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  1. A Failed Utopia in Marcela Del Río's "Proceso a Faubritten"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manickam, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    In Marcela del Río's science fiction novel "Proceso a Faubritten," utopia comes in the form of eternal life for all of humanity, thanks to Dr. Alexander Faubritten's "Bomba L." This polyphonic work includes diaries by Faubritten and his Mexican lover, María Corona. In my analysis of these two diaries, I will show how…

  2. Estudio numerico y experimental del proceso de soldeo MIG sobre la aleacion 6063--T5 utilizando el metodo de Taguchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meseguer Valdenebro, Jose Luis

    improvement on mechanical properties in aluminum metal joint. Los procesos de soldadura por arco electrico representan unas de las tecnicas mas utilizadas en los procesos de fabricacion de componentes mecanicos en la industria moderna. Los procesos de soldeo por arco se han adaptado a las necesidades actuales, haciendose un modo de fabricacion flexible y versatil. Los resultados obtenidos numericamente en el proceso de soldadura son validados experimentalmente. Los principales metodos numericos mas empleados en la actualidad son tres, metodo por diferencias finitas, metodos por elementos finitos y metodo por volumenes finitos. El metodo numerico mas empleado para el modelado de uniones soldadas, es el metodo por elementos finitos, debido a que presenta una buena adaptacion a las condiciones geometricas y de contorno ademas de que existe una diversidad de programas comerciales que utilizan el metodo por elementos finitos como base de calculo. Este trabajo de investigacion presenta un estudio experimental de una union soldada mediante el proceso MIG de la aleacion de aluminio 6063-T5. El metodo numerico se valida experimentalmente aplicando el metodo de los elementos finitos con el programa de calculo ANSYS. Los resultados experimentales obtenidos son: las curvas de enfriamiento, el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, geometria del cordon, microdurezas obtenidas en la union soldada, zona afectada termicamente y metal base, dilucion del proceso, areas criticas intersecadas entre las curvas de enfriamiento y la curva TTP. Los resultados numericos son: las curvas del ciclo termico, que representan tanto el calentamiento hasta alcanzar la temperatura maxima y un posterior enfriamiento. Se calculan el tiempo critico de enfriamiento t4/3, el rendimiento termico y se representa la geometria del cordon obtenida experimentalmente. La zona afectada termicamente se obtiene diferenciando las zonas que se encuentran a diferentes temperaturas, las areas criticas intersecadas entre las

  3. La utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales en la ensenanza de biologia y su efecto sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en los estudiantes universitarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Rivera, Maria M.

    Se investigo el efecto de los mapas conceptuales sobre el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis en estudiantes universitarios. La investigacion utilizo dos estrategias: mapas conceptuales individuales y mapas conceptuales colaborativos, con el fin de investigar si existen diferencias significativas en el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis. El analisis de los datos incluyo aspectos cualitativos y cuantitativos. Se desprende del estudio que el 80% de los estudiantes describen la utilizacion de los mapas conceptuales como una experiencia beneficiosa. El 70% de los estudiantes expreso que los mapas conceptuales son utiles en el aprendizaje del proceso de fotosintesis y el 61% indico que facilitan la comprension de los conceptos. Los hallazgos mas importantes del analisis cuantitativo indican que los estudiantes que utilizaron los mapas conceptuales mejoraron significativamente su desempeno en la posprueba global. Se utilizo la prueba Mann-Whitney para investigar si existian diferencias significativas en la posprueba y preprueba global, el valor de W = 1945.0, para un valor p de 0.00, lo cual establece diferencias significativas. Para determinar si existian diferencias significativas entre la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual, se realizo la prueba nuevamente. El valor de W correspondio a 490.5, que es significativo, con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluye que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo individual. Los datos proveen suficiente evidencia para sostener que los estudiantes que utilizaron la estrategia de mapas conceptuales individuales mejoraron el dominio del proceso de fotosintesis significativamente. Se realizo nuevamente la prueba para los resultados de posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. El valor de W correspondio a 446 con un valor p de 0.00. Se concluyo que existen diferencias significativas entre la ejecucion de la posprueba y preprueba del grupo colaborativo. Finalmente, se efectuo una

  4. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Traclet, J; Lazor, R; Cordier, J-F; Cottin, V

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is defined by the presence of red blood cells originating from the lung capillaries or venules within the alveoli. The diagnosis is established on clinical features, radiological pattern, and especially bronchoalveolar lavage. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage may have many immune or non-immune causes. Immune causes of DAH include vasculitides, connective tissue diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus, and antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease (Goodpasture's syndrome). Treatment is both supportive and causal, often based on high dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy (especially intravenous cyclophosphamide). Plasma exchanges are performed in antiglomerular basement membrane antibody disease and systemic lupus erythematosus, and are considered in systemic vasculitis. Non-immune causes of DAH mainly include heart diseases, coagulation disorders, infections, drug toxicities and idiopathic DAH. Treatment of non-immune DAH is that of its cause. Whatever the cause, DAH is an emergency requiring prompt assessment and early treatment.

  5. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Kashyap, Surender; Mohapatra, Prasanta R.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare, chronic lung disease with bilateral intra-alveolar calcium and phosphate deposition throughout the lung parenchyma with predominance to lower and midzone. Although, etiology and pathogenesis of PAM is not fully understood, the mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium-phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type II cells resulting in the accumulation and forming of microliths rich in calcium phosphate (due to impaired clearance) are considered to be the cause of the disease. Chest radiograph and high-resolution CT of thorax are nearly pathognomonic for diagnosing PAM. HRCT demonstrates diffuse micronodules showing slight perilobular predominance resulting in calcification of interlobular septa. Patients with PAM are asymptomatic till development of hypoxemia and cor-pulmonale. No therapy has been proven to be beneficial except lung transplantation. PMID:23741096

  6. Alveolar development and disease.

    PubMed

    Whitsett, Jeffrey A; Weaver, Timothy E

    2015-07-01

    Gas exchange after birth is entirely dependent on the remarkable architecture of the alveolus, its formation and function being mediated by the interactions of numerous cell types whose precise positions and activities are controlled by a diversity of signaling and transcriptional networks. In the later stages of gestation, alveolar epithelial cells lining the peripheral lung saccules produce increasing amounts of surfactant lipids and proteins that are secreted into the airspaces at birth. The lack of lung maturation and the associated lack of pulmonary surfactant in preterm infants causes respiratory distress syndrome, a common cause of morbidity and mortality associated with premature birth. At the time of birth, surfactant homeostasis begins to be established by balanced processes involved in surfactant production, storage, secretion, recycling, and catabolism. Insights from physiology and engineering made in the 20th century enabled survival of newborn infants requiring mechanical ventilation for the first time. Thereafter, advances in biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular biology led to an understanding of the pulmonary surfactant system that made possible exogenous surfactant replacement for the treatment of preterm infants. Identification of surfactant proteins, cloning of the genes encoding them, and elucidation of their roles in the regulation of surfactant synthesis, structure, and function have provided increasing understanding of alveolar homeostasis in health and disease. This Perspective seeks to consider developmental aspects of the pulmonary surfactant system and its importance in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases related to alveolar homeostasis.

  7. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kevan; Dell, Sharon; Birken, Catherine; Al-Saleh, Suhail

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive condition that is often asymptomatic despite significant changes in chest imaging. Diagnosis is often made when patients become symptomatic in adulthood. There are still no proven treatments, but earlier diagnosis may allow for evaluation of preventative strategies that could improve outcome. It is an important diagnosis to consider in children who have marked radiographic findings with no or very mild symptoms or physical findings. Diagnosis can be made with imaging alone but may necessitate lung biopsy for definitive diagnosis. PMID:27445543

  8. Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Stankiewicz, Pawel; Steinhorn, Robin H.

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of the pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare, fatal developmental lung disorder of neonates and infants. This review aims to address recent findings in the etiology and genetics of ACD/MPV and to raise awareness of this poorly known disease, which may also present as milder, unclassified forms. Successively discussed are what is known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, diagnostic indicators and approaches, genetic testing, treatment, and cases of delayed onset. The review concludes with suggestions for future directions to answer the many unknowns about this disorder. PMID:21471096

  9. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of maxilla

    PubMed Central

    Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horatti; Srinivas, G Vijay; Kiresur, Mohammad Asif

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), a malignant neoplasm of skeletal muscle origin, is the most common soft tissue sarcoma seen in childhood and adolescence. The most frequent site is the head and neck accounting for 40% of all cases and other involved sites are genitourinary tract, retroperitoneum, and to a lesser extent, the extremities. RMS is relatively uncommon in the oral cavity and the involvement of the jaws is extremely rare. Here, we report a case of 50-year-old female with oral RMS involving maxillary alveolar region with clinical, radiological, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings. PMID:27194887

  10. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes. PMID:23678356

  11. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Park, Moo Suk

    2013-04-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening and medical emergency that can be caused by numerous disorders and presents with hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates. Early bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is usually required to confirm the diagnosis and rule out infection. Most cases of DAH are caused by capillaritis associated with systemic autoimmune diseases such as anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus, but DAH may also result from coagulation disorders, drugs, inhaled toxins, or transplantation. The diagnosis of DAH relies on clinical suspicion combined with laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings. Early recognition is crucial, because prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary for survival. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents remain the gold standard. In patients with DAH, biopsy of involved sites can help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. This article aims to provide a general review of the causes and clinical presentation of DAH and to recommend a diagnostic approach and a management plan for the most common causes.

  12. Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning.

    PubMed

    Louis, P J

    2001-09-01

    Nerve repositioning is a viable alternative for patients with an atrophic edentulous posterior mandible. Patients, however, should be informed of the potential risks of neurosensory disturbance. Documentation of the patient's baseline neurosensory function should be performed with a two-point discrimination test or directional brush stroke test preoperatively and postoperatively. Recovery of nerve function should be expected in 3 to 6 months. The potential for mandibular fracture when combining nerve repositioning with implant placement also should be discussed with the patient. This can be avoided by minimizing the amount of buccal cortical plate removal during localization of the nerve and maintaining the integrity of the inferior cortex of the mandible. Additionally, avoid overseating the implant, thus avoiding stress along the inferior border of the mandible. The procedure does allow for the placement of longer implants, which should improve implant longevity. Patients undergoing this procedure have expressed overall satisfaction with the results. Nerve repositioning also can be used to preserve the inferior alveolar nerve during resection of benign tumors or cysts of the mandible. This procedure allows the surgeon to maintain nerve function in situations in which the nerve would otherwise have to be resected. PMID:11665379

  13. Sessile alveolar macrophages communicate with alveolar epithelium to modulate immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphalen, Kristin; Gusarova, Galina A.; Islam, Mohammad N.; Subramanian, Manikandan; Cohen, Taylor S.; Prince, Alice S.; Bhattacharya, Jahar

    2014-02-01

    The tissue-resident macrophages of barrier organs constitute the first line of defence against pathogens at the systemic interface with the ambient environment. In the lung, resident alveolar macrophages (AMs) provide a sentinel function against inhaled pathogens. Bacterial constituents ligate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on AMs, causing AMs to secrete proinflammatory cytokines that activate alveolar epithelial receptors, leading to recruitment of neutrophils that engulf pathogens. Because the AM-induced response could itself cause tissue injury, it is unclear how AMs modulate the response to prevent injury. Here, using real-time alveolar imaging in situ, we show that a subset of AMs attached to the alveolar wall form connexin 43 (Cx43)-containing gap junction channels with the epithelium. During lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, the AMs remained sessile and attached to the alveoli, and they established intercommunication through synchronized Ca2+ waves, using the epithelium as the conducting pathway. The intercommunication was immunosuppressive, involving Ca2+-dependent activation of Akt, because AM-specific knockout of Cx43 enhanced alveolar neutrophil recruitment and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage. A picture emerges of a novel immunomodulatory process in which a subset of alveolus-attached AMs intercommunicates immunosuppressive signals to reduce endotoxin-induced lung inflammation.

  14. Hereditary Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takuji; Sakagami, Takuro; Young, Lisa R.; Carey, Brenna C.; Wood, Robert E.; Luisetti, Maurizio; Wert, Susan E.; Rubin, Bruce K.; Kevill, Katharine; Chalk, Claudia; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Stevens, Carrie; Nogee, Lawrence M.; Campo, Ilaria; Trapnell, Bruce C.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: We identified a 6-year-old girl with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), impaired granulocyte-macrophage colony–stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor function, and increased GM-CSF. Objectives: Increased serum GM-CSF may be useful to identify individuals with PAP caused by GM-CSF receptor dysfunction. Methods: We screened 187 patients referred to us for measurement of GM-CSF autoantibodies to diagnose autoimmune PAP. Five were children with PAP and increased serum GM-CSF but without GM-CSF autoantibodies or any disease causing secondary PAP; all were studied with family members, subsequently identified patients, and controls. Measurement and Main Results: Eight children (seven female, one male) were identified with PAP caused by recessive CSF2RA mutations. Six presented with progressive dyspnea of insidious onset at 4.8 ± 1.6 years and two were asymptomatic at ages 5 and 8 years. Radiologic and histopathologic manifestations were similar to those of autoimmune PAP. Molecular analysis demonstrated that GM-CSF signaling was absent in six and severely reduced in two patients. The GM-CSF receptor β chain was detected in all patients, whereas the α chain was absent in six and abnormal in two, paralleling the GM-CSF signaling defects. Genetic analysis revealed multiple distinct CSF2RA abnormalities, including missense, duplication, frameshift, and nonsense mutations; exon and gene deletion; and cryptic alternative splicing. All symptomatic patients responded well to whole-lung lavage therapy. Conclusions: CSF2RA mutations cause a genetic form of PAP presenting as insidious, progressive dyspnea in children that can be diagnosed by a combination of characteristic radiologic findings and blood tests and treated successfully by whole-lung lavage. PMID:20622029

  15. Cavitary alveolar sarcoidosis complicated by an aspergilloma

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani; Dash, Devijyoti; Shah, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation in pulmonary sarcoidosis is rather unusual and even rarer in the alveolar form of the disease. A review of the literature revealed only 13 documented patients with cavitating alveolar sarcoidosis. Of the 13 patients, clinical information was available in only eight cases. Aspergilloma complicating cavitary alveolar sarcoidosis has been documented only once before. A 38-year-old woman with progressive dyspnoea for 3 years presented owing to a bout of haemoptysis. Imaging prior to presentation demonstrated mediastinal lymphadenopathy and coalescent parenchymal alveolar opacities along with air bronchograms, suggestive of alveolar sarcoidosis. On presentation, cavitations were visible in both lungs within the consolidation along with an intracavitary mass in the left upper lobe, which on evaluation was recognised as an aspergilloma. Bronchoscopy disclosed non-caseating granulomas on histopathology confirming pulmonary sarcoidosis. Cavitary alveolar sarcoidosis with aspergilloma formation can result in a diagnostic dilemma, especially in endemic tuberculous areas. PMID:25326564

  16. [Alveolar sarcoma. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Devisme, L; Mensier, E; Bisiau, S; Bloget, F; Gosselin, B

    1996-01-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma occurs mostly in the deep soft tissues. An unusual case of primary pulmonary alveolar soft part sarcoma is reported. A 39-year-old woman presented with thoracic pain revealing the tumor. The left lower lobe was surgically resected. The microscopic features of this tumor, including characteristic alveolar pattern and the PAS-positive crystals were typical of alveolar soft part sarcoma. Immunohistochemically, granular cytoplasmic reactivities were observed with antibodies against vimentin, myoglobin, methionine-enkephalin, S100 protein and neuron-specific-enolase. Electron microscopic study demonstrated numerous crystallized structures in the tumor cell cytoplasm. This is the third case of pulmonary alveolar soft part sarcoma, one arising from the pulmonary vein. The histogenesis of alveolar soft part sarcoma is still debated. Our case does not allow distinction between myogenic or neural origin of this tumor.

  17. [Intra-alveolar hemorrhages in systemic diseases].

    PubMed

    Bonnotte, B; Chantereau, M J; Lorcerie, B; Chauffert, B; Noblet, J F; Chalopin, J M; Martin, F

    1992-05-16

    Alveolar haemorrhage is usually, but often belatedly, diagnosed in patients presenting with haemoptysis and radiological alveolar syndrome. Its occurrence frequently marks a turn for the worst in the course of a systemic disease, since its prognosis is sombre. Recognizing its early signs might enable treatment to be instituted and prognosis to be improved. In the presence of typical alveolar haemorrhage, if high-dose corticosteroid therapy and immunosuppressants do not improve the symptoms within 48 hours plasmapheresis must be started. Alveolar haemorrhage must be considered a vital emergency justifying this therapeutic approach without waiting for the hypothetical diagnosis of the underlying systemic disease.

  18. [Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Fernández F, Cristina; Salinas F, Mauricio; de Grazia K, José Andrés; Díaz P, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is an extremely rare disease characterized by intra-alveolar accumulation of calcified spherical particles (called microliths), due to a mutation of the gene encoding a membrane transport protein of the alveolar surface. Most patients are asymptomatic at diagnosis. The course of the disease is slowly progressive, with development of pulmonary fibrosis and respiratory failure. The "sandstorm" pattern is the characteristic finding of this disease. We report a 39-year-old female presenting with progressive dyspnea. A chest X ray showed ground-glass opacities and a high resolution CT scan showed numerous calcified lung micronodules. A surgical lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:25427025

  19. Propylthiouracil-induced alveolar hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Bünyamin; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Kacemer, Hasret; Demirkan, Halil; Altuntaş, Atilla; Dirican, Nigar; Köroğlu, Banu Kale; Şahin, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Thionamide induced vasculitis is a multisystem disease. The patients may present with different clinical signs and findings due to organ involvement. These patients are almost always perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA) or antimyeloperoxidase (MPO) positive. Clinical findings are not seen in all of the patients who are ANCA positive while using thionamide. Although symptoms usually resolve with drug discontinuation, some patients, however, require high-dose steroids, immunosuppressants, or plasmapheresis. We present here a case of alveolar hemorrhage induced by propilthiouracil (PTU) during treatment with PTU for Graves’ disease; patients completely recovered with corticosteroid, cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis.

  20. Alveolar hypoventilation treated with medroxyprogesterone.

    PubMed Central

    Milerad, J; Lagercrantz, H; Löfgren, O

    1985-01-01

    Two children aged 1 and 20 months developed alveolar hypoventilation syndrome. They suffered severe apnoeic episodes and periodically required assisted ventilation. Their ventilatory response to carbon dioxide was lower than that of normal children and the transcutaneous oxygen tension during sleep was well below the normal range. Treatment with medroxyprogesterone acetate resulted in an improved response to carbon dioxide, and assisted ventilation was no longer needed. Oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions improved but were still slightly abnormal during sleep. There were no clinical side effects of treatment but one infant had slight pituitary suppression. PMID:3156565

  1. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Conclusion: This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages. PMID:25885503

  2. Vertical Alveolar Ridge Augmentation by Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N. Nanda; Ravindran, C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Compromised alveolar ridge in vertical and horizontal dimension is a common finding in patients visiting practitioners for dental prosthesis. Various treatment modalities are available for correction of deficient ridges among which alveolar distraction osteogenesis is one. Aim To study the efficacy of alveolar distraction osteogenesis in augmentation of alveolar ridges deficient in vertical dimension. Materials and Methods Ten patients aged 16 to 46 years with deficient alveolar ridge underwent ridge augmentation in 11 alveolar segments using the distraction osteogenesis method. For each patient a custom made distraction device was fabricated. The device was indigenously manufactured with SS-316 (ISO 3506). Results The vertical bone gain reached more than 10mm without the use of bone transplantation. Certain complications like incorrect vector of distraction, paresthesia, pain and loss of transport segment were encountered during the course of the study. Conclusion Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis is a reliable and predictable technique for both hard and soft tissue genesis. Implant placement is feasible with primary stability in neogenerated bone at the level of the distracted areas. PMID:26816991

  3. Telomere dysfunction causes alveolar stem cell failure.

    PubMed

    Alder, Jonathan K; Barkauskas, Christina E; Limjunyawong, Nathachit; Stanley, Susan E; Kembou, Frant; Tuder, Rubin M; Hogan, Brigid L M; Mitzner, Wayne; Armanios, Mary

    2015-04-21

    Telomere syndromes have their most common manifestation in lung disease that is recognized as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. In both conditions, there is loss of alveolar integrity, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. We tested the capacity of alveolar epithelial and stromal cells from mice with short telomeres to support alveolar organoid colony formation and found that type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s), the stem cell-containing population, were limiting. When telomere dysfunction was induced in adult AEC2s by conditional deletion of the shelterin component telomeric repeat-binding factor 2, cells survived but remained dormant and showed all the hallmarks of cellular senescence. Telomere dysfunction in AEC2s triggered an immune response, and this was associated with AEC2-derived up-regulation of cytokine signaling pathways that are known to provoke inflammation in the lung. Mice uniformly died after challenge with bleomycin, underscoring an essential role for telomere function in AEC2s for alveolar repair. Our data show that alveoloar progenitor senescence is sufficient to recapitulate the regenerative defects, inflammatory responses, and susceptibility to injury that are characteristic of telomere-mediated lung disease. They suggest alveolar stem cell failure is a driver of telomere-mediated lung disease and that efforts to reverse it may be clinically beneficial. PMID:25840590

  4. Effect of alveolar macrophages on Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed Central

    Ryning, F W; Remington, J S

    1977-01-01

    As pulmonary involvement can occur in disseminated toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients, studies were initiated to define local mechanisms of resistance of the lung to Toxoplasma gondii. Alveolar macrophages were obtained from normal mice and mice chronically infected with T. gondii by bronchopulmonary lavage and cultured in vitro. Although normal alveolar macrophages were difficult to infect with Toxoplasma, they supported intracellular multiplication of this organism. When exposed to Toxoplasma that had been pretreated with heat-inactivated serum containing specific antibody, the number of intracellular organisms increased remarkably, and the macrophages destroyed the coated parasites. After development of chronic infections with Toxoplasma, there was a transient period during which a striking increase in numbers of alveolar macrophages was observed in lavage specimens. These macrophages differed from those of normal alveolar macrophages. There was a greater percentage of large cells, a greater tendency to spread on glass, and an increased number of intracellular Toxoplasma, and the cells were activated to kill or inhibit multiplication of the parasite. During the period when activated macrophages were demonstrable in bronchopulmonary washings, histological changes in the lungs revealed a marked mononuclear cell infiltrate. These studies support a role for the activated alveolar macrophage as an effector in resistance of the lung to infection with Toxoplasma. PMID:591065

  5. A New Device for Alveolar Bone Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Vega, Omar; Pérez, Daniel; Páramo, Viviana; Falcón, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    We present a retrospective review of a new technique for the transportation of alveolar bone using a Hyrax device modified by the principal author (O.A.V.). There were seven patients (five males and two females), including five patients with cleft palate and lip diagnosis, one patient with a high-speed gunshot wound, and one patient with facial trauma sequel due to mandibular fracture. They were all treated with an alveolar bone transportation technique (ABT) through the use of the modified Hyrax device (VEGAX). Before surgery, distraction osteogenesis of the bifocal type was performed on four patients, and the trifocal type was performed on the other three patients. However, in one case, direct dental anchorage was not used, only orthodontic appliances. In all the cases, new bone formation and gingival tissue around the defect were obtained, posterior to the alveolar distraction process; no complications were observed in any patient. In one case, two teeth involved in the disk of the ABT were extracted, due to a previous condition of periodontal disease. The alveolar bone transport with the VEGAX device is an accessible technique for almost every patient with alveolar defects due to diverse causes. In all the presented cases, predictability and success were demonstrated. PMID:22655120

  6. [Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning in implant surgery].

    PubMed

    Ardekian, L; Salnea, J; Abu el-Naaj, I; Gutmacher, T; Peled, M

    2001-04-01

    Severe resorption of the posterior mandible possesses one of the most difficult restorative challenges to the implant surgery today. This resorption may prevent the placement of dental implants without the potentially damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. To create the opportunity of insertion dental implants of adequately length in those cases, the technique of nerve repositioning has been advocated. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of nerve repositioning combined with placement of dental implants. Both cases showed appropriate postoperative healing without damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. The inferior alveolar nerve repositioning technique seems to be an acceptable alternative to augmentation procedure prior to dental implants placement in cases exhibiting atrophic posterior mandibular ridges. PMID:11494807

  7. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  8. Increased alveolar plasminogen activator in early asbestosis

    SciTech Connect

    Cantin, A.; Allard, C.; Begin, R.

    1989-03-01

    Alveolar macrophage-derived plasminogen activator (PA) activity is decreased in some chronic interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sarcoidosis but increased in experimental models of acute alveolitis. Although asbestos fibers can stimulate alveolar macrophages (AM) to release PA in vitro, the effect of chronic asbestos exposure of the lower respiratory tract on lung PA activity remains unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate PA activity of alveolar macrophages and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid in asbestos-exposed sheep and asbestos workers. Forty-three sheep were exposed to either 100 mg UICC chrysotile B asbestos in 100 ml phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or to 100 ml PBS by tracheal infusion every 2 wk for 18 months. At Month 18, chest roentgenograms were analyzed and alveolar macrophage and extracellular fluid PA activity were measured in samples obtained by BAL. Alveolar macrophage PA activity was increased in the asbestos-exposed sheep compared to control sheep (87.2 +/- 17.3 versus 41.1 +/- 7.2 U/10(5) AM-24 h, p less than 0.05) as was the BAL fluid PA activity (674.9 +/- 168.4 versus 81.3 +/- 19.7 U/mg alb-24 h, p less than 0.01). Among the asbestos-exposed sheep, 10 had normal chest roentgenograms (Group SA) and 15 had irregular interstitial opacities (Group SB). Strikingly, whereas Group SA did not differ from the control group in BAL cellularity or PA activity, Group SB had marked increases in alveolar macrophages (p less than 0.005), AM PA activity (p less than 0.02), and BAL PA activity (p less than 0.001) compared to the control group.

  9. Remodeling of alveolar septa after murine pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Wagner, Willi L.; Bennett, Robert D.; Ackermann, Maximilian; Valenzuela, Cristian D.; Belle, Janeil; Tsuda, Akira; Konerding, Moritz A.

    2015-01-01

    In most mammals, removing one lung (pneumonectomy) results in the compensatory growth of the remaining lung. In mice, stereological observations have demonstrated an increase in the number of mature alveoli; however, anatomic evidence of the early phases of alveolar growth has remained elusive. To identify changes in the lung microstructure associated with neoalveolarization, we used tissue histology, electron microscopy, and synchrotron imaging to examine the configuration of the alveolar duct after murine pneumonectomy. Systematic histological examination of the cardiac lobe demonstrated no change in the relative frequency of dihedral angle components (Ends, Bends, and Junctions) (P > 0.05), but a significant decrease in the length of a subset of septal ends (“E”). Septal retraction, observed in 20–30% of the alveolar ducts, was maximal on day 3 after pneumonectomy (P < 0.01) and returned to baseline levels within 3 wk. Consistent with septal retraction, the postpneumonectomy alveolar duct diameter ratio (Dout:Din) was significantly lower 3 days after pneumonectomy compared to all controls except for the detergent-treated lung (P < 0.001). To identify clumped capillaries predicted by septal retraction, vascular casting, analyzed by both scanning electron microscopy and synchrotron imaging, demonstrated matted capillaries that were most prominent 3 days after pneumonectomy. Numerical simulations suggested that septal retraction could reflect increased surface tension within the alveolar duct, resulting in a new equilibrium at a higher total energy and lower surface area. The spatial and temporal association of these microstructural changes with postpneumonectomy lung growth suggests that these changes represent an early phase of alveolar duct remodeling. PMID:26078396

  10. Glucocorticoid receptors, in human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, T; Yasuoka, S; Nakayama, T; Tsubura, E

    1982-01-01

    The numbers of glucocorticoid receptors in human alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood cells were measured with 3H-prednisolone. Alveolar macrophages, which constituted 89.0 +/- 5.9% of broncho-alveolar cells, obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage from normal volunteers had much larger numbers of specific glucocorticoid receptors than peripheral blood cells. The numbers of glucocorticoid receptors in peripheral polymorphonuclear leucocytes, lymphocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations (B cells, T cells, TG cells and TnonG cells) were nearly equal. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, in whom alveolar macrophages amounted to over 85% of the broncho-alveolar cells, the number of glucocorticoid receptors in alveolar macrophages was significantly decreased, but the numbers in their peripheral blood cells were normal. This finding suggests that the number of glucocorticoid receptors in alveolar macrophages may change specifically during disorders of the lung. PMID:7075033

  11. ALVEOLAR BREATH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN HUMAN EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alveolar breath sampling and analysis can be extremely useful in exposure assessment studies involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over recent years scientists from the EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory have developed and refined an alveolar breath collection ...

  12. Age-dependent changes in porcine alveolar macrophage function during the postnatal period of alveolarization

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, R.; Tasat, D.R.; Fernandez Alanis, E.; Delfosse, V.; Tsuda, A.

    2008-01-01

    During early postnatal ontogeny in most mammals, the lung is structurally and functionally immature. In some species with relatively altricial lung morphology, there is evidence of a coupling between functional maturity of the pulmonary cellular immune system and alveolar maturation. Herein, we examine changes in alveolar macrophage (AM) number and function occurring during alveolarization in a more precocial species, the pig, to determine if heightened oxidative metabolism and phagocytic ability is similarly delayed until completion of lung morphogenesis. We assessed cell differential in lavage fluid and evaluated two main functional parameters of AM phagocytic response, the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and particle internalization. AM functional maturation occurred mainly during the first postnatal week: the proportion of AMs, ROS generation, and phagocytosis all increased significantly. These results suggest maturational improvement of the impaired AM-based pulmonary immune system of the neonate piglet occurs during the postnatal period of rapid alveolarization. PMID:18775449

  13. Alveolar proteinosis associated with aluminium dust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chew, R; Nigam, S; Sivakumaran, P

    2016-08-01

    Secondary alveolar proteinosis is a rare lung disease which may be triggered by a variety of inhaled particles. The diagnosis is made by detection of anti-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, which appears milky white and contains lamellar bodies. Aluminium has been suggested as a possible cause, but there is little evidence in the literature to support this assertion. We report the case of a 46-year-old former boilermaker and boat builder who developed secondary alveolar proteinosis following sustained heavy aluminium exposure. The presence of aluminium was confirmed both by histological examination and metallurgical analysis of a mediastinal lymph node. Despite cessation of exposure to aluminium and treatment with whole-lung lavage which normally results in improvements in both symptoms and lung function, the outcome was poor and novel therapies are now being used for this patient. It may be that the natural history in aluminium-related alveolar proteinosis is different, with the metal playing a mediating role in the disease process. Our case further supports the link between aluminium and secondary alveolar proteinosis and highlights the need for measures to prevent excessive aluminium inhalation in relevant industries. PMID:27099254

  14. Teaching Alveolar Ventilation with Simple, Inexpensive Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2008-01-01

    When teaching and learning about alveolar ventilation with our class of 300 first-year medical students, we use four simple, inexpensive "models." The models, which encourage research-oriented learning and help our students to understand complex ideas, are distributed to the students before class. The students anticipate something new every day,…

  15. Knockout Mice Reveal a Major Role for Alveolar Epithelial Type I Cells in Alveolar Fluid Clearance.

    PubMed

    Flodby, Per; Kim, Yong Ho; Beard, LaMonta L; Gao, Danping; Ji, Yanbin; Kage, Hidenori; Liebler, Janice M; Minoo, Parviz; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Borok, Zea; Crandall, Edward D

    2016-09-01

    Active ion transport by basolateral Na-K-ATPase (Na pump) creates an Na(+) gradient that drives fluid absorption across lung alveolar epithelium. The α1 and β1 subunits are the most highly expressed Na pump subunits in alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). The specific contribution of the β1 subunit and the relative contributions of alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) versus type I (AT1) cells to alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) were investigated using two cell type-specific mouse knockout lines in which the β1 subunit was knocked out in either AT1 cells or both AT1 and AT2 cells. AFC was markedly decreased in both knockout lines, revealing, we believe for the first time, that AT1 cells play a major role in AFC and providing insights into AEC-specific roles in alveolar homeostasis. AEC monolayers derived from knockout mice demonstrated decreased short-circuit current and active Na(+) absorption, consistent with in vivo observations. Neither hyperoxia nor ventilator-induced lung injury increased wet-to-dry lung weight ratios in knockout lungs relative to control lungs. Knockout mice showed increases in Na pump β3 subunit expression and β2-adrenergic receptor expression. These results demonstrate a crucial role for the Na pump β1 subunit in alveolar ion and fluid transport and indicate that both AT1 and AT2 cells make major contributions to these processes and to AFC. Furthermore, they support the feasibility of a general approach to altering alveolar epithelial function in a cell-specific manner that allows direct insights into AT1 versus AT2 cell-specific roles in the lung. PMID:27064541

  16. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities ("sandstorm-like") in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with "crazy paving" appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  17. Bilateral stony lung: pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Subhash; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep; Das, Prasenjit; Sarkar, Chitra

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old male paddy field worker was referred for exertional shortness of breath and non-productive cough for 4 years. He had been treated for pulmonary tuberculosis twice. Chest radiograph showed extensive bilateral nodular opacities (“sandstorm-like”) in the middle and lower lobe. Pulmonary function tests revealed a restrictive ventilatory defect. High resolution CT showed widespread nodular infiltration with “crazy paving” appearance and interrupted black pleura sign. This was confirmed as pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) by trans-bronchial lung biopsy, which showed normal respiratory lining epithelium with dilated alveolar spaces containing many calcific bodies, some of which showed concentric calcification. The possibilities of silicosis (due to exposure to husk) and tuberculosis, both of which can mimic PAM clinically and radiologically, made this case a diagnostic challenge. PMID:21686505

  18. Rare lung diseases II: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Juvet, Stephen C; Hwang, David; Waddell, Thomas K; Downey, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    The present article is the second in a series on rare lung diseases. It focuses on pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disorder in which lipoproteinaceous material accumulates in the alveolar space. PAP was first described in 1958, and for many years the nature of the material accumulating in the lungs was unknown. Major insights into PAP have been made in the past decade, and these have led to the notion that PAP is an autoimmume disorder in which autoantibodies interfere with signalling through the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor, leading to macrophage and neutrophil dysfunction. This has spurred new therapeutic approaches to this disorder. The discussion of PAP will begin with a case report, then will highlight the classification of PAP and review recent insights into the pathogenesis of PAP. The approach to therapy and the prognosis of PAP will also be discussed. PMID:18551202

  19. Bmp2 and Bmp4 accelerate alveolar bone development.

    PubMed

    Ou, Mingming; Zhao, Yibing; Zhang, Fangming; Huang, Xiaofeng

    2015-06-01

    Alveolar bone remodeling is a continuous process that takes place during development and in response to various physiological and pathological stimuli. However, detailed knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms involved in alveolar bone development is still lacking. This study aims at improving our understanding of alveolar bone formation and the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps) in this process. Mice at embryonic (E) day 13.5 to postnatal (PN) day 15.5 were selected to observe the process of alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone development was found to be morphologically observable at E14.5. Molar teeth isolated from mice at PN7.5 were pretreated with Bmp2, Bmp4, Noggin, or BSA, and grafted subcutaneously into mice. The subcutaneously implanted tooth germs formed alveolar bone indicating the role of the dental follicle in alveolar bone development. Alveolar bone formation was increased after pretreatment with Bmp2 and Bmp4, but not with Noggin. Gene expression levels in dental follicle cells from murine molars were also determined by real-time RT-PCR. The expression levels of Runx2, Bsp, and Ocn were significantly higher in dental follicle cells cultured with Bmp2 or Bmp4, and significantly lower in those cultured with Noggin when compared with that of the BSA controls. Our results suggest that the dental follicle participates in alveolar bone formation and Bmp2/4 appears to accelerate alveolar bone development.

  20. [Alveolar hemorrhage associated with intestinal inflammatory disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Rabec, C; Barcat, J; Rey, D

    2003-06-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is characterized by diffuse bleeding into alveolar spaces. Three histopathological patterns may be seen: 1) pulmonary capillaritis due to immunological aggression to the membrane, 2) diffuse alveolar damage within the context of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 3) and "bland" DAH without alveolar or capillary damage. In the first two groups, pulmonary damage usually occurs within the context of a systemic disease. In the last, injury is usually found only in the lung, an entity called pulmonary hemosiderosis. We present a case of DAH with neither capillaritis nor diffuse alveolar damage in association with inflammatory bowel disease and Hashimoto thyroiditis. The case is interesting both because the association has not yet been described in the literature and because the presence of alveolar bleeding without evident tissue damage within the context of known autoimmune diseases may extend the field to include a new pathophysiological mechanism of pulmonary hemorrhage.

  1. Mean alveolar gases and alveolar-arterial gradients in pulmonary patients.

    PubMed

    Luft, U C; Loeppky, J A; Mostyn, E M

    1979-03-01

    In view of uncertainties about the best way to estimate mean alveolar gases in patients with ventilation-perfusion inequalities, three different methods were evaluated on 54 patients. 1) O2 and CO2 were recorded by mass spectrometer on an O2 (x)-CO2 (y) diagram. The coordinates at the intersect of the expiratory record with the mixed expired R line (RE) ives the mean alveolar values (PAo2 and PAco2. 2)pa'co2 was calculated with the Bohr equation using a predicted anatomic dead space and PA'o2 was derived with the alveolar equation. 3) End-tidal (ET) P02 were averaged over 1 min at rest in steady state. Mean RET calculated from 3 was identical with RE. Mean values for PAco2, PA'CO2. and PETco2 differed by less that 1 Torr, but the variance was least with the end-tidal method. There was a highly significant correlation between delta aAPco2 using PETco2 and VD/VT, better than with either of the other methods. The end-tidal measurement appears to give the best approximation of mean alveolar gas in pulmonary patients.

  2. An estimation of mechanical stress on alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening and closure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheng-Long; Song, Yuan-Lin; Hu, Zhao-Yan; Zhang, Su; Chen, Ya-Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Alveolar overdistension and mechanical stresses generated by repetitive opening and closing of small airways and alveoli have been widely recognized as two primary mechanistic factors that may contribute to the development of ventilator-induced lung injury. A long-duration exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to even small, shear stresses could lead to the changes in cytoskeleton and the production of inflammatory mediators. In this paper, we have made an attempt to estimate in situ the magnitudes of mechanical stresses exerted on the alveolar walls during repetitive alveolar reopening by using a tape-peeling model of McEwan and Taylor (35). To this end, we first speculate the possible ranges of capillary number (Ca) ≡ μU/γ (a dimensionless combination of surface tension γ, fluid viscosity μ, and alveolar opening velocity U) during in vivo alveolar opening. Subsequent calculations show that increasing respiratory rate or inflation rate serves to increase the values of mechanical stresses. For a normal lung, the predicted maximum shear stresses are <15 dyn/cm(2) at all respiratory rates, whereas for a lung with elevated surface tension or viscosity, the maximum shear stress will notably increase, even at a slow respiratory rate. Similarly, the increased pressure gradients in the case of elevated surface or viscosity may lead to a pressure drop >300 dyn/cm(2) across a cell, possibly inducing epithelial hydraulic cracks. In addition, we have conceived of a geometrical model of alveolar opening to make a prediction of the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) required to splint open a collapsed alveolus, which as shown by our results, covers a wide range of pressures, from several centimeters to dozens of centimeters of water, strongly depending on the underlying pulmonary conditions. The establishment of adequate regional ventilation-to-perfusion ratios may prevent recruited alveoli from reabsorption atelectasis and accordingly, reduce the required levels of

  3. Inferior alveolar and lingual nerve imaging.

    PubMed

    Miloro, Michael; Kolokythas, Antonia

    2011-03-01

    At present, there are no objective testing modalities available for evaluation of iatrogenic injury to the terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve, making such clinical diagnosis and management complicated for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Several imaging modalities can assist in the preoperative risk assessment of the trigeminal nerve as related to commonly performed procedures in the vicinity of the nerve, mostly third molar surgery. This article provides a review of all available imaging modalities and their clinical application relative to preoperative injury risk assessment of the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve, and postinjury and postsurgical repair recovery status.

  4. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in a marble worker.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Berna Botan; Akgedik, Recep; Akgedik, Sukran; Nazaroglu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rarely seen disease of the alveoli, characterized by accumulation of proteinous material, which stains positive with periodic acid Schiff, in the alveoli. Secondary PAP may develop as a result of occupational exposure to materials such as silica and indium. In the paper, together with a review of the relevant literature, we present an uncommon case of a 47-year old male, marble worker who was diagnosed with PAP associated with a 12-year history of exposure to marble dust. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(5):871-876. PMID:27518894

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Gingival Tissue and Alveolar Bone during Alveolar Bone Healing*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee-Young; Kwon, Joseph; Kook, Min-Suk; Kang, Seong Soo; Kim, Se Eun; Sohn, Sungoh; Jung, Seunggon; Kwon, Sang-Oh; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Tae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue regeneration is orchestrated by the surrounding supporting tissues and involves the build-up of osteogenic cells, which orchestrate remodeling/healing through the expression of numerous mediators and signaling molecules. Periodontal regeneration models have proven useful for studying the interaction and communication between alveolar bone and supporting soft tissue. We applied a quantitative proteomic approach to analyze and compare proteins with altered expression in gingival soft tissue and alveolar bone following tooth extraction. For target identification and validation, hard and soft tissue were extracted from mini-pigs at the indicated times after tooth extraction. From triplicate experiments, 56 proteins in soft tissue and 27 proteins in alveolar bone were found to be differentially expressed before and after tooth extraction. The expression of 21 of those proteins was altered in both soft tissue and bone. Comparison of the activated networks in soft tissue and alveolar bone highlighted their distinct responsibilities in bone and tissue healing. Moreover, we found that there is crosstalk between identified proteins in soft tissue and alveolar bone with respect to cellular assembly, organization, and communication. Among these proteins, we examined in detail the expression patterns and associated networks of ATP5B and fibronectin 1. ATP5B is involved in nucleic acid metabolism, small molecule biochemistry, and neurological disease, and fibronectin 1 is involved in cellular assembly, organization, and maintenance. Collectively, our findings indicate that bone regeneration is accompanied by a profound interaction among networks regulating cellular resources, and they provide novel insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the healing of periodontal tissue after tooth extraction. PMID:23824910

  6. Deficiency of vitamin E in the alveolar fluid of cigarette smokers. Influence on alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Pacht, E R; Kaseki, H; Mohammed, J R; Cornwell, D G; Davis, W B

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking produces oxidant-mediated changes in the lung important to the pathogenesis of emphysema. Since vitamin E can neutralize reactive oxygen species and prevent peroxidation of unsaturated lipids, it may constitute an important component of the lung's defense against oxidant injury. To better characterize the antioxidant protective role of vitamin E, young asymptomatic smokers and nonsmokers were evaluated by bronchoalveolar lavage before and immediately after a 3-wk course of oral vitamin E (2,400 IU/d). Smoker alveolar fluid at baseline was relatively deficient in vitamin E compared with nonsmoker fluid (3.1 +/- 0.7 ng/ml vs. 20.7 +/- 2.4 ng/ml, P less than 0.005). Although smoker alveolar fluid vitamin E levels increased to 9.3 +/- 2.3 ng/ml after supplementation, the levels remained significantly lower than nonsmoker baseline levels (P less than 0.01). This deficiency was explained, in part, by the increased oxidative metabolism of vitamin E to the quinone form in the lungs of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Although the significance of a lower concentration of alveolar fluid vitamin E is unclear, it may compromise the antioxidant protection afforded by the alveolar fluid as it coats the lung's epithelial surface. The protective role of vitamin E was assessed by cytotoxicity experiments, which demonstrated that the killing of normal rat lung parenchymal cells by smoker alveolar macrophages was inversely related to the vitamin E content of the parenchymal cells. These findings suggest that vitamin E may be an important lower respiratory tract antioxidant, and that the deficiency seen in young smokers may predispose them to an enhanced oxidant attack on their lung parenchymal cells. PMID:3949977

  7. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona

    2013-01-01

    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  8. Alveolar hemorrhage in vasculitis: primary and secondary.

    PubMed

    Cordier, Jean-François; Cottin, Vincent

    2011-06-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in primary and secondary vasculitis occurs when capillaritis is present. The diagnosis of DAH is considered in patients who develop progressive dyspnea with alveolar opacities on chest imaging (with density ranging from ground glass to consolidation) that cannot be explained otherwise. Hemoptysis, a valuable sign, is often absent. A decline of blood hemoglobin level over a few days without hemolysis or any hemorrhage elsewhere should be an alert for DAH. Bronchoalveolar lavage, retrieving bright red fluid, is the best diagnostic clue. Lung biopsy is not recommended. A search for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCAs) is mandatory. Once DAH is diagnosed and hemodynamic as well as infectious causes have been excluded, ANCA-associated vasculitis is taken into account (mainly microscopic polyangiitis or Wegener granulomatosis, and, exceptionally, Churg-Strauss syndrome). Drug-induced DAH, especially antithyroid drugs such as propylthiouracil may be coupled with ANCA. Isolated DAH with capillaritis with or without ANCA is rare. DAH in systemic lupus erythematosus is either associated or not with capillaritis. Treatment of DAH should target the underlying disorder. In the primary vasculitides, corticosteroids and immunosuppressants, especially cyclophosphamide, are the mainstay of therapy, but plasma exchange, particularly in severe DAH, is the rule, although evidence of its effectiveness is awaited.

  9. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nanjappa, Sowmya; Jeong, Daniel K; Muddaraju, Manjunath; Jeong, Katherine; Hill, Ebone D; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is a potentially fatal pulmonary disease syndrome that affects individuals with hematological and nonhematological malignancies. The range of inciting factors is wide for this syndrome and includes thrombocytopenia, underlying infection, coagulopathy, and the frequent use of anticoagulants, given the high incidence of venous thrombosis in this population. Dyspnea, fever, and cough are commonly presenting symptoms. However, clinical manifestations can be variable. Obvious bleeding (hemoptysis) is not always present and can pose a potential diagnostic challenge. Without prompt treatment, hypoxia that rapidly progresses to respiratory failure can occur. Diagnosis is primarily based on radiological and bronchoscopic findings. This syndrome is especially common in patients with hematological malignancies, given an even greater propensity for thrombocytopenia as a result of bone marrow suppression as well as the often prolonged immunosuppression in this patient population. The syndrome also has an increased incidence in individuals with hematological malignancies who have received a bone marrow transplant. We present a case series of 5 patients with acute myeloid leukemia presenting with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage at our institution. A comparison of clinical manifestations, radiographic findings, treatment course, and outcomes are described. A review of the literature and general overview of the diagnostic evaluation, differential diagnoses, pathophysiology, and treatment of this syndrome are discussed. PMID:27556667

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of pulmonary alveolar capillary vessels

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, I. G. S.; Ritchie, B. C.; Maloney, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The pattern of subepithelial vessels in pulmonary alveoli of rabbits has been studied using scanning electron microscopy. Alveolar capillaries form a network of interconnecting vascular rings, most of which surround the periphery of type II cells of the alveolar epithelium. Individual capillaries contributing to the formation of adjacent rings follow a corrugated course with angulations located on the sites of junction with other capillaries completing the rings; the capillaries are covered by type I epithelial cells which also extend into and form the alveolar lining at the peripheral area of the interstices of the capillary network. Single type II cells form the alveolar lining at the centre of vascular rings. The pattern of pulmonary alveolar capillaries revealed by scanning electron microscopy is thus similar to that postulated by Weibel (1963) on the basis of transmission microscopic studies. Images PMID:4731118

  11. Bacillus anthracis Lethal Toxin Reduces Human Alveolar Epithelial Barrier Function

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Marybeth; Duggan, Elizabeth Stewart; Booth, John Leland; Patel, Vineet Indrajit; Zander, Ryan A.; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Ramani, Vijay; Veres, Tibor Zoltan; Prenzler, Frauke; Sewald, Katherina; Williams, Daniel M.; Coggeshall, Kenneth Mark; Awasthi, Shanjana; Lupu, Florea; Burian, Dennis; Ballard, Jimmy Dale; Braun, Armin

    2012-01-01

    The lung is the site of entry for Bacillus anthracis in inhalation anthrax, the deadliest form of the disease. Bacillus anthracis produces virulence toxins required for disease. Alveolar macrophages were considered the primary target of the Bacillus anthracis virulence factor lethal toxin because lethal toxin inhibits mouse macrophages through cleavage of MEK signaling pathway components, but we have reported that human alveolar macrophages are not a target of lethal toxin. Our current results suggest that, unlike human alveolar macrophages, the cells lining the respiratory units of the lung, alveolar epithelial cells, are a target of lethal toxin in humans. Alveolar epithelial cells expressed lethal toxin receptor protein, bound the protective antigen component of lethal toxin, and were subject to lethal-toxin-induced cleavage of multiple MEKs. These findings suggest that human alveolar epithelial cells are a target of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin. Further, no reduction in alveolar epithelial cell viability was observed, but lethal toxin caused actin rearrangement and impaired desmosome formation, consistent with impaired barrier function as well as reduced surfactant production. Therefore, by compromising epithelial barrier function, lethal toxin may play a role in the pathogenesis of inhalation anthrax by facilitating the dissemination of Bacillus anthracis from the lung in early disease and promoting edema in late stages of the illness. PMID:23027535

  12. Modern therapy for severe alveolar ridge atrophy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Feng; Pan, Chin-Yun; Wang, Wen-Chen; Lan, Ting-Hsun

    2013-01-01

    This clinical report illustrates a modern method for oral rehabilitation of severe edentulous atrophic ridge. Shallow vestibule and small denture-bearing area of the maxilla provide insufficient retention, and only the symphyseal region of the mandible has obvious alveolar ridge. The surgery of deepening vestibule of the maxilla ridge was done by using tentative miniscrew combined with old denture and soft liner. The osseointegrated dental implants were installed over symphyseal region of the mandible to act as retentive devices for prostheses. In addition, functional reline with rebase material to build buccal-tongue contact over the retromolar area after denture delivery obtained high satisfaction from the patient. Many clinical conditions cannot be managed solely with implants or preprosthetic surgery alone, whereas a combination of the 2 can achieve successful outcome. PMID:24036818

  13. Impairment of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages by hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; van Bree, L.; van Iwaarden, J.F.; van Golde, L.M.; Verhoef, J. )

    1990-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) inhibited phagocytosis and superoxide anion production by rat alveolar macrophages. The inhibition was irreversible and concentration and exposure time dependent. The potential relationship between H2O2-induced biochemical perturbations and impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytic functions was investigated. Alveolar macrophage viability and Fc receptor binding capacity were not affected by H2O2. There was probably no correlation between a H2O2-induced rise in cytosolic (Ca2+) ((Ca2+)i) and the impairment of phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages, as was suggested by the following findings. First, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i could be inhibited by chelation of extracellular Ca2+, whereas the H2O2-induced impairment of phagocytosis could not. Second, the H2O2-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was reversible, whereas the impairment of phagocytosis was not. And finally, a rise in (Ca2+)i by incubation of alveolar macrophages with the calcium ionophore A23187 did not affect phagocytosis. Various experiments suggested that ATP depletion may play an important role in the H2O2 toxicity for alveolar macrophages. Comparable concentrations of H2O2 caused an irreversible decrease both in cellular ATP and in phagocytosis and superoxide production by alveolar macrophages. In addition, time course of ATP depletion and induction of impaired alveolar macrophage function were similar. In view of the fact that the strong oxidant H2O2 may react with a large variety of biological substances, possible other toxic lesions may not be excluded as underlying mechanism for H2O2-induced inhibition of phagocytic functions of alveolar macrophages.

  14. [Distraction osteogenesis of deficient alveolar bone prior to dental rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Shilo, D; Emodi, O; Aizenbud, D; Rachmiel, A

    2015-07-01

    Implant supported rehabilitation has become very common in treatment plans nowadays, yet many patients lack the vertical and horizontal bone dimensions required for endosseous implant insertion. Distraction osteogenesis is a technique in which bone is generated by progressive elongation of two bone fragments following an osteotomy or corticotomy. Distraction osteogenesis of the alveolar ridge as a treatment modality in implant dentistry is a very useful technique that allows for adequate bone formation suitable for implant insertion. Alveolar distraction can be unidirectional, bidirectional, multidirectional or horizontal. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis can be performed by using intraosseous distraction devices, intraosseous distraction implants or by extraosseous devices which are the most prevalent today. Distraction osteogenesis has many advantages such as gradual lengthening of the bone with no need for an autogenous bone graft and lack of the associated donor site morbidity as well as distraction of the surrounding soft tissue together with the transported bone. One of the major challenges when using alveolar distraction osteogenesis is controlling the vector of distraction, this problem should be further addressed in future researches. We describe different methods for alveolar distraction osteogenesis, including the surgical procedure, latency period, lengthening and consolidation period. We also discuss the advantages, disadvantages and complications of the method. In this manuscript a case of mandibular alveolar deficiency following mandibular fracture and loss of teeth and the alveolar bone is presented. This patient was treated by alveolar distraction osteogenesis with excellent results. This patient was later rehabilitated . using endosseous implants as demonstrated by radiographs. Alveolar distraction osteogenesis provides a method to regain both hard tissue and soft tissue without additional grafting and is an efficient modality in cases of medium

  15. Variant Inferior Alveolar Nerves and Implications for Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kevin T; Brokaw, Everett J; Bell, Andrea; Joy, Anita

    2016-01-01

    A sound knowledge of anatomical variations that could be encountered during surgical procedures is helpful in avoiding surgical complications. The current article details anomalous morphology of inferior alveolar nerves encountered during routine dissection of the craniofacial region in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. We also report variations of the lingual nerves, associated with the inferior alveolar nerves. The variations were documented and a thorough review of literature was carried out. We focus on the variations themselves, and the clinical implications that these variations present. Thorough understanding of variant anatomy of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves may determine the success of procedural anesthesia, the etiology of pathologic processes, and the avoidance of surgical misadventure.

  16. Alveolar-cell carcinoma: a problem in sputum cytodiagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, A I; Cole, M; Dunnill, M S

    1982-01-01

    Cytology and histology are correlated in a series of 22 cases chosen to illustrate the differential diagnosis between clusters of benign bronchial or bronchiolar cells seen in sputum, and those of alveolar cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma with alveolar spread. Alveolar-cell carcinoma is characterised by clusters of small epithelial cells in spherical or irregular formations, none showing enough polarity to distinguish a smooth or palisaded surface. The appearances are most distinctive if vacuolation is absent. The diagnosis cannot, however, be confidently made in all cases from morphological features of cells in sputum. Images PMID:6294147

  17. Desquamative alveolar disease (desquamative interstitial pneumonia): case report 1

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Edgardo; Rodriguez, Jaime; Lisboa, Carmen; Ferretti, Ricardo

    1969-01-01

    Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is a disease characterized by massive alveolar cell proliferation and desquamation with sparse interstitial involvement. The reported case shows an unusually widespread radiographic reticulo-nodular image and abundant alveolar cells in the sputum. Functional studies reveal the expected diffusion defect with practically normal mechanical properties of the lung, in contrast with interstitial fibrosing lung diseases. On the basis of the pathological findings, especially the behaviour of alveolar cells, the individuality of this disease is discussed. We think that it is different from other diseases classed as varieties of a single disease or as different entities under the names of primary interstitial fibrosis or chronic fibrosing alveolitis. Images PMID:5822250

  18. Chemical and histochemical studies of human alveolar collagen fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies have established that the normal human alveolar argyrophilic (reticulum) fiber is collagen fiber. The silver impregnation method is highly sensitive and specific for histologic demonstration of the elaborate collagen fiber network of alveolar septa. The argyrophilic alveolar collagen fiber does not stain with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) or periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium tetroxide (PTO) reaction. The materials positive for the PAS and PTO reactions in alveolar septa are epithelial and endothelial basal laminas, which are nonargyrophilic. Chemically, lung collagen fibers are composed of Type I and Type III collagens, which differ in amino acid composition, chain composition, and carbohydrate content. The chemical heterogeneity of lung collagen may have important biologic implications in the maintenance of normal structure and in the repair of lung injury. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:64120

  19. *Ambient Particluate Matter Supresses Alveolar Macrophage Cytokine Response to Lipopolysaccharide

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reports link ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including the exacerbation of inflammatory disease and increased hospitalization for lung infections. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play an important defense role against infections v...

  20. AMBIENT PARTICULATE MATTER DECREASED IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE CYTOKINE RELEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to ambient airborne particulate matter (PM) is associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, including increased hospitalizations for lung infection. Normal lung immune responses to bacterial infection include alveolar macrophage cytokine production and...

  1. Primary Cerebral Alveolar Echinococcosis: Mycology to the Rescue

    PubMed Central

    Goehringer, François; Umhang, Gérald; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Hénard, Sandrine; Boué, Franck; May, Thierry; Machouart, Marie

    2014-01-01

    A case of primary cerebral alveolar echinococcosis with a favorable outcome is reported. A universal fungal PCR enabled this diagnosis, while the initial serological analysis remained noncontributive. PMID:24478516

  2. Orbital alveolar soft part sarcoma: Histopathologic report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Alkatan, Hind; Al-Shedoukhy, Ahlam A.; Chaudhry, Imtiaz A.; Al-Ayoubi, Ayman

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma is considered as a distinct histopathological entity with rare cases reported from the orbit area. Two cases of alveolar soft part sarcomas occurring in the orbit of two patients along with their histopathologic findings are reported herewith. In both cases, the patients presented with eyelid swelling and proptosis. The diagnosis was made by incisional biopsies and histopathology. The literature is reviewed regarding occurrence of this tumor, its diagnosis and management. PMID:23960876

  3. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis as a reaction to fentanyl patch smoke.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Erin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Satkunam, Niranjala; Churg, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    We report a patient who developed shortness of breath and systemic symptoms after starting to smoke fentanyl patches. CT scan showed ground glass centrilobular nodules, and biopsy demonstrated alveolar proteinosis. Her symptoms disappeared and her chest imaging changes largely resolved when she stopped smoking the patches. Alveolar proteinosis is an uncommon drug reaction and in this case presented in a very unusual fashion as an inhalation injury.

  4. Alveolar response to experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lanken, P. N.; Minda, M.; Pietra, G. G.; Fishman, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to characterize the alveolar response to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, light and electron miscropy were used to trace the development of experimental infections with P carinii in rats treated with cortisone acetate and a low-protein diet. The first changes were found by the eighth day of treatment and consisted of the selective attachment of Pneumocystis organisms, mostly trophozoites, to alveolar Type 1 pneumocytes; the host cells were undamaged, and no inflammatory response was seen. After approximately one month of treatment, the seemingly innocuous host-parasite interaction was succeeded by focal necrosis of the Type 1 pneumocytes adjacent to organisms; hyperplasia of nearby Type 2 pneumocytes also occurred, to replace the dead Type 1 pneumocytes. Even at this stage, inflammatory reaction was conspicuously absent except for occasional alveolar macrophages in the diseased alveoli; in addition, all cells of the alveolar-capillary membrane other than Type 1 pneumocytes appeared entirely normal. Not only does the present study clarify the nature of alveolar injury caused by Pneumocystis carinii, but it also provides an experimental animal model in which selective injury of the alveolar lining cells occurs. Images Figure 5 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 4 Figure 8 PMID:6966893

  5. Bayesian inference of the lung alveolar spatial model for the identification of alveolar mechanics associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christley, Scott; Emr, Bryanna; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Josh; Gatto, Louis; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary F; An, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay in the treatment of ARDS, but may induce mechano-physical stresses on unstable alveoli, which can paradoxically propagate the cellular and molecular processes exacerbating ARDS pathology. This phenomenon is called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. In order to identify optimal ventilation strategies to limit VILI and treat ARDS, it is necessary to understand the complex interplay between biological and physical mechanisms of VILI, first at the alveolar level, and then in aggregate at the whole-lung level. Since there is no current consensus about the underlying dynamics of alveolar mechanics, as an initial step we investigate the ventilatory dynamics of an alveolar sac (AS) with the lung alveolar spatial model (LASM), a 3D spatial biomechanical representation of the AS and its interaction with airflow pressure and the surface tension effects of pulmonary surfactant. We use the LASM to identify the mechanical ramifications of alveolar dynamics associated with ARDS. Using graphical processing unit parallel algorithms, we perform Bayesian inference on the model parameters using experimental data from rat lung under control and Tween-induced ARDS conditions. Our results provide two plausible models that recapitulate two fundamental hypotheses about volume change at the alveolar level: (1) increase in alveolar size through isotropic volume change, or (2) minimal change in AS radius with primary expansion of the mouth of the AS, with the implication that the majority of change in lung volume during the respiratory cycle occurs in the

  6. Bayesian inference of the lung alveolar spatial model for the identification of alveolar mechanics associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christley, Scott; Emr, Bryanna; Ghosh, Auyon; Satalin, Josh; Gatto, Louis; Vodovotz, Yoram; Nieman, Gary F.; An, Gary

    2013-06-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is acute lung failure secondary to severe systemic inflammation, resulting in a derangement of alveolar mechanics (i.e. the dynamic change in alveolar size and shape during tidal ventilation), leading to alveolar instability that can cause further damage to the pulmonary parenchyma. Mechanical ventilation is a mainstay in the treatment of ARDS, but may induce mechano-physical stresses on unstable alveoli, which can paradoxically propagate the cellular and molecular processes exacerbating ARDS pathology. This phenomenon is called ventilator induced lung injury (VILI), and plays a significant role in morbidity and mortality associated with ARDS. In order to identify optimal ventilation strategies to limit VILI and treat ARDS, it is necessary to understand the complex interplay between biological and physical mechanisms of VILI, first at the alveolar level, and then in aggregate at the whole-lung level. Since there is no current consensus about the underlying dynamics of alveolar mechanics, as an initial step we investigate the ventilatory dynamics of an alveolar sac (AS) with the lung alveolar spatial model (LASM), a 3D spatial biomechanical representation of the AS and its interaction with airflow pressure and the surface tension effects of pulmonary surfactant. We use the LASM to identify the mechanical ramifications of alveolar dynamics associated with ARDS. Using graphical processing unit parallel algorithms, we perform Bayesian inference on the model parameters using experimental data from rat lung under control and Tween-induced ARDS conditions. Our results provide two plausible models that recapitulate two fundamental hypotheses about volume change at the alveolar level: (1) increase in alveolar size through isotropic volume change, or (2) minimal change in AS radius with primary expansion of the mouth of the AS, with the implication that the majority of change in lung volume during the respiratory cycle occurs in the

  7. Classification of the alveolar ridge width: implant-driven treatment considerations for the horizontally deficient alveolar ridges.

    PubMed

    Tolstunov, Len

    2014-07-01

    Among many techniques advocated for the horizontally deficient alveolar ridges, ridge-split has many advantages. Here, treatment management strategies of the horizontally collapsed ridges, especially the ridge-split approach, are discussed and a clinically relevant implant-driven classification of the alveolar ridge width is proposed, with the goal to assist an operator in choosing the proper bone augmentation technique. Comparison and advantages of two commonly used techniques, ridge-split and block bone graft, are presented.

  8. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  9. Cardiovascular risk in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

    PubMed

    Manali, Effrosyni D; Papadaki, Georgia; Konstantonis, Dimitrios; Tsangaris, Iraklis; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Schams, Andrea; Kagouridis, Konstantinos; Karakatsani, Anna; Orfanos, Stylianos; Griese, Matthias; Papiris, Spyros A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that cardiovascular events and/or indices of cardiac dysfunction may be increased in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension, arrhythmias, pulmonary embolism, stroke and ischemic heart attack were reported. Patients underwent serum anti-GM-CSF antibodies, disease severity score (DSS), Doppler transthoracic echocardiograph, glucose, thyroid hormones, lipids, troponin and pro-Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) examination. Thirteen patients (8 female) were studied, median age of 47. Pro-BNP inversely related to DLCO% and TLC%; troponin directly related to DSS, age, P(A-a)O2, left atrium-, left ventricle-end-diastole diameter and BMI. On multiple regression analysis DSS was the only parameter significantly and strongly related with troponin (R(2) = 0.776, p = 0.007). No cardiovascular event was reported during follow-up. In PAP cardiovascular risk indices relate to lung disease severity. Therefore, PAP patients could be at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Quantitation of its magnitude and potential links to lungs' physiologic derangement will be addressed in future studies. PMID:26558331

  10. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma after treatment of osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Yasushi; Iwabuchi, Haruko; Takachi, Takayuki; Hosokai, Ryosuke; Yoshida, Sakiko; Imamura, Masaru; Watanabe, Akihiro; Umezu, Hajime; Hotta, Tetsuo; Ogose, Akira; Imai, Chihaya

    2013-08-01

    Secondary rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) after treatment of osteosarcoma (OS) is rare. Reported here is the case of a metachronous RMS in the nasal cavity, developing 12 years after successful treatment of non-metastatic OS. The patient was diagnosed as having OS of the femur at 2 years of age. Chemotherapy for OS included doxorubicin (cumulative dose, 488 mg/m(2) ). No radiotherapy was given. There was no family history suggestive of cancer predisposition syndrome. At 14 years of age, alveolar RMS was diagnosed on histopathology. PAX3-FKHR fusion transcripts were detected on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Germline TP53 mutation was not seen on standard DNA sequencing. The occurrence of secondary sarcomas, in the Children's Cancer Survivor study conducted in North America, has been associated with high cumulative doses of anthracyclines, which may also have played a role in the development of RMS in the present case. In the future, novel molecular technologies might uncover genetic cancer predisposition in patients with metachronous cancers. PMID:23910806

  11. Modeling Alveolar Epithelial Cell Behavior In Spatially Designed Hydrogel Microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Katherine Jean Reeder

    The alveolar epithelium consists of two cell phenotypes, elongated alveolar type I cells (AT1) and rounded alveolar type II cells (ATII), and exists in a complex three-dimensional environment as a polarized cell layer attached to a thin basement membrane and enclosing a roughly spherical lumen. Closely surrounding the alveolar cysts are capillary endothelial cells as well as interstitial pulmonary fibroblasts. Many factors are thought to influence alveolar epithelial cell differentiation during lung development and wound repair, including physical and biochemical signals from the extracellular matrix (ECM), and paracrine signals from the surrounding mesenchyme. In particular, disrupted signaling between the alveolar epithelium and local fibroblasts has been implicated in the progression of several pulmonary diseases. However, given the complexity of alveolar tissue architecture and the multitude of signaling pathways involved, designing appropriate experimental platforms for this biological system has been difficult. In order to isolate key factors regulating cellular behavior, the researcher ideally should have control over biophysical properties of the ECM, as well as the ability to organize multiple cell types within the scaffold. This thesis aimed to develop a 3D synthetic hydrogel platform to control alveolar epithelial cyst formation, which could then be used to explore how extracellular cues influence cell behavior in a tissue-relevant cellular arrangement. To accomplish this, a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel network containing enzymatically-degradable crosslinks and bioadhesive pendant peptides was employed as a base material for encapsulating primary alveolar epithelial cells. First, an array of microwells of various cross-sectional shapes was photopatterned into a PEG gel containing photo-labile crosslinks, and primary ATII cells were seeded into the wells to examine the role of geometric confinement on differentiation and multicellular arrangement

  12. Asymmetric ( UC)albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-10-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, UC-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, ( UC)albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space.

  13. Alveolar macrophage interaction with air pollution particulates.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, C A; Frevert, C; Imrich, A; Sioutas, C; Kobzik, L

    1997-09-01

    We applied flow cytometric analysis to characterize the in vitro response of alveolar macrophages (AM) to air pollution particulates. Normal hamster AM were incubated with varying concentrations of residual oil fly ash (ROFA) or concentrated ambient air particulates (CAP). We found a dose-dependent increase in AM-associated right angle light scatter (RAS) after uptake of ROFA (e.g., mean channel number 149.4 +/- 6.5, 102.5 +/- 4.1, 75.8 +/- 3.5, and 61.0 +/- 4.6 at 200, 100, 50, and 25 mg/ml, respectively) or CAP. A role for scavenger-type receptors (SR) in AM uptake of components of ROFA and CAP was identified by marked inhibition of RAS increases in AM pretreated with the specific SR inhibitor polyinosinic acid. We combined measurement of particle uptake (RAS) with flow cytometric analysis of intracellular oxidation of dichlorofluorescin. Both ROFA and CAP caused a dose-related intracellular oxidant stress within AM, comparable to that seen with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (e.g., fold increase over control, 6.6 +/- 0.4, 3.6 +/- 0.4, 4.6 +/- 0.5, 200 mg/ml ROFA, 100 mg/ml ROFA, and 10(-7) M PMA, respectively). We conclude that flow cytometry of RAS increases provides a useful relative measurement of AM uptake of complex particulates within ROFA and CAP. Both ROFA and CAP cause substantial intracellular oxidant stress within AM, which may contribute to subsequent cell activation and production of proinflammatory mediators.

  14. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature).

    PubMed

    Seifeldin, Sameh A

    2016-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  15. Degradation of pulmonary surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholines by alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, P.R.; Ma, J.Y.; Bowman, L.

    1988-06-01

    Experiments were performed to determine whether rat pulmonary surfactant disaturated phosphatidylcholines (DSPC) are degraded by alveolar macrophages in vitro. When (3H)choline-labeled surfactant materials are incubated with unlabeled alveolar macrophages, approximately 40% of the labeled DSPC is broken down in 6 h. There is just a slight decrease in the specific activity of DSPC, which suggests that most products of degradation are not reincorporated into DSPC, at least during the 6-h incubation period. There is a time- and temperature-dependent association of surfactant DSPC with alveolar macrophages, and some of the cell-associated materials are released from the cell fragments after sonication. Association of surfactant with the cells precedes degradation. The breakdown of surfactant DSPC by intact alveolar macrophages lags behind that produced by sonicated cell preparations with disrupted cell membranes. These data and other information suggest that the surfactant materials are internalized by the cells, before the breakdown. The products of degradation probably include free choline and fatty acids, most of which appear in the extracellular fluid. The breakdown processes do not seem to depend on the physical form of the surfactant or on the presence of surfactant apoproteins. Incubation of the cells alone also results in disappearance of intracellular DSPC, some of which may be surfactant phospholipid taken up by the cells in vivo. These results indicate that alveolar macrophages can degrade surfactant DSPC and suggest that these cells may be involved in catabolism of pulmonary surfactant materials.

  16. Retinoic acid in alveolar development, maintenance and regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Maden, Malcolm; Hind, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Recent data suggest that exogenous retinoic acid (RA), the biologically active derivative of vitamin A, can induce alveolar regeneration in a rat model of experimental emphysema. Here, we describe a mouse model of disrupted alveolar development using dexamethasone administered postnatally. We show that the effects of dexamethasone are concentration dependent, dose dependent, long lasting and result in a severe loss of alveolar surface area. When RA is administered to these animals as adults, lung architecture and the surface area per unit of body weight are completely restored to normal. This remarkable effect may be because RA is required during normal alveolar development and administering RA re-awakens gene cascades used during development. We provide evidence that RA is required during alveologenesis in the mouse by showing that the levels of the retinoid binding proteins, the RA receptors and two RA synthesizing enzymes peak postnatally. Furthermore, an inhibitor of RA synthesis, disulphiram, disrupts alveologenesis. We also show that RA is required throughout life for the maintenance of lung alveoli because when rats are deprived of dietary retinol they lose alveoli and show the features of emphysema. Alveolar regeneration with RA may therefore be an important novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of respiratory diseases characterized by a reduced gas-exchanging surface area such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia and emphysema for which there are currently no treatments. PMID:15293808

  17. A basic review on the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Hesham

    2014-01-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block is the most common injection technique used in dentistry and many modifications of the conventional nerve block have been recently described in the literature. Selecting the best technique by the dentist or surgeon depends on many factors including the success rate and complications related to the selected technique. Dentists should be aware of the available current modifications of the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in order to effectively choose between these modifications. Some operators may encounter difficulty in identifying the anatomical landmarks which are useful in applying the inferior alveolar nerve block and rely instead on assumptions as to where the needle should be positioned. Such assumptions can lead to failure and the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block has been reported to be 20-25% which is considered very high. In this basic review, the anatomical details of the inferior alveolar nerve will be given together with a description of its both conventional and modified blocking techniques; in addition, an overview of the complications which may result from the application of this important technique will be mentioned. PMID:25886095

  18. Alveolar targeting of aerosol pentamidine. Toward a rational delivery system

    SciTech Connect

    Simonds, A.K.; Newman, S.P.; Johnson, M.A.; Talaee, N.; Lee, C.A.; Clarke, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    Nebulizer systems that deposit a high proportion of aerosolized pentamidine on large airways are likely to be associated with marked adverse side effects, which may lead to premature cessation of treatment. We have measured alveolar deposition and large airway-related side effects (e.g., cough, breathlessness, and effect on pulmonary function) after aerosolization of 150 mg pentamidine isethionate labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-Sn-colloid. Nine patients with AIDS were studied using three nebulizer systems producing different droplet size profiles: the Acorn System 22, Respirgard II, and Respirgard II with the inspiratory baffle removed. Alveolar deposition was greatest and side effects least with the nebulizer producing the smallest droplet size profile (Respirgard II), whereas large airway-related side effects were prominent and alveolar deposition lowest with the nebulizer producing the largest droplet size (Acorn System 22). Values for alveolar deposition and adverse airway effects were intermediate using the Respirgard with inspiratory baffle removed, thus indicating the importance of the baffle valve in determining droplet size. Addition of a similar baffle valve to the Acorn System 22 produced a marked improvement in droplet size profile. Selection of a nebulizer that produces an optimal droplet size range offers the advantage of enhancing alveolar targeting of aerosolized pentamidine while reducing large airway-related side effects.

  19. Integrating acute lung injury and regulation of alveolar fluid clearance.

    PubMed

    Guidot, David M; Folkesson, Hans G; Jain, Lucky; Sznajder, Jacob I; Pittet, Jean-François; Matthay, Michael A

    2006-09-01

    The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and flooding of the alveolar air spaces with proteinaceous fluid. ARDS develops in response to inflammatory stresses including sepsis, trauma, and severe pneumonia, and despite aggressive critical care management, it still has a mortality of 30-50%. At the time of its original description in 1967, relatively little was known about the specific mechanisms by which the alveolar epithelium regulated lung fluid balance. Over the last 20 years, substantial advances in our understanding of the alveolar epithelium have provided major new insights into how molecular and cellular mechanisms regulate the active transport of solutes and fluid across the alveolar epithelium under both normal and pathological conditions. Beginning with the elucidation of active sodium transport as a major driving force for the transport of water from the air space to the interstitium, elegant work by multiple investigators has revealed a complex and integrated network of membrane channels and pumps that coordinately regulates sodium, chloride, and water flux in both a cell- and condition-specific manner. At the Experimental Biology Meeting in San Francisco on April 4, 2006, a symposium was held to discuss some of the most recent advances. Although there is still much to learn about the mechanisms that impair normal alveolar fluid clearance under pathological conditions, the compelling experimental findings presented in this symposium raise the prospect that we are now poised to test and develop therapeutic strategies to improve outcome in patients with acute lung injury. PMID:16698856

  20. Is alveolar cleft reconstruction still controversial? (Review of literature)

    PubMed Central

    Seifeldin, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is a frequent congenital malformation that manifests in several varieties including unilateral or bilateral and complete or incomplete. Alveolar cleft reconstruction remains controversial with regard to timing, graft materials, surgical techniques, and methods of evaluation. Many studies have been conducted addressing these points to develop an acceptable universal protocol for managing CL/P. The primary goal of alveolar cleft reconstruction in CL/P patients is to provide a bony bridge at the cleft site that allows maxillary arch continuity, oronasal fistula repair, eruption of the permanent dentition into the newly formed bone, enhances nasal symmetry through providing alar base support, orthodontic movement and placement of osseointegrated implants when indicated. Other goals include improving speech, improvement of periodontal conditions, establishing better oral hygiene, and limiting growth disturbances. In order to rehabilitate oral function in CL/P patients alveolar bone grafting is necessary. Secondary bone grafting is the most widely accepted method for treating alveolar clefts. Autogenous bone graft is the primary source for reconstructing alveolar cleft defects and is currently the preferred grafting material. PMID:26792963

  1. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan José

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence.

  2. Variant Inferior Alveolar Nerves and Implications for Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kevin T; Brokaw, Everett J; Bell, Andrea; Joy, Anita

    2016-01-01

    A sound knowledge of anatomical variations that could be encountered during surgical procedures is helpful in avoiding surgical complications. The current article details anomalous morphology of inferior alveolar nerves encountered during routine dissection of the craniofacial region in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. We also report variations of the lingual nerves, associated with the inferior alveolar nerves. The variations were documented and a thorough review of literature was carried out. We focus on the variations themselves, and the clinical implications that these variations present. Thorough understanding of variant anatomy of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves may determine the success of procedural anesthesia, the etiology of pathologic processes, and the avoidance of surgical misadventure. PMID:27269666

  3. Factors connected with alveolar bone resorption among institutionalized elderly people.

    PubMed

    de Baat, C; Kalk, W; van 't Hof, M

    1993-10-01

    In this socio-dental investigation among 175 institutionalized somatically disabled edentulous elderly people correlations are described between the test subjects' degree of alveolar bone resorption, their gender and age, their duration of edentulousness, and the number of complete dentures worn. All test subjects were interviewed by dental students and clinically examined by dentists. The mandibular alveolar bone resorption was significantly stronger in women than in men and stronger in people who had been edentulous longer. The longer the test subjects had been edentulous and the greater their degree of mandibular alveolar bone resorption was, the more mandibular dentures they had worn. This study among institutionalized elderly people provides for the most part the same results as a previously presented study among much younger people. Obviously, in these respects there are no differences between these groups.

  4. [Massive alveolar hemorrhage due to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Cortés, A; Peña, E; Vega, R; Reyes, G; Bautista, E

    2011-03-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage may be a complication of diseases with local and systemic manifestations. Both share the same pathophysiological concept: damage to the alveolar microcirculation. It is a clinical entity that generates a diagnostic challenge for the physician. Early recognition favors aggressive treatment, which can improve the outcome. Despite the technological advances in its diagnosis and treatment, it is still a condition having high morbidity and mortality. We present the case of a 42-year old woman diagnosed of massive alveolar hemorrhage induced by cytomegalovirus (CMV) and HIV infection. Its presentation is atypical because most reported cases have occurred as a pneumonic process, episodes of massive hemorrhage being uncommon. The diagnosis was documented by bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and etiological diagnosis with molecular techniques using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.

  5. Mechanisms underlying the redistribution of particles among the lung's alveolar macrophages during alveolar phase clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Lehnert, B.E.; Oritz, J.B.; Steinkamp, J.A.; Tietjen, G.L.; Sebring, R.J. ); Oberdorster, G. )

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain information about the particle redistribution phenomenon following the deposition of inhaled particles, as well as to obtain information about some of the mechanisms that may be operable in the redistribution of particles, lavaged lung free cell analyses and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analyses of lung tissue and were performed using lungs from rats after they were subchronically exposed to aerosolized dioxide (TiO{sub 2}). TEM analyses indicated that the in situ autolysis of particle-containing Alveolar Macropages (AM) is one important mechanism involved in the redistribution of particles. Evidence was also obtained that indicated that the engulfment of one particle-containing phagocyte by another phagocyte also occurs. Another prominent mechanism of the particle redistribution phenomenon may be the in situ proliferation of particle-laden AM. We used the macrophage cell line J774A.1 as a surrogate for AM to investigate how different particulate loads in macrophages may affect their abilities to proliferate. These in vitro investigations indicated that the normal rate of proliferation of macrophages is essentially unaffected by the containment of relatively high particulate burdens. Overall, the results of our investigations suggest that in situ autolysis of particle-containing AM and the rephagocytosis of freed particles by other phagocytes, the phagocytosis of effete and disintegrating particle-containing phagocytes by other AM, and the in situ division of particle-containing AM are likely mechanisms that underlie the post-depositional redistribution of particles among the lung's AM during alveolar phase clearance. 19 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Alveolar Macrophage Dysregulation in Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Rouhani, Farshid N.; Brantly, Mark L.; Markello, Thomas C.; Helip-Wooley, Amanda; O'Brien, Kevin; Hess, Richard; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A.; Gochuico, Bernadette R.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Individuals with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 1 (HPS-1), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by defective biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles, develop an accelerated form of progressive fibrotic lung disease. The etiology of pulmonary fibrosis associated with HPS-1 is unknown. Objectives: To investigate the potential pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis in HPS-1, lung cells and proteins from individuals with HPS-1 were studied. Methods: Forty-one subjects with HPS-1 with and without pulmonary fibrosis were evaluated with pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography scan, and bronchoscopy. Bronchoalveolar lavage cells and analytes were analyzed. Measurements and Main Results: Concentrations of total bronchoalveolar lavage cells and alveolar macrophages were significantly higher in epithelial lining fluid from subjects with HPS-1 with and without pulmonary fibrosis compared with healthy research volunteers. Concentrations of cytokines and chemokines (i.e., monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in alveolar epithelial lining fluid were significantly higher in subjects with HPS-1 with and without pulmonary fibrosis compared with healthy research volunteers (P < 0.001). In vitro, HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis alveolar macrophages, which did not express HPS1 mRNA, secreted significantly higher concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) protein compared with normal cells (P = 0.001, P = 0.014, and P = 0.011, respectively). Pirfenidone suppressed HPS-1 alveolar macrophage cytokine and chemokine secretion in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions: In HPS-1, alveolar inflammation predominantly involves macrophages and is associated with high lung concentrations of cytokines and chemokines. HPS-1 alveolar macrophages

  7. The effects of bleomycin on alveolar macrophage growth factor secretion.

    PubMed Central

    Denholm, E. M.; Phan, S. H.

    1989-01-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated increased secretion of fibroblast growth factor (MDGF) activity by alveolar macrophages obtained from mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The mechanism by which bleomycin promotes this increase in MDGF secretion is not clear, however. The purpose of this study was to determine the direct effects of bleomycin on alveolar macrophages. Normal rat alveolar macrophages obtained by lavage were cultured in the presence or absence of bleomycin; conditioned media from these cultures were dialyzed to remove bleomycin and then assayed in vitro for MDGF activity. Alveolar macrophages incubated with 0.01 microgram to 1 microgram/ml bleomycin for 18 hours secreted significantly more MDGF than macrophages incubated without bleomycin. Viability of macrophages as determined by exclusion of trypan blue and release of LDH was unaffected by any dose tested. Maximal MDGF production was seen with bleomycin doses of greater than or equal to 0.1 microgram/ml. When alveolar macrophages were incubated with 0.1 microgram/ml bleomycin for 0.5-18 hours, MDGF activity was detected as early as 1 hour, with peak responses found at 4-8 hours. Macrophages stimulated with bleomycin continued to produce significant amounts of MDGF even after bleomycin was removed and replaced with fresh (bleomycin-free) media. MDGF secretion by bleomycin-stimulated alveolar macrophages was inhibited by cycloheximide, and the 5-lipoxygenase inhibitors NDGA (nordihydroguairetic acid) and BW755c, indicating not only a requirement for protein synthesis but also for metabolites of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism for full expression of activity(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2464942

  8. Alveolar macrophage kinetics and function after interruption of canine marrow function

    SciTech Connect

    Springmeyer, S.C.; Altman, L.C.; Kopecky, K.J.; Deeg, H.J.; Storb, R.

    1982-03-01

    To study the kinetics and function of alveolar macrophages after interruption of marrow function, we performed serial bronchoalveolar lavages in dogs. The studies were performed before and after 9.0 to 9.5 Grey total body irradiation and marrow infusion. Monocytes had disappeared from the bloodstream by Day 7 after the irradiation. Alveolar macrophages were significantly decreased at Day 21. At Days 14 and 21 myeloperoxidase-positive alveolar macrophages were also significantly decreased. Beyond Day 30 the number of circulating monocytes, myeloperoxidase-positive and total alveolar macrophages had returned. Sex chromatin stains of alveolar macrophages obtained from a male dog that received female marrow indicated that the repopulating macrophages were of marrow origin. In vitro studies of alveolar macrophage migration and phagocytosis demonstrated increased activities beyond Day 30. These studies suggest that in this model the alveolar macrophage is dependent on the bone marrow for support and that the alveolar macrophage depletion may impair lung defense mechanisms.

  9. Bronchorrhoea in a case of alveolar cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, S G; Lopez-Vidriero M-T; Charman, J; Das, I; Reid, L

    1975-01-01

    In a case of bronchorrhoea associated with alveolar cell carcinoma thf rheological and chemical features of the sputum indicated that it was bronchial fluid and not saliva and part bronchial secretion, partly serum transudate. The viscosity and chemical constituents were similar to those found in bronchorrhoea when associated with chronic bronchitis, asthma, or bronchiectasis. The surfactant studies suggested an alveolar origin for most of thf fluid, while the failure of fluid restriction, corticosteroids, atropine, or cytotoxic drugs to influence the sputum volume and properties indicated that the cells responsible are "autonomous". Images PMID:164485

  10. Case Report: Multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jose Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    A multifocal biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma in a 68-year-old man is reported. Four different peripheral tumor nodules were identified on gross examination. A fifth central tumor corresponded to a conventional clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Biphasic squamoid alveolar renal cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that has been very recently characterized as a distinct histotype within the spectrum of papillary renal cell carcinoma. Immunostaining with cyclin D1 seems to be specific of this tumor subtype. This is the first reported case with multifocal presentation. PMID:27158455

  11. Mandibular osteotomies after drawing out the inferior alveolar nerve along the canal.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hoon; Kim, Byung-Gun

    2003-01-01

    In some cases, the inferior alveolar nerve runs through a lower course than usual. In such cases, osteotomy of the mandible can injure the inferior alveolar nerves. In other instances, the course of the mandibular osteotomy can meet that of the inferior alveolar nerve. In these cases, a useful method may be excavating the canal and drawing the nerve out through it. With this technique, we can make the osteotomy as initially planned with minimal damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. PMID:14629066

  12. Serial bronchoscopic lung lavage in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis under local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Davis, K. Rennis; Vadakkan, D. Thomas; Krishnakumar, E. V.; Anas, A. Muhammed

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease, characterized by alveolar accumulation of surfactant composed of proteins and lipids due to defective surfactant clearance by alveolar macrophages. Mainstay of treatment is whole lung lavage, which requires general anesthesia. Herein, we report a case of primary PAP, successfully treated with serial bronchoscopic lung lavages under local anesthesia. PMID:25814803

  13. Antigen-Mediated Fusion of Specifically Sensitized Rabbit Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, B.

    1972-01-01

    Rabbits sensitized intravenously with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (strain H37Ra) suspended in mineral oil developed a strong pulmonary granulomatous response which reached its peak about 3 to 4 weeks after injection. Alveolar cells (4 × 106 cells/ml of tissue culture medium 199) procured 6 weeks after sensitization showed extensive development of multinucleated giant cells after 12 hr of incubation in tissue culture flasks containing heat-killed H37Ra (5 μg/ml). Giant cells measured 80 μm to 2.5 mm in length and contained between 30 and 700 nuclei. In contrast, no giant cells were observed when similar samples of the same cell populations were incubated in flasks containing: (i) no mycobacteria; (ii) heat-killed Escherichia coli; (iii) heat-killed Bacillus subtilis; (iv) latex particles; (v) ovalbumin; or (vi) phytohemagglutinin. The addition of immune (anti-H37Ra) sera potentiated the phenomenon of giant cell formation. In addition, supernatant fluids obtained from sensitive alveolar cells incubated with H37Ra were capable of inducing giant cell formation when incubated with nonsensitized alveolar cells. The results suggest that fusion of alveolar macrophages is mediated by an immunological mechanism. Images PMID:4629127

  14. SOCS-3 Regulates Alveolar Bone Loss in Experimental Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Papathanasiou, E; Kantarci, A; Konstantinidis, A; Gao, H; Van Dyke, T E

    2016-08-01

    The host immune response plays a key role in bacteria-induced alveolar bone resorption. Endogenous control of the magnitude and duration of inflammatory signaling is considered an important determinant of the extent of periodontal pathology. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inhibitors of cytokine signaling pathways and may play a role in restraining periodontal inflammation. We hypothesized that SOCS-3 regulates alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis. Periodontal bone loss was induced in 16-wk-old myeloid-specific SOCS-3-knockout and wild-type (WT) C57Bl6-B.129 mice by oral inoculation 9 times with 10(9) colony-forming units of Porphyromonas gingivalis A7436 through an oral gavage model for periodontitis. Sham controls for both types of mice received vehicle without bacteria. The mice were euthanized 6 wk after the last oral inoculation. Increased bone loss was demonstrated in P. gingivalis-infected SOCS-3-knockout mice as compared with P. gingivalis-infected WT mice by direct morphologic measurements, micro-computed tomography analyses, and quantitative histology. Loss of SOCS-3 function resulted in an increased number of alveolar bone osteoclasts and increased RANKL expression after P. gingivalis infection. SOCS-3 deficiency in myeloid cells also promotes a higher P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response with higher secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, and KC (IL-8) by peritoneal macrophages as compared with WT controls. Our data implicate SOCS-3 as a critical negative regulator of alveolar bone loss in periodontitis.

  15. Periodontal and alveolar bone abnormalities associated with pachydermoperiostosis.

    PubMed

    Akdeniz, B G; Seçkin, T

    2001-01-01

    Pachydermoperiostosis (PDP) is an unusual syndrome manifested clinically by finger clubbing, extremity enlargement, hypertrophic skin changes, and periosteal bone formation. A rare case of pachydermoperiostosis (primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy) with oral manifestations in a 47-year-old man is presented. The possible correlation between physiological mechanisms of this disease and their influence on oral periodontal tissues and alveolar bone is discussed.

  16. Studying the Role of Alveolar Macrophages in Breast Cancer Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Vadrevu, Surya Kumari; Sharma, Sharad; Chintala, Navin; Patel, Jalpa; Karbowniczek, Magdalena; Markiewski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the syngeneic model of breast cancer (4T1) to the studies on a role of pulmonary alveolar macrophages in cancer metastasis. The 4T1 cells expressing GFP in combination with imaging and confocal microscopy are used to monitor tumor growth, track metastasizing tumor cells, and quantify the metastatic burden. These approaches are supplemented by digital histopathology that allows the automated and unbiased quantification of metastases. In this method the routinely prepared histological lung sections, which are stained with hematoxylin and eosin, are scanned and converted to the digital slides that are then analyzed by the self-trained pattern recognition software. In addition, we describe the flow cytometry approaches with the use of multiple cell surface markers to identify alveolar macrophages in the lungs. To determine impact of alveolar macrophages on metastases and antitumor immunity these cells are depleted with the clodronate-containing liposomes administrated intranasally to tumor-bearing mice. This approach leads to the specific and efficient depletion of this cell population as confirmed by flow cytometry. Tumor volumes and lung metastases are evaluated in mice depleted of alveolar macrophages, to determine the role of these cells in the metastatic progression of breast cancer. PMID:27403530

  17. Increased alveolar soluble annexin V promotes lung inflammation and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Susan; Shi, Wei; Xu, Wei; Frey, Mark R; Moats, Rex; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moises; Warburton, David

    2015-11-01

    The causes underlying the self-perpetuating nature of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a progressive and usually lethal disease, remain unknown. We hypothesised that alveolar soluble annexin V contributes to lung fibrosis, based on the observation that human IPF bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) containing high annexin V levels promoted fibroblast involvement in alveolar epithelial wound healing that was reduced when annexin V was depleted from the BALF. Conditioned medium from annexin V-treated alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2), but not annexin V per se, induced proliferation of human fibroblasts and contained pro-fibrotic, IPF-associated proteins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines that were found to correlate tightly (r>0.95) with annexin V levels in human BALF. ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase in AECs was activated by annexin V, and blockade reduced the fibrotic potential of annexin V-treated AEC-conditioned medium. In vivo, aerosol delivery of annexin V to mouse lung induced inflammation, fibrosis and increased hydroxyproline, with activation of Wnt, transforming growth factor-β, mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signalling pathways, as seen in IPF. Chronically increased alveolar annexin V levels, as reflected in increased IPF BALF levels, may contribute to the progression of IPF by inducing the release of pro-fibrotic mediators. PMID:26160872

  18. Alveolar bone measurement precision for phosphor-plate images

    PubMed Central

    HILDEBOLT, CHARLES F.; COUTURE, REX; GARCIA, NATHALIA M.; DIXON, DEBRA; SHANNON, WILLIAM DOUGLAS; LANGENWALTER, ERIC; CIVITELLI, ROBERTO

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To demonstrate methods for determining measurement precision and to determine the precision of alveolar-bone measurements made with a vacuum-coupled, positioning device and phosphor-plate images. Study design Subjects were rigidly attached to the x-ray tube by means of a vacuum coupling device and custom, cross-arch, bite plates. Original and repeat radiographs (taken within minutes of each other) were obtained of the mandibular posterior teeth of 51 subjects, and cementoenamel-junction-alveolar-crest (CEJ-AC) distances were measured on both sets of images. In addition, x-ray-transmission (radiodensity) and alveolar-crest-height differences were determined by subtracting one image from the other. Image subtractions and measurements were performed twice. Based on duplicate measurements, the root-mean-square standard deviation (precision) and least-significant change (LSC) were calculated. LSC is the magnitude of change in a measurement needed to indicate that a true biological change has occurred. Results The LSCs were 4% for x-ray transmission, 0.49 mm for CEJ-AC distance, and 0.06 mm for crest-height 0.06 mm. Conclusion The LSCs for our CEJ-AC and x-ray transmission measurements are similar to what has been reported. The LSC for alveolar-crest height (determined with image subtraction) was less than 0.1 mm. Compared with findings from previous studies, this represents a highly precise measurement of alveolar crest height. The methods demonstrated for calculating LSC can be used by investigators to determine how large changes in radiographic measurements need to be before the changes can be considered (with 95% confidence) true biological changes and not noise (that is, equipment/observer error). PMID:19716499

  19. Morphofunctional and clinical study on mandibular alveolar distraction osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zaffe, Davide; Bertoldi, Carlo; Palumbo, Carla; Consolo, Ugo

    2002-10-01

    Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis (ADO) is a process which forms new alveolar bone to correct alveolar deformities in ridge height and width. This work aims (a). to verify the predictability of the augmentation of height of atrophic alveolar ridges using an extra-alveolar distraction device and (b). to study the bone processes in order to optimize implanto-prosthetic rehabilitation. ADO was performed on 10 patients with ridge deformities to obtain the required ridge augmentation. Clinical and radiological (OPT and CT with densitometric assay) evaluations were carried out during the following 12 weeks, before implant insertion. Biopsies at 40, 60 and 88 days were studied after general, specific and histochemical staining of slides; microradiographs were analyzed to evaluate the Trabecular Bone Volume. Forty days after the end of distraction, soft callus indicated the start of ossification. Sixty days after the end of distraction, the soft callus was largely converted into a network of trabecular woven bone; osteogenic activity was high and TBV was about 50%. Eighty-eight days after the end of distraction, the amount of bone appeared reduced, with a more ordered structure; bone formation activity and TBV also diminished, whereas osteoclast erosion was active. The densitometric assay shows values increasing from the end of distraction, particularly after implant insertion. Histological results show a regression in bone deposition processes 88 days after the end of distraction culminating in a virtual steady-state after a certain time. The results suggest that early implant insertion may be desirable to avoid bone loss due to mechanical unloading.

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of alveolar wall destruction in the early stage of pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Uehara, Takeshi; Kawasaki, Kenji; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Matsumoto, Gou; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    The morphological mechanism of alveolar wall destruction during pulmonary emphysema has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate this process three-dimensionally. Lung specimens from five patients with pulmonary emphysema were used, and five controls with normal alveolar structure were also examined. Sections 150 μm thick were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, elastica, and silver impregnation, and immunostained with selected antibodies. We examined these sections three-dimensionally using a laser confocal microscope and a light microscope. There were only a few Kohn's pores and no fenestrae in the normal alveoli from the controls. In the lungs of the emphysema patients a small rupture appeared in the extremely thin alveolar wall among the alveolar capillaries. This rupture enlarged to form a circle surrounded by the capillaries, which was called an alveolar fenestra. Two neighboring fenestrae fused by breakdown of the collapsed or cord-like capillary between them to form a large fenestra. The large fenestrae fused repeatedly to become larger, and these were bordered by thick elastic fibers constructing an alveolar framework. Alveolar wall destruction during emphysema could start from small ruptures of the alveolar wall that become fenestrae surrounded by capillaries, which fuse repeatedly to become larger fenestrae rimmed with elastic fibers. The alveolar capillary network could initially prevent enlargement of the fenestrae, and the thick elastic fibers constituting the alveolar framework could secondarily prevent destruction of the alveolar wall structure.

  1. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    SciTech Connect

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P. )

    1991-09-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 {times} 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 {plus minus} 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 {plus minus} 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 {plus minus} 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 {plus minus} 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of (3H)LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 {plus minus} 0.14 and 18.14 {plus minus} 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 {times} 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 {times} 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions.

  2. Effect of alveolar pressure on pulmonary artery pressure in chronically hypoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Wach, R; Emery, C J; Bee, D; Barer, G R

    1987-02-01

    The effect on pulmonary artery pressure of a rise in alveolar pressure differed in chronically hypoxic rats (10% O2 for 3-5 weeks) compared with control rats. Chronically hypoxic rats have newly muscularised walls in arterioles in the alveolar region. Isolated lungs of chronically hypoxic and control rats were perfused with blood under conditions in which alveolar pressure was greater than left atrial pressure during both normoxia and hypoxia. Alveolar pressure was the effective downstream pressure. Pressure-flow lines were measured at low and high alveolar pressure (5 and 15 mmHg). During normoxia pressure-flow lines of chronically hypoxic rats had a steeper slope (higher resistance) and greater extrapolated intercept on the pressure axis (effective downstream pressure) than control rats. In both groups of rats the change from low to high alveolar pressure during normoxia caused an approximately parallel shift in the pressure-flow line similar to the change in alveolar pressure. During hypoxia, which led to an increase in slope and intercept in both groups of rats, the effect of a rise in alveolar pressure differed in chronically hypoxic from control rats. In control rats there was a small parallel shift in the pressure-flow line that was much less than the increase in alveolar pressure; in chronically hypoxic rats there was a large parallel shift in the pressure-flow line that was greater than the increase in alveolar pressure. Thus in chronically hypoxic rats hypoxic vasoconstriction probably occurred mainly in muscular alveolar vessels, whereas in control rats it probably occurred upstream in extra-alveolar vessels. At constant blood flow the relation between pulmonary artery pressure and alveolar pressure was measured while alveolar pressure was reduced from approximately 15 mmHg to zero during both normoxia and hypoxia. In control and chronically hypoxic rats the slope of this line was less than 1. At an alveolar pressure of 2-3 mmHg there was an inflection

  3. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician.

  4. Rare Presentation of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis Causing Acute Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Ryan R; Kumar, Sameer; Grossman, Ronald F; Price, Charles; Srigley, John R

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare condition characterized by dysfunctional alveolar macrophages, which ineffectively clear surfactant and typically cause mild hypoxemia. Characteristic Computed Tomography findings are septal reticulations superimposed on ground-glass opacities in a crazy paving pattern, with a clear juxtaposition between affected and unaffected parenchyma. While traditionally PAP was diagnosed via biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is usually sufficient; the fluid appears milky, and on microscopic examination there are foamy macrophages with eosinophilic granules and extracellular hyaline material that is Periodic Acid-Schiff positive. Standard therapy is whole lung lavage (WLL), although novel treatments are under development. The case presented is a 55-year-old woman with six months of progressive dyspnea, who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation; she had typical findings of PAP on imaging and BAL. WLL was ultimately successful in restoring adequate oxygenation. Respiratory failure of this magnitude is a rare finding in PAP. PMID:27445536

  5. Alveolar bone loss in osteoporosis: a loaded and cellular affair?

    PubMed Central

    Jonasson, Grethe; Rythén, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Maxillary and mandibular bone mirror skeletal bone conditions. Bone remodeling happens at endosteal surfaces where the osteoclasts and osteoblasts are situated. More surfaces means more cells and remodeling. The bone turnover rate in the mandibular alveolar process is probably the fastest in the body; thus, the first signs of osteoporosis may be revealed here. Hormones, osteoporosis, and aging influence the alveolar process and the skeletal bones similarly, but differences in loading between loaded, half-loaded, and unloaded bones are important to consider. Bone mass is redistributed from one location to another where strength is needed. A sparse trabeculation in the mandibular premolar region (large intertrabecular spaces and thin trabeculae) is a reliable sign of osteopenia and a high skeletal fracture risk. Having dense trabeculation (small intertrabecular spaces and well-mineralized trabeculae) is generally advantageous to the individual because of the low fracture risk, but may imply some problems for the clinician. PMID:27471408

  6. An automatic early stage alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation method on digital dental panoramic radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Hara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroki; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a kind of typical dental diseases, which affects many adults. The presence of alveolar bone resorption, which can be observed from dental panoramic radiographs, is one of the most important signs of the progression of periodontal disease. Automatically evaluating alveolar-bone resorption is of important clinic meaning in dental radiology. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel system for automated alveolar-bone-resorption evaluation from digital dental panoramic radiographs for the first time. The proposed system enables visualization and quantitative evaluation of alveolar bone resorption degree surrounding the teeth. It has the following procedures: (1) pre-processing for a test image; (2) detection of tooth root apices with Gabor filter and curve fitting for the root apex line; (3) detection of features related with alveolar bone by using image phase congruency map and template matching and curving fitting for the alveolar line; (4) detection of occlusion line with selected Gabor filter; (5) finally, evaluation of the quantitative alveolar-bone-resorption degree in the area surrounding teeth by simply computing the average ratio of the height of the alveolar bone and the height of the teeth. The proposed scheme was applied to 30 patient cases of digital panoramic radiographs, with alveolar bone resorption of different stages. Our initial trial on these test cases indicates that the quantitative evaluation results are correlated with the alveolar-boneresorption degree, although the performance still needs further improvement. Therefore it has potential clinical practicability.

  7. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Aoshiba, K; Nagai, A

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke. PMID:19570263

  8. Oxidative Stress, Cell Death, and Other Damage to Alveolar Epithelial Cells Induced by Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Aoshiba, K; Nagai, A

    2003-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor in the development of various lung diseases, including pulmonary emphysema, pulmonary fibrosis, and lung cancer. The mechanisms of these diseases include alterations in alveolar epithelial cells, which are essential in the maintenance of normal alveolar architecture and function. Following cigarette smoking, alterations in alveolar epithelial cells induce an increase in epithelial permeability, a decrease in surfactant production, the inappropriate production of inflammatory cytokines and growth factors, and an increased risk of lung cancer. However, the most deleterious effect of cigarette smoke on alveolar epithelial cells is cell death, i.e., either apoptosis or necrosis depending on the magnitude of cigarette smoke exposure. Cell death induced by cigarette smoke exposure can largely be accounted for by an enhancement in oxidative stress. In fact, cigarette smoke contains and generates many reactive oxygen species that damage alveolar epithelial cells. Whether apoptosis and/or necrosis in alveolar epithelial cells is enhanced in healthy cigarette smokers is presently unclear. However, recent evidence indicates that the apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells and alveolar endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema, an important cigarette smoke-induced lung disease characterized by the loss of alveolar structures. This review will discuss oxidative stress, cell death, and other damage to alveolar epithelial cells induced by cigarette smoke.

  9. Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cell Dysfunction in Rat Experimental Hepatopulmonary Syndrome (HPS)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wenli; Hu, Bingqian; Wu, Wei; Batra, Sachin; Blackburn, Michael R.; Alcorn, Joseph L.; Fallon, Michael B.; Zhang, Junlan

    2014-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2) play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D) which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no studies have evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment in experimental HPS. In this study, we evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment and particularly AT2 cells in experimental HPS induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We found a significant reduction in pulmonary SP production associated with increased apoptosis in AT2 cells after CBDL relative to controls. Lung morphology showed decreased mean alveolar chord length and lung volumes in CBDL animals that were not seen in control models supporting a selective reduction of alveolar airspace. Furthermore, we found that administration of TNF-α, the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and FXR nuclear receptor activation (GW4064) induced apoptosis and impaired SP-B and SP-C production in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. These results imply that AT2 cell dysfunction occurs in experimental HPS and is associated with alterations in the alveolar epithelial compartment. Our findings support a novel contributing mechanism in experimental HPS that may be relevant to humans and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25419825

  10. Alveolar type II epithelial cell dysfunction in rat experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS).

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenli; Hu, Bingqian; Wu, Wei; Batra, Sachin; Blackburn, Michael R; Alcorn, Joseph L; Fallon, Michael B; Zhang, Junlan

    2014-01-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) develops when pulmonary vasodilatation leads to abnormal gas exchange. However, in human HPS, restrictive ventilatory defects are also observed supporting that the alveolar epithelial compartment may also be affected. Alveolar type II epithelial cells (AT2) play a critical role in maintaining the alveolar compartment by producing four surfactant proteins (SPs, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D) which also facilitate alveolar repair following injury. However, no studies have evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment in experimental HPS. In this study, we evaluated the alveolar epithelial compartment and particularly AT2 cells in experimental HPS induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL). We found a significant reduction in pulmonary SP production associated with increased apoptosis in AT2 cells after CBDL relative to controls. Lung morphology showed decreased mean alveolar chord length and lung volumes in CBDL animals that were not seen in control models supporting a selective reduction of alveolar airspace. Furthermore, we found that administration of TNF-α, the bile acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and FXR nuclear receptor activation (GW4064) induced apoptosis and impaired SP-B and SP-C production in alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. These results imply that AT2 cell dysfunction occurs in experimental HPS and is associated with alterations in the alveolar epithelial compartment. Our findings support a novel contributing mechanism in experimental HPS that may be relevant to humans and a potential therapeutic target.

  11. Alveolar bone loss: mechanisms, potential therapeutic targets, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Intini, G; Katsuragi, Y; Kirkwood, K L; Yang, S

    2014-05-01

    This article reviews recent research into mechanisms underlying bone resorption and highlights avenues of investigation that may generate new therapies to combat alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. Several proteins, signaling pathways, stem cells, and dietary supplements are discussed as they relate to periodontal bone loss and regeneration. RGS12 is a crucial protein that mediates osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction, and a potential therapeutic target. RGS12 likely regulates osteoclast differentiation through regulating calcium influx to control the calcium oscillation-NFATc1 pathway. A working model for RGS10 and RGS12 in the regulation of Ca(2+) oscillations during osteoclast differentiation is proposed. Initiation of inflammation depends on host cell-microbe interactions, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Oral p38 inhibitors reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone destruction in a rat periodontitis model but showed unsatisfactory safety profiles. The p38 substrate MK2 is a more specific therapeutic target with potentially superior tolerability. Furthermore, MKP-1 shows anti-inflammatory activity, reducing inflammatory cytokine biosynthesis and bone resorption. Multipotent skeletal stem cell (SSC) populations exist within the bone marrow and periosteum of long bones. These bone-marrow-derived SSCs and periosteum-derived SSCs have shown therapeutic potential in several applications, including bone and periodontal regeneration. The existence of craniofacial bone-specific SSCs is suggested based on existing studies. The effects of calcium, vitamin D, and soy isoflavone supplementation on alveolar and skeletal bone loss in post-menopausal women were investigated. Supplementation resulted in stabilization of forearm bone mass density and a reduced rate of alveolar bone loss over 1 yr, compared with placebo. Periodontal attachment levels were also well-maintained and alveolar bone loss suppressed during 24 wk of

  12. Respiratory gas exchange using a triaxial alveolar gas diagram.

    PubMed Central

    Fuster, J. F.; Pages, T.; Palacios, L.

    1993-01-01

    A triaxial alveolar gas diagram to depict fractional concentration of oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen is described, in which the R = 1 line is always implicit. Although it is not claimed that this representation leads to new insights into respiratory physiology, a method of plotting on a triaxial coordinate system has been found to be well suited to many applications when a direct display of fractional nitrogen concentration is required. PMID:8303637

  13. Alveolar cell carcinoma: diagnostic pitfalls in evaluating the chest roentgenogram

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, M.S.; Bailey, W.C.

    1985-02-01

    A report is given of two patients with initial symptoms of congestive heart failure who had an extensive work-up that failed to reveal any signs of pulmonary malignancy. Subsequent biopsy by fiberoptic bronchoscopy confirmed alveolar cell carcinoma in both cases, suggesting that bronchoscopy with biopsy should be considered in patients with congestive heart failure if pulmonary edema does not resolve with appropriate therapy. 11 references, 2 figures.

  14. Alveolar epithelial type II cell: defender of the alveolus revisited

    PubMed Central

    Fehrenbach, Heinz

    2001-01-01

    In 1977, Mason and Williams developed the concept of the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cell as a defender of the alveolus. It is well known that AE2 cells synthesise, secrete, and recycle all components of the surfactant that regulates alveolar surface tension in mammalian lungs. AE2 cells influence extracellular surfactant transformation by regulating, for example, pH and [Ca2+] of the hypophase. AE2 cells play various roles in alveolar fluid balance, coagulation/fibrinolysis, and host defence. AE2 cells proliferate, differentiate into AE1 cells, and remove apoptotic AE2 cells by phagocytosis, thus contributing to epithelial repair. AE2 cells may act as immunoregulatory cells. AE2 cells interact with resident and mobile cells, either directly by membrane contact or indirectly via cytokines/growth factors and their receptors, thus representing an integrative unit within the alveolus. Although most data support the concept, the controversy about the character of hyperplastic AE2 cells, reported to synthesise profibrotic factors, proscribes drawing a definite conclusion today. PMID:11686863

  15. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: review of the 1022 cases reported worldwide.

    PubMed

    Castellana, Giuseppe; Castellana, Giorgio; Gentile, Mattia; Castellana, Roberto; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterised by the widespread intra-alveolar accumulation of minute calculi called microliths. It is caused by mutation of the SLC34A2 gene encoding the type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter in alveolar type II cells. The present study explores the epidemiological, familial, genetic, clinical, diagnostic, radiological and therapeutic aspects with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of this uncommon disease.We searched articles on PAM published up to December 2014 and 544 papers were found, accounting for 1022 cases.PAM is present in all continents and in many nations, in particular in Turkey, China, Japan, India, Italy and the USA. Familiality is frequent. The clinical course is not uniform and the causes of this clinical variability seem to be largely nongenetic. The optimal diagnostic procedure is the association of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with bronchoalveolar lavage, but a chest radiograph may suffice in families in which a case has already been diagnosed. Moreover, chest radiography and HRCT allow the classification of the evolutionary phase of the disease and its severity. At present lung transplantation is the only effective therapy. However, better knowledge of the gene responsible offers hope for new therapies. PMID:26621975

  16. Quality assessment of systematic reviews on alveolar socket preservation.

    PubMed

    Moraschini, V; Barboza, E Dos S P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this overview was to evaluate and compare the quality of systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, that have evaluated studies on techniques or biomaterials used for the preservation of alveolar sockets post tooth extraction in humans. An electronic search was conducted without date restrictions using the Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases up to April 2015. Eligibility criteria included systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, focused on the preservation of post-extraction alveolar sockets in humans. Two independent authors assessed the quality of the included reviews using AMSTAR and the checklist proposed by Glenny et al. in 2003. After the selection process, 12 systematic reviews were included. None of these reviews obtained the maximum score using the quality assessment tools implemented, and the results of the analyses were highly variable. A significant statistical correlation was observed between the scores of the two checklists. A wide structural and methodological variability was observed between the systematic reviews published on the preservation of alveolar sockets post tooth extraction. None of the reviews evaluated obtained the maximum score using the two quality assessment tools implemented.

  17. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: review of the 1022 cases reported worldwide.

    PubMed

    Castellana, Giuseppe; Castellana, Giorgio; Gentile, Mattia; Castellana, Roberto; Resta, Onofrio

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterised by the widespread intra-alveolar accumulation of minute calculi called microliths. It is caused by mutation of the SLC34A2 gene encoding the type IIb sodium phosphate cotransporter in alveolar type II cells. The present study explores the epidemiological, familial, genetic, clinical, diagnostic, radiological and therapeutic aspects with the aim of contributing to a better understanding of this uncommon disease.We searched articles on PAM published up to December 2014 and 544 papers were found, accounting for 1022 cases.PAM is present in all continents and in many nations, in particular in Turkey, China, Japan, India, Italy and the USA. Familiality is frequent. The clinical course is not uniform and the causes of this clinical variability seem to be largely nongenetic. The optimal diagnostic procedure is the association of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) with bronchoalveolar lavage, but a chest radiograph may suffice in families in which a case has already been diagnosed. Moreover, chest radiography and HRCT allow the classification of the evolutionary phase of the disease and its severity. At present lung transplantation is the only effective therapy. However, better knowledge of the gene responsible offers hope for new therapies.

  18. Chronic alcohol ingestion changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium.

    PubMed

    Downs, Charles A; Trac, David; Brewer, Elizabeth M; Brown, Lou Ann; Helms, My N

    2013-01-01

    Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH) on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC). The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox) may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM) function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk. PMID:23509726

  19. Primary alveolar soft-part sarcoma of stomach.

    PubMed

    Yagihashi, S; Yagihashi, N; Hase, Y; Nagai, K; Alguacil-Garcia, A

    1991-04-01

    A case of primary gastric alveolar soft-part sarcoma is presented. The tumor was found in the gastric remnant of a 67-year-old male who had undergone partial gastrectomy due to hemorrhagic gastric ulcer 13 years before. It was located mostly in the submucosa arising from the muscularis propria. The large eosinophilic cells showed the characteristic alveolar compartmentalization and contained intracytoplasmic periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules and typical crystals. Numerous electron-opaque secretory granules in the tumor cell cytoplasm, in addition to crystals of 9 nm periodicity, were confirmed at the ultrastructural levels. Immunostaining failed to detect muscle-related antigens. In contrast, methionine-enkephalin and neuropeptide Y appeared positive in the tumor cells. Interstitial spindle cells showed an occasional positivity to S-100. This is the first case of such a tumor occurring in the gastrointestinal tract, and the findings suggest that gastric alveolar soft-part sarcomas may have a different origin from those arising in the skeleton.

  20. Evaluation of optical reflectance techniques for imaging of alveolar structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unglert, Carolin I.; Namati, Eman; Warger, William C.; Liu, Linbo; Yoo, Hongki; Kang, DongKyun; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2012-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of the fine structures within the lung parenchyma could advance our understanding of alveolar physiology and pathophysiology. Current knowledge has been primarily based on histology, but it is a destructive two-dimensional (2-D) technique that is limited by tissue processing artifacts. Micro-CT provides high-resolution three-dimensional (3-D) imaging within a limited sample size, but is not applicable to intact lungs from larger animals or humans. Optical reflectance techniques offer the promise to visualize alveolar regions of the large animal or human lung with sub-cellular resolution in three dimensions. Here, we present the capabilities of three optical reflectance techniques, namely optical frequency domain imaging, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy, and full field optical coherence microscopy, to visualize both gross architecture as well as cellular detail in fixed, phosphate buffered saline-immersed rat lung tissue. Images from all techniques were correlated to each other and then to corresponding histology. Spatial and temporal resolution, imaging depth, and suitability for in vivo probe development were compared to highlight the merits and limitations of each technology for studying respiratory physiology at the alveolar level.

  1. Theophylline improves lipopolysaccharide-induced alveolarization arrest through inflammatory regulation.

    PubMed

    He, Hua; Chen, Fei; Ni, Wensi; Li, Jianhui; Zhang, Yongjun

    2014-07-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased numbers of alveoli and increased airspace. BPD, frequently suffered by very low birth weight infants, has been closely associated with intrauterine infection. However, the underlying mechanisms of BPD remain unclear. In the present study, it was identified that administration of intra-amniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to pregnant rats on embryonal day 16.5 (E16.5) induced significant alveolarization arrest similar to that of BPD in neonatal pups, and theophylline injected subcutaneously into the newborns improved the pathological changes. To further investigate the underlying mechanism of the morphogenesis amelioration of theophylline, cytokine antibody arrays were performed with the lung lysates of neonatal rats. The results indicated that LPS upregulated a series of pro-inflammatory cytokines and theophylline significantly attenuated the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor‑α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-2, and markedly elevated the production of tumor growth factor (TGF)-β family members TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, which are anti‑inflammatory cytokines. Accordingly, it was hypothesized that theophylline may protect against BPD and improve chorioamnionitis‑induced alveolar arrest by regulating the balance between pro‑and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression.

  2. Alveolar ridge augmentation using distraction osteogenesis: a clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Anand; Singh, Saumyendra V; Kumar, Sumit; Mehrotra, Divya; Mohammad, S; Singh, Stuti

    2012-01-01

    Background Severely resorbed ridges present a great challenge to prosthodontic rehabilitation. Available reconstructive options include autologous/alloplastic augmentation with questionable results, or regeneration of new bone under gradual and controlled tension using distraction osteogenesis. This study focused on use of distraction osteogenesis for the treatment of vertically deficient alveolar ridges to assess its feasibility and outcome. Materials and Methods Alveolar distraction osteogenesis (ADO) was studied at 10 different intra-oral, partial or complete edentulous sites. After a latency period of 5 days, distraction was carried out for 6–7 days at the rate of 0.5 mm every 12 hours (1 mm/day). Distractor was removed after a consolidation period of 12 weeks. Results The mean height gained at the 10 intra-oral sites was 4.8 mm with standard deviation of ± 0.056. The mean follow-up period was 2 years. Complications of therapy included hardware failure, wound gape and extra-oral scar. The overall complication rate was 10%. Conclusion Distraction osteogenesis is a promising option to aid uneventful prosthodontic rehabilitation of severe vertically resorbed alveolar ridges. PMID:25756028

  3. Elemental analysis of lung tissue particles and intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophages in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease occurred by idiopathic (autoimmune) or secondary to particle inhalation. The in-air microparticle induced X-ray emission (in-air micro-PIXE) system performs elemental analysis of materials by irradiation with a proton microbeam, and allows visualization of the spatial distribution and quantitation of various elements with very low background noise. The aim of this study was to assess the secondary PAP due to inhalation of harmful particles by employing in-air micro-PIXE analysis for particles and intracellular iron in parafin-embedded lung tissue specimens obtained from a PAP patient comparing with normal lung tissue from a non-PAP patient. The iron inside alveolar macrophages was stained with Berlin blue, and its distribution was compared with that on micro-PIXE images. Results The elements composing particles and their locations in the PAP specimens could be identified by in-air micro-PIXE analysis, with magnesium (Mg), aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), scandium (Sc), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganase (Mn), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) being detected. Si was the major component of the particles. Serial sections stained by Berlin blue revealed accumulation of sideromacrophages that had phagocytosed the particles. The intracellular iron content of alveolar macrophage from the surfactant-rich area in PAP was higher than normal lung tissue in control lung by both in-air micro-PIXE analysis and Berlin blue staining. Conclusion The present study demonstrated the efficacy of in-air micro-PIXE for analyzing the distribution and composition of lung particles. The intracellular iron content of single cells was determined by simultaneous two-dimensional and elemental analysis of paraffin-embedded lung tissue sections. The results suggest that secondary PAP is associated with exposure to inhaled particles and accumulation of iron in alveolar

  4. Alveolar bone grafting in the treatment of midline alveolar cleft and diastema in incomplete median cleft lip.

    PubMed

    Liao, H-T; Chen, C-H; Bergeron, L; Ko, E W-C; Chen, P K T; Chen, Y-R

    2008-10-01

    Median cleft lip is a rare congenital anomaly. The wide diastema with mesial tipping observed in these patients has been largely overlooked. A midline submucosal alveolar cleft prevents adequate treatment. The purpose of this article is to describe an alveolar bone grafting (ABG) technique used in the combined surgical-orthodontic approach to diastema treatment in patients presenting with incomplete median cleft lip. Patients treated for incomplete median cleft lip and diastema were identified in the clinic registry from 1981 to 2007. Six patients were identified; 4 underwent ABG before permanent maxillary incisor eruption, the other 2 were seen later when they were 11 years old. All 6 ABGs were successful. The incisors erupted through the graft or were successfully moved into it with lasting results. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 21 years. The existence of a midline submucosal alveolar cleft and subsequent diastema should be recognized and addressed in all patients who present with incomplete median cleft lip repair. This includes taking maxillary occlusal view X-rays before the age of 5 years to detect the cleft, and proceed to ABG if necessary, generally before permanent maxillary incisor eruption. PMID:18771899

  5. Lipopolysaccharide disrupts the milk-blood barrier by modulating claudins in mammary alveolar tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ken; Oyama, Shoko; Numata, Atsushi; Rahman, Md Morshedur; Kumura, Haruto

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis, inflammation of the mammary gland, is the most costly common disease in the dairy industry, and is caused by mammary pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The bacteria invade the mammary alveolar lumen and disrupt the blood-milk barrier. In normal mammary gland, alveolar epithelial tight junctions (TJs) contribute the blood-milk barrier of alveolar epithelium by blocking the leakage of milk components from the luminal side into the blood serum. In this study, we focused on claudin subtypes that participate in the alveolar epithelial TJs, because the composition of claudins is an important factor that affects TJ permeability. In normal mouse lactating mammary glands, alveolar TJs consist of claudin-3 without claudin-1, -4, and -7. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mastitis, alveolar TJs showed 2-staged compositional changes in claudins. First, a qualitative change in claudin-3, presumably caused by phosphorylation and participation of claudin-7 in alveolar TJs, was recognized in parallel with the leakage of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin (FITC-albumin) via the alveolar epithelium. Second, claudin-4 participated in alveolar TJs with claudin-3 and claudin-7 12 h after LPS injection. The partial localization of claudin-1 was also observed by immunostaining. Coinciding with the second change of alveolar TJs, the severe disruption of the blood-milk barrier was recognized by ectopic localization of β-casein and much leakage of FITC-albumin. Furthermore, the localization of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the luminal side and NFκB activation by LPS was observed in the alveolar epithelial cells. We suggest that the weakening and disruption of the blood-milk barrier are caused by compositional changes of claudins in alveolar epithelial TJs through LPS/TLR4 signaling.

  6. [Cytologic parameters of broncho-alveolar lavage state in experimental animals exposed to mechanical rubber aerosol].

    PubMed

    Zhumabekova, B K; Sraubayev, E N; Gazalieva, M A; Akhmetova, S B

    2015-01-01

    Cytologic studies covered broncho-alveolar lavage in animals exposed to mechanical rubber aerosol in subacute (2 months) and chronic (5 months) experiments. Under exposure to mechanical rubber aerosol the experimental animals developed disorders of lung protective mechanisms. Subacute dust inhalation in the experimental animals caused higher counts of neutrophils and degeneratively changed cells with increased functional activity of alveolar macrophages and neutrophils. Chronic dust inhalation in the experimental animals proved lower functional activity alveolar macrophages and neutrophils.

  7. A Case of Alveolar Echinococcosis Presenting as Cerebral and Spinal Intradural Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Atalan, Guneri; Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Sönmez, Güner; Celik, Mahir; Simsek, Berksan

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a chronic and serious, even lethal, parasitic infection caused by the helminth Echinococcus multilocularis. The involvement of Central Nervous System is reported to be 1–3% in literature. Brain involvement is considered a sign of the terminal phase of alveolar echinococcosis. We here in reported a 67-year-old female who had liver alveolar hydatid disease with brain and spinal intradural metastases. PMID:27551181

  8. A Case of Alveolar Echinococcosis Presenting as Cerebral and Spinal Intradural Metastases.

    PubMed

    Atalan, Guneri; Sivrioglu, Ali Kemal; Sönmez, Güner; Celik, Mahir; Simsek, Berksan

    2016-06-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a chronic and serious, even lethal, parasitic infection caused by the helminth Echinococcus multilocularis. The involvement of Central Nervous System is reported to be 1-3% in literature. Brain involvement is considered a sign of the terminal phase of alveolar echinococcosis. We here in reported a 67-year-old female who had liver alveolar hydatid disease with brain and spinal intradural metastases. PMID:27551181

  9. Relationship of structural to functional impairment during alveolar-capillary membrane development.

    PubMed

    Ahlfeld, Shawn K; Gao, Yong; Conway, Simon J; Tepper, Robert S

    2015-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is a chronic lung disease of extreme preterm infants and results in impaired gas exchange. Although bronchopulmonary dysplasia is characterized histologically by alveolar-capillary simplification in animal models, it is clinically defined by impaired gas diffusion. With the use of a developmentally relevant model, we correlated alveolar-capillary structural simplification with reduced functional gas exchange as measured by the diffusing factor for carbon monoxide (DFCO). Neonatal mouse pups were exposed to >90% hyperoxia or room air during postnatal days 0 to 7, and then all pups were returned to room air from days 7 to 56. At day 56, DFCO was measured as the ratio of carbon monoxide uptake to neon dilution, and lungs were fixed for histologic assessment of alveolar-capillary development. Neonatal hyperoxia exposure inhibited alveolar-capillary septal development as evidenced by significantly increased mean linear intercept, increased airspace-to-septal ratio, decreased nodal density, and decreased pulmonary microvasculature. Importantly, alveolar-capillary structural deficits in hyperoxia-exposed pups were accompanied by a significant 28% decrease in DFCO (0.555 versus 0.400; P < 0.0001). In addition, DFCO was highly and significantly correlated with structural measures of reduced alveolar-capillary growth. Simplification of alveolar-capillary structure is highly correlated with impaired gas exchange function. Current mechanistic and therapeutic animal models of inhibited alveolar development may benefit from application of DFCO as an alternative physiologic indicator of alveolar-capillary development. PMID:25661110

  10. Alveolar hemorrhage and kidney disease: characteristics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Lamia, Rais; Aich, Dorra Ben; Madiha, Krid; Wided, Smaoui; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Beji, Somaya; Karim, Zouaghi; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2013-07-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture's glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years). Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL). The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL). Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%. PMID:23816724

  11. Alveolar Epithelial Cell Injury Due to Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong Ho; Fazlollahi, Farnoosh; Kennedy, Ian M.; Yacobi, Nazanin R.; Hamm-Alvarez, Sarah F.; Borok, Zea; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Crandall, Edward D.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Although inhalation of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known to cause systemic disease (i.e., metal fume fever), little is known about mechanisms underlying injury to alveolar epithelium. Objectives: Investigate ZnO NP–induced injury to alveolar epithelium by exposing primary cultured rat alveolar epithelial cell monolayers (RAECMs) to ZnO NPs. Methods: RAECMs were exposed apically to ZnO NPs or, in some experiments, to culture fluid containing ZnCl2 or free Zn released from ZnO NPs. Transepithelial electrical resistance (RT) and equivalent short-circuit current (IEQ) were assessed as functions of concentration and time. Morphologic changes, lactate dehydrogenase release, cell membrane integrity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial activity were measured. Measurements and Main Results: Apical exposure to 176 μg/ml ZnO NPs decreased RT and IEQ of RAECMs by 100% over 24 hours, whereas exposure to 11 μg/ml ZnO NPs had little effect. Changes in RT and IEQ caused by 176 μg/ml ZnO NPs were irreversible. ZnO NP effects on RT yielded half-maximal concentrations of approximately 20 μg/ml. Apical exposure for 24 hours to 176 μg/ml ZnO NPs induced decreases in mitochondrial activity and increases in lactate dehydrogenase release, permeability to fluorescein sulfonic acid, increased intracellular ROS, and translocation of ZnO NPs from apical to basolateral fluid (most likely across injured cells and/or damaged paracellular pathways). Conclusions: ZnO NPs cause severe injury to RAECMs in a dose- and time-dependent manner, mediated, at least in part, by free Zn released from ZnO NPs, mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased intracellular ROS. PMID:20639441

  12. Albuterol Improves Alveolar-Capillary Membrane Conductance in Healthy Humans

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Natalie E.; Baker, Sarah E.; Olson, Thomas P.; Lalande, Sophie; Johnson, Bruce D.; Snyder, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Beta-2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) are located throughout the body including airway and alveolar cells. The β2ARs regulate lung fluid clearance through a variety of mechanisms including ion transport on alveolar cells and relaxation of the pulmonary lymphatics. We examined the effect of an inhaled β2-agonist (albuterol) on alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) in healthy humans. METHODS We assessed the diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO) at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following nebulized albuterol (2.5 mg, diluted in 3 mL normal saline) in 45 healthy subjects. Seventeen subjects repeated these measures following nebulized normal saline (age = 27 ± 9 years, height = 165 ± 21 cm, weight = 68 ± 12 kg, BMI = 26 ± 9 kg/m2). Cardiac output (Q), heart rate, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), blood pressure, oxygen saturation, forced expiratory volume at one-second (FEV1), and forced expiratory flow at 50% of forced vital capacity (FEF50) were assessed at baseline, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes following the administration of albuterol or saline. RESULTS Albuterol resulted in a decrease in SVR, and an increase in Q, FEV1, and FEF50 compared to saline controls. Albuterol also resulted in a decrease in VC at 60 minutes post albuterol. Both albuterol and normal saline resulted in no change in DLCO or DM when assessed alone, but a significant increase was observed in DM when accounting for changes in VC. CONCLUSION These data suggest that nebulized albuterol improves pulmonary function in healthy humans, while nebulization of both albuterol and saline results in an increase in DM/VC. PMID:27773996

  13. Anesthetic technique for inferior alveolar nerve block: a new approach

    PubMed Central

    PALTI, Dafna Geller; de ALMEIDA, Cristiane Machado; RODRIGUES, Antonio de Castro; ANDREO, Jesus Carlos; LIMA, José Eduardo Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetic techniques. The success of the anesthetic technique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular region. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. Data demonstrate that the indirect technique is considered ineffective in 15% of cases and the direct technique in 1329% of cases. Objective Objective: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative technique for inferior alveolar nerve block using several anatomical points for reference, simplifying the procedure and enabling greater success and a more rapid learning curve. Materials and Methods A total of 193 mandibles (146 with permanent dentition and 47 with primary dentition) from dry skulls were used to establish a relationship between the teeth and the mandibular foramen. By using two wires, the first passing through the mesiobuccal groove and middle point of the mesial slope of the distolingual cusp of the primary second molar or permanent first molar (right side), and the second following the oclusal plane (left side), a line can be achieved whose projection coincides with the left mandibular foramen. Results The obtained data showed correlation in 82.88% of cases using the permanent first molar, and in 93.62% of cases using the primary second molar. Conclusion This method is potentially effective for inferior alveolar nerve block, especially in Pediatric Dentistry. PMID:21437463

  14. Proposal of a computed tomography classification for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Graeter, Tilmann; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Haenle, Mark Martin; Mason, Richard Andrew; Hillenbrand, Andreas; Kull, Thomas; Barth, Thomas F; Kern, Peter; Gruener, Beate

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To establish a computed tomography (CT)-morphological classification for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis was the aim of the study. METHODS: The CT morphology of hepatic lesions in 228 patients with confirmed alveolar echinococcosis (AE) drawn from the Echinococcus Databank of the University Hospital of Ulm was reviewed retrospectively. For this reason, CT datasets of combined positron emission tomography (PET)-CT examinations were evaluated. The diagnosis of AE was made in patients with unequivocal seropositivity; positive histological findings following diagnostic puncture or partial resection of the liver; and/or findings typical for AE at either ultrasonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging or PET-CT. The CT-morphological findings were grouped into the new classification scheme. RESULTS: Within the classification a lesion was dedicated to one out of five “primary morphologies” as well as to one out of six “patterns of calcification”. “primary morphology” and “pattern of calcification” are primarily focussed on separately from each other and combined, whereas the “primary morphology” V is not further characterized by a “pattern of calcification”. Based on the five primary morphologies, further descriptive sub-criteria were appended to types I-III. An analysis of the calcification pattern in relation to the primary morphology revealed the exclusive association of the central calcification with type IV primary morphology. Similarly, certain calcification patterns exhibited a clear predominance for other primary morphologies, which underscores the delimitation of the individual primary morphological types from each other. These relationships in terms of calcification patterns extend into the primary morphological sub-criteria, demonstrating the clear subordination of those criteria. CONCLUSION: The proposed CT-morphological classification (EMUC-CT) is intended to facilitate the recognition and interpretation of lesions in hepatic

  15. Metabolic shift in lung alveolar cell mitochondria following acrolein exposure.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit R; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein, an α,β unsaturated electrophile, is an environmental pollutant released in ambient air from diesel exhausts and cooking oils. This study examines the role of acrolein in altering mitochondrial function and metabolism in lung-specific cells. RLE-6TN, H441, and primary alveolar type II (pAT2) cells were exposed to acrolein for 4 h, and its effect on mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates was studied by XF Extracellular Flux analysis. Low-dose acrolein exposure decreased mitochondrial respiration in a dose-dependent manner because of alteration in the metabolism of glucose in all the three cell types. Acrolein inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, leading to decreased substrate availability for mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN, H441, and pAT2 cells; the reduced GAPDH activity was compensated in pAT2 cells by an increase in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the regulatory control of the pentose phosphate pathway. The decrease in pyruvate from glucose metabolism resulted in utilization of alternative sources to support mitochondrial energy production: palmitate-BSA complex increased mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN and pAT2 cells. The presence of palmitate in alveolar cells for surfactant biosynthesis may prove to be the alternative fuel source for mitochondrial respiration. Accordingly, a decrease in phosphatidylcholine levels and an increase in phospholipase A2 activity were found in the alveolar cells after acrolein exposure. These findings have implications for understanding the decrease in surfactant levels frequently observed in pathophysiological situations with altered lung function following exposure to environmental toxicants.

  16. Alveolar bone graft with Platelet Rich Plasma in cleft alveolus

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Chandan; Mehrotra, Divya; Mohammad, Shadab; Khanna, Vaibhav; Kumar Singh, Gulshan; Singh, Geeta; Chellappa, Arul A.L.; Passi, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cleft of the lip, palate and alveolus are the commonest congenital anomaly to affect the orofacial region. Currently, there is great interest in the alveolar bone grafting procedures that involve use of platelet-rich-plasma (PRP), to enhance bone formation and specifically to promote bone graft healing. Materials and methods 20 patients with residual alveolar cleft, in the age group of 9–29 years, having unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and palate were selected. They were randomly assigned in either group A (with PRP) or group B (without PRP). Results Primary healing was observed in 90% patients in group A. Secondary healing was seen in 30% patients in group B. There was no graft rejection in group A but was seen in one patient (10%) in group B. Pain and swelling persisted longer in group B then group A. Bone grafts with added PRP presented with increased bone density (1028.00 ± 11.30 HU) in comparison to grafts without PRP (859.50 ± 27.73 HU) at end of 6-month postoperative. However, the mean bone density (as determined by the Dentascan image analyzer software) was 1.04 times more in the PRP group than non PRP group at 3-month and 1.2 times more at 6 months. Conclusion We conclude that on preliminary investigations, PRP seems to enhance bone formation in alveolar clefts when admixed with autologous cancellous bone harvested from the iliac crest. PMID:25737872

  17. Alveolar hemorrhage and kidney disease: characteristics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Lilia Ben; El Ati, Zohra; Lamia, Rais; Aich, Dorra Ben; Madiha, Krid; Wided, Smaoui; Maiz, Hedi Ben; Beji, Somaya; Karim, Zouaghi; Moussa, Fatma Ben

    2013-07-01

    Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis and Goodpasture's glomerular basement membrane disease are the most common causes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, a life-threatening disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome are also causes of alveolar hemorrhage. We retrospectively reviewed 15 cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) associated with renal diseases. Diagnosis of DAH was based on the presence of bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. There were three men and 12 women, with a mean age of 50.5 years (extremes: 24-74 years). Proteinuria and hematuria were observed, respectively, in 15 and 14 cases. Six patients revealed arterial hypertension. Crescentic glomerulonephritis was diagnosed with kidney biopsies in ten cases. The etiology of renal disease was microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) in seven cases, Wegener disease in four cases, systemic lupus erythematous in one case, cryoglobulinemia in one case, myeloma in one case and propyl-thiouracil-induced MPA in one case. Hemoptysis occurred in 14 cases. The mean serum level of hemoglobin was 7.1 g/dL (5.1-10 g/dL). The mean serum creatinine concentration was 7.07 mg/dL (2.4-13.7 mg/dL). Gas exchange was severely compromised, with an oxygenation index <80 mmHg in 14 patients and <60 mmHg in seven patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed in 11 cases, and had positive findings for hemorrhage in all. Methylprednisolone pulses and cyclophosphamide were used in 14 patients. Plasmapheresis was performed in three cases. One patient received cycles of Dexamethasome-Melphalan. Three patients died as a result of DAH. The mortality rate in our study was 20%.

  18. Intra-alveolar tissue factor pathway inhibitor is not sufficient to block tissue factor procoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Bastarache, Julie A; Wang, Ling; Wang, Zhengming; Albertine, Kurt H; Matthay, Michael A; Ware, Lorraine B

    2008-05-01

    The alveolar compartment in acute lung injury contains high levels of tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity favoring fibrin deposition. We previously reported that the alveolar epithelium can release TF procoagulant activity in response to a proinflammatory stimulus. To test the hypothesis that the alveolar epithelium further modulates intra-alveolar fibrin deposition through secretion of an endogenous inhibitor to TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), we measured TFPI levels in edema fluid (EF) from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. To determine whether the alveolar epithelium can release TFPI, both full-length TFPI and truncated TFPI were measured (ELISA) in pulmonary edema fluid from patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a control group of patients with hydrostatic pulmonary edema (HYDRO). TFPI protein was also measured in conditioned media (CM) and cell lysates (CL) from human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) after exposure to cytomix (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma). TFPI protein levels were higher in pulmonary edema fluid from patients with ARDS vs. HYDRO. TFPI protein was increased in CM and did not change in CL after cytomix treatment; TFPI mRNA levels (RT-PCR) did not change. Despite the high levels of TFPI, both the EF and CM retained significant TF procoagulant activity as measured by plasma recalcification time. The majority of intra-alveolar TFPI was in a truncated, inactive form, whereas the majority of TFPI released from cells was full length, suggesting different mechanisms of inactivation. In summary, the alveolar epithelium releases TFPI in response to an inflammatory stimulus but does not increase TFPI gene transcription or protein production. Levels of intra-alveolar TFPI in ARDS are not sufficient to block intra-alveolar TF procoagulant activity due to truncation and inactivation of intra-alveolar TFPI. PMID:18310227

  19. Prediction of the alveolar bone level after the extraction of maxillary anterior teeth with severe periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose After extraction, the alveolar bone tends to undergo atrophy in three-dimensions. The amount of alveolar bone loss in the horizontal dimension has been reported to be greater than the amount of bone loss in the vertical dimension, and is most pronounced in the buccal aspect. The aim of this study was to monitor the predictive alveolar bone level following the extraction of anterior teeth seriously involved with advanced chronic periodontitis. Methods This study included 25 patients with advanced chronic periodontitis, whose maxillary anterior teeth had been extracted due to extensive attachment loss more than one year before the study. Periapical radiographs were analyzed to assess the vertical level of alveolar bone surrounding the edentulous area. An imaginary line connecting the mesial and the distal ends of the alveolar crest facing the adjacent tooth was arbitrarily created. Several representative coordinates were established in the horizontal direction, and the vertical distance from the imaginary line to the alveolar crest was measured at each coordinate for each patient using image analysis software. Regression functions predicting the vertical level of the alveolar bone in the maxillary anterior edentulous area were identified for each patient. Results The regression functions demonstrated a tendency to converge to parabolic shapes. The predicted maximum distance between the imaginary line and the alveolar bone calculated using the regression function was 1.43±0.65 mm. No significant differences were found between the expected and actual maximum distances. Likewise, the predicted and actual maximum horizontal distances did not show any significant differences. The distance from the alveolar bone crest to the imaginary lines was not influenced by the mesio-distal spans of the edentulous area. Conclusions After extraction, the vertical level of the alveolar ridge increased to become closer to the reference line connecting the mesial and distal

  20. Plasma cell gingivitis with severe alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh; Sinha, Jolly

    2015-01-16

    Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare benign condition of the gingiva characterised by sharply demarcated erythaematous and oedematous gingiva often extending up to the muco gingival junction. It is considered a hypersensitive reaction. It presents clinically as a diffuse, erythaematous and papillary lesion of the gingiva, which frequently bleeds, with minimal trauma. This paper presents a case of a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with plasma cell gingivitis, based on the presence of plasma cells in histological sections, and severe alveolar bone loss at the affected site, which was managed by surgical intervention.

  1. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-03-01

    Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation.The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment.Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20-22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans.From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant.During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the orthodontic treatment

  2. Alveolar hemorrhage after scuba diving: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ming-Ju; Tsai, Mee-Sun; Tsai, Ying-Ming; Lien, Chi-Tun; Hwang, Jhi-Jhu; Huang, Ming-Shyan

    2010-07-01

    Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) diving is increasingly popular in Taiwan. There are few references in the literature regarding pulmonary hemorrhage as the sole manifestation of pulmonary barotrauma in scuba divers, and no study from Taiwan was found in the literature. We present the case of a 25-year-old man who suffered alveolar hemorrhage related to pulmonary barotrauma as a complication of scuba diving. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a Taiwanese subject suffering from non-fatal pulmonary hemorrhage after scuba diving.

  3. Alveolar bone exostoses subsequent to orthodontic implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Neeraj; Kallury, Amitabh; Agrawal, Kavita; Nair, Preeti P

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar bone exostoses (ABE), also known as a buttress bone formation, are not uncommon to the literature. Although, exostoses in response to the trauma from occlusion are a popular concept proposed more than 45 years ago, still the aetiological factors behind this development are unclear. Various risks and complications associated with orthodontic implants have been published, but buttress bone formation subsequent to this procedure has not been reported till date. This article describes a case of ABE, subsequent to the placement of orthodontic mini implants, where after careful evaluation, resective osseous surgery was performed. PMID:23355580

  4. Bruxism elicited by inferior alveolar nerve injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Melis, Marcello; Coiana, Carlo; Secci, Simona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the history of a patient who received an injury to the right inferior alveolar nerve after placement of a dental implant, with bruxism noted afterward. The symptoms were managed by the use of an occlusal appliance worn at night and occasionally during the day, associated with increased awareness of parafunction during the day to reduce muscle pain and fatigue. Paresthesia of the teeth, gingiva, and lower lip persisted but were reduced during appliance use. PMID:22254232

  5. Does Orthodontic Treatment Affect the Alveolar Bone Density?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Heng-Li; Liu, Chien-Feng; Wu, Jay; Li, Yu-Fen; Tsai, Ming-Tzu; Hsu, Jui-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Few studies involving human participants have been conducted to investigate the effect of orthodontic treatment on alveolar bone density around the teeth. Our previous study revealed that patients who received 6 months of active orthodontic treatment exhibited an ∼24% decrease in alveolar bone density around the teeth. However, after an extensive retention period following orthodontic treatment, whether the bone density around the teeth can recover to its original state from before the treatment remains unclear, thus warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the bone density changes around the teeth before, during, and after orthodontic treatment. Dental cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) was used to measure the changes in bone density around 6 teeth in the anterior maxilla (maxilla central incisors, lateral incisors, and canines) of 8 patients before and after orthodontic treatment. Each patient underwent 3 dental CBCT scans: before treatment (T0); at the end of 7 months of active orthodontic treatment (T1); after several months (20–22 months) of retention (T2). The Friedman test was applied to evaluate the changes in the alveolar bone density around the teeth according to the 3 dental CBCT scans. From T0 to T1, a significant reduction in bone density was observed around the teeth (23.36 ± 10.33%); by contrast, a significant increase was observed from T1 to T2 (31.81 ± 23.80%). From the perspective of the overall orthodontic treatment, comparing the T0 and T2 scans revealed that the bone density around the teeth was relatively constant (a reduction of only 0.75 ± 19.85%). The results of the statistical test also confirmed that the difference in bone density between T0 and T2 was nonsignificant. During orthodontic tooth movement, the alveolar bone density around the teeth was reduced. However, after a period of bone recovery, the reduced bone density recovered to its previous state from before the

  6. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    PubMed

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  7. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

    PubMed

    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone. PMID:17690924

  8. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    PubMed

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role. PMID:23228488

  9. Alveolar Antral Artery: Does its Diameter Correlate with Maxillary lateral wall Thickness in Dentate Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh; Amini, Parvin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of the presence of the alveolar antral artery in the lateral maxillary sinus wall is essential for surgeons who operate in this region. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between alveolar antral artery diameter and lateral maxillary bony wall thickness in dentate patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty five Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans from 35 dentate patients were selected in coronal sections in three locations; second premolar (P2), first molar (M1), and second molar (M2). The presence of the alveolar antral artery in each situation was determined and the bone thickness in the region of alveolar antral artery was measured perpendicular to the lateral wall of the maxilla. Results: The alveolar antral artery was present in 67.1% CBCTs. The difference between the alveolar antral artery diameter was only significant in the first and second molar area (P=0.039).There were significant differences between bone thickness in three locations, with the thickest bone in the first molar area followed by the second molar and second premolar, respectively. The correlation coefficient showed that there is a positive correlation between bone thickness and alveolar antral artery diameter. Conclusion: This study showed that the thicker the bones in dentate patients, the greater the chance of interference with the large caliber intra-osseous alveolar antral artery. PMID:25009806

  10. Rare case report of Traumatic neuroma of anterior superior alveolar nerve associated with high frenal attachment

    PubMed Central

    Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Srilekha, Namala; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Kiresur, Mohammad Asif

    2015-01-01

    We present an incredible case of traumatic neuroma (TN) in the anterior superior alveolar nerve leading to the swelling in the upper labial mucosa. This paper attempts to highlight the rarity of site of occurrence of this lesion and reports the first case of TN of anterior superior alveolar nerve. PMID:25972959

  11. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, João Paulo; Raveli, Taisa Boamorte; Schwartz-Filho, Humberto Osvaldo; Raveli, Dirceu Barnabé

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years), Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0) and after Herbst treatment (T1). Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B), lingual (L) and total (T) bone thicknesses were assessed at crestal (1), midroot (2) and apical (3) levels of mandibular incisors. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon t-test were used to compare dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship of changes in alveolar bone thickness. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results: Mandibular incisors showed no statistical significance for vertical alveolar bone level. Alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors significantly reduced after treatment at B1, B2, B3, T1 and significantly increased at L2. The magnitude of the statistically significant changes was less than 0.2 mm. The changes in alveolar bone thickness showed no statistical significance with incisor inclination degree. Conclusions: CBCT scans showed an association between the Herbst appliance and alveolar bone loss on the buccal surface of mandibular incisors; however, without clinical significance. PMID:27275621

  12. Genesis of amorphous calcium carbonate containing alveolar plates in the ciliate Coleps hirtus (Ciliophora, Prostomatea).

    PubMed

    Lemloh, Marie-Louise; Marin, Frédéric; Herbst, Frédéric; Plasseraud, Laurent; Schweikert, Michael; Baier, Johannes; Bill, Joachim; Brümmer, Franz

    2013-02-01

    In the protist world, the ciliate Coleps hirtus (phylum Ciliophora, class Prostomatea) synthesizes a peculiar biomineralized test made of alveolar plates, structures located within alveolar vesicles at the cell cortex. Alveolar plates are arranged by overlapping like an armor and they are thought to protect and/or stiffen the cell. Although their morphology is species-specific and of complex architecture, so far almost nothing is known about their genesis, their structure and their elemental and mineral composition. We investigated the genesis of new alveolar plates after cell division and examined cells and isolated alveolar plates by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FTIR and X-ray diffraction. Our investigations revealed an organic mesh-like structure that guides the formation of new alveolar plates like a template and the role of vesicles transporting inorganic material. We further demonstrated that the inorganic part of the alveolar plates is composed out of amorphous calcium carbonate. For stabilization of the amorphous phase, the alveolar vesicles, the organic fraction and the element phosphorus may play a role.

  13. Microtomography of the human tooth-alveolar bone complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalstra, Michel; Cattaneo, Paolo M.; Beckmann, Felix; Sakima, Maurício T.; Lemor, Carsten; Laursen, Morten G.; Melsen, Birte

    2006-08-01

    In this study the structure of the adult human dentoalveolar process is examined using conventional and synchrotron radiation-based microtomography (SRμCT). Mandibular and maxillary segments containing two to five adjacent teeth were harvested at autopsy from 49 adult donors. These segments were embedded in blocks of methylmetacrylate and scanned using a conventional table-top μCT-scanner at a pixel size and slice thickness of 35 μm. A few segments were also scanned at a synchrotron facility at an initial pixel size of 16.4 μm, which was binned by a factor 2 to result in an effective voxel size of almost 32.8 μm. The three-dimensional reconstructions revealed how intricately the teeth are supported by the alveolar bone. Furthermore, this support is highly inhomogeneous with respect to the buccal, mesial, lingual and distal quadrants. Reflecting their various degrees of mineralization, tissues like bone, dentine, enamel and cementum, could well be identified, especially in the scans made with SRμCT. Despite comparable voxel sizes, the reconstructed data-sets obtained with conventional μCT were less detailed and somewhat fuzzy in appearance compared to the data-sets of SRμCT. However, for quantification of macroscopical features like the thickness of the alveolar wall or the presence of dehiscences/fenestrations this seemed sufficient.

  14. Magnetometric evaluation for the effect of chrysotile on alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Keira, T; Okada, M; Katagiri, H; Aizawa, Y; Okayasu, I; Kotani, M

    1998-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages are thought to play an important role in fibrogenesis due to asbestos exposure. In this experiment, we evaluated the effect mainly by unique magnetometry and also by conventional methods such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity measurement and morphological observations. Alveolar macrophages obtained from Syrian golden hamsters by bronchoalveolar lavages were exposed 18 hours in vitro to Fe3O4 as an indicator for magnetometry and chrysotile for experiments. A rapid decrease of the remanent magnetic field, so called "relaxation", was observed after the cessation of an external magnetic field in macrophages phagocytizing Fe3O4 alone, while relaxation was delayed in those concurrently exposed to chrysotile. Since relaxation is thought due to the cytoskeleton-driven random rotation of phagosomes containing iron oxide particles, chrysotile is considered to interfere with the cytoskeletal function of macrophages. Release of LDH from chrysotile-exposed macrophages into the medium was recognized, but it was not significantly higher than the controls. Apoptosis was negligible in macrophages exposed to chrysotile by the DNA ladder detection, the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling method and morphological observations. Electron microscopical examinations revealed early necrotic changes in macrophages exposed to chrysotile. These findings indicate that cell magnetometry detects impaired cytoskeletal function due to in vitro exposure to chrysotile. PMID:10223613

  15. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers: are your patients missing out?

    PubMed

    Hartland, Benjamin L; Newell, Timothy J; Damico, Nicole

    2014-08-01

    Awake, spontaneously breathing humans sigh on average 9 to 10 times per hour. The sigh is a normal homeostatic reflex proposed to maintain pulmonary compliance and decrease the formation of atelectasis by recruiting collapsed alveoli. The induction and maintenance of anesthesia with muscle paralysis and a fixed tidal volume abolish the sigh. Without periodic sighs, patients are left susceptible to atelectasis and its negative sequelae. The prevalence of atelectasis has been estimated to be as high as 100% in patients undergoing general anesthesia. A strong correlation between atelectasis and postoperative pulmonary complications has been demonstrated. Postoperative pulmonary complications lengthen hospital stays and increase healthcare costs. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers, which make up one component of open lung ventilation, have been described as vital capacity breaths, double tidal volume breaths, and sigh breaths. These simple maneuvers result in a sustained increase in airway pressure that serves to recruit collapsed alveoli and improve arterial oxygenation. This article examines the literature regarding the application of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in the perioperative setting. The format is a series of clinically oriented questions posed to help the reader translate available evidence into practice.

  16. Transpleural Ventilation via Spiracles in Severe Emphysema Increases Alveolar Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Chahla, Mayy; Larson, Christopher D; Parekh, Kalpaj R; Reed, Robert M; Terry, Peter; Schmidt, Gregory A; Eberlein, Michael

    2016-06-01

    In emphysema airway resistance can exceed collateral airflow resistance, causing air to flow preferentially through collateral pathways. In severe emphysema ventilation through openings directly through the chest wall into the parenchyma (spiracles) could bypass airway obstruction and increase alveolar ventilation via transpleural expiration. During lung transplant operations, spiracles occasionally can occur inadvertently. We observed transpleural expiration via spiracles in three subjects undergoing lung transplant for emphysema. During transpleural spiracle ventilation, inspiratory tidal volumes (TV) were unchanged; however, expiration was entirely transpleural in two patients whereas the expired TV to the ventilator circuit was reduced to 25% of the inspired TV in one. At baseline, mean PCO2 was 61 ± 5 mm Hg, which decreased to a mean PCO2 of 49 ± 5 mm Hg (P = .05) within minutes after transpleural spiracle ventilation and further decreased at 1 to 2 h (36 ± 4 mm Hg; P = .002 compared with baseline) on unchanged ventilator settings. This observation of increased alveolar ventilation supports further studies of spiracles as a possible therapy for advanced emphysema. PMID:27287591

  17. Hemodynamic and alveolar protein studies in noncardiac pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Gelb, A F; Klein, E

    1976-11-01

    Hemodynamic data were obtained within 15 hours of admission in 11 previously healthy patients (20 to 51 years of age, 7 men and 4 women) who had developed transient, reversible pulmonary edema without cardiac dilation in association with near-death from freshwater drowning (2 cases), pentobarbital overdose, heroin overdose (2 cases), smoke inhalation, chest trauma, sepsis (2 cases), pancreatitis, or prolonged abdominal surgery with suspected sepsis. Using a balloon-tipped flow-directed catheter, the pulmonary artery systolic/diastolic pressures (in mm Hg) were 25/12, 22/9, 31/11, 26/15, 20/10, 35/15, 40/15, 32/18, 20/10, 24/10, and 20/7; the corresponding pulmonary capillary wedge pressures (in mm Hg) were 8, 9, 6, 14, 6, 6, 15, 15, 10, 10, and 5, respectively. Plasma colloidal osmotic pressures measured in the latter 5 cases were 26, 18, 18, 18, and 15 mm Hg, respectively. In addition, the protein content of the alveolar fluid was 5.1, 3.4, 4.0, and 7.1 g per 100 ml in 4 patients. The concentration and distribution of the protein in plasma and alveolar fluid were very similar. These findings provide strong efidence that altered capillary permeability is responsible for the pulmonary edema.

  18. Advanced alveolar echinococcosis disease associated with Budd–Chiari syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Soyer, Vural; Ara, Cengiz; Yaylak, Faik; Sarıcı, Barış; Ozsoy, Mustafa; Koç, Okay; Yılmaz, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alveolar echinococceal disease of the liver is rare. Echinococcus multilocularis is responsible for the development of the related clinical conditions. Advanced disease may result with serious complications such as end stage liver disease and Budd–Chiari syndrome. Presentation of case In this presentation, a 28 years-old woman who was a case with advanced alveolar echinococcosis complicated with a Budd–Chiari syndrome and was performed successful living donor liver transplantation, has been demonstrated with clinical and radiological images. Discussion Initially there may be no clinical evidence of the disease in humans for years. Severity and fatality are the significant characteristics of the natural history. Extension to the surrounding tissues and metastasis of the parasitic mass may be observed. Prevention is essential in disease control. Serologic assay may identify the parasite. However, early diagnosis is rare. Staging is based on radiologic imaging. Some patients with advanced disease may require surgery. Hepatic resection and liver transplantation are accepted procedures in selected patients. Conclusion The importance of early diagnosis to prevent advanced complications such as development of Budd–Chiari syndrome and metastasis has been underlined. PMID:25600725

  19. Alveolar Bone Housing- A Modified Wilkodontics Approach- A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Eshan; Sanjay, Kothamachu; Bhongade, M L; Shrivastav, Sunita

    2016-08-01

    Accelerated orthodontic treatment is the need of the hour in current scenario as the conventional orthodontics is time taking. Corticotomy assisted orthodontics have been used for years to reduce the treatment duration by reducing the resistance provided by alveolar bone housing. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment combined with the modification in conventional wilkodontic technique in a patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. Firstly plaque control was achieved with supra and subgingival scaling. A modified approach using periodontal access flap followed by vertical bone cuts in the cortical bone from the crest of the alveolar bone margin to 2mm-3mm below the apices of all the anterior teeth extending from upper left canine to upper right canine were performed. These vertical cuts were joined by horizontal cuts apically and flap repositioned. An MBT 0.018 inch appliance was bonded. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every two weeks. The total treatment time was four and half months with active period of two months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The modified decortication technique reduced the treatment time to a considerable extent. The interdental spacing closed and optimum overjet and overbite was achieved. PMID:27656577

  20. Alveolar Bone Housing- A Modified Wilkodontics Approach- A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Kothamachu; Bhongade, ML; Shrivastav, Sunita

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated orthodontic treatment is the need of the hour in current scenario as the conventional orthodontics is time taking. Corticotomy assisted orthodontics have been used for years to reduce the treatment duration by reducing the resistance provided by alveolar bone housing. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment combined with the modification in conventional wilkodontic technique in a patient to accelerate tooth movement and shorten the treatment time with an anterior open bite and flared and spaced upper and lower incisors. Firstly plaque control was achieved with supra and subgingival scaling. A modified approach using periodontal access flap followed by vertical bone cuts in the cortical bone from the crest of the alveolar bone margin to 2mm-3mm below the apices of all the anterior teeth extending from upper left canine to upper right canine were performed. These vertical cuts were joined by horizontal cuts apically and flap repositioned. An MBT 0.018 inch appliance was bonded. Orthodontic therapy proceeded with frequent activation of the appliances to retract the incisors every two weeks. The total treatment time was four and half months with active period of two months and no adverse effects were observed at the end of active treatment. The modified decortication technique reduced the treatment time to a considerable extent. The interdental spacing closed and optimum overjet and overbite was achieved. PMID:27656577

  1. Alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus: a cohort review.

    PubMed

    Andrade, C; Mendonça, T; Farinha, F; Correia, J; Marinho, A; Almeida, I; Vasconcelos, C

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but potentially catastrophic manifestation with a high mortality. Among rheumatologic diseases, it occurs most frequently in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic vasculitis. Despite new diagnostic tools and therapies, it remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this work was to characterize the SLE patients with an episode of alveolar hemorrhage followed in our Clinical Immunology Unit (CIU). A retrospective chart review was carried out for all patients with SLE followed in CIU between 1984 and the end of 2013. We reviewed the following data: demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data, radiologic investigations, histologic studies, treatment, and outcome. We identified 10 episodes of DAH, corresponding to seven patients, all female. These represent 1.6% of SLE patients followed in our Unit. The age at DAH attack was 42.75 ± 18.9 years. The average time between diagnosis of SLE and the onset of DAH was 7.1 years. Three patients had the diagnosis of SLE and the DAH attack at the same time. Disease activity according to SLEDAI was high, ranging from 15 to 41. All patients were treated with methylprednisolone, 37.5% cyclophosphamide and 28.6% plasmapheresis. The overall mortality rate was 28.6%.

  2. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    SciTech Connect

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-11-15

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-..gamma.., tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin l..cap alpha.. or 1..beta... The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes.

  3. Porous calcium phosphate cement for alveolar bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Félix Lanao, R P; Hoekstra, J W M; Wolke, J G C; Leeuwenburgh, S C G; Plachokova, A S; Boerman, O C; van den Beucken, J J J P; Jansen, J A

    2014-06-01

    The present study aimed to provide information on material degradation and subsequent alveolar bone formation, using composites consisting of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) with different microsphere morphology (hollow vs dense). In addition to the plain CPC-PLGA composites, loading the microspheres with the growth factors platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) was investigated. A total of four different CPC composites were applied into one-wall mandible bone defects in beagle dogs in order to evaluate them as candidates for alveolar bone regeneration. These composites consisted of CPC and hollow or dense PLGA microspheres, with or without the addition of PDGF-IGF growth factor combination (CPC-hPLGA, CPC-dPLGA, CPC-hPLGAGF , CPC-dPLGAGF ). Histological evaluation revealed significantly more bone formation in CPC-dPLGA than in CPC-hPLGA composites. The combination PDGF-IGF enhanced bone formation in CPC-hPLGA materials, but significantly more bone formation occurred when CPC-dPLGA was used, with or without the addition of growth factors. The findings demonstrated that CPC-dPLGA composite was the biologically superior material for use as an off-the-shelf material, due to its good biocompatibility, enhanced degradability and superior bone formation.

  4. Interactions between calf alveolar macrophages and parainfluenza-3 virus.

    PubMed

    Probert, M; Stott, E J; Thomas, L H

    1977-02-01

    Cells washed from the lungs of freshly killed calves (lung wash cells; LWC) were cytotoxic for calf kidney (CK) target cells infected with parainfluenzavirus type 3 (Pi-3) when assayed by chromium release. LWC collected from 25 calves, including two gnotobiotic animals that had not previously been infected with Pi-3, were all cytotoxic, giving a specific chromium release between 11 and 50%. Cytotoxicity was detected at ratios of LWC to target cell as low as 5:1. The cytotoxic reaction required viable LWC, was inhibited by Pi-3 antiserum, and was not the result of virus-induced damage to the target cells. The cytotoxic cells in the LWC population were identified as alveolar macrophages from observations on glass adherence, phagocytic activity, killing by silica and fine-structural appearance. When LWC were added to CK cells or organ cultures of bovine trachea infected with Pi-3, the yield of virus was reduced for the first 2 to 3 days. However, subsequently, Pi-3 virus replicated in the LWC. Infection of LWC with Pi-3 virus reduced their cytotoxic activity. The significance of these interactions between alveolar macrophages and Pi-3 virus is discussed.

  5. Avoiding injury to the inferior alveolar nerve by routine use of intraoperative radiographs during implant placement.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Jeffrey; Mastin, Chris; Le, Bach

    2008-01-01

    Injury to the inferior alveolar nerve during implant placement in the posterior atrophic mandible is a rare but serious complication. Although a preoperative computerized tomography scan can help determine the distance from the alveolar ridge to the nerve canal, variables such as magnification errors, ridge anatomy, and operator technique can increase the chance for complications. The routine use of intraoperative periapical radiographs during the drilling sequence is an inexpensive and reliable tool, allowing the operator to confidently adjust the direction and depth of the implant during placement. Most important, it helps avoid the risk of injury to the inferior alveolar nerve in cases in which there is limited vertical alveolar bone. Using this technique for 21 implants placed in the posterior atrophic mandible, with less than 10 mm of vertical bone to the inferior alveolar nerve canal, the authors observed no incidents of postoperative paresthesia. PMID:18390241

  6. Alveolar Subphase pH in the Lungs of Anesthetized Rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, D. W.; Goerke, J.; Clements, J. A.

    1981-11-01

    We measured the pH of the alveolar subphase fluid by puncturing the most superficial alveoli of the exposed lungs of anesthetized rabbits with H+-selective and nonselective KCl microelectrodes. In these experiments, we bathed the lung surface with paraffin oil or buffered Ringer's solutions that had a CO2 tension of 40 Torr (1 Torr = 133.3 Pa) and found an alveolar pH of 6.92± 0.01 (mean ± SEM). When the pH of the surface buffer was below 6.7 or above 7.5, alveolar pH varied with surface buffer pH. With the nonselective electrode, we did not find a significant electrical potential difference between the alveolar fluid and the pleural surface. These results are consistent with active transport of H+ (or HCO3-) across alveolar epithelium.

  7. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    PubMed Central

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; e Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assunção; Custódio, Antônio Luís Neto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. Materials and Methods This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. Results The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of alveolar domes between the maxillary first and second molars. Considering the maxillary first and second molars, it was observed that the palatal root presented a lower prevalence of alveolar domes when compared to the distobuccal and mesiobuccal roots (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study coined the term 'alveolar dome', referring to the anatomical projection of the root into the floor of the maxillary sinus. The maxillary first and second molars presented a greater prevalence of alveolar domes, especially in the buccal roots, followed by the third molars and second pre-molars. Although the periapical radiograph is a two-dimensional method, it can provide dentists with the auxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment.

  8. The use of digital periapical radiographs to study the prevalence of alveolar domes

    PubMed Central

    Xambre, Pedro Augusto Oliveira Santos; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; e Alves Cardoso, Claudia Assunção; Custódio, Antônio Luís Neto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In the present study, we coined the term 'alveolar dome' and aimed to demonstrate the prevalence of alveolar domes through digital periapical radiographs. Materials and Methods This study examined 800 digital periapical radiographs in regard to the presence of alveolar domes. The periapical radiographs were acquired by a digital system using a photostimulable phosphor (PSP) plate. The χ2 test, with a significance level of 5%, was used to compare the prevalence of alveolar domes in the maxillary posterior teeth and, considering the same teeth, to verify the difference in the prevalence of dome-shaped phenomena between the roots. Results The prevalence of alveolar domes present in the first pre-molars was statistically lower as compared to the other maxillary posterior teeth (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of alveolar domes between the maxillary first and second molars. Considering the maxillary first and second molars, it was observed that the palatal root presented a lower prevalence of alveolar domes when compared to the distobuccal and mesiobuccal roots (p<0.05). Conclusion The present study coined the term 'alveolar dome', referring to the anatomical projection of the root into the floor of the maxillary sinus. The maxillary first and second molars presented a greater prevalence of alveolar domes, especially in the buccal roots, followed by the third molars and second pre-molars. Although the periapical radiograph is a two-dimensional method, it can provide dentists with the auxiliary information necessary to identify alveolar domes, thus improving diagnosis, planning, and treatment. PMID:27672614

  9. An Optimised Human Cell Culture Model for Alveolar Epithelial Transport

    PubMed Central

    Birch, Nigel P.; Suresh, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible in vitro models are required for investigating the pathways involved in fluid homeostasis in the human alveolar epithelium. We performed functional and phenotypic characterisation of ion transport in the human pulmonary epithelial cell lines NCI-H441 and A549 to determine their similarity to primary human alveolar type II cells. NCI-H441 cells exhibited high expression of junctional proteins ZO-1, and E-cadherin, seal-forming claudin-3, -4, -5 and Na+-K+-ATPase while A549 cells exhibited high expression of pore-forming claudin-2. Consistent with this phenotype NCI-H441, but not A549, cells formed a functional barrier with active ion transport characterised by higher electrical resistance (529 ± 178 Ω cm2 vs 28 ± 4 Ω cm2), lower paracellular permeability ((176 ± 42) ×10−8 cm/s vs (738 ± 190) ×10−8 cm/s) and higher transepithelial potential difference (11.9 ± 4 mV vs 0 mV). Phenotypic and functional properties of NCI-H441 cells were tuned by varying cell seeding density and supplement concentrations. The cells formed a polarised monolayer typical of in vivo epithelium at seeding densities of 100,000 cells per 12-well insert while higher densities resulted in multiple cell layers. Dexamethasone and insulin-transferrin-selenium supplements were required for the development of high levels of electrical resistance, potential difference and expression of claudin-3 and Na+-K+-ATPase. Treatment of NCI-H441 cells with inhibitors and agonists of sodium and chloride channels indicated sodium absorption through ENaC under baseline and forskolin-stimulated conditions. Chloride transport was not sensitive to inhibitors of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) under either condition. Channels inhibited by 5-nitro-1-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid (NPPB) contributed to chloride secretion following forskolin stimulation, but not at baseline. These data precisely define experimental conditions for the application of NCI

  10. Hormonal regulation of alveolarization: structure-function correlation

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Samuel J; Zhang, Huayan; Foley, Joseph P; Zhao, Hengjiang; Butler, Stephan J; Godinez, Rodolfo I; Godinez, Marye H; Gow, Andrew J; Savani, Rashmin C

    2006-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone (Dex) limits and all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) promotes alveolarization. While structural changes resulting from such hormonal exposures are known, their functional consequences are unclear. Methods Neonatal rats were treated with Dex and/or RA during the first two weeks of life or were given RA after previous exposure to Dex. Morphology was assessed by light microscopy and radial alveolar counts. Function was evaluated by plethysmography at d13, pressure volume curves at d30, and exercise swim testing and arterial blood gases at both d15 and d30. Results Dex-treated animals had simplified lung architecture without secondary septation. Animals given RA alone had smaller, more numerous alveoli. Concomitant treatment with Dex + RA prevented the Dex-induced changes in septation. While the results of exposure to Dex + RA were sustained, the effects of RA alone were reversed two weeks after treatment was stopped. At d13, Dex-treated animals had increased lung volume, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and minute ventilation. On d15, both RA- and Dex-treated animals had hypercarbia and low arterial pH. By d30, the RA-treated animals resolved this respiratory acidosis, but Dex-treated animals continued to demonstrate blood gas and lung volume abnormalities. Concomitant RA treatment improved respiratory acidosis, but failed to normalize Dex-induced changes in pulmonary function and lung volumes. No differences in exercise tolerance were noted at either d15 or d30. RA treatment after the period of alveolarization also corrected the effects of earlier Dex exposure, but the structural changes due to RA alone were again lost two weeks after treatment. Conclusion We conclude that both RA- and corticosteroid-treatments are associated with respiratory acidosis at d15. While RA alone-induced changes in structure andrespiratory function are reversed, Dex-treated animals continue to demonstrate increased respiratory rate, minute ventilation, tidal and total lung

  11. Virulent Coxiella burnetii pathotypes productively infect primary human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Graham, Joseph G; MacDonald, Laura J; Hussain, S Kauser; Sharma, Uma M; Kurten, Richard C; Voth, Daniel E

    2013-06-01

    The intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii is a category B select agent that causes human Q fever. In vivo, C. burnetii targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a lysosome-like parasitophorous vacuole (PV). In vitro, C. burnetii infects a variety of cultured cell lines that have collectively been used to model the pathogen's infectious cycle. However, differences in the cellular response to infection have been observed, and virulent C. burnetii isolate infection of host cells has not been well defined. Because alveolar macrophages are routinely implicated in disease, we established primary human alveolar macrophages (hAMs) as an in vitro model of C. burnetii-host cell interactions. C. burnetii pathotypes, including acute disease and endocarditis isolates, replicated in hAMs, albeit with unique PV properties. Each isolate replicated in large, typical PV and small, non-fused vacuoles, and lipid droplets were present in avirulent C. burnetii PV. Interestingly, a subset of small vacuoles harboured single organisms undergoing degradation. Prototypical PV formation and bacterial growth in hAMs required a functional type IV secretion system, indicating C. burnetii secretes effector proteins that control macrophage functions. Avirulent C. burnetii promoted sustained activation of Akt and Erk1/2 pro-survival kinases and short-termphosphorylation of stress-related p38. Avirulent organisms also triggered a robust, early pro-inflammatory response characterized by increased secretion of TNF-α and IL-6, while virulent isolates elicited substantially reduced secretion of these cytokines. A corresponding increase in pro- and mature IL-1β occurred in hAMs infected with avirulent C. burnetii, while little accumulation was observed following infection with virulent isolates. Finally, treatment of hAMs with IFN-γ controlled intracellular replication, supporting a role for this antibacterial insult in the host response to C

  12. Identification of molecular markers related to human alveolar bone cells and pathway analysis in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Ren, Q H; Bai, L; Feng, Q

    2015-10-28

    Alveolar bone osteoblasts are widely used in dental and related research. They are easily affected by systemic diseases such as diabetes. However, the mechanism of diabetes-induced alveolar bone absorption remains unclear. This study systematically explored the changes in human alveolar bone cell-related gene expression and biological pathways, which may facilitate the investigation of its mechanism. Alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from 5 male diabetics and 5 male healthy adults were cultured. Total RNA was extracted from these cells and subjected to gene microarray analysis. Differentially expressed genes were screened, and a gene interaction network was constructed. An enrichment pathway analysis was simultaneously performed on differentially expressed genes to identify the biological pathways associated with changes in the alveolar bone cells of diabetic humans. In total, we identified 147 mRNAs that were differentially expressed in diabetic alveolar bone cells (than in the normal cells; 91 upregulated and 36 downregulated mRNAs). The constructed co-expression network showed 3 pairs of significantly-expressed genes. High-enrichment pathway analysis identified 8 pathways that were affected by changes in gene expression; three of the significant pathways were related to metabolism (inositol phosphate metabolism, propanoate metabolism, and pyruvate metabolism). Here, we identified a few potential genes and biological pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of alveolar bone cells in diabetic patients.

  13. Particle-induced indentation of the alveolar epithelium caused by surface tension forces

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, M.; Tsuda, A.

    2010-01-01

    Physical contact between an inhaled particle and alveolar epithelium at the moment of particle deposition must have substantial effects on subsequent cellular functions of neighboring cells, such as alveolar type-I, type-II pneumocytes, alveolar macrophage, as well as afferent sensory nerve cells, extending their dendrites toward the alveolar septal surface. The forces driving this physical insult are born at the surface of the alveolar air-liquid layer. The role of alveolar surfactant submerging a hydrophilic particle has been suggested by Gehr and Schürch's group (e.g., Respir Physiol 80: 17–32, 1990). In this paper, we extended their studies by developing a further comprehensive and mechanistic analysis. The analysis reveals that the mechanics operating in the particle-tissue interaction phenomena can be explained on the basis of a balance between surface tension force and tissue resistance force; the former tend to move a particle toward alveolar epithelial cell surface, the latter to resist the cell deformation. As a result, the submerged particle deforms the tissue and makes a noticeable indentation, which creates unphysiological stress and strain fields in tissue around the particle. This particle-induced microdeformation could likely trigger adverse mechanotransduction and mechanosensing pathways, as well as potentially enhancing particle uptake by the cells. PMID:20634359

  14. [Alveolar soft part sarcoma of the larynx: a case report].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hao; Yang, Hui; Wang, Huan

    2015-07-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a rare soft tissue sarcomas, this sarcoma occurs rarely in the larynx. Herein, we describe an unusual case of ASPS occurring in the larynx. The patient was a 46-year-old woman who presented with a more than 2-year history of right pyriform fossa mass and progressive hoarseness for three months. The endoscopic examination of the larynx revealed a mass in the right pyriform fossa with smooth surface and well-defined margin. Computed tomography demonstrated a heterogeneous tumor in the right pyriform fossa, and involving the paralaryngeal space, measuring approximately 2.1 cm x 1.7 cm x 2.6 cm, which was resected via lateral neck approach. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed an ASPS. To ours knowledge, this is the first reported case of ASPS arising in pyriform fossa.

  15. Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Marak, Creticus P; Joy, Parijat S; Gupta, Pragya; Bukovskaya, Yana; Guddati, Achuta K

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH.

  16. Hereditary gingivo-alveolar hyperplasia: a report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Ekaputri, Krista

    2015-02-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by fibrotic gingival overgrowth. The lesion may bury all the crown of the teeth and lead to impairment in masticatory functions and aesthetic disfigurement. This inherited disease is considered rare. We presented two cases of gingival hyperplasia in two siblings: an 11-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, whose mother had also suffered from the disease. The two siblings presented with generalized gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all of the teeth. We performed surgery to reduce the excessive gingivo-alveolar tissue and disclosed most of the teeth. The patients showed functional and aesthetic improvement. The last follow-up through a phone call, which was conducted 12 months after the surgery, revealed no recurrent hyperplasia. PMID:25692435

  17. Anesthetic Efficacy of Bupivacaine Solutions in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Maria Cristina; Ranali, José; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; de Oliveira, Patrícia Cristine; Ambrosano, Glaúcia Maria Bovi; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2 bupivacaine solutions. Twenty-two volunteers randomly received in a crossover, double-blinded manner 2 inferior alveolar nerve blocks with 1.8 mL of racemic bupivacaine and a mixture of 75% levobupivacaine and 25% dextrobupivacaine, both 0.5% and with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine. Before and after the injection, the first mandibular pre-molar was evaluated every 2 minutes until no response to the maximal output (80 reading) of the pulp tester and then again every 20 minutes. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon paired test and the paired t test. No differences were found between the solutions for onset and duration of pulpal anesthesia and duration of soft tissue anesthesia (P > .05). It was concluded that the solutions have similar anesthetic efficacy. PMID:16596912

  18. A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with Cor Pulmonale

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen; Gu, Tao

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the formation and deposition of microliths within the alveoli and a paucity of symptoms in contrast to the imaging findings. It has familial tendency and is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder with the mutation in the SLC34A2 gene. We describe a case of PAM with Cor Pulmonale. Ultrasonic cardiogram showed pulmonary hypertension (82 mmHg). Chest radiography revealed diffuse, bilateral sandstorm-like micronodules with greater density in the lower lung fields. HRCT scans demonstrated diffuse ground-grass opacities, thickening and calcification of interlobular septa and confluent calcified nodules. A diagnosis of PAM was suggested and confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). PMID:23256064

  19. A case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis with Cor Pulmonale.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen; Gu, Tao

    2012-03-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease characterized by the formation and deposition of microliths within the alveoli and a paucity of symptoms in contrast to the imaging findings. It has familial tendency and is thought to be an autosomal recessive disorder with the mutation in the SLC34A2 gene. We describe a case of PAM with Cor Pulmonale. Ultrasonic cardiogram showed pulmonary hypertension (82 mmHg). Chest radiography revealed diffuse, bilateral sandstorm-like micronodules with greater density in the lower lung fields. HRCT scans demonstrated diffuse ground-grass opacities, thickening and calcification of interlobular septa and confluent calcified nodules. A diagnosis of PAM was suggested and confirmed by transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB). PMID:23256064

  20. Hereditary gingivo-alveolar hyperplasia: a report of two siblings.

    PubMed

    Prasetyono, Theddeus O H; Ekaputri, Krista

    2015-02-01

    Gingival hyperplasia is characterized by fibrotic gingival overgrowth. The lesion may bury all the crown of the teeth and lead to impairment in masticatory functions and aesthetic disfigurement. This inherited disease is considered rare. We presented two cases of gingival hyperplasia in two siblings: an 11-year-old girl and an 8-year-old boy, whose mother had also suffered from the disease. The two siblings presented with generalized gingival overgrowth involving the maxillary and mandibular arches and covering almost all of the teeth. We performed surgery to reduce the excessive gingivo-alveolar tissue and disclosed most of the teeth. The patients showed functional and aesthetic improvement. The last follow-up through a phone call, which was conducted 12 months after the surgery, revealed no recurrent hyperplasia.

  1. Sclerostin is essential for alveolar bone loss in occlusal hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    XU, YANG; WANG, LUFEI; SUN, YAO; HAN, XIANGLONG; GAO, TIAN; XU, XIN; CHEN, TIAN; ZHAO, XUEFENG; ZENG, HUAN; WANG, YANMIN; BAI, DING

    2016-01-01

    Bone loss is caused by occlusal hypofunction and is a serious health concern. This is particularly true of tooth loss, which is common in the elderly. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying bone loss have yet to be fully elucidated. Sclerostin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling have previously been reported to serve important roles in regulating bone remodeling. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the involvement of sclerostin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling in occlusal hypofunction-induced alveolar bone remodeling. The unilateral maxillary molars of 14 male Sprague-Dawley rats were extracted in order to establish a model of occlusal hypofunction. For each rat, the non-extraction side was treated as the control group for comparisons with the extraction side. At 8 weeks after tooth extraction, the rats were sacrificed and alveolar bone specimens were harvested for X-ray radiography, micro-computed tomography (CT) and histological and immunohistochemical examinations. Bone loss and architecture deterioration were observed at the occlusal hypofunction side. The bone mineral density was markedly decreased and the ratio of bone volume to total volume was significantly decreased at the hypofunction side, as compared with the control side (P<0.001). In addition, the number of osteoclasts at the hypofunction side were significantly increased compared with that in the control side (P<0.001), as demonstrated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Furthermore, the protein expression levels of sclerostin and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand were increased, whereas those of β-catenin were decreased, at the hypofunction side when compared with the control side. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that occlusal hypofunction-induced bone loss may be associated with upregulated expression of sclerostin, which, in turn, may inhibit the activity of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27168809

  2. Alveolar macrophage cytokine response to air pollution particles: Oxidant mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Imrich, Amy; Ning Yaoyu; Lawrence, Joy; Coull, Brent; Gitin, Elena; Knutson, Mitchell; Kobzik, Lester . E-mail: lkobzik@hsph.harvard.edu

    2007-02-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) primed with LPS and treated with concentrated ambient air particles (CAPs) showed enhanced release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and provide an in vitro model for the amplified effects of air pollution particles seen in people with preexisting lung disease. To investigate the mechanism(s) by which CAPs mediate TNF release in primed rat AMs, we first tested the effect of a panel of antioxidants. N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (20 mM), dimethyl thiourea (20 mM) and catalase (5 {mu}M) significantly inhibited TNF release by primed AMs incubated with CAPs. Conversely, when LPS-primed AMs were treated with CAPs in the presence of exogenous oxidants (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by glucose oxidase, 10 {mu}M/h), TNF release and cell toxicity was significantly increased. The soluble fraction of CAPs suspensions caused most of the increased bioactivity in the presence of exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The metal chelator deferoxamine (DFO) strongly inhibited the interaction of the soluble fraction with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} but had no effect on the bioactivity of the insoluble CAPs fraction. We conclude that CAPs can mediate their effects in primed AMs by acting on oxidant-sensitive cytokine release in at least two distinct ways. In the primed cell, insoluble components of PM mediate enhanced TNF production that is H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-dependent (catalase-sensitive) yet independent of iron (DFO-insensitive). In the presence of exogenous H{sub 2}O{sub 2} released by AMs, PMNs, or other lung cells within an inflamed alveolar milieu, soluble iron released from air particles can also mediate cytokine release and cell toxicity.

  3. In vitro dissolution of uranium oxide by baboon alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Poncy, J L; Metivier, H; Dhilly, M; Verry, M; Masse, R

    1992-01-01

    In vitro cellular dissolution tests for insoluble forms of uranium oxide are technically difficult with conventional methodology using adherent alveolar macrophages. The limited number of cells per flask and the slow dissolution rate in a large volume of nutritive medium are obvious restricting factors. Macrophages in suspension cannot be substituted because they represent different and poorly reproducible functional subtypes with regard to activation and enzyme secretion. Preliminary results on the dissolution of uranium oxide using immobilized alveolar macrophages are promising because large numbers of highly functional macrophages can be cultured in a limited volume. Cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavages performed on baboons (Papio papio) and then immobilized after the phagocytosis of uranium octoxide (U3O8) particles in alginate beads linked with Ca2+. The dissolution rate expressed as percentage of initial uranium content in cells was 0.039 +/- 0.016%/day for particles with a count median geometric diameter of 3.84 microns(sigma g = 1.84). A 2-fold increase in the dissolution rate was observed when the same number of particles was immobilized without macrophages. These results, obtained in vitro, suggest that the U3O8 preparation investigated should be assigned to inhalation class Y as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Future experiments are intended to clarify this preliminary work and to examine the dissolution characteristics of other particles such as uranium dioxide. It is recommended that the dissolution rate should be measured over an interval of 3 weeks, which is compatible with the survival time of immobilized cells in culture and may reveal transformation states occurring with aging of the particles. PMID:1396447

  4. Injurious effects of lysophosphatidylcholine on barrier properties of alveolar epithelium.

    PubMed

    Niewoehner, D E; Rice, K; Sinha, A A; Wangensteen, D

    1987-11-01

    We studied the effects of lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC) on the barrier properties and the morphology of the alveolar-capillary membrane in isolated, fluid-filled hamster lungs continuously perfused. When instilled into the airspace at initial concentrations of 8-128 micrograms/ml, lysoPC causes dose-dependent increases in the permeability-surface area product of the alveolar epithelium for small (14C-sucrose, 342) and large (125I-neutral dextran, 70,000) solutes, with maximal values for each solute approximately 15 times control. Rapid whole-lung weight gains are caused by 128 micrograms lysoPC per milliliter, but each of the lower concentrations has no effect on net lung water balance. Electron-microscopic studies demonstrate that type I pneumonocytes are the lung cells most susceptible to lysoPC exposure, with cell swelling being the most prominent feature from low-dose exposure with more severe disruptive changes at the highest concentration tested. The effects of lysoPC are relatively specific, as several structurally related lipids have little or no effect at equivalent concentrations. Instillation of phospholipase A2 causes functional changes similar to those seen with lysoPC, presumably by generation of lysoPC from endogenous phospholipids. Studies employing a 14C-radiolabeled compound show that instilled lysoPC rapidly partitions into the lung lipid fraction where a major portion of the acyl group becomes incorporated into phosphatidylcholine. The amount of instilled lysoPC required to produce functional and morphological effects comprises only a few percent of total lung phospholipids. Since lysoPC is a normal component of lung phospholipids, severe lung dysfunction might result from minor abnormalities in the formation or degradation of this compound.

  5. Alveolar Ridge Augmentation with Titanium Mesh. A Retrospective Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Pier P; Beretta, Mario; Cicciù, Marco; Maiorana, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    An adequate amount of bone all around the implant surface is essential in order to obtain long-term success of implant restoration. Several techniques have been described to augment alveolar bone volume in critical clinical situations, including guided bone regeneration, based on the use of barrier membranes to prevent ingrowth of the epithelial and gingival connective tissue cells. To achieve this goal, the use of barriers made of titanium micromesh has been advocated. A total of 13 patients were selected for alveolar ridge reconstruction treatment prior to implant placement. Each patient underwent a tridimensional bone augmentation by means of a Ti-mesh filled with intraoral autogenous bone mixed with deproteinized anorganic bovine bone in a 1:1 ratio. Implants were placed after a healing period of 6 months. Panoramic x-rays were performed after each surgical procedure and during the follow-up recalls. Software was used to measure the mesial and the distal peri-implant bone loss around each implant. The mean peri-implant bone loss was 1.743 mm on the mesial side and 1.913 mm on the distal side, from the top of the implant head to the first visible bone-implant contact, at a mean follow-up of 88 months. The use of Ti-mesh allows the regeneration of sufficient bone volume for ideal implant placement. The clinical advantages related to this technique include the possibility of correcting severe vertical atrophies associated with considerable reductions in width and the lack of major complications if soft-tissue dehiscence and mesh exposures do occur. PMID:25317209

  6. Nitric oxide alters metabolism in isolated alveolar type II cells.

    PubMed

    Miles, P R; Bowman, L; Huffman, L

    1996-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells may be exposed to nitric oxide (.NO) from external sources, and these cells can also generate .NO. Therefore we studied the effects of altering .NO levels on various type II cell metabolic processes. Incubation of cells with the .NO generator, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP; 1 mM), leads to reductions of 60-70% in the synthesis of disaturated phosphatidylcholines (DSPC) and cell ATP levels. Cellular oxygen consumption, an indirect measure of cell ATP synthesis, is also reduced by SNAP. There is no direct effect of SNAP on lung mitochondrial ATP synthesis, suggesting that .NO does not directly inhibit this process. On the other hand, incubation of cells with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), the enzyme responsible for .NO synthesis, results in increases in DSPC synthesis, cell ATP content, and cellular oxygen consumption. The L-NAME effects are reversed by addition of L-arginine, the substrate for NOS. Production of .NO by type II cells is inhibited by L-NAME, a better inhibitor of constitutive NOS (cNOS) than inducible NOS (iNOS), and is reduced in the absence of external calcium. Aminoguanidine, a specific inhibitor of iNOS, has no effect on cell ATP content or on .NO production. These results indicate that alveolar type II cell lipid and energy metabolism can be affected by .NO and suggest that there may be cNOS activity in these cells. PMID:8760128

  7. Alveolar epithelial integrity in athletes with exercise-induced hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M R; Hunte, G S; Belzberg, A S; Sheel, A W; Worsley, D F; McKenzie, D C

    2000-10-01

    The effect of incremental exercise to exhaustion on the change in pulmonary clearance rate (k) of aerosolized (99m)Tc-labeled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) and the relationship between k and arterial PO(2) (Pa(O(2))) during heavy work were investigated. Ten male cyclists (age = 25 +/- 2 yr, height = 180.9 +/- 4.0 cm, mass = 80.1 +/- 9.5 kg, maximal O(2) uptake = 5. 25 +/- 0.35 l/min, mean +/- SD) completed a pulmonary clearance test shortly (39 +/- 8 min) after a maximal O(2) uptake test. Resting pulmonary clearance was completed >/=24 h before or after the exercise test. Arterial blood was sampled at rest and at 1-min intervals during exercise. Minimum Pa(O(2)) values and maximum alveolar-arterial PO(2) difference ranged from 73 to 92 Torr and from 30 to 55 Torr, respectively. No significant difference between resting k and postexercise k for the total lung (0.55 +/- 0.20 vs. 0. 57 +/- 0.17 %/min, P > 0.05) was observed. Pearson product-moment correlation indicated no significant linear relationship between change in k for the total lung and minimum Pa(O(2)) (r = -0.26, P > 0.05). These results indicate that, averaged over subjects, pulmonary clearance of (99m)Tc-DTPA after incremental maximal exercise to exhaustion in highly trained male cyclists is unchanged, although the sampling time may have eliminated a transient effect. Lack of a linear relationship between k and minimum Pa(O(2)) during exercise suggests that exercise-induced hypoxemia occurs despite maintenance of alveolar epithelial integrity.

  8. In vitro dissolution of uranium oxide by baboon alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Poncy, J.L.; Dhilly, M.; Verry, M. ); Metivier, H. ); Masse, R. )

    1992-07-01

    In vitro cellular dissolution tests for insoluble forms of uranium oxide are technically difficult with conventional methodology using adherent alveolar macrophages. The limited number of cells per flask and the slow dissolution rate in a large volume of nutritive medium are obvious restricting factors. macrophages in suspension cannot be substituted because they represent different and poorly reproducible functional subtypes with regard to activation and enzyme secretion. Preliminary results on the dissolution of uranium oxide using immobilized alveolar macrophages are promising because large numbers of highly function macrophages can be cultured in a limited volume. Cells were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavages performed on baboons (Papio papio) and then immobilized after the phagocytosis of uranium octoxide (U[sub 3]O[sub 8]) particles in alginate beads linked with Ca[sup 2+]. The dissolution rate expressed as percentage of initial uranium content in cells was 0.039 [+-] 0.016%/day for particles with a count median geometric diameter of 3.84 [mu]m([sigma][sub g] = 1.84). A 2-fold increase in the dissolution rate was observed when the same number of particles was immobilized without macrophages. These results, obtained in vitro, suggest that the U[sub 3]O[sub g] preparation investigated should be assigned to inhalation class Y as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Future experiments are intended to clarify this preliminary work and to examine the dissolution characteristics of other particles such as uranium dioxide. It is recommended that the dissolution rate should be measured over an interval of 3 weeks, which is compatible with the survival time of immobilized cells in culture and may reveal transformation states occurring with aging of the particles. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Chronic alcohol ingestion alters claudin expression in the alveolar epithelium of rats.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alberto L; Koval, Michael; Fan, Xian; Guidot, David M

    2007-08-01

    Previously we determined that chronic alcohol ingestion (6 weeks) in rats increases lung epithelial permeability in vivo approximately 5-6-fold and promotes flooding of the alveolar airspaces with proteinaceous fluid in response to stresses such as sepsis. In parallel, alveolar epithelial cells isolated from alcohol-fed rats fail to form tight monolayers in vitro, even when cultured for up to 8 days in the absence of alcohol. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced permeability are unknown. Claudins are key components of tight junctions that restrict the paracellular movement of water, proteins, and solutes across cellular barriers including the alveolar epithelium. In this study, we examined the expression of multiple members of the claudin protein family in the lungs of alcohol-fed versus control-fed rats (Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet with either 36% of calories as alcohol or an isocaloric substitution with maltin-dextrin for 6 weeks). We determined that chronic alcohol ingestion affected the expression of multiple claudins; most striking were decreases in claudin-1 and claudin-7, and an increase in claudin-5, in the whole lung and in alveolar epithelial monolayers derived from alcohol-fed rats. In parallel, immunocytochemistry of alveolar epithelial monolayers from alcohol-fed rats revealed abnormal intracellular accumulation of claudin-7 protein and relatively decreased localization to cell membranes. Claudin-1 and claudin-7 are relatively specific to alveolar epithelial type I pneumocytes that form the vast majority of the alveolar epithelial barrier in vivo, and increases in claudin-5 have been associated with increased epithelial permeability in other systems. Therefore, these findings suggest that changes in claudin expression in the alveolar epithelium produce a "leakier" phenotype that renders the alcoholic lung susceptible to alveolar flooding during acute inflammatory stresses.

  10. The Role of Angiotensin II and Cyclic AMP in Alveolar Active Sodium Transport

    PubMed Central

    Ismael-Badarneh, Reem; Guetta, Julia; Klorin, Geula; Berger, Gidon; Abu-saleh, Niroz; Abassi, Zaid; Azzam, Zaher S.

    2015-01-01

    Active alveolar fluid clearance is important in keeping airspaces free of edema. Angiotensin II plays a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension, heart failure and others. However, little is known about its contribution to alveolar fluid clearance. Angiotensin II effects are mediated by two specific receptors; AT1 and AT2. The localization of these two receptors in the lung, specifically in alveolar epithelial cells type II, was recently reported. We hypothesize that Angiotensin II may have a role in the regulation of alveolar fluid clearance. We investigated the effect of Angiotensin II on alveolar fluid clearance in rats using the isolated perfused lung model and isolated rat alveolar epithelial cells. The rate of alveolar fluid clearance in control rats was 8.6% ± 0.1 clearance of the initial volume and decreased by 22.5%, 28.6%, 41.6%, 48.7% and 39% in rats treated with 10-10 M, 10-9 M, 10-8 M, 10-7 M or 10-6 M of Ang II respectively (P < 0.003). The inhibitory effect of Angiotensin II was restored in losartan, an AT1 specific antagonist, pretreated rats, indicating an AT1 mediated effect of Ang II on alveolar fluid clearance. The expression of Na,K-ATPase proteins and cAMP levels in alveolar epithelial cells were down-regulated following the administration of Angiotensin II; suggesting that cAMP may be involved in AngII-induced reduced Na,K-ATPase expression, though the contribution of additional factors could not be excluded. We herein suggest a novel mechanism of clinical relevance by which angiotensin adversely impairs the ability of the lungs to clear edema. PMID:26230832

  11. El Maestro de Sala Regular de Clases Ante el Proceso de Inclusion del Nino Con Impedimento

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa Morales, Awilda

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe the experiences of regular class elementary school teachers with the Puerto Rico Department of Education who have worked with handicapped children who have been integrated to the regular classroom. Five elementary level regular class teachers were selected in the northwest zone of Puerto Rico who during…

  12. Lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve with simultaneous implant placement: surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Garg, A K; Morales, M J

    1998-01-01

    In the event of moderate to severe mandibular bone resorption posterior to the mental foramen, repositioning of the inferior alveolar nerve provides a greater amount of available bone for implant placement and reduces the risk of nerve injury. While neural paresthesia may initially occur, this altered sensation generally resolves spontaneously. Alveolar nerve repositioning may be possible in cases in which other procedures cannot be performed due to the extent of atrophy of the posterior mandibular alveolar crest. This article presents the surgical technique to achieve this objective. PMID:10093565

  13. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Martínez, Marco Ulises; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is a rare but potentially fatal condition. Although the pathogenesis of this condition is unknown, high disease activity is the main characteristic; moreover, histopathology in some studies showed alveolar immune complex deposits and capillaritis. Clinical features of DAH include dyspnea, a drop in hemoglobin, and diffuse radiographic alveolar images, with or without hemoptysis. Factors associated with mortality include mechanical ventilation, renal failure, and infections. Bacterial infections have been reported frequently in patients with DAH, but also invasive fungal infections including aspergillosis. DAH treatment is based on high dose methylprednisolone; other accepted therapies include cyclophosphamide (controversial), plasmapheresis, immunoglobulin and rituximab.

  14. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces

    PubMed Central

    Feller, L.; Khammissa, R. A. G.; Schechter, I.; Thomadakis, G.; Fourie, J.; Lemmer, J.

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement. PMID:26421314

  15. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces.

    PubMed

    Feller, L; Khammissa, R A G; Schechter, I; Thomadakis, G; Fourie, J; Lemmer, J

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.

  16. Contribución al flujo infrarrojo de las estrellas Be de la recombinación dielectrónica del MgII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruzado, A.; di Rocco, H.; Ringuelet, A.

    Para evaluar la contribución del proceso de recombinación dielectrónica del átomo de MgII al exceso de flujo infrarrojo observado en las estrellas Be, calculamos la energía emitida en las líneas originadas por este proceso. Se evaluaron los efectos de las condiciones físicas del medio, como la temperatura electrónica y la densidad electrónica, sobre el flujo emitido. Se consideró también la influencia de una posible opacidad.

  17. Phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from lung, isolated alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived adenomas.

    PubMed Central

    Pool, G L; Bubacz, D G; Lumb, R H; Mason, R J

    1983-01-01

    We have examined phospholipid-transfer activities in cytosols from rat and mouse whole lung, isolated rat alveolar type II cells and alveolar type II cell-derived mouse pulmonary adenomas. We report an enrichment in phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol (but not phosphatidylinositol) protein-catalysed transfer in the type II cell and adenoma cytosols compared with the whole-lung cytosols. The activities from these cytosols were resolved using column chromatofocusing, which clearly demonstrated the presence of a phosphatidylcholine-specific transfer protein in each of the four tissues. In addition, two proteins (rat) or three proteins (mouse) catalysing both phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol transfer were resolved from whole lung, whereas in both the rat isolated alveolar type II cells and the mouse type II cell-derived adenomas one of these less specific proteins is not present. PMID:6661189

  18. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and Libman-Sacks endocarditis as a manifestation of possible primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koolaee, Roodabeh Michelle; Moran, Anna M; Shahane, Anupama

    2013-03-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of circulating autoantibodies against phospholipid-binding plasma proteins, leading to an increased risk of thrombosis and pregnancy loss. The most common manifestation of lung disease in APS is pulmonary embolism, which may often be the presenting symptom. We present a 30-year-old man with probable primary APS (with no history of thromboses) presenting with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, an uncommon presentation. He was also found to have severe mitral valve regurgitation and during valve replacement surgery had cardiac vegetations compatible with a presentation of Libman-Sacks endocarditis. There are only 21 other reported cases of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage occurring as a result of APS. This is the first case of Libman-Sacks endocarditis in the setting of probable APS and alveolar hemorrhage.Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage should be considered as a nonthrombotic manifestation of APS, even in the absence of known thromboses, and may be the presenting symptom.

  19. Tracheal compression delays alveolar collapse during deep diving in marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Brian L; Fahlman, Andreas; Jones, David R

    2008-05-31

    Marine mammals have very compliant alveoli and stiff upper airways; an adaptation that allows air to move from the alveoli into the upper airways, during breath-hold diving. Alveolar collapse is thought occur between 30 and 100 m and studies that have attempted to estimate gas exchange at depth have used the simplifying assumption that gas exchange ceases abruptly at the alveolar collapse depth. Here we develop a mathematical model that uses compliance values for the alveoli and upper airspaces, estimated from the literature, to predict volumes of the respiratory system at depth. Any compressibility of the upper airways decreases the volume to contain alveolar air yielding lung collapse pressures 2x that calculated assuming an incompressible upper airway. A simple relationship with alveolar volume was used to predict relative pulmonary shunt at depth. The results from our model agree with empirical data on gas absorption at depth as well as the degree of tracheal compression in forced and free diving mammals.

  20. Multimodality imaging in diagnosis and management of alveolar echinococcosis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Bulakçı, Mesut; Kartal, Merve Gülbiz; Yılmaz, Sabri; Yılmaz, Erdem; Yılmaz, Ravza; Şahin, Dilek; Aşık, Murat; Erol, Oğuz Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a parasitic disease limited to the northern hemisphere. The disease occurs primarily in the liver and shows a profile mimicking slow-growing malignant tumors. Echinococcus multilocularis infection is fatal if left untreated. It can cause several complications by infiltrating the vascular structures, biliary tracts, and the hilum of the liver. As it can invade the adjacent organs or can spread to distant organs, alveolar echinococcosis can easily be confused with malignancies. We provide a brief review of epidemiologic and pathophysiologic profile of alveolar echinococcosis and clinical features of the disease. This article focuses primarily on the imaging features of alveolar echinococcosis on ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We also reviewed the role of radiology in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the disease. PMID:27082120

  1. Alveolar hemorrhage as a manifestation of pulmonary barotrauma after scuba diving.

    PubMed

    Balk, M; Goldman, J M

    1990-08-01

    We present the case of a 46-year-old man who developed diffuse alveolar hemorrhage as a consequence of a scuba diving accident. The diagnosis and presumptive pathophysiological mechanism of this previously unreported complication are discussed.

  2. Alveolar system of Paramecium. I. Trapping polycationic dye as a result of membrane impairment.

    PubMed

    Wyroba, E

    1981-01-01

    The function of Paramecium alveolar system underlying the cell membrane has been studied. Permeability and structure of cell membrane, alveolar membranes and alveoli following alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, phospholipase C and hyaluronidase treatment has been examined. It is demonstrated that droplets of polycationic dye, ruthenium red, have been trapped within the alveoli whereas the dye was also bound by the outer and inner alveolar membrane. This suggest the presence of anionic sites capable to bind cationic compounds within the alveoli. It may be concluded that the alveolar system in Paramecium is functioning as a barrier protecting the cell against the chemicals added from the outside when the cell membrane separating the cytoplasm from the medium is impaired.

  3. Iron homeostatis and oxidative stress in idiopathic pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: a case-control study

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Lung injury caused by both inhaled dusts and infectious agents depends on increased availability of iron and metal-catalyzed oxidative stress. Because inhaled particles, such as silica, and certain infections can cause secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosi...

  4. Depletion of alveolar macrophages prolongs survival in response to acute pneumovirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Rigaux, Peter; Killoran, Kristin E.; Qiu, Zhijun; Rosenberg, Helene F.

    2011-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages are immunoregulatory effector cells that interact directly with respiratory virus pathogens in vivo. We examined the role of alveolar macrophages in acute infection with pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), a rodent pneumovirus that replicates the clinical sequelae of severe human respiratory syncytial virus disease. We show that PVM replicates in primary mouse macrophage culture, releasing infectious virions and proinflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages isolated from PVM-infected mice express activation markers Clec43 and CD86, cytokines TNFα, IL-1, IL-6, and numerous CC and CXC chemokines. Alveolar macrophage depletion prior to PVM infection results in small but statistically significant increases in virus recovery but paradoxically prolonged survival. In parallel, macrophage depleted PVM-infected mice exhibit enhanced NK cell recruitment and increased production of IFNγ by NK, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results suggest a protective, immunomodulatory role for IFNγ, as overproduction secondary to macrophage depletion may promote survival despite increased virus recovery. PMID:22129848

  5. Marginal alveolar bone loss in flying personnel: a radiographical followup study.

    PubMed

    Carlson, O G; Zackrisson, K

    1977-09-01

    In a 10-year followup study, the alveolar marginal bone of the mandible in flying personnel has been examined on radiographs. The radiographs were obtained at 5-year intervals. The reduced height of the marginal alveolar bone was measured according to an internationally accepted standard procedure and compared with figures obtained from radiographs made 10 years earlier. Compared with similar material concerning subjects not occupationally involved in flying, this study shows that flying personnel suffer considerable alveolar, marginal bone loss. High-altitude flying, reduced partial oxygen pressure, stress, and vibrations are being discussed as suspected causes. An interesting and disturbing point is that the alveolar process usually is the first bone that reveals a generally decreased bone calcification. Further studies of the skeletal bone and the serum concentration of calcium are in progress. Subjects for these studies are flying personnel (jet, propeller, and helicopter) from the Swedish Air Force.

  6. Multimodality imaging in diagnosis and management of alveolar echinococcosis: an update.

    PubMed

    Bulakçı, Mesut; Kartal, Merve Gülbiz; Yılmaz, Sabri; Yılmaz, Erdem; Yılmaz, Ravza; Şahin, Dilek; Aşık, Murat; Erol, Oğuz Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a parasitic disease limited to the northern hemisphere. The disease occurs primarily in the liver and shows a profile mimicking slow-growing malignant tumors. Echinococcus multilocularis infection is fatal if left untreated. It can cause several complications by infiltrating the vascular structures, biliary tracts, and the hilum of the liver. As it can invade the adjacent organs or can spread to distant organs, alveolar echinococcosis can easily be confused with malignancies. We provide a brief review of epidemiologic and pathophysiologic profile of alveolar echinococcosis and clinical features of the disease. This article focuses primarily on the imaging features of alveolar echinococcosis on ultrasonogra-phy, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography. We also reviewed the role of radiology in diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the disease. PMID:27082120

  7. Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

  8. Alejarse como proceso social: niños y ancianos «abandonados» en Ayacucho1

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca

    2013-01-01

    En investigaciones previas sobre el acogimiento familiar y la adopción en Ayacucho, se ha podido descubrir cómo los ayacuchanos adquieren y producen relaciones sociales. Mientras negocian creativamente los discursos y espacios construidos simultáneamente por instituciones, comunidades, y estructuras sociales, van adquiriendo nuevas formas de relacionarse. Este artículo discute el proceso opuesto: el deshacerse de relaciones de parentesco, y el proceso social del abandono o alejamiento. Cuando se aleja a una persona de su familia o su comunidad, los que se quedan en ella llegan a entenderse como ciertos tipos de personas. En los estudios de caso discutidos aquí, recopilados a través de una detallada y cuidadosa observación participante y de entrevistas etnográficas grabadas entre 2001 y 2007, se puede ver cómo, después de un alejamiento social, los individuos que alejan se reinterpretan como sujetos que se encuentran superándose o volviéndose modernos, o bien sacrificándose. PMID:25177044

  9. Deposition of Particles in the Alveolar Airways: Inhalation and Breath-Hold with Pharmaceutical Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Navvab; Longest, P Worth

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that factors such as airway wall motion, inhalation waveform, and geometric complexity influence the deposition of aerosols in the alveolar airways. However, deposition fraction correlations are not available that account for these factors in determining alveolar deposition. The objective of this study was to generate a new space-filling model of the pulmonary acinus region and implement this model to develop correlations of aerosol deposition that can be used to predict the alveolar dose of inhaled pharmaceutical products. A series of acinar models was constructed containing different numbers of alveolar duct generations based on space-filling 14-hedron elements. Selected ventilation waveforms were quick-and-deep and slow-and-deep inhalation consistent with the use of most pharmaceutical aerosol inhalers. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to predict aerosol transport and deposition in the series of acinar models across various orientations with gravity where ventilation was driven by wall motion. Primary findings indicated that increasing the number of alveolar duct generations beyond 3 had a negligible impact on total acinar deposition, and total acinar deposition was not affected by gravity orientation angle. A characteristic model containing three alveolar duct generations (D3) was then used to develop correlations of aerosol deposition in the alveolar airways as a function of particle size and particle residence time in the geometry. An alveolar deposition parameter was determined in which deposition correlated with d(2)t over the first half of inhalation followed by correlation with dt(2), where d is the aerodynamic diameter of the particles and t is the potential particle residence time in the alveolar model. Optimal breath-hold times to allow 95% deposition of inhaled 1, 2, and 3 μm particles once inside the alveolar region were approximately >10, 2.7, and 1.2 s, respectively. Coupling of the deposition

  10. Alveolar soft part sarcoma following radiotherapy for a spinal hemangioma. A case report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Mirra, J.; Bhuta, S.

    1984-06-15

    A case of alveolar soft part sarcoma arising some 20 years later in a site previously irradiated as a treatment for a spinal cord hemangioma is described. This is the first known case of radiation-associated alveolar soft part sarcoma, and it fulfills the criteria for a tumor to be radiation-induced. The coincidental finding of ''viral-like'' particles within some of the tumor cells was noted.

  11. High CO2 Levels Impair Alveolar Epithelial Function Independently of pH

    PubMed Central

    Briva, Arturo; Vadász, István; Lecuona, Emilia; Welch, Lynn C.; Chen, Jiwang; Dada, Laura A.; Trejo, Humberto E.; Dumasius, Vidas; Azzam, Zaher S.; Myrianthefs, Pavlos M.; Batlle, Daniel; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2007-01-01

    Background In patients with acute respiratory failure, gas exchange is impaired due to the accumulation of fluid in the lung airspaces. This life-threatening syndrome is treated with mechanical ventilation, which is adjusted to maintain gas exchange, but can be associated with the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the lung. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a by-product of cellular energy utilization and its elimination is affected via alveolar epithelial cells. Signaling pathways sensitive to changes in CO2 levels were described in plants and neuronal mammalian cells. However, it has not been fully elucidated whether non-neuronal cells sense and respond to CO2. The Na,K-ATPase consumes ∼40% of the cellular metabolism to maintain cell homeostasis. Our study examines the effects of increased pCO2 on the epithelial Na,K-ATPase a major contributor to alveolar fluid reabsorption which is a marker of alveolar epithelial function. Principal Findings We found that short-term increases in pCO2 impaired alveolar fluid reabsorption in rats. Also, we provide evidence that non-excitable, alveolar epithelial cells sense and respond to high levels of CO2, independently of extracellular and intracellular pH, by inhibiting Na,K-ATPase function, via activation of PKCζ which phosphorylates the Na,K-ATPase, causing it to endocytose from the plasma membrane into intracellular pools. Conclusions Our data suggest that alveolar epithelial cells, through which CO2 is eliminated in mammals, are highly sensitive to hypercapnia. Elevated CO2 levels impair alveolar epithelial function, independently of pH, which is relevant in patients with lung diseases and altered alveolar gas exchange. PMID:18043745

  12. Esthetic Restoration with Artificial Gingiva in an Atrophied Alveolar Ridge: Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Enríquez, Antonio; Sánchez, Eric; Guizar, J Manuel; Del Campo, Carlos Martin; Fandiño, L Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Management of the anterior maxilla is a challenge in compromised clinical situations such as loss of teeth or soft tissues, alveolar ridge defects, or loss of all three. This report shows the systematic sequence of surgical and prosthetic management in a case of Seibert Class III alveolar atrophy where the patient refused a removable prosthesis. This was resolved with a hybrid metal/porcelain prosthesis with 17-degree multiunit abutments, leading to totally satisfactory esthetic and functional results. PMID:27333015

  13. Inferior alveolar nerve injury in implant dentistry: diagnosis, causes, prevention, and management.

    PubMed

    Alhassani, Ahmed Ali; AlGhamdi, Ali Saad Thafeed

    2010-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve injury is one of the most serious complications in implant dentistry. This nerve injury can occur during local anesthesia, implant osteotomy, or implant placement. Proper understanding of anatomy, surgical procedures, and implant systems and proper treatment planning is the key to reducing such an unpleasant complication. This review discusses the causes of inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis, prevention, and management. PMID:20545547

  14. Fractal analysis of alveolarization in hyperoxia-induced rat models of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Guidolin, Diego; Macchi, Veronica; Sarasin, Gloria; Grisafi, Davide; Tortorella, Cinzia; Dedja, Arben; Zaramella, Patrizia; De Caro, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    No papers are available about potentiality of fractal analysis in quantitative assessment of alveolarization in bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Thus, we here performed a comparative analysis between fractal [fractal dimension (D) and lacunarity] and stereological [mean linear intercept (Lm), total volume of alveolar air spaces, total number of alveoli, mean alveolar volume, total volume and surface area of alveolar septa, and mean alveolar septal thickness] parameters in experimental hyperoxia-induced models of BPD. At birth, rats were distributed between the following groups: 1) rats raised in ambient air for 2 wk; 2) rats exposed to 60% oxygen for 2 wk; 3) rats raised in normoxia for 6 wk; and 4) rats exposed to 60% hyperoxia for 2 wk and to room air for further 4 wk. Normoxic 6-wk rats showed increased D and decreased lacunarity with respect to normoxic 2-wk rats, together with changes in all stereological parameters except for mean alveolar volume. Hyperoxia-exposed 2-wk rats showed significant changes only in total number of alveoli, mean alveolar volume, and lacunarity with respect to equal-in-age normoxic rats. In the comparison between 6-wk rats, the hyperoxia-exposed group showed decreased D and increased lacunarity, together with changes in all stereological parameters except for septal thickness. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed a comparable discriminatory power of D, lacunarity, and total number of alveoli; Lm and mean alveolar volume were less discriminative. D and lacunarity did not show significant changes when different segmentation thresholds were applied, suggesting that the fractal approach may be fit to automatic image analysis. PMID:26851258

  15. Alveolar recruitment maneuver and perioperative ventilatory support in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Rezende, Juliana Castilhos; Forgiarini, Soraia Genebra Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The development of abdominal surgery represents an alternative therapy for the morbidly obese; however, patients undergoing this surgical procedure often experience postoperative pulmonary complications. The use of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and/or perioperative ventilatory strategies is a possible alternative to reduce these complications, focusing on the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. In this review, the benefits of perioperative ventilatory strategies and the implementation of alveolar recruitment maneuvers in obese patients undergoing abdominal surgery are described. PMID:24553513

  16. Fetal, but not postnatal, deletion of semaphorin-neuropilin-1 signaling affects murine alveolar development.

    PubMed

    Joza, Stephen; Wang, Jinxia; Tseu, Irene; Ackerley, Cameron; Post, Martin

    2013-10-01

    The disruption of angiogenic pathways, whether through genetic predisposition or as a consequence of life-saving interventions, may underlie many pulmonary diseases of infancy, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is a transmembrane receptor that plays essential roles in normal and pathological vascular development and binds two distinct ligand families: vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegf) and class 3 semaphorins (Sema3). Although Nrp1 is critical for systemic vascular development, the importance of Nrp1 in pulmonary vascular morphogenesis is uncertain. We hypothesized that Sema3-Nrp1 and Vegf-Nrp1 interactions are important pathways in the orchestration of pulmonary vascular development during alveolarization. Complete ablation of Nrp1 signaling would therefore lead to interruption of normal angiogenic and vascular maturation processes that are relevant to the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. We have previously shown that congenital loss of Sema3-Nrp1 signaling in transgenic Nrp1(Sema-) mice resulted in disrupted alveolar-capillary interface formation and high neonatal mortality. Here, pathohistological examination of Nrp1(Sema-) survivors in the alveolar period revealed moderate to severe respiratory distress, alveolar hemorrhaging, abnormally dilated capillaries, and disintegrating alveolar septa, demonstrating continued instability of the alveolar-capillary interface. Moreover, consistent with a reduced capillary density and consequent increases in vascular resistance, hypertensive remodeling was observed. In contrast, conditional Nrp1 deletion beginning at postnatal day 5 had only a transient effect upon alveolar and vascular development or pneumocyte differentiation despite an increase in mortality. Our results demonstrate that although Sema3-Nrp1 signaling is critical during fetal pulmonary development, Nrp1 signaling does not appear to be essential for alveolar development or vascular function in the postnatal period.

  17. Sandstorm Appearance of Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis Incidentally Detected in a Young, Asymptomatic Male

    PubMed Central

    Bux, Shaik Ismail; Liam, Chong Kin; Rahman, Nazarina Abdul; Ho, Choon Yan

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare chronic disease with paucity of symptoms in contrast to the imaging findings. We present a case of a 24-year-old Malay man having an incidental abnormal pre-employment chest radiograph of dense micronodular opacities giving the classical "sandstorm" appearance. High-resolution computed tomography of the lungs showed microcalcifications with subpleural cystic changes. Open lung biopsy showed calcospherites within the alveolar spaces. The radiological and histopathological findings were characteristic of PAM. PMID:24043987

  18. Sandstorm appearance of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis incidentally detected in a young, asymptomatic male.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Li Shyan; Bux, Shaik Ismail; Liam, Chong Kin; Rahman, Nazarina Abdul; Ho, Choon Yan

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare chronic disease with paucity of symptoms in contrast to the imaging findings. We present a case of a 24-year-old Malay man having an incidental abnormal pre-employment chest radiograph of dense micronodular opacities giving the classical "sandstorm" appearance. High-resolution computed tomography of the lungs showed microcalcifications with subpleural cystic changes. Open lung biopsy showed calcospherites within the alveolar spaces. The radiological and histopathological findings were characteristic of PAM. PMID:24043987

  19. Alveolar graft in the cleft lip and palate patient: Review of 104 cases

    PubMed Central

    Tobella-Camps, María L.; Rivera-Baró, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Alveolar bone grafting is a vital part of the rehabilitation of cleft patients. The factors that have been most frequently associated with the success of the graft are the age at grafting and the pre-grafting orthodontic treatment. Objectives: 1) Describe the cases of alveolar bone grafts performed at the Maxilofacial Unit of Hospital Sant Joan de Déu, Barcelona (HSJD); and 2) Analyze the success/failure of alveolar grafts and related variables. Material and Methods: Descriptive retrospective study using a sample of 104 patients who underwent a secondary alveolar graft at the Craniofacial Unit of HSJD between 1998 and 2012. The graft was done by the same surgeon in all patients using bone from the iliac crest. Results: 70% of the patients underwent the procedure before the age of 15 (median 14.45 years); 70% of the graft patients underwent pre-graft maxillary expansion. A total of 100 cases were recorded as successful (median age of 14.58 years, 68 underwent pre-graft expansion) and only 4 were recorded as failures (median age of 17.62 years, 3 underwent pre-graft expansion). We did not find statistically significant differences in age at the time of grafting or pre-surgical expansion when comparing the success and failure groups. We found the success rate of the graft to be 96.2%. Conclusions: The number of failures was too small to establish a statistically significant conclusion in our sample regarding the age at grafting and pre-grafting expansion. The use of alveolar bone grafting from the iliac crest has a very high success rate with a very low incidence of complications. Existing controversies regarding secondary bone grafting and the wide range of success rates found in the literature suggest that it is necessary to establish a specific treatment protocol that ensures the success of this procedure. Key words:Alveolar graft, cleft lip and palate, alveolar cleft, alveolar defect. PMID:24880440

  20. [Domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic alveolar hypoventilation].

    PubMed

    Casas, J P; Robles, A M; Pereyra, M A; Abbona, H L; López, A M

    2000-01-01

    Effectiveness of treatment with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation is analyzed in a group of patients with chronic alveolar hypoventilation of different etiologies. It was applied with two levels of pressure (BiPAP) via nasal mask. Criteria for evaluation were symptomatology and improvement in gas exchange. Data were analyzed by Student t tests. A total of 13 patients were included, mean age 55.7 range 20 to 76 years (5 male 8 female). Main diagnosis was tuberculosis in 6, four of them having had surgical procedure (thoracoplasty 2, frenicectomy 1 and neumonectomy 1), myopathy 3 (myasthenia gravis 1, muscular dystrophy 1 and diaphragmatic paralysis 1), obesity-hypoventilation syndrome 1, escoliosis 1, bronchiectasis 1 and cystic fibrosis 1. These last two patients were on waiting list for lung transplantation. At the moment of consultation, the symptoms were: dysnea 13/13 (100%), astenia 13/13 (100%), hypersomnolency 10/13 (77%), cephalea 9/13 (69%), leg edema 6/13 (46%), loss of memory 6/13 (46%). Regarding gas exchange, they showed hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Mean follow up was of 2.2 years (range 6 months to 4 years). Within the year, all 13 patients became less dyspneic. Astenia, hypersomnolency, cephalea, leg edema and memory loss disappeared. Improvement in gas exchange was: PaO2/FiO2 from 269 +/- 65.4 (basal) to 336.7 +/- 75.3 post-treatment (p = 0.0018). PaCO2 from 70.77 +/- 25.48 mmHg (basal) to 46.77 +/- 8.14 mmHg (p = 0.0013). Ventilatory support was discontinued en 5 patients: three because of pneumonia requiring intubation and conventional mechanical ventilation, two of them died and one is still with tracheostomy; One patient with bronchiectasis and one with cystic fibrosis were transplanted. The remaining eight patients are stable. In conclusion, chronic alveolar hypoventilation can be effectively treated with domiciliary nocturnal noninvasive ventilation. Long term improvement in symptomatology and arterial blood gases

  1. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: an interesting case report with systematic review of Indian literature.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Nidhya; Ambroise, Marie Moses; Ramdas, Anita; Kisku, King Herald; Singh, Kulwant; Varghese, Renu G' Boy

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis is a rare disease characterized by intra-alveolar presence of microliths. This study reports an interesting case of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis and provides a systematic review of cases reported from India. A 23-year-old female presented with a history of cough, wheeze, chest pain, and episodic wheeze for five months. Pulmonary function tests demonstrated an obstructive pattern, and chest Xray showed fine micronodular opacities predominantly involving the middle and lower zones of both lungs. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed the diagnosis. She responded well to inhaled steroid therapy. A systematic review of literature was performed and identified 73 cases of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis reported from India. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 28.8 (14.9) years, with an almost equal male:female ratio. Many patients were asymptomatic at presentation. Breathlessness and cough were the most common symptoms, and the disease progressed into respiratory failure associated with cor pulmonale. About one-third of the cases were initially misdiagnosed and treated as pulmonary tuberculosis. Extra-pulmonary manifestations and comorbidities were also evident in our series. This systematic review helps to determine epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Further research is needed to elucidate the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic options, which are beneficial in developing and identifying cost-effective treatment for pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. PMID:26024716

  2. Thrombin-induced contraction in alveolar epithelial cells probed by traction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Núria; Sunyer, Raimon; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Farré, Ramon; Rotger, Mar; Navajas, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    Contractile tension of alveolar epithelial cells plays a major role in the force balance that regulates the structural integrity of the alveolar barrier. The aim of this work was to study thrombin-induced contractile forces of alveolar epithelial cells. A549 alveolar epithelial cells were challenged with thrombin, and time course of contractile forces was measured by traction microscopy. The cells exhibited basal contraction with total force magnitude 55.0 +/- 12.0 nN (mean +/- SE, n = 12). Traction forces were exerted predominantly at the cell periphery and pointed to the cell center. Thrombin (1 U/ml) induced a fast and sustained 2.5-fold increase in traction forces, which maintained peripheral and centripetal distribution. Actin fluorescent staining revealed F-actin polymerization and enhancement of peripheral actin rim. Disruption of actin cytoskeleton with cytochalasin D (5 microM, 30 min) and inhibition of myosin light chain kinase with ML-7 (10 microM, 30 min) and Rho kinase with Y-27632 (10 microM, 30 min) markedly depressed basal contractile tone and abolished thrombin-induced cell contraction. Therefore, the contractile response of alveolar epithelial cells to the inflammatory agonist thrombin was mediated by actin cytoskeleton remodeling and actomyosin activation through myosin light chain kinase and Rho kinase signaling pathways. Thrombin-induced contractile tension might further impair alveolar epithelial barrier integrity in the injured lung. PMID:16675616

  3. Airborne Particulate Matter Inhibits Alveolar Fluid Reabsorption in Mice via Oxidant Generation

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Gökhan M.; Snyder, Colleen; Bellmeyer, Amy; Wang, Helena; Hawkins, Keenan; Soberanes, Saul; Welch, Lynn C.; Ghio, Andrew J.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Kamp, David; Sznajder, Jacob I.; Budinger, G. R. Scott

    2006-01-01

    Ambient particulate matter is increasingly recognized as a significant contributor to human cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide. We sought to determine whether exposure to ambient particulate matter would alter alveolar fluid clearance in mice. Mice were exposed to a range of doses of a well-characterized particulate matter collected from the ambient air in Düsseldorf, Germany through a single intratracheal instillation, and alveolar fluid clearance and measurements of lung injury were made. Exposure to even very low doses of particulate matter (10 μg) resulted in a significant reduction in alveolar fluid clearance that was maximal 24 h after the exposure, with complete resolution after 7 d. This was paralleled by a decrease in lung Na,K-ATPase activity. To investigate the mechanism of this effect, we measured plasma membrane Na,K-ATPase abundance in A549 cells and Na,K-ATPase activity in primary rat alveolar type II cells after exposure to particulate matter in the presence or abscence of the combined superoxide dismutase and catalase mimetic EUK-134 (5 μM). Membrane but not total protein abundance of the Na,K-ATPase was decreased after exposure to particulate matter, as was Na,K-ATPase activity. This decrease was prevented by the combined superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-134. The intratracheal instillation of particulate matter results in alveolar epithelial injury and decreased alveolar fluid clearance, conceivably due to downregulation of the Na,K-ATPase. PMID:16439801

  4. Bone morphogenetic proteins for periodontal and alveolar indications; biological observations - clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Wikesjö, U M E; Qahash, M; Huang, Y-H; Xiropaidis, A; Polimeni, G; Susin, C

    2009-08-01

    Surgical placement of endosseous oral implants is governed by the prosthetic design and by the morphology and quality of the alveolar bone. Nevertheless, often implant placement may be complexed, if at all possible, by alveolar ridge irregularities resulting from periodontal disease, and chronic and acute trauma. In consequence, implant positioning commonly necessitates bone augmentation procedures. One objective of our laboratory is to evaluate the biologic potential of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and other candidate biologics, bone biomaterials, and devices for alveolar ridge augmentation and implant fixation using discriminating large animal models. This focused review illustrates the unique biologic potential, the clinical relevance and perspectives of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) using a variety of carrier technologies to induce local bone formation and implant osseointegration for inlay and onlay indications. Our studies demonstrate a clinically relevant potential of a purpose-designed titanium porous oxide implant surface as stand-alone technology to deliver rhBMP-2 for alveolar augmentation. In perspective, merits and shortcomings of current treatment protocol including bone biomaterials and guided bone regeneration are addressed and explained. We demonstrate that rhBMP-2 has unparalleled potential to augment alveolar bone, and support implant osseointegration and long-term functional loading. Inclusion of rhBMP-2 for alveolar augmentation and osseointegration will not only enhance predictability of existing clinical protocol but also radically change current treatment paradigms.

  5. Epithelial-mesenchymal co-culture model for studying alveolar morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Rachel M; Miller, J Davin; Okoh, Victor O; Halloran, Brian A; Prince, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Division of large, immature alveolar structures into smaller, more numerous alveoli increases the surface area available for gas exchange. Alveolar division requires precise epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. However, few experimental models exist for studying how these cell-cell interactions produce changes in 3-dimensional structure. Here we report an epithelial-mesenchymal cell co-culture model where 3-dimensional peaks form with similar cellular orientation as alveolar structures in vivo. Co-culturing fetal mouse lung mesenchyme with A549 epithelial cells produced tall peaks of cells covered by epithelia with cores of mesenchymal cells. These structures did not form when using adult lung fibroblasts. Peak formation did not require localized areas of cell proliferation or apoptosis. Mesenchymal cells co-cultured with epithelia adopted an elongated cell morphology closely resembling myofibroblasts within alveolar septa in vivo. Because inflammation inhibits alveolar formation, we tested the effects of E. coli lipopolysaccharide on 3-dimensional peak formation. Confocal and time-lapse imaging demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide reduced mesenchymal cell migration, resulting in fewer, shorter peaks with mesenchymal cells present predominantly at the base. This epithelial-mesenchymal co-culture model may therefore prove useful in future studies of mechanisms regulating alveolar morphogenesis. PMID:25482312

  6. Hyperoxia alters the mechanical properties of alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roan, Esra; Wilhelm, Kristina; Bada, Alex; Makena, Patrudu S; Gorantla, Vijay K; Sinclair, Scott E; Waters, Christopher M

    2012-06-15

    Patients with severe acute lung injury are frequently administered high concentrations of oxygen (>50%) during mechanical ventilation. Long-term exposure to high levels of oxygen can cause lung injury in the absence of mechanical ventilation, but the combination of the two accelerates and increases injury. Hyperoxia causes injury to cells through the generation of excessive reactive oxygen species. However, the precise mechanisms that lead to epithelial injury and the reasons for increased injury caused by mechanical ventilation are not well understood. We hypothesized that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may be more susceptible to injury caused by mechanical ventilation if hyperoxia alters the mechanical properties of the cells causing them to resist deformation. To test this hypothesis, we used atomic force microscopy in the indentation mode to measure the mechanical properties of cultured AECs. Exposure of AECs to hyperoxia for 24 to 48 h caused a significant increase in the elastic modulus (a measure of resistance to deformation) of both primary rat type II AECs and a cell line of mouse AECs (MLE-12). Hyperoxia also caused remodeling of both actin and microtubules. The increase in elastic modulus was blocked by treatment with cytochalasin D. Using finite element analysis, we showed that the increase in elastic modulus can lead to increased stress near the cell perimeter in the presence of stretch. We then demonstrated that cyclic stretch of hyperoxia-treated cells caused significant cell detachment. Our results suggest that exposure to hyperoxia causes structural remodeling of AECs that leads to decreased cell deformability. PMID:22467640

  7. Quantitative assessment of rabbit alveolar macrophage function by chemiluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.C.; Kirchner, F.R.

    1985-08-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages (RAM) were cultured for 24 hr with concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 ..mu..g/ml of vanadium oxide (V/sub 2/O/sub 5/), a known cytotoxic agent, or with high-molecular-weight organic by-products from coal gasification processes. After culture the cells were harvested and tested for functional capacity using three types of indicators: (1) luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL), which quantitatively detects photon emission due to respiratory burst activity measured in a newly designed instrument with standardized reagents; (2) the reduction of nitro blue tetrazolium-saturated polyacrylamide beads, a semiquantitative measure of respiratory burst activity; and (3) phagocytic efficiency, defined as percentage of cells incorporating immunoglobulin-coated polyacrylamide beads. Chemiluminescence declined linearly with increasing concentrations of V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ over the dose range tested. Dye reduction and phagocytic efficiency similarly decreased with increasing V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ concentration, but were less sensitive indicators of functional impairment than CL as measured by the amount required to reduce the response to 50% of untreated cells. The effect of coal gasification condensates on RAM function varied, but in general these test also indicated that the CL response was the most sensitive indicator.

  8. Toxicity of metallic ions and oxides to rabbit alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Labedzka, M.; Gulyas, H.; Schmidt, N.; Gercken, G. )

    1989-04-01

    The effects of soluble compounds and oxides of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V, and Zn on oxidative metabolism and membrane integrity of rabbit alveolar macrophages were studied by 24-hr in vitro exposure. Oxidative metabolism induced by phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan was measured by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and by chemiluminescence in the presence of luminol. Membrane integrity was estimated by extracellular LDH activity. Metallic ions and oxides inhibited the release of active oxygen species. Cd(II), As(III), and V(V) were the most toxic elements as measured by all investigated parameters. Cu(II) decreased O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} release and chemiluminescence effectively but H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release and membrane integrity less. Chemiluminescence was decreased strongly by Hg(II) while O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} release were depressed moderately. Zn(II) and Sb(III) compounds caused medium toxicity and the tested Sn, Ni, and Pb compounds showed only faint toxic effects.

  9. HES6 enhances the motility of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, Caroline M; Domaschenz, Renae; Amagase, Yoko; Williamson, Daniel; Missiaglia, Edoardo; Shipley, Janet; Murai, Kasumi; Jones, Philip H

    2013-01-01

    Absract: HES6, a member of the hairy-enhancer-of-split family of transcription factors, plays multiple roles in myogenesis. It is a direct target of the myogenic transcription factor MyoD and has been shown to regulate the formation of the myotome in development, myoblast cell cycle exit and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton during terminal differentiation. Here we investigate the expression and function of HES6 in rhabdomyosarcoma, a soft tissue tumor which expresses myogenic genes but fails to differentiate into muscle. We show that HES6 is expressed at high levels in the subset of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas expressing PAX/FOXO1 fusion genes (ARMSp). Knockdown of HES6 mRNA in the ARMSp cell line RH30 reduces proliferation and cell motility. This phenotype is rescued by expression of mouse Hes6 which is insensitive to HES6 siRNA. Furthermore, expression microarray analysis indicates that the HES6 knockdown is associated with a decrease in the levels of Transgelin, (TAGLN), a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. Knockdown of TAGLN decreases cell motility, whilst TAGLN overexpression rescues the motility defect resulting from HES6 knockdown. These findings indicate HES6 contributes to the pathogenesis of ARMSp by enhancing both proliferation and cell motility.

  10. Simple and safe posterior superior alveolar nerve block

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, K.; Kumar, N. Senthil; Kannan, R.; Kumar, J. Arun

    2012-01-01

    Background: The posterior superior alveolar nerve (PSAN) block is a dental nerve block used for profound anesthesia of the maxillary molars. Although it is being written in texts as a commonly used technique, but in dentistry it is rarely followed due to its nonreliable landmarks, variation in depth of insertion and frequent complications. The aim and objective are to find a technically simple method of the PSAN block without any complications. Study and Design: This study was based on the experience gained from 200 patients of 125 males and 75 female in age group of 20 to 65 years in University of Vinayaka and department of oral and maxillofacial surgery of VMS Dental College and hospital, Salem, Tamil Nadu. Results: In 200 patients’ positive anesthesia obtained within a period of 5 to 10 min. No visual complications reported in this study. There was no pain during and after extraction. Conclusion: This study shows this PSA nerve block using curved needle would avoid all complications reported in the literature. Therefore, the technique described in this study is an ideal option to anesthetize PSA nerve. PMID:25885507

  11. Antioxidant properties of taurine in rat alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Castranova, V.; Banks, M.A.; Porter, D.W.; Martin, W.G. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown )

    1990-02-26

    Isolated rat alveolar macrophages (RAM) which had taken-up and accumulated extracellular (0-500 {mu}M) taurine (TAU) were exposed to 0.45 {plus minus} 0.05 ppm ozone for 30 minutes in a modified tissue culture flask containing TAU-supplemented medium. Recovered cells were assayed for oxidant damage and media analyzed for leakage of intracellular components. Cell viability significantly increased, while recovery of cells decreased (possibly due to increased adherence) with increasing TAU. At 100 {mu}M (rat plasma TAU level), TAU protected against the ozone-induced increase in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence, diminished leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein into the medium, and partially restored the ozone-inactivated Na{sup +}/K{sup +} ATPase activity of RAM. Efflux of oxidized glutathione was maximized and K{sup +} leakage was minimized by the addition of 250 {mu}M TAU. At 250-500 {mu}M TAU, leakages of lipid peroxidation products and protein were enhanced, while the intracellular TAU content dramatically increased. These results indicate that TAU has both direct and indirect antioxidant properties at low levels and pro-oxidant properties at high levels in RAM.

  12. The Anesthetic Effect of Anterior Middle Superior Alveolar Technique (AMSA)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Tolentino, Lívia; Barbisan Souza, André; Girardi, Ana Alice; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Araújo, Maurício Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia of the soft and hard tissues of the maxilla may require up to 5 injections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) and supraperiosteal injection techniques during subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP). Thirty individuals with periodontitis were scheduled for SRP on the buccal aspect of teeth in the anterior maxilla. Before SRP, on a randomly chosen side of the maxilla, the supraperiosteal injection was performed in 1 session, while the AMSA injection was conducted in the contralateral side of the same patient in another session. Immediately after each SRP session, patients rated their pain perception during the procedure with a visual analog scale. No statistically significant differences in mean pain ratings during SRP were found after both anesthetic techniques (P > .05). This preliminary study demonstrated that the AMSA and supraperiosteal injection techniques provided similar anesthetic comfort during SRP. The AMSA injection could be an alternative to anesthetize the buccal aspect of maxilla, without the undesirable effects on facial structures such as the upper lip, nostrils, and lower eyelids. However, further randomized clinical trials with larger samples are necessary to confirm such results. PMID:26650493

  13. Interaction of Mycoplasma dispar with bovine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, R A; Wannemuehler, M J; Rosenbusch, R F

    1992-01-01

    The capacity to avoid phagocytosis and the activation of bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) by encapsulated Mycoplasma dispar or purified M. dispar capsule was investigated. Encapsulated and unencapsulated M. dispar were cocultured with BAM in the presence or absence of antisera prepared against unencapsulated M. dispar or purified capsule antiserum. Unopsonized mycoplasmas resisted phagocytosis, while only anti-capsule antibodies enhanced the phagocytosis of encapsulated mycoplasmas. BAM were cultured in the presence of purified M. dispar capsule or either live or heat-killed encapsulated or unencapsulated M. dispar. These BAM were then activated with Escherichia coli endotoxin or left without further activation. The supernatants of these cultures were assayed for tumor necrosis factor, interleukin 1, and glucose consumption as indicators of macrophage activation. Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin 1 were produced by BAM stimulated with unencapsulated M. dispar but not when encapsulated M. dispar or its purified capsule was used. Similarly, glucose consumption was increased in the presence of unencapsulated M. dispar, but not when BAM were cocultured with encapsulated M. dispar or purified capsule. When BAM were treated with purified capsule or encapsulated mycoplasmas, they could not be subsequently activated by endotoxin. These results indicate that encapsulated M. dispar or purified capsule exerts an inhibitory effect on the activity of BAM and prevents the activation of these cells. PMID:1612758

  14. Dissolution of beryllium in artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2011-05-01

    Dissolution of a lung burden of poorly soluble beryllium particles is hypothesized to be necessary for development of chronic beryllium lung disease (CBD) in humans. As such, particle dissolution rate must be sufficient to activate the lung immune response and dissolution lifetime sufficient to maintain chronic inflammation for months to years to support development of disease. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that poorly soluble beryllium compounds release ions via dissolution in lung fluid. Dissolution kinetics of 17 poorly soluble particulate beryllium materials that span extraction through ceramics machining (ores, hydroxide, metal, copper-beryllium [CuBe] fume, oxides) and three CuBe alloy reference materials (chips, solid block) were measured over 31 d using artificial lung alveolar macrophage phagolysosomal fluid (pH 4.5). Differences in beryllium-containing particle physicochemical properties translated into differences in dissolution rates and lifetimes in artificial phagolysosomal fluid. Among all materials, dissolution rate constant values ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-10)gcm(-2)d(-1) and half-times ranged from tens to thousands of days. The presence of magnesium trisilicate in some beryllium oxide materials may have slowed dissolution rates. Materials associated with elevated prevalence of CBD had faster beryllium dissolution rates [10(-7)-10(-8)gcm(-2)d(-1)] than materials not associated with elevated prevalence (p<0.05).

  15. Evidence for particle transport between alveolar macrophages in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Nikula, K.J.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Recent studies at this Institute have focused on determining the role of alveolar macrophages (AMs) in the transport of particles within and form the lung. For those studies, AMs previously labeled using the nuclear stain Hoechst 33342 and polychromatic Fluoresbrite microspheres (1 {mu}m diameter, Polysciences, Inc., Warrington, PA) were instilled into lungs of recipient F344 rats. The fate of the donor particles and the doubly labeled AMs within recipient lungs was followed for 32 d. Within 2-4 d after instillation, the polychromatic microspheres were found in both donor and resident AMs, suggesting that particle transfer occurred between the donor and resident AMs. However, this may also have been an artifact resulting from phagocytosis of the microspheres form dead donor cells or from the fading or degradation of Hoechst 33342 within the donor cells leading to their misidentification as resident AMs. The results support the earlier findings that microspheres in donor AMs can be transferred to resident AMs within 2 d after instillation.

  16. Anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) injection.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shelly; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, blinded study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) injection using the computer-assisted Wand Plus injection system versus a conventional syringe. The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered in a blind manner 2 AMSA injections utilizing the computer-assisted injection system and a conventional syringe to 40 subjects during 2 separate appointments. A pulp tester was used to test for anesthesia, in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes, of the central and lateral incisors, canine, and first and second premolars. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive no responses (80 readings) with the pulp tester were obtained. For all teeth, except the central incisor, the use of the computer-assisted injection system was significantly (P < .05) more likely to result in pulpal anesthesia than the use of the conventional syringe technique. For the computer-assisted injection system, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 35 to 58%, and for the conventional syringe, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 20 to 42%. For both techniques, the onset of pulpal anesthesia was slow, and duration of pulpal anesthesia declined steadily over 60 minutes. We conclude that although the AMSA injection using the computer-assisted injection system was more successful than the conventional syringe technique, the rather modest to low success rates, slow onset, and declining duration of pulpal anesthesia over 60 minutes would not ensure predictable pulpal anesthesia from the second premolar to the central incisor. PMID:15497297

  17. Gaining Surgical Access for Repositioning the Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Al-Siweedi, Saif Yousif Abdullah; Nambiar, P.; Shanmuhasuntharam, P.; Ngeow, W. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN) bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine) data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1) and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2–D5) distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3) distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient. PMID:24892077

  18. Glutathione-dependent peroxidative metabolism in the alveolar macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Molly T.; Thomas, Catherine; Vassallo, Charles L.; Basford, R. E.; Gee, J. Bernard L.

    1971-01-01

    Phagocytosis by rabbit alveolar macrophages (AM) is accompanied by increases in O2 consumption, glucose oxidation, and H2O2 formation. Two aspects of the interrelations between these metabolic features of phagocytosis have been studied. First, the following evidence indicates that glutathione, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase serve as a cytoplasmic shuttle between H2O2 and NADPH-dependent glucose oxidation: (a) AM contain 5.9 mμmoles of reduced glutathione per 106 cells and exhibit glutathione peroxidase and NADPH-specific glutathione reductase activity; (b) oxidized glutathione potentiates NADP stimulation of glucose oxidation; (c) an artificial H2O2-generating system stimulates glucose oxidation; (d) the cell penetrating thiol inhibitor, N-ethylmaleimide diminishes glucose oxidation. This effect largely depends on inhibition of the glutathione system rather than on inhibition of either H2O2 formation or enzymes directly subserving glucose oxidation. Second, three potential H2O2-generating oxidases have been sought. No cyanide-insensitive NADH or NADPH oxidase activity could be detected. D-amino acid oxidase activity was 0.48 ±0.07 U/106 cells with D-alanine as substrate. PMID:4395562

  19. Trace elements in human alveolar macrophages studied by PIXE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, G.; Roelandts, I.; Corhay, J. L.; Radermecker, M.; Delavignette, J. P.

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the metal content of alveolar macrophages by PIXE from 94 subjects divided into two groups as follows: group (1) — subjects with non-occupational exposure to industrial dust: 30 healthy volunteers (controls), 16 patients suffering from lung cancer; group (2) — 48 healthy steel workers from the Liège area (blast-furnace [ n=29] and coke oven [ n=19]). We hope to define more precisely the influence of carcinoma, smoking habit, pathology and occupational exposure in the steel industry on the macrophage metal content. This study has shown: (a) an Fe and Sr increase and a Br decrease in the macrophages of smokers (especially in heavy smokers): (b) a significant Fe, Ti, Br and Cu increase and a trend to Pb, Cr, As and Sr increase in macrophages of healthy steel workers (especially blast-furnace workers) in comparison with non-exposed controls; (c) a significant Fe, Br, Cu and Zn increase and a trend to Pb, As and Ni increase in macrophages of non-exposed patients with lung cancer by comparison with non-exposed controls. The mechanism of metal change could be explained by professional exposure and endogenous changes (protein synthesis, inflammation, bronchial bleeding, …)

  20. Substrate stiffness regulates extracellular matrix deposition by alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, Jessica L; Safi, Asmahan; Wei, Xiaoding; Espinosa, Horacio D; Budinger, GR Scott; Takawira, Desire; Hopkinson, Susan B; Jones, Jonathan CR

    2012-01-01

    Aim The aim of the study was to address whether a stiff substrate, a model for pulmonary fibrosis, is responsible for inducing changes in the phenotype of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) in the lung, including their deposition and organization of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Methods Freshly isolated lung AEC from male Sprague Dawley rats were seeded onto polyacrylamide gel substrates of varying stiffness and analyzed for expression and organization of adhesion, cytoskeletal, differentiation, and ECM components by Western immunoblotting and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Results We observed that substrate stiffness influences cell morphology and the organization of focal adhesions and the actin cytoskeleton. Surprisingly, however, we found that substrate stiffness has no influence on the differentiation of type II into type I AEC, nor does increased substrate stiffness lead to an epithelial–mesenchymal transition. In contrast, our data indicate that substrate stiffness regulates the expression of the α3 laminin subunit by AEC and the organization of both fibronectin and laminin in their ECM. Conclusions An increase in substrate stiffness leads to enhanced laminin and fibronectin assembly into fibrils, which likely contributes to the disease phenotype in the fibrotic lung. PMID:23204878

  1. Characterization of alveolar macrophage receptors involved in opsonin independent phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Godleski, J.J.; Parod, R.J.; Katler, M.; Brain, J.D.

    1986-03-05

    Hamster alveolar macrophages (AM) avidly ingest particles in the absence of serum. This process is calcium dependent and can be blocked by HAMM, a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for hamster AM's. The purpose of this study was to identify the membrane receptors involved. AM membranes were labeled with /sup 125/I, lysed with RIPA-PMSF, and then reacted with uncoated latex beads or with beads coated with BSA, gelatin, or poly-L-lysine. Lysed membranes were also reacted with zymosan particles. All of these reactions were done in the presence and absence of calcium and magnesium ions. After reaction, the particles were boiled in SDS to remove attached membrane constituents which were then separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Only one AM membrane protein (37 kilodaltons (kd)) bound to BSA and gelatin coated latex, uncoated latex, and zymosan particles in the presence of Ca/sup + +/ and Mg/sup + +/. Proteins of 45 and 19 kd attached to all particles even in the absence of divalent cations. In contrast, HAMM reacted with a membrane constituent of 102 kd. The authors conclude that the Ca/sup + +/ dependent receptor for opsonin independent phagocytosis has a molecular weight of 37 kd and is different from the antigen identified by HAMM.

  2. Human alveolar echinococcosis after fox population increase, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, Alexander; Ammann, Rudolf W; Candinas, Daniel; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Eckert, Johannes; Gottstein, Bruno; Halkic, Nerman; Muellhaupt, Beat; Prinz, Bettina Mareike; Reichen, Juerg; Tarr, Philip E; Torgerson, Paul R; Deplazes, Peter

    2007-06-01

    We analyzed databases spanning 50 years, which included retrospective alveolar echinococcosis (AE) case finding studies and databases of the 3 major centers for treatment of AE in Switzerland. A total of 494 cases were recorded. Annual incidence of AE per 100,000 population increased from 0.12-0.15 during 1956-1992 and a mean of 0.10 during 1993-2000 to a mean of 0.26 during 2001-2005. Because the clinical stage of the disease did not change between observation periods, this increase cannot be explained by improved diagnosis. Swiss hunting statistics suggested that the fox population increased 4-fold from 1980 through 1995 and has persisted at these higher levels. Because the period between infection and development of clinical disease is long, the increase in the fox population and high Echinococcus multilocularis prevalence rates in foxes in rural and urban areas may have resulted in an emerging epidemic of AE 10-15 years later. PMID:17553227

  3. Effect of Preoperative Pain on Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Vivekanandhan, Paramasivam; Sharma, Vikram; Sharma, Ritu; Prakash, Venkatachalam; Geethapriya, Nagarajan

    2015-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the amount and severity of preoperative pain will affect the anesthetic efficacy of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One-hundred seventy-seven adult volunteer subjects, actively experiencing pain in a mandibular molar, participated in this prospective double-blind study carried out at 2 different centers. The patients were classified into 3 groups on the basis of severity of preoperative pain: mild, 1-54 mm on the Heft-Parker visual analog scale (HP VAS); moderate, 55-114 mm; and severe, greater than 114 mm. After IANB with 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine, endodontic access preparation was initiated. Pain during treatment was recorded using the HP VAS. The primary outcome measure was the ability to undertake pulp access and canal instrumentation with no or mild pain. The success rates were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression test. There was a significant difference between the mild and severe preoperative pain group (P = .03). There was a positive correlation between the values of preoperative and intraoperative pain (r = .2 and .4 at 2 centers). The amount of preoperative pain can affect the anesthetic success rates of IANB in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. PMID:26650491

  4. Surgical treatment of painful lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Allevi, Fabiana; Lozza, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Nerve-related complications are being reported with increasing frequency following oral and dental surgery, and typically involve the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). We assess herein the etiology of neuropathic pain related to IAN injuries, and describe the various surgical treatment techniques available. Between 2007 and 2013, 19 patients were referred to the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of San Paolo Hospital (Milan, Italy) with pain in the area supplied by the IAN, which developed following endodontic treatment, oral surgery and maxillofacial surgery. All patients underwent IAN surgery by several different microsurgical procedures. Most of the patients affected by pain before surgery experienced complete or partial amelioration of symptoms. All patients receiving sural nerve grafts were pain-free 12 months after surgery. In five patients the operation was unsuccessful. In 78.94% of cases, a significant increase in nerve function was observed. Pain following IAN surgical damage may be addressed by microsurgery; nerve substitution with a sural nerve interpositional graft appears to represent the most efficacious procedure. Scar releasing, nerve decompression and nerve substitution using vein grafts are less effective. Removal of endodontic material extravasated into the mandibular canal is mandatory and effective in patients experiencing severe pain. Surgery should be performed within 12 months postoperatively, ideally during the first few weeks after symptoms onset. PMID:26315275

  5. Pterins inhibit nitric oxide synthase activity in rat alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Jorens, P. G.; van Overveld, F. J.; Bult, H.; Vermeire, P. A.; Herman, A. G.

    1992-01-01

    1. The synthesis of nitrite and citrulline from L-arginine by immune-stimulated rat alveolar macrophages and the modulation of this synthesis were studied. 2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), 6R-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) and L-sepiapterin were potent inhibitors of the recombinant interferon-gamma induced production of nitrogen oxides in intact cultured cells with I50 values for BH4 and L-sepiapterin of approximately 10 microM. They were equally effective in inhibiting the induced production of citrulline. This inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent for all three modulators investigated. 2. The inhibitory effects were not dependent on incubation times of either 24 or 48 h, on the immune-stimulus used (lipopolysaccharide, interferon-gamma), or whether these stimuli were added during or after the induction period. 3. Pterin-6-carboxylic acid (PCA), which cannot be converted into BH4, and methotrexate (MTX), which inhibits dihydrofolatereductase but not de novo biosynthesis of BH4, did not change the production of nitrite. 4. The data indicate that DAHP, an inhibitor of the de novo biosynthesis of the co-factor BH4, blocks the nitric oxide synthase activity in intact cells. Since the pterins BH4 and L-sepiapterin blocked the L-arginine dependent production of nitrite and citrulline, the activity of nitric oxide synthase in phagocytic cells may be regulated by metabolic endproducts of the de novo biosynthesis of BH4. PMID:1281717

  6. Mandibular fracture as a complication of inferior alveolar nerve transposition and placement of endosseous implants: a case report.

    PubMed

    Karlis, Vasiliki; Bae, Richard D; Glickman, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    Placement of endosseous implants and inferior alveolar nerve transposition is a treatment option for patients with an edentulous posterior mandible with inadequate bone height superior to the inferior alveolar canal. Complications associated with these procedures include infection, prolonged neurosensory disturbances, and/or pathologic fracture. This report presents the surgical management of a patient with a mandible fracture after inferior alveolar nerve transposition with concurrent placement of two endosseous implants. PMID:14560480

  7. Endosseous implant placement in conjunction with inferior alveolar nerve transposition: a report of an unusual complication and surgical management.

    PubMed

    Luna, Anibal H B; Passeri, Luis A; de Moraes, Márcio; Moreira, Roger W F

    2008-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve transposition and placement of endosseous implants is one of the treatment options for patients with an edentulous posterior mandible with inadequate bone height superior to the inferior alveolar canal. The possible complications associated with this technique include prolonged neurosensory disturbances, infection, and pathologic fracture. This report presents the surgical management of a patient who sustained a mandibular fracture after inferior alveolar nerve transposition for the placement of 3 endosseous implants. PMID:18416424

  8. Alveolar regions of the mandible for the installation of immediate-implant fixtures and bone screws of alveolar distractors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Hye; Park, Man-Soo; Won, Sung-Yoon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Han, Dong-Hoo; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2011-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to elucidate the anatomic relationship between the dental roots and surrounding tissues and to identify the optimal sites at which to install dental surgical devices including immediate-implant fixtures and alveolar distractors. We made 5 types of measurements on horizontal cross sections obtained at 1-mm intervals from 20 Korean mandibles. The following results were obtained: (1) the mandibular facial plate was thinnest at the canine (0.5-0.7 mm) and became thicker toward the molar region; (2) the thicknesses of the facial and lingual cortical bone in the interdental region increased from anterior to posterior and from coronal to apical aspects; (3) in each section, the buccolingual root was narrower than 4 mm at depths greater than 8 and 9 mm in the central and lateral incisors, respectively, and the maximum mesiodistal root widths were 3.0 and 3.3 mm; (4) the interroot distance increased from anterior to posterior and from coronal to apical aspects; and (5) on the sections of the first and second molars, the diameter of the septal bone ranged from 4.2 to 7.9 mm buccolingually and from 1.3 to 3.3 mm mesiodistally. Achieving successful placements of implant fixtures and bone screws requires an accurate understanding of the anatomic structure at the installation site. The reported anatomic data might facilitate successful treatments and provide crucial information for use when planning and performing placements of dental surgical devices.

  9. Evaluation of alveolar cortical bone thickness and density for orthodontic mini-implant placement

    PubMed Central

    Sofan, Aisha AA.; Altieri, Federica; Barbato, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Mini-implant stability is primarily related to bone quality and quantity. This study evaluated alveolar cortical bone thickness and density differences between interradicular sites at different levels from the alveolar crest, and assessed the differences between adolescents (12-18 years of age) and adults (19-50 years of age), males and females, upper and lower arch, anterior and posterior region of jaws and buccal and oral side. Study Design: In this retrospective study, 48 Computed Tomography scans, performed for oral surgery purposes were selected from dental records of 3,223 Caucasian orthodontic patients. The SimPlant software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium) was used to measure cortical bone thickness and density at 13 interradicular sites and four bone levels ( 2,4,6 and 8 mm ). For the statistical analysis descriptive statistics, Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. Results: Statistically significant differences in alveolar cortical bone thickness and density between age, gender, sites and sides were found (P<0.05). The Pearson correlation coefficient demonstrated a significant linear increasing of thickness and density from crest to base of alveolar crest (P≤0.05). Conclusion. Adults show a thicker alveolar cortical bone than adolescents. Alveolar cortical bone thickness and density were greater in males than in females, in mandible than in maxilla, in the posterior region than the anterior, in oral than buccal side. There is an increase of thickness and density from crest to base of alveolar crest. Key words:Orthodontics, cortical bone thickness, cortical bone density, mini-implant, computed tomography, temporary anchorage devices. PMID:24455090

  10. Effects of oestrogen deficiency on the alveolar bone of rats with experimental periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin-Chen; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Zhai, Zan-Jing; Liu, Xu-Qiang; Zheng, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Jun; Qin, An; Lu, Er-Yi

    2015-09-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency‑induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty‑four female, six‑month‑old Sprague‑Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Control, ligature, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX + ligature. One month after ovariectomy, rats in the ligature and OVX + ligature groups received ligatures on their first and second maxillary molars for 1 month. Fluorescent labelling was performed prior to sacrificing the animals. At the end of the experiment, the maxillae and serum were collected and subjected to micro‑computed tomography analysis, confocal laser‑scanning microscopic observation, Van Gieson's fuchsin staining, tartrate‑resistant acid phosphatase staining and ELISA. Ligatures slightly reduced the alveolar bone mineral density (BMD) and bone formation rate, but significantly reduced alveolar crest height (ACH). Ovariectomy reduced the alveolar BMD, impaired the trabecular structure, reduced the bone formation rate and increased the serum levels of bone resorption markers. Animals in the OVX + ligature group exhibited a lower alveolar BMD, a poorer trabecular structure, a reduced ACH, a lower bone formation rate and higher serum levels of bone resorption markers compared with those in the control group. The results of the present study showed that ovariectomy enhanced alveolar bone loss and reduced the ACH of rats with experimental periodontitis. Thus, post‑menopausal osteoporosis may influence the progression of periodontitis.

  11. Species differences in impairment and recovery of alveolar macrophage functions following single and repeated ozone exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; van Golde, L.M.; Verhoef, J.; Van Bree, L. )

    1991-08-01

    Effects of single (0.4 ppm for 3, 6, or 12 hr) and repeated (0.4 ppm, 12 hr/day for 3 or 7 days) in vivo ozone exposures on rat and mouse alveolar macrophage functions and cell number were investigated. Single ozone exposure of rats resulted in a small (approximately 15%) decrease in Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis and phorbol ester-induced superoxide production by the alveolar macrophages and was followed by recovery above control levels within 12 hr of exposure. Repeated exposures of rats for up to 7 days did not alter alveolar macrophage functions, with the exception of the effects of 3 days of exposure on superoxide production (71 {plus minus} 9% as compared with the controls). In mice, significant changes in alveolar macrophage functions were not observed until 12 hr of exposure (at that timepoint phagocytosis was 74 {plus minus} 2%). Repeated ozone exposures of mice did not cause a further decrease in phagocytosis (at Day 7, 74 {plus minus} 14%). Both after 3 and 7 days of repeated ozone exposure of mice, superoxide production by the alveolar macrophages was inhibited approximately 50%. In rats and mice, repeated ozone exposures led to an increase in the number of alveolar macrophages. In mice, this increase appeared at a later time point (at Day 7 vs Day 3) and was less pronounced (at Day 7, 139 {plus minus} 9% vs 179 {plus minus} 17%) as compared with rats. In summary, our data show that rat and mouse alveolar macrophages have different susceptibilities to both single and repeated in vivo ozone exposures.

  12. Alveolar air-tissue interface and nuclear magnetic resonance behavior of the lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutillo, Antonio G.; Ailion, David C.; Ganesan, Krishnamurthy; Morris, Alan H.; Durney, Carl H.

    1995-05-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of lung are markedly affected by the alveolar air-tissue interface, which produces internal magnetic field inhomogeneity because of the different magnetic susceptibilities of air and water. This internal magnetic field inhomogeneity results in a marked shortening of the free induction decay (FID) (in the time domain) and in inhomogeneous NMR line broadening (in the frequency domain). The signal loss due to internal magnetic field inhomogeneity can be measured as the difference Δ between the spin-echo signals obtained using temporally symmetric and asymmetric spin-echo sequences; the degree of asymmetry of the asymmetric sequence is characterized by the asymmetry time τa. In accordance with predictions based on the analysis of theoretical models, experiments in excised rat lungs (studied at various inflation levels) have shown that Δ depends on τa and is very low in degassed lungs. When measured at τa equals 6 ms, the difference signal (Δ6ms) increases markedly with alveolar opening but does not vary significantly during the rest of the inflation-deflation cycle. In edematous (oleic acid-injured) lungs, the values of Δ6ms measured at low inflation levels are significantly below those observed in normal lungs. These results suggest that Δ6ms is very sensitive to alveolar recruitment and relatively insensitive to alveolar distension. Therefore, measurements of Δ6ms may provide a means of assessing the relative contributions of these two factors to the pressure-volume behavior of lung. Such measurements may contribute to the characterization of pulmonary edema (for example, by detecting the loss of alveolar air-tissue interface due to alveolar flooding, by differentiating interstitial from alveolar pulmonary edema, and by assessing the effects of positive airway pressures). NMR lineshape measurements can also provide valuable information regarding lung geometry and the characterization of pulmonary edema.

  13. Rb1 loss modifies but does not initiate alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a myogenic childhood sarcoma frequently associated with a translocation-mediated fusion gene, Pax3:Foxo1a. Methods We investigated the complementary role of Rb1 loss in aRMS tumor initiation and progression using conditional mouse models. Results Rb1 loss was not a necessary and sufficient mutational event for rhabdomyosarcomagenesis, nor a strong cooperative initiating mutation. Instead, Rb1 loss was a modifier of progression and increased anaplasia and pleomorphism. Whereas Pax3:Foxo1a expression was unaltered, biomarkers of aRMS versus embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma were both increased, questioning whether these diagnostic markers are reliable in the context of Rb1 loss. Genome-wide gene expression in Pax3:Foxo1a,Rb1 tumors more closely approximated aRMS than embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Intrinsic loss of pRb function in aRMS was evidenced by insensitivity to a Cdk4/6 inhibitor regardless of whether Rb1 was intact or null. This loss of function could be attributed to low baseline Rb1, pRb and phospho-pRb expression in aRMS tumors for which the Rb1 locus was intact. Pax3:Foxo1a RNA interference did not increase pRb or improve Cdk inhibitor sensitivity. Human aRMS shared the feature of low and/or heterogeneous tumor cell pRb expression. Conclusions Rb1 loss from an already low pRb baseline is a significant disease modifier, raising the possibility that some cases of pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma may in fact be Pax3:Foxo1a-expressing aRMS with Rb1 or pRb loss of function. PMID:24274149

  14. Identification of Goodpasture antigens in human alveolar basement membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshioka, K; Iseki, T; Okada, M; Morimoto, Y; Eryu, N; Maki, S

    1988-01-01

    Goodpasture (GP) antigens, protein components reactive with human autoantibodies against glomerular basement membrane (GBM), were identified in human alveolar basement membrane (ABM) using an enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA), Western blotting and immunoprecipitation. All six anti-GBM antisera studied, three obtained from patients with glomerulonephritis and pulmonary haemorrhages (i.e. GP syndrome), and three from patients with glomerulonephritis alone, distinctively reacted with collagenase-digested (CD) ABM. Very cationic 22-28 kD and 40-48 kD components were detected by blot analysis combined with two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. These proteins showed some similarities to GP antigens in human GBM with respect to the monomer-dimer composition and charge distribution. Inhibition ELISA revealed that the binding of anti-GBM antisera to CDGBM decreased when they were pre-incubated with CDABM, suggesting that the anti-GBM antisera recognized the same epitope(s) on the GBM and ABM. Heterogeneity of the GP antigens in human ABM was demonstrated by blotting; monomeric antigens were absent or at low levels in the CDABM of three out of 10 normal individuals. In immunoprecipitation, anti-GBM antisera from patients with and without pulmonary haemorrhage showed different reactivities with CDABM. The former antisera precipitated both monomeric and dimeric components, but the latter did not. The observations of variation in monomer-dimer composition of ABM, and the different binding of anti-GBM antisera to it may explain why only some patients with anti-GBM nephritis have lung involvement. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2466590

  15. Multimodal genetic diagnosis of solid variant alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Cerveira, Nuno; Torres, Lurdes; Ribeiro, Franclim R; Henrique, Rui; Pinto, Armando; Bizarro, Susana; Ferreira, Ana M; Lopes, Carlos; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2005-12-01

    The most common types of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) are alveolar RMS (ARMS), which are characterized by the specific translocation t(2;13)(q35;q14) or its rarer variant, t(1;13)(p36;q14), producing the fusion genes PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR, respectively, and embryonal RMS (ERMS), which is characterized by multiple numeric chromosome changes. A solid variant of ARMS that is morphologically indistinguishable from ERMS has been described recently. We present two cases with an initial histopathologic diagnosis of ERMS in which the combined findings by cytogenetic, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analyses demonstrate that both tumors were in fact the solid variant of ARMS. The cytogenetic analysis of patient 1 revealed a t(2;13)(q35;q14) and the RT-PCR study detected the corresponding PAX3-FKHR chimeric transcript. In patient 2, the cytogenetic finding of multiple trisomies was compatible with the initial histopathologic diagnosis of ERMS, but the finding of a PAX7-FKHR fusion transcript by RT-PCR pointed to the diagnosis of ARMS. Interestingly, the CGH findings of this case reconciled the molecular and cytogenetic data by detecting, in addition to the trisomies, amplification of chromosomal bands 1p36 and 13q14, where the PAX7 and FKHR genes are located, respectively. Our data indicate that this multimodal genetic analysis could be important for the differential diagnosis of these tumors. Furthermore, our findings and previous studies indicate that there are no apparent genetic differences between solid variant and typical ARMS. PMID:16337856

  16. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in Colombian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Cañas, Carlos; Tobón, Gabriel J; Granados, Marcela; Fernández, Liliana

    2007-11-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare life-threatening complication seen in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This paper describes the clinical features and outcome of seven SLE patients with DAH admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU) in a referral center. Of a total of 122 SLE patients, seven patients presented this complication (5.7%). Five patients were women (71.4%). Mean age was 24.3 (range 4-51 years). Mean duration of SLE before clinical DAH was 15.7 months (range 0-48 months). DAH was the initial manifestation of SLE in two patients (29%). DAH recurrence was seen in two patients (29%). Active lupus was present in all seven patients. Fever, glomerulonephritis, arthritis, myositis, and peripheral neuropathy were observed in six, four, four, three, and two patients, respectively. Five patients who underwent to bronchoscopy had positive findings of DAH (71.4%; i.e., bloody return on bronchoalveolar lavage--with hemosiderin-laden macrophages). Treatment options included intravenous methylprednisolone (10 mg kg(-1) day(-1)--3 days) following by prednisolone 1 mg kg(-1) day(-1) and pulse cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m(2)). Plasmapheresis was added in four patients (57.1%) because of the persistence of DAH. All patients were treated in an ICU, six of them requiring mechanical respiratory support (85.1%). Mortality rate during ICU stay was 12% (one patient). Our results show that DAH is an uncommon complication in SLE patients, requiring a prompt and aggressive recognition and treatment with high-dose steroid, intravenous cyclophosphamide, and plasmapheresis. With all of these treatments, there is a trend to a low mortality rate in patients with SLE presenting DAH.

  17. Cell culture models using rat primary alveolar type I cells

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Charles A.; Montgomery, David W.; Merkle, Carrie J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of cell culture models using primary alveolar type I (AT I) cells. The purpose of this study was to develop cell culture models using rat AT I cells and microvascular endothelial cells from the lung (MVECL). Two types of model systems were developed: single and co-culture systems; additionally a 3-dimensional model system was developed. Pure AT I cell (96.3 ±2.7%) and MVECL (97.9 ±1.1 %) preparations were used. AT I cell morphology, mitochondrial number and distribution, actin filament arrangement and number of apoptotic cells at confluence, and telomere attrition were characterized. AT I cells maintained their morphometric characteristics through at least population doubling (PD) 35, while demonstrating telomere attrition through at least PD 100. Furthermore, AT I cells maintained the expression of their specific markers, T1α and AQ-5, through PD 42. For the co-cultures, AT I cells were grown on the top and MVECL were grown on the bottom of fibronectin coated 24 well Transwell Fluroblok™ filter inserts. Neither cell type transmigrated the 1 micron pores. Additionally AT I cells were grown in a thick layer of Matrigel® to create a 3-dimensional model in which primary AT I cells form ring-like structures that resemble an alveolus. The development of these model systems offers the opportunities to investigate AT I cell cells and their interactions with MVECL in response to pharmacological interventions and in the processes of disease, repair and regeneration. PMID:21624488

  18. Potassium currents in rat type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Jacobs, E R; Silver, M R

    1988-01-01

    1. Type II alveolar epithelial cells isolated from adult rats and grown in primary culture were studied using the whole-cell configuration of the gigohm-seal voltage clamp technique. 2. The average specific capacitance of type II cells was 2.5 microF/cm2, suggesting that type II cell membranes in vitro are irregular, with an actual area more than twice the apparent area. 3. Most type II cells have time- and voltage-dependent outward currents carried by potassium ions. Potassium currents activate with a sigmoid time course upon membrane depolarization, and inactivate during maintained depolarization. The average maximum whole-cell K+ conductance was 1.6 nS. 4. Two distinct types of K+-selective channels underlie outward currents in type II cells. Most cells have currents resembling delayed rectifier K+ currents in skeletal muscle, nerve and immune cells. A few cells had a different type of K+ conductance which is more sensitive to block by tetraethylammonium ions, has faster 'tail currents', and activates at more positive potentials. 5. In some experiments, individual type II cells were identified by staining with phosphine, a fluorescent dye which is concentrated in lamellar bodies. Both types of K+ channels were seen in type II cells identified with this dye. 6. Phosphine added to the bathing solution reversibly reduced K+ currents and shifted K+ channel activation to more positive potentials. Excitation of phosphine to fluoresce reduced irreversibly K+ currents in type II cells. The usefulness of phosphine as a means of identifying cells for study is discussed. PMID:2457683

  19. Effect of plasma rich in growth factors on alveolar osteitis

    PubMed Central

    Haraji, Afshin; Lassemi, Eshagh; Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein Kalantar; Alavi, Maryam; Adibnejad, Saman

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The high prevalence of dry socket or alveolar osteitis (AO) is of concern in surgical removal of third molars. The aim of the present study was to assess the preventive effect of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) on AO and also its effect on pain management and healing acceleration in third molar extraction sockets of high-risk patients. Materials and Methods: This split-mouth, double-blind clinical trial included 40 bilateral third molar extractions (80 sockets) with at least one identified risk factor for AO. PRGF was obtained from patient's own blood, based on manufacturer's instruction, and blindly placed in one of the two bilateral sockets (PRGF group; n = 20) of each patient. The contralateral socket was treated with a placebo (control group; n = 20). Samples were evaluated for AO and pain incidence on days 2, 3 and 4 and healing and infection on days 3 and 7. Data were analyzed in SPSS v16 using Wilcoxon test. Results: There was a significant difference in dry socket and pain incidence and healing rate between the two groups. Intensity of pain and occurrence of dry socket in the study group was lower than the controls. Also the healing rate was higher (P < 0.05) for the PRGF group. No sign of infection was seen in either group. Conclusion: The application of PRGF may significantly reduce the incidence of AO or its associated pain and may accelerate healing. The prophylactic use of PRGF following third molar extraction may be suggested especially in the patients at risk of AO. PMID:23251056

  20. Pathogenetics of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Gambin, Tomasz; Dharmadhikari, Avinash V; Akdemir, Kadir Caner; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Schuette, Jennifer; Godiwala, Nihal; Yatsenko, Svetlana A; Sebastian, Jessica; Madan-Khetarpal, Suneeta; Surti, Urvashi; Abellar, Rosanna G; Bateman, David A; Wilson, Ashley L; Markham, Melinda H; Slamon, Jill; Santos-Simarro, Fernando; Palomares, María; Nevado, Julián; Lapunzina, Pablo; Chung, Brian Hon-Yin; Wong, Wai-Lap; Chu, Yoyo Wing Yiu; Mok, Gary Tsz Kin; Kerem, Eitan; Reiter, Joel; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Anderson, Scott A; Kelly, David R; Shieh, Joseph; Rosenthal, Taryn C; Scheible, Kristin; Steiner, Laurie; Iqbal, M Anwar; McKinnon, Margaret L; Hamilton, Sara Jane; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; English, Dawn; Hendson, Glenda; Roeder, Elizabeth R; DeNapoli, Thomas S; Littlejohn, Rebecca Okashah; Wolff, Daynna J; Wagner, Carol L; Yeung, Alison; Francis, David; Fiorino, Elizabeth K; Edelman, Morris; Fox, Joyce; Hayes, Denise A; Janssens, Sandra; De Baere, Elfride; Menten, Björn; Loccufier, Anne; Vanwalleghem, Lieve; Moerman, Philippe; Sznajer, Yves; Lay, Amy S; Kussmann, Jennifer L; Chawla, Jasneek; Payton, Diane J; Phillips, Gael E; Brosens, Erwin; Tibboel, Dick; de Klein, Annelies; Maystadt, Isabelle; Fisher, Richard; Sebire, Neil; Male, Alison; Chopra, Maya; Pinner, Jason; Malcolm, Girvan; Peters, Gregory; Arbuckle, Susan; Lees, Melissa; Mead, Zoe; Quarrell, Oliver; Sayers, Richard; Owens, Martina; Shaw-Smith, Charles; Lioy, Janet; McKay, Eileen; de Leeuw, Nicole; Feenstra, Ilse; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Elmslie, Frances; Thiruchelvam, Timothy; Bacino, Carlos A; Langston, Claire; Lupski, James R; Sen, Partha; Popek, Edwina; Stankiewicz, Paweł

    2016-05-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACDMPV) is a lethal lung developmental disorder caused by heterozygous point mutations or genomic deletion copy-number variants (CNVs) of FOXF1 or its upstream enhancer involving fetal lung-expressed long noncoding RNA genes LINC01081 and LINC01082. Using custom-designed array comparative genomic hybridization, Sanger sequencing, whole exome sequencing (WES), and bioinformatic analyses, we studied 22 new unrelated families (20 postnatal and two prenatal) with clinically diagnosed ACDMPV. We describe novel deletion CNVs at the FOXF1 locus in 13 unrelated ACDMPV patients. Together with the previously reported cases, all 31 genomic deletions in 16q24.1, pathogenic for ACDMPV, for which parental origin was determined, arose de novo with 30 of them occurring on the maternally inherited chromosome 16, strongly implicating genomic imprinting of the FOXF1 locus in human lungs. Surprisingly, we have also identified four ACDMPV families with the pathogenic variants in the FOXF1 locus that arose on paternal chromosome 16. Interestingly, a combination of the severe cardiac defects, including hypoplastic left heart, and single umbilical artery were observed only in children with deletion CNVs involving FOXF1 and its upstream enhancer. Our data demonstrate that genomic imprinting at 16q24.1 plays an important role in variable ACDMPV manifestation likely through long-range regulation of FOXF1 expression, and may be also responsible for key phenotypic features of maternal uniparental disomy 16. Moreover, in one family, WES revealed a de novo missense variant in ESRP1, potentially implicating FGF signaling in the etiology of ACDMPV.

  1. Alveolocapillary model system to study alveolar re-epithelialization

    SciTech Connect

    Willems, Coen H.M.P.; Zimmermann, Luc J.I.; Sanders, Patricia J.L.T.; Wagendorp, Margot; Kloosterboer, Nico; Cohen Tervaert, Jan Willem; Duimel, Hans J.Q.; Verheyen, Fons K.C.P.; Iwaarden, J. Freek van

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an in vitro bilayer model system of the pulmonary alveolocapillary barrier was established to investigate the role of the microvascular endothelium on re-epithelialization. The model system, confluent monolayer cultures on opposing sides of a porous membrane, consisted of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) and an alveolar type II like cell line (A549), stably expressing EGFP and mCherry, respectively. These fluorescent proteins allowed the real time assessment of the integrity of the monolayers and the automated analysis of the wound healing process after a scratch injury. The HPMECs significantly attenuated the speed of re-epithelialization, which was associated with the proximity to the A549 layer. Examination of cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs of the model system revealed protrusions through the membrane pores and close contact between the A549 cells and the HPMECs. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that these close contacts consisted of heterocellular gap-, tight- and adherens-junctions. Additional analysis, using a fluorescent probe to assess gap-junctional communication, revealed that the HPMECs and A549 cells were able to exchange the fluorophore, which could be abrogated by disrupting the gap junctions using connexin mimetic peptides. These data suggest that the pulmonary microvascular endothelium may impact the re-epithelialization process. -- Highlights: ► Model system for vital imaging and high throughput screening. ► Microvascular endothelium influences re-epithelialization. ► A549 cells form protrusions through membrane to contact HPMEC. ► A549 cells and HPMECs form heterocellular tight-, gap- and adherens-junctions.

  2. Rehabilitation of masticatory function improves the alveolar bone architecture of the mandible in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Mavropoulos, Anestis; Odman, Anna; Ammann, Patrick; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2010-09-01

    Masticatory functional changes have been shown to influence the quantity and quality of the alveolar bone during growth. This study was designed to investigate the effect of masticatory function rehabilitation on the morphology and the trabecular architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone after cessation of growth. Forty-four Sprague-Dawley male rats received soft diet in order to develop masticatory muscle hypofunction. After 21 weeks, after cessation of growth, the animals were divided into two groups: the first group continued receiving soft diet for six more weeks (hypofunction group), while the second group changed to ordinary (hard) diet with the aim to restore a normal masticatory function (rehabilitation group). A third group of 16 male rats (normal group) received ordinary (hard) diet during the whole experimental period and served as control. Micro-tomographic histomorphometry was used to evaluate the architecture of the mandibular alveolar bone (e.g. bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, trabecular separation, etc.) at the end of the experiment (27 weeks). The height and width of the alveolar process were measured as well. The alveolar process trabecular bone volume fraction (BV/TV) was lower for the animals of the hypofunctional group as compared to those of the normal (p<0.01) and the rehabilitation (p<0.05) groups. Despite the significant improvement observed in the rehabilitation group, their BV/TV was lower in comparison to the normal group (p<0.05) at the end of this experiment. All the other micro-tomographic parameters followed the same pattern of change between groups; values of the rehabilitation group were between the values of the two other groups, differing significantly from both of them. The alveolar process was significantly shorter in the normal group in comparison to both the hypofunctional and rehabilitation groups (p<0.05). On the other hand, both the normal and rehabilitation groups were had a wider alveolar process than the

  3. Evaluation of intra-alveolar chlorhexidine dressings after removal of impacted mandibular third molars.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Koorbusch, G F; Sarasin, D S; Kist, R J

    1992-03-01

    Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated for its possible benefit in the prevention of alveolar osteitis complicating third molar removal. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study, 70 randomly selected healthy patients were subjected to uncomplicated mandibular third molar removal followed by CHX-gelatin sponge and saline solution-gelatin sponge intra-alveolar dressings. Each patient was followed for 6 days for postoperative discomfort and complications, and scored accordingly. The results demonstrated that patients receiving 0.2% CHX intra-alveolar dressings exhibited a significant reduction in postoperative discomfort and complications when compared with saline solution-treated control sites (p less than 0.005). Further, this phenomenon was not found to be related to patient factors including age, sex, and race, nor did any correlation exist between treated or control sites, and surgical factors including performing surgeon, surgeon's dominant hand, time of surgery, surgical site, and difficulty of the removal. These findings warrant further studies concerning the apparent clinical benefit of postextraction intra-alveolar CHX dressings for the reduction of postoperative alveolar osteitis.

  4. Expression of functions by normal sheep alveolar macrophages and their alteration by interaction with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Niang, M; Rosenbusch, R F; Lopez-Virella, J; Kaeberle, M L

    1997-10-31

    Normal sheep alveolar macrophages collected by bronchial lavage were exposed to live or heat-killed Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae organisms, and their capability to ingest Staphylococcus aureus and to elicit antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against sensitized chicken red blood cells was tested. Controls consisted of non-infected macrophages in M199 medium. In addition, the effect of M. ovipneumoniae on expression of surface molecules on these sheep alveolar macrophages was determined. The percentage of S. aureus ingested by nontreated sheep alveolar macrophages was significantly higher than that of infected macrophages. Live mycoplasmas were more effective in suppressing the ingestion of S. aureus by these macrophages than killed mycoplasmas. Both live and killed mycoplasmas suppressed the cytolytic effect of the sheep alveolar macrophages to a similar degree. About 78% and 45% of the normal sheep alveolar macrophages had IgG and complement receptors, respectively. Infection of these macrophages with M. ovipneumoniae decreased significantly the expression of IgG receptors but had no effects on complement receptors. There were substantial increases in the expression of both MHC class I and class II by the mycoplasma-induced macrophages as compared with unstimulated macrophages. Live mycoplasmas were more effective in inducing expression of both classes than killed mycoplasmas. The results, taken together, suggest that M. ovipneumoniae induced alterations in macrophage activities and this may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of respiratory disease induced by the organism.

  5. Anesthetic efficacy of a combination of hyaluronidase and lidocaine with epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, S.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Weaver, J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a buffered lidocaine with epinephrine solution compared to a combination buffered lidocaine with epinephrine plus hyaluronidase solution in inferior alveolar nerve blocks. Thirty subjects randomly received an inferior alveolar nerve block using 1 of the 2 solutions at 2 separate appointments using a repeated-measures design. Mandibular anterior and posterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive readings of 80 were obtained. A postoperative survey was used to measure pain and trismus. The results demonstrated 100% of the subjects had profound lip numbness with both solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. The anesthetic success rates for individual teeth ranged from 20 to 80%. There were no significant differences (P > .05) between the 2 solutions. However, the combination lidocaine/hyaluronidase solution resulted in a significant increase in postoperative pain and trismus. It was concluded that adding hyaluronidase to a buffered lidocaine solution with epinephrine did not statistically increase the incidence of pulpal anesthesia in inferior alveolar nerve blocks and, because of its potential tissue damaging effect, it should not be added to local anesthetic solutions for inferior alveolar nerve blocks. PMID:11495405

  6. Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injuries Following Implant Placement - Importance of Early Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Juodzbalys, Gintaras

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this article is to systematically review diagnostic procedures and risk factors associated with inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement, to identify the time interval between inferior alveolar nerve injury and its diagnosis after surgical dental implant placement and compare between outcomes of early and delayed diagnosis and treatment given based on case series recorded throughout a period of 10 years. Material and Methods We performed literature investigation through MEDLINE (PubMed) electronic database and manual search through dental journals to find articles concerning inferior alveolar nerve injury following implant placement. The search was restricted to English language articles published during the last 10 years, from December 2004 to March 2014. Results In total, we found 33 articles related to the topic, of which 27 were excluded due to incompatibility with established inclusion criteria. Six articles were eventually chosen to be suitable. The studies presented diagnostic methods of inferior alveolar nerve sensory deficit, and we carried out an assessment of the proportion of patients diagnosed within different time intervals from the time the injury occurred. Conclusions Various diagnostic methods have been developed throughout the years for dealing with 1 quite frequent complication in the implantology field - inferior alveolar nerve injury. Concurrently, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment was proved repeatedly. According to the results of the data analysis, a relatively high percentage of the practitioners successfully accomplished this target and achieved good treatment outcomes. PMID:25635209

  7. Csk/Src/EGFR signaling regulates migration of myofibroblasts and alveolarization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhui; Li, Yahui; He, Hua; Liu, Chengbo; Li, Wen; Xie, Lijuan; Zhang, Yongjun

    2016-03-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by premature alveolar developmental arrest. Antenatal exposure to inflammation inhibits lung morphogenesis, thus increasing the risk of developing BPD. Alveolar myofibroblasts are thought to migrate into the septal tips and elongate secondary septa during alveolarization. Here we found lipopolysaccharide (LPS) disrupted the directional migration of myofibroblasts and increased actin stress fiber expression and focal adhesion formation. In addition, COOH-terminal Src kinase (Csk) activity was downregulated in myofibroblasts treated with LPS, while activation of Src or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was upregulated by LPS treatment. Specifically, decreased Csk activity and increased activation of Src or EGFR was also observed in primary myofibroblasts isolated from newborn rat lungs with intra-amniotic LPS exposure, a model for BPD. Further investigation revealed that EGFR was involved in cell migration impairment induced by LPS, and Src inhibition blocked LPS-induced activation of EGFR or cell migration impairment. Csk silencing also resulted in EGFR activation and cell migration impairment. Besides, we found the effect of EGFR on myofibroblast migration was mediated through RhoA activation. EGFR inhibition alleviated the abnormal localization of myofibroblasts and improved alveolar development in antenatal LPS-treated rats. Taken together, our data suggest that the Csk/Src/EGFR signaling pathway is critically involved in regulating directional migration of myofibroblasts and may contribute to arrested alveolar development in BPD.

  8. Functional expression of nicotine influx transporter in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tega, Yuma; Yuzurihara, Chihiro; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Akanuma, Shin-ichi; Ehrhardt, Carsten; Hosoya, Ken-ichi

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is a potent addictive alkaloid, and is rapidly absorbed through the alveoli of the lung. However, the transport mechanism of nicotine at the human alveolar epithelial barrier has not been investigated in great detail. In the present study, the transport mechanism of nicotine across alveolar epithelium was investigated in vitro using A549 cells, a human adenocarcinoma-derived cell line with an alveolar epithelial cell like phenotype. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells exhibited time-, temperature-, and concentration-dependence with a Km of 50.4 μM. These results suggest that a carrier-mediated transport process is involved in nicotine transport in human alveolar epithelial cells. Nicotine uptake by A549 cells was insensitive to change in extracellular pH. Moreover, nicotine uptake by A549 cells could be inhibited by organic cations such as verapamil and pyrilamine, but not typical substrates of organic cation transporters and β2-agonist. These results suggest that a novel, not yet molecularly identified, organic cation transporter plays a role in nicotine transport which is unlikely to interact with β2-agonist transport. This nicotine influx transporter in human alveolar epithelium might have implications for the rapid absorption of nicotine into the systemic circulation. PMID:26830082

  9. Improved three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography by index matching in alveolar structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Sven; Knels, Lilla; Koch, Edmund

    2009-11-01

    Three-dimensional Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (3-D FDOCT) is used to demonstrate that perfusion fixation with a mixture of glutaraldehyde and paraformaldehyde does not alter the geometry of subpleural lung parenchyma in isolated and perfused rabbit lungs. This is confirmed by simultaneous imaging of lung parenchyma with intravital microscopy. To eliminate the diffraction index interfaces between alveolar pockets and walls, we fill the fixed lungs with ethanol by perfusing with gradually increasing concentrations. This bottom-up filling process leaves no remaining air bubbles in the alveolar structures, thus drastically improving the resolution and penetration depth of 3-D FDOCT imaging. We observe an approximately 18% increase in alveolar area after ethanol filling, likely due in large part to elimination of the air/tissue interfaces. 3-D OCT datasets acquired from ethanol-filled lungs allow segmentation of the ethanol-filled structures, which were formerly air-filled, and 3-D reconstruction of larger areas of subpleural alveolar structures. Our innovative process of filling the lungs with ethanol postperfusion fixation thus enables more accurate quantification of alveolar geometries, a critical component of modeling lung function.

  10. Replication of parainfluenza (Sendai) virus in isolated rat pulmonary type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Northrop, P. J.; McAllister, P. K.

    1989-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to determine whether alveolar type II epithelial cells isolated from rat lung and maintained in tissue culture would support productive replication of parainfluenza type 1 (Sendai) virus and to determine whether isolated type II cells from neonatal (5-day-old) rats that are more susceptible to viral-induced alveolar dysplasia supported viral replication to a greater extent than those from weanling (25-day-old) rats. Isolated and cultured type II cells from neonatal and weanling rats that were inoculated with Sendai virus supported productive replication as indicated by ultrastructural identification of budding virions and viral nucleocapsids in type II cells and by demonstration of rising titers of infectious virus from inoculated type II cell cultures. Alveolar macrophages from neonatal and weanling rats also supported viral replication, although infectious viral titers in macrophage cultures were lower than those from type II cell cultures. Only minor differences were detected between viral titers from neonatal and weanling type II epithelial cell cultures. Higher densities of viral nucleocapsids were observed in neonatal type II cells than in those from weanling rats. The results indicate that isolated type II alveolar epithelial cells support productive replication of parainfluenza virus and that type II cells are probably more efficient in supporting productive viral replication than are alveolar macrophages. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:2541612

  11. Surface morphology and function of human pulmonary alveolar macrophages from smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Ando, M; Sugimoto, M; Nishi, R; Suga, M; Horio, S; Kohrogi, H; Shimazu, K; Araki, S

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar macrophages were obtained by saline lavage from 23 healthy male volunteers--10 non-smokers and 13 cigarette smokers. Lavage produced three times as many alveolar macrophages in smokers than in non-smokers. When macrophages from smokers and from non-smokers were incubated in vitro, more cells from smokers adhered to glass, spread out, and showed enhanced nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction. The surface morphology of alveolar macrophages from smokers showed more with a plate like appearance and ridge like membrane surface, while the macrophages from non-smokers were predominantly spherical with ruffles. The proportions of cells which stained highly for beta galactosidase were 55% in smokers and 11% in non-smokers. Thus, in a resting state in vitro, alveolar macrophages from smokers were more active than those from non-smokers. When, however, macrophages from smokers and non-smokers were incubated with immunobeads and with opsonised or non-opsonised BCG, the phagocytic activity and stimulated NBT reduction of alveolar macrophages from smokers were similar to or somewhat less than those of non-smokers. Images PMID:6438822

  12. The effect of fluoridation and its discontinuation on fluoride profiles in the alveolar bone of rat.

    PubMed

    Ohmi, Kyohei; Nakagaki, Haruo; Tsuboi, Shinji; Okumura, Akihiro; Sugiyama, Tomoko; Thuy, Tran Thu; Robinson, Colin

    2005-10-01

    We investigated the effect of fluoridation and its discontinuation on fluoride content in the alveolar portion of the mandible in rats. Drinking water with three different fluoride contents (0, 50, 100 ppmF) was given to rats for three different periods (4, 13 and 25 weeks). Fluoride concentrations were measured in the crest, the middle, and the apical parts of the alveolar bone and in the body of the mandible. Furthermore, after fluoridated drinking water was given to rats for 4 or 13 weeks, distilled water was given to them for 21 or 12 weeks respectively; and the effect of the discontinuation on fluoride profiles was investigated. Layer samples were analyzed by abrasive microsampling. Fluoride and phosphorus concentrations were determined by ion-specific electrode and colorimetric procedures, respectively. There was an increase in fluoride concentrations in the mandible in proportion to the fluoride content in the drinking water and the duration of fluoridation. After fluoridation was discontinued, fluoride concentrations in the surface layers of the mandible presented a decrease. Among the four different parts of the mandible, the upper part of the alveolar bone and the alveolar crest part presented the highest rates of reduction. The relative reduction rate of fluoride concentration was closely related to the duration of discontinuation. The alveolar crest was affected most by the discontinuation of fluoridation, presenting the greatest reduction.

  13. Epithelial Notch signaling regulates lung alveolar morphogenesis and airway epithelial integrity

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Po-Nien; Matsuoka, Chisa; Wei, Shu-Chen; Sato, Atsuyasu; Sato, Susumu; Hasegawa, Koichi; Chen, Hung-kuan; Ling, Thai-Yen; Mori, Munemasa; Cardoso, Wellington V.; Morimoto, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal enlargement of the alveolar spaces is a hallmark of conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Notch signaling is crucial for differentiation and regeneration and repair of the airway epithelium. However, how Notch influences the alveolar compartment and integrates this process with airway development remains little understood. Here we report a prominent role of Notch signaling in the epithelial–mesenchymal interactions that lead to alveolar formation in the developing lung. We found that alveolar type II cells are major sites of Notch2 activation and show by Notch2-specific epithelial deletion (Notch2cNull) a unique contribution of this receptor to alveologenesis. Epithelial Notch2 was required for type II cell induction of the PDGF-A ligand and subsequent paracrine activation of PDGF receptor-α signaling in alveolar myofibroblast progenitors. Moreover, Notch2 was crucial in maintaining the integrity of the epithelial and smooth muscle layers of the distal conducting airways. Our data suggest that epithelial Notch signaling regulates multiple aspects of postnatal development in the distal lung and may represent a potential target for intervention in pulmonary diseases. PMID:27364009

  14. Osteogenic Profile of Mesenchymal Cell Populations Contributing to Alveolar Bone Formation.

    PubMed

    Minaříková, Monika; Oralová, Veronika; Veselá, Barbora; Radlanski, Ralf J; Matalová, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Teeth develop within the surrounding periodontal tissues, involving the alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. The alveolar bone originates through the process of intramembranous ossification involving mesenchymal cells from the tooth germ. As most available data are related to endochondral ossification, we examined the molecular background of alveolar bone development. We investigated the osteogenic profile of mesenchymal cells dissected from mouse mandible slices at the stage of early alveolar bone formation. Relative monitoring of gene expression was undertaken using PCR Arrays; this included the profiles of 84 genes associated with osteogenesis. To examine the tooth-bone interface, stages with detectable changes in bone remodelling during development (E13.0, E14.0 and E15.0) were chosen and compared with each other. These results showed a statistically significant increase in the expression of the genes Fgf3, Ctsk, Icam-1, Mmp9, Itga3 and Tuft1, and of a wide range of collagens (Col1a2, Col3a1, Col7a1, Col12a1, Col14a1). Decreased expression was detected in the case of Col2a1, Sox9, Smad2 and Vegfb. To confirm these changes in gene expression, immunofluorescence analyses of Mmp9 and Sox9 proteins were performed in situ. Our research has identified several candidate genes that may be crucial for the initiation of alveolar bone formation and is the basis for further functional studies. PMID:26451912

  15. KGF-2 targets alveolar epithelia and capillary endothelia to reduce high altitude pulmonary oedema in rats

    PubMed Central

    She, Jun; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Shen, Jun; Bi, Jing; Tong, Lin; Gao, Lei; Song, Yuanlin; Bai, Chunxue

    2012-01-01

    High altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE) severely affects non-acclimatized individuals and is characterized by alveolar flooding with protein- rich oedema as a consequence of blood-gas barrier disruption. Limited choice for prophylactic treatment warrants effective therapy against HAPE. Keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2) has shown efficiency in preventing alveolar epithelial cell DNA damages in vitro. In the current study, the effects of KGF-2 intratracheal instillation on mortality, lung liquid balance and lung histology were evaluated in our previously developed rat model of HAPE. We found that pre-treatment with KGF-2 (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased mortality, improved oxygenation and reduced lung wet-to-dry weight ratio by preventing alveolar-capillary barrier disruption demonstrated by histological examination and increasing alveolar fluid clearance up to 150%. In addition, KGF-2 significantly inhibited decrease of transendothelial permeability after exposure to hypoxia, accompanied by a 10-fold increase of Akt activity and inhibited apoptosis in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, demonstrating attenuated endothelial apoptosis might contribute to reduction of endothelial permeability. These results showed the efficacy of KGF-2 on inhibition of endothelial cell apoptosis, preservation of alveolar-capillary barrier integrity and promotion of pulmonary oedema absorption in HAPE. Thus, KGF-2 may represent a potential drug candidate for the prevention of HAPE. PMID:22568566

  16. Platelet-rich fibrin promotes periodontal regeneration and enhances alveolar bone augmentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Pan, Shuang; Dangaria, Smit J; Gopinathan, Gokul; Kolokythas, Antonia; Chu, Shunli; Geng, Yajun; Zhou, Yanmin; Luan, Xianghong

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we have determined the suitability of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as a complex scaffold for periodontal tissue regeneration. Replacing PRF with its major component fibrin increased mineralization in alveolar bone progenitors when compared to periodontal progenitors, suggesting that fibrin played a substantial role in PRF-induced osteogenic lineage differentiation. Moreover, there was a 3.6-fold increase in the early osteoblast transcription factor RUNX2 and a 3.1-fold reduction of the mineralization inhibitor MGP as a result of PRF application in alveolar bone progenitors, a trend not observed in periodontal progenitors. Subcutaneous implantation studies revealed that PRF readily integrated with surrounding tissues and was partially replaced with collagen fibers 2 weeks after implantation. Finally, clinical pilot studies in human patients documented an approximately 5 mm elevation of alveolar bone height in tandem with oral mucosal wound healing. Together, these studies suggest that PRF enhances osteogenic lineage differentiation of alveolar bone progenitors more than of periodontal progenitors by augmenting osteoblast differentiation, RUNX2 expression, and mineralized nodule formation via its principal component fibrin. They also document that PRF functions as a complex regenerative scaffold promoting both tissue-specific alveolar bone augmentation and surrounding periodontal soft tissue regeneration via progenitor-specific mechanisms.

  17. Influence of Rhodococcus equi on the respiratory burst of resident alveolar macrophages from horses

    SciTech Connect

    Brumbaugh, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is the etiologic agent of a devastating pneumonia of sporadic incidence in foals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of R. equi on the superoxide anion production, measured spectrophotometrically as the reduction of cytochrome C, and hexose monophosphate shunt activity, measured by /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ liberation from /sup 14/C-1-D-glucose, of alveolar macrophages from horses. Alveolar macrophages were harvested from 6 anesthetized, healthy, light-breed, adult horses by bronchoalveolar lavage. Following a randomized complete block design, the suspension of cells was divided into aliquots of 10/sup 6/ viable alveolar macrophages which were exposed to 1, 10 or 100 g. of opsonized R. equi or opsonized zymosan A at 37 C for 2 hours. In this study the respiratory burst of equine alveolar macrophages was only evidenced by the hexose monophosphate shunt activity and superoxide anion was not coincidentally produced. Rhodococcus equi did not adversely affect that response. The insignificant superoxide anion production by the alveolar macrophages suggests that this may not be a significant oxygen metabolite in those cells.

  18. Suppression of inflammatory cell trafficking and alveolar simplification by the heme oxygenase-1 product carbon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Anyanwu, Anuli C.; Bentley, J. Kelley; Popova, Antonia P.; Malas, Omar; Alghanem, Husam; Goldsmith, Adam M.; Hershenson, Marc B.

    2014-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a lung disease of prematurely born infants, is characterized in part by arrested development of pulmonary alveolae. We hypothesized that heme oxygenase (HO-1) and its byproduct carbon monoxide (CO), which are thought to be cytoprotective against redox stress, mitigate lung injury and alveolar simplification in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, a model of BPD. Three-day-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed to air or hyperoxia (FiO2, 75%) in the presence or absence of inhaled CO (250 ppm for 1 h twice daily) for 21 days. Hyperoxic exposure increased mean linear intercept, a measure of alveolar simplification, whereas CO treatment attenuated hypoalveolarization, yielding a normal-appearing lung. Conversely, HO-1-null mice showed exaggerated hyperoxia-induced hypoalveolarization. CO also inhibited hyperoxia-induced pulmonary accumulation of F4/80+, CD11c+, and CD11b+ monocytes and Gr-1+ neutrophils. Furthermore, CO attenuated lung mRNA and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including the monocyte chemoattractant CCL2 in vivo, and decreased hyperoxia-induced type I alveolar epithelial cell CCL2 production in vitro. Hyperoxia-exposed CCL2-null mice, like CO-treated mice, showed attenuated alveolar simplification and lung infiltration of CD11b+ monocytes, consistent with the notion that CO blocks lung epithelial cell cytokine production. We conclude that, in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice, inhalation of CO suppresses inflammation and alveolar simplification. PMID:24532288

  19. Histologic, Clinical, and Radiologic Findings of Alveolar Bone Expansion and Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Cats.

    PubMed

    Bell, C M; Soukup, J W

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize clinical, radiologic, and histologic patterns of alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats. Based on case materials submitted as surgical biopsy specimens, alveolar bone pathology was diagnosed in 28 cats. These cats had a total of 37 oral lesions with clinical and radiologic changes that involved bone and/or teeth, including periodontitis, bone expansion, tooth resorption, and/or chronic osteomyelitis; 32 lesions were evaluated by histopathology. Canine teeth were affected in 19 cats (27 affected teeth), with bilateral lesions in 5 (26.3%) cats. The caudal premolar and/or molar regions were affected in 10 cats (10 affected sites). All biopsy sites evaluated by a review of clinical images and/or radiographs had evidence of periodontitis. Clinical photographs showed expansion of alveolar bone in 13 of 16 (81%) biopsy sites evaluated. Radiologically, rarifying osseous proliferation of alveolar bone was seen at 26 of 27 (96%) biopsy sites, and tooth resorption occurred at 15 of 18 (83%) sites. Histologically, the tissue samples from canine sites had compressed trabeculae of mature remodeled bone, loose fibrous stroma with paucicellular inflammation, and mild proliferation of woven bone. Tissue samples from the premolar/molar biopsy sites were often highly cellular with mixed lymphoplasmacytic and chronic suppurative inflammation, ulceration with granulation tissue, and robust proliferation of woven bone. Alveolar bone expansion and osteomyelitis in cats occurs in conjunction with periodontal inflammation and frequently with tooth resorption.

  20. Existence, Functional Impairment, and Lung Repair Potential of Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells in Oxygen-Induced Arrested Alveolar Growth

    PubMed Central

    Alphonse, Rajesh S.; Vadivel, Arul; Fung, Moses; Shelley, William Chris; Critser, Paul John; Ionescu, Lavinia; O’Reilly, Megan; Ohls, Robin K.; McConaghy, Suzanne; Eaton, Farah; Zhong, Shumei; Yoder, Merv; Thébaud, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchopulmonary dysplasia and emphysema are life-threatening diseases resulting from impaired alveolar development or alveolar destruction. Both conditions lack effective therapies. Angiogenic growth factors promote alveolar growth and contribute to alveolar maintenance. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) represent a subset of circulating and resident endothelial cells capable of self-renewal and de novo vessel formation. We hypothesized that resident ECFCs exist in the developing lung, that they are impaired during arrested alveolar growth in experimental bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and that exogenous ECFCs restore disrupted alveolar growth. Methods and Results Human fetal and neonatal rat lungs contain ECFCs with robust proliferative potential, secondary colony formation on replating, and de novo blood vessel formation in vivo when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. In contrast, human fetal lung ECFCs exposed to hyperoxia in vitro and neonatal rat ECFCs isolated from hyperoxic alveolar growth–arrested rat lungs mimicking bronchopulmonary dysplasia proliferated less, showed decreased clonogenic capacity, and formed fewer capillary-like networks. Intrajugular administration of human cord blood–derived ECFCs after established arrested alveolar growth restored lung function, alveolar and lung vascular growth, and attenuated pulmonary hypertension. Lung ECFC colony- and capillary-like network-forming capabilities were also restored. Low ECFC engraftment and the protective effect of cell-free ECFC-derived conditioned media suggest a paracrine effect. Long-term (10 months) assessment of ECFC therapy showed no adverse effects with persistent improvement in lung structure, exercise capacity, and pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Impaired ECFC function may contribute to arrested alveolar growth. Cord blood–derived ECFC therapy may offer new therapeutic options for lung diseases characterized by alveolar damage. PMID:24710033

  1. Comparative cytotoxicity of four nickel compounds to canine and rodent alveolar macrophages in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Henderson, R.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/), nickel sulfate (NiSO/sub 4/), nickel chloride (NiCl/sub 2/), and nickel oxide (NiO), are four compounds encountered by workers in the nickel-refining and electroplating industries. These compounds were tested for their relative toxicity to beagle dog and F344/Crl rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. Dog alveolar macrophages were at least 10 times more sensitive to the effects of each of the 4 nickel compounds than were rat alveolar macrophages. Toxicity ranking of the four nickel compounds to macrophages from both species was Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ > NiCl/sub 2/ approx. = NiSO/sub 4/ > NiO.

  2. Is Radiologic Assessment of Alveolar Crest Height Useful to Monitor Periodontal Disease Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Hattan; Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Hausmann, Ernest; Scannapieco, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary While the mainstay of periodontal assessment is clinical probing, radiographic assessment is also commonly employed and has the potential to provide facile quantitative information on the status of tooth-supporting bone. This article provides a brief review of standard methods to assess periodontal structures, including basic tenants of radiograph acquisition, assessment of alveolar crest levels, and typical patterns of bone loss seen in periodontal patients. Studies of the use of computer technology to objectively assess loss of alveolar crest from standardized and non-standardized radiographs are reviewed. Several recent developments in computer-assisted quantitation of alveolar crest height are described. Although probing measurements continue to be viewed as more practical than radiographic measurements, radiographic assessment can be made quantitative and likely easier and more precise than probing for routine assessment of periodontal disease activity. PMID:26427571

  3. Phagocytosis of latex beads by alveolar macrophages from mice exposed to cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Ortega, E; Hueso, F; Collazos, M E; Pedrera, M I; Barriga, C; Rodríguez, A B

    1992-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to alter the numerical presence and function of alveolar macrophages. It has been speculated that these cigarette-smoke-induced alterations contribute to the depressed pulmonary defence mechanism commonly demonstrated in smokers. Studies of the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of alveolar macrophages from smokers and non-smokers have yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phagocytic capacity of alveolar macrophages from mice exposed to cigarette smoke in relation to the ability to ingest inert particles (latex beads). Measurements were made before (basal values), immediately after, and 1, 12 or 24 h after exposure. Significant decreases were observed in the number of latex beads ingested by 100 macrophages (phagocytic index) and in the phagocytic efficiency for ingesting latex (mean number of latex beads ingested per activated macrophages) immediately after and 1 h after exposure, and in the number of activated macrophages (those with phagocytic activity) immediately after exposure. PMID:1563261

  4. NLRP3 protects alveolar barrier integrity by an inflammasome-independent increase of epithelial cell adherence

    PubMed Central

    Kostadinova, Elena; Chaput, Catherine; Gutbier, Birgitt; Lippmann, Juliane; Sander, Leif E.; Mitchell, Timothy J.; Suttorp, Norbert; Witzenrath, Martin; Opitz, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is a major cause of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, characterized by alveolar barrier disruption. NLRP3 is best known for its ability to form inflammasomes and to regulate IL-1β and IL-18 production in myeloid cells. Here we show that NLRP3 protects the integrity of the alveolar barrier in a mouse model of Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced pneumonia, and ex vivo upon treatment of isolated perfused and ventilated lungs with the purified bacterial toxin, pneumolysin. We reveal that the preserving effect of NLRP3 on the lung barrier is independent of inflammasomes, IL-1β and IL-18. NLRP3 improves the integrity of alveolar epithelial cell monolayers by enhancing cellular adherence. Collectively, our study uncovers a novel function of NLRP3 by demonstrating that it protects epithelial barrier function independently of inflammasomes. PMID:27476670

  5. Prevention of iatrogenic inferior alveolar nerve injuries in relation to dental procedures.

    PubMed

    Renton, T

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to review current hypotheses on the aetiology and prevention of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries in relation to dental procedures. The inferior alveolar nerve can be damaged during many dental procedures, including administration of local anaesthetic, implant bed preparation and placement, endodontics, third molar surgery and other surgical interventions. Damage to sensory nerves can result in anaesthesia, paraesthesia, pain, or a combination of the three. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Furthermore, if the injury occurs there are emerging strategies that may facilitate recovery. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post surgical phase. PMID:21133047

  6. Denervation resulting in dento-alveolar ankylosis associated with decreased Malassez epithelium.

    PubMed

    Fujiyama, K; Yamashiro, T; Fukunaga, T; Balam, T A; Zheng, L; Takano-Yamamoto, T

    2004-08-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve denervation causes appreciable decreases in the distribution of epithelial rests of Malassez. To explore roles of the Malassez epithelium, we attempted to evaluate possible changes in dento-alveolar tissues surrounding this epithelium by experimental denervation. We found that denervation led to dento-alveolar ankylosis with a decrease in the width of the periodontal spaces. Interestingly, with regeneration of the Malassez epithelium 10 weeks after the denervation, the periodontal space width showed a correspondingly significant increase. These findings suggest that the Malassez epithelium may be involved in the maintenance of periodontal space and that sensory innervation might be indirectly associated with it. In addition, it is of interest that denervation activated root resorption of the coronal root surface and that the consequently resorbed lacunae were repaired by cellular cementum. It is suggested that Malassez epithelium may negatively regulate root resorption and induce acellular cementum formation. PMID:15271971

  7. First Presentation of a Case of Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis with Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Sigari, Naseh; Nikkhoo, Bahram

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare disease of unknown origin. It is characterized by the presence of small calculi within the alveolar spaces, and has various clinical manifestations. Some patients may be asymptomatic for a long period of time with subsequent occurrence of dyspnea, dry cough, chest pain, and eventually, respiratory failure. Recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax episodes are a late complication of the disease. We report the case of an alveolar microlithiasis episode in a 42-year-old male, admitted to Tohid Hospital, Iran, whose first clinical presentation was symptoms of pneumothorax. He was admitted with sudden onset dyspnea and right-sided pleuretic chest pain. Following treatment of pneumothorax after chest tube placement, the pulmonary function revealed normal indices, and chest radiograph demonstrated diffuse confluence of dense micronodular infiltrate. High-resolution computerized tomography scan showed diffuse ground glass attenuation and calcifications along the interlobular septa and subpleural regions. Transbronchial lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of PAM. PMID:25584164

  8. Effects of fibrin adhesive material (Tissucol) on alveolar healing in rats under stress.

    PubMed

    Alves-Rezende, M C; Okamoto, T

    1997-01-01

    The effects of Tissucol on alveolar healing following stress were evaluated histologically, comparing three groups of 28 male albino rats each. Stress was applied and their right upper incisors were extracted. Group A served as an empty control site. In Group B, Tissucol was applied into the alveolar cavity. Group C received local antifibrinolytic treatment (alveolar irrigation with epsilon-aminocaproic acid solution) before implant of Tissucol into the tooth socket. Four animals in each group were killed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 15, 21 and 24 days after surgery. Results showed that: 1) Tissucol did not interfere with connective and osseous tissue formation; 2) Tissucol allowed new bone formation; 3) Tissucol residues in Group B in sections of 24-day specimens did not impair healing; 4) Tissucol was usually completely resorbed and healing was complete 24 days after surgery in Group C.

  9. Glycogen accumulation in alveolar type II cells in 3-methylindole--induced pulmonary edema in goats.

    PubMed Central

    Atwal, O. S.; Bray, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    The present study shows that intravenous infusion of 3-methylindole (3MI) induced acute pulmonary edema in goats. Edematous changes were seen in the alveoli and the interalveolar interstitium. At 72 hours after treatment, an accumulation of glycogen that had a pathognomonic appearance of alpha particles was observed in the alveolar Type II cells. A rich accumulation of glycogen particles and defective lamellar bodies containing triglycerides were the significant morphologic changes in the alveolar Type II cells. These findings suggest that massive glycogen deposition in the alveolar Type II cells is a defect that might interfere with surfactant production, further complicating the disease process. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6274198

  10. Estimation of Age Using Alveolar Bone Loss: Forensic and Anthropological Applications.

    PubMed

    Ruquet, Michel; Saliba-Serre, Bérengère; Tardivo, Delphine; Foti, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to utilize a new odontological methodological approach based on radiographic for age estimation. The study was comprised of 397 participants aged between 9 and 87 years. A clinical examination and a radiographic assessment of alveolar bone loss were performed. Direct measures of alveolar bone level were recorded using CT scans. A medical examination report was attached to the investigation file. Because of the link between alveolar bone loss and age, a model was proposed to enable simple, reliable, and quick age estimation. This work added new arguments for age estimation. This study aimed to develop a simple, standardized, and reproducible technique for age estimation of adults of actual populations in forensic medicine and ancient populations in funeral anthropology.

  11. Comparative cytotoxicity of four nickel compounds to canine and rodent alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Benson, J M; Henderson, R F; McClellan, R O

    1986-01-01

    Nickel subsulfide (Ni3S2), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), nickel chloride (NiCl2), and nickel oxide (NiO), are four compounds encountered by workers in the nickel-refining and electroplating industries. These compounds were tested for their relative toxicity to beagle dog and F344/Crl rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. Dog alveolar macrophages were at least 10 times more sensitive to the effects of each of the 4 nickel compounds than were rat alveolar macrophages. Toxicity ranking of the four nickel compounds to macrophages from both species was Ni3S2 greater than NiCl2 approximately NiSO4 greater than NiO. PMID:3746937

  12. Rho kinase signaling pathways during stretch in primary alveolar epithelia.

    PubMed

    DiPaolo, Brian C; Margulies, Susan S

    2012-05-15

    Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) maintain integrity of the blood-gas barrier with actin-anchored intercellular tight junctions. Stretched type I-like AECs undergo magnitude- and frequency-dependent actin cytoskeletal remodeling into perijunctional actin rings. On the basis of published studies in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs), we hypothesize that RhoA activity, Rho kinase (ROCK) activity, and phosphorylation of myosin light chain II (MLC2) increase in stretched type I-like AECs in a manner that is dependent on stretch magnitude, and that RhoA, ROCK, or MLC2 activity inhibition will attenuate stretch-induced actin remodeling and preserve barrier properties. Primary type I-like AEC monolayers were stretched biaxially to create a change in surface area (ΔSA) of 12%, 25%, or 37% in a cyclic manner at 0.25 Hz for up to 60 min or left unstretched. Type I-like AECs were also treated with Rho pathway inhibitors (ML-7, Y-27632, or blebbistatin) and stained for F-actin or treated with the myosin phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A and quantified for monolayer permeability. Counter to our hypothesis, ROCK activity and MLC2 phosphorylation decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 25% and 37% ΔSA and did not change in monolayers stretched to 12% ΔSA. Furthermore, RhoA activity decreased in type I-like AECs stretched to 37% ΔSA. In contrast, MLC2 phosphorylation in HPAECs increased when HPAECs were stretched to 12% ΔSA but then decreased when they were stretched to 37% ΔSA, similar to type I-like AECs. Perijunctional actin rings were observed in unstretched type I-like AECs treated with the Rho pathway inhibitor blebbistatin. Myosin phosphatase inhibition increased MLC2 phosphorylation in stretched type I-like AECs but had no effect on monolayer permeability. In summary, stretch alters RhoA activity, ROCK activity, and MLC2 phosphorylation in a manner dependent on stretch magnitude and cell type. PMID:22287611

  13. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg(-1)∙day(-1), respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  14. Alveolar derecruitment and collapse induration as crucial mechanisms in lung injury and fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Dennis; Gazdhar, Amiq; Lopez-Rodriguez, Elena; Ruppert, Clemens; Mahavadi, Poornima; Günther, Andreas; Klepetko, Walter; Bates, Jason H; Smith, Bradford; Geiser, Thomas; Ochs, Matthias; Knudsen, Lars

    2015-02-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis are associated with surfactant system dysfunction, alveolar collapse (derecruitment), and collapse induration (irreversible collapse). These events play undefined roles in the loss of lung function. The purpose of this study was to quantify how surfactant inactivation, alveolar collapse, and collapse induration lead to degradation of lung function. Design-based stereology and invasive pulmonary function tests were performed 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after intratracheal bleomycin-instillation in rats. The number and size of open alveoli was correlated to mechanical properties. Active surfactant subtypes declined by Day 1, associated with a progressive alveolar derecruitment and a decrease in compliance. Alveolar epithelial damage was more pronounced in closed alveoli compared with ventilated alveoli. Collapse induration occurred on Day 7 and Day 14 as indicated by collapsed alveoli overgrown by a hyperplastic alveolar epithelium. This pathophysiology was also observed for the first time in human IPF lung explants. Before the onset of collapse induration, distal airspaces were easily recruited, and lung elastance could be kept low after recruitment by positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). At later time points, the recruitable fraction of the lung was reduced by collapse induration, causing elastance to be elevated at high levels of PEEP. Surfactant inactivation leading to alveolar collapse and subsequent collapse induration might be the primary pathway for the loss of alveoli in this animal model. Loss of alveoli is highly correlated with the degradation of lung function. Our ultrastructural observations suggest that collapse induration is important in human IPF.

  15. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg−1∙day−1, respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis. PMID:27011174

  16. PPAR{gamma} regulates the expression of cholesterol metabolism genes in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Anna D.; Malur, Anagha; Barna, Barbara P.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Malur, Achut G.; Thomassen, Mary Jane

    2010-03-19

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) is a nuclear transcription factor involved in lipid metabolism that is constitutively expressed in the alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPAR{gamma} has recently been implicated in the catabolism of surfactant by alveolar macrophages, specifically the cholesterol component of surfactant while the mechanism remains unclear. Studies from other tissue macrophages have shown that PPAR{gamma} regulates cholesterol influx, efflux, and metabolism. PPAR{gamma} promotes cholesterol efflux through the liver X receptor-alpha (LXR{alpha}) and ATP-binding cassette G1 (ABCG1). We have recently shown that macrophage-specific PPAR{gamma} knockout (PPAR{gamma} KO) mice accumulate cholesterol-laden alveolar macrophages that exhibit decreased expression of LXR{alpha} and ABCG1 and reduced cholesterol efflux. We hypothesized that in addition to the dysregulation of these cholesterol efflux genes, the expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and influx was also dysregulated and that replacement of PPAR{gamma} would restore regulation of these genes. To investigate this hypothesis, we have utilized a Lentivirus expression system (Lenti-PPAR{gamma}) to restore PPAR{gamma} expression in the alveolar macrophages of PPAR{gamma} KO mice. Our results show that the alveolar macrophages of PPAR{gamma} KO mice have decreased expression of key cholesterol synthesis genes and increased expression of cholesterol receptors CD36 and scavenger receptor A-I (SRA-I). The replacement of PPAR{gamma} (1) induced transcription of LXR{alpha} and ABCG1; (2) corrected suppressed expression of cholesterol synthesis genes; and (3) enhanced the expression of scavenger receptors CD36. These results suggest that PPAR{gamma} regulates cholesterol metabolism in alveolar macrophages.

  17. The position of the mandibular canal and histologic feature of the inferior alveolar nerve.

    PubMed

    Kilic, C; Kamburoğlu, K; Ozen, T; Balcioglu, H A; Kurt, B; Kutoglu, T; Ozan, H

    2010-01-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve is the one of the large branches of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. It is vulnerable during surgical procedures of the mandible. Despite its importance, no anatomical and histological examination has been conducted to provide a detailed cross-sectional morphology of the mandibular canal according to dental status. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the position of the mandibular canal through direct measurement and to determine the branches of the inferior alveolar nerve through histologic examination. The area between the anterior margin of the third molar and the anterior margin of the second premolar of dentulous, partially dentulous, and edentulous hemimandible specimens (n = 49) from 26 human cadavers was serially sectioned into seven segments, and specific distances were measured using digital calipers. Following this, 5-microm cross-sections were prepared along the mandibular canal and mental foramen, and examined by fluorescence microscopy. The mandibular canal was located at a mean distance of 10.52 mm above the inferior margin of the mandible. The mean maximum diameters of the mandibular canal, inferior alveolar nerve, inferior alveolar artery, and inferior alveolar vein were 2.52, 1.84, 0.42, and 0.58 mm, respectively. This study found that the inferior alveolar nerve often gives rise to several branches at each level (range 0-3). To minimize the risk of injury, knowledge of the small branches of the nerve and of the detailed findings regarding the position of the mandibular canal reported here should be considered when planning mandibular surgery, especially during implant placement. PMID:19918867

  18. Alveolar ventilation to perfusion heterogeneity and diffusion impairment in a mathematical model of gas exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal Melo, M. F.; Loeppky, J. A.; Caprihan, A.; Luft, U. C.

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a two-compartment model of pulmonary gas exchange in which alveolar ventilation to perfusion (VA/Q) heterogeneity and impairment of pulmonary diffusing capacity (D) are simultaneously taken into account. The mathematical model uses as input data measurements usually obtained in the lung function laboratory. It consists of two compartments and an anatomical shunt. Each compartment receives fractions of alveolar ventilation and blood flow. Mass balance equations and integration of Fick's law of diffusion are used to compute alveolar and blood O2 and CO2 values compatible with input O2 uptake and CO2 elimination. Two applications are presented. The first is a method to partition O2 and CO2 alveolar-arterial gradients into VA/Q and D components. The technique is evaluated in data of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The second is a theoretical analysis of the effects of blood flow variation in alveolar and blood O2 partial pressures. The results show the importance of simultaneous consideration of D to estimate VA/Q heterogeneity in patients with diffusion impairment. This factor plays an increasing role in gas alveolar-arterial gradients as severity of COPD increases. Association of VA/Q heterogeneity and D may produce an increase of O2 arterial pressure with decreasing QT which would not be observed if only D were considered. We conclude that the presented computer model is a useful tool for description and interpretation of data from COPD patients and for performing theoretical analysis of variables involved in the gas exchange process.

  19. Effects of acute radon progeny exposure on rat alveolar macrophage number and function

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, N.F.; Newton, G.J.; Guilmette, R.A.

    1992-12-31

    Alveolar macrophages play a key role in removal and translocation of inhaled particles and have been shown to influence proliferation of Alveolar Type II cells and fibroblasts. The effect of radon progeny on alveolar macrophage number and function is not documented. Functional impairment of alveolar macrophages may be an ancillary event in the induction of pulmonary lesions and may also indicate dose to the peripheral lung. In our study, rats were exposed to 1000 working level months (WLM) of radon progeny over a 3- to 5-h period, with a vector aerosol of environmental tobacco smoke. Groups of animals were sacrificed, and the lungs were lavaged immediately after exposure and on days 2, 18, 16, 21 and 29 after exposure. The numbers and viabilities of the lavaged macrophages were determined. Cytological preparations were made to determine the number of binucleated/multinucleated macrophages and macrophages containing micronuclei. The DNA content was measured flow-cytometrically using Hoechst 33342, and phagocytosis was assayed by determining the uptake of fluorescent microspheres. The numbers and viabilities of macrophages recovered from exposed animals were similar to the values measured for control animals. There was no evidence of an inflammatory reaction during any period after radon progeny exposure. Nuclear atypia, evidenced by increases in the number of binucleated cells and cells with micronuclei, occurred in animals 8 days after exposure, and this response peaked at 21 days after exposure. The phagocytic capability of the alveolar macrophages was not significantly affected at any time point after exposure. These results show that there was little functional impairment of alveolar macrophages in rats after acute radon-progeny exposure; however, there was long-standing interference with cell division, resulting in binucleated and micronucleated macrophages.

  20. Effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    VERZELETTI, Giliano Nicolini; GAIO, Eduardo José; LINHARES, Daniele Sigal; RÖSING, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2012-01-01

    Obesity has been linked to higher inflammatory status and periodontal breakdown. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of obesity on alveolar bone loss in experimental periodontitis in rats. Material and Methods Twenty-four female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: obese (n=13), which were fed with "cafeteria diet" (CAF diet - high amounts of sucrose and fat) for 90 days in order to gain weight, and non-obese (n=11) regularly fed rats. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis was created in all animals. Body weight differed statistically between obese and non-obese groups (277.59 and 223.35 g, respectively) at the moment of the ligature placement. Morphometric registration of alveolar bone loss was carried out after 30 days of ligature placement to determine the effect of obesity on the progression of experimental periodontitis. Results Intra-group comparisons showed significantly higher alveolar bone loss mean values in maxillary teeth with ligature (P<0.05). Alveolar bone loss [mean (SD), mm] was not statistically different between obese and non-obese groups [0.71 (0.09) and 0.65 (0.07) mm, respectively]. However, when palatal sides are analyzed separately, obese group presented significantly higher alveolar bone loss (P<0.05) as compared to non-obese [0.68 (0.12) and 0.53 (0.13) mm, respectively]. Conclusions In spite of the weak differences, it is possible to conclude that the progression of alveolar bone loss in ligature-induced periodontitis can be potentially influenced by body weight in rats. PMID:22666840

  1. Analysis of human alveolar osteoblast behavior on a nano-hydroxyapatite substrate: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) is a potential ideal biomaterial for bone regeneration. However, studies have yet to characterize the behavior of human osteoblasts derived from alveolar bone on nHA. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of nHA on the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of these alveolar bone-derived cells. Methods Primary human alveolar osteoblasts were collected from the alveolar ridge of a male periodontal patient during osseous resective surgery and grown on culture plates coated with either polylysine or polylysine with nano-hydroxyapatite (POL/nHA) composite. The cells were grown and observed for 14 days, and then assessed for potential modifications to osteoblasts homeostasis as evaluated by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR), scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Results Real time PCR revealed a significant increase in the expression of the selected markers of osteoblast differentiation (bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2,-5,-7, ALP, COLL-1A2, OC, ON) in cells grown on the POL/nHA substrate. In addition, as compared with the POL surface, cells grown on the POL/nHA substrate demonstrated better osteoconductive properties, as demonstrated by the increase in adhesion and spreading, likely as a result of the increased surface roughness of the composite. Conclusions The increased expression of BMPs and osteoinductive biomarkers suggest that nano-hydroxyapatite may stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of local alveolar osteoblasts and thus encourage bone regeneration at sites of alveolar bone regeneration. PMID:24650194

  2. Knockout Mice Reveal Key Roles for Claudin 18 in Alveolar Barrier Properties and Fluid Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guanglei; Flodby, Per; Luo, Jiao; Kage, Hidenori; Sipos, Arnold; Gao, Danping; Ji, Yanbin; Beard, LaMonta L.; Marconett, Crystal N.; DeMaio, Lucas; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Kwang-Jin; Laird-Offringa, Ite A.; Minoo, Parviz; Liebler, Janice M.; Zhou, Beiyun; Crandall, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Claudin proteins are major constituents of epithelial and endothelial tight junctions (TJs) that regulate paracellular permeability to ions and solutes. Claudin 18, a member of the large claudin family, is highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium. To elucidate the role of claudin 18 in alveolar epithelial barrier function, we generated claudin 18 knockout (C18 KO) mice. C18 KO mice exhibited increased solute permeability and alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) compared with wild-type control mice. Increased AFC in C18 KO mice was associated with increased β-adrenergic receptor signaling together with activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, higher epithelial sodium channel, and Na-K-ATPase (Na pump) activity and increased Na-K-ATPase β1 subunit expression. Consistent with in vivo findings, C18 KO alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) monolayers exhibited lower transepithelial electrical resistance and increased solute and ion permeability with unchanged ion selectivity. Claudin 3 and claudin 4 expression was markedly increased in C18 KO mice, whereas claudin 5 expression was unchanged and occludin significantly decreased. Microarray analysis revealed changes in cytoskeleton-associated gene expression in C18 KO mice, consistent with observed F-actin cytoskeletal rearrangement in AEC monolayers. These findings demonstrate a crucial nonredundant role for claudin 18 in the regulation of alveolar epithelial TJ composition and permeability properties. Increased AFC in C18 KO mice identifies a role for claudin 18 in alveolar fluid homeostasis beyond its direct contributions to barrier properties that may, at least in part, compensate for increased permeability. PMID:24588076

  3. Connexin 43 contributes to ectopic orofacial pain following inferior alveolar nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Unno, Syumpei; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically, it is well known that injury of mandibular nerve fiber induces persistent ectopic pain which can spread to a wide area of the orofacial region innervated by the uninjured trigeminal nerve branches. However, the exact mechanism of such persistent ectopic orofacial pain is not still known. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of connexin 43 in the trigeminal ganglion on mechanical hypersensitivity in rat whisker pad skin induced by inferior alveolar nerve injury. Here, we examined changes in orofacial mechanical sensitivity following inferior alveolar nerve injury. Furthermore, changes in connexin 43 expression in the trigeminal ganglion and its localization in the trigeminal ganglion were also examined. In addition, we investigated the functional significance of connexin 43 in relation to mechanical allodynia by using a selective gap junction blocker (Gap27). Results Long-lasting mechanical allodynia in the whisker pad skin and the upper eyelid skin, and activation of satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion, were induced after inferior alveolar nerve injury. Connexin 43 was expressed in the activated satellite glial cells encircling trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the whisker pad skin, and the connexin 43 protein expression was significantly increased after inferior alveolar nerve injury. Administration of Gap27 in the trigeminal ganglion significantly reduced satellite glial cell activation and mechanical hypersensitivity in the whisker pad skin. Moreover, the marked activation of satellite glial cells encircling trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the whisker pad skin following inferior alveolar nerve injury implies that the satellite glial cell activation exerts a major influence on the excitability of nociceptive trigeminal ganglion neurons. Conclusions These findings indicate that the propagation of satellite glial cell activation throughout the trigeminal ganglion via gap junctions, which are

  4. Osteogenesis effect of guided bone regeneration combined with alveolar cleft grafting: assessment by cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Xiao, W-L; Zhang, D-Z; Chen, X-J; Yuan, C; Xue, L-F

    2016-06-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows for a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and provides accurate images of the alveolar cleft area. The osteogenic effect of guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs. conventional alveolar bone grafting alone for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Sixty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent GBR using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting only (non-GBR group). CBCT images were obtained at 1 week and at 3 months following the procedure. Using Simplant 11.04 software, the bone resorption rate was calculated and compared between the two groups. The bone resorption rate from 1 week to 3 months following bone grafting without the GBR technique was 36.50±5.04%, whereas the bone resorption rate using the GBR technique was 31.69±5.50% (P=0.017). The application of autogenous iliac bone combined with the GBR technique for alveolar bone grafting of alveolar cleft patients can reduce bone resorption and result in better osteogenesis.

  5. Reconstruction of alveolar bone defect with autogenous bone particles and osseointegrated implants: Histologic analysis and 10 years monitoring

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Carvalho, Mariliza Comar Astolphi; Ponzoni, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the volume of the alveolar process after extraction can be achieved by immediate implant placement and guided bone regeneration, with or without the use of biomaterials. The authors present a case report with a 10 years follow-up, rehabilitation using osseointegrated implants in the extraction area and maintenance of the volume of the alveolar process with autogenous cortical bone shavings. PMID:26389054

  6. Osteogenesis effect of guided bone regeneration combined with alveolar cleft grafting: assessment by cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Xiao, W-L; Zhang, D-Z; Chen, X-J; Yuan, C; Xue, L-F

    2016-06-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows for a significantly lower radiation dose than conventional computed tomography (CT) scans and provides accurate images of the alveolar cleft area. The osteogenic effect of guided bone regeneration (GBR) vs. conventional alveolar bone grafting alone for alveolar cleft defects was evaluated in this study. Sixty alveolar cleft patients were divided randomly into two groups. One group underwent GBR using acellular dermal matrix film combined with alveolar bone grafting using iliac crest bone grafts (GBR group), while the other group underwent alveolar bone grafting only (non-GBR group). CBCT images were obtained at 1 week and at 3 months following the procedure. Using Simplant 11.04 software, the bone resorption rate was calculated and compared between the two groups. The bone resorption rate from 1 week to 3 months following bone grafting without the GBR technique was 36.50±5.04%, whereas the bone resorption rate using the GBR technique was 31.69±5.50% (P=0.017). The application of autogenous iliac bone combined with the GBR technique for alveolar bone grafting of alveolar cleft patients can reduce bone resorption and result in better osteogenesis. PMID:26876144

  7. Development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis following exposure to dust after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hisata, Shu; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Ryushi; Ohkouchi, Shinya; Ichinose, Masakazu; Ebina, Masahito

    2013-12-01

    We report a unique case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis that developed 3 weeks after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The patient had inhaled dust repeatedly while visiting her devastated neighborhood without wearing a protective mask. Five weeks after the earthquake, lung samples taken from the patient showed foreign particle deposition; however, her serum was negative for GM-CSF autoantibody. The patient's clinical symptoms resolved following whole lung lavage. We conclude that inhalation of fine dust particles after natural disasters may cause the onset of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

  8. Airway structure and alveolar emptying in the lungs of sea lions and dogs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denison, D. M.; Warrell, D. A.; West, J. B.

    1971-01-01

    Investigation of the effects of various cycles of compression and decompression on the alveolar volumes of the excised lungs of sea lions and dogs. The results obtained include the finding that, in comparison to dog lungs, sea lion lungs empty more completely on mild compression and much more completely on severe compression. These findings support Scholander's (1940) hypothesis that some marine mammals are protected from decompression sickness by cartilaginous reinforcement of the small airways which permits alveolar emptying during a dive, so isolating compressed gas from pulmonary capillary blood.

  9. Hyperactive lesions of gingiva associated with severe alveolar bone loss: A rare finding.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Upadhaya, Vinod; Kumar, Vivek; Saimbi, C S

    2015-01-01

    Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is an inflammatory reactive hyperplasia of connective tissue. It usually arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, hormonal factors or certain kinds of drugs. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females and rarely may cause significantly alveolar bone loss. It managed by conservative surgical excision and removal of causative irritants. This paper presents the case of a PG in a 55-year-old male with severe alveolar bone loss in the affected site, managed by surgical intervention.

  10. Complete Resolution of an Alveolar Echinococcosis Liver Lesion Following Percutaneous Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Koroglu, Mert Akhan, Okan; Gelen, Mustafa Tekinalp; Koroglu, Banu Kale; Yildiz, Harun; Kerman, Gonul; Oyar, Orhan

    2006-06-15

    Herein we present a 63-year-old male patient with a solid hepatic alveolar echinococcosis diagnosed by surgical biopsy. His liver lesion, which was infected, was drained by percutaneous catheterization. The lesion surprisingly disappeared completely after the treatment. The patient was followed-up without any symptoms for 20 months after the drainage. As alveolar echinococcosis of the liver behaves like a slow-growing liver cancer, the disappearance of our patient's lesion was a very unusual and rare outcome, which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been published in the literature.

  11. Propylthiouracil-related diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with negative serologies and without capillaritis.

    PubMed

    Hadjiangelis, Nicos P; Harkin, Timothy J

    2007-04-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU) has been held responsible for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) with positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and capillaritis. We describe a case of a 23-year-old pregnant female with Grave's disease treated with PTU who presented with flu-like symptoms and progressive dyspnea. Open lung biopsy showed DAH without evidence of capillaritis. All serologies were negative. Five days after PTU withdrawal and intravenous steroid therapy, the patient improved dramatically. She remained symptom free without relapse 9 months after the episode. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of PTU-related alveolar hemorrhage with negative serologic markers and without capillaritis. PMID:17296293

  12. Development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis following exposure to dust after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hisata, Shu; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Tazawa, Ryushi; Ohkouchi, Shinya; Ichinose, Masakazu; Ebina, Masahito

    2013-12-01

    We report a unique case of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis that developed 3 weeks after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the subsequent tsunami. The patient had inhaled dust repeatedly while visiting her devastated neighborhood without wearing a protective mask. Five weeks after the earthquake, lung samples taken from the patient showed foreign particle deposition; however, her serum was negative for GM-CSF autoantibody. The patient's clinical symptoms resolved following whole lung lavage. We conclude that inhalation of fine dust particles after natural disasters may cause the onset of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. PMID:24238228

  13. Alveolar macrophages in pulmonary host defence – the unrecognized role of apoptosis as a mechanism of intracellular bacterial killing

    PubMed Central

    Aberdein, J D; Cole, J; Bewley, M A; Marriott, H M; Dockrell, D H

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages play an essential role in clearing bacteria from the lower airway, as the resident phagocyte alveolar macrophages must both phagocytose and kill bacteria, and if unable to do this completely must co-ordinate an inflammatory response. The decision to escalate the inflammatory response represents the transition between subclinical infection and the development of pneumonia. Alveolar macrophages are well equipped to phagocytose bacteria and have a large phagolysosomal capacity in which ingested bacteria are killed. The rate-limiting step in control of extracellular bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, is the capacity of alveolar macrophages to kill ingested bacteria. Therefore, alveolar macrophages complement canonical microbicidal strategies with an additional level of apoptosis-associated killing to help kill ingested bacteria. PMID:23841514

  14. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism. PMID:26782444

  15. DIFFERENTIAL GENE EXPRESSION BY CHAPEL HILL FINE PARTICLES IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollutant particles (PM) induce systemic and lung inflammation. Alveolar macrophages (AM) are one of the lung cells directly exposed to PM that may initiate these responses. In this study, we determined the gene expression profile induced by Chapel Hill fine particles (PM2.5) in ...

  16. CBX7 deficiency plays a positive role in dentin and alveolar bone development.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhixuan; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Niu, Yuming; Wan, Shujian; Chen, Ning; Shen, Ming

    2016-08-01

    To clarify the role of CBX7 deficiency in dentin and alveolar bone development, the dental and mandibular phenotypes of homozygous CBX7-knockout (CBX7(-/-)) mice were compared with their wild-type (WT) counterparts at 3 weeks age. In contrast to WT littermates, dental volume and dentin sialoprotein-positive area were significantly increased, whereas the area ratio of predentin to dentin was decreased markedly in CBX7(-/-) mice. Mineral density, cortical thickness, alveolar bone volume, type I collagen and osterix-immunopositive area, osteoblast number and activity, protein expression and mRNA level of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were all remarkably increased, while osteoclast number and activity, and mRNA expression ratio of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) to osteoprotegerin (opg) were all decreased significantly in the alveolar bone of CBX7(-/-) mice compared with their WT counterparts. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were found more in Hertwig' s epithelial root sheath of CBX7(-/-) mice, and their protein level of cyclin E1, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were correspondingly increased in contrast to WT mice. Taken together, these results of this study suggest that CBX7 deficiency plays a positive role in dentin and alveolar bone formation. PMID:27271093

  17. Telomerase Deficiency Causes Alveolar Stem Cell Senescence-associated Low-grade Inflammation in Lungs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruping; Zhang, Kexiong; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Xiaoyin; Wang, Jianqiu; Li, Li; Cong, Yusheng; Ju, Zhenyu; Xu, Dakang; Williams, Bryan R G; Jia, Jihui; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2015-12-25

    Mutations of human telomerase RNA component (TERC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) are associated with a subset of lung aging diseases, but the mechanisms by which TERC and TERT participate in lung diseases remain unclear. In this report, we show that knock-out (KO) of the mouse gene Terc or Tert causes pulmonary alveolar stem cell replicative senescence, epithelial impairment, formation of alveolar sacs, and characteristic inflammatory phenotype. Deficiency in TERC or TERT causes a remarkable elevation in various proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, CXCL15 (human IL-8 homolog), IL-10, TNF-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2)); decrease in TGF-β1 and TGFβRI receptor in the lungs; and spillover of IL-6 and CXCL15 into the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. In addition to increased gene expressions of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen 1α1, suggesting myofibroblast differentiation, TERC deficiency also leads to marked cellular infiltrations of a mononuclear cell population positive for the leukocyte common antigen CD45, low-affinity Fc receptor CD16/CD32, and pattern recognition receptor CD11b in the lungs. Our data demonstrate for the first time that telomerase deficiency triggers alveolar stem cell replicative senescence-associated low-grade inflammation, thereby driving pulmonary premature aging, alveolar sac formation, and fibrotic lesion. PMID:26518879

  18. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis - Clinico-Radiological dissociation - A case report with Radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Khaladkar, Sanjay Mhalasakant; Kondapavuluri, Sushen kumar; Kamal, Anubhav; Kalra, Raghav; Kuber, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare chronic lung disease characterized by deposition of intra alveolar calcium and phosphate in bilateral lung parenchyma with predominance in lower and mid zones. Etiology and pathogenesis is not fully understood. However, mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type-II cells resulting in formation and accumulation of microliths rich in calcium phosphate due to impaired clearance is considered the cause of disease. Patients with PAM are asymptomatic till development of hypoxemia and cor pulmonale. It remains static, while in some it progresses to pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure and cor pulmonale. We report a case of 44 year old male patient presenting with progressive shortness of breath on exertion for one year in duration with dry cough, more since last six months. Chest radiograph showed dense micronodular opacities giving classical sandstorm appearance. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed microcalcification, subpleural cystic changes and calcified pleura. Lung biopsy showed calcospherites within alveolar spaces. PMID:27200151

  19. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture.

  20. Rehabilitation of Edentulous Atrophic Anterior Mandible – The Role of Vertical Alveolar Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Latha P; Sequiera, Joyce; Rao, B H Sripathi; Chandra, Jagadish; Rai, Gunachandra

    2014-01-01

    The rehabilitation of patients with edentulous alveolar ridge is always a challenge, more so in case of a long standing atrophic mandible. Mandible, the largest movable bone in the maxillofacial skeleton is associated with many soft tissue attachments which imparts dislodging forces to prosthesis. In addition to this, the rate of resorption of the mandibular ridge is four times that of the maxilla. These factors make the environment of the mandibular arch less favorable to complete denture stability and retention. An ideal solution would be to augment the atrophic alveolar ridge with native bone of the individual which shall eliminate the possible complications, associated with conventional ridge augmentation procedures. With advent of modern technology, and increased biological understanding, the principles of distraction osteogenesis are increasingly being applied to the craniofacial skeleton and have been found to be a viable option in augmenting the native alveolar bone in the mandible. Here the application of an indigenous stainless steel vertical alveolar distraction device to augment atrophic anterior mandibular ridge is assessed in six patients. PMID:25584344

  1. Activation of Type II Cells into Regenerative Stem Cell Antigen-1+ Cells during Alveolar Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha Suresh; Zhang, Wei; Rehman, Jalees; Malik, Asrar B.

    2015-01-01

    The alveolar epithelium is composed of two cell types: type I cells comprise 95% of the gas exchange surface area, whereas type II cells secrete surfactant, while retaining the ability to convert into type I cells to induce alveolar repair. Using lineage-tracing analyses in the mouse model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa–induced lung injury, we identified a population of stem cell antigen (Sca)-1–expressing type II cells with progenitor cell properties that mediate alveolar repair. These cells were shown to be distinct from previously reported Sca-1–expressing bronchioalveolar stem cells. Microarray and Wnt reporter studies showed that surfactant protein (Sp)-C+Sca-1+ cells expressed Wnt signaling pathway genes, and inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling prevented the regenerative function of Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells in vitro. Thus, P. aeruginosa–mediated lung injury induces the generation of a Sca-1+ subset of type II cells. The progenitor phenotype of the Sp-C+Sca-1+ cells that mediates alveolar epithelial repair might involve Wnt signaling. PMID:25474582

  2. Alveolar Antral Artery: Review of Surgical Techniques Involving this Anatomic Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rahpeyma, Amin; Khajehahmadi, Saeedeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The horizontal bony canal in the lateral maxillary wall is the site of anastomosis between the arterial branches from the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAa) and the infraorbital artery. This anatomic structure is known as the ‘alveolar antral artery’. Materials and Methods: We performed a literature review. The anatomic location of the alveolar antral artery in the lateral maxillary sinus wall was researched and its importance in surgical procedures routinely performed on this bony wall discussed. Results: This artery can be accidentally involved during surgical procedures on the lateral maxillary sinus wall, such as open sinus lift surgery, horizontal osteotomy of the maxilla, Le Fort I fracture treatment, and Caldwell-Luc surgeries. Conclusion: The alveolar antral artery is an important anatomic structure in the lateral maxillary sinus wall. A preoperative cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan can be used as a good diagnostic procedure to reduce surgical complications in suspected cases as well as conditions that may involve this artery. PMID:24744995

  3. Effect of odanacatib on root resorption and alveolar bone metabolism during orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Wei, X X; Chu, J P; Zou, Y Z; Ru, N; Cui, S X; Bai, Y X

    2015-12-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of local administration of odanacatib (ODN) on orthodontic root resorption and the status of alveolar bone metabolism in rat molars. All specimens were scanned using microcomputed tomography and then the raw images were reconstructed. The total volume of the root resorption craters of the 60 g-NS (normal saline) group was higher than in the 60 g-ODN group and the control group. In the 60 g-NS group, the bone volume fraction values of alveolar bone were significantly decreased compared with the other 2 groups. There were no significant differences in the bone volume fraction values of the tibiae among the 3 groups. The results of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) numbers showed that there was no difference between the 60 g-NS group and the 60 g-ODN group. The expression of cathepsin K was decreased significantly in the 60 g-ODN group. These results indicate that ODN reduces orthodontics-induced external root resorption and increases alveolar bone metabolism. This may be because ODN inhibits the activity of odontoclasts, but maintains the quantity of odontoclasts and enhances bone formation. ODN promotes local alveolar bone metabolism, but does not affect systemic bone metabolism.

  4. Speaker-Specific Kinematic Properties of Alveolar Reductions in English and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnert, Barbara; Hoole, Phil

    2004-01-01

    A simultaneous EPG/EMA study of tongue gestures of five speakers was conducted to investigate the kinematic events accompanying alveolar stop reductions in the context of a velar plosive /k/ and in the context of a laryngeal fricative /h/ in two languages, English and German. No systematic language differences could be detected. Alveolar…

  5. Human alveolar epithelial cells expressing tight junctions to model the air-blood barrier.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Anna; Kletting, Stephanie; de Souza Carvalho-Wodarz, Cristiane; Repnik, Urska; Griffiths, Gareth; Fischer, Ulrike; Meese, Eckart; Huwer, Hanno; Wirth, Dagmar; May, Tobias; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Lehr, Claus-Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new human alveolar epithelial cell line (hAELVi - human Alveolar Epithelial Lentivirus immortalized) with type I-like characteristics and functional tight junctions, suitable to model the air-blood barrier of the peripheral lung. Primary human alveolar epithelial cells were immortalized by a novel regimen, grown as monolayers on permeable filter supports and characterized morphologically, biochemically and biophysically. hAELVi cells maintain the capacity to form tight intercellular junctions, with high trans-epithelial electrical resistance (> 1000 Ω*cm²). The cells could be kept in culture over several days, up to passage 75, under liquid-liquid as well as air-liquid conditions. Ultrastructural analysis and real time PCR revealed type I-like cell properties, such as the presence of caveolae, expression of caveolin-1, and absence of surfactant protein C. Accounting for the barrier properties, inter-digitations sealed with tight junctions and desmosomes were also observed. Low permeability of the hydrophilic marker sodium fluorescein confirmed the suitability of hAELVi cells for in vitro transport studies across the alveolar epithelium. These results suggest that hAELVi cells reflect the essential features of the air-blood barrier, as needed for an alternative to animal testing to study absorption and toxicity of inhaled drugs, chemicals and nanomaterials. PMID:26985677

  6. Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis - Clinico-Radiological dissociation - A case report with Radiological review.

    PubMed

    Khaladkar, Sanjay Mhalasakant; Kondapavuluri, Sushen Kumar; Kamal, Anubhav; Kalra, Raghav; Kuber, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare chronic lung disease characterized by deposition of intra alveolar calcium and phosphate in bilateral lung parenchyma with predominance in lower and mid zones. Etiology and pathogenesis is not fully understood. However, mutation in SLC34A2 gene that encodes a sodium phosphate co-transporter in alveolar type-II cells resulting in formation and accumulation of microliths rich in calcium phosphate due to impaired clearance is considered the cause of disease. Patients with PAM are asymptomatic till development of hypoxemia and cor pulmonale. It remains static, while in some it progresses to pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure and cor pulmonale. We report a case of 44 year old male patient presenting with progressive shortness of breath on exertion for one year in duration with dry cough, more since last six months. Chest radiograph showed dense micronodular opacities giving classical sandstorm appearance. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed microcalcification, subpleural cystic changes and calcified pleura. Lung biopsy showed calcospherites within alveolar spaces. PMID:27200151

  7. Alveolar duct expansion greatly enhances aerosol deposition: a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Darquenne, C.; Harrington, L.; Prisk, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining in vivo data of particle transport in the human lung is often difficult, if not impossible. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide detailed information on aerosol transport in realistic airway geometries. This paper provides a review of the key CFD studies of aerosol transport in the acinar region of the human lung. It also describes the first ever three-dimensional model of a single fully alveolated duct with moving boundaries allowing for the cyclic expansion and contraction that occurs during breathing. Studies of intra-acinar aerosol transport performed in models with stationary walls (SWs) showed that flow patterns were influenced by the geometric characteristics of the alveolar aperture, the presence of the alveolar septa contributed to the penetration of the particles into the lung periphery and there were large inhomogeneities in deposition patterns within the acinar structure. Recent studies have now used acinar models with moving walls. In these cases, particles penetrate the alveolar cavities not only as a result of sedimentation and diffusion but also as a result of convective transport, resulting in a much higher deposition prediction than that in SW models. Thus, models that fail to incorporate alveolar wall motions probably underestimate aerosol deposition in the acinar region of the lung. PMID:19414458

  8. The Ovariectomized Rat as a Model for Studying Alveolar Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Bryan D.; Ward, Wendy E.

    2015-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, reduced bone mineral density at the hip and spine is associated with an increased risk of tooth loss, possibly due to a loss of alveolar bone. In turn, having fewer natural teeth may lead to compromised food choices resulting in a poor diet that can contribute to chronic disease risk. The tight link between alveolar bone preservation, tooth retention, better nutritional status, and reduced risk of developing a chronic disease begins with the mitigation of postmenopausal bone loss. The ovariectomized rat, a widely used preclinical model for studying postmenopausal bone loss that mimics deterioration of bone tissue in the hip and spine, can also be used to study mineral and structural changes in alveolar bone to develop drug and/or dietary strategies aimed at tooth retention. This review discusses key findings from studies investigating mandible health and alveolar bone in the ovariectomized rat model. Considerations to maximize the benefits of this model are also included. These include the measurement techniques used, the age at ovariectomy, the duration that a rat is studied after ovariectomy and habitual diet consumed. PMID:26060817

  9. Correlation of vermilion symmetry to alveolar cleft defect in unilateral cleft lip repair.

    PubMed

    Bonanthaya, K; Rao, D D; Shetty, P; Uguru, C

    2016-06-01

    Asymmetry is a major problem in repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). One of the important manifestations of this is the asymmetry of the vermilion. The aim of this study was to correlate the severity of the asymmetry in the vermilion to the size of the alveolar defect. Twenty patients aged between 6 and 18 months with complete unilateral cleft lip, alveolus, and palate were included. An impression of each patient's alveolus at the time of cheiloplasty was taken using silicon rubber base material, and a study cast was prepared. The width of the cleft alveolus was measured on these casts using a transparent grid. Frontal photographs were taken at 6 months postoperative and vermilion symmetry was measured as the ratio between the cleft and non-cleft sides. The results obtained in this study showed a direct correlation between the size of the alveolar defect and the vermilion symmetry in repaired UCL. The wider the cleft alveolus and greater the antero-posterior discrepancy, the greater is the vermilion asymmetry. The asymmetry of the vermilion in UCL after repair is directly dependent on the size of the alveolar defect. The alveolar discrepancy causes 'in-rolling' of the vermilion on the cleft side and affects the vermilion symmetry.

  10. MITOCHONDRIAL OXIDANT PRODUCTION BY POLLUTANT DUST AND NO-MEDIATED APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACHROPHAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Residual oil fly ash (ROFA) is a pollutant dust that stimulates production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from mitochondria and apoptosis in alveolar macrophages (AM), but the relationship between these two processes is unclear. In this study, human AM were incubated with RO...

  11. Laser-activated solder weld repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Nigel J.; Lauto, Antonio; Trickett, Rodney I.; Owen, Earl R.; Walker, D. M.

    1997-05-01

    A new laser activated solder weld technique is described for the microsurgical repair of the inferior alveolar nerve in rats. The laser weld technique used an albumin based solder, containing indocyanine cardiogreen, plus an infrared diode laser. Seven animals had inferior alveolar nerve repairs performed using the laser weld technique and these were compared against corresponding unoperated controls plus three cases of nerve section without repair. Histochemical analysis was performed utilizing neuron counts and horseradish peroxidase tracer (HRP) uptake in the trigeminal ganglion following sacrifice and staining of frozen sections with cresyl violet and diaminobenzidene. The results of this analysis showed comparable mean neuron counts and mean HRP uptake by neurons for the unoperated control and laser weld groups with considerable reduction of mean values in cases of nerve section with no repair. Sections of the repaired inferior alveolar nerves, stained with Masson's trichrome, showed no adverse reactions by axons or epineurium to the coagulative repair with the solder and demonstrated regeneration of myelinated axons at the time of sacrifice. In summary a new technique of laser weld repair of the inferior alveolar nerve is described which, on initial analysis, appears to be a reliable alternative to traditional techniques.

  12. Coarticulation in Catalan Dark ["l"] and the Alveolar Trill: General Implications for Sound Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Recasens, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Coarticulation data for Catalan reveal that, while being less sensitive to vowel effects at the consonant period, the alveolar trill [r] exerts more prominent effects than [dark "l"] on both adjacent [a] and [i]. This coarticulatory pattern may be related to strict manner demands on the production of the trill. Both consonants also differ…

  13. Secondary bone grafting for unilateral alveolar clefts: a review of surgical techniques.

    PubMed

    Shafer, D M

    1995-03-01

    For the past 5 years we have been performing the closure of the oronasal fistula with alveolar bone grafting in the early-to-late secondary time period. The final decision as to whether early or late grafting should be done is based on if a grafting is needed to support the eruption of a functional lateral incisor. Generally the Moczair type buccal flap, with a "Z" release for wide clefts, is used for the buccal flap. This is combined with lateral releasing incisions on the palate for palatal closure. Separate nasal and oral closures are performed in all cases, with bone placed between the two layers in the alveolar defect. It is believed that this treatment sequence best fulfills the criteria for successful alveolar bone grafting outlined at the beginning of this chapter. Figure 8 demonstrates an alveolar bone grafting procedure in a 10-year-old girl just before eruption of the canine tooth treated with a buccal Moczair flap, lateral releasing incisions on the palate, two-layered closure, and the placement of an iliac bone graft.

  14. A case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    PubMed Central

    Basora, Jose F.; Fernandez, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Modesto; Adorno, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 25 Final Diagnosis: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage Symptoms: Cough dry • short of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Hyaluronic acid is a substance that is naturally present in the human body, especially in joints and eyes. Hyaluronic acid injectable gels have been available for the general market since 2003 as cosmetic dermal fillers and skin boosters. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is an acute event that threatens the life of the patient and can lead to pulmonary fibrosis. Alveolar hemorrhage associated with hyaluronic acid dermal fillers is an entity that to the best of our knowledge has never been described in the medical literature. Case Report: We describe a patient who presented with dyspnea and cough after a subcutaneous injection of hyaluronic acid, with radiographic abnormalities including ground glass opacities and consolidation. The patient underwent flexible bronchoscopy and was diagnosed with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Conclusions: This case emphasizes that this life threatening condition may occur with the use of this medication and physicians must be aware of this disorder, as early recognition and management can reduce morbidity. PMID:24826208

  15. Oral and dental restoration of wide alveolar cleft using distraction osteogenesis and temporary anchorage devices.

    PubMed

    Rachmiel, Adi; Emodi, Omri; Gutmacher, Zvi; Blumenfeld, Israel; Aizenbud, Dror

    2013-12-01

    Closure of large alveolar clefts and restoration by a fixed bridge supported by implants is a challenge in cleft alveolus treatment. A major aesthetic concern with distraction osteogenesis is obtaining a predictable position of the implant in relation to the newly generated bony alveolar ridge. We describe the treatment of a large cleft alveolus and palate reconstruction by distraction osteogenesis utilizing temporary anchorage devices (TADs) followed by a fixed implant-supported bridge. The method consists of segmental bone transport by distraction osteogenesis using a bone-borne distractor to minimize the alveolar cleft, followed by closure of the residual small defect by bone grafting three months later. During the active transport distraction, TADs were used exerting multidirectional forces to control the distraction vector forward and laterally for better interarch relation. A vertical alveolar distraction of the newly reconstructed bone of 15 mm facilitated optimal implant placement. The endosseous implants were osteointegrated and supported a fixed dental prosthesis. In conclusion, the large cleft alveolus defect was repaired in three dimensions by distraction osteogenesis assisted by TADs, and the soft tissues expanded simultaneously. Endosseous implants were introduced in the newly reconstructed bone for a fixed dental prosthesis enabling, rehabilitation of aesthetics, eating and speaking.

  16. Diesel and biodiesel exhaust particle effects on rat alveolar machrophages with in vitro exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted in vitro exposures of Wistar rat alveolar macrophages (AM) to compare and contrast the toxicity of particulate matter (PM) produced in combustion of biodiesel blend (B20) and petroleum diesel (PDEP). The PM contain detectable levels of transition metals and ions howe...

  17. Distinct signal transduction pathways for activation of rabbit alveolar macrophages in vitro by cotton bract tannin.

    PubMed

    Prévost, M C; Soulat, J M; Comminges, C; Maury, E; Aslane, R; Cohen-Jonathan, E; Cariven, C; Lauque, D; Chap, H

    1996-05-01

    These experiments were designed to study signal transduction pathways in alveolar macrophages stimulated by condensed tannin or zymosan. Condensed tannins, present in cotton mill dust, alter the host-defense function of alveolar macrophages and may contribute to the pathogenesis of byssinosis. We tried to determine the early steps in signal transduction mechanisms of cell activation by tannin. With the quantification of 51Cr release, we determined that tannin was cytotoxic for the cells after 30 min activation with 130 micrograms for 2 x 10(6) cells. 51Cr release was similar for control cells and zymosan- or 30 micrograms tannin-activated cells. Using the luciferine luciferase reaction, we showed that tannin markedly depleted ATP cell content. In inositol-labeled cells, tannin increased inositolphosphate release in a dose-dependent manner. In lysoPAF-labeled cells, tannin induced synthesis of phosphatidic acid and diglycerides. In the presence of ethanol, the level of tannin-induced phosphatidic acid was slightly reduced, and phosphatidylethanol was synthesized. No phosphatidylethanol was found in alveolar macrophages stimulated by zymosan in the presence of ethanol. GF 109203X, a specific inhibitor of protein kinase C decreased only tannin-induced phosphatidylethanol synthesis. In conclusion, tannin (at 30 or 130 micrograms/ml) activated an inositol phospholipase C in alveolar membranes. Phosphatidylcholine phospholipases C and D were found only at the higher concentration of tannin.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide disrupts the directional persistence of alveolar myofibroblast migration through EGF receptor.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiping; Yuan, Xiaobing; Tang, Jun; Zhang, Yongjun

    2012-03-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by alveolar simplification with decreased alveolar number and increased airspace size. Formation of alveoli involves a process known as secondary septation triggered by myofibroblasts. This study investigated the underlying mechanisms of altered lung morphogenesis in a rat model of BPD induced by intra-amniotic injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results showed that LPS disrupted alveolar morphology and led to abnormal localization of myofibroblasts in the lung of newborn rats, mostly in primary septa with few in secondary septa. To identify potential mechanisms, in vitro experiments were carried out to observe the migration behavior of myofibroblasts. The migration speed of lung myofibroblasts increased with LPS treatment, whereas the directional persistence decreased. We found that LPS induced activation of EGFR and overexpression of its ligand, TGF-α in myofibroblasts. AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, abrogated the enhanced locomotivity of myofibroblasts by LPS and also increased the directional persistence of myofibroblast migration. Myofibroblasts showed a high asymmetry of phospho-EGFR localization, which was absent after LPS treatment. Application of rhTGF-α to myofibroblasts decreased the directional persistence. Our findings indicated that asymmetry of phospho-EGFR localization in myofibroblasts was important for cell migration and its directional persistence. We speculate that LPS exposure disrupts the asymmetric localization of phospho-EGFR, leading to decreased stability of cell polarity and final abnormal location of myofibroblasts in vivo, which is critical to secondary septation and may contribute to the arrested alveolar development in BPD.

  19. Alveolar flows of the developing lungs:from embryonic to early childhood airways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum-Katan, Janna; Hofemeier, Philipp; Fishler, Rami; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Sznitman, Josue

    2014-11-01

    At the onset of life in utero the respiratory system is simply a liquid-filled duct. With our first breath, alveoli are filled with air and become a significant port of entry for airborne particles. As such, alveolar lining is nearly fully functional at birth, though lung development continues during childhood as structural changes increase alveolar surface area to optimize ventilation. We hypothesize that such fluid dynamical changes potentially affect two phenomena occurring within alveoli: (i) flow patterns in airspaces at distinct stages of both in- and ex-utero life and (ii) fate of inhaled particles ex-utero. To investigate these phenomena, we combine experimental and numerical approaches where (i) microfluidic in vitro devices mimic liquid flows across the epithelium of fetal airspaces, and (ii) computational simulations are employed to examine particle transport and deposition in the deep alveolated regions of infants' lungs. Our approaches capture anatomically-inspired geometries based on morphometrical data, as well as physiological flows, including the convective-diffusive nature of submicron particle transport in alveolar regions.Overall, we investigate respiratory flows in alveolar regions of developing lungs, from early embryonic stages to late childhood

  20. Fine ambient particles induce oxidative stress and metal binding genes in human alveolar machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient pollutant particles (APP) increased respiratory morbidity and mortality. The alveolar macrophages (AMs) are one cell type in the lung directly exposed to APP. Upon contact with APP, AMs are activated and produce reactive oxygen species, but the scope ofthis ox...

  1. Methemoglobin-induced signaling and chemokine responses in human alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Sharon; Ramakrishnan, Latha; Evans, Timothy W.; Griffiths, Mark J. D.

    2013-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is characterized by the presence of red blood cells and free hemoglobin in the alveoli and complicates a number of serious medical and surgical lung conditions including the pulmonary vasculitides and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In this study we investigated the hypothesis that exposure of human alveolar epithelial cells to hemoglobin and its breakdown products regulates chemokine release via iron- and oxidant-mediated activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Methemoglobin alone stimulated the release of IL-8 and MCP-1 from A549 cells via activation of the NF-κB pathway; additionally, IL-8 required ERK activation and MCP-1 required JNK activation. Neither antioxidants nor iron chelators and knockdown of ferritin heavy and light chains affected these responses, indicating that iron and reactive oxygen species are not involved in the response of alveolar epithelial cells to methemoglobin. Incubation of primary cultures of human alveolar type 2 cells with methemoglobin resulted in a similar pattern of chemokine release and signaling pathway activation. In summary, we have shown for the first time that methemoglobin induced chemokine release from human lung epithelial cells independent of iron- and redox-mediated signaling involving the activation of the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Decompartmentalization of hemoglobin may be a significant proinflammatory stimulus in a variety of lung diseases. PMID:24142518

  2. Na/sup +/-dependent transport of /sup 14/C-L-lysine across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; Crandall, E.D.

    1986-03-01

    Transepithelial transport of the basic amino acid L-lysine has been studied utilizing the isolated intact bullfrog lung mounted in the Ussing chamber. Lungs were excised from doubly pithed bullfrogs and sandwiched between two hemichambers. /sup 14/C-(U)-L-lysine was added to the upstream reservoir of amphibian Ringer solution, while the tissue was short-circuited. Two lungs from the same animal were used simultaneously to determine the two opposite unidirectional fluxes. Downstream and upstream radioactivities were assayed and used to estimate the apparent permeability (P) of the labeled lysine. Results indicate that the apparent P of /sup 14/C-L-lysine measured in the alveolar (M) to the pleural (S) direction is 19.06 (+- 2.84) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s and P in the S to M direction is 3.29 (+- 0.02) x 10/sup -7/ cm/s. When the 100 mM NaCl in the bath was replaced by 110 mM choline chloride, the flux of /sup 14/C-L-lysine from the alveolar to the pleural side decreased to the same value as that in the opposite direction. The flux from the pleural to the alveolar direction in the absence of Na/sup +/ did not change. These results suggest that the alveolar epithelium exhibits Na/sup +/-dependent amino acid (L-lysine) transport in the M->S, but not in the S->M, direction.

  3. Autophagic Killing Effects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Alveolar Macrophages from Young and Aged Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sophia A.; Powers, Katelyn M.; Engelmann, Flora; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Purdy, Georgiana E.

    2013-01-01

    Non-human primates, notably rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, RM), provide a robust experimental model to investigate the immune response to and effective control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Changes in the function of immune cells and immunosenescence may contribute to the increased susceptibility of the elderly to tuberculosis. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of age on M. tuberculosis host-pathogen interactions following infection of primary alveolar macrophages derived from young and aged rhesus macaques. Of specific interest to us was whether the mycobactericidal capacity of autophagic macrophages was reduced in older animals since decreased autophagosome formation and autophagolysosomal fusion has been observed in other cells types of aged animals. Our data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages from old RM are as competent as those from young animals for autophagic clearance of M. tuberculosis infection and controlling mycobacterial replication. While our data do not reveal significant differences between alveolar macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis by young and old animals, these studies are the first to functionally characterize autophagic clearance of M. tuberculosis by alveolar macrophages from RM. PMID:23825603

  4. EFFECTS OF DIESEL EXHAUST PARTICLES ON HUMAN ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSIVENESS TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of diesel exhaust particles on human alveolar macrophage responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide
    S. Mundandhara1 , S. Becker2 and M. Madden2, 1UNC Center for Environmental Medicine, Asthma, and Lung Biology, 2US EPA, NHEERL, HSD, Chapel Hill, NC, US

    Epidemiological...

  5. Follicle-stimulating hormone enhances alveolar bone resorption via upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chunxia; Ji, Yaoting; Liu, Shengbo; Bian, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-induced alveolar bone resorption was mediated by a cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme related mechanism. Experimental periodontitis was induced in bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats, some of which were injected with triptorelin, an FSH inhibitor. After mandibles were collected, we performed micro-computed tomography to evaluate alveolar bone loss and immunohistochemical staining to assess COX-2 expression. As well, human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were treated with FSH (30 ng/ml), and the COX-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and Western blotting, respectively; prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated that FSH significantly increased alveolar bone resorption and the expression of COX-2 in the bilateral OVX + Ligatured rats compared with the other treatment groups. FSH also increased the mRNA and protein expression of COX-2 and PGE2 (P < 0.01) in human PDLCs. Further, the analysis of signaling pathways revealed the activation of COX-2-mediated pathways including Erk, p38, and Akt. These data suggest that FSH aggravates alveolar bone loss via a COX-2-upregulation mechanism and that the Erk, p38, and Akt pathways are involved in this pathological process. PMID:27725865

  6. Retrospective analysis of secondary alveolar cleft grafts using iliac of chin bone.

    PubMed

    Nwoku, Alagumba L; Al Atel, Abdullah; Al Shlash, Saud; Oluyadi, Bashir A; Ismail, Salwa

    2005-09-01

    The osseous closure of alveolar clefts is an integral component of a comprehensive rehabilitation of patients with cleft lip and palate and has assumed an essential position in the reconstruction of cleft deformity. Our study consists of 35 patients aged between 7 and 11 years who received secondary bone grafting of their cleft alveolus over a 30 month period from July 1999 to December 2003. There were 22 (62.9%) males and 13 (37.1%) females. In 25 cases, bone graft was harvested from the iliac crest and in 10 others, from the mandibular symphysis. A total number of 41 osteoplasties was performed in the 35 patients. Twenty osteoplasties maintained an alveolar height up to 75% and approximately that number showed resorption varying between 50% and 75%. There was no case of complete resorption of graft. There were no serious periodontal pockets found. In all cases, the wound healed well, and there was no complication. Our experience demonstrates that secondary alveolar bone grafting is an efficacious method of rehabilitating patients with alveolar clefts.

  7. Transplanted Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Seeded onto Peptide Hydrogel Decrease Alveolar Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Karlström, Erik; Cedervall, Jessica; Wendel, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Alveolar bone loss can be caused by periodontitis or periodontal trauma. We have evaluated the effects of transplanted undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on alveolar bone reaction and periodontal ligament healing in an experimental periodontal wound model. The hMSCs seeded onto a self-assembling peptide hydrogel in combination with collagen sponge were implanted into the right mandible of 12 rats and followed for 1 (n=6) or 4 weeks (n=6) postoperatively. The other 12 sham-treated rats were used as controls. Histological and histomorphometrical methods were used to assess the periodontal tissue reaction. The alveolar bone volume density was significantly higher at 1 week after surgery, and the osteoclast number was significantly lower at both 1 week and 4 weeks postoperatively in the mandibles treated with hMSCs. The implanted cells were detected only at 1 week after surgery. In conclusion, transplanted hMSCs can contribute to alveolar bone preservation after a periodontal surgical trauma at least by decreasing local osteoclast number. PMID:23514848

  8. Donor Site Evaluation: Anterior Iliac Crest Following Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting

    PubMed Central

    Vura, Nandagopal; Reddy K., Rajiv; R., Sudhir; G., Rajasekhar; Kaluvala, Varun Raja

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The use of autogenous bone graft for Secondary alveolar bone grafting is well established in the treatment of cleft lip and palate patients. Aims and Objectives: To evaluate post-operative morbidity of anterior iliac crest graft after secondary alveolar bone grafting in cleft patients. Material and Methods: Forty patients during the period from July 2008 to March 2013, who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting by harvesting graft from anterior iliac crest in Mamata Dental Hospital, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India are included in the present study. Unilateral and bilateral cleft patients who had undergone secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) with anterior iliac crest as their donor site have been selected and post- operative complications from the surgery were evaluated with the help of a questionnaire which included pain, gait disturbances, numbness and scar problems (infection, irritation). Results: Patients who were operated gave maximum score for pain as 8 on visual analogue scale. No pain was observed in any of the cases after 8 days, gait disturbances were seen in all patients (limping) for 2-6 days, there was no post-operative numbness with all the patients returning to their routine in 6- 15 days and 90% of the patients gave a satisfied response towards scar. Conclusion: From the results in our study the morbidity after harvesting bone from iliac crest was found to be moderate to low, which had minimal complications and were well tolerated and greater acceptance from the patient. PMID:24392424

  9. Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis: historical and biologic review and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Emtiaz, Shahram; Noroozi, Sohrab; Caramês, João; Fonseca, Luís

    2006-12-01

    Dental rehabilitation of partially or totally edentulous patients with dental implants has become common practice in the last few decades, with reliable long-term results. However, local conditions of edentulous alveolar ridges may be unfavorable for implant placement. Vertically deficient alveolar ridges, in particular, may have insufficient bone volume to hold implants of adequate dimensions, making implant placement difficult or impossible. To correct this situation, a variety of surgical procedures have been proposed, including onlay bone grafts, vertical guided bone regeneration, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. Distraction osteogenesis is a biologic process of new bone formation between the surfaces of bone segments that are gradually separated by incremental traction. This process is initiated when a traction force is applied to the bone segments and continues as long as the callus tissues are stretched. This traction force, in turn, generates tension within the tissues that connect the bone segments, which stimulates new bone formation parallel to the vector of distraction. The aim of this article is to provide clinicians with the historical background of and biologic basis for the concept of distraction osteogenesis, which can be traced back to the 1800s. Finally, a clinical case is presented to demonstrate a step-by-step application of alveolar distraction osteogenesis as a treatment protocol in a partially edentulous ridge for improvement of esthetics.

  10. Association between mandibular posterior alveolar morphology and growth pattern in a Chinese population with normal occlusion*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Min; Wang, Rong-yang; Liu, Hong; Zhu, Xiu-juan; Wei, Fu-lan; Lv, Tao; Wang, Na-na; Hu, Li-hua; Li, Guo-ju; Liu, Dong-xu; Wang, Chun-ling

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between growth patterns and mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology in a Chinese population with normal occlusion. Methods: Forty-five patients with normal occlusion (23 males, 22 females) were included in this study. Among these patients, 20 displayed the vertical growth pattern, and 20 had the horizontal growth pattern, while the remaining patients displayed the average growth pattern. All of the patients underwent dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which included the region of the mandibular posterior teeth and the alveolar. A linear regression analysis and a correlation analysis between the facial height index (FHI) and the alveolar bone morphology were performed. Results: The inclination of the molars, the thickness of the cortical bone, and the height of the mandibular bone differed significantly between patients with the horizontal growth pattern and those with the vertical growth pattern (P<0.05). Significant positive correlations were found between: the FHI and the inclination of the molars; the FHI and the thickness of the cortical bone; and the FHI and the height of the mandibular bone. Conclusions: The mandibular posterior tooth-alveolar bone complex morphology may be affected by growth patterns. PMID:23303628

  11. Juvenile Swine Surgical Alveolar Cleft Model to Test Novel Autologous Stem Cell Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Montserrat; Morse, Justin C.; Halevi, Alexandra E.; Emodi, Omri; Pharaon, Michael R.; Wood, Jeyhan S.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstruction of craniofacial congenital bone defects has historically relied on autologous bone grafts. Engineered bone using mesenchymal stem cells from the umbilical cord on electrospun nanomicrofiber scaffolds offers an alternative to current treatments. This preclinical study presents the development of a juvenile swine model with a surgically created maxillary cleft defect for future testing of tissue-engineered implants for bone generation. Five-week-old pigs (n=6) underwent surgically created maxillary (alveolar) defects to determine critical-sized defect and the quality of treatment outcomes with rib, iliac crest cancellous bone, and tissue-engineered scaffolds. Pigs were sacrificed at 1 month. Computed tomography scans were obtained at days 0 and 30, at the time of euthanasia. Histological evaluation was performed on newly formed bone within the surgical defect. A 1 cm surgically created defect healed with no treatment, the 2 cm defect did not heal. A subsequently created 1.7 cm defect, physiologically similar to a congenitally occurring alveolar cleft in humans, from the central incisor to the canine, similarly did not heal. Rib graft treatment did not incorporate into adjacent normal bone; cancellous bone and the tissue-engineered graft healed the critical-sized defect. This work establishes a juvenile swine alveolar cleft model with critical-sized defect approaching 1.7 cm. Both cancellous bone and tissue engineered graft generated bridging bone formation in the surgically created alveolar cleft defect. PMID:25837453

  12. Assessing Anti-fungal Activity of Isolated Alveolar Macrophages by Confocal Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Melissa J.; D'Auria, Anthony C.; Segal, Brahm H.

    2014-01-01

    The lung is an interface where host cells are routinely exposed to microbes and microbial products. Alveolar macrophages are the first-line phagocytic cells that encounter inhaled fungi and other microbes. Macrophages and other immune cells recognize Aspergillus motifs by pathogen recognition receptors and initiate downstream inflammatory responses. The phagocyte NADPH oxidase generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) and is critical for host defense. Although NADPH oxidase is critical for neutrophil-mediated host defense1-3, the importance of NADPH oxidase in macrophages is not well defined. The goal of this study was to delineate the specific role of NADPH oxidase in macrophages in mediating host defense against A. fumigatus. We found that NADPH oxidase in alveolar macrophages controls the growth of phagocytosed A. fumigatus spores4. Here, we describe a method for assessing the ability of mouse alveolar macrophages (AMs) to control the growth of phagocytosed Aspergillus spores (conidia). Alveolar macrophages are stained in vivo and ten days later isolated from mice by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Macrophages are plated onto glass coverslips, then seeded with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing A. fumigatus spores. At specified times, cells are fixed and the number of intact macrophages with phagocytosed spores is assessed by confocal microscopy. PMID:25045941

  13. Tissue factor activity. A marker of alveolar macrophage maturation in rabbits. Effects of granulomatous pneumonitis.

    PubMed Central

    Rothberger, H; McGee, M P; Lee, T K

    1984-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to examine relationships between alveolar macrophage maturity and amounts of tissue factor (Clotting Factor III) in these cells under physiologic conditions and during immunologically induced pneumonitis. Using discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, alveolar macrophages from healthy rabbits were rapidly isolated into five subpopulations at different stages of maturation, as demonstrated by morphologic and morphometric evaluation. Very large amounts of tissue factor activity were found in fully mature cells that were purified in the lowest density subpopulation and assayed without preliminary in vitro stimulation or culture. In the remaining four subpopulations of increasing density, amounts of tissue factor were found to progressively diminish in direct correlation with declines of cell maturity. These differences at mean levels were as great as 35-fold. In addition, blood monocytes had less than 1/219 and less than 1/6 of the activity of the fully mature and the least mature subpopulations, respectively. After 16 h culture of the five isolated subpopulations in the absence of lymphokines or of significant numbers of lymphocytes, tissue factor activity increased in inverse correlation with the preincubation stage of cell maturity (2,387 and 109% in the least mature and most mature subpopulations, respectively). These increases required protein synthesis and were accompanied by morphologic and morphometric changes which indicated cellular maturation during the period of tissue factor activity generation in vitro, thus further demonstrating relationships between macrophage maturity and tissue factor content. In additional experiments, direct correlations between cell maturity and tissue factor activity content were also found in activated alveolar macrophage populations from rabbits with Bacillus Calmette Guering (BCG)-induced granulomatous pneumonitis. However, as compared with controls, the BCG populations had increased total

  14. Depletion of Alveolar Macrophages Does Not Prevent Hantavirus Disease Pathogenesis in Golden Syrian Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Hammerbeck, Christopher D.; Brocato, Rebecca L.; Bell, Todd M.; Schellhase, Christopher W.; Mraz, Steven R.; Queen, Laurie A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Andes virus (ANDV) is associated with a lethal vascular leak syndrome in humans termed hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The mechanism for the massive vascular leakage associated with HPS is poorly understood; however, dysregulation of components of the immune response is often suggested as a possible cause. Alveolar macrophages are found in the alveoli of the lung and represent the first line of defense to many airborne pathogens. To determine whether alveolar macrophages play a role in HPS pathogenesis, alveolar macrophages were depleted in an adult rodent model of HPS that closely resembles human HPS. Syrian hamsters were treated, intratracheally, with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes or control liposomes and were then challenged with ANDV. Treatment with clodronate-encapsulated liposomes resulted in significant reduction in alveolar macrophages, but depletion did not prevent pathogenesis or prolong disease. Depletion also did not significantly reduce the amount of virus in the lung of ANDV-infected hamsters but altered neutrophil recruitment, MIP-1α and MIP-2 chemokine expression, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in hamster bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid early after intranasal challenge. These data demonstrate that alveolar macrophages may play a limited protective role early after exposure to aerosolized ANDV but do not directly contribute to hantavirus disease pathogenesis in the hamster model of HPS. IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses continue to cause disease worldwide for which there are no FDA-licensed vaccines, effective postexposure prophylactics, or therapeutics. Much of this can be attributed to a poor understanding of the mechanism of hantavirus disease pathogenesis. Hantavirus disease has long been considered an immune-mediated disease; however, by directly manipulating the Syrian hamster model, we continue to eliminate individual immune cell types. As the most numerous immune cells present in the respiratory tract

  15. Bis-Enoxacin Blocks Rat Alveolar Bone Resorption from Experimental Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Youn; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Dolce, Calogero; Toro, Edgardo J.; Holliday, L. Shannon; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, caused by polymicrobial subgingival pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Chronic periodontal infection results in inflammation, destruction of connective tissues, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately tooth loss. Enoxacin and a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin (bis-enoxacin) inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption and also contain antibiotic properties. Our study proposes that enoxacin and/or bis-enoxacin may be useful in reducing alveolar bone resorption and possibly bacterial colonization. Rats were infected with 109 cells of polymicrobial inoculum consisting of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, as an oral lavage every other week for twelve weeks. Daily subcutaneous injections of enoxacin (5 mg/kg/day), bis-enoxacin (5, 25 mg/kg/day), alendronate (1, 10 mg/kg/day), or doxycycline (5 mg/day) were administered after 6 weeks of polymicrobial infection. Periodontal disease parameters, including bacterial colonization/infection, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and systemic spread, were assessed post-euthanasia. All three periodontal pathogens colonized the rat oral cavity during polymicrobial infection. Polymicrobial infection induced an increase in total alveolar bone resorption, intrabony defects, and gingival inflammation. Treatment with bis-enoxacin significantly decreased alveolar bone resorption more effectively than either alendronate or doxycycline. Histologic examination revealed that treatment with bis-enoxacin and enoxacin reduced gingival inflammation and decreased apical migration of junctional epithelium. These data support the hypothesis that bis-enoxacin and enoxacin may be useful for the treatment of periodontal disease. PMID:24638087

  16. The sloping alveolar plateau of tracer gases washed out from mixed venous blood in man.

    PubMed

    Schrikker, A C; de Vries, W R; Zwart, A; Luijendijk, S C

    1989-03-01

    We have investigated the slope of the alveolar plateau for inert tracer gases that were washed out from mixed venous blood. Two pairs of tracer gases were used (He, SF6) and (C2H2, Freon 22). The gases of each pair share almost the same blood-gas partition coefficient but they have different diffusive properties in the gas phase. The experiments were performed in healthy subjects at rest and at three levels of exercise (75, 150, 225 W). Each experiment started with the alveolar washin of the tracer gases by adding these gases to inspired air. This washin was continued for several minutes in order to dissolve sufficient amounts of the tracer gases in the body tissues. Subsequently, the tracer gases were washed out. In this paper, the slopes of the alveolar plateaus are defined as the relative increase of the concentration per second. Steeper slopes were found for the heavier gases (SF6 and Freon 22) in comparison with those for the lighter gases of the two pairs (He and C2H2). This finding may be ascribed to the contribution of diffusion-limited gas mixing in the lung to the slope of the alveolar plateau. For each gas, the slope for the first expiration during washout (alveolar washout) was considerably smaller than that for the later part of washout (mixed venous washout), and the difference amounts to about 56% and 76% of the slope during mixed venous washout at rest and at the highest level of exercise, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Orthodontically guided bone transport in the treatment of alveolar cleft: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Elena; Otero, Marta; Berraquero, Rosario; Wucherpfennig, Begona; Hernández-Godoy, Juan; Guiñales, Jorge; Vincent, Germán; Burgueño, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Conventional treatments are sometimes not possible in certain alveolar cleft cases due to the severity of the gap which separates the fragments. Various management strategies have been proposed, including sequential surgical interventions or delaying treatment until adulthood to then carry out maxillary osteotomies. A further alternative approach has also been proposed, involving the application of bone transport techniques to mobilise the osseous fragments and thereby reduce the gap between lateral fragments and the premaxilla. Case Report We introduce the case of a 10-year-old patient who presented with a bilateral alveolar cleft and a severe gap. Stable occlusion between the premaxilla and the mandible was achieved following orthodontic treatment, making it inadvisable to perform a retrusive osteotomy of the premaxilla in order to close the alveolar clefts. Faced with this situation, it was decided we would employ a bone transport technique under orthodontic guidance using a dental splint. This would enable an osseous disc to be displaced towards the medial area and reduce the interfragmentary distance. During a second surgical intervention, closure of the soft tissues was performed and the gap was filled in using autogenous bone. Conclusions The use of bone transport techniques in selected cases allows closure of the osseous defect, whilst also preserving soft tissues and reducing the amount of bone autograft required. In our case, we were able to respect the position of the premaxilla and, at the same time, generate new tissues at both an alveolar bone and soft tissue level with results which have remained stable over the course of time. Key words:Alveolar cleft, bone transport, graft. PMID:26855699

  18. Intra-alveolar haemorrhage in sudden infant death syndrome: a cause for concern?

    PubMed Central

    Yukawa, N; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Green, M A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The "Back to Sleep" campaign in 1991 resulted in a dramatic decrease in the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The proportion of presumed SIDS deaths being actually suspicious deaths from airway obstruction is likely to have become relatively greater. There is usually little pathological evidence to suggest smothering, but intra-alveolar haemorrhage appears to be more prominent in cases where interference with the airway is suspected. AIM: To attempt to quantify intra-alveolar haemorrhage to see whether it could be used as a marker to distinguish between smothering/overlaying and SIDS. METHODS: Intra-alveolar haemorrhage was quantified using digital image analysis on haematoxylin/eosin stained sections taken from the lungs of 62 consecutive infants who had died suddenly and unexpectedly. Cases were initially classified according to the original cause of death. After quantitation, the case histories were critically reviewed. Three pathologists independently made microscopic assessments of the degree of intra-alveolar haemorrhage in the first 24 cases to see whether these accurately reflected the quantitative results. RESULTS: 73% of those infants with a history suggesting possible involuntary overlaying and 45% of those with a history suspicious of smothering had significant intra-alveolar haemorrhage (> 5% of total lung surface area assessed). From the history, the cause of death in 11 cases initially classified as SIDS would better have been given as "Unascertained." Simple microscopic assessments underestimated the true extent of the haemorrhage in 33% (8/24). CONCLUSIONS: If a moderate degree (at least 5%) of pulmonary parenchymal haemorrhage is observed, this may be an indicator of airway obstruction for a significant period, either from overlaying or possibly smothering. The diagnosis of SIDS may be being used inappropriately in such cases. Images PMID:10645227

  19. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Clearance by Alveolar Macrophages Is Impaired by Exposure to Cigarette Smoke ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martí-Lliteras, Pau; Regueiro, Verónica; Morey, Pau; Hood, Derek W.; Saus, Carles; Sauleda, Jaume; Agustí, Alvar G. N.; Bengoechea, José Antonio; Garmendia, Junkal

    2009-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) is an opportunistic gram-negative pathogen that causes respiratory infections and is associated with progression of respiratory diseases. Cigarette smoke is a main risk factor for development of respiratory infections and chronic respiratory diseases. Glucocorticoids, which are anti-inflammatory drugs, are still the most common therapy for these diseases. Alveolar macrophages are professional phagocytes that reside in the lung and are responsible for clearing infections by the action of their phagolysosomal machinery and promotion of local inflammation. In this study, we dissected the interaction between NTHI and alveolar macrophages and the effect of cigarette smoke on this interaction. We showed that alveolar macrophages clear NTHI infections by adhesion, phagocytosis, and phagolysosomal processing of the pathogen. Bacterial uptake requires host actin polymerization, the integrity of plasma membrane lipid rafts, and activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascade. Parallel to bacterial clearance, macrophages secrete tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) upon NTHI infection. In contrast, exposure to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytosis, although NTHI-induced TNF-α secretion was not abrogated. Mechanistically, our data showed that CSE reduced PI3K signaling activation triggered by NTHI. Treatment of CSE-exposed cells with the glucocorticoid dexamethasone reduced the amount of TNF-α secreted upon NTHI infection but did not compensate for CSE-dependent phagocytic impairment. The deleterious effect of cigarette smoke was observed in macrophage cell lines and in human alveolar macrophages obtained from smokers and from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. PMID:19620348

  20. Bis-enoxacin blocks rat alveolar bone resorption from experimental periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Mercedes F; Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Velsko, Irina M; Lee, Ju-Youn; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Dolce, Calogero; Toro, Edgardo J; Holliday, L Shannon; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are multifactorial, caused by polymicrobial subgingival pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. Chronic periodontal infection results in inflammation, destruction of connective tissues, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone resorption, and ultimately tooth loss. Enoxacin and a bisphosphonate derivative of enoxacin (bis-enoxacin) inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption and also contain antibiotic properties. Our study proposes that enoxacin and/or bis-enoxacin may be useful in reducing alveolar bone resorption and possibly bacterial colonization. Rats were infected with 10(9) cells of polymicrobial inoculum consisting of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia, as an oral lavage every other week for twelve weeks. Daily subcutaneous injections of enoxacin (5 mg/kg/day), bis-enoxacin (5, 25 mg/kg/day), alendronate (1, 10 mg/kg/day), or doxycycline (5 mg/day) were administered after 6 weeks of polymicrobial infection. Periodontal disease parameters, including bacterial colonization/infection, immune response, inflammation, alveolar bone resorption, and systemic spread, were assessed post-euthanasia. All three periodontal pathogens colonized the rat oral cavity during polymicrobial infection. Polymicrobial infection induced an increase in total alveolar bone resorption, intrabony defects, and gingival inflammation. Treatment with bis-enoxacin significantly decreased alveolar bone resorption more effectively than either alendronate or doxycycline. Histologic examination revealed that treatment with bis-enoxacin and enoxacin reduced gingival inflammation and decreased apical migration of junctional epithelium. These data support the hypothesis that bis-enoxacin and enoxacin may be useful for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  1. Pulmonary surfactant mitigates silver nanoparticle toxicity in human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Leo, Bey Fen; Chen, Shu; Abraham-Thomas, Nisha; Thorley, Andrew J; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng Jim; Shaffer, Milo S P; Chung, Kian Fan; Ryan, Mary P; Porter, Alexandra E; Tetley, Teresa D

    2016-09-01

    Accompanying increased commercial applications and production of silver nanomaterials is an increased probability of human exposure, with inhalation a key route. Nanomaterials that deposit in the pulmonary alveolar region following inhalation will interact firstly with pulmonary surfactant before they interact with the alveolar epithelium. It is therefore critical to understand the effects of human pulmonary surfactant when evaluating the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of AgNPs on human alveolar type-I-like epithelial (TT1) cells in the absence and presence of Curosurf(®) (a natural pulmonary surfactant substitute), hypothesising that the pulmonary surfactant would act to modify toxicity. We demonstrated that 20nm citrate-capped AgNPs induce toxicity in human alveolar type I-like epithelial cells and, in agreement with our hypothesis, that pulmonary surfactant acts to mitigate this toxicity, possibly through reducing AgNP dissolution into cytotoxic Ag(+) ions. For example, IL-6 and IL-8 release by TT1 cells significantly increased 10.7- and 35-fold, respectively (P<0.01), 24h after treatment with 25μg/ml AgNPs. In contrast, following pre-incubation of AgNPs with Curosurf(®), this effect was almost completely abolished. We further determined that the mechanism of this toxicity is likely associated with Ag(+) ion release and lysosomal disruption, but not with increased reactive oxygen species generation. This study provides a critical understanding of the toxicity of AgNPs in target human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells and the role of pulmonary surfactant in mitigating this toxicity. The observations reported have important implications for the manufacture and application of AgNPs, in particular for applications involving use of aerosolised AgNPs.

  2. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Checa, Marco; Hagood, James S; Velazquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ruiz, Victor; García-De-Alba, Carolina; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Urrea, Francisco; Becerril, Carina; Montaño, Martha; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Cisneros Lira, José; Aquino-Gálvez, Arnoldo; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549), was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12) and rat (RLE-6TN) epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers.

  3. In vitro culture and characterization of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dao-Cai; Li, De-Hua; Ji, Hui-Cang; Rao, Guo-Zhou; Liang, Li-Hua; Ma, Ai-Jie; Xie, Chao; Zou, Gui-Ke; Song, Ying-Liang

    2012-06-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of poor osseointegration following dental implants in type 2 diabetics, it is important to study the biological properties of alveolar bone osteoblasts isolated from these patients. We collected alveolar bone chips under aseptic conditions and cultured them in vitro using the tissue explants adherent method. The biological properties of these cells were characterized using the following methods: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) chemical staining for cell viability, Alizarin red staining for osteogenic characteristics, MTT test for cell proliferation, enzyme dynamics for ALP contents, radio-immunoassay for bone gla protein (BGP) concentration, and ELISA for the concentration of type I collagen (COL-I) in the supernatant. Furthermore, we detected the adhesion ability of two types of cells from titanium slices using non-specific immunofluorescence staining and cell count. The two cell forms showed no significant difference in morphology under the same culture conditions. However, the alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients had slower growth, lower cell activity and calcium nodule formation than the normal ones. The concentration of ALP, BGP and COL-I was lower in the supernatant of alveolar bone osteoblasts received from type 2 diabetic patients than in that received from normal subjects (P < 0.05). The alveolar bone osteoblasts obtained from type 2 diabetic patients can be successfully cultured in vitro with the same morphology and biological characteristics as those from normal patients, but with slower growth and lower concentration of specific secretion and lower combining ability with titanium than normal ones. PMID:22473318

  4. Cigarette Smoke Enhances the Expression of Profibrotic Molecules in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Checa, Marco; Hagood, James S.; Velazquez-Cruz, Rafael; Ruiz, Victor; García-De-Alba, Carolina; Rangel-Escareño, Claudia; Urrea, Francisco; Becerril, Carina; Montaño, Martha; García-Trejo, Semiramis; Cisneros Lira, José; Aquino-Gálvez, Arnoldo; Pardo, Annie; Selman, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive and lethal disease of unknown etiology. A growing body of evidence indicates that it may result from an aberrant activation of alveolar epithelium, which induces the expansion of the fibroblast population, their differentiation to myofibroblasts and the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The mechanisms that activate the alveolar epithelium are unknown, but several studies indicate that smoking is the main environmental risk factor for the development of IPF. In this study we explored the effect of cigarette smoke on the gene expression profile and signaling pathways in alveolar epithelial cells. Lung epithelial cell line from human (A549), was exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 1, 3, and 5 weeks at 1, 5 and 10% and gene expression was evaluated by complete transcriptome microarrays. Signaling networks were analyzed with the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. At 5 weeks of exposure, alveolar epithelial cells acquired a fibroblast-like phenotype. At this time, gene expression profile revealed a significant increase of more than 1000 genes and deregulation of canonical signaling pathways such as TGF-β and Wnt. Several profibrotic genes involved in EMT were over-expressed, and incomplete EMT was observed in these cells, and corroborated in mouse (MLE-12) and rat (RLE-6TN) epithelial cells. The secretion of activated TGF-β1 increased in cells exposed to cigarette smoke, which decreased when the integrin alpha v gene was silenced. These findings suggest that the exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to CSE induces the expression and release of a variety of profibrotic genes, and the activation of TGF-β1, which may explain at least partially, the increased risk of developing IPF in smokers. PMID:26934369

  5. In-vivo effect of andrographolide on alveolar bone resorption induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis and its relation with antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad H; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Alveolar bone resorption is one of the most important facts in denture construction. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) causes alveolar bone resorption, and morphologic measurements are the most frequent methods to identify bone resorption in periodontal studies. This study has aimed at evaluating the effect of Andrographolide (AND) on alveolar bone resorption in rats induced by Pg. 24 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal control group and three experimental groups challenged orally with Pg ATCC 33277 five times a week supplemented with 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg of AND for twelve weeks. Alveolar bones of the left and right sides of the mandible were assessed by a morphometric method. The bone level, that is, the distance from the alveolar bone crest to cementumenamel junction (CEJ), was measured using 6.1 : 1 zoom stereomicroscope and software. AND reduced the effect of Pg on alveolar bone resorption and decreased the serum levels of Hexanoyl-Lysine (HEL); furthermore the reduced glutathione/oxidised glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio in AND treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly increased when compared with the Pg group (P < 0.05). We can conclude that AND suppresses alveolar bone resorption caused by Pg in rats.

  6. The Association between Lower Incisal Inclination and Morphology of the Supporting Alveolar Bone — A Cone-Beam CT Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Quan; Pan, Xiao-gang; Ji, Guo-ping; Shen, Gang

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the relationship between the positioning of the lower central incisor and physical morphology of the surrounding alveolar bone. Methodology Thirty-eight patients (18 males, 20 females), with mean age of 13.4 years, were included in this study. As part of orthodontic treatment planning the patients were required to take dental Cone-beam CT (CBCT) covering the region of lower incisors, the surrounding alveolar bone and the mandibular symphysis. The cephalometric parameters were designed and measured to indicate the inclination of lower central incisor and physical morphology of the adjacent alveolar bone. Computer-aided descriptive statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 15.0 software package for Windows. A correlation analysis and a linear regression analysis between the incisor inclination and the alveolar bone morphology were performed. Results Significant positive correlations were found between the lower central incisor inclination and the morphological contour of the alveolar bone (P <0.05). The lower central incisor root apex was closer to the lingual alveolar crest when it was buccally inclined. Conclusion The morphology of the alveolar bone may be affected by incisal inclination. PMID:20690425

  7. Diffuse Alveolar Damage of the Lungs in Forensic Autopsies: Assessment of Histopathological Stages and Causes of Death

    PubMed Central

    Urer, Halide Nur; Ersoy, Gokhan; Yılmazbayhan, Emine Dilek

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) is a morphological prototype of acute interstitial pneumonia. Hospital autopsies or open-lung biopsies are used to monitor common alveolar damage and hyaline membrane (HM) development histopathologically. The aim of this study was to detect histopathological profiles and frequency of DAD and HM in adult forensic autopsies. Materials and Methods. In total, 6813 reports with histopathological samples in 12,504 cases on which an autopsy was performed between 2006 and 2008 were investigated. Sixty-six individuals >18 years of age who were diagnosed with DAD were included. Hematoxylin- and eosin-stained lung preparations were reexamined in line with the 2002 American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society idiopathic interstitial pneumonia consensus criteria. Results. Histopathological examination revealed that 50 cases (75.7%) were in the exudative phase and 16 (24.2%) were in the proliferative phase. Only the rate of alveolar exudate/oedema in exudative phase cases (P = 0.003); those of alveolar histiocytic desquamation (P = 0.037), alveolar fibrosis (P = 0.017), chronic inflammation (P = 0.02), and alveolar fibrin (P = 0.001) in proliferative cases were significantly higher. The presence of alveolar fibrin was the only independent variable in favour of proliferative cases (P = 0.016). Conclusion. The detection of all DAD morphological criteria with the same intensity is not always possible in each case. Forensic autopsies may provide a favourable means for expanding our knowledge about acute lung damage, DAD, and interstitial lung disease. PMID:23028252

  8. Importance of bacterial replication and alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms during early lung infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Camberlein, Emilie; Cohen, Jonathan M; José, Ricardo; Hyams, Catherine J; Callard, Robin; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Edwards, Lindsey A; Marshall, Helina; van Rooijen, Nico; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Brown, Jeremy S

    2015-03-01

    Although the importance of alveolar macrophages for host immunity during early Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection is well established, the contribution and relative importance of other innate immunity mechanisms and of bacterial factors are less clear. We have used a murine model of S. pneumoniae early lung infection with wild-type, unencapsulated, and para-amino benzoic acid auxotroph mutant TIGR4 strains to assess the effects of inoculum size, bacterial replication, capsule, and alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent clearance mechanisms on bacterial persistence within the lungs. Alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent (calculated indirectly) clearance half-lives and bacterial replication doubling times were estimated using a mathematical model. In this model, after infection with a high-dose inoculum of encapsulated S. pneumoniae, alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms were dominant, with a clearance half-life of 24 min compared to 135 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance. In addition, after a high-dose inoculum, successful lung infection required rapid bacterial replication, with an estimated S. pneumoniae doubling time of 16 min. The capsule had wide effects on early lung clearance mechanisms, with reduced half-lives of 14 min for alveolar macrophage-independent and 31 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance of unencapsulated bacteria. In contrast, with a lower-dose inoculum, the bacterial doubling time increased to 56 min and the S. pneumoniae alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance half-life improved to 42 min and was largely unaffected by the capsule. These data demonstrate the large effects of bacterial factors (inoculum size, the capsule, and rapid replication) and alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms during early lung infection with S. pneumoniae. PMID:25583525

  9. Importance of bacterial replication and alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms during early lung infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Camberlein, Emilie; Cohen, Jonathan M; José, Ricardo; Hyams, Catherine J; Callard, Robin; Chimalapati, Suneeta; Yuste, Jose; Edwards, Lindsey A; Marshall, Helina; van Rooijen, Nico; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Brown, Jeremy S

    2015-03-01

    Although the importance of alveolar macrophages for host immunity during early Streptococcus pneumoniae lung infection is well established, the contribution and relative importance of other innate immunity mechanisms and of bacterial factors are less clear. We have used a murine model of S. pneumoniae early lung infection with wild-type, unencapsulated, and para-amino benzoic acid auxotroph mutant TIGR4 strains to assess the effects of inoculum size, bacterial replication, capsule, and alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent clearance mechanisms on bacterial persistence within the lungs. Alveolar macrophage-dependent and -independent (calculated indirectly) clearance half-lives and bacterial replication doubling times were estimated using a mathematical model. In this model, after infection with a high-dose inoculum of encapsulated S. pneumoniae, alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms were dominant, with a clearance half-life of 24 min compared to 135 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance. In addition, after a high-dose inoculum, successful lung infection required rapid bacterial replication, with an estimated S. pneumoniae doubling time of 16 min. The capsule had wide effects on early lung clearance mechanisms, with reduced half-lives of 14 min for alveolar macrophage-independent and 31 min for alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance of unencapsulated bacteria. In contrast, with a lower-dose inoculum, the bacterial doubling time increased to 56 min and the S. pneumoniae alveolar macrophage-dependent clearance half-life improved to 42 min and was largely unaffected by the capsule. These data demonstrate the large effects of bacterial factors (inoculum size, the capsule, and rapid replication) and alveolar macrophage-independent clearance mechanisms during early lung infection with S. pneumoniae.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of the effect of obesity on alveolar bone in rats with ligature-induced periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    do Nascimento, Cassiane Merigo; Cassol, Tiago; da Silva, Fernanda Soares; Bonfleur, Maria Lucia; Nassar, Carlos Augusto; Nassar, Patricia Oehlmeyer

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that the lack of metabolic control of obese patients may accelerate periodontitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographically the effect of cafeteria-diet-induced obesity on alveolar bone loss in rats subjected to periodontal disease. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) control and ligature group; 3) cafeteria group; and 4) cafeteria and ligature group. The animals were evaluated for obesity and euthanized, and the mandible of each rat was removed to perform a radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss and its effect on diet-induced obesity. The results showed greater alveolar bone loss in the mice in Group 4 (P<0.01). Thus, we concluded that obese mice, on average, showed greater radiographic evidence of alveolar bone loss than mice undergoing induction of obesity. PMID:24124386

  11. Comparative analysis between the alveolar recruitment maneuver and breath stacking technique in patients with acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Porto, Elias Ferreira; Tavolaro, Kelly Cristiani; Kumpel, Claudia; Oliveira, Fernanda Augusta; Sousa, Juciaria Ferreira; de Carvalho, Graciele Vieira; de Castro, Antonio Adolfo Mattos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of the alveolar recruitment maneuver and the breath stacking technique with respect to lung mechanics and gas exchange in patients with acute lung injury. Methods Thirty patients were distributed into two groups: Group 1 - breath stacking; and Group 2 - alveolar recruitment maneuver. After undergoing conventional physical therapy, all patients received both treatments with an interval of 1 day between them. In the first group, the breath stacking technique was used initially, and subsequently, the alveolar recruitment maneuver was applied. Group 2 patients were initially subjected to alveolar recruitment, followed by the breath stacking technique. Measurements of lung compliance and airway resistance were evaluated before and after the use of both techniques. Gas analyses were collected before and after the techniques were used to evaluate oxygenation and gas exchange. Results Both groups had a significant increase in static compliance after breath stacking (p=0.021) and alveolar recruitment (p=0.03), but with no significant differences between the groups (p=0.95). The dynamic compliance did not increase for the breath stacking (p=0.22) and alveolar recruitment (p=0.074) groups, with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.11). The airway resistance did not decrease for either groups, i.e., breath stacking (p=0.91) and alveolar recruitment (p=0.82), with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.39). The partial pressure of oxygen increased significantly after breath stacking (p=0.013) and alveolar recruitment (p=0.04), but there was no significant difference between the groups (p=0.073). The alveolar-arterial O2 difference decreased for both groups after the breath stacking (p=0.025) and alveolar recruitment (p=0.03) interventions, and there was no significant difference between the groups (p=0.81). Conclusion Our data suggest that the breath stacking and alveolar recruitment techniques are effective in

  12. Tilmicosin reduces lipopolysaccharide-stimulated bovine alveolar macrophage prostaglandin E(2) production via a mechanism involving phospholipases.

    PubMed

    Lakritz, Jeffrey; Tyler, Jeff W; Marsh, Antoinette E; Romesburg-Cockrell, Mary; Smith, Kathy; Holle, Julie M

    2002-01-01

    Tilmicosin is a potent antimicrobial with broad-spectrum activity against the bacterial agents involved in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Recent studies indicate that in addition to being bactericidal, tilmicosin is capable of modulating inflammation in the lung. A series of experiments were designed to determine whether tilmicosin alters alveolar macrophage-prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production induced by Escherichia coli (O55:B5) lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty-two healthy Holstein bull calves were used to study the effects of LPS-induced PGE(2) production of alveolar macrophages after in vivo or in vitro treatment with tilmicosin. In Experiment 1, tilmicosin was given by subcutaneous injection (15 mg/kg) twice, 48 hours apart, to four calves; four control calves received no treatment. Twenty-four hours after the second treatment, alveolar macrophages were stimulated with LPS in vitro. In Experiment 2, alveolar macrophages from five untreated calves were harvested and treated in vitro with tilmicosin, followed by LPS stimulation. In Experiment 3, the ability of in vitro tilmicosin treatment to alter the expression of LPS-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA was evaluated. In Experiments 4 and 5, secretory phospholipase A(2) activity was examined in untreated calves. Treatment of calves with tilmicosin resulted in reduced LPS-induced alveolar macrophage PGE(2) production. Similar reductions in PGE(2) by LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages after in vitro tilmicosin treatment were noted. This in vitro tilmicosin treatment was not associated with reduction of the expression of LPS-induced COX-2. Alveolar macrophage phospholipase A(2) activity induced by LPS was significantly reduced by prior tilmicosin treatment in vitro. Tilmicosin (in vivo and in vitro) appears to reduce the PGE(2) eicosanoid response of LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages by reducing the in vitro substrate availability without altering in vitro COX-2 mRNA expression.

  13. Herpes Zoster Induced Alveolar Bone Necrosis in Immunocompromised Patients; Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Gholami, Mahdi; Shahakbari, Reza; Abdolahpour, Somayeh; Hatami, Masoud; Roshanmir, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Herpes zoster Infection (HZI) is a viral disease with painful skin rashes and blisters in a limited area on one side of the body, often in a strip. Osteonecrosis with spontaneous exfoliation of teeth in association with HZI of the mandibular nerve is a rare phenomenon. In this report, such an unusual complication of HZI is presented. Case Report: The clinical course of a 53-year-old woman and a 54-year-old man with HZI associated with alveolar bone necrosis and tooth exfoliation were reviewed in order to develop a patient profile for this rare combination of physical findings. Conclusion: In immunocompromised patients, the clinicians should consider HZI as a possible cause of tooth mobility, exfoliation, and alveolar osteonecrosis, which needs early intervention to prevent secondary complications. PMID:27738615

  14. A Bloody Mess: An Unusual Case of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Because of Warfarin Overdose.

    PubMed

    Heffler, Enrico; Campisi, Raffaele; Ferri, Sebastian; Crimi, Nunzio

    2016-01-01

    We herein present the case of a patient with frank hemoptysis and hematuria, dyspnea, and cough. The patient was known to be affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and dilated cardiomyopathy with atrial fibrillation. For this latter condition, he was supposed to take 1.25 mg warfarin daily. Laboratory findings revealed very high levels of International Normalized Ratio (INR) (16), and the patient referred that he self-increased warfarin dose to 5 mg daily since 8 days before the onset of symptoms. Computed tomography scan revealed diffuse bilateral signs of alveolar hemorrhage with hydroaerial levels within emphysematous cysts. Wafarin was immediately stopped and changed with 220 mg dabigatran daily, and he was properly treated to restore a normal coagulation status. We concluded for a case of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage because of warfarin overdose. PMID:26658807

  15. Pulmonary alveolar lipoproteinosis in rats following intratracheal injection of pyrite particles.

    PubMed

    Governa, M; Valentino, M; Tosi, P; Luzi, P; Miracco, C; Sartorelli, E; Loi, F; Franzinelli, A; Gori, R

    1986-01-01

    Wistar rats were injected intratracheally with pyrite particles and after 6 and 12 mo, lungs were evaluated for histological changes. Results were compared with rats that were given particles of galena, lead silicate, travertine, and quartz. Under the light microscope no significant changes were observed in the lungs from animals treated with galena, lead silicate, and travertine. In the lungs from animals that received quartz, a typical nodular fibrosis was observed. Moreover, both pyrite-treated rats and quartz-treated rats developed pulmonary alveolar lipoproteinosis; the lesions were much less prominent and severe in animals injected with pyrite than with quartz. These results indicate that pyrite, like only a few other types of dust that are different from quartz, can evoke the development of pulmonary alveolar lipoproteinosis in rats. PMID:3772986

  16. Real-time measurement of alveolar size and population using phase contrast x-ray imaging

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Andrew F.T.; Buckley, Genevieve A.; Paganin, David M.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Wallace, Megan J.; Kitchen, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    Herein a propagation-based phase contrast x-ray imaging technique for measuring particle size and number is presented. This is achieved with an algorithm that utilizes the Fourier space signature of the speckle pattern associated with the images of particles. We validate this algorithm using soda-lime glass particles, demonstrating its effectiveness on random and non-randomly packed particles. This technique is then applied to characterise lung alveoli, which are difficult to measure dynamically in vivo with current imaging modalities due to inadequate temporal resolution and/or depth of penetration and field-of-view. We obtain an important result in that our algorithm is able to measure changes in alveolar size on the micron scale during ventilation and shows the presence of alveolar recruitment/de-recruitment in newborn rabbit kittens. This technique will be useful for ventilation management and lung diagnostic procedures. PMID:25426328

  17. ECMO Rescue Therapy in Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage: A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Gautam; Kumar, Raj; Yadav, Sankalp

    2016-06-01

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has evolved as a treatment option for patients having potentially reversible severe respiratory failure who are deteriorating on conventional ventilation. During ECMO, systemic anticoagulation is needed to maintain patency of the circuit. Therefore, ongoing haemorrhage remains a relative contra-indication to ECMO as it can further increase the bleeding. There is only limited evidence available for the use of ECMO in patients with alveolar haemorrhage. Most of these patients did not receive any anticoagulation during ECMO. We describe our experience with a patient who received intravenous anticoagulation during ECMO for refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure due to Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage (DAH) associated with Granulomatosis polyangitis (Wegner's GPA). ECMO sustained life by maintaining gas exchange support and provided the time for the immunotherapy to be effective. We report the successful use of anticoagulation during ECMO in a patient with DAH. PMID:27504336

  18. [Cough and hypoxemia as clinical manifestation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Nieto, Mary; Dicembrino, Manuela; Ferraz, Rubén; Romagnoli, Fernando; Giugno, Hilda; Ernst, Glenda; Siminovich, Monica; Botto, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Alveolar proteinosis is a rare chronic lung disease, especially in children, characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipoproteins and derived surfactant in the intra-alveolar space that generates a severe reduction of gas exchange. Idiopathic presentation form constitutes over 90% of cases, a phenomenon associated with production of autoimmune antibodies directed at the receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. A case of a girl of 5 years of age treated because of atypical pneumonia with unfavorable evolution due to persistent hypoxemia is presented. The diagnosis is obtained through pathologic examination of lung biopsy by thoracotomy, as treatment is carried out by 17bronchopulmonary bronchoscopy lavages and the patient evidences marked clinical improvement. PMID:27164343

  19. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kagiya, Tadayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20–22 nucleotides) RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described. PMID:27529224

  20. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications

    PubMed Central

    Asa'ad, Farah; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on “3D-printed” ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  1. Estimation of alveolar pressure during forced oscillation of the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Finucane, K E; Mead, J

    1975-03-01

    A method for obtaining a continuous estimate of alveolar pressure (PAlv) during periodic flow is described; it was developed to improve the precision of measurements of airway and respiratory tissue impedance using the improved resolution of relatively high-frequency (approximately 5 Hz) singlas. The respiratory system was modulated with a piston pump, and lung volume and the volume change due to compression and expansion of alveolar gas were measured plethysmorgraphically; these signals and an analog divider were used to obtain a continuous solution of Boyle's law during flow. The plethysmorgraph was of the "flow" type; with it volume changes at frequencies up to 10 Hz and with rates of change up to 6 l/s were measured without amplitude or phase distortion. The method permits control of frequency and flow amplitude during PAlv measurement and calibration of PAlv in the absence of an active chest wall. However, it is technically complex. PMID:1150566

  2. ECMO Rescue Therapy in Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage: A Case Report with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raj; Yadav, Sankalp

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) has evolved as a treatment option for patients having potentially reversible severe respiratory failure who are deteriorating on conventional ventilation. During ECMO, systemic anticoagulation is needed to maintain patency of the circuit. Therefore, ongoing haemorrhage remains a relative contra-indication to ECMO as it can further increase the bleeding. There is only limited evidence available for the use of ECMO in patients with alveolar haemorrhage. Most of these patients did not receive any anticoagulation during ECMO. We describe our experience with a patient who received intravenous anticoagulation during ECMO for refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure due to Diffuse Alveolar Haemorrhage (DAH) associated with Granulomatosis polyangitis (Wegner’s GPA). ECMO sustained life by maintaining gas exchange support and provided the time for the immunotherapy to be effective. We report the successful use of anticoagulation during ECMO in a patient with DAH. PMID:27504336

  3. Iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve: etiology, signs and symptoms, and observations on recovery.

    PubMed

    Hillerup, S

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this prospective, non-randomised, descriptive study is to characterise the neurosensory deficit and associated neurogenic discomfort in 52 patients with iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). All patients were examined and followed up according to a protocol assessing tactile, thermal, and positional perception as well as two-point discrimination and pain. In 48 patients with IAN injuries of differing etiologies who did not undergo surgery, 32 patients with injury associated with third molar surgery exhibited significant spontaneous improvement of sensory function. Recovery improvement of sensory function was insignificant in the patients with other etiologies. In most patients the level of sensory perception was such that microsurgical repair was only occasionally indicated. Four patients had microsurgical repair; the outcome was favourable in three. IAN injuries associated with third molar surgery, other dento-alveolar surgery or implant surgery occur sufficiently often to render prevention a key issue. PMID:18501561

  4. Role of alveolar macrophages in the dissolution of two different industrial uranium oxides.

    PubMed

    Hengé-Napoli, M H; Ansoborlo, E; Claraz, M; Berry, J P; Cheynet, M C

    1996-05-01

    This study was aimed at assessing and understanding some mechanisms involved in the intracellular particle transformation of two uranium oxides (U3O8 and UO2 + Umetal) produced by a new isotopic enrichment plant using laser technology. Instillations were conducted on rats with both uranium compounds and alveolar macrophages were harvested at different dates and prepared in order to be studied using transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The presence of particles in the cells was observed from the first day after instillation, and crystalline needles of uranyl phosphate appeared in the cytoplasm of the cells. These needles were more numerous after instillation with the mixture UO2 + Umetal than after administration of U3O8 and may be correlated with the higher solubility of UO2 + Umetal observed in vitro. The formation of insoluble needles in lysosomes is consistent with the insolubilisation of uranium observed after phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. PMID:8793194

  5. 3D-Printed Scaffolds and Biomaterials: Review of Alveolar Bone Augmentation and Periodontal Regeneration Applications.

    PubMed

    Asa'ad, Farah; Pagni, Giorgio; Pilipchuk, Sophia P; Giannì, Aldo Bruno; Giannobile, William V; Rasperini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    To ensure a successful dental implant therapy, the presence of adequate vertical and horizontal alveolar bone is fundamental. However, an insufficient amount of alveolar ridge in both dimensions is often encountered in dental practice due to the consequences of oral diseases and tooth loss. Although postextraction socket preservation has been adopted to lessen the need for such invasive approaches, it utilizes bone grafting materials, which have limitations that could negatively affect the quality of bone formation. To overcome the drawbacks of routinely employed grafting materials, bone graft substitutes such as 3D scaffolds have been recently investigated in the dental field. In this review, we highlight different biomaterials suitable for 3D scaffold fabrication, with a focus on "3D-printed" ones as bone graft substitutes that might be convenient for various applications related to implant therapy. We also briefly discuss their possible adoption for periodontal regeneration. PMID:27366149

  6. Interaction of iron oxide Fe3O4 nanoparticles and alveolar macrophages in vivo.

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, B A; Privalova, L I; Sutunkova, M P; Tulakina, L G; Pichugova, S V; Beykin, J B; Khodos, M J

    2012-03-01

    Aqueous suspension of magnetite nanoparticles with primary diameter of 10 nm were intratracheally administered into rat lungs. In 24 h, cells were isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage and examined under a transmission electron microscope. Alveolar macrophages demonstrated ability to actively uptake single nanoparticles and small aggregates composed of such particles, which then formed larger conglomerates inside fused phagosomes. Some of these mature phagosomes shed the membrane and free nanoparticles closely interacted with nuclear membrane and with cristae and mitochondrial membranes thereby inflicting pronounced damage to these intracellular structures. The loss of primary lysosomes can be viewed as indirect evidence attesting to the role played by diffusion of lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes in the final destruction of the alveolar macrophages provoked by nanoparticles.

  7. Relationship of bispectral index to hemodynamic variables and alveolar concentration multiples of sevoflurane in puppies.

    PubMed

    Morgaz, J; Granados, M M; Domínguez, J M; Navarrete, R; Galán, A; Fernández, J A; Gómez-Villamandos, R J

    2009-06-01

    The relationships between bispectral index (BIS), cardiovascular variables and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) multiples of sevoflurane in puppies were determined. Five puppies were anesthetized with sevoflurane on two occasions. First, the individual sevoflurane MAC values were determined for each puppy. Secondly, dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane at each of 5 MAC multiples, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5 and 1.75 MAC administered in random order. Hemodynamic parameters and BIS data were collected for 20min. Somatic stimulus was then applied and the same parameters and data were collected for 6min. Correlation between BIS and end tidal sevoflurane and between BIS and hemodynamic parameters were studied. We found positive significant correlation in both cases. BIS is lower in puppies that in adults at the same alveolar anesthetic concentrations and sevoflurane appears to be a safe anesthetic in puppies.

  8. MicroRNAs: Potential Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodontal Disease.

    PubMed

    Kagiya, Tadayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease caused by bacterial infection of tooth-supporting structures, which results in the destruction of alveolar bone. Osteoclasts play a central role in bone destruction. Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated giant cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. Recently, we and other researchers revealed that microRNAs are involved in osteoclast differentiation. MicroRNAs are novel, single-stranded, non-coding, small (20-22 nucleotides) RNAs that act in a sequence-specific manner to regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level through cleavage or translational repression of their target mRNAs. They regulate various biological activities such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, cancer development, and inflammatory responses. In this review, the roles of microRNAs in osteoclast differentiation and function during alveolar bone destruction in periodontal disease are described. PMID:27529224

  9. Enzyme release and superoxide anion production by human alveolar macrophages stimulated with immunoglobulin E.

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, M; Tonnel, A B; Capron, A; Voisin, C

    1980-01-01

    Human alveolar macrophages specifically released lysosomal beta-glucuronidase and neutral proteases when successively incubated with IgE, and then, for 30 min, with anti-IgE. Superoxide anion O2- generation was obtained when anti-IgE-opsonized zymosan was added to IgE-incubated cells. Macrophages from smokers excreted twice as much enzymes and superoxide as cells from non-smokers. It was possible to induce the specific release of beta-glucuronidase with normal alveolar macrophages successively incubated with the serum of patients allergic to house dust or to grass pollen and then with the specific allergen. This characteristic opens the field to a direct test for allergic sera by analogy with the allergen-induced degranulation test of sensitized basophils. PMID:6254706

  10. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

  11. [Cough and hypoxemia as clinical manifestation of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Clinical case report].

    PubMed

    Nieto, Mary; Dicembrino, Manuela; Ferraz, Rubén; Romagnoli, Fernando; Giugno, Hilda; Ernst, Glenda; Siminovich, Monica; Botto, Hugo

    2016-06-01

    Alveolar proteinosis is a rare chronic lung disease, especially in children, characterized by abnormal accumulation of lipoproteins and derived surfactant in the intra-alveolar space that generates a severe reduction of gas exchange. Idiopathic presentation form constitutes over 90% of cases, a phenomenon associated with production of autoimmune antibodies directed at the receptor for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. A case of a girl of 5 years of age treated because of atypical pneumonia with unfavorable evolution due to persistent hypoxemia is presented. The diagnosis is obtained through pathologic examination of lung biopsy by thoracotomy, as treatment is carried out by 17bronchopulmonary bronchoscopy lavages and the patient evidences marked clinical improvement.

  12. [Rare case of cystic disease of the liver - alveolar echinococcosis of the liver].

    PubMed

    Kupka, Tomáš; Baľa, Peter; Hozáková, Lubomíra; Havelka, Jaroslav; Bojková, Martina; Břegová, Bohdana; Martínek, Arnošt; Dítě, Petr

    2015-06-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis is a rare parasitic disease, especially of liver, caused by larval stage of tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. At the end of the last century France, Germany, Austria and Switzerland were the most often regions with this disease, these days is this infection diagnosed also in our territory. We describe the case of the disease of the twenty-five years old male with nonspecific signs and hepatomegaly, who was diagnosed on the basis of imaging and laboratory sampling. Due to inoperability the patient is now in infectologist follow-up on a long-term treatment with albendazole. He is clinically stable, included in waiting list for liver transplantation.Key words: alveolar echinococcosis - benzimidazols - Echinococcus multilocularis - parasitic disease of liver. PMID:26258967

  13. Palatal and alveolar arch dimensions in 47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) men.

    PubMed

    Laine, T; Alvesalo, L

    1993-02-01

    Men with one extra X chromosome (47,XXY; Klinefelter syndrome) show a tendency to have a shallower but longer palate than normal (46,XY) men. The palate is also narrower than in 46,XY men. The mandible is clearly narrower but sagittally longer compared with the mandibles of 46,XY men. The present results indicate that the presence of one extra X chromosome in 47,XXY men is reflected in decreased growth of the maxilla transversely and vertically and of the mandible transversely. Increased length of the alveolar arches might be partly a compensation for the decreased width of the alveolar arch. This change might be associated with larger tooth sizes in 47,XXY men. Unbalanced appositional growth rather than disturbances in other orofacial growth mechanisms might be associated with the XXY sex chromosome pattern.

  14. Exposure of surfactant protein A to ozone in vitro and in vivo impairs its interactions with alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oosting, R.S.; Van Iwaarden, J.F.; Van Bree, L.; Verhoef, J.; Van Golde, L.M.; Haagsman, H.P. )

    1992-01-01

    This study focused on the question of whether exposure of surfactant protein A (SP-A) to ozone affected properties of this protein that may be involved in regulating alveolar type II cell and alveolar macrophage functions. In vitro exposure of human or canine SP-A to ozone reduced the ability of this protein to inhibit phorbol-ester induced secretion of (3H)phosphatidylcholine by alveolar type II cells in culture. Ozone-exposed human SP-A showed a decreased ability to enhance phagocytosis of herpes simplex virus and to stimulate superoxide anion production by alveolar macrophages. Experiments with elastase showed that ozone-exposed canine SP-A was more susceptible to proteolysis. A conformational change of the protein could underlie this phenomenon. Surfactant isolated from ozone-exposed rats (0.4 ppm ozone for 12 h) was also less able to stimulate superoxide anion production by alveolar macrophages than surfactant from control rats, which suggested that SP-A in vivo was also susceptible to ozone. The results of this study suggest that SP-A-alveolar cell interactions can be inhibited by ozone exposure, which may contribute to the toxicity of ozone in the lungs.

  15. Anatomy of Mandibular Vital Structures. Part I: Mandibular Canal and Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle in Relation with Dental Implantology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hom-Lay; Sabalys, Gintautas

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives It is critical to determine the location and configuration of the mandibular canal and related vital structures during the implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature concerning the mandibular canal and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle anatomical variations related to the implant surgery. Material and Methods Literature was selected through the search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandibular canal, inferior alveolar nerve, and inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1973 to November 2009. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy, dental implant, prosthetic and periodontal journals and books were performed. Results In total, 46 literature sources were obtained and morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to implant treatment in posterior mandible were presented as two entities: intraosseous mandibular canal and associated inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle. Conclusions A review of morphological aspects and variations of the anatomy related to mandibular canal and mandibular vital structures are very important especially in implant therapy since inferior alveolar neurovascular bundle exists in different locations and possesses many variations. Individual, gender, age, race, assessing technique used and degree of edentulous alveolar bone atrophy largely influence these variations. It suggests that osteotomies in implant dentistry should not be developed in the posterior mandible until the position of the mandibular canal is established. PMID:24421958

  16. Changes in cytokine and nitric oxide secretion by rat alveolar macrophages after oral administration of bacterial extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Broug-Holub, E; Persoons, J H; Schornagel, K; Kraal, G

    1995-01-01

    Oral administration of the bacterial immunomodulator Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85), a lysate of eight bacteria strains commonly causing respiratory disease, has been shown to enhance the host defence of the respiratory tract. In this study we examined the effect of orally administered (in vivo) OM-85 on stimulus-induced cytokine and nitric oxide secretion by rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. The results show that alveolar macrophages isolated from OM-85-treated rats secreted significantly more nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-1 beta upon in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas, in contrast, LPS-induced IL-6 secretion was significantly lower. The observed effects of in vivo OM-85 treatment on stimulus-induced cytokine secretion in vitro are not due to a direct effect of OM-85 on the cells, because in vitro incubation of alveolar macrophages with OM-85 did not result in altered activity, nor did direct intratracheal instillation of OM-85 in the lungs of rats result in altered alveolar macrophage activity in vitro. It is hypothesized that oral administration of OM-85 leads to priming of alveolar macrophages in such a way that immune responses are non-specifically enhanced upon stimulation. The therapeutic action of OM-85 may therefore result from an enhanced clearance of infectious bacteria from the respiratory tract due to increased alveolar macrophage activity. PMID:7648713

  17. Pulmonary Alveolar Type II Epithelial Cells and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    During the past ten years, functions of alveolar type II cells have been well characterized with isolated cells in vitro. Some of the functions were well known from studies in vivo, but others such as transepithelial sodium transport were unsuspected. A better understanding of this important pulmonary cell type improves our knowledge of the pathophysiology of adult respiratory distress syndrome and may in time lead to new therapeutic strategies. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:3909639

  18. Osteoclastogenesis in Local Alveolar Bone in Early Decortication-Facilitated Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Jiang, Yu-Xi; Qu, Hong; Li, Cui-Ying; Jiang, Jiu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effects of alveolar decortication on local bone remodeling, and to explore the possible mechanism by which decortication facilitates tooth movement. Materials and Methods Forty rabbits were included in the experiment. The left mandible was subjected to decortication-facilitated orthodontics, and the right mandible underwent traditional orthodontics as a control. The animals were sacrificed on the days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14, after undergoing orthodontic procedures. Tooth movement was measured by Micro-CT, and the local periodontal tissues were investigated using H&E, Masson's trichrome and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. The mRNA levels of genes related to bone remodeling in the alveolar bone were analyzed using real-time PCR. Result On days 3, 5, 7 and 14, tooth movement was statistically accelerated by decortication (P < 0.05) and was accompanied by increased hyperemia. Despite the lack of new bone formation in both groups, more osteoclasts were noted in the decorticated group, with two peak counts (P < 0.05). The first peak count was consistent with the maximum values of ctsk and TRAP expression, and the second peak counts accompanied the maximum nfatc1 and jdp2 expression. The increased fra2 expression and the ratio of rankl/opg also accompanied the second peak counts. Conclusions Following alveolar decortication, osteoclastogenesis was initially induced to a greater degree than the new bone formation which was thought to have caused a regional acceleratory phenomenon (RAP). The amount of steoclastogenesis in the decorticated alveolar bone was found to have two peaks, perhaps due to attenuated local resistance. The first peak count in osteoclasts may have been due to previously existing osteoclast precursors, whereas the second may represent the differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells which came from circulation as the result of hyperemia. PMID:27096621

  19. Acute ozone-induced lung injury in rats: Structural-functional relationships of developing alveolar edema

    SciTech Connect

    Paterson, J.F.; Hammond, M.D.; Montgomery, M.R.; Sharp, J.T.; Farrier, S.E.; Balis, J.U. )

    1992-11-01

    As part of a study on the effects of acute ozone stress on the lung surfactant system, we correlated morphometric, biochemical, and functional indices of lung injury using male rats exposed to 3 ppm ozone for 1, 2, 4, and 8 hr. Evaluation of lung mechanics, using the Pulmonary Evaluation and Diagnostic Laboratory System, revealed a significant decrease in dynamic lung compliance (ml/cmH[sub 2]O/kg) from a control value of 0.84 [plus minus] 0.02 (SEM) to 0.72 [plus minus] 0.04 and 0.57 [plus minus] 0.06 at 4 and 8 hr, respectively. At 2 hr there was a transient increase in PaO[sub 2] to 116 torr (control = 92 torr) followed by a decrease at 4 hr (65 torr) and 8 hr (55 torr). Morphometry of lung tissue, fixed by perfusion of fixative via the pulmonary artery at 12 cm H[sub 2]O airway distending pressure, demonstrated an increase in the area of the intravascular compartment at 8 hr, in association with a 65 and 39% replacement of the alveolar area by fluid in ventral and dorsal lung regions, respectively. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.966) between alveolar edema and transudated proteins in lavage fluid. A stepwise multiple regression model, with edema as the dependent variable, suggested that pulmonary vasodilatation, hypoxemia, and depletion of surfactant tubular myelin in lavage fluid were indices for predicting alveolar edema. In a second model, with lavage protein concentration as the dependent variable, decreasing dynamic compliance and hypoxemia were predictors of progressive, intraalveolar transudation of plasma proteins. The above structural-functional relationships support the concept that ozone-induced high-protein alveolar edema is pathogenetically linked to pulmonary hyperemia, deficiency of surfactant tubular myelin, and associated lung dysfunctions.

  20. Human in vivo fluorescence microimaging of the alveolar ducts and sacs during bronchoscopy.

    PubMed

    Thiberville, L; Salaün, M; Lachkar, S; Dominique, S; Moreno-Swirc, S; Vever-Bizet, C; Bourg-Heckly, G

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) as a tool for imaging the alveolar respiratory system in vivo during bronchoscopy. A 488-nm excitation wavelength FCFM device was used in 41 healthy subjects including 17 active smokers. After topical anaesthesia, the 1.4-mm miniprobe was introduced into the bronchoscope working channel and advanced distally to the alveoli. Morphometric and cellular analyses were performed on selected frames harbouring a minimal compression effect. In vivo acinar microimaging was obtained from each lung segment except for the apical and posterior segments of both upper lobes. Reproducible patterns, corresponding to the elastic framework of the axial and peripheral interstitial systems, were recorded from 192 separate acini. The mean+/-sd thickness of the acinar elastic fibres was 10+/-2.7 microm. Alveolar mouth diameters (mean+/-sd 278+/-53 microm) were normally distributed but appeared smaller in the right upper lobe and right medial basal segment. Lobular microvessels (median diameter 90 microm) were equally distributed throughout the lungs. Alveolar macrophages were not detectable in nonsmokers, whereas a specific tobacco-tar-induced fluorescence was observed in smoking subjects, providing fine details of the alveolar walls and macrophages. A strong correlation was found between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the amount of large and mobile macrophages observed in vivo, as well as with the intensity of the macrophage alveolitis. Fibred confocal fluorescence microscopy enables accurate exploration of the peripheral lung in vivo in both smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:19213792

  1. A Novel Approach to Treat Traumatized Alveolar Ridges: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mahesh; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Functional forces are transmitted to the basal seat mucosa through a hard denture base during mastication. Such hard base dentures are not comfortably tolerated in patients with fragile oral mucosa and will cause sore spots, masticatory pain, and further resorption of alveolar bone. Soft liners materials can be advocated successfully to manage such clinical situations. The soft liner material absorbs masticatory forces by means of the cushioning effect and distributes occlusal forces uniformly to prevent trauma to compromised residual ridges.

  2. Enhanced alveolar monocytic phagocyte (macrophage) proliferation in tobacco and marijuana smokers

    SciTech Connect

    Barbers, R.G.; Evans, M.J.; Gong, H. Jr.; Tashkin, D.P. )

    1991-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that enhanced cell division accounted for the augmented numbers of monocytic phagocytes with characteristics attributed to alveolar macrophages (AM) found in the lungs of habitual tobacco (T) and marijuana (M) smokers. The monocytic phagocytes, that is, alveolar macrophages, were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 12 nonsmoking subjects; 10 subjects who smoked T only (TS); 13 subjects who smoked M only (MS); and 6 smokers of both T and M (MTS). The replication of these cells was determined by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)thymidine into the DNA of dividing cells and visually counting 2,000 cells on autoradiographically prepared cytocentrifuge cell preparations. This study demonstrated that the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled monocytic phagocytes with characteristics of alveolar macrophages from either TS or MS have a higher proliferative index compared to cells (macrophages) from nonsmokers, p less than 0.05 by one-way ANOVA. The total number of BAL macrophages that are in mitosis in TS (17.90 +/- 4.50 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) or MTS (10.50 +/- 4.20 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are 18- and 10-fold greater, respectively, than the number obtained from nonsmokers (1.01 +/- 0.18 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml). Interestingly, the number of ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled macrophages from MS (2.90 +/- 0.66 labeled AM x 10(3)/ml) are also greater than the number obtained from nonsmokers, although this is not statistically significant. The stimulus augmenting alveolar macrophage replication is as yet unknown but may likely be found in the T or M smoke.

  3. Alveolar data in healthy, awake neonates during spontaneous ventilation: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Lagneaux, D; Mossay, C; Geubelle, F; Christiaens, G

    1988-01-01

    A computerized method for the measurement of alveolar ventilation (VA) and the mean alveolar partial pressures of CO2 and O2 is described and tested in healthy, awake fullterm (FT) newborns and preterm (PT) infants (postnatal age 40 days). This study emphasizes the technical pitfalls generally encountered when dealing with very small infants. A sensitive pneumotachograph with a small dead space volume and a low-flow sampling system for the gas analyzer are minimum requirements. Under these technical conditions, the major problem is the scanning time of the mass spectrometer (50 Hz), which fixes the time constant, as well as the digitization sampling rate of the gas signals. This rate was not sufficient when the respiratory rate was above 90 min-1. As critical visual evaluation of each breath is required, fully automatic access to mean alveolar data is not possible. The mean dead-space volume in both FT and PT infants was 2 ml.kg-1, with a VD/VT ratio of 0.3. The mean alveolar point was 2/3 VT, as found in adults. When expressed as ml.min-1.kg-1, VA appeared to be higher than in other studies, but related to the metabolic requirements. (VCO2 = 7.8 +/- 0.2 ml.min-1.kg-1 and VO2 = 8.0 +/- 0.2 ml.min-1.kg-1), in accordance with the state of vigilance of the neonates. Indeed, the PACO2 values, which depend on the ratio VCO2/VA, are in agreement with the values of PaCO2 generally considered normal in healthy newborns over 1 week of age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3237450

  4. Diminished Alveolar Microvascular Reserves in Type 2 Diabetes Reflect Systemic Microangiopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chance, William W.; Rhee, Chanhaeng; Yilmaz, Cuneyt; Dane, D. Merrill; Pruneda, M. Lourdes; Raskin, Philip; Hsia, Connie C.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Alveolar microvascular function is moderately impaired in type 1 diabetes, as manifested by restriction of lung volume and diffusing capacity (DLCO). We examined whether similar impairment develops in type 2 diabetes and defined the physiologic sources of impairment as well as the relationships to glycemia and systemic microangiopathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A cross-sectional study was conducted at a university-affiliated diabetes treatment center and outpatient diabetes clinic, involving 69 nonsmoking type 2 diabetic patients without overt cardiopulmonary disease. Lung volume, pulmonary blood flow (Q̇), DLCO, membrane diffusing capacity (measured from nitric oxide uptake [DLNO]), and pulmonary capillary blood volume (VC) were determined at rest and exercise for comparison with those in 45 healthy nonsmokers as well as with normal reference values. RESULTS—In type 2 diabetic patients, peak levels of oxygen uptake, Q̇ and DLCO, DLNO, and VC at exercise were 10–25% lower compared with those in control subjects. In nonobese patients (BMI <30 kg/m2), reductions in DLCO, DLNO, and VC were fully explained by the lower lung volume and peak Q̇, but these factors did not fully explain the impairment in obese patients (BMI >30 kg/m2). The slope of the increase in VC with respect to Q̇ was reduced ∼20% in patients regardless of BMI, consistent with impaired alveolar-capillary recruitment. Functional impairment was directly related to A1C level, retinopathy, neuropathy, and microalbuminuria in a sex-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS—Alveolar microvascular reserves are reduced in type 2 diabetes, reflecting restriction of lung volume, alveolar perfusion, and capillary recruitment. This reduction correlates with glycemic control and extrapulmonary microangiopathy and is aggravated by obesity. PMID:18492945

  5. Inhibiting NF-κB in the developing lung disrupts angiogenesis and alveolarization.

    PubMed

    Iosef, Cristiana; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Hou, Yanli; Chen, Chihhsin; Adams, Eloa S; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Cornfield, David N; Alvira, Cristina M

    2012-05-15

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of infancy, is characterized by arrested alveolar development. Pulmonary angiogenesis, mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, is essential for alveolarization. However, the transcriptional regulators mediating pulmonary angiogenesis remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that NF-κB, a transcription factor traditionally associated with inflammation, plays a unique protective role in the neonatal lung. Therefore, we hypothesized that constitutive NF-κB activity is essential for postnatal lung development. Blocking NF-κB activity in 6-day-old neonatal mice induced the alveolar simplification similar to that observed in BPD and significantly reduced pulmonary capillary density. Studies to determine the mechanism responsible for this effect identified greater constitutive NF-κB in neonatal lung and in primary pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) compared with adult. Moreover, inhibiting constitutive NF-κB activity in the neonatal PEC with either pharmacological inhibitors or RNA interference blocked PEC survival, decreased proliferation, and impaired in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, NF-κB was found to be a direct regulator of the angiogenic mediator, VEGF-receptor-2, in the neonatal pulmonary vasculature. Taken together, our data identify an entirely novel role for NF-κB in promoting physiological angiogenesis and alveolarization in the developing lung. Our data suggest that disruption of NF-κB signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD and that enhancement of NF-κB may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to promote lung growth and regeneration in pulmonary diseases marked by impaired angiogenesis.

  6. Biophysical determinants of alveolar epithelial plasma membrane wounding associated with mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Omar; Walters, Bruce; Stroetz, Randolph; Valencia, Paul; McCall, Deborah; Hubmayr, Rolf D

    2013-10-01

    Mechanical ventilation may cause harm by straining lungs at a time they are particularly prone to injury from deforming stress. The objective of this study was to define the relative contributions of alveolar overdistension and cyclic recruitment and "collapse" of unstable lung units to membrane wounding of alveolar epithelial cells. We measured the interactive effects of tidal volume (VT), transpulmonary pressure (PTP), and of airspace liquid on the number of alveolar epithelial cells with plasma membrane wounds in ex vivo mechanically ventilated rat lungs. Plasma membrane integrity was assessed by propidium iodide (PI) exclusion in confocal images of subpleural alveoli. Cyclic inflations of normal lungs from zero end-expiratory pressure to 40 cmH2O produced VT values of 56.9 ± 3.1 ml/kg and were associated with 0.12 ± 0.12 PI-positive cells/alveolus. A preceding tracheal instillation of normal saline (3 ml) reduced VT to 49.1 ± 6 ml/kg but was associated with a significantly greater number of wounded alveolar epithelial cells (0.52 ± 0.16 cells/alveolus; P < 0.01). Mechanical ventilation of completely saline-filled lungs with saline (VT = 52 ml/kg) to pressures between 10 and 15 cmH2O was associated with the least number of wounded epithelial cells (0.02 ± 0.02 cells/alveolus; P < 0.01). In mechanically ventilated, partially saline-filled lungs, the number of wounded cells increased substantially with VT, but, once VT was accounted for, wounding was independent of maximal PTP. We found that interfacial stress associated with the generation and destruction of liquid bridges in airspaces is the primary biophysical cell injury mechanism in mechanically ventilated lungs. PMID:23997173

  7. A Novel Approach to Treat Traumatized Alveolar Ridges: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Mahesh; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Functional forces are transmitted to the basal seat mucosa through a hard denture base during mastication. Such hard base dentures are not comfortably tolerated in patients with fragile oral mucosa and will cause sore spots, masticatory pain, and further resorption of alveolar bone. Soft liners materials can be advocated successfully to manage such clinical situations. The soft liner material absorbs masticatory forces by means of the cushioning effect and distributes occlusal forces uniformly to prevent trauma to compromised residual ridges. PMID:27595024

  8. Difficulties in the diagnosis and management of alveolar hydatid disease: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Maddah, Ghodratollah; Abdollahi, Abbas; Sharifi-Nooghabi, Reza; Tavassoli, Alireza; Rajabi-Mashadi, Mohammad Taghi; Jabbari-Nooghabi, Azadeh; Jabbari-Nooghabi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a chronic, rare and sometimes lethal parasitic infection in humans, caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. This study aimed to investigate the clinical aspects and treatment outcomes of patients with alveolar hydatid disease. Methods: The medical records of patients with alveolar echinococcosis admitted between 1997 and 2012 were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by physical examination, ultrasonography and CT scanning and MRI. Various treatment techniques were used such as complete liver resection in seven (38.89%) patients, biliary bypass in two (11.11%) patients, laparotomy and tumor biopsy in eight (44.44%) patients and long term medical treatment in one (5.56%) patient. After discharge, all patients were followed to determine the effect of treatment, complications, recurrences and survival. Results: A total of 18 patients with mean age of 46.11±15.14 years (range 23-74 years) were studied. The disease was more prevalent in women than men (78.9% vs 4, 21.1%, P=0.021). Fourteen (77.78%) patients live in Chenaran, a town located in Khorasan, Iran). Death occurred in (22.22%) patients after an average period of 45.70±7.50 months after disease onset. 14 remaining patients survived after a mean follow-up duration of 54.60±29.17 months. Conclusion: Diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis should be considered in endemic area. Early diagnosis and treatment is associated with excellent outcome. PMID:26958334

  9. Squamous cell carcinoma of the alveolar ridge and palate. A 15-year survey.

    PubMed Central

    Ildstad, S T; Bigelow, M E; Remensnyder, J P

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective review of 82 patients treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 1962 through 1976 for squamous cell carcinoma of the maxillary and mandibular alveolar ridge and soft and hard palates is presented. Stage at first presentation, clinical features of the disease, analysis of current therapeutic modalities, survival statistics, and prevalence of second primary malignancies are analyzed and compared with reports from other large centers. PMID:6712321

  10. Rapid elevation of sodium transport through insulin is mediated by AKT in alveolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, Charlott; Laube, Mandy; Thome, Ulrich H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Alveolar fluid clearance is driven by vectorial Na+ transport and promotes postnatal lung adaptation. The effect of insulin on alveolar epithelial Na+ transport was studied in isolated alveolar cells from 18–19‐day gestational age rat fetuses. Equivalent short‐circuit currents (ISC) were measured in Ussing chambers and different kinase inhibitors were used to determine the pathway of insulin stimulation. In Western Blot measurements the activation of mediators stimulated by insulin was analyzed. The ISC showed a fast dose‐dependent increase by insulin, which could be attributed to an increased ENaC (epithelial Na+ channel) activity in experiments with permeabilized apical or basolateral membrane. 5‐(N‐Ethyl‐N‐isopropyl)amiloride inhibition of ISC was not affected, however, benzamil‐sensitive ISC was increased in insulin‐stimulated monolayers. The application of LY‐294002 and Akti1/2 both completely blocked the stimulating effect of insulin on ISC. PP242 partly blocked the effect of insulin, whereas Rapamycin evoked no inhibition. Western Blot measurements revealed an increased phosphorylation of AKT after insulin stimulation. SGK1 activity was also increased by insulin as shown by Western Blot of pNDRG1. However, in Ussing chamber measurements, GSK650394, an inhibitor of SGK1 did not prevent the increase in ISC induced by insulin. The application of IGF‐1 mimicked the effect of insulin and increased the ENaC activity. In addition, an increased autophosphorylation of the IGF‐1R/IR was observed after insulin stimulation. We conclude that insulin rapidly increases epithelial Na+ transport by enhancing the activity of endogenous ENaC through activation of PI3K/AKT in alveolar cells. PMID:24760523

  11. Alveolar bone remodeling in the early stage of experimental apical periodontitis in the rat mandible.

    PubMed

    Yamaga, M; Iwaku, M; Ozawa, H

    1992-05-01

    Apical periodontitis was surgically induced in the mandibular first molar of rats and chronological changes in the periapical bone tissue were observed by histochemistry and electron microscopy. On the second postoperative day (Day 2), tartrateresistant acid phosphatase (TRACPase)-positive cells emerged on the bone surface facing the inferior alveolar nerve, whereas alkaline phosphatase (ALPase)-positive cells proliferated on the bone marrow surface of the mandibular canal wall. On Day 3, the active resorption of the mandibular canal wall appeared on the surface facing the inferior alveolar nerve. The bone of the upper wall of the canal was completely resorbed. On Day 4, however, numerous ALPase-positive cells emerged over the bone surface facing the inferior alveolar nerve intermingled with TRACPase-positive cells. On Day 5, repair of the upper wall of the mandibular canal by new bone progressed. Bone formation was also observed on the bone surface facing the inferior alveolar nerve. On Day 6, the upper wall of the mandibular canal was remodeled by the new bone, whereas TRACPase-positive cells had already migrated over the bone surface in the vicinity of ALPase-positive cells. From Days 2 to 5, active trabecular bone formation continued in the bone marrow cavity close to the mandibular canal, while TRACPase-positive cells were found only on Day 6. These demonstrate that inflammatory stimuli activate bone formation coupled with bone resorption, as well as direct trabecular bone formation without a bone resorption phase. A rapid bone turnover in the early stage of apical periodontitis is also suggested. We conclude that bone defects in apical periodontitis are not the result of sole bone resorption but rather, active bone remodeling. PMID:1497944

  12. A Novel Approach to Treat Traumatized Alveolar Ridges: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mahesh; Menghani, Sneha; Devi, Jyoti; Gupta, Rekha; Gill, Shubhra

    2016-01-01

    Functional forces are transmitted to the basal seat mucosa through a hard denture base during mastication. Such hard base dentures are not comfortably tolerated in patients with fragile oral mucosa and will cause sore spots, masticatory pain, and further resorption of alveolar bone. Soft liners materials can be advocated successfully to manage such clinical situations. The soft liner material absorbs masticatory forces by means of the cushioning effect and distributes occlusal forces uniformly to prevent trauma to compromised residual ridges. PMID:27595024

  13. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry analysis of healthy and emphysemic alveolar sac models.

    PubMed

    Berg, Emily J; Robinson, Risa J

    2011-06-01

    Emphysema is a progressive lung disease that involves permanent destruction of the alveolar walls. Fluid mechanics in the pulmonary region and how they are altered with the presence of emphysema are not well understood. Much of our understanding of the flow fields occurring in the healthy pulmonary region is based on idealized geometries, and little attention has been paid to emphysemic geometries. The goal of this research was to utilize actual replica lung geometries to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern fluid motion and particle transport in the most distal regions of the lung and to compare the differences that exist between healthy and emphysematous lungs. Excised human healthy and emphysemic lungs were cast, scanned, graphically reconstructed, and used to fabricate clear, hollow, compliant models. Three dimensional flow fields were obtained experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry techniques for healthy and emphysematic breathing conditions. Measured alveolar velocities ranged over two orders of magnitude from the duct entrance to the wall in both models. Recirculating flow was not found in either the healthy or the emphysematic model, while the average flow rate was three times larger in emphysema as compared to healthy. Diffusion dominated particle flow, which is characteristic in the pulmonary region of the healthy lung, was not seen for emphysema, except for very small particle sizes. Flow speeds dissipated quickly in the healthy lung (60% reduction in 0.25 mm) but not in the emphysematic lung (only 8% reduction 0.25 mm). Alveolar ventilation per unit volume was 30% smaller in emphysema compared to healthy. Destruction of the alveolar walls in emphysema leads to significant differences in flow fields between the healthy and emphysemic lung. Models based on replica geometry provide a useful means to quantify these differences and could ultimately improve our understanding of disease progression. PMID:21744924

  14. Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis: report of two brothers with the same illness and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sardar, Hussain; Al-Habbo, Dhaher J S; Al-Hayali, Rami M A

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare lung disease characterised by extensive deposition of calpospherites within the alveoli. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene SLC34A2 encoding sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter. It is an autosomal recessive disease with sporadic cases worldwide. Most patients are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. It may progress slowly over years to respiratory failure and cor pulmonale. PMID:24686795

  15. Inhibiting NF-κB in the developing lung disrupts angiogenesis and alveolarization

    PubMed Central

    Iosef, Cristiana; Alastalo, Tero-Pekka; Hou, Yanli; Chen, Chihhsin; Adams, Eloa S.; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Cornfield, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), a chronic lung disease of infancy, is characterized by arrested alveolar development. Pulmonary angiogenesis, mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, is essential for alveolarization. However, the transcriptional regulators mediating pulmonary angiogenesis remain unknown. We previously demonstrated that NF-κB, a transcription factor traditionally associated with inflammation, plays a unique protective role in the neonatal lung. Therefore, we hypothesized that constitutive NF-κB activity is essential for postnatal lung development. Blocking NF-κB activity in 6-day-old neonatal mice induced the alveolar simplification similar to that observed in BPD and significantly reduced pulmonary capillary density. Studies to determine the mechanism responsible for this effect identified greater constitutive NF-κB in neonatal lung and in primary pulmonary endothelial cells (PEC) compared with adult. Moreover, inhibiting constitutive NF-κB activity in the neonatal PEC with either pharmacological inhibitors or RNA interference blocked PEC survival, decreased proliferation, and impaired in vitro angiogenesis. Finally, by chromatin immunoprecipitation, NF-κB was found to be a direct regulator of the angiogenic mediator, VEGF-receptor-2, in the neonatal pulmonary vasculature. Taken together, our data identify an entirely novel role for NF-κB in promoting physiological angiogenesis and alveolarization in the developing lung. Our data suggest that disruption of NF-κB signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of BPD and that enhancement of NF-κB may represent a viable therapeutic strategy to promote lung growth and regeneration in pulmonary diseases marked by impaired angiogenesis. PMID:22367785

  16. Stereoscopic particle image velocimetry analysis of healthy and emphysemic alveolar sac models.

    PubMed

    Berg, Emily J; Robinson, Risa J

    2011-06-01

    Emphysema is a progressive lung disease that involves permanent destruction of the alveolar walls. Fluid mechanics in the pulmonary region and how they are altered with the presence of emphysema are not well understood. Much of our understanding of the flow fields occurring in the healthy pulmonary region is based on idealized geometries, and little attention has been paid to emphysemic geometries. The goal of this research was to utilize actual replica lung geometries to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms that govern fluid motion and particle transport in the most distal regions of the lung and to compare the differences that exist between healthy and emphysematous lungs. Excised human healthy and emphysemic lungs were cast, scanned, graphically reconstructed, and used to fabricate clear, hollow, compliant models. Three dimensional flow fields were obtained experimentally using stereoscopic particle image velocimetry techniques for healthy and emphysematic breathing conditions. Measured alveolar velocities ranged over two orders of magnitude from the duct entrance to the wall in both models. Recirculating flow was not found in either the healthy or the emphysematic model, while the average flow rate was three times larger in emphysema as compared to healthy. Diffusion dominated particle flow, which is characteristic in the pulmonary region of the healthy lung, was not seen for emphysema, except for very small particle sizes. Flow speeds dissipated quickly in the healthy lung (60% reduction in 0.25 mm) but not in the emphysematic lung (only 8% reduction 0.25 mm). Alveolar ventilation per unit volume was 30% smaller in emphysema compared to healthy. Destruction of the alveolar walls in emphysema leads to significant differences in flow fields between the healthy and emphysemic lung. Models based on replica geometry provide a useful means to quantify these differences and could ultimately improve our understanding of disease progression.

  17. Improving oral rehabilitation through the preservation of the tissues through alveolar preservation

    PubMed Central

    Kurtzman, Gregori Michael; Mahesh, Lanka

    2012-01-01

    When performing a tooth extraction, imminent collapse of the tissue by resorption and remodeling of the socket is a natural occurrence. The procedure for the preservation of the alveolar ridge has been widely described in the dental literatures and aims to maintain hard and soft tissues in the extraction site for optimal rehabilitation either with conventional fixed or removable prosthetics or implant-supported prosthesis. PMID:22977727

  18. Both bronchial and alveolar exhaled nitric oxide are reduced with extrafine beclomethasone dipropionate in asthma.

    PubMed

    Nicolini, Gabriele; Chetta, Alfredo; Simonazzi, Anna; Tzani, Panayota; Aiello, Marina; Olivieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation. Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is the only inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) available as both extrafine and nonextrafine hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) formulation. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the different patterns of lung deposition of two HFA BDP formulations are associated with a different effect on bronchial and alveolar NO. This was a prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled, crossover study. After a 2-week placebo run-in period without ICSs, asthmatic patients were randomized to extrafine BDP, 100 μg, b.i.d. or nonextrafine BDP, 250 μg, b.i.d. for two 2-week periods separated by a 2-week washout period. Fourteen patients (5 men) with a mean age 37 years and mean baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) of 83% of predicted were analyzed. Exhaled bronchial NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced in both treatment groups when compared with the last week of run-in period, whereas alveolar NO was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced only with extrafine BDP. Moreover, extrafine BDP was superior to nonextrafine BDP in both parameters (p < 0.05). Extrafine but not nonextrafine BDP HFA formulation lowers both bronchial and alveolar exhaled NO in asthmatic patients. ICS distribution throughout the whole bronchial tree could be important in patients who do not gain optimal control of inflammation with conventional nonextrafine ICS.

  19. Ozone-induced alterations of lamellar body lipid and protein during alveolar injury and repair

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.A.; Paciga, J.E.; Paterson, J.F.; Balis, J.U. )

    1989-09-01

    Alveolar Type II cells in the rat respond to severe, acute ozone injury (3 ppm ozone for eight hours) by increasing their intracellular pool of surfactant; however, the newly stored surfactant is abnormal in composition. Lamellar bodies isolated between 24 and 96 hours after ozone exposure contained significantly more cholesterol in relation to phosphatidylcholine than did controls. By contrast, the cholesterol content of surfactant isolated from alveolar lavage remained unchanged throughout an 8-day post-ozone period. The total protein content of lamellar bodies in relation to phosphatidylcholine was significantly decreased at 24 and 48 hours post-ozone. Analysis of lamellar body proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the amount of a 14 kDa proteolipid was greatly reduced at the end of the eight-hour ozone exposure and remained low for at least 48 hours. This proteolipid appeared to be a specific lamellar body component since it was not detected in extracellular surfactant. The findings indicate that oxidative alveolar stress initiates characteristic alterations in both lipid and protein constituents of stored surfactant, without perturbation in the composition of extracellular surfactant.

  20. Mechanical and structural assessment of cortical and deep cytoskeleton reveals substrate-dependent alveolar macrophage remodeling.

    PubMed

    Féréol, S; Fodil, R; Laurent, V M; Planus, E; Louis, B; Pelle, G; Isabey, D

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of alveolar macrophages to substrate properties has been described in a recent paper (Féréol et al., Cell Motil. Cytoskel. 63 (2006), 321-340). It is presently re-analyzed in terms of F-actin structure (assessed from 3D-reconstructions in fixed cells) and mechanical properties (assessed by Magnetic Twisting Cytometry experiments in living cells) of cortical and deep cytoskeleton structures for rigid plastic (Young Modulus: 3 MPa) or glass (70 MPa) substrates and a soft (approximately 0.1 kPa) confluent monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells. The cortical cytoskeleton component (lowest F-actin density) is represented by the rapid and softer viscoelastic compartment while the deep cytoskeleton component (intermediate F-actin density) is represented by the slow and stiffer compartment. Stiffness of both cortical and deep cytoskeleton is significantly decreased when soft confluent monolayer of alveolar epithelial cells replace the rigid plastic substrate while F-actin reconstructions reveal a consistent actin cytoskeleton remodeling observable on both cytoskeleton components.

  1. Comparison of alveolar and interstitial macrophages in fibroblast stimulation after silica and long or short asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, I.Y.R.; Bowden, D.H. )

    1991-03-15

    Pulmonary fibrosis in response to particles has been attributed to secretion of fibroblast growth factors (FGF) by alveolar macrophages (AM). However, since fibrosis is interstitial and is associated with particle retention by interstitial macrophages (IM), the authors have now compared the secretory activity of FGF by rat alveolar (AM) and interstitial macrophages (IM) in response to silica and to long or short asbestos fibers. AM were obtained by broncho-alveolar lavage, and IM by collecting macrophages that migrate from explants of a previously lavaged and perfused lung. Isolated Am and IM from fibrotic lungs, 6 weeks after instilling silica, secreted equal amounts of FGF. Six weeks after giving short asbestos fibers in vivo, lavaged AM secreted FGF in vitro, but there was no change in fibroblast growth and no fibrosis in vivo. After giving long fibers, which reach the interstitium, isolated IM secreted FGF and collagen levels were increased in whole lung. When macrophages were isolated from normal rats and exposed to particles in vitro, Am and IM supernatants contained equal amounts of FGF. The results show that these macrophage populations respond equally to particles with respect to FGF secretion. The fibrotic reaction seen in vivo is likely due to the close proximity to fibroblasts to particle-laden macrophages within the interstitium allowing more efficient transfer of growth factors.

  2. Targeting of the pulmonary capillary vascular niche promotes lung alveolar repair and ameliorates fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhongwei; Lis, Raphael; Ginsberg, Michael; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y; Fong, Guo-Hua; Sakmar, Thomas P; Rafii, Shahin; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-02-01

    Although the lung can undergo self-repair after injury, fibrosis in chronically injured or diseased lungs can occur at the expense of regeneration. Here we study how a hematopoietic-vascular niche regulates alveolar repair and lung fibrosis. Using intratracheal injection of bleomycin or hydrochloric acid in mice, we show that repetitive lung injury activates pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) and perivascular macrophages, impeding alveolar repair and promoting fibrosis. Whereas the chemokine receptor CXCR7, expressed on PCECs, acts to prevent epithelial damage and ameliorate fibrosis after a single round of treatment with bleomycin or hydrochloric acid, repeated injury leads to suppression of CXCR7 expression and recruitment of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-expressing perivascular macrophages. This recruitment stimulates Wnt/β-catenin-dependent persistent upregulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 (encoded by Jag1) in PCECs, which in turn stimulates exuberant Notch signaling in perivascular fibroblasts and enhances fibrosis. Administration of a CXCR7 agonist or PCEC-targeted Jag1 shRNA after lung injury promotes alveolar repair and reduces fibrosis. Thus, targeting of a maladapted hematopoietic-vascular niche, in which macrophages, PCECs and perivascular fibroblasts interact, may help to develop therapy to spur lung regeneration and alleviate fibrosis.

  3. Long-term follow-up and treatment of congenital alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Clinical presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome of molecularly defined congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) due to mutations in the GM-CSF receptor are not well known. Case presentation A 2 1/2 years old girl was diagnosed as having alveolar proteinosis. Whole lung lavages were performed with a new catheter balloon technique, feasible in small sized airways. Because of some interstitial inflammation in the lung biopsy and to further improve the condition, empirical therapy with systemic steroids and azathioprin, and inhaled and subcutaneous GMCSF, were used. Based on clinical measures, total protein and lipid recovered by whole lung lavages, all these treatments were without benefit. Conversely, severe respiratory viral infections and an invasive aspergillosis with aspergilloma formation occurred. Recently the novel homozygous stop mutation p.Ser25X of the GMCSF receptor alpha chain was identified in the patient. This mutation leads to a lack of functional GMCSF receptor and a reduced response to GMCSF stimulation of CD11b expression of mononuclear cells of the patient. Subsequently a very intense treatment with monthly lavages was initiated, resulting for the first time in complete resolution of partial respiratory insufficiency and a significant improvement of the overall somato-psychosocial condition of the child. Conclusions The long term management from early childhood into young adolescence of severe alveolar proteinosis due to GMCSF receptor deficiency requires a dedicated specialized team to perform technically demanding whole lung lavages and cope with complications. PMID:21849033

  4. Alveolar type I cells protect rat lung epithelium from oxidative injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiwang; Chen, Zhongming; Chintagari, Narendranath Reddy; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Jin, Nili; Narasaraju, Telugu; Liu, Lin

    2006-01-01

    The lung alveolar surface is covered by two morphologically and functionally distinct cells: alveolar epithelial cell types I and II (AEC I and II). The functions of AEC II, including surfactant release, cell differentiation and ion transport, have been extensively studied. However, relatively little is known regarding the physiological functions of AEC I. Global gene expression profiling of freshly isolated AEC I and II revealed that many genes were differentially expressed in AEC I. These genes have a diversity of functions, including cell defence. Nine out of 10 selected genes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Two genes, apolipoprotein E (Apo E) and transferrin, were further characterized and functionally studied. Immunohistochemistry indicated that both proteins were specifically localized in AEC I. Up-regulation of Apo E and transferrin was observed in hyperoxic lungs. Functionally, Apo E and transferrin play a protective role against oxidative stress in an animal model. Our studies suggest that AEC I is not just a simple barrier for gas exchange, but a functional cell that protects alveolar epithelium from injury. PMID:16497717

  5. Influences of Fucoxanthin on Alveolar Bone Resorption in Induced Periodontitis in Rat Molars

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Oguz; Arabaci, Taner; Yemenoglu, Hatice; Kara, Adem; Ozkanlar, Seckin; Kayis, Sevki; Duymus, Zeynep Yesil

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of systemic fucoxanthin treatment on alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. Thirty rats were divided into control, experimental periodontitis (EP), and experimental periodontitis-fucoxanthin (EP-FUCO) groups. Periodontitis was induced by ligature for four weeks. After removal of the ligature, the rats in the EP-FUCO group were treated with a single dose of fucoxanthin (200 mg/kg bw) per day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of the study, all of the rats were euthanized and intracardiac blood and mandible tissue samples were obtained for biochemical, immunohistochemical, and histometric analyses. Fucoxanthin treatment resulted in a slight decrease in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 levels and a significant decrease in oxidative stress index. It was observed that fucoxanthin caused a significant reduction in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL) levels and a statistically non-significant elevation in osteoprotegerin and bone-alkaline phosphatase levels. There were no significant differences in alveolar bone loss levels between the EP and EP-FUCO groups. This experimental study revealed that fucoxanthin provides a limited reduction in alveolar bone resorption in rats with periodontitis. One of the mechanisms underlying the mentioned limited effect might be related to the ability of fucoxanthin to inhibit oxidative stress-related RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27043583

  6. In vitro toxicity of gallium arsenide in alveolar macrophages evaluated by magnetometry, cytochemistry and morphology.

    PubMed

    Okada, M; Karube, H; Niitsuya, M; Aizawa, Y; Okayasu, I; Kotani, M

    1999-12-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a chemical compound of gallium and arsenic, causes various toxic effects including pulmonary diseases in animals. Since the toxicity is not completely investigated, GaAs has been used in workplaces as the material of various semiconductor products. The present study was conducted to clarify the toxicity of GaAs particles in the alveolar macrophages of hamsters using magnetometry, enzyme release assays and morphological examinations. Alveolar macrophages obtained from hamsters by tracheobronchial lavage and adhered to the disks in the bottom of wells were exposed to ferrosoferric oxide and GaAs particles. Ferrosoferric oxide particles were magnetized externally and the remanent magnetic field was measured. Relaxation, a fast decline of the remanent magnetic fields radiated from the alveolar macrophages, was delayed and decay constants were decreased dose-dependently due to exposure to GaAs. Because the relaxation is thought to be associated with cytoskeleton, the exposure of GaAs may have impaired the motor function of them. Enzyme release assay and morphological findings indicated the damage to the macrophages. Thus the cytotoxicity causes cytostructural changes and cell death. According to DNA electrophoresis and the TUNEL method, necrotic changes occur more frequently than apoptotic changes.

  7. Experimental radiation pneumonitis. Corticosteroids increase the replicative activity of alveolar type 2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, N.J.; Narine, K.R.

    1988-09-01

    Corticosteroid administration during radiation pneumonitis in mice markedly improves the physiologic abnormalities and decreases mortality, an effect that has been attributed to the stimulation of surfactant synthesis and secretion by type 2 alveolar epithelial cells. In the present experiments we explored the effects of corticosteroids on the replicative activity of type 2 cells of lethally irradiated lungs at the height of the radiation reaction. The labeling index of type 2 cells of irradiated mice was increased threefold above that of sham-irradiated controls. Corticosteroids given continuously from 10 weeks after thoracic irradiation further increased the type 2 cell labeling index another threefold above that of irradiated untreated mice. The enhanced reproductive activity of type 2 cells following thoracic irradiation is seen as a protective response that is augmented by corticosteroids, whose effect may be both to improve the physiology of the alveolar surface and to maintain the population of alveolar epithelial cells. The bearing of this result on the controversial role of the type 2 cell as a target in radiation pneumonitis is discussed.

  8. Vimentin is sufficient and required for wound repair and remodeling in alveolar epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rogel, Micah R.; Soni, Pritin N.; Troken, James R.; Sitikov, Albert; Trejo, Humberto E.; Ridge, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological and pathophysiological implications of the expression of vimentin, a type III intermediate filament protein, in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) are unknown. We provide data demonstrating that vimentin is regulated by TGFβ1, a major cytokine released in response to acute lung injury and that vimentin is required for wound repair and remodeling of the alveolar epithelium. Quantitative real-time PCR shows a 16-fold induction of vimentin mRNA in TGFβ1-treated transformed AECs. Luciferase assays identify a Smad-binding element in the 5′ promoter of vimentin responsible for TGFβ1-induced transcription. Notably, TGFβ1 induces vimentin protein expression in AECs, which is associated with a 2.5-fold increase in cell motility, resulting in increased rates of migration and wound closure. These effects are independent of cell proliferation. TGFβ1-mediated vimentin protein expression, cell migration, and wound closure are prevented by a pharmacological inhibitor of the Smad pathway and by expression of Ad-shRNA against vimentin. Conversely, overexpression of mEmerald-vimentin is sufficient for increased cell-migration and wound-closure rates. These results demonstrate that vimentin is required and sufficient for increased wound repair in an in vitro model of lung injury.—Rogel, M. R., Soni, P. N., Troken, J. R., Sitikov, A., Trejo, H. E., Ridge, K. M. Vimentin is sufficient and required for wound repair and remodeling in alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:21803859

  9. Infectious diseases causing diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in immunocompetent patients: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    von Ranke, Felipe Mussi; Zanetti, Gláucia; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2013-02-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) represents a syndrome that can complicate many clinical conditions and may be life-threatening, requiring prompt treatment. It is recognized by the signs of acute- or subacute-onset cough, hemoptysis, diffuse radiographic pulmonary infiltrates, anemia, and hypoxemic respiratory distress. DAH is characterized by the accumulation of intra-alveolar red blood cells originating most frequently from the alveolar capillaries. It must be distinguished from localized pulmonary hemorrhage, which is most commonly due to chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, tumor, or localized infection. Hemoptysis, the major sign of DAH, may develop suddenly or over a period of days to weeks; this sign may also be initially absent, in which case diagnostic suspicion is established after sequential bronchoalveolar lavage reveals worsening red blood cell counts. The causes of DAH can be divided into infectious and noninfectious, the latter of which may affect immunocompetent or immunodeficient patients. Pulmonary infections are rarely reported in association with DAH, but they should be considered in the diagnostic workup because of the obvious therapeutic implications. In immunocompromised patients, the main infectious diseases that cause DAH are cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, invasive aspergillosis, Mycoplasma, Legionella, and Strongyloides. In immunocompetent patients, the infectious diseases that most frequently cause DAH are influenza A (H1N1), dengue, leptospirosis, malaria, and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Based on a search of the PubMed and Scopus databases, we review the infectious diseases that may cause DAH in immunocompetent patients.

  10. Coronectomy of the mandibular third molar: Respect for the inferior alveolar nerve.

    PubMed

    Kouwenberg, A J; Stroy, L P P; Rijt, E D Vree-V D; Mensink, G; Gooris, P J J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of coronectomy as an alternative surgical procedure to complete removal of the impacted mandibular third molar in patients with a suspected close relationship between the tooth root(s) and the mandibular canal. A total of 151 patients underwent coronectomy and were followed up with clinical examinations and panoramic radiographs for a minimum of 6 months after surgery. None of the patients exhibited inferior alveolar nerve injury. Eruption of the retained root(s) was more frequent in younger patients (18-35 years). Thirty-six patients (23.8%) exhibited insufficient growth of new bone in the alveolar defect, and 11.3% required a second surgical procedure to remove the root remnant(s). Our results indicate that coronectomy can be a reliable alternative to complete removal of the impacted mandibular third molar in patients exhibiting an increased risk of damage to the inferior alveolar nerve on panoramic radiographs. PMID:26976696

  11. Functional identification of the alveolar edema reabsorption activity of murine tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Elia, Nadia; Tapponnier, Maxime; Matthay, Michael A; Hamacher, Jurg; Pache, Jean-Claude; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Totsch, Martin; De Baetselier, Patrick; Fransen, Lucie; Fukuda, Norimasa; Morel, Denis R; Lucas, Rudolf

    2003-11-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activates sodium channels in Type II alveolar epithelial cells, an important mechanism for the reported fluid resorption capacity of the cytokine. Both TNF-alpha receptor-dependent and -independent effects were proposed for this activity in vitro, the latter mechanism mediated by the lectin-like domain of the molecule. In this study, the relative contribution of the receptor-dependent versus receptor-independent activities was investigated in an in situ mouse lung model and an ex vivo rat lung model. Fluid resorption due to murine TNF-alpha (mTNF-alpha) was functional in mice that were genetically deficient in both types of mTNF-alpha receptor, establishing the importance of mTNF-alpha receptor-independent effects in this species. In addition, we assessed the capacity of an mTNF-alpha-derived peptide (mLtip), which activates sodium transport by a receptor-independent mechanism, to reduce lung water content in an isolated, ventilated, autologous blood-perfused rat lung model. The results show that in this model, mLtip, in contrast to mTNF-alpha, produced a progressive recovery of dynamic lung compliance and airway resistance after alveolar flooding. There was also a significant reduction in lung water. These results indicate that the receptor-independent lectin-like domain of mTNF-alpha has a potential physiological role in the resolution of alveolar edema in rats and mice.

  12. Modeling In Vivo Interactions of Engineered Nanoparticles in the Pulmonary Alveolar Lining Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Porter, Alexandra; Ryan, Mary; Schwander, Stephan; Chung, Kian Fan; Tetley, Teresa; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products may result in widespread human inhalation exposures. Due to their high surface area per unit mass, inhaled ENMs interact with multiple components of the pulmonary system, and these interactions affect their ultimate fate in the body. Modeling of ENM transport and clearance in vivo has traditionally treated tissues as well-mixed compartments, without consideration of nanoscale interaction and transformation mechanisms. ENM agglomeration, dissolution and transport, along with adsorption of biomolecules, such as surfactant lipids and proteins, cause irreversible changes to ENM morphology and surface properties. The model presented in this article quantifies ENM transformation and transport in the alveolar air to liquid interface and estimates eventual alveolar cell dosimetry. This formulation brings together established concepts from colloidal and surface science, physics, and biochemistry to provide a stochastic framework capable of capturing essential in vivo processes in the pulmonary alveolar lining layer. The model has been implemented for in vitro solutions with parameters estimated from relevant published in vitro measurements and has been extended here to in vivo systems simulating human inhalation exposures. Applications are presented for four different ENMs, and relevant kinetic rates are estimated, demonstrating an approach for improving human in vivo pulmonary dosimetry. PMID:26240755

  13. Three-dimensional evaluation of maxillary anterior alveolar bone for optimal placement of miniscrew implants

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin Hwan; Lee, Kee Joon; Park, Young Chel

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to propose clinical guidelines for placing miniscrew implants using the results obtained from 3-dimensional analysis of maxillary anterior interdental alveolar bone by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods By using CBCT data from 52 adult patients (17 men and 35 women; mean age, 27.9 years), alveolar bone were measured in 3 regions: between the maxillary central incisors (U1-U1), between the maxillary central incisor and maxillary lateral incisor (U1-U2), and between the maxillary lateral incisor and the canine (U2-U3). Cortical bone thickness, labio-palatal thickness, and interdental root distance were measured at 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm apical to the interdental cementoenamel junction (ICEJ). Results The cortical bone thickness significantly increased from the U1-U1 region to the U2-U3 region (p < 0.05). The labio-palatal thickness was significantly less in the U1-U1 region (p < 0.05), and the interdental root distance was significantly less in the U1-U2 region (p < 0.05). Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the interdental root regions U2-U3 and U1-U1 are the best sites for placing miniscrew implants into maxillary anterior alveolar bone. PMID:24696821

  14. Pirfenidone inhibits p38-mediated generation of procoagulant microparticles by human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Neri, Tommaso; Lombardi, Stefania; Faìta, Francesca; Petrini, Silvia; Balìa, Cristina; Scalise, Valentina; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Paggiaro, Pierluigi; Celi, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Pirfenidone is a drug recently approved for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis but its mechanisms of action are partially unknown. We have previously demonstrated that the airways of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis contain procoagulant microparticles that activate coagulation factor X to its active form, Xa, a proteinase that signals fibroblast growth and differentiation, thus potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease. We also reported that in vitro exposure of human alveolar cells to H2O2 causes microparticle generation. Since p38 activation is involved in microparticle generation in some cell models and p38 inhibition is one of the mechanisms of action of pirfenidone, we investigated the hypothesis that H2O2-induced generation of microparticles by alveolar cells is dependent on p38 phosphorylation and is inhibited by pirfenidone. H2O2 stimulation of alveolar cells caused p38 phosphorylation that was inhibited by pirfenidone. The drug also inhibited H2O2 induced microparticle generation as assessed by two independent methods (solid phase thrombin generation and flow cytometry). The shedding of microparticle-bound tissue factor activity was also inhibited by pirfenidone. Inhibition of p38-mediated generation of procoagulant microparticle is a previously unrecognized mechanism of action of the antifibrotic drug, pirfenidone. PMID:27237042

  15. Different pathways of degradation of SP-A and saturated phosphatidylcholine by alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Baritussio, A; Alberti, A; Armanini, D; Meloni, F; Bruttomesso, D

    2000-07-01

    Alveolar macrophages degrade surfactant protein (SP) A and saturated phosphatidycholine [dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)]. To clarify this process, using rabbit alveolar macrophages, we analyzed the effect of drugs known to affect phagocytosis, pinocytosis, clathrin-mediated uptake, caveolae, the cytoskeleton, lysosomal pH, protein kinase C, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) on the degradation of SP-A and DPPC. We found the following: 1) SP-A binds to the plasma membrane, is rapidly internalized, and then moves toward degradative compartments. Uptake could be clathrin mediated, whereas phagocytosis, pinocytosis, or the use of caveolae are less likely. An intact cytoskeleton and an acidic milieu are necessary for the degradation of SP-A. 2) Stimulation of protein kinase C increases the degradation of SP-A. 3) PI3K influences the degradation of SP-A by regulating both the speed of internalization and subsequent intracellular steps, but its inhibition does not prevent SP-A from reaching the lysosomal compartment. 4) The degradation of DPPC is unaffected by most of the treatments able to influence the degradation of SP-A. Thus it appears that DPPC is degraded by alveolar macrophages through mechanisms very different from those utilized for the degradation of SP-A. PMID:10893207

  16. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Sima, Corneliu; Gastfreund, Shoshi; Sun, Chunxiang; Glogauer, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Periodontitis is characterized by altered host-biofilm interactions that result in irreversible inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Genetic and epigenetic factors that predispose to ineffective control of biofilm composition and maintenance of tissue homeostasis are not fully understood. We elucidated how leukocytes affect the course of periodontitis in Rac-null mice. Mouse models of acute gingivitis and periodontitis were used to assess the early inflammatory response and patterns of chronicity leading to loss of alveolar bone due to inflammation in Rac-null mice. Leukocyte margination was differentially impaired in these mice during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice. Inflammatory responses to subgingival ligatures, assessed by changes in peripheral blood differential leukocyte numbers, were altered in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In response to persistent subgingival ligature-mediated challenge, Rac-null mice had increased loss of alveolar bone with patterns of resorption characteristic of aggressive forms of periodontitis. These findings were partially explained by higher osteoclastic coverage of the bone-periodontal ligament interface in Rac-null compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that leukocyte defects, such as decreased endothelial margination and tissue recruitment, are rate-limiting steps in the periodontal inflammatory process that lead to more aggressive forms of periodontitis.

  17. Bone Reconstruction following Application of Bone Matrix Gelatin to Alveolar Defects: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bayat, M.; Momen Heravi, F.; Mahmoudi, M.; Bahrami, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Conventional dentoalveolar osseous reconstruction often involves the use of graft materials with or without barrier membranes. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of bone induction by bone matrix gelatin (BMG), delivered on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), compared to a placebo (ACS alone) in human alveolar socket defects. Methods: 20 alveolar sockets from 10 healthy adults were studied. In all cases, both the mandibular premolar area and the contralateral premolar area (as the control site) were involved. In each of the 10 patients, the extraction sites were filled randomly with BMG and ACS. The repair response was examined on day 90. Qualitative histological and quantitative histometric analysis, including the percentage of new-formed bone fill and density were done. Results: Assessment of the alveolar bone indicated that patients treated with BMG had significantly (p<0.05) better bone quality and quantity compared to the controls. In addition, bone density and histology revealed no differences between the newly induced and native bone. Conclusion: The data from this single-blind clinical trial demonstrated that the novel combination of BMG had a striking effect on de novo osseous formation for the bone regeneration. PMID:26576263

  18. The microbiome at the pulmonary alveolar niche and its role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Adami, Alexander J; Cervantes, Jorge L

    2015-12-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technology have provided the tools to comprehensively and accurately characterize the microbial community in the respiratory tract in health and disease. The presence of commensal and pathogenic bacteria has been found to have important effects on the lung immune system. Until relatively recently, the lung has received less attention compared to other body sites in terms of microbiome characterization, and its study carries special technological difficulties related to obtaining reliable samples as compared to other body niches. Additionally, the complexity of the alveolar immune system, and its interactions with the lung microbiome, are only just beginning to be understood. Amidst this complexity sits Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), one of humanity's oldest nemeses and a significant public health concern, with millions of individuals infected with Mtb worldwide. The intricate interactions between Mtb, the lung microbiome, and the alveolar immune system are beginning to be understood, and it is increasingly apparent that improved treatment of Mtb will only come through deep understanding of the interplay between these three forces. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the lung microbiome, alveolar immunity, and the interaction of each with Mtb.

  19. RNA sequencing provides exquisite insight into the manipulation of the alveolar macrophage by tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed

    Nalpas, Nicolas C; Magee, David A; Conlon, Kevin M; Browne, John A; Healy, Claire; McLoughlin, Kirsten E; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; McGettigan, Paul A; Killick, Kate E; Gormley, Eamonn; Gordon, Stephen V; MacHugh, David E

    2015-09-08

    Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis, causes an estimated $3 billion annual losses to global agriculture due, in part, to the limitations of current diagnostics. Development of next-generation diagnostics requires a greater understanding of the interaction between the pathogen and the bovine host. Therefore, to explore the early response of the alveolar macrophage to infection, we report the first application of RNA-sequencing to define, in exquisite detail, the transcriptomes of M. bovis-infected and non-infected alveolar macrophages from ten calves at 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours post-infection. Differentially expressed sense genes were detected at these time points that revealed enrichment of innate immune signalling functions, and transcriptional suppression of host defence mechanisms (e.g., lysosome maturation). We also detected differentially expressed natural antisense transcripts, which may play a role in subverting innate immune mechanisms following infection. Furthermore, we report differential expression of novel bovine genes, some of which have immune-related functions based on orthology with human proteins. This is the first in-depth transcriptomics investigation of the alveolar macrophage response to the early stages of M. bovis infection and reveals complex patterns of gene expression and regulation that underlie the immunomodulatory mechanisms used by M. bovis to evade host defence mechanisms.

  20. Chitosan microspheres as an alveolar macrophage delivery system of ofloxacin via pulmonary inhalation.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Hwan; Jin, Hyo-Eon; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Won-Sik; Shim, Chang-Koo

    2013-01-30

    Because Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which causes tuberculosis, survives mainly in the alveolar macrophages, the remedial efficiency of anti-tuberculosis drugs such as ofloxacin may be improved by their direct delivery to the lungs via pulmonary inhalation. For this purpose, ofloxacin-loaded, glutaraldehyde-crosslinked chitosan microspheres (OCMs) were prepared using a water-in-oil emulsification method. The particle size of the OCMs was around 1-6 μm, and the content of ofloxacin was 27% (w/w). A twin-stage impinger (TSI) study revealed that the device-removal efficiency of the drug from the capsule and the arrival rate of the drug to stage II of the apparatus were substantially improved for OCMs compared to ofloxacin itself (i.e., 81 vs. 98% and 13 vs. 45%, respectively). Also, the in vitro uptake of ofloxacin from the OCMs to alveolar macrophages (NR8383) was substantially accelerated: the cellular ofloxacin concentrations at 4 and 24 h after the application were >3.5-fold greater than those for free ofloxacin. The above results indicate that pulmonary inhalation of OCMs might improve the delivery efficiency of ofloxacin to the alveolar macrophages, thereby shortening the length of time that is required to cure tuberculosis with the drug-usually at least 6 months when administered orally.

  1. Alveolar Bone Grafting in Cleft Patients from Bone Defect to Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Vuletić, Marko; Jokić, Dražen; Rebić, Jerko; Žabarović, Domagoj; Macan, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate is the most common congenital deformity affecting craniofacial structures. Orofacial clefts have great impact on the quality of life which includes aesthetics, function, psychological impact, dental development and facial growth. Incomplete fusion of facial prominences during the fourth to tenth week of gestation is the main cause. Cleft gaps are closed with alveolar bone grafts in surgical procedure called osteoplasty. Autogenic bone is taken from the iliac crest as the gold standard. The time of grafting can be divided into two stages: primary and secondary. The alveolar defect is usually reconstructured between 7 and 11 years and is often related to the development of the maxillary canine root. After successful osteoplasty, cleft defect is closed but there is still a lack of tooth. The space closure with orthodontic treatment has 50-75% success. If the orthodontic treatment is not possible, in order to replace the missing tooth there are three possibilities: adhesive bridgework, tooth transplantation and implants. Dental implant has the role of holding dental prosthesis, prevents pronounced bone atrophy and loads the augmentation material in the cleft area. Despite the fact that autologous bone from iliac crest is the gold standard, it is not a perfect source for reconstruction of the alveolar cleft. Bone morphogenic protein (BMP) is appropriate as an alternative graft material. The purpose of this review is to explain morphology of cleft defects, historical perspective, surgical techniques and possibilities of implant and prosthodontic rehabilitation.

  2. Platelet-derived SDF1 primes pulmonary capillary vascular niche to drive lung alveolar regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, Shahin; Chavez, Deebly; Shido, Koji; Rabbany, Sina Y.; Ding, Bi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The lung alveoli regenerate after surgical removal of the left lobe by pneumonectomy (PNX). How this alveolar regrowth/regeneration is initiated remains unknown. We found that activated platelets trigger lung regeneration by supplying stromal cell-derived-factor1 (SDF1/CXCL12). After PNX, platelets stimulate SDF1-receptor CXCR4 and CXCR7 on pulmonary capillary endothelial cells (PCECs) to deploy membrane-type metalloproteinase MMP14, stimulating proliferation of alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and neo-alveolarization. In mice lacking platelets or platelet Sdf1, PNX-induced alveologenesis was diminished. Reciprocally, infusion of Sdf1+/+ but not Sdf1-deficient platelets rescued lung regeneration in platelet-depleted mice. Endothelial-specific ablation of Cxcr4 and Cxcr7 in adult mice similarly impeded lung regeneration. Notably, mice with endothelial-specific Mmp14 deletion (Mmp14iΔEC/iΔEC) exhibited impaired expansion of AECs but not PCECs, which could not be rescued by platelet infusion. Therefore, platelets prime PCECs to initiate lung regeneration, extending beyond their hemostatic contribution. Therapeutic targeting of this hemo-vascular niche could enable regenerative therapy for lung diseases. PMID:25621952

  3. Phagostimulatory effect of uptake of PLGA microspheres loaded with rifampicin on alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hirota, Keiji; Hasegawa, Taizo; Nakajima, Takehisa; Makino, Kimiko; Terada, Hiroshi

    2011-10-15

    Our previous results on the phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages (Mϕs) toward poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid microspheres (PLGA MS) loaded with the anti-tuberculosis agent rifampicin (R-PLGA MS) suggest that the phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS enhances the phagocytic activity of Mϕ cells. To confirm this possibility, we examined the effect of phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS and polystyrene latex (PSL) MS on the phagocytic uptake of fluorescent PSL (F-PSL) MS by cells of the rat alveolar macrophage cell line NR8383 at 37°C. Phagocytic activity was examined in terms of the population of Mϕ cells that had phagocytosed MS (N(total)) and the total number of MS phagocytosed (n(total)) by counting the phagocytic Mϕ cells and the MS ingested in optical microscopic fields. Phagocytosis of R-PLGA MS enhanced about 1.5 times the values of N(total) and n(total) of the phagocytosis of F-PSL MS under the conditions where the phagocytosis of F-PSL MS did not attain the saturated level. In contrast, the phagocytosis of PSL MS did not enhance the phagocytic activity of Mϕ cells toward F-PSL MS. In conclusion, R-PLGA MS are favorable for drug delivery of anti-tuberculosis agents into alveolar Mϕs due to their ability to up-regulate the phagocytosis of MS. PMID:21700434

  4. In vitro toxicity of gallium arsenide in alveolar macrophages evaluated by magnetometry, cytochemistry and morphology.

    PubMed

    Okada, M; Karube, H; Niitsuya, M; Aizawa, Y; Okayasu, I; Kotani, M

    1999-12-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), a chemical compound of gallium and arsenic, causes various toxic effects including pulmonary diseases in animals. Since the toxicity is not completely investigated, GaAs has been used in workplaces as the material of various semiconductor products. The present study was conducted to clarify the toxicity of GaAs particles in the alveolar macrophages of hamsters using magnetometry, enzyme release assays and morphological examinations. Alveolar macrophages obtained from hamsters by tracheobronchial lavage and adhered to the disks in the bottom of wells were exposed to ferrosoferric oxide and GaAs particles. Ferrosoferric oxide particles were magnetized externally and the remanent magnetic field was measured. Relaxation, a fast decline of the remanent magnetic fields radiated from the alveolar macrophages, was delayed and decay constants were decreased dose-dependently due to exposure to GaAs. Because the relaxation is thought to be associated with cytoskeleton, the exposure of GaAs may have impaired the motor function of them. Enzyme release assay and morphological findings indicated the damage to the macrophages. Thus the cytotoxicity causes cytostructural changes and cell death. According to DNA electrophoresis and the TUNEL method, necrotic changes occur more frequently than apoptotic changes. PMID:10739163

  5. Estimation of the number of alveolar capillaries by the Euler number (Euler-Poincaré characteristic).

    PubMed

    Willführ, Alper; Brandenberger, Christina; Piatkowski, Tanja; Grothausmann, Roman; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The lung parenchyma provides a maximal surface area of blood-containing capillaries that are in close contact with a large surface area of the air-containing alveoli. Volume and surface area of capillaries are the classic stereological parameters to characterize the alveolar capillary network (ACN) and have provided essential structure-function information of the lung. When loss (rarefaction) or gain (angiogenesis) of capillaries occurs, these parameters may not be sufficient to provide mechanistic insight. Therefore, it would be desirable to estimate the number of capillaries, as it contains more distinct and mechanistically oriented information. Here, we present a new stereological method to estimate the number of capillary loops in the ACN. One advantage of this method is that it is independent of the shape, size, or distribution of the capillaries. We used consecutive, 1 μm-thick sections from epoxy resin-embedded material as a physical disector. The Euler-Poincaré characteristic of capillary networks can be estimated by counting the easily recognizable topological constellations of "islands," "bridges," and "holes." The total number of capillary loops in the ACN can then be calculated from the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. With the use of the established estimator of alveolar number, it is possible to obtain the mean number of capillary loops per alveolus. In conclusion, estimation of alveolar capillaries by design-based stereology is an efficient and unbiased method to characterize the ACN and may be particularly useful for studies on emphysema, pulmonary hypertension, or lung development.

  6. The Effect of 2 Injection Speeds on Local Anesthetic Discomfort During Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Melo, Marcelo Rodrigo; Sabey, Mark Jon Santana; Lima, Carla Juliane; de Almeida Souza, Liane Maciel; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This randomized double-blind crossover trial investigated the discomfort associated with 2 injection speeds, low (60 seconds) and slow (100 seconds), during inferior alveolar nerve block by using 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine. Three phases were considered: (a) mucosa perforation, (b) needle insertion, and (c) solution injection. Thirty-two healthy adult volunteers needing bilateral inferior alveolar nerve blocks at least 1 week apart were enrolled in the present study. The anesthetic procedure discomfort was recorded by volunteers on a 10-cm visual analog scale in each phase for both injection speeds. Comparison between the 2 anesthesia speeds in each phase was performed by paired t test. Results showed no statistically significant difference between injection speeds regarding perforation (P = .1016), needle placement (P = .0584), or speed injection (P = .1806). The discomfort in all phases was considered low. We concluded that the 2 injection speeds tested did not affect the volunteers' pain perception during inferior alveolar nerve blocks. PMID:26398126

  7. Bioavailability of 1-nitropyrene from model coal fly ash and its uptake by alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Tedjad, S.B.; Jackson, M.; Lewtas, J.

    1986-08-01

    Alveolar macrophage cultures exposed to coal fly ash vapor-coated with 1-nitropyrene were used as a model system to study the bioavailability and the uptake of a nitroaromatic hydrocarbon from coal combustion emissions. Initially, 1-nitropyrene-coated fly ash and uncoated fly ash were examined for cytotoxicity using rabbit alveolar macrophages and for mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay. The distribution and recovery of 1-nitropyrene from macrophage cultures treated with coated fly ash were determined by using a reverse-hase high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. 1-Nitropyrene alone was not very toxic, nor did vapor deposition of 1-nitropyrene onto coal fly ash significantly affect the toxicity of the fly ash. Most toxicity resulted from the original, uncoated fly ash particles. 1-Nitropyren after being coated onto the particles was bioavailable in agar and aqueous culture medium. The coated fly ash showed mutagenic activity when the particles were tested directly; the uncoated fly ash did not show mutagenic activity. 1-Nitropyrene recovery from alveolar macrophage cultures exposed to the coated fly ash diminished as cell number increased. The rate of 1-nitropyrene loss was 2.7 ng/10/sup 6/ macrophages for medium and 4.1 ng/10/sup 6/ macrophages for the whole culture. The mutagenic activity recovered from these macrophage cultures also decreased with increasing cell number.

  8. Bioavailability of 1-nitropyrene from model coal fly ash and its uptake by alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Mumford, J.L.; Tejada, S.B.; Jackson, M.; Lewtas, J.

    1986-01-01

    Alveolar macrophage cultures exposed to coal fly ash vapor-coated with 1-nitropyrene were used as a model system to study the bioavailability and the uptake of a nitroaromatic hydrocarbon from coal-combustion emissions. Initially, 1-nitropyrene-coated fly ash and uncoated fly ash were examined for cytotoxicity using rabbit alveolar macrophages and for mutagenicity in the Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay. The results were compared to determine the effects of vapor deposition. The distribution and recovery of 1-nitropyrene from macrophage cultures treated with coated fly ash were determined by using a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence method. 1-Nitropyrene alone was not very toxic, nor did vapor deposition of 1-nitropyrene onto coal fly ash significantly affect the toxicity of the fly ash. Most toxicity resulted from the original, uncoated, fly ash particles, 1-Nitropyrene after being coated onto the particles was bioavailable in agar and aqueous culture medium. The coated fly ash showed mutagenic activity when the particles were tested directly; the uncoated fly ash did not show mutagenic activity. 1-Nitropyrene recovery from alveolar macrophage cultures exposed to the coated fly ash diminished as cell number increased. The rate of 1-nitropyrene loss was 2.7 ng/.000001 macrophages for medium and 4.1 ng/.000001 macrophages for the whole culture. The mutagenic activity recovered from these macrophage cultures also decreased with increasing cell number.

  9. Treatment of alveolar cleft performing a pyramidal pocket and an autologous bone grafting.

    PubMed

    Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Giuliani, Renzo; Pinto, Valentina; Oranges, Carlo Maria; Negosanti, Luca; Tavaniello, Beatrice; Morellini, Andrea

    2009-09-01

    Alveolar cleft repair is a debate topic in cleft lip and palate treatment.The aim of this article is to analyze the outcomes and the advantages of the autologous bone grafting performed during the period between 1981 and 2006. In our plastic surgery unit, 468 patients with alveolar clefts have been treated. According to our protocol, the timing for the closure of the alveolar cleft ranged from 7 to 11 years (mean, 9.4 years). Autologous bone was taken from the skull in the 45% of patients, from the iliac crest in 35% of cases, and from the chin in 20% of cases. The surgical technique of creating a pyramidal pocket to secure the bone graft was central to achieving a good result. The postoperative evaluation of the results, using clinical criteria and endoral radiography, orthopantomography, and teleradiography at 3, 6, 12 months after surgery, and more recently, in the last 82 cases by a three-dimensional computed tomography, allows us to assert that we obtained optimal results in 50% of treated cases, good results in 40%, sufficient in 4%, partial failure in 5.4%, and complete failure in 0.6%.

  10. Breaking the In Vitro Alveolar Type II Cell Proliferation Barrier while Retaining Ion Transport Properties

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hong; Cheluvaraju, Chaitra; Jones, Lisa C.; Liu, Xuefeng; O’Neal, Wanda K.; Randell, Scott H.; Schlegel, Richard; Boucher, Richard C.

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar type (AT)I and ATII cells are central to maintaining normal alveolar fluid homeostasis. When disrupted, they contribute to the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Research on ATII cells has been limited by the inability to propagate primary cells in vitro to study their specific functional properties. Moreover, primary ATII cells in vitro quickly transdifferentiate into nonproliferative “ATI-like” cells under traditional culture conditions. Recent studies have demonstrated that normal and tumor cells grown in culture with a combination of fibroblast (feeder cells) and a pharmacological Rho kinase inhibitor (Y-27632) exhibit indefinite cell proliferation that resembled a “conditionally reprogrammed cell” phenotype. Using this coculture system, we found that primary human ATII cells (1) proliferated at an exponential rate, (2) established epithelial colonies expressing ATII-specific and “ATI-like” mRNA and proteins after serial passage, (3) up-regulated genes important in cell proliferation and migration, and (4) on removal of feeder cells and Rho kinase inhibitor under air–liquid interface conditions, exhibited bioelectric and volume transport characteristics similar to freshly cultured ATII cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that this novel coculture technique breaks the in vitro ATII cell proliferation barrier while retaining cell-specific functional properties. This work will allow for a significant increase in studies designed to elucidate ATII cell function with the goal of accelerating the development of novel therapies for alveolar diseases. PMID:24191670

  11. RNA sequencing provides exquisite insight into the manipulation of the alveolar macrophage by tubercle bacilli

    PubMed Central

    Nalpas, Nicolas C.; Magee, David A.; Conlon, Kevin M.; Browne, John A.; Healy, Claire; McLoughlin, Kirsten E.; Rue-Albrecht, Kévin; McGettigan, Paul A.; Killick, Kate E.; Gormley, Eamonn; Gordon, Stephen V.; MacHugh, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the agent of bovine tuberculosis, causes an estimated $3 billion annual losses to global agriculture due, in part, to the limitations of current diagnostics. Development of next-generation diagnostics requires a greater understanding of the interaction between the pathogen and the bovine host. Therefore, to explore the early response of the alveolar macrophage to infection, we report the first application of RNA-sequencing to define, in exquisite detail, the transcriptomes of M. bovis-infected and non-infected alveolar macrophages from ten calves at 2, 6, 24 and 48 hours post-infection. Differentially expressed sense genes were detected at these time points that revealed enrichment of innate immune signalling functions, and transcriptional suppression of host defence mechanisms (e.g., lysosome maturation). We also detected differentially expressed natural antisense transcripts, which may play a role in subverting innate immune mechanisms following infection. Furthermore, we report differential expression of novel bovine genes, some of which have immune-related functions based on orthology with human proteins. This is the first in-depth transcriptomics investigation of the alveolar macrophage response to the early stages of M. bovis infection and reveals complex patterns of gene expression and regulation that underlie the immunomodulatory mechanisms used by M. bovis to evade host defence mechanisms. PMID:26346536

  12. Effects of an inhaled corticosteroid, budesonide, on alveolar macrophage function in smokers.

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrand, H; Björnson, A; Blaschke, E; Brattsand, R; Eklund, A; Larsson, K; Linden, M

    1990-01-01

    Selected functions of alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage of 12 healthy smokers were examined before and after eight weeks' treatment with an inhaled glucocorticosteroid, budesonide (400 micrograms twice daily). After budesonide treatment spontaneous as well as opsonised zymosan triggered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion from harvested cells was reduced; no such reduction in opsonised zymosan triggered leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production was observed. Neither the capacity to phagocytose opsonised yeast particles nor the superoxide radical generation triggered by the calcium ionophore A23187, 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), or opsonised zymosan ex vivo were more than marginally affected by the glucocorticosteroid treatment in vivo. Lavage fluid concentrations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), however, after treatment were twice those before treatment and concentrations of fibronectin were reduced to half. Albumin concentrations in lavage fluid were not affected by the glucocorticosteroid treatment. In separate experiments treatment of alveolar macrophages with 10(-7) or 10(-6) M budesonide overnight in vitro did not affect their superoxide radical or PGE2 generation but significantly blocked LTB4 release. These data indicate that inhaled gluco-corticosteroid treatment may affect synthesis or release (or both) of ACE and fibronectin by alveolar macrophages from healthy smokers whereas other functions of these cells, such as the generation of reactive oxygen derived products ex vivo, are only marginally affected. PMID:2166359

  13. Quantitative electron microscopic analysis of the epithelium of normal human alveolar mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bernimoulin, J P; Schroeder, H E

    1977-05-31

    The epithelium of normal human alveolar mucosa originating from the anterior vestibulum was subjected to stereologic analysis. Eight biopsies were collected half-way between the muco gingival junction and the vestibular fornix from 20 to 50 year-old females, and processed for light and electron microscopy. At two levels of magnification, electron micrographs were sampled from four artificially selected strata in regions of epithelial ridges. Stereologic point counting based on a computer-aided system for analyzing stratified epithelia served for examining a total of about 860 electron micrographs. The alveolar epithelium was 0.26 mm thick, occasionally interdigitated by short, slender connective tissue papillae, and consisted of (1) a narrow basal and suprabasal, and (2) a broad spinous and surface compartment. It displayed a differentiation pattern which, in most subjects studied, was similar to that of normal human buccal epithelium, however, on the average, produced less mature surface cells. This pattern was expressed mainly by a density increase of cytoplasmic filaments (98 A in diameter), a concomitant decrease of the cytoplasmic ground substance, the formation of dark-cored membrane coating granules, and invividually variable amounts of glycogen deposition. In some subjects, a mixed differentiation pattern was found. The structural organization of alveolar epithelium, in analogy to cheek epithelium, was compatible with the function of distensibility.

  14. Secondary alveolar bone grafting in cleft of the lip and palate patients

    PubMed Central

    Walia, Abhilashaa

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to restore the function and form of both arches with a proper occlusal relationship and eruption of tooth in the cleft area. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients were selected irrespective of sex and socio-economic status and whose age was within the mixed dentition period. Iliac crest is grafted in cleft area and subsequently evaluated for graft success using study models, and periapical and occlusal radiographs. Results: At the time of evaluation teeth were erupted in the area and good alveolar bone levels were present. Premaxilla becomes immobile with a good arch form and arch continuity. There are no major complications in terms of pain, infection, paraesthesia, hematoma formation at donor site without difficulty in walking. There is no complication in terms of pain, infection, exposure of graft, rejection of graft, and wound dehiscence at the recipient site. Discussion: It is evident that secondary alveolar grafting during the mixed dentition period is more beneficial for patients at the donor site as well as the recipient site. Conclusion: Long-term follow-up is required to achieve maximum advantage of secondary alveolar grafting; the age of the patient should be within the mixed dentition period, irrespective of sex, socio-economic status. It may be unilateral or bilateral. PMID:22090755

  15. Rat coronaviruses infect rat alveolar type I epithelial cells and induce expression of CXC chemokines

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Tanya A.; Wang, Jieru; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the ability of two rat coronavirus (RCoV) strains, sialodacryoadenitis virus (SDAV) and Parker’s RCoV (RCoV-P), to infect rat alveolar type I cells and induce chemokine expression. Primary rat alveolar type II cells were transdifferentiated into the type I cell phenotype. Type I cells were productively infected with SDAV and RCoV-P, and both live virus and UV-inactivated virus induced mRNA and protein expression of three CXC chemokines: CINC-2, CINC-3, and LIX, which are neutrophil chemoattractants. Dual immunolabeling of type I cells for viral antigen and CXC chemokines showed that chemokines were expressed primarily by uninfected cells. Virus-induced chemokine expression was reduced by the IL-1 receptor antagonist, suggesting that IL-1 produced by infected cells induces uninfected cells to express chemokines. Primary cultures of alveolar epithelial cells are an important model for the early events in viral infection that lead to pulmonary inflammation. PMID:17804032

  16. YC-1 potentiates cAMP-induced CREB activation and nitric oxide production in alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Tang, Ming-Chi; Kuo, Liang-Mou; Chang, Wen-De; Chung, Pei-Jen; Chang, Ya-Wen; Fang, Yao-Ching

    2012-04-15

    Alveolar macrophages play significant roles in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory lung diseases. Increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NO) are well documented to reflect disease severity in the airway. In this study, we investigated the effect of 3-(5′-hydroxymethyl-2′-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole (YC-1), a known activator of soluble guanylyl cyclase, on prostaglandin (PG)E{sub 1} (a stable PGE{sub 2} analogue) and forskolin (a adenylate cyclase activator) induced NO production and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383). YC-1 did not directly cause NO production or iNOS expression, but drastically potentiated PGE{sub 1}- or forskolin-induced NO production and iNOS expression in NR8383 alveolar macrophages. Combination treatment with YC-1 and PGE{sub 1} significantly increased phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), but not nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation. The combined effect on NO production, iNOS expression, and CREB phosphorylation was reversed by a protein kinase (PK)A inhibitor (H89), suggesting that the potentiating functions were mediated through a cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. Consistent with this, cAMP analogues, but not the cGMP analogue, caused NO release, iNOS expression, and CREB activation. YC-1 treatment induced an increase in PGE{sub 1}-induced cAMP formation, which occurred through the inhibition of cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. Furthermore, the combination of rolipram (an inhibitor of PDE4), but not milronone (an inhibitor of PDE3), and PGE{sub 1} also triggered NO production and iNOS expression. In summary, YC-1 potentiates PGE{sub 1}-induced NO production and iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages through inhibition of cAMP PDE activity and activation of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. Highlights: ► YC-1 potentiated PGE1-induced iNOS expression in alveolar macrophages. ► The combination of YC-1 and PGE1 increased CREB but not NFκB activation.

  17. Alveolar ridge reduction after tooth extraction in adolescents: an animal study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zongyang; Herring, Susan W.; Tee, Boon Ching; Gales, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mechanism for tooth extraction induced residual alveolar ridge reduction (RRR) during adolescence is poorly understood. This study investigated the alveolar bone morphology, growth, resorption and functional loading at normal and extraction sites using an adolescent pig model. Design Sixteen 3-month-old pigs were divided into two groups – immediate post-extraction (IE) and 6-week post-extraction (SE). The IE group received an extraction of one deciduous mandibular molar, immediately followed by a final experiment to record masseter muscle EMGs and strains from the buccal surface of the extraction and contralateral non-extraction sites during function (mastication). The SE group was given the same tooth extraction, then kept for 6 weeks before the same final functional recording as the IE group. Both groups also received baseline (pre-extraction) EMGs and fluorescent vital stains 10 and 3 days before the final functional recording. Immediately after the final functional recording, animals were euthanized and alveolar bone specimens from extraction and contralateral non-extraction sites were collected and used to analyze alveolar bone morphology, apposition and resorption based on fluorescent and hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections. Results At control sites (IE-extraction, IE-non-extraction and SE-non-extraction), the alveolar ridges grew gingivally and buccally. Bone formation characterized the buccal surface and lingual bundle bone, whereas resorption characterized the lingual surface and buccal bundle bone. The SE-extraction sites showed three major alterations: convergence of the buccal and lingual gingival crests, loss of apposition on the lingual bundle bone, and decelerated growth at the entire buccal surface. These alterations likely resulted from redirected crestal growth as part of the socket healing process, loss of tongue pressure to the lingual side of the teeth which normally provides mechanical stimulation for dental

  18. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Martina; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit. PMID:25996248

  19. Entry and Elimination of Marine Mammal Brucella spp. by Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) Alveolar Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Anett K.; Nymo, Ingebjørg H.; Boysen, Preben; Tryland, Morten; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata); however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890) from harbor seal (Phocavitulina), B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891) from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena) and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus) isolate (M83/07/1), to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains tested were able

  20. Entry and elimination of marine mammal Brucella spp. by hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Boysen, Preben; Tryland, Morten; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata); however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890) from harbor seal (Phocavitulina), B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891) from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena) and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus) isolate (M83/07/1), to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains tested were able

  1. Entry and elimination of marine mammal Brucella spp. by hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anett K; Nymo, Ingebjørg H; Boysen, Preben; Tryland, Morten; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A high prevalence of Brucellapinnipedialis serology and bacteriology positive animals has been found in the Northeast Atlantic stock of hooded seal (Cystophoracristata); however no associated gross pathological changes have been identified. Marine mammal brucellae have previously displayed different infection patterns in human and murine macrophages. To investigate if marine mammal Brucella spp. are able to invade and multiply in cells originating from a presumed host species, we infected alveolar macrophages from hooded seal with a B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate. Hooded seal alveolar macrophages were also challenged with B. pinnipedialis reference strain (NCTC 12890) from harbor seal (Phocavitulina), B. ceti reference strain (NCTC 12891) from harbor porpoise (Phocoenaphocoena) and a B. ceti Atlantic white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchusacutus) isolate (M83/07/1), to evaluate possible species-specific differences. Brucella suis 1330 was included as a positive control. Alveolar macrophages were obtained by post mortem bronchoalveolar lavage of euthanized hooded seals. Phenotyping of cells in the lavage fluid was executed by flow cytometry using the surface markers CD14 and CD18. Cultured lavage cells were identified as alveolar macrophages based on morphology, expression of surface markers and phagocytic ability. Alveolar macrophages were challenged with Brucella spp. in a gentamicin protection assay. Following infection, cell lysates from different time points were plated and evaluated quantitatively for colony forming units. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal isolate was verified by immunocytochemistry. Our results show that the marine mammal brucellae were able to enter hooded seal alveolar macrophages; however, they did not multiply intracellularly and were eliminated within 48 hours, to the contrary of B. suis that showed the classical pattern of a pathogenic strain. In conclusion, none of the four marine mammal strains tested were able

  2. Chronic ethanol ingestion in rats decreases granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor expression and downstream signaling in the alveolar macrophage.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Pratibha C; Applewhite, Lisa; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; Roman, Jesse; Fernandez, Alberto L; Eaton, Douglas C; Brown, Lou Ann S; Guidot, David M

    2005-11-15

    Although it is well recognized that alcohol abuse impairs alveolar macrophage immune function and renders patients susceptible to pneumonia, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. Alveolar macrophage maturation and function requires priming by GM-CSF, which is produced and secreted into the alveolar space by the alveolar epithelium. In this study, we determined that although chronic ethanol ingestion (6 wk) in rats had no effect on GM-CSF expression within the alveolar space, it significantly decreased membrane expression of the GM-CSF receptor in alveolar macrophages. In parallel, ethanol ingestion decreased cellular expression and nuclear binding of PU.1, the master transcription factor that activates GM-CSF-dependent macrophage functions. Furthermore, treatment of ethanol-fed rats in vivo with rGM-CSF via the upper airway restored GM-CSF receptor membrane expression as well as PU.1 protein expression and nuclear binding in alveolar macrophages. Importantly, GM-CSF treatment also restored alveolar macrophage function in ethanol-fed rats, as reflected by endotoxin-stimulated release of TNF-alpha and bacterial phagocytosis. We conclude that ethanol ingestion dampens alveolar macrophage immune function by decreasing GM-CSF receptor expression and downstream PU.1 nuclear binding and that these chronic defects can be reversed relatively quickly with rGM-CSF treatment in vivo.

  3. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  4. Binding of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids to phosphatidylcholine vesicles and alveolar macrophages: relationship between binding affinity and antifibrogenic potential of these drugs.

    PubMed

    Ma, J K; Mo, C G; Malanga, C J; Ma, J Y; Castranova, V

    1991-01-01

    A group of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids has been shown to exhibit various degrees of effectiveness in preventing silica-induced fibrosis in animal models. The objective of the present study was to characterize the binding of several of these alkaloids to phosphatidylcholine vesicles and rat alveolar macrophages using fluorometric and equilibrium dialysis methods, respectively. The lipid binding affinity of these alkaloids was found to depend upon several structural factors including hydrophobic substitutions, chiral configurations, and double oxygen bridge-restricted confirmation of the benzylisoquinoline moieties. Tetrandrine, which is a highly effective agent in preventing fibrosis, showed strong binding to both lipid vesicles and alveolar macrophages. In contrast, certain analogues of tetrandrine such as curine and tubocurine, which have little or no effect on silicosis, exhibited only weak binding to lipid vesicles and almost no binding to cells. The moderate binding affinity of fangchinoline to vesicles and cells corresponded to a moderate effectiveness of the compound as an antifibrogenic agent. Methoxyadiantifoline, an alkaloid of unknown antifibrogenic potential, also exhibited high binding affinities for lipid and cells. In conclusion, the results of these studies indicate that alveolar macrophages exhibit large binding capacities for certain members of this class of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids. A positive correlation was observed between binding affinity to alveolar macrophages and the reported antifibrotic potency of these compounds. These data also suggest that the ability of these drugs to interact with alveolar macrophages may be a key step in inhibition of the progression of silica-induced pulmonary disease. PMID:1663032

  5. The vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for reconstruction of the inferior alveolar nerve defect.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kenji; Hiroto, Saijo; Morooka, Shin; Kuwabara, Kaoru; Fujioka, Masaki

    2015-03-01

    The sural nerve has been described for nerve reconstruction of the maxillofacial region since it provides many advantages. We report a case of a vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for immediate reconstruction after the removal of intraosseous neuroma originating in the inferior alveolar nerve. The patient had a neuroma caused by iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. A 4-cm long neuroma existed in the inferior alveolar nerve and was resected. A peroneal perforator was chosen as the pedicle of the vascularized sural nerve graft for the nerve gap. The graft including the skin paddle for monitoring the perfusion supplied by this perforator was transferred to the lesion. The nerve gap between the two stumps of the inferior alveolar nerve was repaired using the 6-cm long vascularized sural nerve. The perforator of the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the branch of the facial artery in a perforator-to-perforator fashion. There was no need to sacrifice any main arteries. The skin paddle with 1 cm × 3 cm in size was inset into the incised medial neck. Perceptual function tests with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure esthesiometer and two-point discrimination in the lower lip and chin at 10 months after surgery showed recovery almost to the level of the normal side. This free vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator may be a good alternative for reconstruction of inferior alveolar nerve defects. PMID:25346479

  6. p120-catenin expressed in alveolar type II cells is essential for the regulation of lung innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Chignalia, Andreia Z; Vogel, Stephen M; Reynolds, Albert B; Mehta, Dolly; Dull, Randal O; Minshall, Richard D; Malik, Asrar B; Liu, Yuru

    2015-05-01

    The integrity of the lung alveolar epithelial barrier is required for the gas exchange and is important for immune regulation. Alveolar epithelial barrier is composed of flat type I cells, which make up approximately 95% of the gas-exchange surface, and cuboidal type II cells, which secrete surfactants and modulate lung immunity. p120-catenin (p120; gene symbol CTNND1) is an important component of adherens junctions of epithelial cells; however, its function in lung alveolar epithelial barrier has not been addressed in genetic models. Here, we created an inducible type II cell-specific p120-knockout mouse (p120EKO). The mutant lungs showed chronic inflammation, and the alveolar epithelial barrier was leaky to (125)I-albumin tracer compared to wild type. The mutant lungs also demonstrated marked infiltration of inflammatory cells and activation of NF-κB. Intracellular adhesion molecule 1, Toll-like receptor 4, and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 were all up-regulated. p120EKO lungs showed increased expression of the surfactant proteins Sp-B, Sp-C, and Sp-D, and displayed severe inflammation after pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared with wild type. In p120-deficient type II cell monolayers, we observed reduced transepithelial resistance compared to control, consistent with formation of defective adherens junctions. Thus, although type II cells constitute only 5% of the alveolar surface area, p120 expressed in these cells plays a critical role in regulating the innate immunity of the entire lung. PMID:25773174

  7. Correlations between initial cleft size and dental anomalies in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients after alveolar bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Fatima; Reiser, Erika; Thor, Andreas; Hakelius, Malin; Nowinski, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine in individuals with unilateral cleft lip and palate the correlation between initial cleft size and dental anomalies, and the outcome of alveolar bone grafting. Methods A total of 67 consecutive patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCLP) were included from the cleft lip and palate-craniofacial center, Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients were operated by the same surgeon and treated according to the Uppsala protocol entailing: lip plasty at 3 months, soft palate closure at 6 months, closure of the residual cleft in the hard palate at 2 years of age, and secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) prior to the eruption of the permanent canine. Cleft size was measured on dental casts obtained at the time of primary lip plasty. Dental anomalies were registered on radiographs and dental casts obtained before bone grafting. Alveolar bone height was evaluated with the Modified Bergland Index (mBI) at 1 and 10-year follow-up. Results Anterior cleft width correlated positively with enamel hypoplasia and rotation of the central incisor adjacent to the cleft. There was, however, no correlation between initial cleft width and alveolar bone height at either 1 or 10 years follow-up. Conclusions Wider clefts did not seem to have an impact on the success of secondary alveolar bone grafting but appeared to be associated with a higher degree of some dental anomalies. This finding may have implications for patient counseling and treatment planning. PMID:26923345

  8. Leptospirosis pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome is associated with linear deposition of immunoglobulin and complement on the alveolar surface.

    PubMed

    Croda, J; Neto, A N D; Brasil, R A; Pagliari, C; Nicodemo, A C; Duarte, M I S

    2010-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection associated with severe diseases such as leptospirosis pulmonary haemorrhage syndrome (LPHS). The cause of pulmonary haemorrhage is unclear. Understanding which mechanisms and processes are involved in LPHS will be important in treatment regimens under development for this life-threatening syndrome. In the present study, we evaluated 30 lung specimens from LPHS patients and seven controls using histology and immunohistochemistry (detection of IgM, IgG, IgA and C3) in order to describe the pathological features associated with this syndrome. Immunoglobulin deposits were detected on the alveolar surface in 18/30 LPHS patients. Three staining patterns were observed for the immunoglobulins and C3 in the lung tissues of LPHS patients: AS, delicate linear staining adjacent to the alveolar surface, which was indicative of a membrane covering the luminal surface of type I and II pneumocyte cells; S, heterogeneous staining which was sporadically distributed along the alveolar septum; and IA, weak, focal intra-alveolar granular staining. Human LPHS is associated with individual and unique histological patterns that differ from those of other causes of pulmonary haemorrhage. In the present study, it was found that the linear deposition of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM) and complement on the alveolar surface may play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary haemorrhage in human leptospirosis. PMID:19778300

  9. Spectral analysis of word-initial alveolar and velar plosives produced by Iranian children with cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Eshghi, Marziye; Zajac, David J; Bijankhan, Mahmood; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2013-03-01

    Spectral moment analysis (SMA) was used to describe voiceless alveolar and velar stop-plosive production in Persian-speaking children with repaired cleft lip and palate (CLP). Participants included 11 children with bilateral CLP who were undergoing maxillary expansion and 20 children without any type of orofacial clefts. Four of the children with CLP also exhibited backed (palatal) placement for alveolar stops. All children produced consonant-vowel-consonant nonsense words that targeted the plosives /t/ and /k/. SMA revealed that children with CLP had significantly reduced first spectral moment of /t/ and /t/-/k/ difference. Children with CLP who produced palatal stops for alveolar targets also had lower but non-significant first spectral moments for /t/ as compared with children with CLP who did not produce palatal stops. The results are consistent with previously reported findings for English-speaking children with repaired CLP and further suggest that maxillary arch constriction may be a contributing factor for (a) reduced spectral distinction of alveolar targets and/or (b) palatal substitutions for alveolar targets.

  10. Multi-walled carbon nanotube length as a critical determinant of bioreactivity with primary human pulmonary alveolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Berhanu, Deborah; Misra, Superb K.; Thorley, Andrew J.; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) length is suggested to critically determine their pulmonary toxicity. This stems from in vitro and in vivo rodent studies and in vitro human studies using cell lines (typically cancerous). There is little data using primary human lung cells. We addressed this knowledge gap, using highly relevant, primary human alveolar cell models exposed to precisely synthesized and thoroughly characterized MWCNTs. In this work, transformed human alveolar type-I-like epithelial cells (TT1), primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cells (ATII) and alveolar macrophages (AM) were treated with increasing concentrations of MWCNTs before measuring cytotoxicity, inflammatory mediator release and MAP kinase signalling. Strikingly, we observed that short MWCNTs (~0.6 µm in length) induced significantly greater responses from the epithelial cells, whilst AM were particularly susceptible to long MWCNTs (~20 µm). These differences in the pattern of mediator release were associated with alternative profiles of JNK, p38 and ERK1/2 MAP kinase signal transduction within each cell type. This study, using highly relevant target human alveolar cells and well defined and characterized MWCNTs, shows marked cellular responses to the MWCNTs that vary according to the target cell type, as well as the aspect ratio of the MWCNT. PMID:25780270

  11. Inhibitory effects of Persicariae Rhizoma aqueous extracts on experimental periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Lee, Eun Kyung; Han, Chang Hyun; Lee, Bong Hyo; Lee, Young Joon; Ku, Sae Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Persicariae Rhizoma (PR) is the dried stem parts of Persicaria tinctoria H. Gross (Polygonaceae), and has been traditionally used as anti-inflammatory and detoxifying agent. In the present study, the effects of PR aqueous extracts on ligation-induced experimental periodontitis (EPD) and associated alveolar bone loss in rats were examined. Following the induction of EPD in rats, PR extracts were orally administered once a day for 10 days, and the changes and gains in body weight, alveolar bone loss and total aerobic bacterial counts of buccal gingiva were observed with histopathological analysis. In addition, anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated by monitoring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, and interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α contents, and anti-oxidant effects were investigated by measuring inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Bacterial proliferation, periodontitis and associated alveolar bone loss induced by ligature placement were significantly and dose-dependently inhibited by the treatment with PR extracts. The inhibitory effects of 200 mg/kg PR were similar to those of 5 mg/kg indomethacin on ligation-induced periodontitis and associated alveolar bone losses in this study. The results suggest that PR effectively inhibits ligature placement-induced periodontitis and alveolar bone loss in rats via antibacterial, antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27588077

  12. Dental implants placed on bone subjected to vertical alveolar distraction show the same performance as those placed on primitive bone

    PubMed Central

    León-Camacho, María A.; Somoza-Martín, José M.; Fernández-González, Beatriz; Blanes-Vázquez-Gundín, Silvia; Gándara-Rey, José M.; García-García, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Vertical osteogenic alveolar distraction (VOAD) allows for the augmentation of the alveolar ridge for the placement of dental implants in atrophic alveolar ridges. The goal of this paper is to assess long-term peri-implant bone resorption in implants placed on bones subjected to VOAD, comparing it with a group of patients who had implants placed directly on the alveolar bone without previous bone regeneration. Material and Methods: We conducted a follow-up study on 32 patients who were divided into two groups: The Distraction Group (14 patients), and the Distraction-Free Group (18 patients), who received a total of 100 implants. Peri-implant bone loss was measured by means of panoramic X-rays, at the time of loading and one year later, and in 35 implants of each group after 3 years of functional loading. Results: The peri-implant bone resorption (PBR) average observed in the Distraction Group at the time of prosthetic placement is higher (0.50±0.09 mm) than in the Distraction-Free Group (0.25±0.06 mm), showing statistically significant results (p=0.047). PBR levels 1 year after loading were the same for both groups (0.66 mm). At 3 years, they were higher in the Distraction Group (1.03 ± 0.22 mm vs. 0.68 ± 0.08 mm). Key words:Bone resorption, alveolar distraction osteogenesis, dental implants. PMID:23524476

  13. Alveolar bone loss associated to periodontal disease in lead intoxicated rats under environmental hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Terrizzi, Antonela R; Fernandez-Solari, Javier; Lee, Ching M; Bozzini, Clarisa; Mandalunis, Patricia M; Elverdin, Juan C; Conti, María Ines; Martínez, María Pilar

    2013-10-01

    Previously reported studies from this laboratory revealed that rats chronically intoxicated with lead (Pb) under hypoxic conditions (HX) impaired growth parameters and induced damages on femoral and mandibular bones predisposing to fractures. We also described periodontal inflammatory processes under such experimental conditions. Periodontitis is characterised by inflammation of supporting tissues of the teeth that result in alveolar bone loss. The existence of populations living at high altitudes and exposed to lead contamination aimed us to establish the macroscopic, biochemical and histological parameters consistent with a periodontal disease in the same rat model with or without experimental periodontitis (EP). Sixty female rats were divided into: Control; Pb (1000ppm of lead acetate in drinking water); HX (506mbar) and PbHX (both treatments simultaneously). EP was induced by placing ligatures around the molars of half of the rats during the 14 days previous to the autopsy. Hemi-mandibles were extracted to evaluate bone loss by histomorphometrical techniques. TNFα plasmatic concentration was greater (p<0.01) in Pb and HX animals. TBA-RS content was significantly higher in gums of rats with or without EP only by means of Pb. The SMG PGE2 content increased by Pb or HX was higher in PbHX rats (p<0.01). Pb and HX increased EP induced alveolar bone loss, while Pb showed spontaneous bone loss also. In conclusion, these results show that lead intoxication under hypoxic environment enhanced not only alveolar bone loss but also systemic and oral tissues inflammatory parameters, which could aggravate the physiopathological alterations produced by periodontal disease.

  14. Successful Treatment of Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Perica, Marija; Ferenčić, Željko; Erceg, Damir; Navratil, Marta; Redźepi, Gzim; Nogalo, Boro

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 13 Final Diagnosis: Pulmonary alveolar protinosis (autoimmune subtype) Symptoms: Dyspnea • general weakness • subfebrile episodes Medication: Vincristine Clinical Procedure: Bronchoscopy • bronchoalveolar lavage • CT scan • lung biopsy • GM CSF antibody testing • diagnosis confirmation • therapy with inhaled GM-CSF • bilateral lung transplantation • chemotherapy due to PTLD Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare condition characterized by the intra-alveolar accumulation of surfactant-derived material, which impairs gas exchange and results in respiratory insufficiency. Two major subtypes of PAP are autoimmune and non-autoimmune PAP. The diagnosis relies on clinical presentation, ground glass opacities on CT scan, bronchoscopy with PAS stain of BAL fluid (BALF), lung biopsy with PAS-positive material in the alveoli, and the presence of anti GM-CSF antibodies in serum or BALF for an autoimmune subtype. The therapeutic approach to pediatric cases varies according to age and the general clinical state of the child; however, whole lung lavage (WLL) and inhaled or subcutaneous GM-CSF are generally first-line therapy. Case Report: We report a unique case of an autoimmune type of PAP in a 12-year-old boy, who underwent successful bilateral lung transplantation after inefficacious treatment with GM-CSF, and who developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) and was successfully treated with a chemotherapeutic protocol. Conclusions: Although lung transplantation is a rarely used therapeutic approach for patients with an autoimmune subtype of PAP, in cases of inefficacious treatment with other modalities, lung transplantation should be considered. PMID:27592713

  15. Formulation and Characterization of Pyrazinamide Polymeric Nanoparticles for Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Efficiency for Alveolar Macrophage Targeting

    PubMed Central

    Varma, J. N. Ravi; Kumar, T. Santosh; Prasanthi, B.; Ratna, J. Vijaya

    2015-01-01

    Pyrazinamide, a highly specific agent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is used as first-line drug to treat tuberculosis. The current work aims to formulate polymeric nanoparticles based drug delivery system to sustain the release profile and reduce the dosing frequency of pyrazinamide. Further aim was to target the macrophages within body fluid. These polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by simultaneous double-emulsion (W/O/W) solvent evaporation/diffusion technique. The prepared dispersions were characterized for various biopharmaceutical parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, drug loading capacity, entrapment efficiency and targeting to alveolar macrophages. The formulated polymeric nanoparticles were in the particle size range of 45.51 to 300.4 nm with a maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 80.9%. The stability study of optimized batch conducted at 40±2°/75±5% relative humidity showed no significant changes up to 90 days. X-Ray Diffraction spectrum exhibits the transformation of crystalline form of drug to amorphous in the formulation. Scanning Electron Microscope image showed nanoparticles spherical in shape with smooth surface. In vitro release profiles were biphasic in nature with burst release followed by controlled release over a period of 24 h obeying diffusion mechanism. In vivo and ex vivo studies results of the study show significant uptake of the nanoparticles by alveolar macrophages through fluorescent micrograph. Polymeric nanoparticles formulation of pyrazinamide could encompass significant uptake by alveolar macrophages, the high first-pass metabolism, sustain the release of drug leading to reduction in dose, toxicity and improvement of patient compliance. PMID:26180270

  16. Maternal protein restriction alters VEGF signaling and decreases pulmonary alveolar in fetal rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaomei; Lin, Yan; Tian, Baoling; Miao, Jianing; Xi, Chunyan; Liu, Caixia

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk for respiratory morbidity from infancy, throughout childhood and into adulthood. Chronic restriction of nutrients causes abnormalities in the airways and lungs of offspring, but whether IUGR adversely impacts fetal pulmonary vascular development and underlying mechanisms remain under investigation. In this study, we investigated the effects of protein malnutrition in utero on pulmonary alveolarization and vascular growth of the fetal lung and placentae. Pregnant rats were feed with an isocaloric low-protein diet (8% protein) until delivery. Placenta and fetal lungs were harvested on 20th day of gestation (term 21 days of gestation). Lung index (lung weight as a percentage of body weight), total DNA and protein, radial alveolar count, arteriolar wall thickness, lung maturity and angiogenic factor VEGF were assessed. The lung was hypoplastic in IUGR fetus, evidenced by reduction in lung weight, DNA and protein content. Protein restriction in utero led to higher glycogen levels, but reduced number of alveoli as confirmed by the measurement of radial alveolar counts. IUGR fetus had significantly reduced VEGF, Flk-1 levels in lung but no changes in Flt-1 mRNA. Furthermore, IUGR was associated with increased lung miR-126-3p levels, which modulated the expression of angiogenic factor. In contrast, with regard to the placenta, IUGR fetus presented with decreased expression of VEGF, with no changes in VEGF receptors and expression-regulating miRNAs. This work suggested that VEGF signaling defect plays an important role in the defective lung development, which may explain the increased incidence of respiratory infections in IUGR patients. PMID:25031729

  17. Comparative effects of cocaine and cocaethylene on alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Bazuaye-Ekwuyasi, Eseosa A; Ogunbileje, John O; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Okorodudu, Anthony O

    2015-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine (COC) and alcohol have been among the leading causes of non-prescription drug-related deaths in the USA and are known to cause acute and chronic lung diseases. The co-abuse of COC and alcohol results in the production of an active metabolite, cocaethylene (CE). The effects of COC and its metabolites on the respiratory system have been scarcely studied. This study was aimed at comparing the toxic effects of eqimolar concentration (1 mM) of COC and CE on alveolar epithelial type II cells. This was performed by measuring cell growth, viability, clonogenic activity, cell cycle and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The treatment of CE and COC resulted in a significant inhibition of cell proliferation with the formation of an average of three colonies which measured about 1.74×10(-15) m each and 25 colonies each of about 5.73×10(-15) m, respectively, while untreated cells yielded 31 colonies of 8.75×10(-15) m (p<0.05). The treatments of CE and COC resulted in the reduction of the growth fraction of alveolar epithelial type II cells without significant decrease in viability. In addition, there was an approximately twofold increase in ROS generation as compared to the controls (p<0.05). Therefore, CE-induced inhibition of cellular proliferation may contribute to the pathogenesis of diffuse alveolar damage in co-abusers of COC and alcohol. PMID:26364649

  18. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for Diagnosis and Monitoring of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    Averyanov, Alexander; Lesnyak, Viktor; Chernyaev, Andrey; Sorokina, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is based on computed tomography, histology, and antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. The role of a novel technique for imaging cells and elastin during endoscopy, probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE), has not yet been investigated in PAP patients. The aim of the present study was to estimate the value of pCLE in the PAP diagnosis and treatment in comparison with the findings of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) before and after whole-lung lavage. Methods: In vivo pCLE was performed during bronchoscopy in 6 male patients with PAP before and after whole-lung lavage. In certain lung segments, pCLE was followed by HRCT. Results: During the in vivo pCLE, we found characteristic signs of PAP: a fluorescent floating amorphous substance in the alveoli lumen sticking to conglomerates along with alveolar macrophages. These features were present to a lesser extent after a whole-lung lavage. pCLE revealed specific PAP features not only in segments with crazy-paving and ground-glass opacity, but also in segments without HRCT findings. Conclusions: The alveolar imaging in PAP patients is able to reveal characteristic changes, both in the presence and in the absence of HRCT findings. Therefore, pCLE may be a helpful tool for the diagnosis and whole-lung lavage therapy. Our data prove that accumulation of lipoproteinaceous substances within the alveoli at PAP is a diffuse but not a patchy process. PMID:25590481

  19. TRPM2 channels in alveolar epithelial cells mediate bleomycin-induced lung inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Ryo; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Takenaka, Miki; Kage, Yukiko; Negoro, Takaharu; Toda, Takahiro; Ohbayashi, Masayuki; Numata, Tomohiro; Nakano, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Toshinori; Mori, Yasuo; Ishii, Masakazu; Shimizu, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Lung inflammation is a major adverse effect of therapy with the antitumor drug bleomycin (BLM). Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a Ca(2+)-permeable channel that is activated by oxidative stress through the production of ADP-ribose. We herein investigated whether TRPM2 channels contributed to BLM-induced lung inflammation. The intratracheal instillation of BLM into wild-type (WT) mice increased the number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and inflammatory cytokine levels in the lung. Increases in inflammatory markers in WT mice were markedly reduced in trpm2 knockout (KO) mice, which demonstrated that the activation of TRPM2 channels was involved in BLM-induced lung inflammation. The expression of TRPM2 mRNA was observed in alveolar macrophages, alveolar epithelial cells, and lung fibroblasts. Actually, TRPM2 protein was expressed in lung tissues. Of these, TRPM2 channels in epithelial cells were activated by the addition of H2O2 following a BLM pretreatment, resulting in the secretion of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). The H2O2-induced activation of TRPM2 by the BLM pretreatment was blocked by the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors PJ34 and 3-aminobenzamide. The accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) in the nucleus, a marker for ADP-ribose production, was strongly induced by H2O2 following the BLM pretreatment. Furthermore, administration of PRAP inhibitors into WT mice markedly reduced recruitment of inflammatory cells and MIP-2 secretion induced by BLM instillation. These results suggest that the induction of MIP-2 secretion through the activation of TRPM2 channels in alveolar epithelial cells is an important mechanism in BLM-induced lung inflammation, and the TRPM2 activation is likely to be mediated by ADP-ribose production via PARP pathway. TRPM2 channels may be new therapeutic target for BLM-induced lung inflammation.

  20. Effect of hydroxyethyl starch on alveolar flooding in acute lung injury in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, H; Dahms, T E; Bell, E; Naunheim, K S; Baudendistel, L J

    1993-10-01

    The efficacy of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) in limiting alveolar flooding after acute lung injury was investigated using ethchlorvynol (ECV)-induced low pressure pulmonary edema in dogs. Harvested autologous plasma (PL) (control, n = 8) or 6% HES (n = 8) was infused (25 ml/kg) along with packed cells to result in an isovolemic, normochromic preparation before the administration of ECV. Extravascular thermal volume significantly increased after ECV administration in both groups of animals (6.6 to 13.4 ml/kg in PL, 6.5 to 15.0 ml/kg in HES). Systemic arterial PO2 decreased from 216 +/- 4 to 113 +/- 20 mm Hg, and venous admixture increased from 2.8 to 12.8% in the PL group but was not significantly changed in the HES group (219 +/- 5 to 203 +/- 8 mm Hg, and 2.9 to 4.4%, respectively). Epithelial lining fluid volumes after ECV administration increased in both groups but were elevated in the PL group to a greater extent than in the HES group (13.5 ml in HES versus 24.8 ml in PL). In the HES group there appeared to be no difference in the ability of plasma proteins to move across the alveolar epithelium. These results suggest that HES attenuates the flooding of the alveolar space and the resulting alterations in gas exchange during the development of low pressure pulmonary edema. The replacement of the plasma proteins with HES and the apparent inability of HES to cross the epithelial barrier into the alveoli may account for the protective effect of HES in these experiments.

  1. Full Spectrum of LPS Activation in Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Volunteers by Whole Transcriptomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; Zhao, Jing; Donahoe, Michael P.; Barge, Suchitra; Horne, William T.; Kolls, Jay K.; McVerry, Bryan J.; Birukova, Anastasiya; Tighe, Robert M.; Foster, W. Michael; Hollingsworth, John; Ray, Anuradha; Mallampalli, Rama; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding macrophage activation, little is known regarding how human alveolar macrophages in health calibrate its transcriptional response to canonical TLR4 activation. In this study, we examined the full spectrum of LPS activation and determined whether the transcriptomic profile of human alveolar macrophages is distinguished by a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dominant type I interferon signature. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages were obtained from healthy volunteers, stimulated in the presence or absence of ultrapure LPS in vitro, and whole transcriptomic profiling was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). LPS induced a robust type I interferon transcriptional response and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted interferon regulatory factor (IRF)7 as the top upstream regulator of 89 known gene targets. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP)-18, a negative regulator of interferon α/β responses, was among the top up-regulated genes in addition to IL10 and USP41, a novel gene with no known biological function but with high sequence homology to USP18. We determined whether IRF-7 and USP-18 can influence downstream macrophage effector cytokine production such as IL-10. We show that IRF-7 siRNA knockdown enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and USP-18 overexpression attenuated LPS-induced production of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of USP18, USP41, IL10, and IRF7. An independent cohort confirmed LPS induction of USP41 and IL10 genes. These results suggest that IRF-7 and predicted downstream target USP18, both elements of a type I interferon gene signature identified by RNA-Seq, may serve to fine-tune early cytokine response by calibrating IL-10 production in human alveolar macrophages. PMID:27434537

  2. Prospective Analysis of Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M Gokul Chandra; Babu, V Ramesh; Rao, V Eswar; Chaitanya, J Jaya; Allareddy, S; Reddy, C Charan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess the success of the uptake of bone graft in cleft alveolus of the cleft lip and palate patients, quantitatively through computed tomography (CT) scan 6 months postoperative. To assess the successful eruption of permanent lateral incisor or canine in the bone grafted area. Materials and Methods: The children age group of 9-21 years with unilateral cleft lip and palate came to the hospital, needing secondary alveolar bone grafting. A detailed history and clinical examination of the patient was taken. A 3D CT scan was taken and the volume of the cleft was measured pre-operatively. After ambulatory period, 3D CT scan of the alveolar cleft region was taken and volume of the bone grafted was measured and patient was discharged from the hospital. After 6 months, patient was recalled and again 3D CT scan was taken and the volume of remaining bone was measured. Results: The mean volume of the defect pre-operatively is 0.80 cm3 with a standard deviation of 0.36 cm3 with minimum volume of the defect 0.44 cm3 and maximum volume of the defect 1.60 cm3. The mean volume of the bone post-operative immediately after grafting is 1.01 cm3 with a standard deviation of 0.52 cm3 with minimum of bone volume is 0.48 cm3 and maximum of 2.06 cm3. The mean volume of the bone after 6 months after bone grafting is 0.54 cm3 with a standard deviation of 0.33 cm3, minimum bone volume of 0.22 cm3 and maximum bone volume of 1.42 cm3. Conclusion: The CT scan is a valuable radiographic imaging modality to assess and follow the clinical outcome of secondary alveolar bone grafting. PMID:25954076

  3. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion in Rats Alters Lung Metabolism, Promotes Lipid Accumulation, and Impairs Alveolar Macrophage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Freddy; Shah, Dilip; Duong, Michelle; Stafstrom, William; Hoek, Jan B.; Kallen, Caleb B.; Lang, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism impairs pulmonary immune homeostasis and predisposes to inflammatory lung diseases, including infectious pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although alcoholism has been shown to alter hepatic metabolism, leading to lipid accumulation, hepatitis, and, eventually, cirrhosis, the effects of alcohol on pulmonary metabolism remain largely unknown. Because both the lung and the liver actively engage in lipid synthesis, we hypothesized that chronic alcoholism would impair pulmonary metabolic homeostasis in ways similar to its effects in the liver. We reasoned that perturbations in lipid metabolism might contribute to the impaired pulmonary immunity observed in people who chronically consume alcohol. We studied the metabolic consequences of chronic alcohol consumption in rat lungs in vivo and in alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) in vitro. We found that chronic alcohol ingestion significantly alters lung metabolic homeostasis, inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase, increasing lipid synthesis, and suppressing the expression of genes essential to metabolizing fatty acids (FAs). Furthermore, we show that these metabolic alterations promoted a lung phenotype that is reminiscent of alcoholic fatty liver and is characterized by marked accumulation of triglycerides and free FAs within distal airspaces, AMs, and, to a lesser extent, alveolar epithelial type II cells. We provide evidence that the metabolic alterations in alcohol-exposed rats are mechanistically linked to immune impairments in the alcoholic lung: the elevations in FAs alter AM phenotypes and suppress both phagocytic functions and agonist-induced inflammatory responses. In summary, our work demonstrates that chronic alcohol ingestion impairs lung metabolic homeostasis and promotes pulmonary immune dysfunction. These findings suggest that therapies aimed at reversing alcohol-related metabolic alterations might be effective for preventing and

  4. Fibroblast growth factor signaling in myofibroblasts differs from lipofibroblasts during alveolar septation in mice

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Diann M.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary alveolar fibroblasts produce extracellular matrix in a temporally and spatially regulated pattern to yield a durable yet pliable gas-exchange surface. Proliferation ensures a sufficient complement of cells, but they must differentiate into functionally distinct subtypes: contractile myofibroblasts (MF), which generate elastin and regulate air-flow at the alveolar ducts, and, in mice and rats, lipofibroblasts (LF), which store neutral lipids. PDGF-A is required but acts in conjunction with other differentiation factors arising from adjacent epithelia or within fibroblasts. We hypothesized that FGF receptor (FGFR) expression and function vary for MF and LF and contributes to their divergent differentiation. Whereas approximately half of the FGFR3 was extracellular in MF, FGFR2 and FGFR4 were primarily intracellular. Intracellular FGFR3 localized to the multivesicular body, and its abundance may be modified by Sprouty and interaction with heat shock protein-90. FGF18 mRNA is more abundant in MF, whereas FGF10 mRNA predominated in LF, which also express FGFR1 IIIb, a receptor for FGF10. FGF18 diminished fibroblast proliferation and was chemotactic for cultured fibroblasts. Although PDGF receptor-α (PDGFR-α) primarily signals through phosphoinositide 3-kinase and Akt, p42/p44 MAP kinase (Erk1/2), a major signaling pathway for FGFRs, influenced the abundance of cell-surface PDGFR-α. Observing different FGFR and ligand profiles in MF and LF is consistent with their divergent differentiation although both subpopulations express PDGFR-α. These studies also emphasize the importance of particular cellular locations of FGFR3 and PDGFR-α, which may modify their effects during alveolar development or repair. PMID:26138642

  5. Some predictors of radiographic alveolar bone height reduction over 6 years.

    PubMed

    Albandar, J M

    1990-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to 1) develop a model to predict the proportion of sites with alveolar bone height reduction over 6 years by means of a few factors, 2) build a second model to predict the initial values of the dependent variable, and 3) describe the relationship between initial bone loss and the bone loss over 6 yr with age. 142 subjects (18-67 yr) were examined radiographically at baseline and 6 yr later using a standardized method. For each subject, the proportion of sites depicting significant alveolar bone height reduction during the study was assessed. Explanatory variables were: presence of initial bone loss, local plaque retaining factors, age, sex, number of missing teeth at baseline and rheumatoid arthritis. Employing multiple regression analysis, the combined effect of initial bone loss, plaque retaining factors, age and rheumatoid arthritis provided the best model suited to predict the proportion of sites undergoing bone loss over time. However, age, plaque retaining factors and number of missing teeth were the best predictors of initial bone loss. A logistic regression model was then used to study the significance of these predictors at the site level. This model indicated that alveolar bone loss over time at a given site is related mainly to presence of local factors and initial bone loss at that site as compared to the effect of other sites with local factors and initial bone loss in the subject. Age demonstrated a linear relationship with initial bone loss and a curvilinear relationship to periodontal disease progression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2141878

  6. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Methods Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. Results New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. Conclusions After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit. PMID:27800213

  7. Combinations of differentiation markers distinguish subpopulations of alveolar epithelial cells in adult lung.

    PubMed

    Liebler, Janice M; Marconett, Crystal N; Juul, Nicholas; Wang, Hongjun; Liu, Yixin; Flodby, Per; Laird-Offringa, Ite A; Minoo, Parviz; Zhou, Beiyun

    2016-01-15

    Distal lung epithelium is maintained by proliferation of alveolar type II (AT2) cells and, for some daughter AT2 cells, transdifferentiation into alveolar type I (AT1) cells. We investigated if subpopulations of alveolar epithelial cells (AEC) exist that represent various stages in transdifferentiation from AT2 to AT1 cell phenotypes in normal adult lung and if they can be identified using combinations of cell-specific markers. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that, in distal rat and mouse lungs, ∼ 20-30% of NKX2.1(+) (or thyroid transcription factor 1(+)) cells did not colocalize with pro-surfactant protein C (pro-SP-C), a highly specific AT2 cell marker. In distal rat lung, NKX2.1(+) cells coexpressed either pro-SP-C or the AT1 cell marker homeodomain only protein x (HOPX). Not all HOPX(+) cells colocalize with the AT1 cell marker aquaporin 5 (AQP5), and some AQP5(+) cells were NKX2.1(+). HOPX was expressed earlier than AQP5 during transdifferentiation in rat AEC primary culture, with robust expression of both by day 7. We speculate that NKX2.1 and pro-SP-C colocalize in AT2 cells, NKX2.1 and HOPX or AQP5 colocalize in intermediate or transitional cells, and HOPX and AQP5 are expressed without NKX2.1 in AT1 cells. These findings suggest marked heterogeneity among cells previously identified as exclusively AT1 or AT2 cells, implying the presence of subpopulations of intermediate or transitional AEC in normal adult lung. PMID:26545903

  8. The potential role of BAX and BCL-2 expression in diffuse alveolar damage.

    PubMed Central

    Guinee, D.; Brambilla, E.; Fleming, M.; Hayashi, T.; Rahn, M.; Koss, M.; Ferrans, V.; Travis, W.

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis of type II pneumocytes has been identified in diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), is associated with p53 and WAF1 expression, and may be of pathogenetic importance. BAX, a homologue of BCL-2, is induced by p53 and is a promoter of apoptosis. The proapoptotic effect of BAX is negatively regulated by its binding with BCL-2. In this study, we sought to investigate that role of BAX and BCL-2 in DAD. We hypothesized that alterations in BAX and BCL-2 expression may be important in determining the susceptibility of type II pneumocytes and interstitial cells to apoptosis. Twenty-eight cases of DAD and 16 control cases (i.e., lung tissues adjacent to resected tumors) were retrieved from the files of the University of Utah and the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Immunohistochemical stains were performed with antigen retrieval by microwave using antibodies recognizing BAX and BCL-2. The percentage of positively staining pneumocytes and interstitial cells was estimated in each case to the nearest 10%. BAX expression was markedly increased in pneumocytes and interstitial cells in DAD compared with control lung tissues. In DAD, BAX was identified on an average of 80% of alveolar pneumocytes (range 30 to 100%) and 70% of interstitial cells (range 20 to 90%). In control lungs, BAX was identified on an average of 10% of pneumocytes (range 0 to 20%) but not in interstitial cells. Focal BCL-2 staining was identified in interstitial myofibroblasts in 7 of 25 cases of DAD but was only identified in bronchiolar epithelium of control lungs. These results suggest that the induction of BAX in DAD may enhance the susceptibility of alveolar epithelial cells to apoptosis, whereas BCL-2 expression may contribute to the absence of apoptosis in interstitial myofibroblasts. Expression of BCL-2 in interstitial myofibroblasts may contribute to the development of pulmonary fibrosis in some patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:9327733

  9. Targeted Type 2 Alveolar Cell Depletion. A Dynamic Functional Model for Lung Injury Repair.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Orquidea; Hiatt, Michael J; Lundin, Amber; Lee, Jooeun; Reddy, Raghava; Navarro, Sonia; Kikuchi, Alex; Driscoll, Barbara

    2016-03-01

    Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2) are regarded as the progenitor population of the alveolus responsible for injury repair and homeostatic maintenance. Depletion of this population is hypothesized to underlie various lung pathologies. Current models of lung injury rely on either uncontrolled, nonspecific destruction of alveolar epithelia or on targeted, nontitratable levels of fixed AEC2 ablation. We hypothesized that discrete levels of AEC2 ablation would trigger stereotypical and informative patterns of repair. To this end, we created a transgenic mouse model in which the surfactant protein-C promoter drives expression of a mutant SR39TK herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase specifically in AEC2. Because of the sensitivity of SR39TK, low doses of ganciclovir can be administered to these animals to induce dose-dependent AEC2 depletion ranging from mild (50%) to lethal (82%) levels. We demonstrate that specific levels of AEC2 depletion cause altered expression patterns of apoptosis and repair proteins in surviving AEC2 as well as distinct changes in distal lung morphology, pulmonary function, collagen deposition, and expression of remodeling proteins in whole lung that persist for up to 60 days. We believe SPCTK mice demonstrate the utility of cell-specific expression of the SR39TK transgene for exerting fine control of target cell depletion. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that specific levels of type 2 alveolar epithelial cell depletion produce characteristic injury repair outcomes. Most importantly, use of these mice will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AEC2 in the initiation of, and response to, lung injury.

  10. Acute toxicity of lead particulates on pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Ultrastructural and microanalytical studies

    SciTech Connect

    deVries, C.R.; Ingram, P.; Walker, S.R.; Linton, R.W.; Gutknecht, W.F.; Shelburne, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Although it is well established that respiratory uptake of lead-containing particles plays a substantial role in the epidemiology of plumbism, relatively little is known about the role of the pulmonary alveolar macrophage in lead poisoning. An in vitro system was designed to investigate the effects of lead oxide particles of respirable size on the rabbit alveolar macrophage. The studies were concerned with the intracellular solubility of PbO and Pb/sub 3/O/sub 4/ and changes in fine structure attributable to lead toxi