spot can be a residual of a red material (possibly rhyolite) extrusion that was involved in the impact process. The red material could have been partially melted, crushed, and ejected to the crater's north-western vicinity. The described red asymmetry of the Copernicus ejecta can be related to the eccentricity, relative to the extrusion, of the impact and/or to the inclination of the impactor trajectory. The latter also is confirmed by an analysis of the region, which is based on the geological map shown in this paper.

  13. 3 CFR - Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl..., 2012 Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens Memorandum for the...) proposed critical habitat for the northern spotted owl. The proposal is an initial step in...

  14. 77 FR 12985 - Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing Regulatory Burdens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...#0;#0; ] Memorandum of February 28, 2012 Proposed Revised Habitat for the Spotted Owl: Minimizing... Department of the Interior (Department) proposed critical habitat for the northern spotted owl. The proposal... should be designated as critical habitat for the spotted owl, based on a full evaluation of all...

  15. 77 FR 50526 - Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for the Northern Spotted Owl, Skamania, Klickitat, and Yakima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Proposed Safe Harbor Agreement for the Northern Spotted Owl, Skamania... take of the threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) at a level that enables the... would also authorize incidental take of the spotted owl as a result of management activities during...

  16. QTL analysis of disease resistance to leaf spots and TSWV in peanut (Arachis hypogaea)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early leaf spot (ELS), caused by Cercospora arachidicola, late leaf spot (LLS), caused by Cercosporidium personatum, and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) result in great losses in yield in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to these dise...

  17. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  18. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  19. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  20. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  1. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of a basis grade contract: (a) For cotton delivered in settlement of any No. 2 contract on the New... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94....94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets...

  2. 21 CFR 892.1620 - Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. 892.1620... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1620 Cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera. (a) Identification. A cine or spot fluorographic x-ray camera is a device intended to...

  3. 76 FR 37141 - Notice of Availability for Comment: Draft Recovery Plan, First Revision; Mexican Spotted Owl

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ...; Mexican Spotted Owl AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request... recovery plan, first revision, for the Mexican Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis lucida) under the Endangered... will also accept any new information on the status of the Mexican spotted owl throughout its range...

  4. Breeding biology of the Spotted Barbtail (Premnoplex brunnescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz, Daniel; Martin, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    The Spotted Barbtail (Furnariidae) is poorly studied but shows some extreme traits for a tropical passerine. We located and monitored 155 nests to study this species for 7 years in an Andean cloud forest in Venezuela. Spotted Barbtails have an unusually long incubation period of 27.2 ± 0.16 days, as a result of very long (3–6 hr) off-bouts even though both adults incubate. The long off-bouts yield low incubation temperatures for embryos and are associated with proportionally large eggs (21% of adult mass). They also have a long nestling period of 21.67 ± 0.33 days, and a typical tropical brood size of two. The slow growth rate of the typical broods of two is even slower in broods artificially reduced to one young. Nonetheless, the young stay in the nest long enough to achieve wing lengths that approach adult size.

  5. Word Spotting for Indic Documents to Facilitate Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anurag; Setlur, Srirangaraj; Govindaraju, Venu

    With advances in the field of digitization of printed documents and several mass digitization projects underway, information retrieval and document search have emerged as key research areas. However, most of the current work in these areas is limited to English and a few oriental languages. The lack of efficient solutions for Indic scripts has hampered information extraction from a large body of documents of cultural and historical importance. This chapter presents two relevant topics in this area. First, we describe the use of a script-specific keyword spotting for Devanagari documents that makes use of domain knowledge of the script. Second, we address the needs of a digital library to provide access to a collection of documents from multiple scripts. This requires intelligent solutions which scale across different scripts. We present a script-independent keyword spotting approach for this purpose. Experimental results illustrate the efficacy of our methods.

  6. Birth-jump processes and application to forest fire spotting.

    PubMed

    Hillen, T; Greese, B; Martin, J; de Vries, G

    2015-01-01

    Birth-jump models are designed to describe population models for which growth and spatial spread cannot be decoupled. A birth-jump model is a nonlinear integro-differential equation. We present two different derivations of this equation, one based on a random walk approach and the other based on a two-compartmental reaction-diffusion model. In the case that the redistribution kernels are highly concentrated, we show that the integro-differential equation can be approximated by a reaction-diffusion equation, in which the proliferation rate contributes to both the diffusion term and the reaction term. We completely solve the corresponding critical domain size problem and the minimal wave speed problem. Birth-jump models can be applied in many areas in mathematical biology. We highlight an application of our results in the context of forest fire spread through spotting. We show that spotting increases the invasion speed of a forest fire front.

  7. Bypass transition and spot nucleation in boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreilos, Tobias; Khapko, Taras; Schlatter, Philipp; Duguet, Yohann; Henningson, Dan S.; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    The spatiotemporal aspects of the transition to turbulence are considered in the case of a boundary-layer flow developing above a flat plate exposed to free-stream turbulence. Combining results on the receptivity to free-stream turbulence with the nonlinear concept of a transition threshold, a physically motivated model suggests a spatial distribution of spot nucleation events. To describe the evolution of turbulent spots a probabilistic cellular automaton is introduced, with all parameters directly obtained from numerical simulations of the boundary layer. The nucleation rates are then combined with the cellular automaton model, yielding excellent quantitative agreement with the statistical characteristics for different free-stream turbulence levels. We thus show how the recent theoretical progress on transitional wall-bounded flows can be extended to the much wider class of spatially developing boundary-layer flows.

  8. Absolute positioning using DORIS tracking of the SPOT-2 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, M. M.; Ries, J. C.; Davis, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of the French DORIS system operating on the SPOT-2 satellite to provide absolute site positioning at the 20-30-centimeter level using 80 d of data is demonstrated. The accuracy of the vertical component is comparable to that of the horizontal components, indicating that residual troposphere error is not a limiting factor. The translation parameters indicate that the DORIS network realizes a geocentric frame to about 50 nm in each component. The considerable amount of data provided by the nearly global, all-weather DORIS network allowed this complex parameterization required to reduce the unmodeled forces acting on the low-earth satellite. Site velocities with accuracies better than 10 mm/yr should certainly be possible using the multiyear span of the SPOT series and Topex/Poseidon missions.

  9. Magnetic-Responsive Release Controlled by Hot Spot Effect.

    PubMed

    Guisasola, Eduardo; Baeza, Alejandro; Talelli, Marina; Arcos, Daniel; Moros, María; de la Fuente, Jesús M; Vallet-Regí, María

    2015-11-24

    Magnetically triggered drug delivery nanodevices have attracted great attention in nanomedicine, as they can feature as smart carriers releasing their payload at clinician's will. The key principle of these devices is based on the properties of magnetic cores to generate thermal energy in the presence of an alternating magnetic field. Then, the temperature increase triggers the drug release. Despite this potential, the rapid heat dissipation in living tissues is a serious hindrance for their clinical application. It is hypothesized that magnetic cores could act as hot spots, this is, produce enough heat to trigger the release without the necessity to increase the global temperature. Herein, a nanocarrier has been designed to respond when the temperature reaches 43 °C. This material has been able to release its payload under an alternating magnetic field without the need of increasing the global temperature of the environment, proving the efficacy of the hot spot mechanism in magnetic-responsive drug delivery devices.

  10. [Fast Implementation Method of Protein Spots Detection Based on CUDA].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Bangshu; Ye, Yijia; Ou, Qiaofeng; Zhang, Haodong

    2016-02-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of protein spots detection, a fast detection method based on CUDA was proposed. Firstly, the parallel algorithms of the three most time-consuming parts in the protein spots detection algorithm: image preprocessing, coarse protein point detection and overlapping point segmentation were studied. Then, according to single instruction multiple threads executive model of CUDA to adopted data space strategy of separating two-dimensional (2D) images into blocks, various optimizing measures such as shared memory and 2D texture memory are adopted in this study. The results show that the operative efficiency of this method is obviously improved compared to CPU calculation. As the image size increased, this method makes more improvement in efficiency, such as for the image with the size of 2,048 x 2,048, the method of CPU needs 52,641 ms, but the GPU needs only 4,384 ms.

  11. Use of multitemporal SPOT data in first ISLSCP field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asrar, Ghassem; Murphy, R. E.; Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of multitemporal SPOT data in a coordinated field experiment is described with objectives to understand the processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of heat, mass, momentum and radiation at a range of spatial and temporal scales; and quantify processes associated with these biosphere-atmosphere exchanges with the aid of multispectral and multitemporal remotely sensed data. The study was conducted in a 15 sq km area located in the tall grass prairie region of midwestern U.S. over a period of three years from 1987 through 1989. A combination of ground based, airborne and space based remotely sensed data were used in a variety of interdisciplinary investigations. An overview of the results from studies that used SPOT multispectral and multitemporal data is presented.

  12. Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, Dan S.; Kim, John

    1989-01-01

    Turbulence characteristics inside a turbulent spot in plane Poiseuille flow are investigated by analyzing a database obtained from a direct simulation. The spot area is divided into two distinct regions - a turbulent area and a wave area. It is found that the flow structures inside the turbulent area have strong resemblance to those found in the fully-developed turbulent channel flow. A suitably defined mean and rms fluctuations as well as the internal shear-layer structures are found to be similar to the turbulent counterpart. In the wave area the inflexional mean spanwise profiles cause a rapid growth of oblique waves, which break down to turbulence. The rms fluctuations and Reynolds stress are found to be higher in that area, and the shear-layer structures are similar to those observed in the secondary instability of two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting waves.

  13. RAS gene hot-spot mutations in canine neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Murua Escobar, H; Günther, K; Soller, J T; Winkler, S; Nolte, I; Bullerdiek, J

    2005-01-01

    Point mutations in the cellular homologues HRAS, KRAS2, and NRAS of the viral Harvey and Kirsten rat sarcoma virus oncogenes are commonly involved in the onset of malignancies in humans and other species such as dog, mouse, and rat. Most often, three particular hot-spot codons are affected, with one amino acid exchange being sufficient for the induction of tumor growth. While RAS genes have been shown to play an important role in canine tumors such as non-small lung cell carcinomas, data about RAS mutations in canine fibrosarcomas as well as KRAS2 mutations in canine melanomas is sparse. To increase the number of tumors examined, we recently screened 13 canine fibrosarcomas and 11 canine melanomas for point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot spots. The results were compared to the already existing data from other studies about these tumors in dogs.

  14. SPOT: an optimization software for dynamic observation programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Rubini, Pascal; Brauner-Vettier, Nadia; Cambazard, Hadrien; Catusse, Nicolas; Lemaire, Pierre; Baude, Laurence

    2016-07-01

    The surveys dedicated to the search for extrasolar planets with the recently installed extreme-AO, high contrast Planet Imagers generally include hundreds of targets, to be observed sometimes repeatedly, generally in Angular Differential Imaging Mode. Each observation has to fulfill several time-dependent constraints, which makes a manual elaboration of an optimized planning impossible. We have developed a software (SPOT), an easy to use tool with graphical interface that allows both long term (months, years) and dynamic (nights) optimized scheduling of such surveys, taking into account all relevant constraints. Tests show that excellent schedules and high filling efficiencies can be obtained with execution times compatible with real-time scheduling, making possible to take in account complex constraints and to dynamically adapt planning to unexpected circumstances even during their execution. Moreover, such a tool is very valuable during survey preparations to build target lists and calendars. SPOT could be easily adapted for scheduling observations other instruments or telescopes.

  15. Adult Onset Still's Disease and Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Persad, Paul; Patel, Rajendrakumar; Patel, Niki

    2010-01-01

    Adult Still's Disease was first described in 1971 by Bywaters in fourteen adult female patients who presented with symptoms indistinguishable from that of classic childhood Still's Disease (Bywaters, 1971). George Still in 1896 first recognized this triad of quotidian (daily) fevers, evanescent rash, and arthritis in children with what later became known as juvenile inflammatory arthritis (Still, 1990). Adult Onset Still's Disease (AOSD) is an inflammatory condition of unknown etiology characterized by an evanescent rash, quotidian fevers, and arthralgias. Numerous infectious agents have been associated with its presentation. This case is to our knowledge the first presentation of AOSD in the setting of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Although numerous infectious agents have been suggested, the etiology of this disorder remains elusive. Nevertheless, infection may in fact play a role in triggering the onset of symptoms in those with this disorder. Our case presentation is, to our knowledge, the first case of Adult Onset Still's Disease associated with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF).

  16. A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Maria João; Matos Costa, João

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications. PMID:28053795

  17. Surface spots on cool giants probed by spectro-astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, B.; Wiedemann, G.

    2009-02-01

    Spectro-astrometry enables us to study phenomena on milli-arcsecond spatial scales. It exploits the variation with wavelength of the centroid position of a structured source in a longslit spectrum, predominantly near spectral absorption/emission lines. The centroid can be measured with sub-diffration-limited precision, depending mostly on the S/N. Our goal is to identify surface features on cool giant stars and to constrain their size and temperature constrast. We obtained VLT/CRIRES 2.3 um-CO-spectra (R~90000 S/N~1000-5000) of TW Oph and RS Vir. We find spectro-astrometric signatures at a 2 mas amplitude for TW Oph. The best-fitting models suggest a mid-lattitude spot covering 10% of the visible stellar disk with ΔT~500 K. In the case of RS Vir, we derive upper limits on spot coverage.

  18. Structural hot spots for the solubility of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Ashok; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Beerten, Jacinte; Brams, Marijke; Van Durme, Joost; De Baets, Greet; Van der Kant, Rob; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ramakers, Meine; Langenberg, Tobias; Wilkinson, Hannah; De Smet, Frederik; Ulens, Chris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2016-02-24

    Natural selection shapes protein solubility to physiological requirements and recombinant applications that require higher protein concentrations are often problematic. This raises the question whether the solubility of natural protein sequences can be improved. We here show an anti-correlation between the number of aggregation prone regions (APRs) in a protein sequence and its solubility, suggesting that mutational suppression of APRs provides a simple strategy to increase protein solubility. We show that mutations at specific positions within a protein structure can act as APR suppressors without affecting protein stability. These hot spots for protein solubility are both structure and sequence dependent but can be computationally predicted. We demonstrate this by reducing the aggregation of human α-galactosidase and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis through mutation. Our results indicate that many proteins possess hot spots allowing to adapt protein solubility independently of structure and function.

  19. Statistical analysis of Nomao customer votes for spots of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálovics, Róbert; Daróczy, Bálint; Benczúr, András; Pap, Julia; Ermann, Leonardo; Phan, Samuel; Chepelianskii, Alexei D.; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of votes of customers for spots of France collected by the startup company Nomao. The frequencies of votes per spot and per customer are characterized by a power law distribution which remains stable on a time scale of a decade when the number of votes is varied by almost two orders of magnitude. Using the computer science methods we explore the spectrum and the eigenvalues of a matrix containing user ratings to geolocalized items. Eigenvalues nicely map to large towns and regions but show certain level of instability as we modify the interpretation of the underlying matrix. We evaluate imputation strategies that provide improved prediction performance by reaching geographically smooth eigenvectors. We point on possible links between distribution of votes and the phenomenon of self-organized criticality.

  20. Structural hot spots for the solubility of globular proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Ashok; Siekierska, Aleksandra; Beerten, Jacinte; Brams, Marijke; Van Durme, Joost; De Baets, Greet; Van der Kant, Rob; Gallardo, Rodrigo; Ramakers, Meine; Langenberg, Tobias; Wilkinson, Hannah; De Smet, Frederik; Ulens, Chris; Rousseau, Frederic; Schymkowitz, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Natural selection shapes protein solubility to physiological requirements and recombinant applications that require higher protein concentrations are often problematic. This raises the question whether the solubility of natural protein sequences can be improved. We here show an anti-correlation between the number of aggregation prone regions (APRs) in a protein sequence and its solubility, suggesting that mutational suppression of APRs provides a simple strategy to increase protein solubility. We show that mutations at specific positions within a protein structure can act as APR suppressors without affecting protein stability. These hot spots for protein solubility are both structure and sequence dependent but can be computationally predicted. We demonstrate this by reducing the aggregation of human α-galactosidase and protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis through mutation. Our results indicate that many proteins possess hot spots allowing to adapt protein solubility independently of structure and function. PMID:26905391

  1. Analysis of ripple formation in single crystal spot welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rappaz, M.; Corrigan, D.; Boatner, L. A.

    1997-01-01

    Stationary spot welds have been made at the (001) surface of Fe-l5%Ni-15%Cr single crystals using a Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA). On the top surface of the spot welds, very regular and concentric ripples were observed after solidification by differential interference color microscopy. Their height (typically 1--5 micrometers and spacing, typically approximately 60 micrometers) decreased with the radius of the pool. These ripples were successfully accounted for in terms of capillary-wave theory using the fundamental mode frequency f(sub 0) given by the first zero of the zero-order Bessel function. The spacing d between the ripples was then equated to v(sub s)/f(sub 0), where v(sub s) is the solidification rate. From the measured ripple spacing, the velocity of the pool was deduced as a function of the radius, and this velocity was in good agreement with the results of a heat-flow simulation.

  2. Mammalian sexual differentiation: lessons from the spotted hyena.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Stephen E; Cunha, Gerald R; Drea, Christine M; Conley, Alan J; Place, Ned J

    2006-11-01

    Female spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are the only female mammals that lack an external vaginal opening. Mating and birth take place through a urogenital canal that exits at the tip of a hypertrophied clitoris. This 'masculine' phenotype spurred a search for an alternate source of fetal androgens. Although androstenedione from the maternal ovary is readily metabolized to testosterone by the hyena placenta, formation of the penile clitoris and scrotum appear to be largely androgen independent. However, secretions from the fetal testes underlie sex differences in the genitalia and central nervous system that are essential for male reproduction. Naturally circulating androgens, acting prenatally, reduce reproductive success in adult female spotted hyenas. Effects on aggression and dominance might offset these reproductive 'costs' of female androgenization in utero.

  3. The Spot of Arago and Its Role in Aberration Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    1981. Monk, George S. Light: Principles and Experiments. New York: Dover Publications, 1963. Rayleigh ( Strutt , John William ). "Shadows." In his...Earlier Observations of the Spot Many sources mention that Arago was not the first to observe the bright point of light. John William Strutt (Lord...points on and near the optical axis, analytical solutions to the Rayleigh -Sommerfeld diffraction integral are possible for a circu- lar obscuration and

  4. Price convergence in North America natural gas spot markets

    SciTech Connect

    King, M.; Cuc, M.

    1996-12-01

    Government policy changes and subsequent regulatory actions in Canada and the United States (US) in the mid-1980s led to effective deregulation of the commodity market for natural gas. This was done by price deregulation, unbundling of pipeline services, and the fostering of a competitive market through equal and open access to pipeline transportation capacity by all suppliers and users. This paper attempts to measure the degree of price convergence in the North American natural gas spot markets. 38 refs.

  5. Thermal imaging of hot spots in nanostructured microstripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saïdi, E.; Lesueur, J.; Aigouy, L.; Labéguerie-Egéa, J.; Mortier, M.

    2010-03-01

    By scanning thermal microscopy, we study the behavior of nanostructured metallic microstripes heated by Joule effect. Regularly spaced indentations have been made along the thin film stripe in order to create hot spots. For the designed stripe geometry, we observe that heat remains confined in the wire and in particular at shrinkage points within ~1μm2. Thermal maps have been obtained with a good lateral resolution (< 300nm) and a good temperature sensitivity (~1K).

  6. X-ray focal spot locating apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, Hubert W.

    1985-07-30

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  7. Climatic factors in resurgence of Mediterranean spotted fever

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, E.E.; Creus, B.F.; Cueto, F.B.; Porta, F.S.

    1986-06-07

    There has been a recent resurgence of Mediterranean spotted fever in areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea. This disease is caused by Rickettsia conorii, the dog tick being the vector and main reservoir. Ticks prefer warm weather and their activity increases with rising temperature. In the Valles Occidental, Spain, the incidence of the disease is correlated with hotter and drier summers in the past ten years.

  8. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Red-spotted newt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens viridescens). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  9. Measurement of subresolution terrain displacements using SPOT panchromatic imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crippen, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    SPOT panchromatic imagery is used to measure subresolution horizontal terrain displacements that are associated with earthquakes, sand dune migration, coastal processes, and glacial motion. The approach is aimed at detecting and measuring surface processes by statistically matching the radiometric patterns in the data that differ spatially in a consistent direction over many pixels. Data obtained from the satellite-derived imagery can facilitate the understanding of natural hazards and the determination of the rates of many environmental processes worldwide.

  10. Orchitis in two dogs with Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Ober, Christopher P; Spaulding, Kathy; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Malarkey, David E; Hegarty, Barbara C

    2004-01-01

    Two dogs with testicular swelling were sonographically diagnosed with orchitis and were subsequently diagnosed with Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF). Use of both gray scale and color Doppler sonography allowed for differentiation of orchitis from neoplasia and torsion. While only experimentally induced RMSF is reported to cause orchitis in dogs, it should be considered in any dog with vascular insult to the testes, especially when other signs of systemic illness are involved.

  11. Rocky Mountain spotted fever acquired in Florida, 1973-83.

    PubMed

    Sacks, J J; Janowski, H T

    1985-12-01

    From 1973 to 1983, 49 Florida residents were reported with confirmed Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), 25 of whom were considered to have had Florida-acquired disease. Although there was no history of tick exposure for six of these 25 persons, all had contact with dogs or outdoor activities during the incubation period. The tick vectors of RMSF are widely distributed throughout Florida. We conclude that RMSF, although rare in Florida, can be acquired in the state.

  12. Photopolarimeter/Radiometer (PPR) Temperature Map of Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This map shows temperatures for the region around Jupiter's Great Red Spot and an area to the northwest. The center of the Great Red Spot appears colder than the surrounding areas, and actually is colder than any other place in Jupiter's atmosphere. The center of the spot is a region where winds bring gases up from underneath. The ammonia in the rising air condenses as it comes up and so forms tall thick clouds, much the same way as rising air in the Earth's atmosphere over moist areas forms high water clouds. It is a little warmer to the immediate east and west of the spot, where the uprising winds are weaker. To the south is a warm area where winds are generally descending and clearer of clouds. The northwestern area in this map shows atmosphere that is much warmer and drier, and the gases there are descending, so it is much clearer of clouds. This map corresponds to a level in Jupiter's atmosphere where the pressure is only 1/4 of the Earth's at sea level (250 millibars), the same as it is near 1200 meters (40,000 feet) above sea level in the Earth. This map was made from data taken by the Photopolarimeter/Radiometer (PPR) instrument on June 26, 1996.

    JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  13. Astroparticle transport and yield in extragalactic jets and hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcowith, A.; Casse, F.

    2005-02-01

    The present work discusses yield and transport of high-energy particle within extragalactic jet terminal shocks, also known as hotspots. These astrophysical sources are responsible for strong non-thermal synchrotron emission produced by relativistic electrons accelerated via a Fermi-type mechanism. We investigate in some details the cosmic ray, neutrinos and high-energy photons yield in hotspots of powerful FRII radio-galaxies by scanning all known spatial transport regimes, adiabatic and radiative losses as well as Fermi acceleration processes. Since both electrons and cosmic rays are prone to the same type of acceleration, we derive analytical estimates of the maximal cosmic ray energy attainable in both toroidal and poloidal magnetic field dominated shock structures by using observational data on synchrotron emission coming from various hot-spots. One of our main conclusions is that the best hot-spot candidates for high energy astroparticle production is the extended (LHS >= 1kpc), strongly magnetized (B > 0.1mG) terminal shock displaying synchrotron emission cut-off lying at least in the optical band. We found only one object (3C273A) over the six objects in our sample being capable to produce cosmic rays up to 1020 eV. We also show that the Bohm regime is unlikely to occur in the whole hot-spot since it would require unrealistically low jet velocities. We finally investigate the astroparticle yields of a characteric cosmic-ray loud hot-spot and compared them to the sensibilities of the future neutrinos and gamma-ray missions.

  14. Vibrio sp. causing Porites ulcerative white spot disease.

    PubMed

    Arboleda, Mark D M; Reichardt, Wolfgang T

    2010-06-11

    The causative agent of the Indo-Pacific coral disease, Porites ulcerative white spot syndrome (PUWS), that affects Porites spp. and a few other coral genera has so far remained unidentified. Inoculation of thiosulphate citrate bile sucrose (TCBS) agar with tissue material from Porites cylindrica infected with white spot produced colonies of approximately 3 mm diameter consisting of Gram-negative, motile, non-sucrose-fermenting, slightly curved rods with a minimum NaCl requirement of 0.3%. Three of these putative Vibrio sp. isolates were used for infection trials that included different stages of cell growth. Four modes of inoculation and 3 stages of bacterial cell growth were considered for testing Koch's postulates. Stationary phase cells proved more consistently infectious than did exponentially growing or starved cells using a 1-step immersion technique at cell concentrations of 10(4) cells ml(-1). A 1-step immersion technique proved more reliable in producing signs of white spot than did other techniques, such as injection, smearing and 2-step immersion of the inoculum. At inoculum densities >10(4) cells ml(-1) further signs of disease, such as tissue degradation and bleaching, also became evident. At elevated temperatures (>29 degrees C) bleaching remained absent for at least 2 mo from non-inoculated corals serving as controls, but was observed in artificially infected coral fragments. Of the 9 seawater aquaria containing healthy specimens of P. cylindrica, 6 showed signs of white spot 15 d after infection with an isolate tentatively identified as Vibrio sp. Based on 99% similarity of its 16S rRNA gene sequence and selected phenotypical features, this isolate revealed a close relationship to V. natriegens and V. parahaemolyticus.

  15. Complete mitochondrial genome of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Gekko gecko, Reptilia: Gekkonidae): comparison of red- and black-spotted tokay geckos.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xin-Min; Qian, Fang; Zeng, De-Long; Liu, Xiao-Can; Li, Hui-Min

    2011-10-01

    Here, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the red-spotted tokay gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae). The genome is 16,590 bp in size. Its gene arrangement pattern was identical with that of black-spotted tokay gecko. We compared the mitochondrial genome of red-spotted tokay gecko with that of the black-spotted tokay gecko. Nucleotide sequence of the two whole mitochondrial genomes was 97.99% similar, and the relatively high similarity seems to indicate that they may be separated at the subspecies level. The information of mitochondrial genome comparison of the two morphological types of tokay gecko is discussed in detail.

  16. A Chronology of Star Spots on CK Bootis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markworth, N. L.

    1993-12-01

    The W UMa system CK Bootis has eclipses of almost equal depth, which periodically interchange roles, the primary eclipse being the deeper eclipse in some seasons, the shallower in other. We have reanalyzed the light curves of Aslan and Derman (1986), which were obtained seasonally in 1976, 1977, 1978, 1981, and 1982, along with the light curves of Gann (1986), obtained in 1985, and Luther(unpublished) in 1991. We have taken the 1977 light curve to represent a situation in which CK Boo is as undisturbed as is possible and have used it to obtained to geometrical and astrophysical parameters of the system using the revised code of Wilson (1992). It was necessary to introduce a cool spot on the surface of the primary star in order to account for a small O'Connell effect. The other light curves were then fitted by adjusting spot parameters or adding spots as necessary. Each seasonal light curve can be successfully represented in this manner.

  17. Dust as the cause of spots on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Field, G. B.; Tozzi, G. P.; Stanga, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The long-lived spots caused by the impact of fragments of Comet S-L 9 on Jupiter can be understood if clouds of dust are produced by the impact. These clouds reside in the stratosphere, where they absorb visible light that would ordinarily reflect from the cloud deck below, and reflect radiation at infrared wavelengths that would ordinarily be absorbed by atmospheric methane. Here we show that, provided that the nucleus of a fragment is composed substantially of silicates and has a diameter greater than about 0.4 km, dust in the required amounts will condense from the hot gas composed of cometary and Jovian material ejected from the site where the fragment entered, and the dust will be suspended in the stratosphere for long periods. Particles about 1 micron in radius can explain both the optical properties and longevities of the spots. According to our model, a silicate band should be present in the 10 - micron spectra of the spots.

  18. Effects of EOS adiabat on hot spot dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Baolian; Kwan, Thomas; Wang, Yi-Ming; Batha, Steven

    2013-10-01

    Equation of state (EOS) and adiabat of the pusher play significant roles in the dynamics and formation of the hot spot of an ignition capsule. For given imploding energy, they uniquely determine the partition of internal energy, mass, and volume between the pusher and the hot spot. In this work, we apply the new scaling laws recently derived by Cheng et al. to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) ignition capsules and study the impacts of EOS and adiabat of the pusher on the hot spot dynamics by using the EOS adiabat index as an adjustable model parameter. We compare our analysis with the NIC data, specifically, for shots N120321 and N120205, and with the numerical simulations of these shots. The predictions from our theoretical model are in good agreements with the NIC data when a hot adiabat was used for the pusher, and with code simulations when a cold adiabat was used for the pusher. Our analysis indicates that the actual adiabat of the pusher in NIC experiments may well be higher than the adiabat assumed in the simulations. This analysis provides a physical and systematic explanation to the ongoing disagreements between the NIC experimental results and the multi-dimensional numerical simulations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract number W-7405-ENG-36.

  19. Distinguishing black holes and wormholes with orbiting hot spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zilong; Bambi, Cosimo

    2014-07-01

    The supermassive black hole candidates at the center of every normal galaxy might be wormholes created in the early Universe and connecting either two different regions of our Universe or two different universes in a multiverse model. Indeed, the origin of these supermassive objects is not well understood; topological nontrivial structures like wormholes are allowed both in general relativity and in alternative theories of gravity, and current observations cannot rule out such a possibility. In a few years, the VLTI instrument GRAVITY will have the capability to image blobs of plasma orbiting near the innermost stable circular orbit of SgrA*, the supermassive black hole candidate in the Milky Way. The secondary image of a hot spot orbiting around a wormhole is substantially different from that of a hot spot around a black hole, because the photon capture sphere of the wormhole is much smaller. The radius of the photon capture sphere is independent of the hot spot model, and therefore its possible detection, which is observationally challenging but not out of reach, can unambiguously test if the center of our Galaxy harbors a wormhole rather than a black hole.

  20. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-02-18

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed.

  1. Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Davis, Lloyd S; Chiaradia, André

    2017-02-01

    Human activities drive environmental changes at scales that could potentially cause ecosystem collapses in the marine environment. We combined information on marine biodiversity with spatial assessments of the impacts of climate change to identify the key areas to prioritize for the conservation of global marine biodiversity. This process identified six marine regions of exceptional biodiversity based on global distributions of 1729 species of fish, 124 marine mammals, and 330 seabirds. Overall, these hot spots of marine biodiversity coincide with areas most severely affected by global warming. In particular, these marine biodiversity hot spots have undergone local to regional increasing water temperatures, slowing current circulation, and decreasing primary productivity. Furthermore, when we overlapped these hot spots with available industrial fishery data, albeit coarser than our estimates of climate impacts, they suggest a worrying coincidence whereby the world's richest areas for marine biodiversity are also those areas mostly affected by both climate change and industrial fishing. In light of these findings, we offer an adaptable framework for determining local to regional areas of special concern for the conservation of marine biodiversity. This has exposed the need for finer-scaled fishery data to assist in the management of global fisheries if the accumulative, but potentially preventable, effect of fishing on climate change impacts is to be minimized within areas prioritized for marine biodiversity conservation.

  2. White spot syndrome virus inactivation study by using gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidareh, Marzieh; Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Soltani, Mehdi; Rajabifar, Saeed; Afsharnasab, Mohammad; Dashtiannasab, Aghil

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). White spot syndrome virus is a pathogen of major economic importance in cultured penaeid shrimp industries. White spot disease can cause mortalities reaching 100% within 3-10 days of gross signs appearing. During the period of culture, immunostimulant agents and vaccines may provide potential methods to protect shrimps from opportunistic and pathogenic microrganisms. In this study, firstly, WSSV was isolated from infected shrimp and then multiplied in crayfish. WSSV was purified from the infected crayfish haemolymph by sucrose gradient and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo virus titration was performed in shrimp, Penaeus semisulcatus. The LD50 of live virus stock was calculated 10 5.4/mL. Shrimp post-larvae (1-2 g) were treated with gamma-irradiated (different doses) WSSV (100 to 10-4 dilutions) for a period of 10 days. The dose/survival curve for irradiated and un-irradiated WSSV was drawn; the optimum dose range for inactivation of WSSV and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 14-15 kGy. This preliminary information suggests that shrimp appear to benefit from treatment with gammairradiated WSSV especially at 14-15 KGy.

  3. Matrix phased array (MPA) imaging technology for resistance spot welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Gleeson, Sean T.

    2014-02-01

    A three-dimensional MPA probe has been incorporated with a high speed phased array electronic board to visualize nugget images of resistance spot welds. The primary application area of this battery operated portable MPA ultrasonic imaging system is in the automotive industry which a conventional destructive testing process is commonly adopted to check the quality of resistance spot welds in auto bodies. Considering an average of five-thousand spot welds in a medium size passenger vehicle, the amount of time and effort given to popping the welds and measuring nugget size are immeasurable in addition to the millions of dollars' worth of scrap metals recycled per plant per year. This wasteful labor intensive destructive testing process has become less reliable as auto body sheet metal has transitioned from thick and heavy mild steels to thin and light high strength steels. Consequently, the necessity of developing a non-destructive inspection methodology has become inevitable. In this paper, the fundamental aspects of the current 3-D probe design, data acquisition algorithms, and weld nugget imaging process are discussed.

  4. Hot spot management through design based metrology: measurement and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyeong; Yang, Hyunjo; Kim, Jungchan; Jung, Areum; Yoo, Gyun; Yim, Donggyu; Park, Sungki; Ishikawa, Akio; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Vikram, Abhishek

    2009-12-01

    Recently several Design Based Metrologies (DBMs) are introduced and being in use for wafer verification. The major applications of DBM are OPC accuracy improvement, DFM feed-back through Process Window Qualification (PWQ) and advanced process control. In general, however, the amount of output data from DBM is normally so large that it is very hard to handle the data for valuable feed-back. In case of PWQ, more than thousands of hot spots are detected on a single chip at the edge of process window. So, it takes much time and labor to review and analyze all the hot spots detected at PWQ. Design-related systematic defects, however, will be found repeatedly and if they can be classified into groups, it would be possible to save a lot of time for the analysis. We have demonstrated an EDA tool which can handle the large amount of output data from DBM by classifying pattern defects into groups. It can classify millions of patterns into less than thousands of pattern groups. It has been evaluated on the analysis of PWQ of metal layer in NAND Flash memory device and random contact hole patterns in a DRAM device. Also, verification was tuned to specific needs of the designer as well as defect analysis engineers by use of EDA tool's 'Pattern Matching Function'. The verification result was well within the required specification of the designer as well as the analysis engineer. The procedures of Hot Spot Management through Design Based Metrology are presented in detail.

  5. [Rocky Mountain spotted fever in an American tourist].

    PubMed

    de Pender, A M G; Bauer, A G C; van Genderen, P J J

    2005-04-02

    In a 28-year-old male American tourist who presented in the hospital with fever, cold shivers, headache, nausea, myalgia and arthralgia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever was suspected, partly because he came from an endemic region (the state of Georgia). The patient was treated with doxycycline, 100 mg b.i.d.; 9 days after the first appearance of the symptoms, the diagnosis was confirmed by the report of a positive antibody titre against Rickettsia rickettsii. The patient did not have exanthema. He was discharged in good general condition after two weeks of treatment. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium R. rickettsii, is a serious rickettsiosis. The disease is seen only sporadically in the Netherlands because the ticks in the Netherlands do not carry the bacterium. The travel history is still not a standard component of the anamnesis and is therefore often forgotten. This can lead to under-diagnosis and delayed treatment of diseases that were formerly limited to the continent. The early recognition and treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever is important since delayed treatment is associated with a clear increase in both morbidity and mortality.

  6. High-Density Spot Seeding for Tissue Model Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L. (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A model of tissue is produced by steps comprising seeding cells at a selected concentration on a support to form a cell spot, incubating the cells to allow the cells to partially attach, rinsing the cells to remove any cells that have not partially attached, adding culture medium to enable the cells to proliferate at a periphery of the cell spot and to differentiate toward a center of the cell spot, and further incubating the cells to form the tissue. The cells may be C2C12 cells or other subclones of the C2 cell line, H9c2(2-1) cells, L6 cells, L8 cells, QM7 cells, Sol8 cells, G-7 cells, G-8 cells, other myoblast cells, cells from other tissues, or stem cells. The selected concentration is in a range from about 1 x 10(exp 5) cells/ml to about 1 x 10(exp 6) cells/ml. The tissue formed may be a muscle tissue or other tissue depending on the cells seeded.

  7. High-Density Spot Seeding for Tissue Model Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquette, Michele L. (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method for making a tissue includes seeding cells at a selected concentration on a support to form a cell spot, incubating the cells to allow the cells to partially attach, rinsing the cells to remove any unattached cells, adding culture medium to enable the cells to proliferate at a periphery of the cell spot and to differentiate toward a center of the cell spot, and further incubating the cells to form the tissue. The cells may be C2C12 cells or other subclones of the C2 cell line, H9c2(2-1) cells, L6 cells, L8 cells, QM7 cells, Sol8 cells, G-7 cells, G-8 cells, other myoblast cells, cells from other tissues, or stem cells. The selected concentration is in a range from about 1 x 10(exp 5) cells/ml to about 1 x 10(exp 6) cells/ml. The tissue formed may be a skeletal muscle tissue, a cardiac muscle tissue, nerve tissue, or a bone tissue.

  8. Heating of Jupiter's upper atmosphere above the Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, James; Moore, Luke; Stallard, Tom; Melin, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Measured upper-atmospheric, mid-to-low latitude temperatures of the giant planets are hundreds of degrees warmer than simulations based on solar heating alone can explain. Modelling studies, focused on additional sources of heating, have been so far unable to resolve this significant model-data discrepancy. Equatorward transport of energy from the hot auroral regions was expected to heat low latitude regions; instead, models have demonstrated that auroral energy is trapped at high latitudes, a consequence of the strong Coriolis forces on these rapidly rotating planets. Wave heating, driven from below, represents another potential source of upper-atmospheric heating. Using data taken in 2012 by the ground-based NASA IRTF, we found through observations of the H3+ ion that the upper atmosphere above Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) - the largest storm in the solar system - is hundreds of degrees hotter than anywhere else on the planet. Specifically, the result shows that the northern region of the spot was over 1600 K, and that background temperatures away from the spot are ~850 K. The hotspot, by process of elimination, must be heated from below, and this detection is therefore strong evidence for coupling between Jupiter's lower and upper atmospheres, likely the result of upward propagating acoustic and/or gravity waves. Our results indicate that the lower atmosphere may yet play an important role in resolving the giant planet 'energy crisis'.

  9. A pulsating auroral X-ray hot spot on Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Gladstone, G R; Waite, J H; Grodent, D; Lewis, W S; Crary, F J; Elsner, R F; Weisskopf, M C; Majeed, T; Jahn, J-M; Bhardwaj, A; Clarke, J T; Young, D T; Dougherty, M K; Espinosa, S A; Cravens, T E

    2002-02-28

    Jupiter's X-ray aurora has been thought to be excited by energetic sulphur and oxygen ions precipitating from the inner magnetosphere into the planet's polar regions. Here we report high-spatial-resolution observations that demonstrate that most of Jupiter's northern auroral X-rays come from a 'hot spot' located significantly poleward of the latitudes connected to the inner magnetosphere. The hot spot seems to be fixed in magnetic latitude and longitude and occurs in a region where anomalous infrared and ultraviolet emissions have also been observed. We infer from the data that the particles that excite the aurora originate in the outer magnetosphere. The hot spot X-rays pulsate with an approximately 45-min period, a period similar to that reported for high-latitude radio and energetic electron bursts observed by near-Jupiter spacecraft. These results invalidate the idea that jovian auroral X-ray emissions are mainly excited by steady precipitation of energetic heavy ions from the inner magnetosphere. Instead, the X-rays seem to result from currently unexplained processes in the outer magnetosphere that produce highly localized and highly variable emissions over an extremely wide range of wavelengths.

  10. Simultaneous multiple uniform spot generation with micro optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fruendt, J.; Jarczynski, M.; Mitra, T.

    2008-08-01

    Direct laser patterning of various materials is industrially implemented into several micro-system production lines such as inkjet printing, solar cell technology, flat-panel display production and medical engineering. In contrast to applications of single-mode sources, multi-mode lasers can provide very high power. This allows multi channel material processing and thus high operation speed if uniform light fields can be provided. Here within an illumination system is presented based on a high power multi-mode laser source that generates several uniform spots simultaneously without high stability requirements for the incoming laser source. These spots can be generated in various sizes and at various distances and can be located periodically and non-periodically. The concept consists of two beam processing steps: First the beam is homogenized by use of cylindrical micro-optic lens arrays. Secondly anamorphotic telecentric microoptic objectives split the beam into several uniform segments and image the spots onto the working plane. Because of LIMO's unique production technology the lens arrays can be optimized freely. It results in accurate dimensions and uniform intensity distributions for every single illuminated area. Field dimensions are only restricted by the diffraction limit. Applications could be direct material processing as well as mask illumination approaches.

  11. The impact of focal spot size on clinical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Sinead M.; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2009-02-01

    The physical assessment of the spatial resolution produced by broad and fine focal spot sizes has been well established. There is however an evident lack of study into the impact of focal spot selection on clinical image quality. While the excessive use of the fine focus has an impact on tube life, the benefit of its use in radiological imaging should be investigated. Cadaver images were produced in order to compare the 0.8mm and 1.8mm focal spot sizes. The range of radiographic projections assessed included the medio-lateral ankle, antero-posterior (AP) knee, AP thoracic spine and horizontal beam lateral (HBL) lumbar spine. Five clinicians analysed the images using a 1 - 4 visual grading analysis score against a reference image to assess the visibility of specific anatomical criteria. A Mann- Whitney U statistical test was employed to assess the results. No significant statistical differences between the scores for the broad and fine focus images were found, although a non-significant higher score in image quality was shown for the fine compared with the broad focus images with large object to detector distance. No difference in image quality was shown for examinations traditionally produced with a fine focus. The study results questions the wide spread usage of fine foci for specific examinations, particularly for extremity examinations. Current practice based on international guidelines can lead to a reduced life and increased cost with little clinical benefit.

  12. Climate impacts on global hot spots of marine biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Davis, Lloyd S.; Chiaradia, André

    2017-01-01

    Human activities drive environmental changes at scales that could potentially cause ecosystem collapses in the marine environment. We combined information on marine biodiversity with spatial assessments of the impacts of climate change to identify the key areas to prioritize for the conservation of global marine biodiversity. This process identified six marine regions of exceptional biodiversity based on global distributions of 1729 species of fish, 124 marine mammals, and 330 seabirds. Overall, these hot spots of marine biodiversity coincide with areas most severely affected by global warming. In particular, these marine biodiversity hot spots have undergone local to regional increasing water temperatures, slowing current circulation, and decreasing primary productivity. Furthermore, when we overlapped these hot spots with available industrial fishery data, albeit coarser than our estimates of climate impacts, they suggest a worrying coincidence whereby the world’s richest areas for marine biodiversity are also those areas mostly affected by both climate change and industrial fishing. In light of these findings, we offer an adaptable framework for determining local to regional areas of special concern for the conservation of marine biodiversity. This has exposed the need for finer-scaled fishery data to assist in the management of global fisheries if the accumulative, but potentially preventable, effect of fishing on climate change impacts is to be minimized within areas prioritized for marine biodiversity conservation. PMID:28261659

  13. Meiotic recombination cold spots in chromosomal cohesion sites.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaru; Kugou, Kazuto; Fawcett, Jeffrey A; Mura, Sachiko; Ikeda, Sho; Innan, Hideki; Ohta, Kunihiro

    2014-05-01

    Meiotic chromosome architecture called 'axis-loop structures' and histone modifications have been shown to regulate the Spo11-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that trigger meiotic recombination. Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses followed by deep sequencing, we compared the genome-wide distribution of the axis protein Rec8 (the kleisin subunit of meiotic cohesin) with that of oligomeric DNA covalently bound to Spo11, indicative of DSB sites. The frequency of DSB sites is overall constant between Rec8 binding sites. However, DSB cold spots are observed in regions spanning ±0.8 kb around Rec8 binding sites. The axis-associated cold spots are not due to the exclusion of Spo11 localization from the axis, because ChIP experiments showed that substantial Spo11 persists at Rec8 binding sites during DSB formation. Spo11 fused with Gal4 DNA binding domain (Gal4BD-Spo11) tethered in close proximity (≤0.8 kb) to Rec8 binding sites hardly forms meiotic DSBs, in contrast with other regions. In addition, H3K4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) remarkably decreases at Rec8 binding sites. These results suggest that reduced histone H3K4me3 in combination with inactivation of Spo11 activity on the axis discourages DSB hot spot formation.

  14. Social intelligence in the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Sakai, Sharleen T; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2007-04-29

    If the large brains and great intelligence characteristic of primates were favoured by selection pressures associated with life in complex societies, then cognitive abilities and nervous systems with primate-like attributes should have evolved convergently in non-primate mammals living in large, elaborate societies in which social dexterity enhances individual fitness. The societies of spotted hyenas are remarkably like those of cercopithecine primates with respect to size, structure and patterns of competition and cooperation. These similarities set an ideal stage for comparative analysis of social intelligence and nervous system organization. As in cercopithecine primates, spotted hyenas use multiple sensory modalities to recognize their kin and other conspecifics as individuals, they recognize third-party kin and rank relationships among their clan mates, and they use this knowledge adaptively during social decision making. However, hyenas appear to rely more intensively than primates on social facilitation and simple rules of thumb in social decision making. No evidence to date suggests that hyenas are capable of true imitation. Finally, it appears that the gross anatomy of the brain in spotted hyenas might resemble that in primates with respect to expansion of frontal cortex, presumed to be involved in the mediation of social behaviour.

  15. Effect of climate change on Alternaria leaf spot of rocket salad and black spot of basil under controlled environment.

    PubMed

    Pugliese, M; Cogliati, E; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2012-01-01

    Plant responses to elevated CO2 and temperature have been much studied in recent years, but effects of climate change on pathological responses are still largely unknown. The pathosystems rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)--Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria japonica) and basil (Ocimum basilicum)--black spot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) were chosen as models to assess the potential impact of increased CO2 and temperature on disease incidence and severity under controlled environment. Potted plants were grown in phytotrons under 4 different simulated climatic conditions: (1) standard temperature (ranging from 18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and standard CO2 concentration (400 ppm); (2) standard temperature and elevated CO2 concentration (800 ppm); (3) elevated temperature (ranging from 22 degrees to 26 degrees C, 4 degrees C higher than standard) and standard CO2 concentration; (4) elevated temperature and CO2 concentration. Each plant was inoculated with a spore suspension containing 1 x 10(5) cfu/ml of the pathogen. Disease incidence and severity were assessed 14 days after inoculation. Increasing CO2 to 800 ppm showed a clear increment in the percentage of Alternaria leaf spot on rocket leaves compared to standard conditions. Basil plants grown at 800 ppm of CO2 showed increased black spot symptoms compared to 400 ppm. Disease incidence and severity were always influenced by the combination of rising CO2 and increased temperature, compared to standard conditions (400 ppm of CO2 - 22 degrees C). Considering the rising concentrations of CO2 and global temperature, we can assume that this could increase the severity of Alternaria japonica on rocket and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on basil.

  16. Distribution, foraging behavior, and capture results of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodhouse, T.J.; McCaffrey, M.F.; Wright, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) has been virtually unknown in Oregon despite the existence of potential habitat in many areas of the state. In 2002 and 2003 we searched for spotted bats along the John Day, Deschutes, and Crooked Rivers and at a remote dry canyon southeast of the city of Bend in central Oregon. The species was documented through the use of mist-nets, a bat detector, and recognition of audible spotted bat calls. Spotted bats were found at 11 locations in 6 Oregon counties. Nightly activity patterns of spotted bats were unpredictable. Spotted bats were found in 78% of search areas but on only 48% of survey nights. We observed spotted bats foraging above fields and low upland slopes adjacent to rivers and creeks and along the rims of cliffs. Estimated flying heights of spotted bats ranged from 3 m to 50 m aboveground. The species was difficult to capture and was captured only after considerable experimentation with methods and materials. Three spotted bats were captured toward the end of the project in 2003 and accounted for only 0.5% of all bats captured during the study. Although we attached radio transmitters to 2 spotted bats, we found no roost locations. We believe additional spotted bat surveys in Oregon are warranted, especially in higher-elevation habitats, but recommend that to increase their effectiveness, surveys accommodate the unique foraging behavior of the species.

  17. Variation in the Deep Gas Composition in Hot Spots on Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; de Pater, Imke; Wong, Michael H.; Adamkovics, Mate; Hewagama, Tilak; Hesman, Brigette

    2015-11-01

    We used CSHELL on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility and NIRSPEC on the Keck telescope in the last two years to spectrally resolve line profiles of CH3D, NH3, PH3, and H2O in 5-micron Hot Spots on Jupiter. The profile of the CH3D lines at 4.66 microns is very broad in both NEB and SEB Hot Spots due to collisions with up to 8 bars of H2, where unit optical depth occurs due to collision-induced H2 opacity. The extreme width of these CH3D features implies that the Hot Spots that we observed do not have significant cloud opacity for P > 2 bars. We retrieved NH3, PH3, and gaseous H2O within Hot Spots in both the NEB and SEB. We had dry nights on Mauna Kea and a sufficient Doppler shift to detect H2O. We will compare line wings to derive H2O profiles in the 2 to 6-bar region. NEB Hot Spots are depleted in NH3 with respect to adjacent regions. Interestingly, SEB Hot Spots exhibit stronger NH3 absorption than NEB Hot Spots. In addition, SEB Hot Spots have very similar 5-micron spectra as neighboring longitudes in the SEB, implying similar deep gas composition. The dynamical origin of SEB Hot Spots is much less studied than that of NEB Hot Spots, so our observations of gas composition in both regions may constrain mechanisms for forming Hot Spots.

  18. Spotted star light curve numerical modeling technique and its application to HII 1883 surface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbin, A. I.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2014-04-01

    We developed a code for imaging the surfaces of spotted stars by a set of circular spots with a uniform temperature distribution. The flux from the spotted surface is computed by partitioning the spots into elementary areas. The code takes into account the passing of spots behind the visible stellar limb, limb darkening, and overlapping of spots. Modeling of light curves includes the use of recent results of the theory of stellar atmospheres needed to take into account the temperature dependence of flux intensity and limb darkening coefficients. The search for spot parameters is based on the analysis of several light curves obtained in different photometric bands. We test our technique by applying it to HII 1883.

  19. Black Spot, a Novel Gastric Finding Potentially Induced by Proton Pump Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Yu; Haruma, Ken; Ayaki, Maki; Kamada, Tomoari; Ohtani, Hiroshi; Murao, Takahisa; Manabe, Noriaki; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Shiotani, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Objective We have recently discovered new gastric lesions with black spots. There have been no reports about black spots and their clinicopathological features. We therefore report the clinicopathological features of black spots and assess their causes and mechanisms. Methods Sixty-four patients with black spots among 26,620 Japanese patients that underwent endoscopy between May 2012 and October 2014 were enrolled. Endoscopic findings of black spots were defined as black pigmentations in the gastric mucosa by conventional endoscopy. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, including gender, age, underlying diseases and medications, endoscopic and pathologic findings of patients with black spots. Results The prevalence of patients with black spots was 0.24%. Of sixty-four cases, 44 (68.8%) were taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Eight (12.5%) were taking corticosteroids. There were 10 cases (15.6%) with decreased renal function. All black spots were identified only in the fundic gland region. Forty-one (64.1%) patients had multiple (more than ten) black spots. There were two different types: black spots on the flat mucosa and black spots on fundic gland polyps. Pathologically, parietal cell protrusions, fundic gland cysts and brownish pigmentation in fundic gland cysts were seen in 26 (76.5%), 23 (67.6%) and 6 (17.6%) patients, respectively. Conclusion We herein describe gastric black spots as a new gastric mucosal finding that arises only in the fundic gland region. The black spots are pathologically brownish pigmentations in fundic gland cysts. Adverse events of PPIs and parietal cell protrusion caused by PPI use are strongly considered to be one of the etiologies of black spots. PMID:27803398

  20. The inter- and intra-operator variability in manual spot segmentation and its effect on spot quantitation in two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis.

    PubMed

    Millioni, Renato; Sbrignadello, Stefano; Tura, Andrea; Iori, Elisabetta; Murphy, Ellen; Tessari, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Separation of complex mixtures of proteins by 2-DE is a fundamental component of current proteomic technology. Quantitative analysis of the images generated by digitization of such gels is critical for identifying alterations in protein expression within a given biological system. Software packages are designed for this purpose. The accurate definition of protein spot boundaries, using a suitable method of image segmentation, is a key requirement for image analysis. It is often necessary for operators to intervene manually to correct mistakes in spot segmentation; therefore operator subjectivity and differences in ability can weaken the analysis. We estimated the error in spot quantification after manual spot segmentation, which was performed by different operators, using two different software packages. Our results clearly show that this operation was associated with significant inter- and intra-variability and an overestimation of subsequent spot intensity, especially when spots were weak. For comparative studies, we suggest separately analysing spots which have been manually segmented by imposing a requirement for at least a threefold difference in spot intensity in addition to use of statistical tests.

  1. Spot-Scanning-Based Proton Therapy for Extracranial Chordoma

    SciTech Connect

    Staab, Adrian; Rutz, Hans Peter; Ares, Carmen; Timmermann, Beate; Schneider, Ralf; Bolsi, Alessandra; Albertini, Francesca; Lomax, Antony; Goitein, Gudrun; Hug, Eugen

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate effectiveness and safety of spot-scanning-based proton-radiotherapy (PT) for extracranial chordomas (ECC). Methods and Material: Between 1999-2006, 40 patients with chordoma of C-, T-, and L-spine and sacrum were treated at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) with PT using spot-scanning. Median patient age was 58 years (range, 10-81 years); 63% were male, and 36% were female. Nineteen patients (47%) had gross residual disease (mean 69 cc; range, 13-495 cc) before PT, and 21 patients (53%) had undergone prior titanium-based surgical stabilization (SS) and reconstruction of the axial skeleton. Proton doses were expressed as Gy(RBE). A conversion factor of 1.1 was used to account for higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons compared with photons. Mean total dose was 72.5 Gy(RBE) [range, 59.4-75.2 Gy(RBE)] delivered at 1.8-2.0 Gy(RBE) dose per fraction. Median follow-up time was 43 months. Results: In 19 patients without surgical stabilization, actuarial local control (LC) rate at 5 years was 100%. LC for patients with gross residual disease but without surgical stabilization was also 100% at 5 years. In contrast, 12 failures occurred in 21 patients with SS, yielding a significantly decreased 5-year LC rate of 30% (p = 0.0003). For the entire cohort, 5-year LC rates were 62%, disease-free survival rates were 57%, and overall survival rates were 80%. Rates were 100% for patients without SS. No other factor, including dosimetric parameters (V95, V80) were predictive for tumor control on univariate analysis. Conclusion: Spot-scanning-based PT at PSI delivered subsequently to function-preserving surgery for tumor debulking, decompression of spinal cord, or biopsy only is safe and highly effective in patients with ECC without major surgical instrumentation even in view of large, unresectable disease.

  2. Life-history tradeoffs and reproductive cycles in Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoelting, Ricka E.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Kendall, William; Peery, M. Zachariah

    2015-01-01

    The study of tradeoffs among life-history traits has long been key to understanding the evolution of life-history strategies. However, more recently, evolutionary ecologists have realized that reproductive costs have the potential to influence population dynamics. Here, we tested for costs of reproduction in the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis), and assessed whether costs of reproduction in year t − 1 on reproduction in year t could be responsible for regionally synchronized biennial cycles in reproductive output. Logistic regression analysis and multistate mark–recapture models with state uncertainty revealed that breeding reduced the likelihood of reproducing in the subsequent year by 16% to 38%, but had no influence on subsequent survival. We also found that costs of reproduction in year t − 1 were correlated with climatic conditions in year t, with evidence of higher costs during the dry phase of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. Using a simulation-based population model, we showed that strong reproductive costs had the potential to create biennial cycles in population-level reproductive output; however, estimated costs of reproduction appeared to be too small to explain patterns observed in Spotted Owls. In the absence of strong reproductive costs, we hypothesize that observed natural cycles in the reproductive output of Spotted Owls are related to as-yet-unmeasured, regionally concordant fluctuations in environmental conditions or prey resources. Despite theoretical evidence for demographic effects, our analyses illustrate that linking tradeoffs to actual changes in population processes will be challenging because of the potential confounding effects of individual and environmental variation.

  3. Society, demography and genetic structure in the spotted hyena.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Smith, Jennifer E; Strelioff, Christopher C; Van Horn, Russell C; Watts, Heather E

    2012-02-01

    Spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) are large mammalian carnivores, but their societies, called 'clans', resemble those of such cercopithecine primates as baboons and macaques with respect to their size, hierarchical structure, and frequency of social interaction among both kin and unrelated group-mates. However, in contrast to cercopithecine primates, spotted hyenas regularly hunt antelope and compete with group-mates for access to kills, which are extremely rich food sources, but also rare and ephemeral. This unique occurrence of baboon-like sociality among top-level predators has favoured the evolution of many unusual traits in this species. We briefly review the relevant socio-ecology of spotted hyenas, document great demographic variation but little variation in social structure across the species' range, and describe the long-term fitness consequences of rank-related variation in resource access among clan-mates. We then summarize patterns of genetic relatedness within and between clans, including some from a population that had recently gone through a population bottleneck, and consider the roles of sexually dimorphic dispersal and female mate choice in the generation of these patterns. Finally, we apply social network theory under varying regimes of resource availability to analyse the effects of kinship on the stability of social relationships among members of one large hyena clan in Kenya. Although social bonds among both kin and non-kin are weakest when resource competition is most intense, hyenas sustain strong social relationships with kin year-round, despite constraints imposed by resource limitation. Our analyses suggest that selection might act on both individuals and matrilineal kin groups within clans containing multiple matrilines.

  4. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  5. Starspot signature on the light curve. Learning about the latitudinal distribution of spots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. R. G.; Cunha, M. S.; Avelino, P. P.; García, R. A.; Mathur, S.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Quasi-periodic modulations of the stellar light curve may result from dark spots crossing the visible stellar disc. Owing to differential rotation, spots at different latitudes generally have different rotation periods. Hence, by studying spot-induced modulations, it is possible to learn about stellar surface (differential) rotation and magnetic activity. Recently, a method based on the Lomb-Scargle periodogram of light curves has been proposed to identify the sign of the differential rotation at the stellar surface. Aims: Our goal is to understand how the modulation of the stellar light curve due to the presence of spots and the corresponding periodogram are affected by both the stellar and spot properties. Methods: We generate synthetic light curves of stars with different properties (inclination angle, limb darkening, and rotation rate) and spot configurations (number of spots, latitude, intensity contrast, and size). By analysing their Lomb-Scargle periodograms, we compute the ratio between the heights of the second and first harmonics of the rotation period (peak-height ratio). Results: We find that the peak-height ratios are essentially a function of a single parameter, the fraction of time the spot is visible, which is related to the sinusoidality of the spot modulation. We identify the conditions under which the periodogram analysis can actually provide an estimate of the spot latitudes and/or the stellar inclination angle. We also identify possible sources of error in the identification of the sign of the differential rotation.

  6. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, L.S.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. The spot (Leiostomus xanthurus) is an abundant fish is coastal waters of the South Atlantic Region. It is important to commercial and recreational fisheries. In the South Atlantic Region, spot spawn commercial from October to March. The larvae are transported from the offshore spawning grounds to estuarine nursery areas. Juvenile spot initially congregate in shallow tidal creeks, but then disperse into deeper water as they get larger. Spot mature at 2-3 years of age. As larvae, spot feed on plankton, but switch to benthic invertebrates as juveniles and adults. Juvenile and adult spot are eaten by many other fishes. Tolerance to thermal shock and other environmental extremes varies with developmental stage. Alterations of the salinity or temperature regimes of an estuary may affect populations of spot; disturbances that affect the benthic community upon which spot feed may also affect spot abundance. Spot are not strong swimmers and may, therefore, suffer significant mortality due to intake structures at industrial or power generation plants. 127 refs., 2 figs.

  7. PEBBED ANALYSIS OF HOT SPOTS IN PEBBLE-BED REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Hans D. Gougar; William K. Terry; Frederik Reitsma; Wessel Joubert

    2005-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory’s PEBBED code and simple probability considerations are used to estimate the likelihood and consequences of the accumulation of highly reactive pebbles in the region of peak power in a pebble-bed reactor. The PEBBED code is briefly described, and the logic of the probability calculations is presented in detail. The results of the calculations appear to show that hot-spot formation produces only moderate increases in peak accident temperatures, and no increases at all in normal operating temperatures.

  8. Risk factors and management of white spot lesions in orthodontics

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kamna; Tikku, Tripti; Khanna, Rohit; Sachan, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The formation of white spot lesions or enamel demineralization around fixed orthodontic attachments is a common complication during and following fixed orthodontic treatment, which mars the result of a successfully completed case. This article is a contemporary review of the risk factors, preventive methods and fate of these orthodontics scars. The importance of excellent oral hygiene practice during fixed orthodontic treatment must be explained. Preventive programs must be emphasized to all orthodontic patients. Suggestions are offered in the literature for ways to prevent this condition from manifesting itself. PMID:24987641

  9. Current-induced forces and hot spots in biased nanojunctions.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jing-Tao; Christensen, Rasmus B; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Hedegård, Per; Brandbyge, Mads

    2015-03-06

    We investigate theoretically the interplay of current-induced forces (CIFs), Joule heating, and heat transport inside a current-carrying nanoconductor. We find that the CIFs, due to the electron-phonon coherence, can control the spatial heat dissipation in the conductor. This yields a significant asymmetric concentration of excess heating (hot spot) even for a symmetric conductor. When coupled to the electrode phonons, CIFs drive different phonon heat flux into the two electrodes. First-principles calculations on realistic biased nanojunctions illustrate the importance of the effect.

  10. Smeared star spot location estimation using directional integral method.

    PubMed

    Hou, Wang; Liu, Haibo; Lei, Zhihui; Yu, Qifeng; Liu, Xiaochun; Dong, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Image smearing significantly affects the accuracy of attitude determination of most star sensors. To ensure the accuracy and reliability of a star sensor under image smearing conditions, a novel directional integral method is presented for high-precision star spot location estimation to improve the accuracy of attitude determination. Simulations based on the orbit data of the challenging mini-satellite payload satellite were performed. Simulation results demonstrated that the proposed method exhibits high performance and good robustness, which indicates that the method can be applied effectively.

  11. Satellite Spots Turbulence Producing Mountain Waves in the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Robert Roy

    2002-01-01

    When masses of air flow over massive mountains, invisible waves often roil high into the stratosphere, affecting weather and mixing the chemicals that contribute to ozone depletion. The waves also create turbulence that can be a danger to high-altitude research missions by NASA's lightweight ER-2 aircraft, as well as shuttle flights upon reentry. In Friday's issue of the journal Science, researchers report for the first time a technique that allows them to see temperature signatures from these invisible mountain waves. The method, involving high-resolution, satellite-based measurement of adjacent pockets of the atmosphere, is expected to aid in spotting turbulence and, one day, improve weather forecasts.

  12. Fast Fiber-Laser Alignment: Beam Spot-Size Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rong; Guo, Jingyan; Shi, Frank G.

    2005-03-01

    A novel fast and cost-effective method is introduced for the active alignment of a fiber to a laser diode: only four easy laser beam spot-size measurements are required for moving the fiber tip from the far field to the proximity of the optimal alignment position, thus dramatically reducing the total alignment time (at least five times faster than a conventional method),as experimentally confirmed. Moreover, in contrast to the existing methods,the new method is failure-proof. The principle of the proposed method can be applied generally to any type of packages and is illustrated by an example of a butterfly package.

  13. A pilot study to Doppler-image an accretion spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz Guenther, Hans

    2009-10-01

    Classical T Tauri stars (CTTS) are young, accreting systems. The accretion is thought to cause a soft X-ray excess and unusual line ratios in the He-like triplets. The accretion spots can also be seen with optical Doppler-imaging; however, the final test to correlate these signatures - simultaneous X-ray and ground-based observations - is still missing. We propose a 15 ks pilot study of MN Lup, the prime target for simultaneous observations from the optical point of view, to confirm its CTTS status and characterize its X-ray properties.

  14. Friction Stir Spot Welding of Advanced High Strength Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.; Grant, Glenn J.

    2009-12-28

    Friction stir spot welding was used to join two advanced high-strength steels using polycrystalline cubic boron nitride tooling. Numerous tool designs were employed to study the influence of tool geometry on weld joints produced in both DP780 and a hot-stamp boron steel. Tool designs included conventional, concave shouldered pin tools with several pin configurations; a number of shoulderless designs; and a convex, scrolled shoulder tool. Weld quality was assessed based on lap shear strength, microstructure, microhardness, and bonded area. Mechanical properties were functionally related to bonded area and joint microstructure, demonstrating the necessity to characterize processing windows based on tool geometry.

  15. GEOMETRICAL CONSTRAINTS ON THE HOT SPOT IN BETA LYRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Elias II, Nicholas M.; Bastien, Fabienne A.; Holenstein, Bruce D. E-mail: Jennifer.Hoffman@du.edu E-mail: fabienne.a.bastien@vanderbilt.edu

    2012-05-01

    We present results from six years of recalibrated and new spectropolarimetric data taken with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter and six years of new data taken with the photoelastic modulating polarimeter at the Flower and Cook Observatory of beta Lyrae. Combining these data with polarimetric data from the literature allows us to characterize the intrinsic BVRI polarized light curves. A repeatable discrepancy of 0.245 days (approximately 6 hr) between the secondary minima in the total light curve and the polarization curve in the V band, with similar behavior in the other bands, may represent the first direct evidence for an accretion hot spot on the disk edge.

  16. Omar field discovery confirms Syria as exploration hot spot

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-20

    Syria is proving to be one of the Mediterranean's exploration hot spots. The discovery of Omar field by a Shell-led exploration group earlier this year confirmed Syria as a prime exploration prospect. For years Syria produced small volumes of heavy, high-sulfur crude mainly for refining and use in the domestic market and found it difficult to attract foreign explorers. Industry sources say there is now no shortage of outside industry interest in taking new exploration concessions. Over the last 6 months much of the available prospective acreage has been taken up as industry interest in Syria reached nee heights.

  17. [Rocky mountain spotted fever: report of two cases].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Medina, Miguel Angel; Padilla-Zamudio, Guillermo; Solís-Gallardo, Lilia Patricia; Guevara-Tovar, Marcela

    2005-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an acute febrile illness caused by infection with Ricketsia Rickettsii, characterized by the presence of petechial rash. Even though the etiology, clinical characteristics and availability of effective antibiotics are known, RMSF related deaths have a prevalence of 4%. In its early stages RMFS can resemble many others infectious conditions and the diagnosis can be difficult. The present paper reports two patients with RMSF; these cases underscore the importance of prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and consider RMSF as a differential diagnosis in any patient who develops fever and rash in an endemic area.

  18. Jupiter's Great Red Spot as a shallow water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowling, Timothy E.; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    1989-01-01

    Voyager cloud-top velocity data for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is used to derive the bottom topography up to a constant that depends on the unknown radius of deformation. The bottom topography is inferred from the Bernoulli streamfunction, kinetic energy per unit mass, and absolute vorticity values derived from the velocity data. The results are used to calculate potential vorticity versus latitude far from the vortex. It is found that the deep atmosphere is in differential motion and that the far-field potential vorticity gradient changes sign at several latitudes. Numerical experiments are conducted to study the time-dependent behavior of the shallow water analog of Jupiter's analog.

  19. SPOTting model parameters using a ready-made Python package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houska, Tobias; Kraft, Philipp; Breuer, Lutz

    2015-04-01

    The selection and parameterization of reliable process descriptions in ecological modelling is driven by several uncertainties. The procedure is highly dependent on various criteria, like the used algorithm, the likelihood function selected and the definition of the prior parameter distributions. A wide variety of tools have been developed in the past decades to optimize parameters. Some of the tools are closed source. Due to this, the choice for a specific parameter estimation method is sometimes more dependent on its availability than the performance. A toolbox with a large set of methods can support users in deciding about the most suitable method. Further, it enables to test and compare different methods. We developed the SPOT (Statistical Parameter Optimization Tool), an open source python package containing a comprehensive set of modules, to analyze and optimize parameters of (environmental) models. SPOT comes along with a selected set of algorithms for parameter optimization and uncertainty analyses (Monte Carlo, MC; Latin Hypercube Sampling, LHS; Maximum Likelihood, MLE; Markov Chain Monte Carlo, MCMC; Scuffled Complex Evolution, SCE-UA; Differential Evolution Markov Chain, DE-MCZ), together with several likelihood functions (Bias, (log-) Nash-Sutcliff model efficiency, Correlation Coefficient, Coefficient of Determination, Covariance, (Decomposed-, Relative-, Root-) Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error, Agreement Index) and prior distributions (Binomial, Chi-Square, Dirichlet, Exponential, Laplace, (log-, multivariate-) Normal, Pareto, Poisson, Cauchy, Uniform, Weibull) to sample from. The model-independent structure makes it suitable to analyze a wide range of applications. We apply all algorithms of the SPOT package in three different case studies. Firstly, we investigate the response of the Rosenbrock function, where the MLE algorithm shows its strengths. Secondly, we study the Griewank function, which has a challenging response surface for

  20. Association of poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine sequences with meiotic recombination hot spots

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, Andrew TM; Pitt, Joel PW; Gemmell, Neil J

    2006-01-01

    Background Meiotic recombination events have been found to concentrate in 1–2.5 kilo base regions, but these recombination hot spots do not share a consensus sequence and why they occur at specific sites is not fully understood. Some previous evidence suggests that poly-purine/poly-pyrimidine (poly-pu/py) tracts (PPTs), a class of sequence with distinctive biochemical properties, could be involved in recombination, but no general association of PPTs with meiotic recombination hot spots has previously been reported. Results We used computational methods to investigate in detail the relationship between PPTs and hot spots. We show statistical associations of PPT frequency with hot spots of meiotic recombination initiating lesions, double-strand breaks, in the genome of the yeast S. cerevisiae and with experimentally well characterized human meiotic recombination hot spots. Supporting a possible role of poly-pu/py-rich sequences in hot spot recombination, we also found that all three single nucleotide polymorphisms previously shown to be associated with human hot spot activity changes occur within sequence contexts of 14 bp or longer that are 85% or more poly-pu/py and at least 70% G/C. These polymorphisms are all close to the hot spot mid points. Comparing the sequences of experimentally characterized human hot spots with the orthologous regions of the chimpanzee genome previously shown not to contain hot spots, we found that in all five cases in which comparisons for the hot spot central regions are possible with publicly available sequence data, there are differences near the human hot spot mid points within sequences 14 bp or longer consisting of more than 80% poly-pu/py and at least 50% G/C. Conclusion Our results, along with previous evidence for the unique biochemical properties and recombination-stimulating potential of poly-pu/py-rich sequences, suggest that the possible functional involvement of this type of sequence in meiotic recombination hot spots