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Sample records for del salvador 1991-2001

  1. Remote sensing, image processing and GIS training and technical assistance for Commission Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica Del Rio Lempa (CEL), San Salvador, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.C.

    1988-10-25

    The Commission Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica Del Rio Lempa (CEL) has purchased an ERDAS image processing and GIS system which has been installed at CEL facilities in San Salvador. The objective of CEL is to develop the technical capability and expertise for successful use of computer-based image processing and analysis by geographic information system (GIS). Apparently, El Salvador currently does not have this technology and CEL is committed to taking the lead in its development. The objectives of the professional development workshop were to: provide instruction in the background and principles of remote sensing and raster-based GIS; expose the participants to applications of interest; provide hands-on experience using all modules of the ERDAS system; explore with participants and US experts approaches to projects anticipated to use the ERDAS system. The workshop took place at CADI in Fort Collins during October 3--14, 1988. There were five participants from CEL with expertise in the following areas: soil science and watershed management, geology, computer science/information management, hydrology, civil engineering and statistics.

  2. Remote sensing, image processing and GIS training and technical assistance for Commission Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica Del Rio Lempa (CEL), San Salvador, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.C. )

    1988-10-25

    The Commission Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica Del Rio Lempa (CEL) has purchased an ERDAS image processing and GIS system which has been installed at CEL facilities in San Salvador. The objective of CEL is to develop the technical capability and expertise for successful use of computer-based image processing and analysis by geographic information system (GIS). Apparently, El Salvador currently does not have this technology and CEL is committed to taking the lead in its development. The objectives of the professional development workshop were to: provide instruction in the background and principles of remote sensing and raster-based GIS; expose the participants to applications of interest; provide hands-on experience using all modules of the ERDAS system; explore with participants and US experts approaches to projects anticipated to use the ERDAS system. The workshop took place at CADI in Fort Collins during October 3--14, 1988. There were five participants from CEL with expertise in the following areas: soil science and watershed management, geology, computer science/information management, hydrology, civil engineering and statistics.

  3. Spina bifida and anencephaly prevalence--United States, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Mathews, T J; Honein, Margaret A; Erickson, J David

    2002-09-13

    Spina bifida and anencephaly are serious birth defects. To reduce the occurrence of these birth defects, the Food and Drug Administration authorized the fortification of all enriched cereal grain products with folic acid in March 1996, with compliance mandatory by January 1998. This report reviews data reported to CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) regarding spina bifida and anencephaly prevalence for live births in the United States during 1991-2001. Since 1989, NCHS has compiled birth defect data from checkboxes that appear on birth certificates. For consistency in trends, this report uses data for 1991-2001 from all U.S. reporting areas except Maryland, New Mexico, and New York. Data for 2001 are preliminary. During 1996-2001, a 23% decline occurred in neural tube defects (spina bifida and anencephaly combined). Spina bifida declined 24% during this period, and anencephaly declined 21%. The United States has experienced declines in spina bifida and anencephaly cases since folic acid fortification of all enriched cereal grain products. The observed declines have translated into approximately 920 infants being born without these serious defects each year. Continued monitoring of the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly will be necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortification.

  4. Water Quality in the Nation's Streams and Aquifers Overview of Selected Findings, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2004-01-01

    This report accompanies the publication of the last 15 of 51 river basin and aquifer assessments by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1991?2001. It highlights selected water-quality findings of regional and national interest through examples from river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. Forthcoming reports in the USGS series ?The Quality of Our Nation?s Waters? will present comprehensive national syntheses of information collected in the 51 study units on pesticides in water, sediment, and fish; volatile organic compounds in major aquifers used for domestic and public supply; nutrients and trace elements in streams and ground water; and aquatic ecology. This report, summaries of the 51 water-quality assessments, and a 1999 national synthesis of information on nutrients and pesticides, are available free of charge as USGS Circulars and on the World Wide Web at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/nawqa_sumr.html.

  5. Pathways between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Childhood Growth in the Scottish Longitudinal Study, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Silverwood, Richard J; Williamson, Lee; Grundy, Emily M; De Stavola, Bianca L

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4.5 years were related to three measures of socioeconomic disadvantage (mother's education, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, synthetic weekly income). Mediation was examined using two approaches: a 'traditional' mediation analysis and a counterfactual-based mediation analysis. Both analyses identified a negative effect of each measure of socioeconomic disadvantage on height, mediated to some extent by birth weight, and a positive 'direct effect' of mother's education and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation on overweight/obesity, which was partly counterbalanced by a negative 'indirect effect'. The extent of mediation estimated when adopting the traditional approach was greater than when adopting the counterfactual-based approach because of inappropriate handling of intermediate confounding in the former. Our findings suggest that higher birth weight in more disadvantaged groups is associated with reduced social inequalities in height but also with increased inequalities in overweight/obesity.

  6. El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solberg, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Many El Salvador refugees who have sought asylum in the United States have been sent back, only to succumb to violence. Justice demands that the United States deal with the unfortunate consequences of violence by exercising such policy options as providing extended voluntary departure status to refugees or suspending military aid to the junta.…

  7. El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year

  8. Gangs in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    social en El Salvador,” July 2008, 5. 45 Ibid., 6. 46 Ibid., 9. 47 Fundación Salvadoreña para el Desarrollo Económico y Social, “El Orden Constitucional y la Fuerza Armada”, November, 2009, 3.

  9. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in the conterminous United States, excluding the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The data set represents the areas studied during the first decade of the NAWQA Program, from 1991-2001 ("cycle 1"). The coverage is intended only for drawing ILLUSTRATIONS, NOT for spatial analysis. The sources of this coverage were the full resolution NAWQA study unit coverage, which is available at http://water.usgs.gov/lookup/getspatial?nawqacyc1 and the coastline from a 1:2 million county coverage generalized for display at the scale of 1:34 million.

  10. Ahuachapan Geothermal Power Plant, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    DiPippo, Ronald

    1980-12-01

    The Ahuachapan geothermal power plant has been the subject of several recent reports and papers (1-7). This article is a condensation of the author's earlier writings (5-7), and incorporates new information on the geothermal activities in El Salvador obtained recently through a telephone conversation with Ing. R. Caceres of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) who has been engaged in the design and engineering of the newest unit at Ahuachapan. El Salvador is the first of the Central American countries to construct and operate a geothermal electric generating station. Exploration began in the mid-1960's at the geothermal field near Ahuachapan in western El Salvador. The first power unit, a separated-steam or so-called ''single-flash'' plant, was started up in June 1975, and was followed a year later by an identical unit. In July 1980, the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (C.E.L.) will complete the installation of a third unit, a dual-pressure (or ''double-flash'') unit rated at 35 MW. The full Ahuachapan plant will then constitute about 20% of the total installed electric generating capacity of the country. During 1977, the first two units generated nearly one-third of all the electricity produced in El Salvador. C.E.L. is actively pursuing several other promising sites for additional geothermal plants. There is the possibility that eventually geothermal energy will contribute about 450 MW of electric generating capacity. In any event it appears that by 1985 El Salvador should be able to meet its domestic needs for electricity by means of its indigenous geothermal and hydroelectric power plants, thus eliminating any dependence on imported petroleum for power generation.

  11. Spotlight: El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    As of mid-1998, El Salvador had a population of 5.8 million people residing in a land area of 8000 sq. miles. There were 29 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 41 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.5% annually. The average woman has 3.9 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 72 years for female. With 39% of El Salvador's population under age 15 years, it will continue to grow rapidly even as birth rates decline. The proportion of urban residents in El Salvador is expected to grow beyond the 1994 level of 45%. Population growth has intensified competition for farmland and jobs, with extreme poverty forcing Salvadoran farmers and laborers to make choices which are beneficial in the short term, but which may cause long-term environmental damage. Human and chemical wastes, often untreated and unregulated, pollute 90% of the rivers and almost all topsoil and drinking water in heavily populated areas. 66% of farmland in the mountainous area is eroded, and the resulting pollution and agricultural runoff threaten shellfish and seafood businesses close to the coast. While forests once covered 85% of El Salvador, now only less than 5% is forest, and much of the cleared land is so degraded that there is little hope of restoring endangered plant and animal species. Most of the country's workers are employed in agriculture, but industrial parks are helping the country's economic growth. 74% of Salvadoran men and 70% of women are literate, school enrollment levels are low, and about 4% of the country's gross national product comes from official development assistance. The El Salvador Environment Fund was created in 1994 to support small projects for environmental protection and child development.

  12. Nontyphoidal Salmonella causing focal infections in patients admitted at a Spanish general hospital during an 11-year period (1991-2001).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mercedes; de Diego, Isabel; Martínez, Noelia; Rosario Rodicio, M; Carmen Mendoza, M

    2006-08-01

    In focal infections (FI) caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes and recorded at a Spanish hospital 1991-2001, clinical and microbiological features were analyzed. Thirty-five revised episodes were related to infections of the digestive (10), urinary (10), pulmonar (4), vascular (4), osteoarticular (3) and central nervous (3) systems, and with a submaxillary lymph node. At least 16 episodes were associated with previous or concomitant gastroenteritis, 19 with primary or secondary bacteremia, and 18 with underlying diseases of different severity. Eighteen patients were male and 14 female (data were not available for three patients), while 1, 4, 12 and 15 patients were, respectively, categorized as children, young adults, senior adults and elderly. Sources of Salmonella strains were urine (13), blood (11), purulent abscess (8), cerebrospinal fluid (3), peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, wound exudates, aneurism (2 of each), ascitic fluid, sputum, tracheal aspirate, needle aspirate, bone and lymph node (1 of each) samples. Only 28 Salmonella strains involved in FIs were available for further analysis. They were discriminated into 6 serotypes, and into 13 XbaI macrorestriction, 6 virulence, 11 antimicrobial resistance, 5 integron and 10 plasmid profiles. Broadly, the pattern of serotype distribution of salmonellas involved in FIs matched that of those causing gastroenteritis, with the pandemic Enteritidis and Typhimurium (18 and 6 strains, respectively) being clearly predominant. Within serotype, the same lineages (as revealed by XbaI-macrorestriction analysis as well as R- and V-profiles) were represented in both disease groups, with host-related factors apparently playing a more critical role than the individual strain in the outcome of the disease.

  13. Analysis of the spatio-temporal and semantic aspects of land-cover/use change dynamics 1991-2001 in Albania at national and district levels.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Louisa J M; Carrai, Giancarlo; Morandini, Luca; Cerutti, Paolo O; Spisni, Andrea

    2006-08-01

    In the turmoil of a rapidly changing economy the Albanian government needs accurate and timely information for management of their natural resources and formulation of land-use policies. The transformation of the forestry sector has required major changes in the legal, regulatory and management framework. The World Bank financed Albanian National Forest Inventory project provides an analysis of spatially explicit land-cover/use change dynamics in the period 1991-2001 using the FAO/UNEP Land Cover Classification System for codification of classes, satellite remote sensing and field survey for data collection and elements of the object-oriented geo-database approach to handle changes as an evolution of land-cover/use objects, i.e. polygons, over time to facilitate change dynamics analysis. Analysis results at national level show the trend of natural resources depletion in the form of modifications and conversions that lead to a gradual shift from land-cover/use types with a tree cover to less dense tree covers or even a complete removal of trees. Policy failure (e.g., corruption, lack of law enforcement) is seen as the underlying cause. Another major trend is urbanisation of areas near large urban centres that change urban-rural linkages. Furthermore, after privatisation agricultural areas increased in the hills where environmental effects may be detrimental, while prime agricultural land in the plains is lost to urbanisation. At district level, the local variability of spatially explicit land-cover/use changes shows different types of natural resources depletion. The distribution of changes indicates a regional prevalence, thus a decentralised approach to the natural resources management could be advocated.

  14. Lake Ilopango, El Salvador

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-10

    Lake Ilopango is a crater lake which fills a volcanic caldera in central El Salvador, immediately east of the capital city San Salvador. The caldera collapsed most recently in about 500 AD, producing 20 times as much ash as the Mount St. Helens eruption, and blanketing an area of at least 10,000 square kilometers waist-deep in ash. The only historical eruption occurred in 1879, forming lava domes, now islets in the lake. Quetzaltepec is the stratovolcano just west of the city. Its last eruption in 1917 produced lavas flowing down the northwest flank, and evaporated the crater lake. The image was acquired March 5, 2006, covers an area of 27 by 42 km, and is located at 13.7 degrees north, 89.1 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19237

  15. Gazetteer of El Salvador,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    INTRODUCTION GENERAL El Salvador, smallest of the seven republics located between Mexico and Colombia, is bordered by Guatemala, Honduras. Nicaragua...Candelaria de La Frontera PPL 1407’N 89 39’W ES11 BL16 ND16-05(andelaria. Municipio de ADM3 13 4]’N 88 58’W ES04 BL81 ND16-C9 (andelaria Albornoz PPL 13 36’N...87 59’W ES07 CL90 ND16-10(’andelaria de La Frontera PPL 14 07’N 8939’W ES]1 BLI6 NDI6-05 Candelaria de La Frontera . Municipio de ADM3 14 07’N 89 38’W

  16. Volcano hazards in the San Salvador region, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Sofield, D.J.; Escobar, C.D.; Pullinger, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    San Salvador volcano is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador (figure 1). This volcano, having a volume of about 110 cubic kilometers, towers above San Salvador, the country’s capital and largest city. The city has a population of approximately 2 million, and a population density of about 2100 people per square kilometer. The city of San Salvador and other communities have gradually encroached onto the lower flanks of the volcano, increasing the risk that even small events may have serious societal consequences. San Salvador volcano has not erupted for more than 80 years, but it has a long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers, and these remnants are commonly referred to by several names. The central part of the volcano, which contains a large circular crater, is known as El Boquerón, and it rises to an altitude of about 1890 meters. El Picacho, the prominent peak of highest elevation (1960 meters altitude) to the northeast of the crater, and El Jabali, the peak to the northwest of the crater, represent remnants of an older, larger edifice. The volcano has erupted several times during the past 70,000 years from vents central to the volcano as well as from smaller vents and fissures on its flanks [1] (numerals in brackets refer to end notes in the report). In addition, several small cinder cones and explosion craters are located within 10 kilometers of the volcano. Since about 1200 A.D., eruptions have occurred almost exclusively along, or a few kilometers beyond, the northwest flank of the volcano, and have consisted primarily of small explosions and emplacement of lava flows. However, San Salvador volcano has erupted violently and explosively in the past, even as recently as 800 years ago. When such eruptions occur again, substantial population and infrastructure will be at risk. Volcanic eruptions are not the only events that present a risk to local

  17. El Salvador and Its Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Gertraude Roth

    Since a 1979 coup, El Salvador has been ruled by a civilian-military junta supported by the oligarchy; officially, the junta is committed to social and economic reforms. Civilian guerrillas oppose the government which they believe is not interested in real reform. The United States supplies financial and military aid to the junta and believes the…

  18. El Salvador and Its Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Gertraude Roth

    Since a 1979 coup, El Salvador has been ruled by a civilian-military junta supported by the oligarchy; officially, the junta is committed to social and economic reforms. Civilian guerrillas oppose the government which they believe is not interested in real reform. The United States supplies financial and military aid to the junta and believes the…

  19. Health Data Publications No. 10. El Salvador.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PUBLIC HEALTH, * EL SALVADOR , ECONOMICS, GOVERNMENT(FOREIGN), DEMOGRAPHY, DISEASES, MAPS, ANIMALS, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, MEDICAL SERVICES, HOSPITALS, GEOGRAPHY, EPIDEMIOLOGY, SANITARY ENGINEERING, DISEASE VECTORS, CENTRAL AMERICA.

  20. El Salvador: A Communist Objective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    National Banking System was in the same hands. POLITICAL . Other factors originating the general unrest were the people’s lack of absolute freedom to...aggression by Communist power, through Cuba and Nicaragua. 18 EL SALVADOR SUMMARY DATA (To 1985) GENERAL Political parties: National Conciliation Party... political , economic and social situation of each country. The security of the Latin American countries has been and is constantly threatened by the

  1. El Salvador: Conflict and Change: A Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Craig, Ed.

    This curriculum emphasizes El Salvador's physical and human geography and involves students in active learning situations using critical and creative thinking skills. The seven lessons include: (1) "Why Study El Salvador?"; (2) "Where in the World Is El Salvador?"; (3) "Picturing El Salvador: Looking Beyond the…

  2. El Salvador: Conflict and Change: A Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Craig, Ed.

    This curriculum emphasizes El Salvador's physical and human geography and involves students in active learning situations using critical and creative thinking skills. The seven lessons include: (1) "Why Study El Salvador?"; (2) "Where in the World Is El Salvador?"; (3) "Picturing El Salvador: Looking Beyond the…

  3. A Lesson Plan on El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information on Salvadoran history, politics, and religion. Provides a model lesson plan designed to help high school students to understand events leading to the current conflict in El Salvador and the rest of Central America. (Author/GC)

  4. Frank from El Salvador: A Teacher's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquier, Binnie

    1994-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a young man from El Salvador and his eighth-grade second-language teacher as they watched other young El Salvadorans either drop out of school or accumulate insufficient credits to graduate. (RS)

  5. Women and Science in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Maria Mendez Martınez, Luz; Portillo, Mercy; Elías, José Héctor

    2009-04-01

    Physics is rarely pursued by El Salvadoran students. As in most Latin-American countries, there exists the false idea in El Salvador that some careers should be exclusively for men, such as engineering and hard sciences like physics. Because El Salvador is a natural laboratory for geophysical phenomena, due to the existence of more than 20 volcanoes, prevalent seismic activity, and large production of geothermic energy, geophysics is the most common branch of physics studied in El Salvador. The numbers and gender breakdown of physics and geophysics students at the University of El Salvador in the years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2005 are presented, and the numbers are encouraging.

  6. Women in physics in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, T.; de Contreras, D.; Rivera, W.

    2013-03-01

    Current conditions impose serious limitations on admission to careers and specialization for physicists in general and especially for women in physics. This is a critical issue in a country where political instability, a civil war, and postwar conditions have limited the development of science and technology, and where there are just a few masters in science in the whole university and even fewer professionals with a PhD degree. In the past three years, El Salvador has defined clear lines of work that involve female physicists at the University of El Salvador. These lines are seismology, meteorology, climatology, and physics education.

  7. Shadowing: pediatric heart surgery in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Caleb

    2012-01-01

    In September 2009, the year before the author began medical school, he accompanied a team of doctors, nurses, and technicians from the nonprofit organization Heart Care International (HCI) on a trip to El Salvador. Founded in 1994 by the heart surgeon Robert Michler, HCI strives to provide care to children with congenital heart disease in developing countries. In addition to El Salvador, HCI has worked in Guatemala and the Dominican Republic, leaving behind lasting local programs and always looking to the future for new opportunities.

  8. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  9. El Salvador: Limited Intervention Equals Limited Returns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    crisis in the Middle East and South-Central Asia , President Putin has made his way to the front of major news networks with his Russian world-view of...military intervention in El Salvador in the 1980s, this monograph points to the evidence collected that underscores the results of a policy employing

  10. [The echinoderms (Echinodermata) from El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Enrique Barraza, José; Roberto Hasbún, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    A list of echinoderms from El Salvador (tropical eastern Pacific) is presented. The results were obtained from field surveys (between the years 2000 and 2004), the scarce literature sources, and Internet information. A total of 37 species and six genera are reported. The most abundant echinoderms in rocky shores were: Phataria unifascialis, Echinometra vanbrunti, Holothuria kefersteini, as well as Astropecten armatus in soft bottoms.

  11. US Policy in El Salvador: Creating Beauty or the Beast?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Salvador received about one million dollars a day in US assistance from 1981 to 1992.’ American involvement in El Salvador and the results that were...achieved have generated a great deal of controversy. One of the most common themes has been the "failure" of US policy in El Salvador. The signing of...was based on the development of a policy that proved to be flexible, effective, and durable. Additionally, I believe that our role in the

  12. [Biographical notes about Salvador Allende G].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, Ricardo

    2003-07-01

    Thirty years have elapsed since the tragic death of Salvador Allende, MD. He occupies a high position as a symbol of the fall of real socialism. He became the most famous physician/politician of his times in Chile and the tracks of his life became imprinted, during the past century, in the pages of Revista Médica de Chile. This is a proper time to reconstruct his historical memory from a more reflexive perspective.

  13. A new medical mission to El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Geiger, J; Eisenberg, C; Gloyd, S; Quiroga, J; Schlenker, T; Scrimshaw, N; Devin, J

    1989-10-19

    El Salvador has a long history of human right abuses and a record of violations of medical neutrality and international humanitarian law. A civil war broke out between the Salvadorian armed forces and a guerrilla opposition, the Farabundo Marti Liberacion Nacional (FMLN) in 1979. To investigate and report on specific allegations of abuses of human rights and medical neutrality by both sides in the conflict, a medical mission visited El Salvador in early June, 1989. It was sponsored by Physicians for Human Rights. The delegation consisted of 5 physicians, an attorney, and an observer from the staff of the Select Committee on Hunger of the US House of Representatives. The mission explored violations of medical neutrality. It investigated the reported obstruction of civil health personnel and of the delivery of supplies to people living in congested rural areas, refugees, and displaced persons, allegations of assault, intimidation, harassment, and torture of health workers; reports of attacks on hospitals and clinics; and the impact of 19 years civil war on El Salvador's medical institutions. The Salvadorian public health system has been seriously damaged by the civil war. A network of "community health promoters"--Salvadorians trained to give simple prevention and curative care--has begun. This network serves primarily those in contested areas. Nearly all roads in rural areas are controlled by military road blocks. Health workers have reported military interference with vaccination campaigns. The Salvadorian army harasses people they believe support the FMLN and obstructs their access to the communities. In February, 1989, the Atlacatl Battalion of the Salvadorian army attacked FMLN medical personnel. The Nongovernmental Human Rights Commission of El Salvador claims to have identified 40 different kinds of torture. Medical education has suffered from budgetary restrictions and from the hostility of the Salvadorian government.

  14. Why Choose Peace? The El Salvador Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    military options as purely a means to get the Government of El Salvador (GoES) to negotiate for peace.7 Joaquin Villalobos , a former FMLN commander...1996) 8 Joaquin Villalobos , The Salvadoran insurgency: why choose peace?. http://www.c- r.org/our-work/accord/engaging-groups/salvadorean-insurgency.php...annihilate all its men, nor to capture all its arms, only to cause the collapse of its morale. Joaquin Villalobos Commandante, People’s

  15. The United States and El Salvador.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    economic continuum. Violent uprisings occurred In the mid-1800s as Indigo markets fell and coffee plantations displaced more and more peasants...consequences for El Salvador. It effectively cut off regional markets for the country’s Purgeoning light Industries and forced the return from Honduras of an...pnd more land and other economic resources to producing for the world markets in the heady days of the Alliance, only to be caugt In the world

  16. Expansion of the 5 DE Noviembre hydroelectric project, El Salvador, C.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerte, E.G.; Mendoza, V.; Wang, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    With an area of 21,050 square kilometers, the Republic of El Salvador is the smallest country in Central American. El Salvador, independent since 1821, is a democratic country with its President elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The population in El Salvador was estimated at 5.1 million in 1992. Over the period of 1984 to 1993, the peak load of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) system, which serves about 98 percent of the country`s power needs, grew 6.5 percent per year. During the same period the energy generation increased at an annual rate of 6.8 percent. These growths were achieved in spite of the political turmoil and civil war that had gripped the country from 1980 to 1992. Since the end of the civil war, the country has witnessed significant economic recovery and growth. System demands will continue to increase at a rapid rate, due primarily to continued economic recovery and expansion resulting from establishment of the now political system. CEL generating facilities will be undergoing significant rehabilitation to correct the problems accumulated over the civil war period.

  17. Many trained at E1 Salvador center.

    PubMed

    1970-02-01

    The Family Planning Association of E1 Salvador is conducting regular week-long courses in family planning for doctors, nurses, social workers and other interested people in El Salvador and the surrounding countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Twelve regional courses on population dynamics, the physiology of reproduction and family planning were held in the academic year 1968-69 at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of El Salvador. Because the demand for places far exceeds the capacity of the Association's training unit, careful selection of candidates is made through consultation with the national family planning associations. Most of those trained are doctors who are being specially equipped to carry out family planning work either as part of government maternal and child health centres or in Association clinics. Many places are also found for nurses and some social workers also attend in order to build up teams for effective clinic management. A few journalists and teachers have been among the trainees as well as groups of religious leaders including Roman Catholics. Lecturers are mainly university personnel drawn from a wide range of disciplines in order to relate family planning not only to health and medicine but also to socio-economic aspects and community welfare. The El Salvador Association, an IPPF member, gets financial support from the Population Council for the training programme but hopes eventually that responsibility for continuing the courses will be taken over by the Government, probably through the Ministry of Education. Another pace-setting activity of the Association has been its close contacts with industry, particulary through the efforts of its President, Mr. Lucio Burgos, General Manager of the El Salvador Power Company, who has gained the interest and support of business and union leaders. Not only do these groups help the work of the Association through fund-raising and public relations activities, but

  18. Children's Voices from El Salvador: War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decade-long civil war in El Salvador and discusses its historical and cultural roots. Presents 14 letters, 2 poems, and 3 drawings by fourth-grade students in El Salvador that relate to the impact of war on their lives. Provides suggestions for using these letters in social studies classes. (CFR)

  19. Educational Reform with Television: The El Salvador Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayo, John K.; And Others

    A detailed report describes the planning, development, operation, results, and problems of an experiment in instructional television in El Salvador. Unlike other developing countries, El Salvador conceived of educational television as an integral component of national educational reform, embracing curriculum revision, teacher training, and new…

  20. Technology and Educational Reform: The Case of El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingle, Henry T.

    1974-01-01

    The educational reform effort begun in 1968 in El Salvador is described in both English and Spanish. The first stage was aimed at alleviating the bottleneck in the school system at the junior high school level. Although the technology of instructional television was the most visible and highly publicized element of El Salvador's educational…

  1. Rickettsia bellii infecting Amblyomma sabanerae ticks in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Barbieri, Amália R M; Romero, Luis; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-01-01

    Four Amblyomma sabanerae ticks collected from a turtle (Kinosternon sp.) in San Miguel, El Salvador, were found by molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. We provide the first report of Rickettsia bellii in Central America, and the first report of a Rickettsia species in El Salvador. PMID:23265378

  2. Rickettsia bellii infecting Amblyomma sabanerae ticks in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Amália R M; Romero, Luis; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-07-01

    Four Amblyomma sabanerae ticks collected from a turtle (Kinosternon sp.) in San Miguel, El Salvador, were found by molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. We provide the first report of Rickettsia bellii in Central America, and the first report of a Rickettsia species in El Salvador.

  3. Children's Voices from El Salvador: War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decade-long civil war in El Salvador and discusses its historical and cultural roots. Presents 14 letters, 2 poems, and 3 drawings by fourth-grade students in El Salvador that relate to the impact of war on their lives. Provides suggestions for using these letters in social studies classes. (CFR)

  4. Television and Educational Reform in El Salvador. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornik, Robert C.; And Others

    Standord University's Institute for Communication Research was asked in 1968 to conduct an evaluation of a new instructional television (ITV) system in El Salvador: to study the effects of ITV on El Salvador's school system; to derive conclusions from the experience that might help guide other nations interested in applying instructional…

  5. Elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Romero, José Eduardo; Sasagawa, Emi

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies performed in El Salvador between 1955-1972 demonstrated a high frequency of two triatomine vectors (Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius prolixus). However, the frequency of R. prolixus decreased by 1976 and this species has not been found since 1995. The main factors influencing the elimination of R. prolixus in El Salvador are discussed in this paper.

  6. El Salvador’s Crime Prevention Policies - From Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ARENA Alianza Republica Nacionalista (Nationalist Republican Alliance) CARSI...Alianza Republica Nacionalista (Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA) Party. With the focus on the issues of prevention and social programs, El...to decrease the homicide rate. 82 Presidencia de la Republica El Salvador, “Presidente Sanchéz

  7. [The health system of El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Mónica; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.

  8. Living with floods in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Water issues impact all aspects of life. This is especially true for a rural community in El Salvador, which has developed an interesting relationship with almost annually recurring floods. What most would consider a natural disaster has been embraced by the majority of these community members; many even rely on it. This presentation aims to provide a realistic assessment of how some communities are interacting with and using natural disasters to their advantage, and discuss the implications for natural disaster preparedness planning, public policy, and scientist/government officials' sometimes inappropriate strategies.

  9. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  10. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, H. José

    1997-04-01

    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from

  11. Civil-Military Relations and Militarization in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Negotiated Transition,” 40. 11 “La Situación de la Seguridad y la Justicia 2009–2014: Entre Expectativas de Cambio, Mano Dura Militar y Treguas ...El Salvador: Se acaba la tregua entre las peligrosas maras,” El Comercio, March 4, 2014, http://elcomercio.pe/mundo/latinoamerica/salvador-se-acaba... tregua -entre-maras-noticia- 1713568. 230 Wolf, “Street Gangs of El Salvador,” 54. 231 Jeffrey Paige, Coffee and Power (Cambridge, MA: Harvard

  12. Religious Coping, Spirituality, and Substance Use and Abuse Among Youth in High-Risk Communities in San Salvador, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11–17 years) and young adults (18–25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth. PMID:23647129

  13. A Strategic View of Insurgencies: Insights from El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Salvador.3 The former provisional president of El Salvador, Dr . Alvaro Magaiia, agreed. He argued that the junta, which included Jose Napole6n Duarte ...could take a major role. 2 Speaking for the insurgents, Dr . Guillermo M. Ungo saw the legitimacy of the regime as the primary strategic problem in El...image of an ally-to waver on the type and amount of sup- port to provide. Jose Napole6n Duarte recognized the strategic implications of the issue

  14. The genetic male legacy from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Lovo-Gómez, J; Blanco-Verea, A; Lareu, M V; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2007-09-13

    Allele frequencies and haplotype and haplogroup analysis have been performed for 16 Y-chromosome binary markers and 8 Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385I and II, DYS389I and II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393). Data was obtained from a general sample of 93 unrelated individuals living in metropolitan areas from El Salvador, and 67 individuals from different historical ethnic groups, Conchagua, San Alejo, Panchimalco, Izalco and finally Nueva Concepción with white people. Levels of admixture among metropolitan and rural areas were evaluated and population substructure measured. A total of 13 haplogroups and 136 different haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplogroup in the general metropolitan population was the European R1b, while in the Indigenous samples considered as a whole the most frequent was the Amerindian haplogroup Q3.

  15. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  16. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... conditions in El Salvador resulting from a series of earthquakes in 2001, and El Salvador remains unable... of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. See 66 FR 14214 and section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the Immigration..., disruption of living conditions in El Salvador resulting from the series of earthquakes that struck the...

  17. The Decade of the Seventies in El Salvador: Prelude to Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    Victor. "Estructura y Desarrollo Social en El Salvador," Desarrollo Economica 20:77 (1981): 121-134. Druger, Alexander. "El Salvador’s Marxist Revolution...Studies Vol.13 (April, 1985), pp. 129-152. Gordon, Sara. "El Salvador: Crisis Politica y Movimiento Popular," Estudios Sociales Centroamericanos. 9:27

  18. Diarrhoea and garbage disposal in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rego, R F; Moraes, L R S; Dourado, I

    2005-01-01

    The association of infantile diarrhoea with the presence of garbage in the environment was investigated in Canabrava, a peripheral neighbourhood of Salvador, northeast of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with all the 184 children aged less than two years residing in Canabrava, which is located close to the city garbage dump. Variables selected for study included the method used for the disposal of excrement, type of floor, mother's education, unemployment of the head of the family, regularity of the water supply, presence of toilet, storage of garbage inside the house, age, gender, duration of breastfeeding, and the number of people per room. The estimated prevalence of diarrhoea was 21.2%. Exposure to garbage in the environment was found to be the most important factor associated with diarrhoea (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.98, 95% CI 1.56-10.13). Other important variables were the mother's education (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.09-7.13), maternal breastfeeding (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.05-5.04), and unemployment of the head of the family (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI 0.93-4.69). These findings indicate the necessity of adopting solutions in the public domain and of intersectorial policies for the reduction of diarrhoea.

  19. Has El Salvador Fault Zone produced M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes? The 1719 El Salvador earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, C.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Álvarez-Gómez, J.; Villamor, P.; Ínsua-Arévalo, J.; Alonso-Henar, J.; Capote, R.

    2013-05-01

    Historically, large earthquakes, Mw ≥ 7.0, in the Εl Salvador area have been attributed to activity in the Cocos-Caribbean subduction zone. Τhis is correct for most of the earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.5. However, recent paleoseismic evidence points to the existence of large earthquakes associated with rupture of the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, an Ε-W oriented strike slip fault system that extends for 150 km through central Εl Salvador. Τo calibrate our results from paleoseismic studies, we have analyzed the historical seismicity of the area. In particular, we suggest that the 1719 earthquake can be associated with paleoseismic activity evidenced in the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone. Α reinterpreted isoseismal map for this event suggests that the damage reported could have been a consequence of the rupture of Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, rather than rupture of the subduction zone. Τhe isoseismal is not different to other upper crustal earthquakes in similar tectonovolcanic environments. We thus challenge the traditional assumption that only the subduction zone is capable of generating earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 in this region. Τhis result has broad implications for future risk management in the region. Τhe potential occurrence of strong ground motion, significantly higher and closer to the Salvadorian populations that those assumed to date, must be considered in seismic hazard assessment studies in this area.

  20. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described.

  1. Religious coping, spirituality, and substance use and abuse among youth in high-risk communities in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth.

  2. Gang truce for violence prevention, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, EC; Amaya, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the effects on homicide rates of the gang truce that was brokered in El Salvador in 2012. Methods Mathematical models based on municipal-level census, crime and gang-intelligence data were used to estimate the effect of the truce on homicide rates. One model estimated the overall effect after accounting for the linear trend and seasonality in the homicide rate. In a moderated-effect model, we investigated the relationship between the truce effect and the numbers of MS13 (Mara Salvatrucha 13) and Eighteenth-Street gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population. We then ran each of these two models with additional control variables. We compared values before the truce – 1 January 2010 to 29 February 2012 – with those after the truce – 1 March 2012 to 31 December 2013. Findings The overall-effect models with and without additional control variables indicated a homicide rate after the truce that was significantly lower than the value before the truce, giving rate ratios of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.49–0.63) and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54–0.69), respectively. For any given municipality, the effectiveness of the truce appeared to increase as the number of MS13 gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population increased. We did not observe the same significant relationship for imprisoned Eighteenth-Street gang members. Conclusion In the 22 months following the establishment of a national gang truce, the homicide rate was about 40% lower than in the preceding 26 months. The truce’s impact appeared particularly strong in municipalities with relatively high numbers of imprisoned MS13 gang members per 100 000 population. PMID:27708471

  3. Gang truce for violence prevention, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Katz, Charles M; Hedberg, E C; Amaya, Luis Enrique

    2016-09-01

    To estimate the effects on homicide rates of the gang truce that was brokered in El Salvador in 2012. Mathematical models based on municipal-level census, crime and gang-intelligence data were used to estimate the effect of the truce on homicide rates. One model estimated the overall effect after accounting for the linear trend and seasonality in the homicide rate. In a moderated-effect model, we investigated the relationship between the truce effect and the numbers of MS13 (Mara Salvatrucha 13) and Eighteenth-Street gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population. We then ran each of these two models with additional control variables. We compared values before the truce - 1 January 2010 to 29 February 2012 - with those after the truce - 1 March 2012 to 31 December 2013. The overall-effect models with and without additional control variables indicated a homicide rate after the truce that was significantly lower than the value before the truce, giving rate ratios of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.49-0.63) and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54-0.69), respectively. For any given municipality, the effectiveness of the truce appeared to increase as the number of MS13 gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population increased. We did not observe the same significant relationship for imprisoned Eighteenth-Street gang members. In the 22 months following the establishment of a national gang truce, the homicide rate was about 40% lower than in the preceding 26 months. The truce's impact appeared particularly strong in municipalities with relatively high numbers of imprisoned MS13 gang members per 100 000 population.

  4. Geographic Dimensions of Aging in Canada, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eric G.; Pacey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Although population aging on a national scale has received much attention in Canada, its geographical dimensions have not. This paper examines the demographic processes that underlie population aging at the provincial and metropolitan scales for the periods 1991 to 1996 and 1996 to 2001. We differentiate between the effects of aging-in-place and…

  5. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  6. Geographic Dimensions of Aging in Canada, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eric G.; Pacey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Although population aging on a national scale has received much attention in Canada, its geographical dimensions have not. This paper examines the demographic processes that underlie population aging at the provincial and metropolitan scales for the periods 1991 to 1996 and 1996 to 2001. We differentiate between the effects of aging-in-place and…

  7. The relationship between community structural characteristics, the context of crack use, and HIV risk behaviors in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; Rivas de Mendoza, Lorena; Glasman, Laura; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores community structural factors in different low-income communities in the San Salvador, El Salvador, that account for differences in the social context in which crack is used and HIV risk behaviors among crack users. Results suggest that both more distal (type of low-income community, level of violent crime, and poverty) and proximate structural factors (type of site where drugs are used, and whether drugs are used within or outside of community of residence) influence HIV risk behaviors among drug users. Additionally, our results suggest that community structural factors influence the historical and geographic variation in drug use sites.

  8. Leptospirosis-associated severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome, Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, Edilane L; Metcalfe, John; de Carvalho, Ana Luiza F; Aires, Talita S F; Villasboas-Bisneto, José Caetano; Queirroz, Adriano; Santos, Andréia C; Salgado, Kátia; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I

    2008-03-01

    We report the emergence of leptospirosis-associated severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS) in slum communities in Salvador, Brazil. Although active surveillance did not identify SPHS before 2003, 47 cases were identified from 2003 through 2005; the case-fatality rate was 74%. By 2005, SPHS caused 55% of the deaths due to leptospirosis.

  9. Leptospirosis-associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome, Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia, Edilane L.; Metcalfe, John; de Carvalho, Ana Luiza F.; Aires, Talita S.F.; Villasboas-Bisneto, José Caetano; Queirroz, Adriano; Santos, Andréia C.; Salgado, Kátia; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2008-01-01

    We report the emergence of leptospirosis-associated severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS) in slum communities in Salvador, Brazil. Although active surveillance did not identify SPHS before 2003, 47 cases were identified from 2003 through 2005; the case-fatality rate was 74%. By 2005, SPHS caused 55% of the deaths due to leptospirosis. PMID:18325275

  10. Education and the Production of Diasporic Citizens in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Enrique, III

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dyrness and Sepúlveda argue that in El Salvador, young people are participants in a diasporic social imaginary that connects them with Salvadorans and other Latinos in the United States--before they have ever left the country. The authors explore how this transnational relationship manifests in two school communities in San…

  11. Scarcity and Survival in El Salvador. Grades Six to Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, designed for use with students in grades 6-12, has two purposes: (1) to inform teachers and students about social and economic conditions in rural El Salvador; and (2) to teach students how to analyze the indicators of such social and economic conditions. The six included lessons incorporate reading, graphing, and critical thinking…

  12. El Salvador: The Prospects for a Successful Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    CONCLUSION .............................................. 283 Theory vs. Reality in El Salvador ....................... 284 Prospects for Success...class system from the beginning of the colonial period. The "elite" consisted of "noblemen" who not only virtually controlled the wealth, but the...violence, then virtually every agrarian society should be in revolt. Revolutions involve members from various sectors of the society. One possible

  13. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villoldo, Alberto

    1977-01-01

    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  14. Checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Caleb D; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Álvarez Calderón, Francisco S; Henríquez, Wendy Yamileth; Recinos, H Michelle; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Barraza, Enrique; Herrera, Néstor

    2013-01-23

    The inland fish fauna of El Salvador and its distribution was originally described in 1925 by Samuel Hildebrand. That work has been the main source of information for freshwater fishes of El Salvador up to today. Based on the combination of an intensive literature review, electronic database searches, re-identification of museum specimens, and fieldwork, we hereby provide an updated checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. This checklist provides distributional data at the Salvadoran hydrographical and political (by department) levels. The checklist is systematically arranged at the ordinal and familial level and then alphabetically therein. The freshwater fish fauna of El Salvador includes 101 species divided into 64 genera, 29 families, and 14 orders. According to their supposed tolerance to salinity, 73% of these species are peripheral, 23% secondary, and only 4% are primary freshwater fishes. One species is endemic to the country, Amatitlania coatepeque. The low number of primary freshwater fishes and endemics is comparable to the Central American Pacific slope in particular, as well as northern Central America in general.

  15. Educational Opportunity: El Salvador's Barriers to Achieving Equality Persist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosekrans, Kristin

    This paper analyzes barriers to educational equality in El Salvador, using a multi-layered framework of educational opportunity. To improve educational opportunity and give the most marginalized sectors of society the possibility of changing their life circumstances requires policies that go beyond mere access to formal schooling. The model…

  16. South Africa, Nicaragua, El Salvador and Home: Understanding the Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Zala

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the historical, social, cultural, economic, and political connections that make the struggles of the people of South Africa, Nicaragua, and El Salvador relevant to the lives of Black people in the United States. Considers the U.S. government's role with respect to each of these countries. (DMM)

  17. Education and the Production of Diasporic Citizens in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Enrique, III

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dyrness and Sepúlveda argue that in El Salvador, young people are participants in a diasporic social imaginary that connects them with Salvadorans and other Latinos in the United States--before they have ever left the country. The authors explore how this transnational relationship manifests in two school communities in San…

  18. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villoldo, Alberto

    1977-01-01

    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  19. Violence in Counterinsurgency - The Case of El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    over time. , A little girl is crying . .. "They’re burning my dress. They’re burning my dress." Nine villagers, one a fifteen year old boy , are...34The high command, afraid that units might crack under the pressure, relied on the air force to strafe and rocket the barrios of San Salvador-a tactic

  20. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  1. War in El Salvador; The Policies of President Reagan and The Lessons Learned for Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    30 Current Policy No. 482, p. 1. 31 Linda Chavez , “U.S. Role in Salvador,” New York Times, 5 May 1983, p. 6. 32 Richard Meislin, “Salvador Vote...Current Documents 1985, Current Policy No. 468, (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Public Affairs, 1986) p. 1021. 38 Julia Preston, “Part of El Salvador...New York Times, 7 Apr 1983, p. A16. 63 Wood, “Weinberger,” p. 5. 64 Linda Chavez , “Salvador Rebels Make Gains and U.S. Advisors are Glum,” New

  2. Epidemiological situation of leprosy in Salvador from 2001 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Shirlei Cristina; Batos, Claudilson José de Carvalho; Tawil, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae was first described as the bacillus that causes leprosy, a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, in 1873 by Amauer Hansen. Leprosy is part of a group of 10 neglected diseases and Bahia has endemic levels of this illness, varying between high and very high. The detection of 52 new cases of leprosy in children under 15 years old in Salvador in 2006 is alarming, and suggests an early contact with the disease. The aim of this review is to analyze the epidemiological situation, the detection rate and evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy in Salvador, in the period 2001-2009. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using secondary data collected at Notifiable Diseases Information System Database (SINAN) through the notification of patients with leprosy. Over these nine years 3,226 patients were reported, with a predominance of: females (51.5%), and clinical multibacillary forms in the general population (51.7%), but when we analyze those under 15 years old, paucibacillary forms (tuberculoid + indeterminate) prevailed. The tuberculoid form was the most diagnosed type of presentation. The annual detection rate in Salvador remained at a very high level of endemicity during the studied period and for those under 15 years old it ranged between high and very high. Grade 2 disabilities both at the time of diagnosis and at discharge after cure, varied between low and medium. Based on these data we conclude that the high levels of leprosy detection rates in the general population, plus the variation between high and very high levels in those under 15 years old, associated with the medium level of grade 2 disabilities at the time of diagnosis and discharge, demonstrate the need for improvement on the existing services, investment in active case finding and training of the healthcare professionals in Salvador.

  3. El Salvador, Iraq, and Strategic Considerations for Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-22

    1987), 10. 7 Ibid. 8 Ian F.W. Beckett , Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies (London: Routledge, 2001), 205. 9 Max G. Manwaring and Court...Prisk, A Strategic View of Insurgencies: Insights from El Salvador (Washington, DC: McNair Papers, No. 8), 3. 10 Beckett , 205. 11 Ibid., 206. 12...Strategic Studies Institute, March 2006), 26. 27 40 Mao Tse-Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith II, 2d ed. (Baltimore, MD

  4. Employment of the El Salvador Armed Forces for Internal Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    State to assure the inhabitants of the Republic have the enjoyment of the freedom, the health, the culture , the economic well-being, and social...region of Central America, Mexico , and the United States makes the problems more complex. Drug trafficking, the efforts made by the governments of...and “Sinaloa” cartels from Mexico trying to 7 get control of the drug traffic in El Salvador. Those groups use Gangs MS 13 and 18th Street gangs

  5. The Civil-Military Gap in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    Hernandez in USA, Colonel Arturo Molina studied in Mexico . After this period, civilians were presidents and had similar experiences: Napoleon...1 Peace Agreement January 16, 1992, Chapultepec Mexico , available from http://www. elsalvador.com /noticias/especiales/acuerdosdepaz 2002...http://es. wikisource.org/wiki/ Proclama_de_la_Fuerza_Armada de la Republica de ElSalvador; Internet; accessed 14 November 2006. 6 Revolutionary

  6. Tuberculosis and living conditions in Salvador, Brazil: a spatial analysis.

    PubMed

    Erazo, Carlos; Pereira, Susan M; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Evangelista-Filho, Delsuc; Braga, José Ueleres; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate spatial tuberculosis (TB) distribution patterns and the association between living conditions and incidence of the disease in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. An ecological study with neighborhood as the unit of analysis. Data was collected from the Notifiable Diseases Information System (Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE). Rates of TB incidence were transformed and smoothed. Spatial analysis was applied to identify spatial auto-correlation and "hotspot" areas of high and low risk. The relationship between TB and living conditions was confirmed by spatial linear regression. The incidence of TB in Salvador displayed heterogeneous patterns, with higher rates occurring in neighborhoods with poor living conditions in 1995 - 1996. Over the study period, disease occurrence declined, particularly in less-privileged strata. In 2004 - 2005, the association between living conditions and TB was no longer observed. The heterogeneous spatial distribution of TB in Salvador previously reflected inequalities related to living conditions. Improvements in such conditions and health care for the less privileged may have contributed to observed changes.

  7. [Demand for cigarettes and tax increases in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Carbajales, Alejandro; González-Rozada, Martín; Vallarino, Hugo

    2016-10-01

    Analyze short- and long-term elasticities of demand for cigarettes in El Salvador as a tool for supporting recommendations on tax increases to reduce prevalence and consumption through price increases. Demand for cigarettes in El Salvador was analyzed through an econometric time-series model using a database from El Salvador's General Directorate of Internal Taxes (DGII) and the General Directorate of Statistics and Census (DIGESTYC). The analysis period was quarterly: 2000Q1-2012Q4. The usual tests were done to prevent a spurious econometric estimation. It was found that the variables volume sales, actual sale prices, and actual per capita income exhibited first-order cointegration; this result makes it possible to use an error correction model with short- and long-term elasticity estimates. Only long-term elasticities were found to be statistically significant to 5%. Results show long-term price elasticity (5 quarters) of -0.9287 and income price elasticity of 0.9978. Absolute price elasticity is somewhat high, although it is within the levels estimated in other studies in low per-capita income countries. A tax increase from a base amount of US$1.04 per pack of 20 cigarettes to US$1.66 within three years would reduce demand by 20% to 31% and would increase tax revenues by 9% to 22%.

  8. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  9. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work... that the objects to be ] included in the exhibition ``Salvador Dali: The Late Work,'' imported from...

  10. 78 FR 32418 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Salvador resulting from a series of earthquakes in 2001, and El Salvador remains unable, temporarily, to... resulting from a series of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. See 66 FR 14214, Mar. 9, 2001; section 244(b... status in the United States. See section 244(b)(1)(B) of the INA. Three severe earthquakes in January and...

  11. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - Need for surveillance and control

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Emi; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; de Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole. PMID:24676660

  12. Acute Chagas disease in El Salvador 2000-2012 - need for surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara de; Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández de; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Several parasitological studies carried out in El Salvador between 2000-2012 showed a higher frequency of acute cases of Chagas disease than that in other Central American countries. There is an urgent need for improved Chagas disease surveillance and vector control programs in the provinces where acute Chagas disease occurs and throughout El Salvador as a whole.

  13. Jesuit Education for Justice: The Colegio in El Salvador, 1968-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beirne, Charles J.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the transformation of a Jesuit colegio in El Salvador from a school for sons of wealthy landowners into a school open to all people. Also examines the history of the Jesuit order in El Salvador from 1914 to the present. (Author/CT)

  14. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    163 Edgardo A. Amaya Cóbar, “Quince Años de Reforma Policial en El Salvador: Avances y Desafíos,” Urvio, Revista...Edgardo A. “Quince años de reforma policial en El Salvador: avances y desafíos.” Urvio, Revista Latinoamericana de Seguridad Ciudadana, no. 2

  15. [Heart failure mortality trend in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Latado, Adriana Lopes; Passos, Luiz Carlos Santana; Guedes, Rodrigo; Santos, Alessandra B; Andrade, Marianna; Moura, Simone

    2005-11-01

    To assess mortality trend due to heart failure (HF) in Salvador--Bahia, from 1979 to 1995. HF was defined by notations from the 9th Review of International Disease Code (IDC9) 428.0, 428.1 and 428.9. HF death and population data (metropolitan area of Salvador) were obtained by means of Secretaria de Saúde da Bahia (Bahia State Health Secretariat) and Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Mortality rates (/100,000) were total or per gender and age, and gross or adapted per age (straight standardization). Mortality rates due to HF had a progressive reduction in the period of time assessed, for both genders, especially up to 1992. From then and up to 1995, there was an apparent stabilization of the curves. Gross mortality rate went from 25.0/10(5), in 1979, to 16.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995 (a decrease of 34.4%). The reduction was 34.0% (23.3/10(5), in 1979, to 15.4/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995) for male sex and 35.2% (26.7/10(5), in 1979, to 17.3/10(5) inhabitants, in 1995), for female sex. The same trend took place in several age ranges, including the population > or = 40 years old, which has a greater risk for HF. After adaptation per age (standard population of 1979), it is observed that relative reductions in the rates were even greater. Mortality due to HF, in Salvador-Bahia, decreased from 1979 to 1992, becoming stable from then to 1995.

  16. Teaching Disaster Preparedness to Rural Communities in El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.

    2014-12-01

    Natural disasters are becoming more common around the world, and it is widely accepted that developing nations show the highest rates of vulnerability. It makes sense to focus preparedness and mitigation efforts in these countries. However, it is important to realize that different teaching styles are required for different cultures with varying education systems and classroom atmospheres. The pedagogical models we use in the US can't be directly exported. A realistic assessment of the situation seen during two years living and working in rural El Salvador is presented, along with methods used and lessons learned.

  17. Genetic polymorphism of 15 STR loci in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Pablo; Pinto de Erazo, Eugenia Leticia; Baeza, Carlos; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo; López-Parra, Ana Maria

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the allelic frequencies of the 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci included in AmpFlSTRIdentifiler PCR Amplification Kit. Biological samples were obtained from 109 unrelated individuals from El Salvador. Allelic frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated. All loci showed no departure from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction. The obtained frequencies were compared with other previously reported population data. The multidimensional scaling plot and the neighbor-joining phylogeny supported a high native Mesoamerican contribution.

  18. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador. Part 2, Electrical-methods geophysics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B.

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  19. Report on dipole-dipole resistivity and technology transfer at the Ahuachapan Geothermal field Ahuachapan, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1988-08-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 90 megawatt geothermal-sourced powerplant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the period November 1987 through May 1988 a deep resistivity survey and technology transfer was performed at the AGF at the request of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) project. The resistivity surveying is ongoing at the time of this report under the supervision of CEL personnel. LANL and contract personnel were present at the site during performance of the initial surveying for the purpose of technology transfer. This report presents the results and interpretation of the two initial resistivity survey lines performed on site during and shortly after the technology transfer period.

  20. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goranson, C.

    1991-05-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In the present report the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. 20 refs., 75 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A. ); Goranson, C. )

    1991-05-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This appendix to the report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In these appendices the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. the flow rate and flowing enthalpy are shown for 1975--1990 and extrapolated out to 2015. Future temperature distributions are predicted.

  2. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  3. [Leptospiral infection and subclinical presentation among children in Salvador, Bahia].

    PubMed

    Silva, Hagamenon R; Tavares-Neto, José; Bina, José Carlos; Meyer, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to identify the frequency and risk factors of leptospiral infection among children aged between 2 and 15 years in Salvador, Bahia, household contacts of patients (index-cases) hospitalized at Couto Maia Hospital due to Leptospira interrogans (ELISA IgM positive). Among 148 household contacts from 25 selected index-cases, clinical and epidemiological data were collected and ELISA IGM and IgG were performed in paired sera (between 20 days) from 73 (49.3%). This diagnostic method divided the 73 household contacts into three groups: group A (acute or recent leptospiral infection), 30 (41.1%) children, group B (not- infected ) 34 (46.6%) and group C, (past infection) nine (12.3%) children. In group A five (16.7%) had cold syndrome simile. No statistically significant difference was found between groups A and B for sex, race, age and presence of pet dog. However, in group A there was a statistically significant predominance (p < 0.05%) of: contact with natural water courses; index-case sibling aged under fifteen years; female sex and over 9 years old; and principally lack of appropiate trash disposal in the residential area. In conclusion, leptospiral infection in children (from 2 to 15 years of age) in Salvador is underestimated, because it is asymptomatic or presents as a cold syndrome simile.

  4. Seismic sources in El Salvador. A geological and geodetic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, J.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Benito, B.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Canora, C.; Capote, R.; Staller, A.; Tectónica Activa, Paleosismicidad y. Riesgos Asociados UCM-910368

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador Fault Zone is a deformation band of 150 km long and 20 km wide within the Salvadorian volcanic arc. This shear band distributes the deformation between main strike-slip faults trending N90°-100°E and around 30 km long, and secondary normal faults trending between N120°E and N170°E. The ESFZ continues westward and is relieved by the Jalpatagua Fault. Eastward ESFZ becomes less clear disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. The ESFZ deforms and offsets quaternary deposits with a right lateral movement in its main segments. Five segments have been proposed for the whole fault zone, from the Jalpatagua Fault to the Golfo de Fonseca. Paleoseismic studies in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation. In fact, the San Vicente Segment was the source of the February 13, 2001 destructive earthquake. In this work we propose 18 capable seismic sources within El Salvador. The slip rate of each source has been obtained through out the combination of GPS data and paleoseismic data when it has been possible. We also have calculated maximum theoretical intensities produced by the maximum earthquakes related with each fault. We have taken into account several scenarios considering different possible surface rupture lengths up to 50 km and Mw 7.6 in some of the strike slip faults within ESFZ.

  5. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, A. Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2009-01-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 - July 2007, six with community leaders, and three with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities’ strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities’ needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities’ different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  6. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: BP America Production Company - Salvador I/II Central Delivery Point

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the BP America Production Company, Salvador I/II Central Delivery Point, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  7. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014.

    PubMed

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported.

  8. Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador Robert D. Ramsey III Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper 18...Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador / by Robert D. Ramsey III. p. cm. -- ( Global war on terrorism occasional paper 18) 1. Military assistance...history you don’t know. This Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) Occasional Paper (OP) is a timely reminder for the US Army about the history we do not know

  9. Lessons learned from a successful MEDRETE in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Post, James C; Melendez, Manuel E; Hershey, Donna N; Hakim, Abdul

    2003-04-01

    Medical readiness education and training exercises are short-term exercises designed to provide health care and preventive medicine education to underserved civilian populations overseas. These high profile missions provide superb training opportunities, build democracies, and can be a powerful incentive to retain soldiers in the Reserves. Despite this, the literature offers little guidance in terms of how to best conduct a MEDRETE, particularly with a unit that has not been recently deployed. A U.S. Army Reserve unit was deployed to El Salvador following two devastating earthquakes and treated 20,890 patients in 10 days. This patient volume was achieved by a close cooperative effort among an experienced Mission Coordinator and Reservists and superb host nation support. Lessons learned regarding predeployment, deployment, patient management, and safety issues are presented to assist future units in conducting successful medical readiness education and training exercises.

  10. Cultivating men's interest in family planning in rural El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Rebecka I; Gribble, James N; Greene, Margaret E; Emrick, Gail E; de Monroy, Margarita

    2005-09-01

    A pilot project in rural El Salvador tested the integration of family planning into a water and sanitation program as a strategy for increasing male involvement in family planning decison making and use. The organizations involved posited that integrating family planning into a resource management and community development project would facilitate male involvement by diffusing information, by referring men and women to services, and by expanding method choice to include the new Standard Days Method through networks established around issues men cared about and were already involved in. This article examines data from a community-based household survey to assess the impact of the intervention and finds significant changes in contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, and behavior from baseline to endline. Because the differences between baseline and endline are greater than the differences between participants and nonparticipants at endline, the study demonstrates the power of informal networks for spreading information.

  11. Children's knowledge of sexual abuse prevention in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig L; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel; Nosike, Digna

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) remains a global health problem that must be addressed. In a country with limited resources such as El Salvador, we sought an alternative way to disseminate CSA prevention information to elementary school children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention exhibit at a children's museum. We asked 189 children to answer a questionnaire about CSA prevention before entering a museum exhibit on the subject and then asked 59 different children to answer the questionnaire after visiting the exhibit. Children's knowledge scores on CSA prevention significantly improved after visiting the exhibit (P < .012). A museum exhibit that addresses CSA prevention is an effective way of communicating CSA prevention to children. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiology and mortality of pediatric febrile neutropenia in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sumit; Bonilla, Miguel; Gamero, Mario; Fuentes, Soad L; Caniza, Miguela; Sung, Lillian

    2011-05-01

    Febrile neutropenia (FN) and infection-related mortality are major problems for children with cancer in low-income countries. Identifying predictors for adverse outcome of FN in low-income countries permits targeted interventions. We describe the nature and predictors of microbiologically documented infection (MDI) and mortality of FN in children with cancer in El Salvador. We examined Salvadoran pediatric oncology patients admitted with FN over a 1-year period. Data were collected prospectively. Demographic, treatment, and admission-related variables were examined as predictors of outcomes. Hundred six FN episodes among 85 patients were included. Twenty-three of 106 episodes (22%) were microbiologically documented; 13 of 106 episodes (12%) resulted in death. Gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were isolated in 14 of 23 and 11 of 23 specimens; polymicrobial infections were common (11 of 23 episodes of MDI). Older age decreased the MDI risk [odds ratio (OR) per year=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.99; P=0.04] while increasing number of days since the last chemotherapy increased the risk (OR=1.03 per day, 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P=0.002). Pneumonia diagnosed either clinically (OR=6.6, 95% CI, 1.8-30.0; P=0.005) or radiographically (OR=5.5, 95% CI, 1.7-18.1; P=0.005) was the only predictor of mortality. In El Salvador, polymicrobial infections were common. Pneumonia at admission identified children with FN at high risk of death; these children may benefit from targeted interventions.

  13. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  14. Extreme Weather Risk Assessment: The Case of Jiquilisco, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Karla; Ceppi, Claudia; Molero, Juanjo; Rios Insua, David

    2014-05-01

    All major climate models predict increases in both global and regional mean temperatures throughout this century, under different scenarios concerning future trends in population growth or economic and technological development. This consistency of results across models has strengthened the evidence about global warming. Despite the convincing facts and findings of climate researchers, there is still a great deal of skepticism around climate change. There is somewhat less consensus about some of the consequences of climate change, for example in reference to extreme weather changes, in particular as regards more local scales. However, such changes seem to have already considerable impact in many regions across the world in terms of lives, economic losses, and required changes in lifestyles. This may demand appropriate policy responses both at national and local levels. Our work provides a framework for extreme weather multithreat risk management, based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This may be useful in comparing the effectiveness of different actions to manage risks and inform judgment concerning the appropriate resource allocation to mitigate the risks. The methodology has been applied to the case study of the "El Marillo II" community, located in the municipality of Jiquilisco in El Salvador. There, the main problem related with extreme weather conditions are the frequent floods caused by rainfall, hurricanes , and water increases in the Lempa river nearby located. However, droughts are also very relevant. Based on several sources like SNET, newspapers, field visits to the region and interviews, we have built a detailed database that comprises extreme weather daily data from January 1971 until December 2011. Forecasting models for floods and droughts were built suggesting the need to properly manage the risks. We subsequently obtained the optimal portfolio of countermeasures, given the budget constraints. KEYWORDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EXTREME WEATHER, RISK

  15. The relationship between community structural characteristics, the context of crack use and HIV risk behaviors in San Salvador, El Salvador1

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Glasman, Laura; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores community structural factors in different low-income communities in the San Salvador, El Salvador that account for differences in the social context in which crack is used and in the HIV risk behaviors among crack users. Results suggest that both more distal (type of low-income community, level of violent crime and poverty) and proximate structural factors (type of site where drugs are used, and whether drugs are used within or outside of community of residence) influence HIV risk behaviors among drug users. Additionally, our results suggest that community structural factors influence the historical and geographic variation in drug use sites. PMID:22217125

  16. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige Aga, Meaza

    2010-05-01

    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, (meaza@geo.ucm.es) (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  17. Tsunami hazard and risk assessment in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, M.; González-Riancho, P.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; García-Aguilar, O.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Aguirre, I.; Alvarez, J. A.; Gavidia, F.; Jaimes, I.; Larreynaga, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Tsunamis are relatively infrequent phenomena representing a greater threat than earthquakes, hurricanes and tornadoes, causing the loss of thousands of human lives and extensive damage to coastal infrastructure around the world. Several works have attempted to study these phenomena in order to understand their origin, causes, evolution, consequences, and magnitude of their damages, to finally propose mechanisms to protect coastal societies. Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce risk on coastal areas. This work -Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador-, funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, examines the state of the art and presents a comprehensive methodology for assessing the risk of tsunamis at any coastal area worldwide and applying it to the coast of El Salvador. The conceptual framework is based on the definition of Risk as the probability of harmful consequences or expected losses resulting from a given hazard to a given element at danger or peril, over a specified time period (European Commission, Schneiderbauer et al., 2004). The HAZARD assessment (Phase I of the project) is based on propagation models for earthquake-generated tsunamis, developed through the characterization of tsunamigenic sources -sismotectonic faults- and other dynamics under study -tsunami waves, sea level, etc.-. The study area is located in a high seismic activity area and has been hit by 11 tsunamis between 1859 and 1997, nine of them recorded in the twentieth century and all generated by earthquakes. Simulations of historical and potential tsunamis with greater or lesser affection to the country's coast have been performed, including distant sources, intermediate and close. Deterministic analyses of the threats under study -coastal flooding- have been carried out, resulting in different hazard maps (maximum wave height elevation, maximum water depth, minimum tsunami

  18. A spatio-temporal analysis of suicide in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Carcach, Carlos

    2017-04-20

    In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML) and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC), for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide) across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time-persistent clusters with a large rate of death by suicide. In

  19. Decreased kidney function among agricultural workers in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Peraza, Sandra; Wesseling, Catharina; Aragon, Aurora; Leiva, Ricardo; García-Trabanino, Ramón Antonio; Torres, Cecilia; Jakobsson, Kristina; Elinder, Carl Gustaf; Hogstedt, Christer

    2012-04-01

    An epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown cause has emerged along the Pacific coast of Central America, particularly in relatively young male sugarcane workers. In El Salvador, we examined residence and occupations at different altitudes as surrogate risk factors for heat stress. Cross-sectional population-based survey. Populations aged 20-60 years of 5 communities in El Salvador, 256 men and 408 women (participation, 73%): 2 coastal communities with current sugarcane and past cotton production and 3 communities above 500 m with sugarcane, coffee, and service-oriented economies. Participant sex, age, residence, occupation, agricultural history by crop and altitude, and traditional risk factors for CKD. Serum creatinine (SCr) level greater than the normal laboratory range for sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and proteinuria categorized as low (protein excretion ≥ 30-< 300 mg/dL) and high grade (≥ 300 mg/dL). Of the men in the coastal communities, 30% had elevated SCr levels and 18% had eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared with 4% and 1%, respectively, in the communities above 500 m. For agricultural workers, prevalences of elevated SCr levels and eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were highest for coastal sugarcane and cotton plantation workers, but were not increased in sugarcane workers at 500 m or subsistence farmers. Women followed a weaker but similar pattern. Proteinuria was infrequent, of low grade, and not different among communities, occupations, or sexes. The adjusted ORs of decreased kidney function for 10-year increments of coastal sugarcane or cotton plantation work were 3.1 (95% CI, 2.0-5.0) in men and 2.3 (95% CI, 1.4-3.7) in women. The cross-sectional nature of the study limits etiologic interpretations. Agricultural work on lowland sugarcane and cotton plantations was associated with decreased kidney function in men and women, possibly related to strenuous work in hot environments with repeated volume depletion

  20. Challenges faced by research ethics committees in El Salvador: results from a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Camp, Jonathan W; Barfield, Raymond C; Rodriguez, Virginia; Young, Amanda J; Finerman, Ruthbeth; Caniza, Miguela A

    2009-04-01

    To identify perceived barriers to capacity building for local research ethics oversight in El Salvador, and to set an agenda for international collaborative capacity building. Focus groups were formed in El Salvador which included 17 local clinical investigators and members of newly formed research ethics committees. Information about the proposed research was presented to participants during an international bioethics colloquium sponsored and organized by the St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in collaboration with the National Ethics Committee of El Salvador and the University of El Salvador. Interviews with the focus group participants were qualitatively analyzed. Participants expressed the need to tailor the informed consent process and documentation to the local culture; for example, allowing family members to participate in decision-making, and employing shorter consent forms. Participants indicated that economic barriers often impede efforts in local capacity building. Participants valued international collaboration for mutual capacity building in research ethics oversight. Research ethics committees in El Salvador possess a basic knowledge of locally relevant ethical principles, though they need more training to optimize the application of bioethical principles and models to their particular contexts. Challenges increase the value of collaborative exchanges with ethics committee members in the United States. Further research on facilitating communication between host country and sponsor country ethics committees can maximize local research ethics expertise, and thus raise the standard of protecting human participants involved in international research.

  1. Population data for 12 Y-chromosome STR loci in a sample from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Monterrosa, Juan Carlos; Morales, Josefina A; Yurrebaso, Iñaki; Gusmão, Leonor; García, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Haplotype, allele frequencies and population data of 12 Y-chromosome STR loci DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439 were determined from a sample of 150 unrelated male individuals from El Salvador, Central America. A total of 131 haplotypes were identified by the 12 Y-STR loci of which 118 were unique. The haplotype diversity (99.08%) and the proportion of different haplotypes (87.33%) were estimated. R(ST) genetic distances were calculated between El Salvador and other populations from Southern and Central America, Europe and Africa. The highest R(ST) genetic distances were found when comparing El Salvador with African populations (0.334 Salvador and Southern and Central Native groups presented a wide range of values (from 0.024 to 0.210) that can be explained by the differences in the proportion of European versus Amerindian contributions in these population groups. The Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) plot analysis, based on pairwise R(ST) values, showed that the general population of El Salvador is closer to the European cluster (composed by European and South American general population samples from Brazil, Argentina, Colombia and Venezuela) than to the Southern/Central American cluster of Native and Mestizo populations.

  2. "Contra Viento y Marea" (Against Wind and Tide): Building Civic Identity among Children of Emigration in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article examines contrasting approaches to citizenship education in two schools in San Salvador, El Salvador, in the face of highly visible transnational migration. I argue that while transnational realities challenge education for democratic citizenship, educational processes that enable students to interrogate their own transnational…

  3. "Contra Viento y Marea" (Against Wind and Tide): Building Civic Identity among Children of Emigration in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article examines contrasting approaches to citizenship education in two schools in San Salvador, El Salvador, in the face of highly visible transnational migration. I argue that while transnational realities challenge education for democratic citizenship, educational processes that enable students to interrogate their own transnational…

  4. Probable flood predictions in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.; Smith, M.E.; Chica, A.M.E.; Litke, D.

    2008-01-01

    A regionalization procedure is presented and used to predict probable flooding in four ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. The flood-prediction problem is sequentially solved for two regions: upstream mountains and downstream alluvial plains. In the upstream mountains, a set of rainfall-runoff parameter values and recurrent peak-flow discharge hydrographs are simultaneously estimated for 20 tributary-basin models. Application of dissimilarity equations among tributary basins (soft prior information) permitted development of a parsimonious parameter structure subject to information content in the recurrent peak-flow discharge values derived using regression equations based on measurements recorded outside the ungauged study basins. The estimated joint set of parameter values formed the basis from which probable minimum and maximum peak-flow discharge limits were then estimated revealing that prediction uncertainty increases with basin size. In the downstream alluvial plain, model application of the estimated minimum and maximum peak-flow hydrographs facilitated simulation of probable 100-year flood-flow depths in confined canyons and across unconfined coastal alluvial plains. The regionalization procedure provides a tool for hydrologic risk assessment and flood protection planning that is not restricted to the case presented herein. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  5. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  6. Results of nutritional status surveillance in El Salvador, 1975 - 77*

    PubMed Central

    Trowbridge, Frederick L.; Stetler, Harrison C.

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional status surveillance data based on the clinical diagnosis of malnutrition and on weight-for-age, as well as diarrhoeal disease data for preschool age children attending government health clinics in El Salvador are presented for a 3-year period (1975 - 77). Surveillance results indicated consistently higher rates of clinical malnutrition and weight-for-age deficit in rural children as compared with urban children, and higher malnutrition rates in children 1 - 4 years of age as compared with infants less than 1 year old. Consistent seasonal increases in malnutrition were observed that were most pronounced in older preschool children (1 - 4 years) in rural areas. Seasonal peaks in malnutrition consistently followed 1 - 2 months after the major seasonal peak in diarrhoea at the onset of the rainy season, suggesting that diarrhoea may play a role in the etiology of malnutrition. A secondary seasonal peak in diarrhoea in the cooler, dry season was most prominent in infants but was not related to increased malnutrition. These results indicate that nutritional and health status indicators formed from data collected regularly at health centres can demonstrate consistent age group, urban/rural, and seasonal differences in nutritional status that may be useful in identifying risk groups and in monitoring nutritional changes for planning and evaluation purposes. PMID:6982777

  7. The Perceived Consequences of Gold Mining in Postwar El Salvador: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Zakrison, Tanya L; Cabezas, Pedro; Valle, Evan; Kornfeld, Julie; Muntaner, Carles; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    We investigated themes related to the health and environmental impacts of gold mining in El Salvador. Over a 1-month period in 2013, we conducted focus groups (n = 32 participants in total) and individual semistructured interviews (n = 11) with community leaders until we achieved thematic saturation. Data collection took place in 4 departments throughout the country. We used a combination of criterion-purposive and snowballing sampling techniques to identify participants. Multiple themes emerged: (1) the fallacy of economic development; (2) critique of mining activities; (3) the creation of mining-related violence, with parallels to El Salvador's civil war; and (4) solutions and alternatives to mining activity. Solutions involved the creation of cooperative microenterprises for sustainable economic growth, political empowerment within communities, and development of local participatory democracies. Gold mining in El Salvador is perceived as a significant environmental and public health threat. Local solutions may be applicable broadly.

  8. An axial representation of community mental health nursing diagnoses of a country at war: El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Coler, M S

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a workshop on the formulation of community mental health diagnoses in El Salvador. The author taught the process of diagnosis from the NANDA framework and explored diagnostic decision making through Caplan's Crisis Model. An epidemiologic framework was also incorporated in the diagnostic process so that host, agent, and environment could be scrutinized. The workshop resulted in the formulation of three universal community mental health diagnoses for this (then) war-torn country: depression, aggression, and anxiety; the development of a proposal for the implementation of mental health services; and an invitation to explore implementation of community mental health care services in five rural communities in El Salvador. Although the politics of El Salvador have changed, this example is typical of many Third-World and war-torn countries.

  9. Observations and Modeling of the August 27, 2012 Earthquake and Tsunami affecting El Salvador and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Kalligeris, Nikos; Lynett, Patrick J.; Fritz, Hermann M.; Newman, Andrew V.; Convers, Jaime A.

    2014-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 (04:37 UTC, 26 August 10:37 p.m. local time) a magnitude M w = 7.3 earthquake occurred off the coast of El Salvador and generated surprisingly large local tsunami. Following the event, local and international tsunami teams surveyed the tsunami effects in El Salvador and northern Nicaragua. The tsunami reached a maximum height of ~6 m with inundation of up to 340 m inland along a 25 km section of coastline in eastern El Salvador. Less severe inundation was reported in northern Nicaragua. In the far-field, the tsunami was recorded by a DART buoy and tide gauges in several locations of the eastern Pacific Ocean but did not cause any damage. The field measurements and recordings are compared to numerical modeling results using initial conditions of tsunami generation based on finite-fault earthquake and tsunami inversions and a uniform slip model.

  10. Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador*

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, Kate; Aycinena, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We implement a randomized experiment offering Salvadoran migrants matching funds for educational remittances, which are channeled directly to a beneficiary student in El Salvador chosen by the migrant. The matches lead to increased educational expenditures, higher private school attendance, and lower labor supply of youths in El Salvador households connected to migrant study participants. We find substantial “crowd-in” of educational investments: for each $1 received by beneficiaries, educational expenditures increase by $3.72. We find no shifting of expenditures away from other students, and no effect on remittances. PMID:26000091

  11. Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Ambler, Kate; Aycinena, Diego; Yang, Dean

    2015-04-01

    We implement a randomized experiment offering Salvadoran migrants matching funds for educational remittances, which are channeled directly to a beneficiary student in El Salvador chosen by the migrant. The matches lead to increased educational expenditures, higher private school attendance, and lower labor supply of youths in El Salvador households connected to migrant study participants. We find substantial "crowd-in" of educational investments: for each $1 received by beneficiaries, educational expenditures increase by $3.72. We find no shifting of expenditures away from other students, and no effect on remittances.

  12. Demand for sanitation in Salvador, Brazil: a hybrid choice approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andreia C; Roberts, Jennifer A; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cairncross, Sandy

    2011-04-01

    Funds to promote access to water and sanitation in developing countries are scarce and most of the investments come from the national governments and households sources, not international resources. In many of these countries, mainly in middle income countries, households are paying direct taxes to access these services, and understanding what determines their choice and motivation is fundamental to promote access to them. It has been argued that is not enough to supply a wide range of alternatives unless the individuals can recognise their benefits and sustainability. The objective of this paper is to understand the choice of sanitation technology by residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil. We propose a unique hybrid choice model that incorporates a set of latent attitudinal variables and explains how the demographic factors within a household influence choice. The substantial difference of our hybrid choice model from descriptive frameworks is that it integrates choice and latent variables (such as attitudes and preferences) allowing us to model explicitly the cognitive process that influences sanitation adoption, draw conclusions from cognitive variables associated with individuals' socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and establishes a causal pathway among these variables. The results show that the attributes of health protection, accessibility, privacy, and house modernisation were what households cared about when opting for flush toilet and sewerage connection, rather than the high cost and consequent household socio-economic status associated with them. The hybrid model is statistically consistent with these findings, and seems to fill the gap between behavioural theory and discrete choice models applied to sanitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Philip Morris involvement in the development of an air quality laboratory in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Kummerfeldt, C E; Barnoya, J; Bero, L

    2009-01-01

    Background: The tobacco industry has organised research institutions to generate misleading data on indoor air quality, including second-hand smoke exposure and health effects. Objectives: To describe tobacco industry involvement in the organisation and financial support of an air quality research laboratory in El Salvador. Methods: Tobacco industry documents on the internet were systematically searched from August 2007 to February 2008 for air quality studies undertaken in El Salvador, and laboratory personnel were interviewed. Results: Philip Morris sought to establish a network of air quality laboratories throughout Latin America. In El Salvador, in 1997, through Tabacalera de El Salvador (a subsidiary of Philip Morris) and the Salvadoran Foundation for Economic Development (FUSADES), the industry organised an air quality research laboratory. FUSADES was part of the industry’s Latin American Scientific Network, which consisted of doctors hired as consultants who would send air samples from their research to FUSADES. Philip Morris Scientific Affairs personnel hired LabStat, a Canadian-based laboratory, to provide technical assistance to FUSADES (train and assist the laboratory in air quality measurements). In addition, the Washington-based HMS Group successfully implemented a plan to upgrade the laboratory and obtain international certifications. HMS Group also assisted in searching for sustainable funding for FUSADES, including seeking funds from international aid for Hurricane Mitch. Conclusion: Air quality studies that have used the FUSADES laboratory should be carefully interpreted, given the support that this laboratory received from Philip Morris. PMID:19211614

  14. Observations of new bird species for San Salvador Island, the Bahamas

    Treesearch

    Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2015-01-01

    We present our recent observations and compile other accounts of sightings or captures of 30 additional bird species reported for San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, since Sordahl compiled his checklist in 1996. Most are Nearctic-Neotropical migratory birds that either spend the non-breeding season on the island or stop over during migration. Additionally, based on our...

  15. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-12

    prostitution, underage prostitution, pornography, and organized vice; gang activity; narcotics trafficking ; identity fraud; document fraud; fraudulent...the criminal organizations involved in human smuggling, arms trafficking , and narcotics trafficking . Salvadoran law enforcement organizations are...Separate case studies examine U.S. efforts to promote the rule of law in El Salvador in response to security threats ranging from human rights violations

  16. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Salvador Zubirán submitted his thesis for his MD degree in 1923. This thesis falls within the context of the new Mexican physiological medicine and denotes the visionary character of its author. Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders.

  17. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  18. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZA95 Extension of the Designation of El... Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces that the Secretary of Homeland Security has extended the designation of El Salvador for temporary protected status (TPS) for 18...

  19. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: BP America Production Company - Salvador I/II Central Delivery Point

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments, the final synthetic minor NSR permit, and the administrative record for the BP America Production Company, Salvador I/II CDP, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  20. Morphometric analysis of El Salvador Fault Zone. Implications to the tectonic evolution. Central America.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio

    2013-04-01

    It is considered that the study of the recent topography development, and the use of geomorphological indexes are good tools for the quantification of the active tectonics. We have used quantitative geomorphology in order to improve our understanding of the recent activity and tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ); an E-W oriented strike-slip fault zone that extends 150 km through El Salvador (Martínez-Díaz et al. 2004). Previous studies propose a transtensive tectonic regime at the Central America Volcanic Arc in El Salvador, which induces relative vertical motions on the faults within El Salvador Fault Zone (i.e. Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008, Cáceres et al. 2005,). This relative vertical displacement can be quantified with the use of hypsometry as a geomorphological character. The morphometric analysis done contributes to a better understanding of the ESFZ. We have defined km scale tectonic block relative displacements that may be useful to constrain the strain distribution along the ESFZ, length of segments with homogeneous vertical movements and lateral relay of active structures. This study supports the hypothesis of a recent migration in the maximum shortening direction, and the accomodation of the current deformation through the reactivation of pre-existing structures inherited from a previous tectonic frame. A similar tectonic evolution as described Weinberg (1992) in Nicaragua, is interpreted from the results of this study.

  1. Impact of U.S. Foreign Policy and Assistance in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    electoral institutions, increase voter registration and education, and support electoral observation.12 U.S. bilateral assistance to El Salvador seeks to...assistance activities have focused on improving election administration by building the institutional capacity of electoral authorities, enhancing voter...access by improving voter registration and education, supporting electoral reforms, and legitimizing election results by supporting electoral

  2. Recent sightings of Kirtland's warblers on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas

    Treesearch

    Todd M. Jones; Michael E. Akresh; David I. King

    2013-01-01

    Here we present recent accounts of Kirtland's Warblers (Setophaga kirtlandii) captured and observed on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, in 2012 and 2013. We conducted mist-netting and passive surveys in a variety of habitats on the island from January-March 2012 and December 2012-March 2013. We captured four warblers and sighted at least six...

  3. The Durability of Cultural Influences: How American Foreign Policy Reinforced Historical Biases in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    73 William Bollinger, " Villalobos on "Popular Insurrection"." Latin American Perspectives 16, no. 3...Conflict: The Case of Ronald Reagan and El Salvador." International Studies Quarterly 40, no. 1 (Mar. 1996): 23-44. Bollinger, William. " Villalobos on

  4. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  5. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  6. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services RIN 1615-ZB06 Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of Employment Authorization Documentation...

  7. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in El Salvador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In April of 2012, tomato plants grown near the town of Yuroconte in the municipality of La Palma in El Salvador, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) infection. Disease incidence in several fields in the area ranged from 40 to 60%. Heavy infes...

  8. Television and Educational Reform in El Salvador. Complete Report on the Second Year of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur; And Others

    Research conducted on El Salvador's educational reform program during the 1970 school year is summarized. The primary focus is on the effect of instructional television on that reform. The administrative history of the 1970 school year is briefly reviewed. Learning patterns in the seventh-and eighth-grade television classes are compared with those…

  9. Feedback on Student Learning for Instructional Television in El Salvador. Research Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino de Manzano, Ana Maria; And Others

    Conventional achievement measurement instruments were not adequate for optimum coordination between classroom and television studio personnel in El Salvador. A more rapid feedback system was tried in 14 seventh grade classrooms. The key factor of this feedback system was that the test results be compiled quickly, preferably within three days, and…

  10. Television and Educational Reform in El Salvador. Complete Report on the Second Year of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur; And Others

    Research conducted on El Salvador's educational reform program during the 1970 school year is summarized. The primary focus is on the effect of instructional television on that reform. The administrative history of the 1970 school year is briefly reviewed. Learning patterns in the seventh- and eighth-grade television classes are compared with…

  11. Decentralization and Privatization of Education in El Salvador: Assessing the Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuellar-Marchelli, Helga

    2003-01-01

    Describes decentralization and privatization policies in El Salvador's education reform plan and assesses their potential success and limitations. The EDUCO program, in which nonprofit parents' associations in poor rural communities administer community schools, has expanded rural access to education. However, EDUCO also has potential to…

  12. Dimensions of child punishment in two Central American countries: Guatemala and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary M; Samandari, Ghazaleh; Kim, Shin Y; Clyde, Maureen

    2008-04-01

    Severe physical punishment of children is an important issue in international child health and welfare. This study examines such punishment in Guatemala and El Salvador. Data came from nationally representative surveys of women aged 15-49 and men aged 15-59 residing in Guatemala (2002) and El Salvador (2002-2003). The surveys included questions about punishment experienced during childhood, with response options ranging from verbal scolding to beating. In Guatemala, parents were asked how they disciplined their children; questions allowed them to compare how they were punished in their childhood with how they punished their own children. Bivariate and multivariate analyses are presented. In Guatemala, 35% of women and 46% of men reported being beaten as punishment in childhood; in El Salvador, the figures were 42% and 62%, respectively. In both countries, older participants were relatively more likely than younger participants to have been beaten as children. Witnessing familial violence was associated with an increased risk of being beaten in childhood. In Guatemala, having experienced physical punishment as a child increased the chance that parents would use physical punishment on their own children. Multivariate analyses revealed that women who were beaten in childhood were significantly more likely in both countries to be in a violent relationship. The use of beating to physically punish children is a common problem in Guatemala and El Salvador, with generational and intergenerational effects. Its negative and lingering effects necessitate the introduction of policies and programs to decrease this behavior.

  13. [Assessing the insecticide resistance of an Aedes aegypti strain in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Juan A Bisset; Rodríguez, María M; San Martín, José L; Romero, José E; Montoya, Romeo

    2009-09-01

    To assess the level of insecticide susceptibility of a certain Aedes aegypti strain found in El Salvador and to explain the mechanisms for its resistance to temephos. An A. aegypti strain from the municipality of Soyapango, Department of San Salvador, El Salvador, was studied. Bioassays were used to determine the susceptibility of the larvae to the organophosphate insecticide temephos and to three pyrethroids (deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin); and of adults to an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos). The resistance factor (RF50) with determined with respect to a reference susceptible strain (Rockefeller). The mechanism of temephos resistance was determined through the use of synergistic substances, biochemical assays for enzymatic activity, and polyacrylamide gel zymograms. The larvae of the strain studied proved highly resistant to temephos (RF50 = 24.16). Of the enzyme samples analyzed, only the esterase A4 was linked to the mechanism of temephos resistance. The adult mosquitoes were susceptible to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos; and resistance to deltamethrin and cypermethrin fell into the category needing further verification. Temephos resistance could reduce the efficiency of chemical control of the A. aegypti mosquito in El Salvador study area. Chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cypermethrin are good alternative insecticides for use in new efforts to control this vector.

  14. Geodetically resolved slip distribution of the 27 August 2012 Mw=7.3 El Salvador earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Hernandez, D. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Rogers, R.; Rodriguez, M.

    2013-12-01

    On 27 August 2012 a Mw=7.3 earthquake occurred offshore of Central America causing a small tsunami in El Salvador and Nicaragua but little damage otherwise. This is the largest magnitude earthquake in this area since 2001. We use co-seismic displacements estimated from episodic and continuous GPS station time series to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for this event. The estimated surface displacements are small (<2 cm) due to the distance and low magnitude of the earthquake. We use TDEFNODE to model the displacements using two different modeling approaches. In the first model, we solve for homogeneous slip on free rectangular fault(s), and in the second model we solve for distributed slip on the main thrust, realized using different slab models. The results indicate that we can match the seismic moment release, with models indicating rupture of a large area, with a low magnitude of slip. The slip is at shallow-to-intermediate depths on the main thrust off the coast of El Salvador. Additionally, we observe a deeper region of slip to the east, that reaches towards the Gulf of Fonseca between El Salvador and Nicaragua. The observed tsunami additionally indicates near-trench rupture off the coast of El Salvador. The duration of the rupturing is estimated from seismic data to be 70 s, which indicates a slow rupture process. Since the geodetic moment we obtain agrees with the seismic moment, this indicates that the earthquake was not associated with aseismic slip.

  15. Basic Education in El Salvador: Consolidating the Foundations for Quality and Equal Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rincon, Hernan, Ed.; Sala, Mariella, Ed.; Sala, Fiorella, Ed.; Tarnapol Whitacre, Paula, Ed.; Lee, Thomas, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This study of basic education in El Salvador was carried out between September and December of 2003 by a team of researchers. This publication has two parts: (1) The introduction which addresses the main findings of the study and proposes education policy priorities for the next reform effort; and (2) A summary of the original study of basic…

  16. U.S. Migrant Networks and Adult Cardiometabolic Health in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michelle Y; Francis, Lori A

    2016-12-01

    Heightened prevalence of cardiometabolic health conditions in areas where infectious disease remains a major public health concern has created an especially challenging situation for developing countries, like El Salvador. Individuals living within migrant households where migrant networks are present may be at a greater risk for the development of cardiometabolic health conditions. Using data from the 2007 El Salvador database of the Latin American Migration Project (LAMP-ESLS4), this study investigates relations between financial remittances, familial U.S. migration history and cardiometabolic health conditions (overweight status, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke) among 534 individuals within 351 households from four different communities within the departments of La Unión, Cabañas, and San Miguel in El Salvador. Adults living in households that had close primary kin with U.S. migration history were almost two times less likely to be overweight (OR 0.456, p < 0.001) and obese (OR 0.453, p < 0.01) when adjusting for age, sex, education and economic well-being. This study highlights the importance of exploring the potential role of U.S. migrant ties in the epidemiologic transition present within developing countries, like El Salvador.

  17. Mitochondrial echoes of first settlement and genetic continuity in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Alvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B; Carracedo, Angel

    2009-09-02

    From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at approximately 90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090-16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400+/-5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a very limited contribution from European and African

  18. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a

  19. Magmatic evolution of the Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezin, D.; Mann, C. P.; Hernández, W.; Stix, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Ilopango caldera (16 x 13 km) is an active, long-lived magmatic system, erupting voluminous amounts of pyroclastic material numerous times over the course of its evolution. The caldera is presently water filled and the most recent activity is a dome growth event in 1880. Established age constraints from extracaldera pyroclastic sequences, indicate caldera forming events occur ~ every 10,000 years over the last 40,000 years. The most recent pyroclastic eruption (TBJ) is constrained to A.D. 429 erupting 70 km3 DRE of pyroclastic material. We combine major element and trace element chemistry with 40Ar/39Ar age constraints of the intracaldera domes and intracaldera pyroclastic deposits to extent the caldera history. The intracaldera domes are andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (57 - 76 wt. % SiO2), some with basaltic enclaves (54 wt. % SiO2) and pyroclastic units observed inside the caldera (San Agustín Pumice Breccia) are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition (69 -75 wt. % SiO2). Formation of an intracaldera andesitic dome at 359±7.9 ka provides a minimum age of caldera formation and extends the caldera history back ~ 320 ka years. The variable composition of the intracaldera domes, the presence of mafic enclaves in the dome lavas, mafic clasts in the TB4 plinian fall, mafic banding in the TB3 and TB2, attest to the obvious involvement of a more mafic magma The highly evolved compositions of the pyroclastic units and the volume of erupted material, point towards a large evolving magma reservoir at depth. The mafic magma may replenish the subsurface reservoir and act as a catalyst for volcanic eruption. The presence of an intracaldera lake, the regularity with which the volcano erupts and the presence of a more mafic magma are the ingredients for a catastrophic disaster. The Ilopango caldera, located 10 km to the east of the capital city of San Salvador (~ 1.5 million people) poses a threat both locally and globally as demonstrated 1600 years ago as it

  20. Evaluation of surgical care in El Salvador using the WHO surgical vital statistics.

    PubMed

    Molina, George; Funk, Luke M; Rodriguez, Virginia; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Gawande, Atul

    2013-06-01

    Vital statistics to assess surgical care worldwide have been published by the World Health Organization. These data have not been reported for any Latin American country. We sought to measure these metrics as a starting point for understanding how to improve the safety of surgery in El Salvador. We designed an institutional survey that was sent to 21 hospitals and used national administrative data sources to estimate the number of surgeons, anesthesia professionals, operating rooms, and annual surgical volume for El Salvador. We reviewed surgical and death logs for 12 Ministry of Health hospitals to calculate day-of-surgery and postoperative in-hospital mortality ratios for a 6-month period (October 2009-March 2010). We estimate there to be 1,222 surgeons [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1,137-1,307], 539 anesthesia providers, 168 operating rooms (95 % CI 136-199), and 172,972 operations (95 % CI 171,961-173,983) annually in El Salvador. There were on average 1,197 annual cases per operating room and 436 annual cases per surgeon in the 21 hospitals we studied. The day-of-surgery mortality ratio was 0.42 % (95 % CI 0.35-0.5), whereas the postoperative in-hospital mortality ratio was 1.58 % (95 % CI 1.44-1.72). The postoperative in-hospital mortality ratio was higher for hospitals with a greater number of hospital beds (p = 0.01) and operating rooms (p = 0.02). Despite the challenges that El Salvador faces to provide surgical care, national collection of surgical vital statistics is feasible. Collection of additional process and outcome measures may be insightful for improving the surgical safety in El Salvador and elsewhere.

  1. Chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in the Bajo Lempa region of El Salvador: Nefrolempa study, 2009.

    PubMed

    Orantes, Carlos M; Herrera, Raúl; Almaguer, Miguel; Brizuela, Elsy G; Hernández, Carlos E; Bayarre, Héctor; Amaya, Juan C; Calero, Denis J; Orellana, Patricia; Colindres, Rosa M; Velázquez, María E; Núñez, Sonia G; Contreras, Verónica M; Castro, Bertha E

    2011-10-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN En El Salvador, la enfermedad renal crónica terminal es la causa principal de muerte hospitalaria en adultos, la segunda causa de muerte en los hombres y la quinta causa principal de muerte entre adultos de ambos sexos en la población general. OBJETIVO Identificar los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad renal crónica y los marcadores de daño renovascular en orina, medir la función renal y caracterizar la prevalencia de enfermedad renal crónica en personas X18 años de edad en la región del Bajo Lempa en El Salvador. METODOS Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal y analítico de la enfermedad renal crónica y los factores de riesgo asociados en individuos con edades X18 años por medio de pesquisa activa en la Región del Bajo Lempa, una zona costera rural en El Salvador. Se efectuaron visitas casa por casa y consultas médicas. Se recolectaron datos epidemiológicos y clínicos que incluían: historia clínica personal y familiar para la enfermedad; factores de riesgo biológicos, de conducta, sociales y ambientales; mediciones físicas; análisis de orina buscando marcadores de daño renovascular y exámenes de sangre (creatinina y glucosa en suero, lipidograma). La tasa de filtración glomerular se calculó usando la fórmula de MDRD (sigla en inglés de Modificación de la Dieta en la Enfermedad Renal). La confirmación de casos de enfermedad renal crónica se realizó en un período de tres meses. Se utilizó la regresión logística múltiple para analizar los datos. RESULTADOS Se estudiaron un total de 375 familias y 775 individuos (343 hombres, 432 mujeres), el 88,3% del total de la población residente en la región. Se observó una elevada prevalencia de factores de riesgo: diabetes mellitus en 10,3%; hipertensión en 16,9%; antecedentes familiares de enfermedad renal crónica en 21,6%; dislipidemias en 63,1%; sobrepeso en 34%; obesidad en 22,4%; síndrome metabólico en 28,8%; uso de medicamentos anti-inZ amatorios no

  2. Assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the February 13, 2001, El Salvador earthquake; a report to the government of El Salvador and the U. S. Agency for International Development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Crone, Anthony J.; Escobar, Demetreo; Harp, Edwin L.; Major, Jon J.; Martinez, Mauricio; Pullinger, Carlos; Smith, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    On February 13, 2001, a magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurred about 40 km eastsoutheast of the capital city of San Salvador in central El Salvador and triggered thousands of landslides in the area east of Lago de Ilopango. The landslides are concentrated in a 2,500-km2 area and are particularly abundant in areas underlain by thick deposits of poorly consolidated, late Pleistocene and Holocene Tierra Blanca rhyolitic tephras that were erupted from Ilopango caldera. Drainages in the tephra deposits are deeply incised, and steep valley walls failed during the strong shaking. Many drainages are clogged with landslide debris that locally buries the adjacent valley floor. The fine grain-size of the tephra facilitates its easy mobilization by rainfall runoff. The potential for remobilizing the landslide debris as debris flows and in floods is significant as this sediment is transported through the drainage systems during the upcoming rainy season. In addition to thousands of shallow failures, two very large landslides occurred that blocked the Rio El Desague and the Rio Jiboa. The Rio El Desague landslide has an estimated volume of 1.5 million m3, and the Rio Jiboa landslide has an estimated volume of 12 million m3. Field studies indicate that catastrophic draining of the Rio El Desague landslide-dammed lake would pose a minimal flooding hazard, whereas catastrophic draining of the Rio Jiboa lake would pose a serious hazard and warrants immediate action. Construction of a spillway across part of the dam could moderate the impact of catastrophic lake draining and the associated flood. Two major slope failures on the northern side of Volcan San Vicente occurred in the upper reaches of Quebrada Del Muerto and the Quebrada El Blanco. The landslide debris in the Quebrada Del Muerto consists dominantly of blocks of well-lithified andesite, whereas the debris in the Quebrada El Blanco consists of poorly consolidated pyroclastic sediment. The large blocks of lithified rock in

  3. The red tide event in El Salvador, August 2001-January 2002.

    PubMed

    Enrique Barraza, José; Armero-Guardado, Julio; Valencia de Toledo, Zobeyda Marisol

    2004-09-01

    A red tide event occurred in El Salvador from August 2001 to January 2002. National health authorities usually measured toxin levels in Ostrea iridescens, however other species were analyzed during this microalgae bloom: Anadara similis, Anadara tuberculosa and Modiolus sp. El Salvador authorities consider 400 mouse units/100 g the highest value that is safe for human health. During this period toxin levels in 0. iridescens and Modiolus sp. increased from values under 400 to 3977 and 15,468 mouse units/100 g, respectively. Persistent and higher levels were recorded in oyster and mussel banks on the west part of the country. The Ministry of Health and Social Assistance treated 41 slight to moderate intoxications associated to bivalve mollusks consumption.

  4. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  5. [Critical issues for implementing oral health policy in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador.

  6. Family planning communications and contraceptive use in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Panama.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J T; Santiso, R; Cisneros, R J; Mascarin, F; Morris, L

    1982-01-01

    Recent contraceptive prevalence surveys in Guatemala, El Salvador, and panama included a module on family planning communications. This module provided useful feedback on the reach of each program and facilitated comparisons between countries. While almost all women in El Salvador have been reached by family planning messages, the percentage of women reached was lower in Panama and Guatemala. In all three countries rural, less educated, and unemployed women who worked inside the home or not at all were least likely to have seen or heard the messages. Exposure to family planning communications emerged as a strong correlate of contraceptive use, as shown in two separate analyses. These findings underscore the importance of communications in promoting contraceptive use.

  7. Association between nutritional status and severity of dengue infection in children in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Marón, Gabriela M; Clará, A Wilfrido; Diddle, John Wesley; Pleités, Ernesto B; Miller, Laura; Macdonald, Gene; Adderson, Elisabeth E

    2010-02-01

    Clinical observations and some studies suggest that dengue virus infection is more severe among children with better nutritional status. We examined the nutritional status of children in El Salvador and its relationship between this and the severity of dengue infection. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age of children with dengue fever (66), dengue hemorrhagic fever (62), and healthy controls (74) were compared. There were no differences in weight-for-age or BMI-for-age Z-scores between the three groups. Children with dengue fever had a greater height-for-age than healthy controls but no significant differences in rates of stunting. There was no difference in height between children with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Excess nutrition does not appear to be a risk factor for severe forms of dengue infection in El Salvador, nor does malnutrition appear to be predictive of good outcomes.

  8. The Impact of the Vietnam Analogy on American Policy in El Salvador from 1979 to 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    intent on supporti’z revolution throughout the region.’ Fear and panic gripped the nations of Central America. In both Guatemala and Honduras businessmen...office, a Gallup Poll found ඇW of Americans fear escalation of U.S. involvement [in El Salvador] into a Vietnam-like scenario. ൖ By February...was to form a "war crimes trial". Evidently, this would give the immediate perception that what was happening there was somehow criminal. A good look

  9. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    9 Mauricio Funes, “Discurso Toma de Posesión,” June 1, 2009; “Normalizan El Salvador y Cuba relaciones ...CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues, by Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel; and CRS...already reestablished diplomatic relations with Cuba .9 Challenges for the Funes Administration Opposition Legislature Although the FMLN increased its

  10. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-18

    America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by J. F. Hornbeck, CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and...January 27, 2009. 13 Ibid; Alberto Fajardo, “Funes quiere gobernar cerca Brasil y EEUU,” Reuters, March 16, 2009; “ Presidente electo El Salvador...for Mexico and Central America, by Colleen W. Cook and Clare Ribando Seelke. 26 It is unclear how much bilateral and Mérida Initiative assistance

  11. Volcanic Hazards of San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador--Initial Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, D.; Chesner, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    San Miguel is a Holocene volcano (2130 m) on the volcanic front that has erupted mafic lavas and tephras in small VEI 2 events numerous times in the past 300 years. The city of San Miguel, El Salvador's second largest city ({ ~}300,000) and the economic center of eastern El Salvador, is built 11 km away on the lowermost northeastern flank of the volcano, 2000 m below its summit. A few large towns are built on the west and southwest flanks including San Jorge, San Rafael Oriente, and El Transito. The Pan American and Coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks respectively. Coffee plantations cover a large portion of the northern flank whereas the southern flank is mostly ranch land. Historic lava flows from San Miguel occurred between 1699 and 1884 and were mainly erupted from flank vents. Ash fall associated with historic flank eruptions has been reported up to 20 km from the volcano, and fell on the city of San Miguel in 1931. In 1976, small scale fountaining occurred in the summit crater and produced minor ash fall within a few km of the crater. Recently, small debris flows composed mostly of scoria have caused property damage on the northwestern flank of the volcano. Based on its historic activity and its current seismicity, gas emission and rock alteration, San Miguel is perhaps El Salvador's most likely candidate for hazardous activity. We are beginning a hazard study for San Miguel volcano that includes assessment of the hazards from lava flows, ash falls, pyroclastic flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches. This study is important to El Salvador, where volcanic risk is ubiquitous and poorly quantified. As an initial step we have sampled and analyzed 75 samples of lavas, tephras, and pyroclastic flow deposits from the volcano and its vicinity. These analyses indicate that the exposed portion of the cone consists exclusively of basalts and basaltic andesites.

  12. U.S. Military Policy for Third World Conflicts: Is It Working in El Salvador?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    president, General Carlos Romero , to flee Lo Guatemala. A revolutionary junta was formed, with representation from the rival political parties and...Although the mountainous terrain and population density of El Salvador is not conducive to the type of guerrilla warfare promoted by Che Guevara ...397-399) Even though some factors are missing, such as a strong dictator to attack or a well-organized Marxist revolutionary party, Guevara noted

  13. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-18

    The current president of El Salvador, Antonio (Tony) Saca of the conservative ARENA party, was elected in March 2004, along with Ana Vilma de Escobar ...per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information

  14. First person: a mental health mission to post-earthquake El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Katz, Craig L

    2013-09-01

    In this article the author excerpts and discusses salient quotes or moments from the journal he compiled while visiting El Salvador in February 2001 as head of Disaster Psychiatry Outreach (DPO) to assist survivors of a major earthquake. This case discussion of a single disaster mental health response exemplifies key issues related to both short and long term mental health service delivery to disaster affected communities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Remote sensing of tetraoxygen (O4) levels in San Salvador urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti Arroyo, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we report on levels of O4 in San Salvador (El Salvador) measured by Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS).We measured the O4differential Slant Column Density (dSCD in mol2cm-5 of O4) in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum using a fitting window from 340 nm to 370 nm. The measurements were taken during a campaign which included the days of November 26th , 27th and 30th in 2011 at different elevation angles, namely, 30, 10, 30 and 90. Diurnal average values of O4 dSCD which ranges between 5x1042 mol2cm-5 and 6x1043 mol2cm-5 are observed. On November 26th lower values of O4 dSCD were obtained in comparison to the other two days. Since the atmospheric O4 profile is well known and nearly constant in the first kilometers in the atmosphere for this could be considered a surprisingly result. However, the meteorological conditions in San Salvador influenced by the presence of a cold front which affected in different ways the three days, allow, to some extent, a plausible explanation of these results by considering the role of the aerosol distribution and his impact in the atmospheric photon paths leading to an apparent decreasing of the O4 levels. The role of the presence of aerosols in the atmosphere of San Salvador and it influence in the obtained O4 dSCD results and it diurnal behavior will be extensively discussed in this investigation.

  16. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighborhoods or valleys within neighborhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  17. Correlates of bisexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Kim, Evelyn J; Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Shah, Neha; Kim, Andrea A; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Maria Hernandez-Ayala, Flor; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-05-01

    Bisexual behaviors may increase transmission pathways of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from a higher prevalence group to lower prevalence groups in El Salvador. In 2008, men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited in San Salvador and San Miguel using respondent driven sampling. Participants were interviewed and tested for HIV and STIs. Sixteen seeds and 797 MSM participated; 34.9% in San Salvador and 58.8% in San Miguel reported bisexual behavior. Bisexual behavior was associated with drug use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.06) and insertive anal sex (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.01-9.87), and inversely associated with having a stable male partner (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.84) and disclosing MSM behavior to family (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75). Bisexual behavior was associated with risk behaviors with male and female partners that may be associated with HIV and STI transmission. Bisexual men displayed a distinct identity calling for tailored interventions.

  18. Disparities in HIV screening among pregnant women--El Salvador, 2011.

    PubMed

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Nieto Gómez, Ana I; Dubón Abrego, María A; Gagnier, Marielle C; Sutton, Madeline Y; Mokdad, Ali H

    2013-01-01

    To provide an accurate estimate of antenatal HIV screening and its determinants among pregnant women in El Salvador and help local authorities make informed decisions for targeted interventions around mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). A total sample of 4,730 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from a random sample of 3,625 households. We collected data on antenatal care services, including HIV screening, during last pregnancy through a pre-established questionnaire. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to examine the association between HIV screening and sociodemographic and health care-related factors. A total of 2,929 women were included in this analysis. About 98% of participants reported receiving antenatal care, but only 83% of these reported being screened for HIV. Screening was lower in geographic areas with higher HIV incidence and ranged from 69.1% among women who were not seen by a physician during antenatal care, to 93.7% among those who attended or completed college. Odds for screening varied also by age, employment status, household economic expenditure, possession of health care coverage, health care settings, and number of antenatal care visits. We found disparities in HIV screening during antenatal care at the environmental, social, demographic, and structural levels despite a high uptake of antenatal care in El Salvador. Our findings should urge health authorities to tailor and enhance current strategies implemented to eliminate MTCT and reduce inequities and HIV morbidity among women in El Salvador.

  19. Community-based assessment and intervention for early childhood caries in rural El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Darya; Fontana, Margherita; Kapila, Yvonne; Eckert, George; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2016-08-01

    The objectives were to assess early childhood caries (ECC) in rural areas of El Salvador and to investigate the changes in caries and mouth pain in the presence of community-based interventions. This study was a retrospective analysis of de-identified and anonymous data obtained from baseline and four annual follow-up visits that focused on the preventive oral health intervention and nutrition in a convenience sample of children 0-6 years of age. The decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index for primary teeth was used as the survey tool. Caries was defined as a cavitated lesion. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the prevalence of ECC in the sample in relation to age and dmft score. Linear mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) and generalised linear mixed effects models were used to compare the pre-intervention and post-intervention outcomes. The prevalence of caries was 58%. Incorporation of a community oral health education and fluoride supplementation programme contributed to significant reductions in caries experience (from 74% to 61%) and mouth pain (from 58% to 39%), in children 3-6 years of age. ECC is a common public health problem in rural El Salvador. In an established community-based maternal-child health programme in El Salvador, there appears to be an association between the incorporation of preventive oral health intervention and improvement in children's oral health and quality of life over time. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  20. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.
DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.
SETTING—El Salvador.
RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.
CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.


Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  1. HIV and STI control in El Salvador: results from an integrated behavioural survey among men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Kim, Andrea A; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-12-01

    This cross-sectional study investigates HIV, other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in two cities in El Salvador. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) was used to recruit MSM in the cities of San Salvador and San Miguel, El Salvador. Participants responded to questions about HIV risk behaviours; and blood, urine and anal swabs were collected. Blood samples were tested for herpes simplex type 2, syphilis and HIV infection. Urine and anal samples were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Mycoplasma genitalium. HIV-positive samples were tested with the BED capture enzyme immunoassay to distinguish recent from longstanding HIV infection. We estimated population-adjusted prevalence of behavioural variables, STI and HIV, and identified risk factors for HIV. The final sample included 596 and 195 MSM in San Salvador and San Miguel, respectively. Consistent condom use was low across all partner types as was recent HIV testing. RDS-adjusted HIV prevalence was 10.8% (95% CI 7.4% to 14.7%) in San Salvador, and 8.8% (95% CI 4.2% to 14.5%) in San Miguel. The proportion of recent testing among HIV-positive samples was 20%. Prevalence of any bacterial STI by PRC testing was 12.7% (95% CI 8.2% to 17.5%) in San Salvador, and 9.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 15.4%) in San Miguel. We found a high prevalence of HIV, high levels of recent infection, and low condom usage. In El Salvador, targeted interventions towards MSM are needed to promote condom use, as well as to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV and other STIs.

  2. Childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among crack-using commercial sex workers in San Salvador, El Salvador: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Gueverra, Aradenia; Rodriguez, Karla; Mauricio, Gaborit

    2006-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later HIV risk. It draws on qualitative, in-depth interviews with 40 women who either used crack or engaged in commercial sex work in the greater metropolitan area of San Salvador, El Salvador, 28 of whom experienced CSA. Although the relationship between CSA and later HIV risk has been clearly demonstrated, the processes that lead women who have experienced CSA to experience HIV risk are unclear. The theoretical model presented here incorporates the psychological effects of CSA, particularly stigmatization, as well as its social consequences and the larger context of poverty in which these women live. The meanings women draw from past abuse experiences and their rationale for choices made help explain the association between CSA and later risk as mediated through sex work and crack addiction. Self-report data gathered in this study indicate that HIV prevalence may be considerably higher in this high-risk population than Salvadoran national rates.

  3. New seismic sources parameterization in El Salvador. Implications to seismic hazard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Staller, Alejandra; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Benito, Belén; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Canora, Carolina

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador is located at the pacific active margin of Central America, here, the subduction of the Cocos Plate under the Caribbean Plate at a rate of ~80 mm/yr is the main seismic source. Although the seismic sources located in the Central American Volcanic Arc have been responsible for some of the most damaging earthquakes in El Salvador. The El Salvador Fault Zone is the main geological structure in El Salvador and accommodates 14 mm/yr of horizontal displacement between the Caribbean Plate and the forearc sliver. The ESFZ is a right lateral strike-slip fault zone c. 150 km long and 20 km wide .This shear band distributes the deformation among strike-slip faults trending N90º-100ºE and secondary normal faults trending N120º- N170º. The ESFZ is relieved westward by the Jalpatagua Fault and becomes less clear eastward disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. Five sections have been proposed for the whole fault zone. These fault sections are (from west to east): ESFZ Western Section, San Vicente Section, Lempa Section, Berlin Section and San Miguel Section. Paleoseismic studies carried out in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation and paleoearthquakes up to Mw 7.6. In this study we present 45 capable seismic sources in El Salvador and their preliminary slip-rate from geological and GPS data. The GPS data detailled results are presented by Staller et al., 2014 in a complimentary communication. The calculated preliminary slip-rates range from 0.5 to 8 mm/yr for individualized faults within the ESFZ. We calculated maximum magnitudes from the mapped lengths and paleoseismic observations.We propose different earthquakes scenario including the potential combined rupture of different fault sections of the ESFZ, resulting in maximum earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.6. We used deterministic models to calculate acceleration distribution related with maximum earthquakes of the different proposed scenario. The spatial distribution of

  4. The Changing Face of South Africa's National System of Innovation, 1991?2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael; Blankley, William

    2005-01-01

    The article examines changes in the South African national system of innovation (NSI) since the onset of democracy in 1994. In particular, the recently completed 2001/02 Survey of Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is used to quantify the shifts in R&D activity for the major business, government and higher education players. The major…

  5. Effects of temperature variation on suicide in five U.S. counties, 1991-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, P. G.; McDonald, A. N.; Scheitlin, K. N.; Stapleton, J. E.; Allen, J. S.; Carter, W. M.; Holley, M. R.; Inman, D. D.; Roberts, J. B.

    2007-05-01

    Effects of weather variables on suicide are well-documented, but there is still little consistency among the results of most studies. Nevertheless, most studies show a peak in suicides during the spring season, and this is often attributed to increased temperatures. The purpose of this study is to test the relationship between monthly temperature and monthly suicide, independent of months or seasons, for five counties located across the United States. Harmonic analysis shows that four of the five counties display some seasonal components in the suicide data. However, simple linear regression shows no correlation between suicide and temperature, and discriminant analysis shows that monthly departure from mean annual suicide rates is not a useful tool for identifying months with temperatures that are colder or warmer than the annual average. Therefore, it appears that the seasonality of suicides is due to factors other than temperature.

  6. Comparison of Hydrologic Data from Monroe County, Michigan, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, J.R.; Blumer, Stephen P.; McGowan, Rose M.

    2001-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, there were renewed concerns about the effects of quarry dewatering on nearby domestic ground-water supplies in Monroe County, Michigan. Reports of domestic wells “going dry” are not uncommon historically in Monroe County. Such reports have been linked to droughts, nearby irrigation, quarrying, and other large ground-water uses since as early as 1900 (Sherzer, 1900). Concerns about ground-water availability during the short, but extreme, drought of 1988 prompted the County and the State of Michigan to cooperate with the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) on a county water resources assessment during the early 1990s (Nicholas and others, 1996). Aquifers in Monroe County generally yield sufficient water for domestic supplies. High transmissivities and low storage in fractured carbonate aquifers and poor water quality at depth (Nicholas and others, 1996), however, make domestic supplies very susceptible to the effects of drought and large withdrawals. Therefore, there are legitimate concerns about sustainable groundwater supplies in the County. Additionally, significant increases in ground-water uses in Monroe County during the past decade coincide with very dry years during the late 1990s. Although ground-water-level data were collected by Monroe County during the last decade, there are not comparable data sets available for many water uses. Therefore, determining whether concerns about domestic wells going dry can be linked to ground-water withdrawals or climate is problematic. In response to recent concerns, the USGS and MDEQ (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) entered into a cooperative agreement in October 2001 to conduct a study regarding the availability of ground water in Monroe County. The major goal of this study is to determine how widespread are the impacts of quarry dewatering operations. This report summarizes the initial phase of the study which consists of a comparison of hydrologic data from 1991 to 2001. The 1991 data are reported by the USGS in the report by Nicholas and others (1996). Later data come from a variety of sources including USGS, MDEQ, Monroe County, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and ground-water users. All non-USGS data in this report are given as reported; data verification was not a part of this initial phase. The types of data chosen for comparison in this report include water levels of Lake Erie, precipitation at Monroe, streamflow in the River Raisin at Manchester, ground-water use, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. The authors acknowledge the cooperation and provision of data and information by several agencies. Ground-water use for irrigation was provided by Ron Van Til of MDEQ. Quarry discharges were provided by Jennifer Rogers of MDEQ. Ground-water-level data for 1993 to 2001 were provided by the Monroe County Health Department. The authors also acknowledge Carlos Hernandez, Chris Hoard, Tom Morgan, Tom Sabin, and Dave Westjohn for collecting streamflow, ground-water, and ground-water-quality data in autumn, 2001. Sharon Baltusis and Jaye Lunsford assisted in the compilation and presentation of hydrologic data in this report.

  7. The Changing Face of South Africa's National System of Innovation, 1991?2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael; Blankley, William

    2005-01-01

    The article examines changes in the South African national system of innovation (NSI) since the onset of democracy in 1994. In particular, the recently completed 2001/02 Survey of Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is used to quantify the shifts in R&D activity for the major business, government and higher education players. The major…

  8. The Quabbin controlled deer hunt 1991 - 2001: limitations of a controlled hunt

    Treesearch

    Beth E. Cohen; David K. Loomis

    2003-01-01

    The Quabbin Reservoir, built in the 1930's as a water supply for Boston, is an unfiltered source of water. The agency responsible for managing the reservoir wants it to remain unfiltered. As a result, human activity is kept to a minimum, including (until recently) a prohibition on hunting. The lack of natural predators and the ban on recreational hunting allowed...

  9. Evaluation and Statistical Review of Idaho Supplementation Studies :1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Lutch, Jeffrey; Steinhorst, Kirk; Beasley, Chris

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) was developed to evaluate the utility of supplementation as a recovery tool for Snake River basin chinook salmon (Supplementation Technical Workgroup 1987), and to help define the potential role of supplementation in managing Idaho's anadromous fisheries (IDFG 1990; IDFG 1992). Supplementation as defined by the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project group is the use of artificial propagation in the attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population (RASP 1992). Poor survival has led to the decline and continued depression of upriver chinook salmon stocks due to mainstem passage and mortality factors associated with the lower Snake and Columbia river dams. Although immediate efforts should focus on alleviating the poor passage and flow conditions, supplementation may concurrently be a viable tool to meet the Northwest Power Planning Council's interim goal of doubling anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 1987) and avoiding short-term loss of spawning aggregates.

  10. The case of the missing person: Alzheimer's disease in mass print magazines 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne N

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is growing in incidence and prevalence in the developed world. Rates have been increasing as populations have been aging. There are still many unknowns regarding prevention, causes, and treatments. The purpose of this article is to analyze the portrayal of Alzheimer's in the highest-circulation mass print English-language magazines published in the United States and Canada over a period of a decade, specifically those for 1991, 1996, and 2001. This research investigates the portrayal of persons with Alzheimer's, the disease itself, caregivers and experts, and the dominant frames or discourses within which Alzheimer's is described. Twenty-five articles from the highest-circulation mass print magazines available in Canada were studied through qualitative and inductive research of both manifest and latent content. One of the most notable findings is the absence of the person with the disease as a person with a voice, with needs and desires. When the disease itself is described it is characterized as fearsome, relentless, and aggressive. Both the unquestioned duty of the individual caregiver and his or her (usually the caregiver is a woman) suffering are emphasized. The disease, its diagnosis, and potential treatments are framed almost exclusively within a medical rather than a political-economy or lifestyle frame. Minimal attention is paid to prevention, early stages of the disease, social support, options for care, or other alternative understandings of issues related to Alzheimer's. The theoretical and practical significance of these findings is considered.

  11. Signalment factors, comorbidity, and trends in behavior diagnoses in cats: 736 cases (1991-2001).

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Houpt, Katherine A

    2006-11-15

    To describe trends in behavior diagnoses from 1991 to 2001; assess the relationship between diagnoses and age, sex, reproductive status, and breed; and evaluate associations between diagnoses within the same cat (comorbidity). Retrospective case series. 736 cats. Medical records were reviewed for species, breed, sex, reproductive status, consultation year, birth date, and diagnoses. The caseload decreased over the course of the study. Aggression toward people increased, and spraying decreased. Cases involving Siamese cats decreased over time. Siamese cats were evaluated more often than expected in general and specifically for aggression and ingestive behavior problems, whereas Persian cats were evaluated more often than expected for elimination outside of the litter box. Domestic shorthair cats were evaluated less often than expected in general and specifically for aggression, ingestive behavior problems, and house soiling. Male cats were overrepresented. Cats with ingestive behavior problems were evaluated at a median age of 1.5 years, compared with cats with other problems (median age, 5.5 years). Certain diagnoses were clustered, with a mean of 1.2 diagnoses/cat. Results suggested that in cats, behavior problems changed over the course of the study, age and breed distributions varied among diagnoses, and certain diagnoses were likely to occur together.

  12. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: population-based data.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-04-04

    There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0-14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0-11 years old in El Salvador. Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamin Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1-4 years; 3) 5-9 years, or 4) 10-14 or 10-11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0-11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadorian group of 0-11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in Mexico City is one of the highest reported for North America.

  13. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1–4 years; 3) 5–9 years, or 4) 10–14 or 10–11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in

  14. Do Community-Managed Schools Work? An Evaluation of El Salvador's EDUCO Program. Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms. Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    This paper measures the effects on student outcomes of decentralizing educational responsibility to communities and schools. In El Salvador, community-managed schools emerged during the 1980s when public schools could not be extended to rural areas because of the country's civil war. In 1991, El Salvador's Ministry of Education decided to draw on…

  15. Do Community-Managed Schools Work? An Evaluation of El Salvador's EDUCO Program. Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms. Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    This paper measures the effects on student outcomes of decentralizing educational responsibility to communities and schools. In El Salvador, community-managed schools emerged during the 1980s when public schools could not be extended to rural areas because of the country's civil war. In 1991, El Salvador's Ministry of Education decided to draw on…

  16. [Cerebrovascular diseases as multiple cause of death in Salvador: magnitude and space differences of mortality omitted in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Lessa, I; Silva, M R

    1993-09-01

    Social inequalities and the excess (%) in mortality by cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) unregistered in the official death statistics were studied in Salvador, Brazil, 1988. In an ecological spacial (aggregate) desing, all death mentioning CVD as basic and as associated cause of death were reviewed and distributed, according to their addresses by 66 geographical zones. The mortality rates by CVD (basic+associated) ranged from 22.94 to 376.62/10,000 adults. The mortality fraction not included in the official statistics was 29.1% for Salvador with means between 16.12 and 33.72% in the group of zones of very low to those in the high mortality levels. Seven out of 16 zones included in the 4th quantil showed exceptionally high mortality rates (above those of Salvador + 1.64 x standard deviation corrected by the zones population). The authors discuss possible explanations for the social differences in the mortality profile.

  17. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

  18. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used

  19. Risk Behaviors and STI Prevalence Among People with HIV in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, ME; Nieto, AI; Estrada, MC; Cedillos, R; Pascale, JM; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ≥1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (≤1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02) were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change. PMID:23049671

  20. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermayer G; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-10-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centres with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from nine sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighbourhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographical distances. Most F(ST) comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighbourhoods or valleys within neighbourhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Disparities in HIV Screening among Pregnant Women – El Salvador, 2011

    PubMed Central

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Nieto Gómez, Ana I.; Dubón Abrego, María A.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an accurate estimate of antenatal HIV screening and its determinants among pregnant women in El Salvador and help local authorities make informed decisions for targeted interventions around mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Methods A total sample of 4,730 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from a random sample of 3,625 households. We collected data on antenatal care services, including HIV screening, during last pregnancy through a pre-established questionnaire. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to examine the association between HIV screening and sociodemographic and health care-related factors. Results A total of 2,929 women were included in this analysis. About 98% of participants reported receiving antenatal care, but only 83% of these reported being screened for HIV. Screening was lower in geographic areas with higher HIV incidence and ranged from 69.1% among women who were not seen by a physician during antenatal care, to 93.7% among those who attended or completed college. Odds for screening varied also by age, employment status, household economic expenditure, possession of health care coverage, health care settings, and number of antenatal care visits. Conclusions We found disparities in HIV screening during antenatal care at the environmental, social, demographic, and structural levels despite a high uptake of antenatal care in El Salvador. Our findings should urge health authorities to tailor and enhance current strategies implemented to eliminate MTCT and reduce inequities and HIV morbidity among women in El Salvador. PMID:24349356

  2. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against childhood diarrhoea in El Salvador: case-control study

    PubMed Central

    de Palma, Orbelina; Cruz, Lilian; Ramos, Hector; de Baires, Amada; Villatoro, Nora; Pastor, Desiree; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Kerin, Tara; Bowen, Michael; Gentsch, Jon; Esposito, Douglas H; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus disease and to assess its impact on diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years after national introduction in El Salvador, a low-middle income country in Central America. Design Matched case-control study. Setting Seven hospitals in cities across El Salvador, January 2007 to June 2009. Participants 323 children aged less than 2 years admitted with laboratory confirmed rotavirus diarrhoea and 969 healthy controls matched for age and neighbourhood. Main outcome measure Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination ((1–adjusted odds ratio of vaccination)×100) against rotavirus diarrhoea requiring hospital admission. Results Cases and controls were similar for breast feeding, premature birth, maternal education, and socioeconomic variables. G1P[8] strains were identified in 92% of rotavirus cases. Effectiveness of two doses of vaccination against diarrhoea requiring hospital admission was 76% (95% confidence interval 64% to 84%). Protection was significantly lower (P=0.046) among children aged 12 months or more (59%, 27% to 77%) compared with children aged 6-11 months (83%, 68% to 91%). One dose of vaccine was 51% (26% to 67%) effective. At the sentinel hospitals, all admissions for diarrhoea among children under 5 declined by 40% in 2008 and by 51% in 2009 from the prevaccine year 2006. Conclusions A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was highly effective against admissions for rotavirus diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years in El Salvador and substantially reduced the number of such admissions in this low-middle income setting. The impact on disease epidemiology after vaccination, particularly among older children, warrants future attention. PMID:20551120

  3. Prevalence and predictors of abandonment of therapy among children with cancer in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Miguel; Rossell, Nuria; Salaverria, Carmen; Gupta, Sumit; Barr, Ronald; Sala, Alessandra; Metzger, Monika L; Sung, Lillian

    2009-11-01

    Abandonment of therapy is one of the most common causes of treatment failure among children with cancer in low-income countries. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence and predictors of abandonment among such children with cancer in El Salvador. We analyzed data on patients younger than 16 years, diagnosed with any malignancy between January 2001 and December 2003 at the Benjamin Bloom National Children's Hospital, San Salvador. Among 612 patients, 353 were male (58%); the median age at diagnosis was 5.1 years; 59% of patients were diagnosed with leukemia/lymphoma, 28% with solid tumors and 13% with brain tumors. The prevalence of abandonment was 13%. Median time to abandonment was 2.0 (range 0-36) months. In univariate analyses, paternal illiteracy [odds ratio (OR) 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0-7.2; p = 0.001]; maternal illiteracy (OR = 5.1, 95% CI 2.5-10; p < 0.0001); increasing number of household members (OR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3; p = 0.004); and low monthly household income (OR per $100 = 0.59, 95% CI 0.45-0.75; p < 0.0001) all significantly increased the risk of abandonment, whereas travel time to hospital did not. In multiple regression analyses, low monthly income and increased number of people in the household were independently predictive of abandonment. In conclusion, in El Salvador, despite the provision of free treatment, socioeconomic variables significantly predict increased risk of abandonment of therapy. Understanding the pathways through which socioeconomic status affects abandonment may allow the design of effective interventions. (c) 2009 UICC.

  4. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination against childhood diarrhoea in El Salvador: case-control study.

    PubMed

    de Palma, Orbelina; Cruz, Lilian; Ramos, Hector; de Baires, Amada; Villatoro, Nora; Pastor, Desiree; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Kerin, Tara; Bowen, Michael; Gentsch, Jon; Esposito, Douglas H; Parashar, Umesh; Tate, Jacqueline; Patel, Manish

    2010-06-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus disease and to assess its impact on diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years after national introduction in El Salvador, a low-middle income country in Central America. Matched case-control study. Seven hospitals in cities across El Salvador, January 2007 to June 2009. 323 children aged less than 2 years admitted with laboratory confirmed rotavirus diarrhoea and 969 healthy controls matched for age and neighbourhood. Effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination ((1-adjusted odds ratio of vaccination)x100) against rotavirus diarrhoea requiring hospital admission. Cases and controls were similar for breast feeding, premature birth, maternal education, and socioeconomic variables. G1P[8] strains were identified in 92% of rotavirus cases. Effectiveness of two doses of vaccination against diarrhoea requiring hospital admission was 76% (95% confidence interval 64% to 84%). Protection was significantly lower (P=0.046) among children aged 12 months or more (59%, 27% to 77%) compared with children aged 6-11 months (83%, 68% to 91%). One dose of vaccine was 51% (26% to 67%) effective. At the sentinel hospitals, all admissions for diarrhoea among children under 5 declined by 40% in 2008 and by 51% in 2009 from the prevaccine year 2006. A monovalent rotavirus vaccine was highly effective against admissions for rotavirus diarrhoea in children aged less than 2 years in El Salvador and substantially reduced the number of such admissions in this low-middle income setting. The impact on disease epidemiology after vaccination, particularly among older children, warrants future attention.

  5. With God's Help I Can Do It: Crack Users' Formal and Informal Recovery Experiences in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; De Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Corbett, A. Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Crack use has increased dramatically in El Salvador in the last few decades. As with other developing countries with sudden onsets of drug problems, El Salvador has few medical staff trained in addictions treatment. Little research has examined drug users' attempts to reduce or abstain from drug use in countries where government-regulated formal medical treatment for drug addiction is scarce. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data gathered from active crack users to explore their formal and informal strategies to reduce or abstain from drugs, and compares these with components of informal and formal treatment in developed countries. PMID:20735191

  6. With God's help i can do it: crack users? Formal and informal recovery experiences in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; De Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Corbett, A Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Crack use has increased dramatically in El Salvador in the last few decades. As with other developing countries with sudden onsets of drug problems, El Salvador has few medical staff trained in addictions treatment. Little research has examined drug users? attempts to reduce or abstain from drug use in countries where government-regulated formal medical treatment for drug addiction is scarce. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data gathered from active crack users to explore their formal and informal strategies to reduce or abstain from drugs, and compares these with components of informal and formal treatment in developed countries.

  7. Staurojoenina and other symbionts in Neotermes from San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, M.; Margulis, L.

    1997-01-01

    Staurojoenina, a conspicuous hypermastigote protist (undocumented in any Neotermes) and other hindgut symbionts are reported for the first time in Neotermes nr. jouteli, a dry-wood-eating termite (Kalotermitidae), from the red mangroves at the northeast corner of San Salvador Island. Other distinctive protists (Macrotrichomonas, Metadevescovina, two morphotypes of small trichomonads) and bacteria (Arthromitus-type filamentous spore-formers) symbionts were also found in this termite. This Staurojoenina sp. replete with epibiotic bacterial symbionts is not distinguished from previously described species of Staurojoenina.

  8. [Experiences and psycosocial impact on soldier boys and girls from the civil war in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Santacruz, María L; Arana, Rubí E

    2002-12-01

    Exploratory research with 293 excombatants who participated as child soldiers in the El Salvador civil war as FMLN (Marti Front for National Liberation) members or as Armed Forces soldiers was conducted to examine their current living conditions and the impact of past military experience. Although nearly ten years have passed since the peace accords were signed, the excombatant exhibited signs of emotional disturbance. Current underprivileged living conditions and social marginalization were decisive factors which inhibited reentry into civilian life and constituted an important psychosocial impact by placing at risk their integration at the family, community and society levels.

  9. An Assessment of the National Campaign Plan for El Salvador: Planning for Success or Failure?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-03

    Panama. ’Lydia Chavez , "The Odds in El Savador: Again the U.S. Army Faces an Elusive Enemy," The New York Times Magazine, 24 July 1983, p. 14. 2Charles...34 Facts on File, vol. 43, 17 June 1983, p. 448. 4Lydia Chavez , "U.S. Pilot Program in Salvadoran Area in Danger of Failing," The New York Times, 18 December...marked the beginning of the operational plan as government forces numbering between 4,000 and I Chavez , "The Odds in El Salvador," p. 17. 2Mohr, p

  10. Cross-bedded limestone facies on San Salvador Island, Bahamas: New perspective on eolian calcarenites

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.V. )

    1989-08-01

    Limestones of eolian origin have been known from worldwide tropical regins since the early 1900s. On San Salvador Island, most of the exposed bed rock is Holocene and Pleistocene eolian calcarenite made of skeletal, peloidal, and oolitic fine to medium sand. The Pleistocene Grotto Beach Formation is composed of 50-90% ooids. An eolian interpretation for this interval is supported by paleosols, subaerial crusts, vadose cement, terrestrial fossils, karst features, associated reef and beach deposits, grainfall, sandflow, and climbing ripple strata, and shore-parallel sand bodies. Whole dune-forms are locally preserved; they were stabilized or frozen in place by early cementation and/or vegetation.

  11. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.55). Within 2 weeks, influenza in Panama was increased by 1 case for every 1% increase in RH (RR=1.04, p=.003), and it was increased by 2 cases for every 1C increase of minimum temperature (RR=2.01, p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.4). Influenza counts in Guatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza

  12. Late Pennsylvanian and early permian chondrichthyan microremains from San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexico)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derycke-Khatir, C.; Vachard, D.; Degardin, J.-M.; Flores de Dios, A.; Buitron, B.; Hansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The San Salvador Patlanoaya section (Puebla State, Mexico) is known for its richness of many fossil groups. Among them, the calcareous shells have been principally investigated. This paper deals with Missourian-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Leonardian (late Early Permian) Mexican fish remains. A discussion about Helicoprion and related genera, is followed by the systematic description of the revised or discovered taxa: Cooperella typicalis, Moreyella cf. M. typicalis, M. (?) sp., "Sturgeonella" quinqueloba, Hybodontidae gen. sp. 1 and 2, scale indet. Palaeobiogeographic implications are suggested. ?? 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Salvador Armendares: second generation Spanish refugee and pioneer of human genetics in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Lozano, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an analysis of Dr. Salvador Armendares' exile and professional career, with the aim of exploring the relation between the intellectual contributions of the second generation of Spanish refugees in Mexico and the origins of medical genetics in that country. The thesis is that the emigration of European refugees due to political issues, where eugenic values were exalted, paradoxically facilitated the establishment of medical genetics in Mexico. Interpretation of cultural, political, and social factors contributes to the analysis, avoiding Eurocentric and expansionist narratives.

  14. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012.

    PubMed

    Chacon, Rafael; Clara, Alexey Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Armero, Julio; Lozano, Celina; El Omeiri, Nathalie; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded) patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for dengue and 39% positive for influenza. One percent presented co-infection between influenza and dengue. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis of influenza among patients with suspected dengue during the influenza season.

  15. Influenza Illness among Case-Patients Hospitalized for Suspected Dengue, El Salvador, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Chacon, Rafael; Jara, Jorge; Armero, Julio; Lozano, Celina

    2015-01-01

    We estimate the proportion of patients hospitalized for suspected dengue that tested positive for influenza virus in El Salvador during the 2012 influenza season. We tested specimens from 321 hospitalized patients: 198 patients with SARI and 123 patients with suspected dengue. Among 121 hospitalized suspected dengue (two co-infected excluded) patients, 28% tested positive for dengue and 19% positive for influenza; among 35 with suspected dengue and respiratory symptoms, 14% were positive for dengue and 39% positive for influenza. One percent presented co-infection between influenza and dengue. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis of influenza among patients with suspected dengue during the influenza season. PMID:26485296

  16. Wounds caused by firearms in El Salvador, 2003-2004: epidemiological issues.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Ignacio; Crespin, Emperatriz; Guardado, Ademar; Mauricio, Ana

    2005-01-01

    This study presents data from hospital records in El Salvador describing the features of 100 patients admitted to a public hospital with firearm wounds. Wounds caused by Firearms (WFA) account for 70 per cent of homicides; 30 per cent of WFA homicides died in hospital. For every death in hospital there are five admissions who need treatment and survive. The typical victim is a young man with reasonable education but poor earning capacities and some family responsibilities, who lives in an urban setting where drugs, alcohol and firearms are commonplace. Extrapolating from this study, an estimated 2,580 people were treated in El Salvador hospitals during 2003; and of these 2,400 were treated in public hospitals at a cost to the state of 7.4 million USD, just over seven per cent of the health budget. Using further extrapolations, the total social costs for WFA morbidity would amount to around 34 million USD. There needs to be greater controls on firearms, public education on their risks and a more unified surveillance system.

  17. Unrecognized Emergence of Chikungunya Virus during a Zika Virus Outbreak in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Ana Paula P. B.; Paploski, Igor A. D.; Tauro, Laura B.; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Santana, Perla; Rego, Marta F. S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel

    2017-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) entered Brazil in 2014, causing a large outbreak in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia. Although cases have been recorded in Salvador, the capital of Bahia, located ~100 km of Feira de Santana, CHIKV transmission has not been perceived to occur epidemically, largely contrasting with the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and ensuing complications reaching the city in 2015. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to determine the intensity of CHIKV transmission in Salvador between November 2014 and April 2016. Results of all the CHIKV laboratory tests performed in the public sector were obtained and the frequency of positivity was analyzed by epidemiological week. Of the 2,736 tests analyzed, 456 (16.7%) were positive. An increasing in the positivity rate was observed, starting in January/2015, and peaking at 68% in August, shortly after the exanthematous illness outbreak attributed to ZIKV. Conclusions/Significance Public health authorities and health professionals did not immediately detect the increase in CHIKV cases, likely because all the attention was directed to the ZIKV outbreak and ensuing complications. It is important that regions in the world that harbor arbovirus vectors and did not experience intense ZIKV and CHIKV transmission be prepared for the potential co-emergence of these two viruses. PMID:28114414

  18. Unrecognized Emergence of Chikungunya Virus during a Zika Virus Outbreak in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Cristiane W; Kikuti, Mariana; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Paploski, Igor A D; Tauro, Laura B; Silva, Monaise M O; Santana, Perla; Rego, Marta F S; Reis, Mitermayer G; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S

    2017-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) entered Brazil in 2014, causing a large outbreak in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia. Although cases have been recorded in Salvador, the capital of Bahia, located ~100 km of Feira de Santana, CHIKV transmission has not been perceived to occur epidemically, largely contrasting with the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and ensuing complications reaching the city in 2015. This study aimed to determine the intensity of CHIKV transmission in Salvador between November 2014 and April 2016. Results of all the CHIKV laboratory tests performed in the public sector were obtained and the frequency of positivity was analyzed by epidemiological week. Of the 2,736 tests analyzed, 456 (16.7%) were positive. An increasing in the positivity rate was observed, starting in January/2015, and peaking at 68% in August, shortly after the exanthematous illness outbreak attributed to ZIKV. Public health authorities and health professionals did not immediately detect the increase in CHIKV cases, likely because all the attention was directed to the ZIKV outbreak and ensuing complications. It is important that regions in the world that harbor arbovirus vectors and did not experience intense ZIKV and CHIKV transmission be prepared for the potential co-emergence of these two viruses.

  19. Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway in a developmental checkpoint monitoring Helix-Loop-Helix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    The E-proteins and Id-proteins are, respectively, the positive and negative heterodimer partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein family, and as such contribute to a remarkably large number of cell fate decisions. E-proteins and Id-proteins also function to inhibit or promote cell proliferation and cancer. Using a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila, we show that the Id-protein Extramacrochaetae enables growth by suppressing activation of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway of tumor suppressors, activation that requires transcriptional activation of the expanded gene by the E-protein Daughterless. Daughterless protein binds to an intronic enhancer in the expanded gene, both activating the SWH pathway independently of the transmembrane protein Crumbs, and bypassing the negative feedback regulation that targets the same expanded enhancer. Thus the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway has a cell-autonomous function to prevent inappropriate differentiation due to transcription factor imbalance, and monitors the intrinsic developmental status of progenitor cells, distinct from any responses to cell-cell interactions. PMID:25579975

  20. Dietary intakes of preschool children in LA Pa, El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, P; Trowbridge, F L

    1980-03-01

    A dietary survey was conducted in a department of El Salvador as part of an assessment of the nutritional status of preschool children. Intake of calories, protein and retinol equivalents were estimated using a 24-hour recall technique. The average daily energy intake for children 1-4 years old was 866 Kcal representing 60% of the 1973 level recommended by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), for this age group, and 76% of the recommended level on a body-weight basis. Average protein intake per child per day in the same age group was 31.3 g, which represents 110% of the recommended level for the age group, and 136% of the recommended level on a body weight basis. The estimated retinol equivalent intake was 36% of the recommended allowance. In general, the results of the present study were similar to those obtained in the study carried out in El Salvador by INCAP during the period September-November, 1965.

  1. Association between Nutritional Status and Severity of Dengue Infection in Children in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Marón, Gabriela M.; Clará, A. Wilfrido; Diddle, John Wesley; Pleités, Ernesto B.; Miller, Laura; MacDonald, Gene; Adderson, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical observations and some studies suggest that dengue virus infection is more severe among children with better nutritional status. We examined the nutritional status of children in El Salvador and its relationship between this and the severity of dengue infection. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age of children with dengue fever (66), dengue hemorrhagic fever (62), and healthy controls (74) were compared. There were no differences in weight-for-age or BMI-for-age Z-scores between the three groups. Children with dengue fever had a greater height-for-age than healthy controls but no significant differences in rates of stunting. There was no difference in height between children with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Excess nutrition does not appear to be a risk factor for severe forms of dengue infection in El Salvador, nor does malnutrition appear to be predictive of good outcomes. PMID:20134012

  2. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Chagas Disease in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado Soriano, Edith Yanira; Cuyuch Marroquín, Blanca Leticia; Hernández Ramírez, Marta Alicia; Guevara de Aguilar, Ana Vilma; Romero Chévez, José Eduardo; Ramos Hernández, Hector Manuel; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-08-01

    To estimate the incidence (any mother to child) and rate (from seropositive mother to child) of mother-to-child transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, a serological census was conducted, targeting pregnant women and infants born to seropositive mothers, in four municipalities of El Salvador. Of 943 pregnant women, 36 (3.8%) were seropositive for T. cruzi. Of 36, 32 proceeded to serological tests of their infants when they became 6-8 months of age. Six infants seropositive at the age of 6-8 months further proceeded to second-stage serological test at the age of 9-16 months. As the result, one infant was congenitally infected. Thus, serological tests at the age of 6-8 months produced five false positives. To ensure earlier effective medication only for true positives, identification of seropositive infants at the age of 9-16 months is crucial. Incidence and rate of mother-to-child transmission were 0.14 (per 100 person-years) and 4.0%, respectively. Estimated number of children infected through mother-to-child transmission in El Salvador (170 per year) was much higher than that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; seven per year). It is recommended that serological testing for T. cruzi be integrated into those for HIV and syphilis as part of antenatal care package. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Chagas Disease in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Soriano, Edith Yanira Corado; Marroquín, Blanca Leticia Cuyuch; Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Hernández, Hector Manuel Ramos; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence (any mother to child) and rate (from seropositive mother to child) of mother-to-child transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, a serological census was conducted, targeting pregnant women and infants born to seropositive mothers, in four municipalities of El Salvador. Of 943 pregnant women, 36 (3.8%) were seropositive for T. cruzi. Of 36, 32 proceeded to serological tests of their infants when they became 6–8 months of age. Six infants seropositive at the age of 6–8 months further proceeded to second-stage serological test at the age of 9–16 months. As the result, one infant was congenitally infected. Thus, serological tests at the age of 6–8 months produced five false positives. To ensure earlier effective medication only for true positives, identification of seropositive infants at the age of 9–16 months is crucial. Incidence and rate of mother-to-child transmission were 0.14 (per 100 person-years) and 4.0%, respectively. Estimated number of children infected through mother-to-child transmission in El Salvador (170 per year) was much higher than that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; seven per year). It is recommended that serological testing for T. cruzi be integrated into those for HIV and syphilis as part of antenatal care package. PMID:26123959

  4. A qualitative exploration of a family self-help mental health program in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Nickels, Samuel V; Flamenco Arvaiza, Nelson A; Rojas Valle, Myrna S

    2016-01-01

    There is a significant gap in our knowledge regarding community-based self-help groups and their benefits for persons living with mental conditions and their family caregivers in low and middle income countries. This study describes a such a program in El Salvador and explores participants' perceptions of program effectiveness and benefits. The Family Education, Support and Empowerment Program is a multi-component program in the capital that is facilitated by nonprofit professionals but carried out primarily by volunteers. A focus group methodology to build evaluation and research capacity in the organization was used. The study consisted of a questionnaire completed by participants individually, followed by two focus group sessions with the same ten people. The study found perceptions of multiple benefits across social, functional, and economic dimensions and a variety of achievements at organizational and national levels. This study identified a family self-help program in El Salvador as a potentially highly beneficial program for its participants. This appears to be the first study to explore benefits across micro, mezzo and macro social levels and to include discussion of more diverse potential benefits such as individual and organizational social capital, leadership, and advocacy. These factors should be explored in future quantitative studies to help determine the relative importance and usefulness of such programs in meeting World Health Organization goals for access to mental health treatment and quality community-based services.

  5. [Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge Jacinto; Barrett, Thomas; Narváez, Silvia; Caldas, José Miguel; Levav, Itzhak; Saxena, Shekhar

    2007-11-01

    The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect data from the nations. The national mental health systems of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador have serious limitations, especially in primary care, and a marked lack of qualified human resources. Budget allocations for mental health care are barely 1% of the total health care budgets; and the psychiatric hospitals located in the national capitals consume at least 90% of those funds. The limited human and material resources available are concentrated in the respective country capital cities. National mental health policies and legislation have not been adopted; however, all three countries do have national plans in progress. Furthermore, all three have designed and implemented programs for mental health care in case of disaster. Agreements must be reached with offices for the defense of human rights to raise awareness and protection of rights for the mentally ill. In recent years, new experiences have been gained and these should be distributed more widely. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and the WHO-AIMS project have contributed toward developing community models for mental health services. Lastly, priorities have been identified and action items recommended.

  6. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  7. 78 FR 70092 - 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section 182 of the Trade Act of 1974: Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Request for written submissions from the public. SUMMARY...

  8. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  9. Risk, Prophecy, Truth and Inspiration: A Picture of Archbishop Romero in the Education System of El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Joanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Born in El Salvador, at the heart of the Americas, Archbishop Oscar Romero came to have a profound impact, both nationally and internationally. Speaking out fearlessly against injustice and oppression, Archbishop Romero's poignant and powerful homilies were heard throughout the world and made him one of the greatest prophets. In the 30-year period…

  10. Shifting the Narrative: Child-Led Responses to Climate Change and Disasters in El Salvador and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Children and young people are commonly treated in the climate change and disasters literature as victims of natural events requiring protection by adults. This article critiques that narrative, drawing on examples from the Philippines and El Salvador that explore how children's groups have responded to such issues through child-centred…

  11. [Sources of interest to the history and culture of health: Arquivo Histórico municipal de Salvador].

    PubMed

    Matos, Maria Teresa Navarro de Britto

    2008-01-01

    Based on documental investigation, supplemented by bibliographic research, this exploratory study recaptures the historical and institutional evolution of Salvador's Municipal History Archives and describes its current organizational structure and documental collection. Special attention is placed on sources of interest to the history and culture of health.

  12. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  13. Risk and the neoliberal state: why post-Mitch lessons didn't reduce El Salvador's earthquake losses.

    PubMed

    Wisner, B

    2001-09-01

    Although El Salvador suffered light losses from Hurricane Mitch in 1998, it benefited from the increased international aid and encouragement for advance planning, especially mitigation and prevention interventions. Thus, one would have supposed, El Salvador would have been in a very advantageous position, able more easily than its economically crippled neighbours, Honduras and Nicaragua, to implement the 'lessons of Mitch'. A review of the recovery plan tabled by the El Salvador government following the earthquakes of early 2001 shows that despite the rhetoric in favour of 'learning the lessons of Mitch', very little mitigation and prevention had actually been put in place between the hurricane (1998) and the earthquakes (2001). The recovery plan is analysed in terms of the degree to which it deals with root causes of disaster vulnerability, namely, the economic and political marginality of much of the population and environmental degradation. An explanation for the failure to implement mitigation and preventive actions is traced to the adherence by the government of El Salvador to an extreme form of neoliberal, free market ideology, and the deep fissures and mistrust in a country that follow a long and bloody civil war.

  14. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ∼ 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP. © 2015 UICC.

  15. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  16. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  17. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  18. Shifting the Narrative: Child-Led Responses to Climate Change and Disasters in El Salvador and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Children and young people are commonly treated in the climate change and disasters literature as victims of natural events requiring protection by adults. This article critiques that narrative, drawing on examples from the Philippines and El Salvador that explore how children's groups have responded to such issues through child-centred…

  19. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  20. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  1. Household-level dietary quality indicator for countries in nutritional transition: application to vulnerable communities in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Melissa; Houser, Robert F; Messer, Ellen; de Fulladolsa, Patricia Palma; Deman, Hedi; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2014-03-01

    To develop a household-level diet quality indicator (HDQI) using the Salvadorian dietary guidelines to assess the dietary quality of households in vulnerable communities in El Salvador. The Salvadorian dietary guidelines were reviewed and eighteen HDQI components were identified (nine foods and nine nutrients). The components were evaluated using a proportional scoring system from 0 to 1, penalizing over- and under-consumption, where appropriate. The HDQI was validated in consultations with experts in El Salvador and by statistical analyses of the study sample data. Dietary variety and energy, nutrient and food intakes were compared among households above and below the median HDQI score using Student's t test. Vulnerable, border communities in El Salvador. Households (n 140) provided food consumption information using an FFQ and sociodemographic data. The mean HDQI score was 63·5, ranging from 43·6 to 90·0. The indicator showed a positive, significant association with the dietary variety components. The statistical associations of the indicator with the energy and nutrient components were as expected. Based on the indicator's demonstrated face validity and the results of the expert consultations, the indicator is suggested as a good measure of diet quality for households in El Salvador.

  2. Economic Evaluation of Education: A Critical Analysis in the Context of Applications to Educational Reform in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.; Wells, Stuart J.

    1983-01-01

    Several evaluations of a major national reform of secondary schools in El Salvador emphasizing the adoption of an intensive educational television system were previously undertaken. They are used here to illustrate key issues and problems in the economics of education and their implications for future research and policymaking. (BW)

  3. Dimensions of child sexual abuse before age 15 in three Central American countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable indicators and measures of sexual abuse for the three countries to document the prevalence of abuse, types of perpetrators, and the association of child sexual abuse with recent intimate partner violence. Child sexual abuse was defined as sexual abuse that first occurs before age 15. Nationally representative data from El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras were used. In El Salvador, separate questions on forced intercourse and non-penetrative sexual abuse were asked. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed using STATA Version 8SE. The prevalence of child sexual abuse varied from 7.8% in Honduras to 6.4% in El Salvador and 4.7% in Guatemala. In all three countries, the overwhelming majority of women who reported child sexual abuse first experienced the abuse before age 11. Perpetrators tended to be a family member, a neighbor, or an acquaintance. Bivariate and multivariate analyses indicated that women who experienced child sexual abuse in Guatemala and Honduras were about two times more likely to be in violent relationships as women who did not experience abuse. This relationship was not significant in multivariate analyses for El Salvador where the prevalence of intimate partner violence was the lowest. Child sexual abuse in Central America is clearly a problem with the prevalence between 5% and 8%. Child sexual abuse can have long-term negative health impacts including exposure to intimate partner violence in adulthood. Programs to prevent abuse and treat victims of child sexual abuse are needed in Central America.

  4. First occurrence of the Salvador Formation in the Jatobá Basin (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil): Facies characterization and depositional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Melo Ferrer de Morais, Débora

    2016-12-01

    Fan deltas, constituting proximal depositional systems adjacent to boundary faults, are common features associated with rift basins. The Cretaceous fan delta systems of the Salvador Formation, deposited during the rift phase of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá Basin, were first reported in the Recôncavo Basin and later discovered in the Tucano Basin. Because of the absence of any outcrops in the Jatobá Basin until now, these alluvial fans were interpreted solely through seismic analysis. We report the first revealed outcrops of the Salvador Formation in that basin and characterize their depositional systems as interlayered with the lacustrine Candeias Formation. Based on facies and architecture, the alluvial system can be subdivided into three associations: (1) proximal fan delta, characterized by meter-scale conglomerate bodies with a predominance of boulders and cobbles with thin sandstone layers; (2) distal fan delta, characterized by sheet-like pebble conglomerate and sandstone layers with flame and load structures; and (3) lacustrine, further subdivided into shallow lake facies reddish shales and mudstones with oolitic limestones and deep lake facies grey to green shales with pyrite. Paleocurrent measurements for the proximal fan association show paleoflow direction varying from SW to SE, which is expected for the rift phase alluvial system. The Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system has two conglomeratic units, namely the Salvador and Marizal Formations, the former a syn-rift and the latter a post-rift unit. The absence of sedimentary clasts in the conglomerates, very low maturity, the presence of giant clasts, and a visible relationship between boundary faults in the outcrop, define the syn-rift Salvador Formation characteristics. Based on the facies and paleocurrent analyses, the Salvador Formation deposits in Jatobá Basin were interpreted as a deposition of a debris flow-dominated fan delta, indicating the lacustrine setting represented by the Candeias

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome in Salvador, Brazil: a prevalence study in primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by hyperandrogenism, oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and polycystic ovaries. It is associated with obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease. No studies have been conducted on the prevalence of PCOS in Brazilian or South American women. Few studies using the Rotterdam criteria have been published. The objective of the present study was to calculate the prevalence of PCOS at primary healthcare level in Salvador, Brazil based on these criteria. Methods This was a cross-sectional, two-phase study conducted in a probability sample of women of 18–45 years of age screened for cervical cancer in the primary healthcare network of the city of Salvador, Brazil. In the first phase, interviews were conducted, weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure and random blood sugar levels were measured, and the presence of acne and hirsutism was investigated. Women with at least one diagnostic criterion were referred for the second phase, which consisted of specialist consultation, pelvic ultrasonography and hormone measurements for differential diagnosis and/or investigation of a second criterion. Results Of the 859 women interviewed, 88.5% were black and 58.7% had 11 years of schooling or less. A diagnosis of PCOS was excluded in 84.4%, undetermined in 7.1% and confirmed in 8.5% (95%CI: 6.80–10.56). There were no statistically significant differences between these three groups with respect to weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood sugar levels or arterial blood pressure. Women with PCOS were younger (p = 0.00), taller (p = 0.04), had fewer children (p = 0.00), were better educated (p = 0.01), and had higher total testosterone levels (p = 0.01) and a higher LH/FSH ratio (p = 0.01). Conclusion According to the Rotterdam criteria, the prevalence of PCOS in women seeking primary healthcare in Salvador, Brazil

  6. Meningococcal Carriage among Adolescents after Mass Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccination Campaigns in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Amélia Maria Pithon Borges; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa; Ferreira, Ítalo Eustáquio; Moura, Ana Rafaela Silva Simões; Felzemburgh, Ridalva Dias Martins; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; de Moraes, José Cassio

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal bacterium of the human nasopharynx. In rare cases, it penetrates the mucosa, entering the blood stream and causing various forms of disease. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent invasive disease not only by direct effect in vaccinated individuals but also by herd protection, preventing acquisition of carriage, which interrupts transmission and leads to protection of unvaccinated persons. In 2010 in Salvador, Brazil, an outbreak of group C meningococcal disease led to a mass meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination drive, targeting those <5 and 10–24 years of age. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with N. meningitidis carriage among adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, in the post-vaccination period. In spring 2014, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 1,200 public school students aged 11–19 years old. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected to identify N. meningitidis. Of the 59 colonized participants, 36 (61.0%) carried non-groupable N. meningitidis, while genogroup B (11.9%), Y (8.5%), E (6.8%), Z (5.1%), C (3.4%), and W (3.4%) were also detected. The overall prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6–6.1%); the prevalence of N. meningitidis genogroup C was 0.17% (95% CI, 0.0–0.40%). There was no difference by age. Factors associated with carriage were having only one, shared, bedroom in the household (PR, 2.02; 95% CI, 0.99–4.12, p = 0.05); the mother being the only smoker in the home (PR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.16–5.29; p = 0.01); and going to pubs/parties more than 5 times/month (PR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.38–4.92; p = 0.02). Our findings show that the N. meningitidis carriage rate in adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, is low and is potentially influenced by the low prevalence of N. meningitidis genogroup C. However, continued surveillance is important to identify changes in the dynamics of N. meningitidis

  7. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences - finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained with the high resolution

  8. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  9. Tectonic evolution of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Insights from analogue experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, c. 150 km long and 20 km wide segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the El Salvador Volcanic Arc striking N90°-100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Our analysis of structural field data, remote sensing images and morphometric indices reveals a trenchward migration of the volcanic arc and furthermore suggests that not all structures within the ESFZ can be explained within the current tectonic context, but require a phase of extension or an extensional component of deformation at some stage in the evolution of the ESFZ. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to subduction roll-back of the Cocos Plate beneath the Chortis Block in Mio-Pliocene times. Such a possible evolution leads to open questions that we address in our research: Is the ESFZ a neo-formed fault zone, i.e. did it form during one phase of strike-slip or transtensional deformation, or do the structures in the ESFZ reflect a two-phase evolution, i.e. an early phase of extension overprinted by a later phase of strike-slip or transtension? Did subduction roll-back occur beneath El Salvador? We carried out analogue model experiments to test whether or not an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Analogue modeling is an effective tool in testing various hypotheses, as it allows the experimenter to control specific parameters and to test their influence on the resulting structures. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures of the ESFZ and can explain the shallow geometry of the fault zone. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in inter

  10. Coseismic deformation of the 2001 El Salvador and 2002 Denali fault earthquakes from GPS geodetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hreinsdottir, Sigrun

    2005-07-01

    GPS geodetic measurements are used to study two major earthquakes, the 2001 MW 7.7 El Salvador and 2002 MW 7.9 Denali Fault earthquakes. The 2001 MW 7.7 earthquake was a normal fault event in the subducting Cocos plate offshore El Salvador. Coseismic displacements of up to 15 mm were measured at permanent GPS stations in Central America. The GPS data were used to constrain the location of and slip on the normal fault. One month later a MW 6.6 strike-slip earthquake occurred in the overriding Caribbean plate. Coulomb stress changes estimated from the M W 7.7 earthquake suggest that it triggered the MW 6.6 earthquake. Coseismic displacement from the MW 6.6 earthquake, about 40 mm at a GPS station in El Salvador, indicates that the earthquake triggered additional slip on a fault close to the GPS station. The MW 6.6 earthquake further changed the stress field in the overriding Caribbean plate, with triggered seismic activity occurring west and possibly also to the east of the rupture in the days to months following the earthquake. The MW 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake ruptured three faults in the interior of Alaska. It initiated with a thrust motion on the Susitna Glacier fault but then ruptured the Denali and Totschunda faults with predominantly right-lateral strike-slip motion unilaterally from west to east. GPS data measured in the two weeks following the earthquake suggest a complex coseismic rupture along the faults with two main regions of moment release along the Denali fault. A large amount of additional data were collected in the year following the earthquake which greatly improved the resolution on the fault, revealing more details of the slip distribution. We estimate a total moment release of 6.81 x 1020 Nm in the earthquake with a M W 7.2 thrust subevent on Susitna Glacier fault. The slip on the Denali fault is highly variable, with 4 main pulses of moment release. The largest moment pulse corresponds to a MW 7.5 subevent, about 40 km west of the Denali

  11. Miocene zircon crystals in dacite from Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador: Evidence for recycling of plutonic rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrison, J. M.; Korm, S.; Schmitt, A. K.; Economos, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Ilopango Caldera is located in El Salvador and is part of the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA) that extends from southern Mexico to Panama. The volcanic arc is situated on crust that ranges in age from 150-28 Ma and is covered with Miocene-Recent volcanic ash and pyroclastic flow deposits. Several large eruptions are associated with Ilopango Caldera, the most recent are from the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) eruption, which produced massive pyroclastic flows 1600 years BP. Older eruptions from Ilopango Caldera are referred to as the Tierra Blanca (TB) deposits, and the TB2 ignimbrite has been dated at 12,000 years. The objective of this research is to use the ages of zircon crystals from the TBJ and TB2 eruptions to establish and compare storage times for these magma reservoirs. We used a CAMECA ims 1270 at UCLA's NSF National Ion Microprobe Facility in order to obtain U-Pb and U-Th ages for individual zircon crystals from each eruption. Depth profiling and U-Pb analyses were performed on both of the zircon crystals using established analysis techniques. The data show that zircon from both eruptions have 15 Ma old cores with thin rims (few μm) that are consistent with the young eruption ages. In both cases, however the transition from core to rim composition is abrupt and does not record continuous crystallization of the zircon crystals. We conclude that the presence of the old cores is consistent with assimilation of middle Miocene plutonic rock by juvenile magma during Quaternary activity of Ilopango Caldera. The most likely source of 15 Ma old zircon are the plutons associated with middle Miocene explosive volcanism in Central America. Ash deposits recovered from the sea floor (via ODP studies) record extensive explosive volcanism from 13-15 Ma that can be traced to ignimbrite deposits of the Chalatenango Formation in south-central Guatemala and El Salvador. We conclude that 1) the zircon crystals record only brief pre-eruptive crystallization histories for the

  12. Evidence of the negative effect of sexual minority stigma on HIV testing among MSM and transgender women in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John; Guardado, Maria Elena; de Maria Hernández, Flor; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Melendez, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    A cross sectional survey was administered to 670 men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in San Salvador through respondent driven sampling to identify determinants of ever testing for HIV using a minority stress framework. A positive association was found between ever testing and older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.10], past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.92), perceiving that most social acquaintances had tested (aOR 1.81), and knowing a PLHIV (aOR 1.94). A negative association was found between homelessness and ever testing (aOR 0.43). Among the MSM sub-sample (n = 506), similar results were found for older age (aOR 2.63), and past experience of sexual assault (aOR 2.56). Internalized homonegativity was negatively associated with ever testing for HIV among MSM (aOR 0.46), and HIV testing stigma and experienced provider discrimination further strengthened this relationship. It is important to mitigate sexual minority stigma in order to increase HIV testing among MSM. Future research should explore this construct among TW.

  13. No choice in El Salvador. The Catholic church works overtime to prohibit abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    1999-12-01

    The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy reports on the recent amendment of the Constitution to recognize life from the moment of conception. Researcher Soledad Varela discovered that the Catholic Church in El Salvador had been actively engaged in manipulative tactics to sway an already conservative legislature into passing the extreme laws. Although some legislators were in favor of this amendment, some believe that the reform was wrong and that therapeutic abortions and terminations of pregnancies resulting from rape should not be penalized. Restrictive abortion laws did not stop abortions from occurring; in fact, the UN estimated that 35% of all pregnancies in Chile end in illegal abortions. With the new restrictions, mothers are abandoning unwanted newborns. Illegal practitioners have become harder to trace. Nevertheless, others seem to be successful at evading the law. The wealthy have the right to choose and still avail themselves of legal, more liberal abortion laws from other countries.

  14. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  15. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  16. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory.

    PubMed

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  17. Hippo Pathway Phylogenetics Predicts Monoubiquitylation of Salvador and Merlin/Nf2

    PubMed Central

    Newfeld, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently we employed phylogenetics to predict that the cellular interpretation of TGF-β signals is modulated by monoubiquitylation cycles affecting the Smad4 signal transducer/tumor suppressor. This prediction was subsequently validated by experiments in flies, frogs and mammalian cells. Here we apply a phylogenetic approach to the Hippo pathway and predict that two of its signal transducers, Salvador and Merlin/Nf2 (also a tumor suppressor) are regulated by monoubiquitylation. This regulatory mechanism does not lead to protein degradation but instead serves as a highly efficient “off/on” switch when the protein is subsequently deubiquitylated. Overall, our study shows that the creative application of phylogenetics can predict new roles for pathway components and new mechanisms for regulating intercellular signaling pathways. PMID:23272121

  18. Health sector response to security threats during the civil war in E1 Salvador.

    PubMed Central

    Brentlinger, P. E.

    1996-01-01

    During the recent civil war in E1 Salvador, as in other modern wars, human rights abuses adversely affected health workers, patients, and medical facilities. The abuses themselves have been described in reports of human rights advocacy organisations but health sector adaptations to a hostile wartime environment have not. Agencies engaged in health work during the civil war adapted parties such as training of community based lay health workers, use of simple technology, concealment of patients and medical supplies, denunciation of human rights abuses, and multilevel negotiations in order to continue providing services. The Salvadorean experience may serve as a helpful case study for medical personnel working in wars elsewhere. Images p1471-a p1472-a p1473-a PMID:8973238

  19. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904-1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit.

  20. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  1. Substance Abuse Disorders Treatment in El Salvador: Analysis of Policy-Making-Related Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use and substance abuse disorders have increased dramatically in developing countries during recent decades. Sadly, treatment for people diagnosed as manifesting and/or attributed with substance abuse disorders in developing countries is usually inadequate to meet demand, not evidence based, and of poor quality. In response, international health organizations have developed best-practice guidelines for substance user treatment in developing countries, although little research has evaluated their implementation. This opinion piece will examine one such effort to improve substance user treatment in El Salvador. It will be argued that the program failed (2007–2008) because of a lack of political will by the Salvadoran government through their Ministry of Health to effectively supervise, monitor, and subsidize substance user treatment. PMID:23186469

  2. Patient Privacy and Conflicting Legal and Ethical Obligations in El Salvador: Reporting of Unlawful Abortions

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Heathe Luz; Mitchell, Ellen M.H.; Hernandez, Emilia G.; Padilla, Karen; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2006-01-01

    Postabortion care providers who breach patient confidentiality endanger women’s health and violate ethics. A 1998 abortion ban in El Salvador likely spurred an increase in the number of women investigated, because many women were reported to legal authorities by health care providers. Having analyzed safeguards of confidentiality in laws and ethical guidelines, we obtained information from legal records on women prosecuted from 1998 to 2003 and identified factors that may lead to reporting through a survey of obstetrician-gynecologists (n=110). Although ethical and human rights standards oblige providers to respect patients’ privacy, 80% of obstetrician-gynecologists mistakenly believed reporting was required. Most respondents (86%) knew that women delay seeking care because of fear of prosecution, yet a majority (56%) participated in notification of legal authorities. PMID:16571690

  3. Substance abuse disorders treatment in El Salvador: analysis of policy-making-related failure.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Illicit drug use and substance abuse disorders have increased dramatically in developing countries during recent decades. Sadly, treatment for people diagnosed as manifesting and/or attributed with substance abuse disorders in developing countries is usually inadequate to meet demand, not evidence based, and of poor quality. In response, international health organizations have developed best-practice guidelines for substance user treatment in developing countries, although little research has evaluated their implementation. This opinion piece will examine one such effort to improve substance user treatment in El Salvador. It will be argued that the program failed (2007-2008) because of a lack of political will by the Salvadoran government through their Ministry of Health to effectively supervise, monitor, and subsidize substance user treatment.

  4. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904–1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The “Marvels of Illusion” exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the “Marvels of Illusion” exhibit. PMID:26483651

  5. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  6. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  7. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  8. The growth and erosion of cinder cones in Guatemala and El Salvador: Models and statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, Karen; Walker, Jim; Borgia, Andrea; Turrin, Brent; Neri, Marco; Swisher, Carl, III

    2011-04-01

    Morphologic data for 147 cinder cones in southern Guatemala and western El Salvador are compared with data from the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona (USA), Cima volcanic field, California (USA), Michoácan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Mexico, and the Lamongan volcanic field, East Java. The Guatemala cones have an average height of 110 +/- 50 m, an average basal diameter of 660 +/- 230 m and an average top diameter of 180 +/- 150 m. The general morphology of these cones can be described by their average cone angle of slope (24 +/- 7), average height-to-radius ratio (0.33 +/- 0.09) and their flatness (0.24 +/- 0.18). Although the mean values for the Guatemalan cones are similar to those for other volcanic fields (e.g., San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona; Cima volcanic field, California; Michoácan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Mexico; and Lamongan volcanic field, East Java), the range of morphologies encompasses almost all of those observed worldwide for cinder cones. Three new 40Ar/ 39Ar age dates are combined with 19 previously published dates for cones in Guatemala and El Salvador. There is no indication that the morphologies of these cones have changed over the last 500-1000 ka. Furthermore, a re-analysis of published data for other volcanic fields suggests that only in the Cima volcanic field (of those studied) is there clear evidence of degradation with age. Preliminary results of a numerical model of cinder cone growth are used to show that the range of morphologies observed in the Guatemalan cinder cones could all be primary, that is, due to processes occurring at the time of eruption.

  9. Rotavirus in El Salvador: an outbreak, surveillance and estimates of disease burden, 2000-2002.

    PubMed

    Guardado, Julio A Armero; Clará W, A Wilfrido; Turcios, Reina M; Fuentes, Rafael A Chacón; Valencia, Dilcia; Sandoval, Ricardo; Barahona de Figueroa, Jeannette; Bresee, Joseph S; Glass, Roger I

    2004-10-01

    In December 2000, a large outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in El Salvador that was associated with hospitalizations and deaths among children nationwide. Public concern was raised because the etiology was initially unknown and enteric control measures seemed ineffective. The outbreak was eventually linked to rotavirus, control measures were redirected to improving treatment with oral rehydration and surveillance was initiated to characterize the etiologic agents of gastroenteritis. Demographic and clinical data and fecal specimens were collected from a systematic sample of children younger than 5 years old with acute gastroenteritis. Stools were tested for rotavirus, bacteria and parasites. Surveillance results were extrapolated to national data to estimate the national burden of rotavirus disease. Surveillance between May 2001 and April 2002 demonstrated that rotavirus has winter seasonality, was associated with vomiting and dehydration and accounted for an estimated 27% of 12,083 consultations for diarrhea. Children with rotavirus gastroenteritis were younger (median, 9 months) than those with gastroenteritis caused by other agents (median, 13 months for bacteria, 16 months for parasites). Extrapolating to national data, we estimated the risk of a child experiencing a rotavirus-related medical visit, hospitalization and death by the age of 5 years as 1:7, 1:56 and 1:531, respectively. The outbreak of gastroenteritis among children younger than 5 years of age between December 2000 and February 2001 represented an exaggerated rotavirus season. The surveillance activity after the outbreak suggests that rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrheal disease in El Salvador. Further surveillance could provide a sound basis for improving the response to epidemics of gastroenteritis and could provide data needed to decide whether rotavirus vaccination should be included in the national program for childhood immunizations.

  10. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment.

  11. Subsurface architecture of a strike-slip collapse structure: insights from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxby, Jennifer; Gottsmann, Joachim; Cashman, Katherine; Gutierrez, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    While most calderas are created by roof collapse along ring-like faults into an emptying magma reservoir during a large and violent explosive eruption, an additional condition for caldera formation may be tectonically induced extensional stresses. Here we provide geophysical insights into the shallow sub-volcanic plumbing system of a collapse caldera in a major strike-slip tectonic setting by inverting Bouguer gravity data from the Ilopango caldera in El Salvador. Despite a long history of catastrophic eruptions with the most recent in 500 A.D., the internal architecture of the caldera has not been investigated, although studies of the most recent eruption have not identified the ring faults commonly associated with caldera collapse. The gravity data show that low-density material aligned along the principal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) forms a pronounced gravity low beneath the caldera. Extending to around 6 km depth, the low density structure likely maps a complex stacked shallow plumbing system composed of magmatic and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs. A substantial volume of the plumbing system must be composed of a vapour phase to explain the modeled negative density contrasts. We use these constraints to map the possible multi-phase parameter space contributing to the subsurface architecture of the caldera and propose that the local extension along the complex ESFZ controls accumulation, ascent and eruption of magma at Ilopango. The data further suggest that future eruptions at Ilopango could be facilitated by rapid rise of magma along conjugate fault damage zones through a mechanically weak crust under tension. This may explain the absence of clear ring fault structures at the caldera.

  12. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mônica L P; Silva, Rita de Cássia R; Assis, Ana M O; Raich, Rosa M; Machado, Maria Ester P C; de J Pinto, Elizabete; de Moraes, Lia T L P; Ribeiro Júnior, Hugo da C

    2013-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction and associated factors among students in Salvador, Brazil. A cross-sectional study involving a random sample of 1,494 (852 girls and 642 boys) adolescents between 11 and 17 years of age who were students in the public schools in Salvador, Brazil. Participants completed the Body Shape Questionnaire and the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Body image was characterized as satisfactory or unsatisfactory. We obtained demographic, anthropometric and economic information and information regarding the stage of maturation, self-perception of body weight, and consumption of sweetened beverages and diet soft drinks. To identify associated factors we used Poisson regression analysis. Body image dissatisfaction was present in 19.5% of the adolescents, with a prevalence of 26.6% among the girls and 10% among the boys. Independent of sex, the prevalence of body image dissatisfaction was higher among adolescents who were overweight or obese (girls, PR: 1.38, CI: 1.09-1.73 and boys, PR: 2.26, CI: 1.08-4.75), higher among those who perceived themselves as fat (girls, PR: 2.85, CI: 2.07-3.93 and boys, PR: 3.17, CI: 1.39-7.23), and higher among those who had negative attitudes toward eating (girls, PR: 2.42, CI: 1.91-3.08 and boys, PR: 4.67, CI: 2.85-7.63).. A reduction in body image dissatisfaction was only identified among underweight girls (PR: 0.12, CI: 0.03-0.49). A high occurrence of body image dissatisfaction was observed among the adolescents, and biological and behavioral factors were associated with this dissatisfaction. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.

    2009-05-01

    Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).

  14. Scale-Up of an Human Papillomavirus Testing Implementation Program in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Morales Velado, Mario; Felix, Juan; Castle, Philip E; Kim, Jane; Gage, Julia C

    2017-01-01

    The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador is a demonstration project to introduce a lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA test into a public sector project. Started in October 2012, The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador consists of 3 phases and will ultimately screen 30,000 women. Results of phase 2 of the project are presented. The objective of this project was to compare colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management for HPV-positive women. In phase 2, a total of 8,050 women, aged 30 to 49 years, were screened; 6,761 provided both self- and provider-collected specimens and 1,289 provided only provider-testing specimens. HPV results from self-collected specimens were not used in clinical management decisions. Women with provider-collected HPV-positive results were treated based on the strategy assigned to their community; the strategy was colposcopy management (CM) or screen-and-treat (ST) management if they were cryotherapy eligible or colposcopy if not eligible. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after screening. Overall, 489 (12.3%) of 3,963 women receiving CM and 465 (11.4%) of 4,087 women receiving ST tested HPV positive. In the CM cohort, 216 (44.2%) of 489 completed their intervention (203 treated, 11 diagnosed negative, 2 pregnant). In the ST cohort, 411 (88.4%) of 465 completed their intervention (407 treated, 2 diagnosed negative, 1 pregnant). Overall agreement between HPV test results from self-collected and provider-collected specimens was 93.7%, with a κ value of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68-0.73). Human papillomavirus testing with ST management resulted in an approximately twice completion rate compared with CM management. Agreement between self- and provider-based sampling was good and might be used to extend screening to women in areas that are more difficult to reach.

  15. Dynamics of Blue Carbon Stocks and GHG Emissions Along a Land Use Gradient in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifuentes, M.; Torres, D.; Sergio, V.; Rivera, C. G.; Molina, O.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal blue carbon ecosystems can store up to 5 times more carbon than their terrestrial counterparts. The former are also under great threats stemming from climate change (i.e. sea level rise) and human encroachment (i.e. land use change). Our research was conducted in Jiquilisco and Jaltepeque Bays in El Salvador and constitutes the first-ever assessment of blue carbon stocks and GHG emissions along a land use gradient in the country. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks were measured in mangroves (natural and restored stands), marshes, shrimp farms, artisan salt flats, and adjacent agriculture areas. Ecosystem carbon ranged from 738 ± 116 MgC·ha-1 to 617 ± 115 MgC·ha-1 in tall and medium mangroves to 191 ± 28 MgC·ha-1 in dwarf mangroves. An average 87 % of this carbon is sequestered in the soil, consistent with measurements made elsewhere. Carbon losses from conversion from mangroves to agricultural uses reduced natural stocks by 90%, thus producing dramatic historical emissions in the country. Conservative estimates suggest historical (1993-2014) carbon emissions from this land-use dynamics may amount to 48495 to 58004 Gg CO2e, representing 3 to 4 times the country's emissions in 2005. Our data allow us to test the efficacy of "Ecological Mangrove Restoration" programs promoted in El Salvador to strengthen local governance, livelihoods and ecosystem stability. Restored mangrove stands represent anywhere from 36 to 77 % of ecosystem carbon stocks measured in natural stands, suggesting they are playing an important role in recovering lost stocks over time. Further efforts should be spent in expanding community mangrove restoration, and ensuring carbon sequestration is properly included in the national MRV system for REDD+.

  16. Direct and mediated associations between religious coping, spirituality, and youth violence in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wrigh, Christopher P; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G; Tran, Thanh V

    2013-09-01

    To examine the direct and mediated relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors, and violence among high-risk and gang-involved youth in a high-crime, Latin American country. Using a community sample of 290 high-risk and gang-involved youth in San Salvador, El Salvador, structural equation modeling was employed to examine the relationships between religious coping, spirituality, social developmental factors (e.g., antisocial bond and antisocial beliefs), and violence. Religious coping (β = - 0.14, P < 0.05) and spirituality (β = - 0.20, P < 0.01) were both significantly associated with antisocial bond. Antisocial bond, in turn, was directly associated with violence (β = 0.70, P < 0.001) and was associated with antisocial beliefs (β = 0.54, P < 0.001); however, the path from antisocial beliefs to violence was not statistically significant. No direct paths were identified from religiosity and spirituality to violence. The goodness-of-fit statistics (root mean square error of approximation, 0.034; comparative fit index, 0.974; and Tucker-Lewis index, 0.966) suggest that the final model had acceptable fit. This study is among the first to shed light on the relationship between religiosity, spirituality, and youth violence in the Latin American context. Elevated levels of religious coping and spirituality are associated with less antisocial bonding, which, in turn, is associated with lower levels of violent behavior among high-risk and gang-involved Salvadoran youth. Study findings suggest that religious coping and spirituality are indirectly protective for youth violence among this high-risk population.

  17. Spread pattern of the first dengue epidemic in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Florisneide R; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Carvalho, Marilia S; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-01-01

    Background The explosive epidemics of dengue that have been occurring in various countries have stimulated investigation into new approaches to improve understanding of the problem and to develop new strategies for controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of diffusion of the first dengue epidemic that occurred in the city of Salvador in 1995. Methods The epidemiological charts and records of notified cases of dengue in Salvador in 1995 constituted the source of data. The cases of the disease were georeferenced according to census areas (spatial units) and epidemiological weeks (temporal unit). Kernel density estimation was used to identify the pattern of spatial diffusion using the R-Project computer software program. Results Of the 2,006 census areas in the city, 1,400 (70%) registered cases of dengue in 1995 and the spatial distribution of these records revealed that by the end of 1995 practically the entire city had been affected by the virus, with the largest concentration of cases occurring in the western region, composed of census areas with a high population density and predominantly horizontal residences compared to the eastern region of the city, where there is a predominance of vertical residential buildings. Conclusion The pattern found in this study shows the characteristics of the classic process of spreading by contagion that is common to most infectious diseases. It was possible to identify the epicenter of the epidemic from which centrifugal waves of the disease emanated. Our results suggest that, if a more agile control instrument existed that would be capable of rapidly reducing the vector population within a few days or of raising the group immunity of the population by means of a vaccine, it would theoretically be possible to adopt control actions around the epicenter of the epidemic and consequently reduce the incidence of the disease in the city. This finding emphasizes the need for further

  18. Predictors of outcome and methodological issues in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Miguel; Gupta, Sumit; Vasquez, Roberto; Fuentes, Soad L; deReyes, Gladis; Ribeiro, Raul; Sung, Lillian

    2010-12-01

    Most children with cancer live in low-income countries (LICs) where risk factors in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) developed in high-income countries may not apply. We describe predictors of survival for children in El Salvador with ALL. We included patients <16 years diagnosed with ALL between January 2001 and July 2007 treated with the El Salvador-Guatemala-Honduras II protocol. Demographic, disease-related, socioeconomic and nutritional variables were examined as potential predictors of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). 260/443 patients (58.7%) were classified as standard risk. Standard- and high-risk 5-year EFS were 56.3 ± 4.5% and 48.6 ± 5.5%; 5-year OS were 77.7 ± 3.8% and 61.9 ± 5.8%, respectively. Among standard-risk children, socioeconomic variables such as higher monthly income (hazard ratio [HR] per $100 = 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.99; P=0.04]) and parental secondary education (HR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.29-0.84; P = 0.01) were associated with better EFS. Among high-risk children, higher initial white blood cell (HR per 10×10(9)/L = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.05; P<0.001) predicted worse EFS; socioeconomic variables were not predictive. The difference in EFS and OS appeared related to overestimating OS secondary to poor follow-up after abandonment/relapse. Socioeconomic variables predicted worse EFS in standard-risk children while disease-related variables were predictive in high-risk patients. Further studies should delineate pathways through which socioeconomic status affects EFS in order to design effective interventions. EFS should be the primary outcome in LIC studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood donors in El Salvador between 2001 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Emi; Guevara de Aguilar, Ana Vilma; Hernández de Ramírez, Marta Alicia; Romero Chévez, José Eduardo; Nakagawa, Jun; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2014-08-13

    El Salvador is regarded as a highly endemic country for Chagas disease, as evidenced by the relatively high estimated positive serology rate for Trypanosoma cruzi among blood donors. This study aimed to identify the factors contributing to this high rate by analyzing changes in T. cruzi seroprevalence. Secondary data were collected from 31 blood banks operated by the Ministry of Health, the Red Cross, the Institute of Salvadoran Social Security, and the Military Hospital. The data were analyzed to determine the number of cases of T. cruzi seropositivity, and the average prevalence of seropositivity by province. Simple linear regression was performed to identify trends in T. cruzi seropositivity. Analysis of the 885,187 blood samples collected between 2001 and 2011 revealed 21,693 cases of transfusion-related infections, with a significant reduction of T. cruzi seropositivity from 3.7% in 2001 to 1.7% in 2011, reflecting a 54% decrease over the course of a decade (R(2) = 89.6%, p > 0.001). T. cruzi seroprevalence decreased in San Salvador, Santa Ana, Sonsonate, and Cuscatlán. In contrast, seroprevalence remained high with no decrease in Ahuachapán and San Vicente, and consistently low in the remainder of the country. Although the national prevalence of T. cruzi among blood donors has decreased, it remains high in the provinces of Ahuachapán and San Vicente. Strengthening vector control activities and developing an approach for the systematic follow-up of prospective blood donors with positive serology for T. cruzi are required, especially in areas with high seropositivity.

  20. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  1. Social network characteristics and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in San Salvador: identifying opportunities for HIV prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.

  2. Social Network Characteristics and HIV Vulnerability Among Transgender Persons in San Salvador: Identifying Opportunities for HIV Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents’ social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population. PMID:21538082

  3. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador and Panama.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Symptoms of sugarcane orange rust were observed on July 17, 2008 in sugarcane varieties, Mex 57-1285, Mex 61-230 and Co 301 (a clone received in Mexico in 1953) at the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Caña de Azúcar en Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico.In El Salvador, from August 2008 through ...

  4. Assessment of earthquake-induced landslides hazard in El Salvador after the 2001 earthquakes using macroseismic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Eliana; Violante, Crescenzo; Giunta, Giuseppe; Ángel Hernández, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    Two strong earthquakes and a number of smaller aftershocks struck El Salvador in the year 2001. The January 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 7.7, occurred along the Cocos plate, 40 km off El Salvador southern coast. It resulted in about 1300 deaths and widespread damage, mainly due to massive landsliding. Two of the largest earthquake-induced landslides, Las Barioleras and Las Colinas (about 2x105 m3) produced major damage to buildings and infrastructures and 500 fatalities. A neighborhood in Santa Tecla, west of San Salvador, was destroyed. The February 13 2001 earthquake, Mw 6.5, occurred 40 km east-southeast of San Salvador. This earthquake caused over 300 fatalities and triggered several landslides over an area of 2,500 km2 mostly in poorly consolidated volcaniclastic deposits. The La Leona landslide (5-7x105 m3) caused 12 fatalities and extensive damage to the Panamerican Highway. Two very large landslides of 1.5 km3 and 12 km3 produced hazardous barrier lakes at Rio El Desague and Rio Jiboa, respectively. More than 16.000 landslides occurred throughout the country after both quakes; most of them occurred in pyroclastic deposits, with a volume less than 1x103m3. The present work aims to define the relationship between the above described earthquake intensity, size and areal distribution of induced landslides, as well as to refine the earthquake intensity in sparsely populated zones by using landslide effects. Landslides triggered by the 2001 seismic sequences provided useful indication for a realistic seismic hazard assessment, providing a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides.

  5. Security Assistance to Central America: Assessment of U.S. Involvement in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    backyard" as was intended. Significant problems plague the six nations of Central America. Foremost is a history of chaotic self-government; El Salvador...questions as "Is this area worth the .i vestment’, "Can we expect these countries to support the U.S position in times of crisis?", and "Doesn’t history ...in the Geography, History , and Political Science Departments, University of Louisville Step one answered investigative question one and formed the

  6. Observations and recommendations regarding landslide hazards related to the January 13, 2001 M-7.6 El Salvador earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jibson, Randall W.; Crone, Anthony J.

    2001-01-01

    The January 13, 2001 earthquake (M-7.6) off the coast of El Salvador triggered widespread damaging landslides in many parts of the El Salvador. In the aftermath of the earthquake, the Salvadoran government requested technical assistance through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID); USAID, in turn, requested help from technical experts in landslide hazards from the U.S. Geological Survey. In response to that request, we arrived in El Salvador on January 31, 2001 and worked with USAID personnel and Salvadoran agency counterparts in visiting landslide sites and evaluating present and potential hazards. A preliminary, unofficial report was prepared at the end of our trip (February 9) to provide immediate information and assistance to interested agencies and parties. The current report is an updated and somewhat expanded version of that unofficial report. Because of the brief nature of this report, conclusions and recommendations contained herein should be considered tentative and may be revised in the future.

  7. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; de Antinori, María E. Barnett; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/Findings Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07–1.31) and 1.32 (1.08–1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08–1.93) and 1.97 (1.34–2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6–0.86) and 0.79 (0.69–0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7–0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01–1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05–1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5–0.9). Conclusions/Significance The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had

  8. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; hide

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  9. Poverty-associated risk factors for wheezing in the first year of life in Honduras and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Bueso, A; Figueroa, M; Cousin, L; Hoyos, W; Martínez-Torres, A E; Mallol, J; Garcia-Marcos, L

    2010-01-01

    Risk factors for wheezing specifically during the first year of life have been studied in well-developed countries, but the information from developing countries is very scarce. There are no such studies focusing on factors derived from poverty. The aim of the present study was to determine if risk factors related to poverty are associated to wheezing during the first year of life in infants from Honduras and El Salvador. A survey, using a validated questionnaire, was carried out in the metropolitan area of San Pedro Sula (Honduras) and in La Libertad (El Salvador) in centres where infants attended for a scheduled vaccination shot or a healthy child visit at 12 months of age. Fieldworkers offered questionnaires to parents and helped the illiterate when necessary. The main outcome variable was wheezing during the first year of life, as reported by parents. A total of 1047 infants in El Salvador and 780 in Honduras were included in the analysis. The prevalence of wheeze in the first year was higher in El Salvador (41.2%) than in Honduras (27.7%), as was recurrent wheezing defined as three or more episodes (18.4% vs. 11.7%). Wheezing and recurrent wheezing was associated to unpaved floor in the household (summary odds ratios for both countries 1.55, p=0.036 and 1.72, p=0.054 for any wheeze and recurrent wheezing, respectively); dust entering from streets (1.30, p=0.052 and 1.67, p=0.008); living in a heavily polluted area (1.33, p=0.037 and 1.52, p=0.033); and having mould stains on the household walls (1.36, p=0.072 and 1.76, p=0.007). Furthermore, marginal associations were found for additional person at home and use of kerosene as cooking fuel. University studies in the mother (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.32, p=0.022) and a professional occupation in the father (0.34, p=0.046 and 0.26, p=0.047) were associated to a lower risk. The prevalence of wheezing and recurrent wheezing is notoriously high in El Salvador and Honduras. In those populations factors related to poverty

  10. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (<500 CD4 cells) or severe (<200) immune suppression, respectively. HIV-1 viral load was >100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and <2000 copies/mL in 9.1%. Five samples (5.7%) harboured any TDR mutation: 2.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and 1.4% for protease inhibitor (PI). All showed only one TDR single-class resistance mutation: M184I (two cases) for NRTI, K101E and K103N for NNRTI and L23I for PI. All viruses excepting one (URF_BG) belonged to subtype B. No phylogenetic TDR networks were found. In conclusion, we report a TDR prevalence of 5.7% in El Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. The role of temperature and humidity on seasonal influenza in tropical areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013.

    PubMed

    Soebiyanto, Radina P; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; de Antinori, María E Barnett; McCracken, John P; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K

    2014-01-01

    The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific humidity that were lower than the

  12. Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. INTERVENTIONS All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. RESULTS Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64

  13. Tsunami evacuation analysis, modelling and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan. The framework has been applied to the El Salvador case study through the project "Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador", funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, demonstrating its applicability to site-specific response times and population characteristics.

  14. An interpretive study of food, snack and beverage advertisements in rural and urban El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Amanzadeh, Baharak; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen; Barker, Judith C

    2015-05-30

    Globalization and increased marketing of non-nutritious foods and beverages are driving a nutrition transition in developing countries, adversely affecting the health of vulnerable populations. This is a visual interpretive study of food, snack, and beverage advertisements (ads) in rural and urban El Salvador to discern the strategies and messages used to promote consumption of highly processed, commercialized products. Digital photographs of billboard and wall advertisements recorded a convenience sample of 100 advertisements, including 53 from rural areas and 47 from urban areas in El Salvador. Advertisements were coded for location, type of product, visual details, placement and context. Qualitative methods were used to identify common themes used to appeal to consumers. Advertisements depicted "modern" fast foods, processed snacks and sugary beverages. Overall, the most prominent themes were: Cheap Price, Fast, Large Size, and Modern. Other themes used frequently in combination with these were Refreshment, Sports/Nationalism, Sex and Gender Roles, Fun/Happy Feelings, Family, Friendship and Community, and Health. In rural areas, beverage and snack food ads with the themes of cheap price, fast, and large size tended to predominate; in urban areas, ads for fast food restaurants and the theme of modernity tended to be more prominent. The advertisements represented a pervasive bombardment of the public with both explicit and subliminal messages to increase consumerism and shift dietary patterns to processed foods and beverages that are low in micronutrients and high in carbohydrates, sugar, fat and salt--dietary changes that are increasing rates of child and adult diseases including tooth decay, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Global food and beverage industries must be held accountable for the adverse public health effects of their products, especially in low-middle income countries where there are fewer resources to prevent and treat the health

  15. Scale-Up of an Human Papillomavirus Testing Implementation Program in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Morales Velado, Mario; Felix, Juan; Castle, Philip E.; Kim, Jane; Gage, Julia C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador is a demonstration project to introduce a lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA test into a public sector project. Started in October 2012, The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador consists of 3 phases and will ultimately screen 30,000 women. Results of phase 2 of the project are presented. The objective of this project was to compare colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management for HPV-positive women. Material and Methods In phase 2, a total of 8,050 women, aged 30 to 49 years, were screened; 6,761 provided both self- and provider-collected specimens and 1,289 provided only provider-testing specimens. HPV results from self-collected specimens were not used in clinical management decisions. Women with provider-collected HPV-positive results were treated based on the strategy assigned to their community; the strategy was colposcopy management (CM) or screen-and-treat (ST) management if they were cryotherapy eligible or colposcopy if not eligible. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after screening. Results Overall, 489 (12.3%) of 3,963 women receiving CM and 465 (11.4%) of 4,087 women receiving ST tested HPV positive. In the CM cohort, 216 (44.2%) of 489 completed their intervention (203 treated, 11 diagnosed negative, 2 pregnant). In the ST cohort, 411 (88.4%) of 465 completed their intervention (407 treated, 2 diagnosed negative, 1 pregnant). Overall agreement between HPV test results from self-collected and provider-collected specimens was 93.7%, with a κ value of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68–0.73). Conclusions Human papillomavirus testing with ST management resulted in an approximately twice completion rate compared with CM management. Agreement between self- and provider-based sampling was good and might be used to extend screening to women in areas that are more difficult to reach. PMID:27922905

  16. Prevalence of visual impairment in El Salvador: inequalities in educational level and occupational status.

    PubMed

    Rius, Anna; Guisasola, Laura; Sabidó, Meritxell; Leasher, Janet L; Moriña, David; Villalobos, Astrid; Lansingh, Van C; Mujica, Oscar J; Rivera-Handal, José Eduardo; Silva, Juan Casrlos

    2014-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of blindness, visual impairment, and related eye diseases and conditions among adults in El Salvador, and to explore socioeconomic inequalities in their prevalence by education level and occupational status, stratified by sex. Based upon the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) methodology, this nationwide sample comprised 3 800 participants (3 399 examined) ≥ 50 years old from 76 randomly selected clusters of 50 persons each. The prevalence of blindness, visual impairment and related eye diseases and conditions, including uncorrected refractive error (URE), was calculated for categories of education level and occupational status. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and stratified by sex. Age-adjusted prevalence was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.6) for blindness (men: 2.8% (95% CI: 2.5-3.1); women: 2.2% (95% CI: 1.9-2.5)) and 11.8% (95% CI: 11.6-12.0) for moderate visual impairment (men: 10.8% (95% CI: 10.5-11.1); women: 12.6% (95% CI: 12.4-12.8)). The proportion of visual impairment due to cataract was 43.8% in men and 33.5% in women. Inverse gradients of socioeconomic inequalities were observed in the prevalence of visual impairment. For example, the age-adjusted OR (AOR) was 3.4 (95% CI: 2.0-6.4) for visual impairment and 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-10.4) for related URE in illiterate women compared to those with secondary education, and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.1-3.1) in cataract in unemployed men. Blindness and visual impairment prevalence is high in the El Salvador adult population. The main associated conditions are cataract and URE, two treatable conditions. As socioeconomic and gender inequalities in ocular health may herald discrimination and important barriers to accessing affordable, good-quality, and timely health care services, prioritization of public eye health care and disability policies should be put in place, particularly among women, the unemployed, and

  17. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Routine childhood vaccination programme coverage, El Salvador, 2011-In search of timeliness.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Crespin-Elías, Elner Osmin; Pleitez, Oscar A Rivera; de Campos, María Isabel Quintanilla; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2014-01-16

    While assessing immunization programmes, not only vaccination coverage is important, but also timely receipt of vaccines. We estimated both vaccination coverage and timeliness, as well as reasons for non-vaccination, and identified predictors of delayed or missed vaccination, for vaccines of the first two years of age, in El Salvador. We conducted a cluster survey among children aged 23-59 months. Caregivers were interviewed about the child immunization status and their attitudes towards immunization. Vaccination dates were obtained from children immunization cards at home or at health facilities. We referred to the 2006 vaccination schedule for children below two years: one dose of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) at birth; rotavirus at two and four months; three doses of pentavalent - DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis), hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) - and of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (polio) at two, four, and six months; first MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) at 12 months; and first boosters of DTP and OPV at 18 months. Timeliness was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis; Cox and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of vaccination. We surveyed 2550 children. Coverage was highest for BCG (991%; 95% CI: 98.8-99.5) and lowest for rotavirus, especially second dose (86.3%; 95% CI: 84.2-88.4). The first doses of MMR and DTP had 991% (95% CI: 98.5-99.6) and 977% (95% CI: 970-985), respectively. Overall coverage was 837% (95% CI: 81.4-86.0); 96.4% (95% CI: 95.4-97.5), excluding rotavirus. However, only 26.7% (95% CI: 24.7-28.8) were vaccinated within the age interval recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Being employed and using the bus for transport to the health facility were associated with age-inappropriate vaccinations; while living in households with only two residents and in the "Paracentral", "Occidental", and "Oriental" regions was associated with age-appropriate vaccinations. Vaccination coverage was high

  19. Palliative care in Córdoba: experience of the Marie Curie Foundation and the Oncology Service of Sanatorio del Salvador.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A

    1998-07-01

    Córdoba is a city with 1,300,000 inhabitants located in the center of Argentina. Although Palliative Medicine is a discipline that has been present for a little over 10 years, it has not developed in step with demand, owing to lack of political will and insufficient support from the Health Administration. However, the existing units have expanded, thanks to the efforts of their staff members, who help hundreds of terminally ill patients and their families, provide training at undergraduate and postgraduate university levels, and make information available to the general public through different activities in the community.

  20. Effective hand hygiene education with the use of flipcharts in a hospital in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Caniza, M A; Maron, G; Moore, E J; Quintana, Y; Liu, T

    2007-01-01

    In developing countries, continuing education for healthcare staff may be limited by staff shortages and lack of sophisticated means of delivery. These limitations have implications for compliance with an important infection control practice, namely good hand hygiene. A comparison was made between the efficacy of two educational tools commonly used in healthcare and practical sanitation settings in developing countries, i.e. videotapes and flipcharts, in delivering hand hygiene education to 67 nurses in a paediatric hospital in El Salvador. Efficacy was measured on the basis of scores obtained in pre- and post-training tests consisting of 10 multiple-choice questions. Half of the nurses received video-based instruction and half received instruction via flipcharts. Both methods of instruction increased participants' knowledge of good hand hygiene, and the extent of knowledge acquisition by the two methods was similar. Feedback obtained from flipchart users six months after training indicated that most of the respondents used the flipchart to teach hand hygiene to patients' families (62.5%), patients (50%) and healthcare workers (43.8%). Flipchart users ranked flipcharts as their favourite educational tool. Flipcharts offer an economical, easy-to-use, non-technological yet effective alternative to videotapes for delivering education in developing countries. Although the use of flipcharts requires a skilled and well-trained instructor, flipcharts could be used more widely to deliver education in resource-poor settings.

  1. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs.

  2. HIV Treatment for Alcohol and Non-Injection Drug Users in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Petroll, Andy; Johnson, Kali; Glasman, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, many developing countries have introduced and expanded the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to persons living with HIV (PLH). However, AIDS-related mortality continues to be high particularly among drug users. In this article, we present results from in-depth interviews with 13 HIV medical providers and 29 crack cocaine and alcohol using PLH in El Salvador. Providers endorsed negative attitudes toward substance using PLH and warned PLH that combining cART with drugs and alcohol would damage their livers and kidneys resulting in death. Upon diagnosis, PLH received little information about HIV treatment and many suffered depression and escalated their drug use. PLH reported suspending cART when they drank or used drugs because of providers’ warnings. Substance using PLH were given few strategies and resources to quit using drugs. Messages from medical providers discourage drug users from initiating or adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may contribute to treatment abandonment. PMID:25595149

  3. Incorporating human rights into reproductive health care provider education programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Zuniga, Karen Padilla; Billings, Deborah L; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2013-07-01

    Health care providers play a central role in the promotion and protection of human rights in patient care. Consequently, the World Medical Association, among others, has called on medical and nursing schools to incorporate human rights education into their training programs. This report describes the efforts of one Central American nongovernmental organization to include human rights - related content into reproductive health care provider training programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Baseline findings suggest that health care providers are not being adequately prepared to fulfill their duty to protect and promote human rights in patient care. Medical and nursing school administrators, faculty, and students recognize the need to strengthen training in this area and are enthusiastic about incorporating human rights content into their education programs. Evaluation findings suggest that exposure to educational materials and methodologies that emphasize the relationship between human rights and reproductive health may lead to changes in health care provider attitudes and behaviors that help promote and safeguard human rights in patient care.

  4. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  5. Impact of drainage and sewerage on diarrhoea in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy; Huttly, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective study of the effect of drainage and sewerage systems on diarrhoea in children aged < 5 years was conducted in 9 poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (population 2.44 million) in north-east Brazil in 1989-90. Due to complex political and administrative reasons, 3 areas had benefited from drainage improvements, 3 from both drainage and sewerage improvements, and 3 from neither. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and mothers recorded diarrhoea episodes in their children aged < 5 years daily for 1 year, using calendars. Fortnightly home visits were made to collect the data. The incidence of diarrhoea in children in neighbourhoods with drainage was less than two-thirds, and in neighbourhoods with drainage and sewerage less than one-third, of the incidence in neighbourhoods with neither. After controlling for potential confounders, the proportion of children with 'frequent diarrhoea' showed the same significant trend across the study groups. Though the groups were not exactly comparable, more than one child was monitored per household, and it was not possible to rotate fieldworkers between study groups, the study provides evidence that community sanitation can have an impact on diarrhoeal disease, even without measures to promote hygiene behaviour.

  6. [Implantation of the emergency ambulance service in Salvador, Bahia: reality and challenges].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Célia Maria Sales; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the implementation of the emergency ambulance service of Salvador, Bahia (SAMU-192). The Ministry of Health provided the legal basis and regulations for its implementation. The main purpose of this service is the provision of free primary level healthcare to individuals, with clinical, surgical, traumatic and psychiatric aggravations that cause suffering, sequels or death and occur outside the hospital environment. The specific goals of SAMU-192 was to grant free healthcare to urgency and emergency situations, under the hierarchy and regulations of the Single Health System (SUS) of the Brazilian government, assuring that public resources will be available and integrated to the complementary healthcare network. Investments for the installation of the service were agreed on in the city and with federal and state management commissions. To turn SAMU-192 into reality, several challenges need to be accomplished, including community education, professional qualification and evaluation of human and material resources so as to provide basic emergency care with the appropriate quality.

  7. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  8. An exploitation model and performance predictions for the Ahuachapan Geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, L. ); Cuellar, G.; Escobar, C. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador which has been producing electrical power since 1975. The power plant currently generates at approximately 50 per cent of its total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub c} because of a substantial reservoir pressure drawdown and limited drilling of make-up wells. The focus of this study is to develop means for increasing the power production over the next 30 years. One possible option is to devise an injection scheme to decrease the pressure decline and increase the energy recovery from the reservoir. Another possibility is to drill step-out wells to increase the size of the wellfield. A three-dimensional numerical model of the field has been developed to determine the effects of injection and expanded fluid production. The model was used to predict the responses of the existing and proposed production wells for different levels of electrical power generation. The overall reservoir response to different exploitation and injection scenarios was also investigated. The model predicts that the geothermal system can provide steam to generate 90 MW{sub c} for no more than 20 y, even with reinjection and a large-scale drilling program. The results also indicate that the system can produce about 75 MW{sub c} for a 30-y period with significant reinjection and the drilling of about 20 new production wells.

  9. The smectite to chlorite transition in the Chipilapa geothermal system, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, D.; Santana de Zamora, A.

    1999-04-01

    Clay mineralogical, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe studies have been carried out on separated <2 {micro}m fractions from cutting and core material from three wells in the Chipilapa geothermal system in El Salvador. The data indicate that the smectite to chlorite transition is prevalent, but a secondary smectite to illite transition is also present. At depths approximately <750 m, smectite with very minor chlorite mixed-layers (approximately <15%) is dominant, and has a composition midway between a di- and tri-smectite. At {approximately}750 m there is a very clear distinction and sharp transition into discrete chlorite with very minor smectite mixed-layers (approximately <10%). Corrensite is recorded only as a rare and minor phase. Smectite occurs in abundance at temperatures up to {approximately}200 C, and the transition from a smectite-dominant to chlorite-dominant assemblage takes place over a narrow temperature range ({approximately}150 to 200 C). The stability range of smectite is very similar to that recorded in other geothermal systems, whereas the smectite to chlorite transition differs greatly from that recorded in other systems. The transition does not involve continuous chlorite/smectite mixed-layering but a marked step: It is the sharpest and most discontinuous stepped sequence of this mineralogical transition recorded.

  10. [Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. The first clinical case reported in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Zamora, Mauricio; Ortez-González, Carlos Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. La hemiplejia alternante de la infancia (HAI) es una enfermedad rara, caracterizada por episodios repetidos de hemiplejia que afectan alternativamente a un hemicuerpo, son de inicio preferente antes de los 18 meses, duran de minutos a varios dias, e incluso pueden dejar tetraplejico durante un tiempo al lactante, si antes de que se acabe un episodio comienza otro o si estos ocurren de manera simultanea. La descripcion clinica incluye, ademas de estos ataques plejicos, otras manifestaciones paroxisticas presentes practicamente en todos los niños diagnosticados de este trastorno y que son, ademas, de aparicion mas precoz. Consisten en ataques tonicos, ataques distonicos, movimientos oculares anormales y trastornos autonomicos. El hecho de que estos sintomas precedan a la clinica tipica provoca en bastantes ocasiones un retraso en el diagnostico definitivo. Caso clinico. Varon de un año y nueve meses que inicia clinica de crisis tonicas a las dos semanas de vida, posteriormente episodios de hemiplejia que se manifiestan de forma alternante a los 11 meses de vida, y ademas presenta retraso psicomotor global. Al principio de los sintomas se diagnostico epilepsia, no respondio a multiples farmacos antiepilepticos, y el electroencefalograma, la neuroimagen y las pruebas complementarias en sangre y orina fueron normales/negativos. Presento respuesta favorable a la flunaricina. Conclusion. Es el primer paciente descrito de HAI en El Salvador. El diagnostico precoz y acertado de HAI es fundamental para iniciar farmacoterapia y mejorar el pronostico y calidad de vida de los pacientes y sus familias.

  11. Incidence and predictors of treatment-related mortality in paediatric acute leukaemia in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Bonilla, M; Fuentes, S L; Caniza, M; Howard, S C; Barr, R; Greenberg, M L; Ribeiro, R; Sung, L

    2009-01-01

    Survival rates among children with leukaemia in low-income countries are lower than those in high-income countries. This has been attributed in part to higher treatment-related mortality (TRM). We examined the demographics, treatment, and outcomes of paediatric patients in El Salvador with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) to determine the incidence, causes, and risk factors for TRM. Two trained data managers collected data prospectively; no patients were excluded. Biological, socioeconomic and nutritional predictors were examined. A total of 469 patients with ALL and 78 patients with AML were included. The 2-year cumulative incidence of TRM was significantly higher among children with AML (35.4±6.4%) than those with ALL (12.5±1.7%; P<0.0001). However, the proportion of deaths attributable to the toxicity of treatment did not differ significantly between AML (25/47, 53.2%) and ALL (55/107, 51.4%; P=0.98). Among children with ALL, low monthly income (P=0.04) and low parental education (P=0.02) significantly increased the risk of TRM. Among children with AML, biological, socioeconomic, and nutritional variables were not associated with TRM. In this low-income country, toxic death significantly contributes to mortality in both ALL and AML. A better understanding of the effect of socioeconomic status on TRM may suggest specific strategies for patients with ALL. PMID:19293804

  12. Integrated tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; García-Aguilar, O.; Medina, R.; González, M.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.

    2014-05-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow for the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents a tsunami vulnerability and risk assessment for the case study of El Salvador, the applied methodology dealing with the complexity and variability of coastal zones by means of (i) an integral approach to cover the entire risk-related process from the hazard, vulnerability and risk assessments to the final risk management; (ii) an integrated approach to combine and aggregate the information stemming from the different dimensions of coupled human and natural systems; and (iii) a dynamic and scale-dependent approach to integrate the spatiotemporal variability considerations. This work also aims at establishing a clear connection to translate the vulnerability and risk assessment results into adequate target-oriented risk reduction measures, trying to bridge the gap between science and management for the tsunami hazard. The approach is applicable to other types of hazards, having been successfully applied to climate-change-related flooding hazard.

  13. HIV Treatment for Alcohol and Non-Injection Drug Users in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Petroll, Andy; Johnson, Kali; Glasman, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Since the mid-1990 s, many developing countries have introduced and expanded the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to persons living with HIV (PLH). However, AIDS-related mortality continues to be high particularly among drug users. In this article, we present results from in-depth interviews with 13 HIV medical providers and 29 crack cocaine and alcohol using PLH in El Salvador. Providers endorsed negative attitudes toward substance using PLH and warned PLH that combining cART with drugs and alcohol would damage their livers and kidneys resulting in death. Upon diagnosis, PLH received little information about HIV treatment and many suffered depression and escalated their drug use. PLH reported suspending cART when they drank or used drugs because of providers' warnings. Substance using PLH were given few strategies and resources to quit using drugs. Messages from medical providers discourage drug users from initiating or adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may contribute to treatment abandonment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Present-day crustal deformation along the El Salvador Fault Zone from ZFESNet GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, Alejandra; Martínez-Díaz, José Jesús; Benito, Belén; Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Díaz, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the results and conclusions obtained from new GPS data compiled along the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ). We calculated a GPS-derived horizontal velocity field representing the present-day crustal deformation rates in the ESFZ based on the analysis of 30 GPS campaign stations of the ZFESNet network, measured over a 4.5 year period from 2007 to 2012. The velocity field and subsequent strain rate analysis clearly indicate dextral strike-slip tectonics with extensional component throughout the ESFZ. Our results suggest that the boundary between the Salvadoran forearc and Caribbean blocks is a deformation zone which varies along the fault zone. We estimate that the movement between the two blocks is at least ~ 12 mm yr- 1. From west to east, this movement is variably distributed between faults or segments of the ESFZ. We propose a kinematic model with three main blocks; the Western, Central and Eastern blocks delimited by major faults. For the first time, we were able to provide a quantitative measure of the present-day horizontal geodetic slip rate of the main segments of ESFZ, ranging from ~ 2 mm yr- 1 in the east segment to ~ 8 mm yr- 1, in the west and central segments. This study contributes new kinematic and slip rate data that should be used to update and improve the seismic hazard assessments in northern Central America.

  15. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in school-aged children in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Zablah, R; Velasco-Benítez, C A; Merlos, I; Bonilla, S; Saps, M

    2015-01-01

    We studied the epidemiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in school-aged Salvadoran children using standardized diagnostic criteria. To determine the prevalence of FGIDs in school-aged children in El Salvador. A total of 395 children participated in the study (one public school and one private school). School children completed the Spanish version of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III (QPGS-III), an age-appropriate and previously validated instrument for diagnosing FGIDs according to the Rome III criteria. Sociodemographic (age, sex, type of school) and familial (family structure and size, family history of gastrointestinal disorders) data were obtained. The mean age of the sample was 11.8 years ± 1.6 SD (median 10, range 8-15) and 59% of the participants were female. Eighty-one children met the diagnostic criteria for a FGID (20%). Defecation disorders were the most common group of FGIDs. Functional constipation was diagnosed in 10% of the children and 9.25% were diagnosed with abdominal pain-related FGIDs (most commonly IBS, 3.75%). IBS overlapped with functional dyspepsia in 11% of the cases. Children with FGIDs frequently reported nausea. Children attending private school and older children had significantly more FGIDs than children in public school and younger children. FGIDs are common in school-aged Salvadoran children. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk factors for Chagas disease among pregnant women in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Corado, Edith Y; Cuyuch, Blanca L; Hernández, Marta A; Guevara, Ana V; Romero, José E; Ramos, Hector M; Cedillos, Rafael A; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Chagas disease among pregnant women and estimate the risk factors for Chagas disease during pregnancies. Community-based serological tests on Trypanosoma cruzi and structured interviews on socio-demographic and socio-economic status were conducted with pregnant women registered at three health centres in Sonsonate province, El Salvador. Of 797 pregnant women participating in the study, 29 (3.6%) were infected with Chagas disease. None had clinical symptoms. The results of bivariate analyses showed the significant association between seropositivity and maternal age ≥35 years, anaemia, illiteracy, having no formal school education and having knowledge on Chagas disease (P < 0.05). The results of multivariate analysis indicate that age ≥35 years and anaemia were significantly associated with being infected with Chagas disease among pregnant women (OR = 3.541 and 5.197, respectively). We recommend that the national Chagas disease control programme be better coordinated with the national maternal and child health programme to introduce blood screening for T. cruzi during antenatal visits. If financial constraint allows systematic blood screening to be only partially implemented, resources should be focused on pregnant women ≥35 years and women who have anaemia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse Confirmed by Forensic Examination in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Welington Dos Santos; Barroso-Junior, Ubirajara de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Child sexual abuse is a worldwide public health issue. The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children in cases of sexual abuse confirmed by material evidence at forensic examination. Cases of children younger than 12 years examined for suspected sexual abuse at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were reviewed retrospectively. The period evaluated was between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criterion was the coroner's confirmation of sexual abuse based on material evidence. The mean age of the children in whom sexual abuse was confirmed was 8.2 (SD, 2.9) years, and 208 cases were female (83.9%). In 94% of the cases, the reason for carrying out the forensic examination was a report of sexual abuse. Less than 1% of the aggressors were female. A ruptured hymen was the finding that confirmed sexual abuse in 172 cases, corresponding to 83% of cases in girls. There were 2 cases of pregnancy. Recent anal or perianal lesions were present in 35 (87.5%) of the confirmed cases involving boys. Laboratory confirmation based on the detection of spermatozoa or prostate-specific antigen occurred in only 4.2% of cases. In all these cases, sample collection was performed within 24 hours of the alleged abuse. Thus, in the majority of cases with material evidence of sexual abuse, the confirmation criteria consisted of a ruptured hymen and recent perianal lesions.

  18. Periodontal profile and presence of periodontal pathogens in young African-Americans from Salvador, Ba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Ligia Valéria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, José Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species. PMID:24031206

  19. "Popular" health and the state: dialectics of the peace process in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Smith-Nonini, S

    1997-03-01

    The poor performance of large-scale "vertical" rural health programs tied to state Ministries of Health in Third World countries has often been attributed to a lack of "political will". But that term tells little about the conditions that favor health reform and may obscure disparate power relations and struggles over development. This work explores such a struggle over community health that emerged as part of the peace process in a former war zone of El Salvador since the 1992 ceasefire. The formalized negotiations (and behind-the-scenes confrontations) over health in Chalatenango province took place between Ministry of Health administrators and proponents of a "popular" health system that has functioned in repopulated villages of rebel-controlled Chalatenango since 1987. The Ministry has set up its own national (U.S. AID-designed) community health worker program, and agreed in theory with the popular system's emphasis on village-based lay health promoters; however, in negotiations and efforts at collaboration in Chalatenango the Ministry has been unwilling to support the promoters in the popular system, to accommodate local participation in health decision-making, or to restructure its own physician-centered practices around the need for more comprehensive approaches to health.

  20. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.

    2011-09-01

    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  1. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.

    2007-05-01

    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  2. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries.

  3. Identification of Focal Mechanisms of Seisms Occurring in the San Salvador Volcano-Ilopango Lake Area Between 1994 and March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Mendez Martinez, Luz de; Portillo, Mercy

    2009-04-19

    We studied the geographic area located in the central part of El Salvador, between the San Salvador Volcano (Quezaltepec) and Ilopango Lake. Its latitude is between 13 deg. 36' and 13 deg. 54', and longitude is between -89 deg. 18' and -88 deg. 57'. This area is directly affected by the WNW axis, the most prominent weak tectonic system in the region. Our research aimed to determine the focal mechanisms of seisms occurring in the studied area between 1994 and March 2005. Our analysis provided information about displacement types of the geological faults, using the wave impulse P method and computer applications ARCGIS and SEISAN, with the subroutine FOCMEC. Information of the studied seisms was obtained from the National Service of Territorial Studies (SNET) database. Geographic models used in the preparation of maps are from the geographic information system of the School of Physics at the University of El Salvador. The 37 focal mechanisms on the map of faults were identified in digital seismographs to determinate the arrival polarity of the wave P for each seism station. Data from the focal mechanisms were analyzed and correlated with their replications. The analysis allowed us to identify evidences to consider the fault continuity not reported by the last geological mission in El Salvador conducted in the 1970s. The fault continuity is located northwest of the studied geographical area, between San Salvador City and the San Salvador Volcano. The compression and strain axes for this area are two main horizontal force axes. The average orientation for the strain axis is NNE-SSW, and WNW-SEE for the compression axis. There is also important seismic activity in the Ilopango Lake and surrounding area. However, data did not allow us to make any inference. The tensors distribution resulted in a high dispersion corresponding to typical fauces models.

  4. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) using GPS data: Implications in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, Alejandra; Benito, Belen; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Alonso-Henar, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90º-100ºE direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  5. Dimensions of health and social structure in the early intermediate period cemetery at Villa El Salvador, Peru.

    PubMed

    Pechenkina, Ekaterina A; Delgado, Mercedes

    2006-10-01

    This paper examines relationships between the social structure of a community and the health of its members, based on analysis of human skeletal remains (N = 64) from Villa El Salvador XII (100 BC-AD 100), a prehistoric cemetery located in the lower Lurín Valley, Peru. The ambiguity of social status as conventionally inferred from archaeological context is among the principal complicating factors in such an inquiry. We use multidimensional scaling of skeletal markers to identify the presence of patterned health-based heterogeneity in our sample, without making a priori assumptions about underlying social structure at Villa El Salvador. This procedure situates every skeleton relative to all others in the sample on the basis of multiple health markers, eliciting health groups. Once recognized, the relevance of those groups to social structure can be evaluated by comparison with a broad range of presumptive archaeological status indicators. We test the hypothesis that the distribution of stress indicators in human skeletons covaries with archaeological indicators of social differentiation. Based on multivariate analysis of skeletal indicators, we conclude that the cemetery at Villa El Salvador was utilized by two social groups with different geographic affinities: one of local coastal origin, and the other probably from the upper Lurín Valley or adjacent higher altitudes. These groups differ in skeletal characteristics related to childhood health, probably reflecting systematic contrasts in the growth environments of the studied individuals. This same division is independently supported by the distribution of cranial deformation, a possible marker of ethnicity. We also document some inequality in the distribution of labor among male individuals, as reflected by the relative advancement of degenerative joint disease, and congruent with differences in the number and quality of associated funerary offerings.

  6. Comparisons of the 1995 and 1998 coral bleaching events on the patch reefs of San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Thomas A; Smith, Garriet W

    2003-06-01

    Coral patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas have been monitored with the aid of Earthwatch volunteers three times a year since 1992. During that period two significant mass bleaching events occurred: autumn 1995, and late summer 1998. Elsewhere in 1995, bleaching was caused by higher-than-normal summer sea temperatures; in San Salvador, however, temperatures were normal. In 1998 a prolonged period of higher-than-normal sea temperatures preceded bleaching on San Salvador and worldwide. During the 1995 event, one of the monitored reefs had twice the percentage of coral colonies bleached as the other two. Bleaching was more evenly distributed among the reefs during the 1998 event. In 1995 Agaricia agaricites was significantly more affected than other coral species, with almost 50% of all its colonies showing bleaching. Bleaching was more evenly spread among coral species in 1998, with five species showing bleaching on more than 40% of their colonies. Bleaching began on Millepora as early as August during the 1998 event and progressed to other species through the remainder of the autumn. In 1995 bleaching was not seen until late autumn and appeared to impact all affected species at about the same time. Recovery from the 1995 event was complete: no coral death or damage above normal background levels were seen. In the 1998 event, all Acropora cervicornis on the monitored reefs died and A. palmata was severely damaged. Millepora sp. lost almost half of their live tissue, and Montastraea sp. showed significant tissue damage following this event. Phototransect analysis suggests that more than 20% of total live tissue on affected species died during the 1998 event. A. cervicornis has demonstrated no re-growth from 1998 to 2000 on monitored reefs. Monitoring has suggested significant differences in causes and courses in these two events.

  7. Comparison of flank margin cave development on San Salvador island, Bahamas, and Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mylroie, J.; Carew, J.L.; Frank, E.F.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Boardman, M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite differences in rock age and geologic setting, both San Salvador and Isla do Mona show evidence of re-invasion of the flank margin caves by dissolutionally aggressive water following a vadose interval. The flank margin caves have very similar morphologies and characteristics, and the only major difference is attrutable to the larger lens size and the longer duration of stable lens position on Isla de Mona. The data indicate that dissolution occurs rapidly in these environments, and despite the development of large voids, the same geochemical environment can be re-established after an emergence episode. 

  8. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  9. Clinical and laboratory evidence of Haff disease - case series from an outbreak in Salvador, Brazil, December 2016 to April 2017.

    PubMed

    Bandeira, Antonio C; Campos, Gubio S; Ribeiro, Guilherme S; Cardoso, Cristiane W; Bastos, Claudilson Jc; Pessoa, Tiago L; Araujo, Karine A; Grassi, Maria Fernanda R; Castro, Alessandra P; Carvalho, Rejane H; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Gois, Luana L; Rocha, Veronica Fd; Sardi, Silvia I

    2017-06-15

    We describe a series of 15 Haff disease cases from an outbreak in Salvador, Brazil, starting early December 2016. Eleven cases were grouped in four family clusters of two to four individuals, four were isolated cases. All but one patient consumed cooked fish; 11 within 24h before symptoms onset. Cases consumed 'Olho de Boi' (Seriola spp.) and 'Badejo' (Mycteroperca spp.). A total of 67 cases were detected, the last case was reported on 5 April 2017. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  10. Is It Still a Disaster if It is Routine? A Case Study in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.; Rios Sanchez, M.; MacLennan, C.; Gierke, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador is among the world's highest ranked in terms of risks of natural disasters. According to a United Nations study, almost 90% of the country's territory is highly susceptible to the effects of a natural disaster and correspondingly 95% of the country's population lives within the disaster-prone regions. This high vulnerability, coupled with the country's relatively small area, has led to some paradoxical situations involving the way disaster risk is managed at the local level. One extreme example occurs annually in a small town that borders a large, shallow lake (laguna). The lake level rises by 2 to 4 meters during every year's wet season from May to October, prompting the surrounding families to temporarily relocate in response to these annual floods. A series of storms related to Tropical Depression 12E during the 2011 wet season resulted in flooding levels of nearly 5 meters. Nearly 300 households were evacuated, and a government-run emergency shelter was set up nearby. Owing to the regularity of the situation, however, not a single person needed to use the emergency shelter. Many of those who are most affected by the annual flooding will move their belongings to second homes (their own or those of relatives or friends) in advance of the wet season but remain in their flood-prone dwellings so as to be eligible to receive the aid that is sure to come when the lake level rises. Considerable funds are provided to the community for relief. This scenario occurs predictably every year. The regularity of the flooding raises questions concerning the local views on the normalcy of the flooding. To evaluate the local perceptions of flood risk, a vulnerability analysis was conducted using surveys and interviews. To better characterize the flooding risks, a hazard analysis was performed using satellite imagery and GIS. In addition to the surveys of families affected by flooding each year, the residents living in higher elevations unaffected by flooding were

  11. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  12. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Lescano, Andres G; Lucas, Carmen; Gilles, Duncan; Biese, Brian J; Stolovitz, Gary; Reaves, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th) Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st) to June 3(rd), 2011. Personnel (n = 241) completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate) and 67 (27%) reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days) and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49%) individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62%) individuals and 9 (15%) had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7), Cryptosporidium (5), and Cyclospora (4) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001) and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001) were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  13. Metal speciation and environmental impact on sandy beaches due to El Salvador copper mine, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Marco; Massolo, Serena; Frache, Roberto; Correa, Juan A

    2005-01-01

    Several coastal rocky shores in northern Chile have been affected by the discharges of copper mine tailings. The present study aims to analyze the chemical speciation of heavy metals in relation to the diversity of sessile species in the rocky intertidal benthic community on the northern Chilean coast, which is influenced by the presence of copper mine tailings. In particular, the chemical forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in beach sediment samples collected in the area influenced by El Salvador mine tailings were studied using a sequential chemical extraction method. In general, all the elements present a maximum concentration in the area near the actual discharge point (Caleta Palito). With regard to Cu and Mn, the concentrations range between 7.2-985 and 746-22,739 microg/g respectively, being lower than background levels only in the control site of Caleta Zenteno. Moreover, the correlation coefficients highlight that Fe, Mn and Ni correlate significantly and positively in the studied area, showing a possible common, natural origin, whilst Cu shows a negative correlation with Fe, Mn and Ni. It could be possible that Cu has an anthropogenic origin, coming from mining activity in the area. Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn are mostly associated with the residual phase, whilst Cu presents a different speciation pattern, as resulted from selective extractions. In fact, Cu is highly associated with organic and exchangeable phases in contaminated localities, whilst it is mainly bound to the residual phase in control sites. Moreover, our results, compared to local biological diversity, showed that those sites characterized by the highest metal concentrations in bioavailable phase had the lowest biodiversity.

  14. Evolution of HTLV-1 proviral load in patients from Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Gomes, Alline do Nascimento; Kruschewsky, Ramon de Almeida; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Variations in human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load (PVL) in infected individuals over time are not well understood. To evaluate the evolution of proviral load in asymptomatic individuals and HAM/TSP patients in order to help determine periodicity for measuring proviral load. A group of 104 HTLV-1 infected patients, followed at the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil, were included in the study (70 asymptomatic and 34 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients). HTLV-1 PVL was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at baseline and again at another point, either ≤ 12 months, between 12-24 months, or ≥ 24 months. HAM/TSP patients had higher PVL (ranging from 11,041 to 317,009 copies/10(6) PBMC) when compared to asymptomatic individuals (ranging from 0 to 68,228 copies/10(6) PBMC). No statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of PVL in HAM/TSP patients or asymptomatic individuals over time. However, in asymptomatic individuals with a PVL below 50,000 copies/10(6) PBMC, a statistically significant two-fold increase was observed over time. HTLV-1-PVL remained stable in both asymptomatic individuals and HAM/TSP patients over time. Frequent monitoring of asymptomatic individuals with low PVLs is recommended and further studies should be conducted to assess the course of PVL in these patients over extended periods of time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. BetaS-haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from Salvador, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M S; Bomfim, G C; Maciel, E; Cerqueira, I; Lyra, I; Zanette, A; Bomfim, G; Adorno, E V; Albuquerque, A L; Pontes, A; Dupuit, M F; Fernandes, G B; dos Reis, M G

    2003-10-01

    BetaS-Globin haplotypes were studied in 80 (160 betaS chromosomes) sickle cell disease patients from Salvador, Brazil, a city with a large population of African origin resulting from the slave trade from Western Africa, mainly from the Bay of Benin. Hematological and hemoglobin analyses were carried out by standard methods. The betaS-haplotypes were determined by PCR and dot-blot techniques. A total of 77 (48.1%) chromosomes were characterized as Central African Republic (CAR) haplotype, 73 (45.6%) as Benin (BEN), 1 (0.63%) as Senegal (SEN), and 9 (5.63%) as atypical (Atp). Genotype was CAR/CAR in 17 (21.3%) patients, BEN/BEN in 17 (21.3%), CAR/BEN in 37 (46.3%), BEN/SEN in 1 (1.25%), BEN/Atp in 1 (1.25%), CAR/Atp in 6 (7.5%), and Atp/Atp in 1 (1.25%). Hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit values did not differ among genotype groups but were significantly higher in 25 patients presenting percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF) > or = 10% (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). The median HbF concentration was 7.54+/-4.342% for the CAR/CAR genotype, 9.88 3.558% for the BEN/BEN genotype, 8.146 4.631% for the CAR/BEN genotype, and 4.180+/-2.250% for the CAR/Atp genotype (P = 0.02), although 1 CAR/CAR individual presented an HbF concentration as high as 15%. In view of the ethnic and geographical origin of this population, we did not expect a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for CAR/CAR and BEN/BEN homozygous haplotypes and a high proportion of heterozygous CAR/BEN haplotypes since the State of Bahia historically received more slaves from Western Africa than from Central Africa.

  16. Effectiveness of meningococcal C conjugate vaccine in Salvador, Brazil: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Cristiane Wanderley; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Flannery, Brendan; Reis, Joice Neves

    2015-01-01

    During a citywide epidemic of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Salvador in 2010, Brazil, the state government initiated mass vaccination targeting two age groups with high attack rates: individuals aged <5 years and 10-24 years. More than 600,000 doses of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines were administered. We performed a case-control study to evaluate vaccine uptake, document vaccine effectiveness and identify reasons for non-vaccination. Population-based surveillance identified patients with laboratory-confirmed invasive meningococcal C (MenC) disease during 2010. Information on MenC vaccination was obtained from case patients and age-matched individuals from the same neighborhoods. MenC vaccine effectiveness was estimated based on the exact odds ratios obtained by conditional logistic regression analysis. Of 51 laboratory-confirmed cases of serogroup C meningococcal disease among patients <5 and 10-24 years of age 50 were included in the study and matched with 240 controls. Overall case-fatality was 25%. MenC vaccine coverage among controls increased from 7.1% to 70.2% after initiation of the vaccination campaign. None of the 50 case patients but 70 (29.2%) of the 240 control individuals, including 59 (70.2%) of 84 matched with cases from the period after MenC vaccination, had received at least one MenC vaccine dose. Overall effectiveness of MenC was 98% with a lower 95% exact confidence limit of 89%. MenC vaccines administered during the meningococcal epidemic were highly effective, suggesting that rapid vaccine uptake through campaigns contributed to control of meningococcal disease.

  17. [Case study: operation of a mother-child nutrition program in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Menchú, M T; de Márquez, D; Osegueda, O T; Sibrián, R

    1989-09-01

    One of the oldest international efforts in their combat of malnutrition have been the mother-child food programs (MCFP). The purpose of the study herein discussed was to detect the problems that affect the operation of the MCFP of the Ministry of Health of El Salvador, and to identify feasible measures to apply in a short term. This work analyzed the following: a) the operation of the program from the selection of the beneficiary to the delivery of the ration; b) the evolution of the beneficiaries, and c) the perception of the MCFP on mothers' part. The study covered 40 Health Services selected from all over the country; the revision of 556 children's files, and interviews to 136 mothers. It was found that the nurse is the person who plays the main role in the MCFP; that the most used criterion to enter or leave the program is the nutritional condition of the beneficiaries; that priority is given to children over pregnant women; that for most of the children there is a control kept on growth and vaccinations; and that what is mostly supervised is food handling and beneficiaries. Study of the children's files revealed that the average age of the children who enter the program is 18 months and at departure, 24 months, with a permanence of five months; and that the weight-for-age retardation when entering and leaving was similar for all the children studied, although it was different when the analysis was made by permanence and by age groups. Mothers' opinion on the MCFP permitted inference of what occurs at household levels with the donated foods; nevertheless, it is a subject that merits further study. Results of the study confirm some findings of others, although since they are specific for this Program, they allowed the appropriate decision-making for corrective measures of the MCPF.

  18. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful.

  19. Childhood cancer in El Salvador: A preliminary exploration of parental concerns in the abandonment of treatment.

    PubMed

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy--a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents perceived their child's cancer and treatment, and what led them to stop bringing their child for chemotherapy. In in-depth interviews, parents of six children who abandoned their child's cancer treatment discussed sickness and life circumstances during the course of treatment. Poverty, effects of treatment, mistrust, emotions and religious convictions all figured in the parents' explanation of their actions. However, each family weighed these concerns differently. It was the interaction of the concerns, and not the concern per se, that represented the explanatory frameworks the families used to explain stopping their child's treatment. This finding illustrates the parents' navigation among a collection of variable concerns, rather than exposing one fixed cause for their behavior. For example, poverty affects a parent's worldview as well as concrete living conditions, and therefore has a complex relationship with abandonment of treatment. Thus, it follows that strategies to reduce treatment abandonment (and increase a child's chance for survival) must be multidimensional. Qualitative studies of how families perceive childhood cancer and treatment can illuminate the processes and relationships involved in abandonment of treatment. This approach can also show how families' living circumstances frame their perceptions and inform strategies to improve how medical services are provided, thus reducing abandonment of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interventions targeting absences increase adherence and reduce abandonment of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Salaverria, Carmen; Rossell, Nuria; Hernandez, Angelica; Fuentes Alabi, Soad; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G; Ribeiro, Raul C

    2015-09-01

    In El Salvador, about 200 new cases of pediatric cancer are diagnosed each year, and survival rates approach 70%. Although treatment is available at no cost, abandonment of therapy has remained at a steady yearly rate of 13% during the past decade. A time sensitive adherence tracking procedure (TS-ATP) was recently implemented to detect missed appointments, identify their causes, and intervene promptly. Procedure The study team was informed daily of patient/family failure to attend medical appointments in the pediatric oncology unit; the families were contacted and interviewed to ascertain and address the reasons. Patients who did not return after this initial contact were contacted again through local health clinics and municipalities. Law enforcement was a last resort for patients undergoing frontline treatment with a good prognosis., The system was adapted to clinical urgency: families of patients undergoing induction therapy were contacted within 24 hr, those in other therapy phases, within 48 hr, and those who had completed treatment, within one week. Reasons for absence were obtained by telephone or in person. The annual rate of abandonment was reduced from 13-3% during the 2 years period. There were 1,111 absences reported and 1,472 contacts with caregivers and institutions. The three main reasons for absences were financial needs (165, 23%), unforeseen barriers (116, 16%), and domestic needs (86, 12%). Use of the treatment adherence tracking system to locate and communicate with patients/families after missed appointments and the allocated aid stemming from these interviews substantially reduced abandonment and non-adherence. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. INTERVENTIONS TARGETING ABSENCES INCREASE ADHERENCE AND REDUCE ABANDONMENT OF CHILDHOOD CANCER TREATMENT IN EL SALVADOR

    PubMed Central

    Salaverria, Carmen; Rossell, Nuria; Hernandez, Angelica; Alabi, Soad Fuentes; Vasquez, Roberto; Bonilla, Miguel; Lam, Catherine G.; Ribeiro, Raul C.

    2015-01-01

    Background In El Salvador, about 200 new cases of pediatric cancer are diagnosed each year, and survival rates approach 70%. Although treatment is available at no cost, abandonment of therapy has remained at a steady yearly rate of 13% during the past decade. A time sensitive adherence tracking procedure (TS-ATP) was recently implemented to detect missed appointments, identify their causes, and intervene promptly. Procedure The study team was informed daily of patient/family failure to attend medical appointments in the pediatric oncology unit; the families were contacted and interviewed to ascertain and address the reasons. Patients who did not return after this initial contact were contacted again through local health clinics and municipalities. Law enforcement was a last resort for patients undergoing frontline treatment with a good prognosis., The system was adapted to clinical urgency: families of patients undergoing induction therapy were contacted within 24 hours, those in other therapy phases, within 48 hours, and those who had completed treatment, within one week. Reasons for absence were obtained by telephone or in person. Results The annual rate of abandonment was reduced from 13% to 3% during the 2-year period. There were 1111 absences reported and 1472 contacts with caregivers and institutions. The three main reasons for absences were financial needs (165, 23%), unforeseen barriers (116, 16%), and domestic needs (86, 12%). Conclusions Use of the treatment adherence tracking system to locate and communicate with patients/families after missed appointments and the allocated aid stemming from these interviews substantially reduced abandonment and non-adherence. PMID:25925227

  2. Spatial distribution of triatomines (Reduviidae: Triatominae) in urban areas of the city of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santana, Karine de Souza O; Bavia, Maria Emília; Lima, Artur Dias; Guimarães, Isabel Cristina S; Soares, Enio Silva; Silva, Marta Mariana Nascimento; Mendonça, Jorge; Martin, Moara de Santana

    2011-05-01

    Environmental changes have a strong influence on the emergence and/or reemergence of infectious diseases. The city of Salvador, Brazil--currently the focus of a housing boom linked to massive deforestation--is an example in point as the destruction of the remaining areas of the Atlantic Forest around the city has led to an increased risk for Chagas disease. Human domiciles have been invaded by the triatomine vectors of Trypansoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan causing Chagas disease, a problem of particular concern in urban/suburban areas of the city such as the Patamares sector in the north-east, where numbers of both the vector and human cases of the disease have increased lately. To control and prevent further deterioration of the situation, the control programme for Chagas disease, developed by the Bahia Center for Zoonosis Control, has divided the area into a grid of designated surveillance units (ZIs) that are subjected to vector examination. In six out of 98 of these ZIs, 988 triatomes were collected and georeferenced during the 3-year period between 2006 and 2009. The hottest months, that are also generally the driest, showed the highest numbers of triatomines with Triatoma tibiamaculata being the predominant species (98.3%) with Panstrongylus geniculatus present only occasionally (0.6%). Fifty-four percent of all triatomines captured were found inside the homes, and 48.6% out of 479 individuals in the affected ZIs selected for analysis tested positive for T. cruzi infection. The study presented here is a pioneering initiative to map the spatial distribution of triatomines based on geographical information systems with the additional aim of contributing to an expanded knowledge-base about T. cruzi and its vectors in urban areas and raise public health awareness of the risks involved.

  3. Effectiveness of Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccine in Salvador, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Cristiane Wanderley; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Flannery, Brendan; Reis, Joice Neves

    2015-01-01

    Background During a citywide epidemic of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Salvador in 2010, Brazil, the state government initiated mass vaccination targeting two age groups with high attack rates: individuals aged <5 years and 10–24 years. More than 600,000 doses of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines were administered. We performed a case-control study to evaluate vaccine uptake, document vaccine effectiveness and identify reasons for non-vaccination. Methods and Findings Population-based surveillance identified patients with laboratory-confirmed invasive meningococcal C (MenC) disease during 2010. Information on MenC vaccination was obtained from case patients and age-matched individuals from the same neighborhoods. MenC vaccine effectiveness was estimated based on the exact odds ratios obtained by conditional logistic regression analysis. Of 51 laboratory-confirmed cases of serogroup C meningococcal disease among patients <5 and 10–24 years of age 50 were included in the study and matched with 240 controls. Overall case-fatality was 25%. MenC vaccine coverage among controls increased from 7.1% to 70.2% after initiation of the vaccination campaign. None of the 50 case patients but 70 (29.2%) of the 240 control individuals, including 59 (70.2%) of 84 matched with cases from the period after MenC vaccination, had received at least one MenC vaccine dose. Overall effectiveness of MenC was 98% with a lower 95% exact confidence limit of 89%. Conclusions MenC vaccines administered during the meningococcal epidemic were highly effective, suggesting that rapid vaccine uptake through campaigns contributed to control of meningococcal disease. PMID:25874777

  4. Ambient ozone concentration and hospital admissions due to childhood respiratory diseases in New York State, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shao; Bell, Erin M; Liu, Wei; Walker, Randi J; Kim, Nancy K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2008-09-01

    Respiratory diseases constitute one of the leading causes of ill health among children in New York State (NYS). The current project, a component of the NYS Environmental Public Health Tracking Program, investigated a potential association between ambient ozone (O(3)) concentration and childhood respiratory hospital admissions over 11 years in NYS. We used a two-stage Bayesian hierarchical model to assess the exposure-disease associations within 11 geographic regions and statewide. The data included total daily hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases for children 0-17 years old from 1991 to 2001 in NYS (N=134,099) and daily ambient O(3) level with different single-day lags. These analyses adjusted for particulate matter 10 microm in size (PM(10)), meteorological conditions, day of the week, seasonality, long-term trends, and demographic characteristics. In 5 of the 11 regions, including the Upper and Lower Adirondacks, Upper Hudson Valley, Staten Island, and New York City, positive associations were found between respiratory hospital admissions and ambient O(3) level 2 days prior to the admission. Applying different statistical methods and sensitivity analysis of PM(10) did not alter these findings. When region-specific results were combined, no statewide association was apparent. Geographic differences were found in the associations between O(3) levels and respiratory hospital admissions among children. In addition, we found that the two-stage model may be an appropriate approach for tracking the health effects of air pollution over time in different geographic areas when heterogeneity of risk factors across regions is present.

  5. Asthma Hospitalization Rates among Children, and School Building Conditions, by New York State School Districts, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Erin; Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao

    2006-01-01

    School-age children spend a significant portion of their day at school where they can be exposed to asthma triggers, but little information exists regarding potential relationships between childhood asthma and school environmental factors. This study examined patterns of asthma hospitalization and possible factors contributing to asthma…

  6. Signalment factors, comorbidity, and trends in behavior diagnoses in dogs: 1,644 cases (1991-2001).

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Houpt, Katherine A

    2006-11-15

    To determine trends in behavior diagnoses; assess the relationship between diagnoses and age, sex, reproductive status, and breed; and evaluate associations between diagnoses within the same dog (comorbidity). Retrospective case series. 1,644 dogs. Medical records of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems were reviewed for breed, sex, reproductive status, consultation year, birth date, and diagnoses. Numbers of dogs with aggression, anxiety, and unruly behavior increased over the course of the study, as did the total number of dogs evaluated for behavioral problems. In general and for aggression, Dalmatians, English Springer Spaniels, German Shepherd Dogs, and mixed-breed dogs were evaluated more often than expected, whereas Labrador Retrievers and Golden Retrievers were evaluated less often than expected. Labrador Retrievers were also underrepresented for anxiety, whereas mixed-breed dogs were overrepresented. Males were overrepresented except for interdog aggression, anxieties, and phobias, whereas females were overrepresented for phobias. Dogs with phobias were evaluated at a median age of 6.5 years, compared with dogs with other problems (median age, 2.5 years). A mean of 1.6 diagnoses/dog was observed, with certain diagnoses clustered. Results suggested that in dogs, behavioral problems changed over the course of the study; age, sex, and breed distributions varied among diagnoses; and certain diagnoses were likely to occur together.

  7. Asthma Hospitalization Rates among Children, and School Building Conditions, by New York State School Districts, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Erin; Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao

    2006-01-01

    School-age children spend a significant portion of their day at school where they can be exposed to asthma triggers, but little information exists regarding potential relationships between childhood asthma and school environmental factors. This study examined patterns of asthma hospitalization and possible factors contributing to asthma…

  8. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region.

  9. Particle dynamics in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: A synthesis based on light transmission, PMC, and POC archives (1991 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karageorgis, Aristomenis P.; Gardner, Wilford D.; Georgopoulos, Dimitris; Mishonov, Alexey V.; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Anagnostou, Christos

    2008-02-01

    During the last two decades light transmission (LT) data have been collected routinely in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, within the framework of several research projects. A procedure was developed to obtain beam attenuation coefficient due to particles ( cp) at 660-670 nm adjusted for variations in mid-depth 'clear' water and instrumental drifts. Data from 3146 stations occupied between 1991 and 2001 were converted to a common format for the analysis of particulate matter (PM) temporal and spatial distribution patterns. The data were separated into 'wet' (December-May) and 'dry' (June-November) periods. The horizontal distribution of beam cp at various depths revealed clearly higher values in the surface nepheloid layer (SNL) in the vicinity of river mouths during the 'wet' period, whilst the increase was negligible during the 'dry' period. In contrast, the bottom nepheloid layer (BNL; 1-10 m above bottom) appeared to be turbid throughout the year, particularly on the continental shelves receiving riverine discharge. This feature is attributed to resuspension and advection of recently deposited bottom sediments due to waves and currents. However, the Eastern Mediterranean as a whole is impoverished in PM in the water column, particularly at depths >200 m. The behavior of surface-water cp revealed a strong relationship to mesoscale dynamic features. Cyclonic eddies, which upwell nutrient-rich waters toward the surface, favor primary production, which was identified as elevated beam cp values. Beam cp was correlated with PM concentration (PMC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration obtained by bottle sampling. Although there were regional differences in the correlations, no significant seasonal variations were observed. Two generic equations were generated that can be used for a first-order estimate of PMC and POC from historical LT measurements conducted in the area, provided that data are handled according to the proposed methodology.

  10. Effects of Habitat Characteristics and Water Quality on Macroinvertebrate Communities along the Neversink Riverin Southeastern New York, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Carter, James L.; Lester, Gary T.

    2008-01-01

    The Neversink River, in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State, feeds the Neversink Reservoir, which diverts 85 percent of the river?s flow to New York City. Acidification of several headwater reaches has affected macroinvertebrate assemblages throughout the river system above the reservoir, and the alteration of flow conditions below the reservoir dam has affected macroinvertebrate assemblages for at least 10 kilometers downstream from the reservoir. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, compiled data from 30 stream reaches to quantify the effects of acidification and of the reservoir on the structure and function of macroinvertebrate assemblages throughout the Neversink River. Acidic headwater reaches supported greater numbers of acid-tolerant chironomid taxa and fewer numbers of acid-sensitive Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera than neutral reaches, and fewer scraper individuals and more shredder individuals. The 14 reaches below the reservoir, with sharply decreased flows and altered flow patterns compared to reaches above the reservoir, supported more Chironomidae and fewer Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera than the upper reaches; they also had greater numbers of shredder individuals and fewer scraper and filterer individuals than reaches above the reservoir. Water-quality variables such as pH and aluminum concentration appear to have affected macroinvertebrate assemblages more strongly in the headwaters than below the reservoir, whereas physical-habitat variables such as mean channel width and water temperature have affected these assemblages more strongly downstream from the reservoir than in the headwaters. The water-quality changes due to acidification, combined with the decreased flows and lowered water temperatures below the reservoir, have disrupted downstream continuum of macroinvertebrate communities that would normally be observed from the headwaters to the mouth. The information presented herein provides a basis for further evaluation of the Neversink and similar river systems, and for assessment of the effectiveness of future conservation efforts.

  11. [Dental fluorosis in schoolchildren 12 and 15 years of age in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in 2001 and 2004].

    PubMed

    Oliveira Junior, Saulo Regis de; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Lopes, Laíra Sá; Soares, Ana Prates; Ribeiro, Adriana de Andrade; Fonseca, Lis de Amorim

    2006-06-01

    This article compares the results of two surveys in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, on prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in 12 and 15-year-olds. The article discusses the survey methodologies in relation to their sampling process, calibration of examiners, and data collection procedures, comparing the resulting differences using chi-square and 95% confidence intervals obtained with the Dean index. A total of 3,313 adolescents 12 and 15 years of age were analyzed in 2001 and 1,032 in 2004. Both surveys used examiner calibration, and the samples were population-based. In the second survey there were a higher proportion of students from public schools for both ages, as compared to 2001 (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the fluorosis rate at 12 years, with a prevalence of 32.64% in 2004 and 31.4% in 2001. For 15-year-olds, the prevalence in 2004 (16.83%) was lower than in 2001 (27.6%). No increase was observed in the prevalence or severity of fluorosis in Salvador from 2001 to 2004.

  12. The El Salvador and Philippines Tsunamis of August 2012: Insights from Sea Level Data Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    We studied two tsunamis from 2012, one generated by the El Salvador earthquake of 27 August ( Mw 7.3) and the other generated by the Philippines earthquake of 31 August ( Mw 7.6), using sea level data analysis and numerical modeling. For the El Salvador tsunami, the largest wave height was observed in Baltra, Galapagos Islands (71.1 cm) located about 1,400 km away from the source. The tsunami governing periods were around 9 and 19 min. Numerical modeling indicated that most of the tsunami energy was directed towards the Galapagos Islands, explaining the relatively large wave height there. For the Philippines tsunami, the maximum wave height of 30.5 cm was observed at Kushimoto in Japan located about 2,700 km away from the source. The tsunami governing periods were around 8, 12 and 29 min. Numerical modeling showed that a significant part of the far-field tsunami energy was directed towards the southern coast of Japan. Fourier and wavelet analyses as well as numerical modeling suggested that the dominant period of the first wave at stations normal to the fault strike is related to the fault width, while the period of the first wave at stations in the direction of fault strike is representative of the fault length.

  13. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  14. The Politics of Privatization and Decentralization in Global School Reform: The Value of Equity Claims for Neoliberalism at the World Bank and in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl

    This paper focuses on the role of the World Bank and its subsidiaries in promoting the neoliberal educational reforms of privatization and decentralization globally and in El Salvador. Neoliberalism is first defined as a sociopolitical philosophy that supports concepts such as the free market, market-driven education, and the use of a voucher…

  15. Rising from the Ashes: How the Global Education Policy of Community-Based Management Was Born from El Salvador's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the emergence of global education policies and conflict-affected contexts by analysing the trajectory of community-level education decentralization within and beyond El Salvador from the 1980s, during the country's civil war, to the 2000s, by which point this approach to education governance was being…

  16. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  17. Jesuit Education and Social Change in El Salvador. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Volume 1055. Garland Studies in Higher Education, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beirne, Charles J.

    This book on the University of Central America Jose Simeon Canas (UCA) in El Salvador reviews its history, its establishment, its work for social change, and the consequent 1989 assassination of six Jesuit priests and two women. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the text and a description and discussion of the November 16, 1989 assassination.…

  18. Rising from the Ashes: How the Global Education Policy of Community-Based Management Was Born from El Salvador's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the emergence of global education policies and conflict-affected contexts by analysing the trajectory of community-level education decentralization within and beyond El Salvador from the 1980s, during the country's civil war, to the 2000s, by which point this approach to education governance was being…

  19. Diarrhea Outbreak during U.S. Military Training in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Matthew R.; Lescano, Andres G.; Lucas, Carmen; Gilles, Duncan; Biese, Brian J.; Stolovitz, Gary; Reaves, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military’s 130th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit – Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31st to June 3rd, 2011. Personnel (n = 241) completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate) and 67 (27%) reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2–4 days) and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49%) individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62%) individuals and 9 (15%) had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7), Cryptosporidium (5), and Cyclospora (4) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53–10.5, p-value <0.001) and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35–5.76, p-value = 0.001) were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region. PMID:22815747

  20. Mapping a Shallow Volcaniclastic Aquifer with GPR and ER in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, W. E.; Ferrantelli, C.; Harry, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Populations living in mountainous, volcanic terrains often use shallow aquifers as their main source of fresh water. These volcaniclastic aquifers are often limited in lateral extent and thickness, which complicates efforts to identify optimal well locations. Remote villages generally lack the resources to fund hydrogeologic investigations that can aid in reducing the risk of digging or drilling dry wells. The village of La Laguneta, El Salvador, located in a 0.5 km2 basin on the flank of a 2,100-m high stratovolcano, relies entirely on groundwater for its freshwater needs. During the dry season, water levels drop by an average of 5 m, causing the public well to produce at inadequate rates (<4 L/min) and many hand-dug wells to dry up. Based on simple basin geometry 2 wells were drilled in 2006; however, both were dry. In this study ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity (ER) were used to map the lateral and vertical extent of the shallow aquifer and identify the locations of maximum saturated thickness. The aquifer unit is surficial Quaternary tephra overlying bedrock consisting of a weathered Tertiary-age intermediate-composition pyroclastic unit. The GPR results provide good images to depths of 10 m with average maximum penetration of ~30 m in most places. Three radar facies are identified and correlated to stratigraphy obtained from lithostratigraphic logs. The upper two facies are interpreted to be unconsolidated Quaternary deposits whereas the underlying facies is interpreted to be bedrock. A GPR-derived bedrock map identifies 2 ~13-m deep sub-basins separated by a bedrock high. The ER results identify 3 electrically distinct zones. The upper 2 zones consist of an overlying resistive unit and an underlying conductive unit with the interface corresponding to the contact between the upper 2 radar facies. The third and deepest resistivity zone is highly resistive and corresponds with the locations of the bedrock highs. Based on the bedrock map

  1. Determinants of lead exposure in children on the outskirts of Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Menezes-Filho, José Antonio; Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Paes, Ciro Rodrigues

    2012-04-01

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is widely distributed throughout the environment. Pb is an important neurotoxic metal and children are more susceptible to its effect due to their higher absorption rate and greater susceptibility of the developing nervous system. In this work, we evaluated the lead exposure levels in children living near a metallurgical plant and identified risk factors associated with its internal dose. All children, aged 1-10 years and 11 months, living near a metallurgical plant in the great Salvador area, Brazil were evaluated in this cross-sectional study and compared with children from a non exposed area. Occipital hair and blood were used to assess exposure. Air lead levels in the respirable fraction (PM(2.5)) were also measured in both areas. Blood lead levels (BLL), hair lead levels (PbH) and air lead were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Spearman correlations analysis was used to evaluate correlations between BLL, PbH and descriptors. Significant risk factors were modeled using multivariate linear regression analysis. Air lead levels were approximately ten-folds lower than EPA reference concentration (0.15 μg/m(3)). Median BLL and PbH were 1.65 ± 1.45 μg/dL and 1.26 ± 3.70 μg/g, respectively, in exposed children. In the referents, medians were BLL 1.20 ± 1.20 μg/dL; PbH 2.09 ± 2.06 μg/g. No significant difference was observed in biomarkers levels between boys and girls. It was observed a positive weak correlation (Spearman rho = 0.197, p = 0.033) between BLL and PbH. Our data show that children's lead body burden measured as BLL or PbH are low when compared with the recommended reference values. Despite that, we were able to identify four risk factors associated with increased biological lead levels: age, living near industrial site, environmental tobacco smoking and, above all, domestic waste burning. In order to prevent such avoidable exposure, environmental education and proper waste

  2. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    be favored by stress transfer between intermediate depth and interplate zone during the earthquake cycle, flexural stresses associated with bendings which are not only present at ``flat slab'' geometry but also at ``normal'' dipping subduction zone, seem to govern the location of intermediate depth seismicity and to explain their focal mechanisms in El Salvador, SW Japon, Cascadia and Central Mexico.

  3. Precursory Activity of the 2005 Eruption of Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, A.; Patrick, M.; Rose, W. I.; Escobar, D.; Montalvo, F.; Gutierrez, E.; Olmos, R.

    2007-12-01

    After a period of unrest, Santa Ana (Illamatepec) volcano in El Salvador erupted suddenly on October 1st, 2005 at 1420 UTC (0820 local time), ejecting its acidic crater lake and generating a gas-and-ash plume ~10 km above the volcano. The short-lived eruption (~1 hr duration) deposited ballistics and ash up to 5m thick at the crater rim and depositing ash up to 40 km to the west. Underlying phreatomagmatic deposits exposed in the crater suggest that larger eruptions of this type are characteristic of recent historic activity. In this study, precursory activity to the 2005 eruption is investigated by analyzing physical and chemical parameters of the crater lake. Data has been compiled on water chemistry, temperature, and color of the lake from direct sampling and ground observations from 2004-2007. Lake water data suggests three phases of activity: (1) constant, well constrained activity from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2004 showing SO4 ~10,000 ppm, Cl ~6000 ppm, and SO4/Cl ~1.6; (2) potential precursory activity from Jan. 2005 to Oct. 2005 expressed as a ramping up of SO4 to 11,625 ppm in May with a sudden decrease to 8250 ppm one month later, increased variability in Cl, and color change from dark coffee color to green in mid-September; and (3) post- eruption activity to present showing increasing Cl to a maximum of 22340 ppm, low SO4/Cl=0.38-0.8, an increase in temperature to 65.6 degrees C, and color change to yellowish-green). Analysis of high resolution satellite imagery from the ASTER sensor (15-90m/pixel) from 2000 to 2007 provides further information on lake size, temperature, and color. ASTER images show that the lake re-established itself further to the west after the eruption, drowning the adjacent high temperature fumarole field (max. 875 degrees C) which potentially contributed to the observed post-eruption changes in the lake. The combination of synoptic satellite-based remote sensing data with ground measurements will enhance the capabilities to recognize and

  4. Effect of an intervention in storm drains to prevent Aedes aegypti reproduction in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, Raquel Lima; Mugabe, Vánio André; Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Moreira, Patrícia Sousa Dos Santos; Nascimento, Leile Camila Jacob; Roundy, Christopher Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2017-07-11

    Aedes aegypti, the principal vector for dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, is a synanthropic species that uses stagnant water to complete its reproductive cycle. In urban settings, rainfall water draining structures, such as storm drains, may retain water and serve as a larval development site for Aedes spp. reproduction. Herein, we describe the effect of a community-based intervention on preventing standing water accumulation in storm drains and their consequent infestation by adult and immature Ae. aegypti and other mosquitoes. Between April and May of 2016, local residents association of Salvador, Brazil, after being informed of water accumulation and Ae. aegypti infestation in the storm drains in their area, performed an intervention on 52 storm drains. The intervention consisted of placing concrete at the bottom of the storm drains to elevate their base to the level of the outflow tube, avoiding water accumulation, and placement of a metal mesh covering the outflow tube to avoid its clogging with debris. To determine the impact of the intervention, we compared the frequency at which the 52 storm drains contained water, as well as adult and immature mosquitoes using data from two surveys performed before and two surveys performed after the intervention. During the pre-intervention period, water accumulated in 48 (92.3%) of the storm drains, and immature Ae. aegypti were found in 11 (21.2%) and adults in 10 (19.2%). After the intervention, water accumulated in 5 (9.6%) of the storm drains (P < 0.001), none (0.0%) had immatures (P < 0.001), and 3 (5.8%) contained adults (P = 0.039). The total number of Ae. aegypti immatures collected decreased from 109 to 0 (P < 0.001) and adults decreased from 37 to 8 (P = 0.011) after the intervention. Collection of immature and adult non-Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Culex spp.) in the storm drains also decreased after the intervention. This study exemplifies how a simple intervention targeting storm drains can result

  5. Co-seismic deformation of the August 27, 2012 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5, 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Hernández, D.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the co-seismic deformation of two significant earthquakes that occurred along the Middle America trench in 2012. The August 27 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica earthquakes, were examined using a combination of episodic and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data. USGS finite fault models based on seismic data predict fundamentally different characteristics for the two ruptures. The El Salvador event occurred in a historical seismic gap and on the shallow segment of the Middle America Trench main thrust, rupturing a large area, but with a low magnitude of slip. A small tsunami was observed along the coast in Nicaragua and El Salvador, additionally indicating near-trench rupture. Conversely, the Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake was predicted to have an order of magnitude higher slip on a spatially smaller patch deeper on the main thrust. We present results from episodic and continuous geodetic GPS measurements made in conjunction with the two earthquakes, including data from newly installed COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) sites. Episodic GPS measurements made in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua following the earthquakes, allow us to estimate the co-seismic deformation field from both earthquakes. Because of the small magnitude of the El Salvador earthquake and its shallow rupture the observed co-seismic deformation is small (<2 cm). Conversely, the Costa Rica earthquake occurred directly beneath a seismic and geodetic network specifically designed to capture such events. The observed displacements exceeded 0.5 m and there is a significant post-seismic transient following the earthquake. We use our estimated co-seismic offsets for both earthquakes to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for these two events.

  6. Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Knowlton W; Shamblen, Stephen R; Courser, Matthew W; Young, Linda; Abadi, Melissa H; Browne, Thom

    2013-06-04

    This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study's inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as "spiritual." Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among former patients. These efforts should be

  7. Epidemiological characteristics of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in women of agricultural communities of El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Orantes Navarro, Carlos M; Herrera Valdés, Raúl; López, Miguel Almaguer; Calero, Denis J; Fuentes de Morales, Jackeline; Alvarado Ascencio, Nelly P; Vela Parada, Xavier F; Zelaya Quezada, Susana M; Granados Castro, Delmy V; Orellana de Figueroa, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    In El Salvador end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was the first cause of hospital mortality overall, the first cause of hospital deaths in men, and the fifth cause of hospital mortality in women in 2013. In agricultural communities, chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurs predominantly in male agricultural workers, but it also affects women to a lesser degree, even those who are not involved in agricultural work. Internationally, most epidemiological CKD studies emphasize men and no epidemiological studies focused exclusively on women. To describe the epidemiological characteristics of CKD in females in agricultural communities of El Salvador. A cross-sectional epidemiological study was carried out in 2009 - 2011 based on active screening for CKD and risk factors in women aged ≥ 18 years in 3 disadvantaged populations of El Salvador: Bajo Lempa (Usulután Department), Guayapa Abajo (Ahuachapán Department), and Las Brisas (San Miguel Department). Epidemiological and clinical data were gathered through personal history, as well as urinalysis for renal damage markers, determinations of serum creatinine and glucose, and estimation of glomerular filtration rates. CKD cases were confirmed at 3 months. Prevalence of CKD was 13.9% in 1,412 women from 1,306 families studied. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes (CKDu), not attributed to diabetes mellitus, hypertension, or proteinuric primary glomerulopathy (proteinuria > 1 g/L) was 6.6%. Prevalence of chronic renal failure was 6.8%. Prevalence of renal damage markers was 9.8% (microalbuminuria (30 - 300 mg/L) 5.7%; macroalbuminuria (> 300 mg/L) 2%; and hematuria, 2.1%. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease risk factors was: diabetes mellitus, 9.3%; hypertension, 23%; family history of CKD, 16%; family history of diabetes mellitus (DM), 18.7%; family history of hypertension (HT), 31.9%; obesity, 21%; central obesity, 30.7%; NSAID use, 84.3%; agricultural occupation, 15.2%; and contact with agrochemicals, 33.1%. CKD in

  8. Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among

  9. Storm drains as larval development and adult resting sites for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paploski, Igor Adolfo Dexheimer; Rodrigues, Moreno S; Mugabe, Vánio André; Kikuti, Mariana; Tavares, Aline S; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa

    2016-07-27

    Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV), as well as yellow fever (YFV) viruses are transmitted to humans by Aedes spp. females. In Salvador, the largest urban center in north-eastern Brazil, the four DENV types have been circulating, and more recently, CHIKV and ZIKV have also become common. We studied the role of storm drains as Aedes larval development and adult resting sites in four neighbourhoods of Salvador, representing different socioeconomic, infrastructure and topographic conditions. A sample of 122 storm drains in the four study sites were surveyed twice during a 4-month period in 2015; in 49.0 % of the visits, the storm drains contained water. Adults and immatures of Aedes aegypti were captured in two of the four sites, and adults and immatures of Aedes albopictus were captured in one of these two sites. A total of 468 specimens were collected: 148 Ae. aegypti (38 adults and 110 immatures), 79 Ae. albopictus (48 adults and 31 immatures), and 241 non-Aedes (mainly Culex spp.) mosquitoes (42 adults and 199 immatures). The presence of adults or immatures of Ae. aegypti in storm drains was independently associated with the presence of non-Aedes mosquitoes and with rainfall of ≤ 50 mm during the preceding week. We found that in Salvador, one of the epicentres of the 2015 ZIKV outbreak, storm drains often accumulate water and serve as larval development sites and adult resting areas for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Vector control campaigns usually overlook storm drains, as most of the effort to prevent Ae. agypti reproduction is directed towards containers in the domicile environment. While further studies are needed to determine the added contribution of storm drains for the maintenance of Aedes spp. populations, we advocate that vector control programs incorporate actions directed at storm drains, including regular inspections and use of larvicides, and that human and capital resources are mobilized to modify storm drains, so that

  10. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paploski, Igor A.D.; Prates, Ana Paula P.B.; Cardoso, Cristiane W.; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Waller, Lance A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5–9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30–33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  11. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  12. Structural Factors Influencing Patterns of Drug Selling and Use and HIV Risk in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern. PMID:20550091

  13. Highlights from the IV International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation (ISTA), October 20-21, 2011, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato D; Becker, Richard C; Newby, L Kristin; Peterson, Eric D; Hylek, Elaine M; Granger, Christopher B; Crowther, Mark; Wang, Tracy; Carvalho, Antonio C; Berwanger, Otavio; Giraldez, Roberto R; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Darze, Eduardo; Kalil, Renato A K; Andrande, Marianna; Boas, Fabio Villas; Andrade, Jadelson; Rocha, Ana Thereza; Harrington, Robert A; Lopes, Antonio C; Garcia, David A

    2012-07-01

    To discuss and share knowledge about advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Fourth International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from October 20-21, 2011. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians and was promoted by three major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, and Hospital do Coração Research Institute. Comprising 2 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings.

  14. Combination HIV Prevention Strategy Implementation in El Salvador: Perceived Barriers and Adaptations Reported by Outreach Peer Educators and Supervisors

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Meredith; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    El Salvador was one of three countries to receive funding from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria to conduct a combination HIV prevention intervention among transwomen (TW), men who have sex with men (MSM), and commercial sex workers (CSW). Program evaluation revealed that prevention activities reached only 50% of the target population. The purpose of this study is to examine the barriers that Salvadoran educators faced in implementing the peer education as designed and adaptations made as a result. Between March and June 2015, 18 in-depth interviews with educators were conducted. Violence was reported as the biggest barrier to intervention implementation. Other barriers differed by subpopulation. The level of violence and discrimination calls into question the feasibility and appropriateness of peer-led interventions in the Salvadoran context and demonstrates the importance of implementation research when translating HIV prevention interventions developed in high-income countries to low- and middle-income countries. PMID:28462359

  15. Risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis in pre-school children in the city of Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, M S; Strina, A; Barreto, M L; Oliveira-Assis, Ana Marlúcia; Paz, Lívia Maria; Cairncross, S

    2003-10-01

    A cross-sectional study of 694 children aged 2 to 45 months selected from 30 clusters throughout the city of Salvador, Bahia (pop. 2.3 million) was carried out as part of a longitudinal study of diarrhoea in order to identify risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis. Variables studied included three social and demographic factors (such as mother's education and marital status), five relating to the peri-domestic environment (rubbish disposal, open sewers, paving of the street), seven relating to the home itself (house construction, susceptibility to flooding, water supply and sanitation) as well as a score for hygiene behaviour based on structured observation. After multivariate analysis using a hierarchical model, only four significant risk factors were found: (a) number of children in the household under five years (b) rubbish not collected from the house (c) presence of visible sewage nearby, and (d) absence of a toilet. All four were significant at the 1% level.

  16. Spatial distribution of unspecified chronic kidney disease in El Salvador by crop area cultivated and ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    VanDervort, Darcy R; López, Dina L; Orantes, Carlos M; Rodríguez, David S

    2014-04-01

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology is occurring in various geographic areas worldwide. Cases lack typical risk factors associated with chronic kidney disease, such as diabetes and hypertension. It is epidemic in El Salvador, Central America, where it is diagnosed with increasing frequency in young, otherwise-healthy male farmworkers. Suspected causes include agrochemical use (especially in sugarcane fields), physical heat stress, and heavy metal exposure. To evaluate the geographic relationship between unspecified chronic kidney disease (unCKD) and nondiabetic chronic renal failure (ndESRD) hospital admissions in El Salvador with the proximity to cultivated crops and ambient temperatures. Data on unCKD and ndESRD were compared with environmental variables, crop area cultivated (indicator of agrochemical use) and high ambient temperatures. Using geographically weighted regression analysis, two model sets were created using reported municipal hospital admission rates are per thousand population for unCKD 2006-2010 and rates of ndESRD 2005-2010 [corrected]. These were assessed against local percent of land cultivated by crop (sugarcane, coffee, corn, cotton, sorghum, and beans) and mean maximum ambient temperature, with Moran's indices determining data clustering. Two-dimensional geographic models illustrated parameter spatial distribution. Bivariate geographically weighted regressions showed statistically significant correlations between percent area of sugarcane, corn, cotton, coffee, and bean cultivation, as well as mean maximum ambient temperature with both unCKD and ndESRD hospital admission rates. Percent area of sugarcane cultivation had greatest statistical weight (p ≤ 0.001; Rp2 = 0.77 for unCKD). The most statistically significant multivariate geographically weighted regression model for unCKD included percent area of sugarcane, cotton and corn cultivation (p ≤ 0.001; Rp2 = 0.80), while, for ndESRD, it included the percent area of sugarcane, corn

  17. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paploski, Igor A D; Prates, Ana Paula P B; Cardoso, Cristiane W; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M O; Waller, Lance A; Reis, Mitermayer G; Kitron, Uriel; Ribeiro, Guilherme S

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5-9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30-33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome.

  18. The 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1–4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote discussion and share new findings between researchers and clinicians for the benefit of patients infected by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). HTLV infects approximately 15–20 million individuals worldwide and causes a broad spectrum of diseases including neurodegeneration and leukemia. The scientific program included a breadth of HTLV research topics: epidemiology, host immune response, basic mechanisms of protein function, virology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment. Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized. PMID:19686596

  19. The dilemma of a practice: experiences of abortion in a public maternity hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Cecilia; Menezes, Greice; Reis, Ana Paula Dos

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses abortion and miscarriage from the perspective of women admitted to a public maternity hospital in Salvador (BA), Brazil. Based on qualitative and quantitative research, it draws on participant observation of everyday hospital life. Taking an ethnographic approach, it addresses the hospital experiences of women who had miscarriages or induced abortions, also presenting the views of health professionals. It argues that the way the institution structures care for abortion and miscarriage involves symbolic processes that profoundly affect women's experiences. The discrimination against women who have had abortions/miscarriages is an integral part of the structure, organization and culture of these institutions, and does not derive solely from the individual actions of healthcare personnel.

  20. [Voluntary abortion and domestic violence among women attended at a public maternity hospital of Salvador-BA].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Gesteira, Solange Maria Dos Anjos; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Santos Mota, Rosana; Pérez, Bárbara Angélica Gómez; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative study in order to study domestic violence in women with induced abortion. Interviews were conducted with 147 women hospitalized for induced abortion in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia. The subjects are characterized by mostly women, black, poorly educated, economically dependent on spouses, experienced psychological abuse, physical and sexual abuse committed by their spouses. Almost half of the women were victims of domestic violence during the current pregnancy, and that was the reason for inducing abortion for 67% of them. The study reveals an association between experience of domestic violence and induced abortion. As mental health consequences, they developed symptoms of post trauma stress disorder. It is necessary that the health professionals consider the cues to identify domestic violence as a health problem associated with induced abortion, which requires a transformation on the training model, including domestic violence as a health issue.

  1. HTLV-1 is predominantly sexually transmitted in Salvador, the city with the highest HTLV-1 prevalence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nunes, David; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Taylor, Graham P; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Barreto, Mauricio L; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Salvador is the city with the highest number of HTLV-1 infected individuals in Brazil, yet the main route of HTLV-1 transmission is unknown. To investigate the association of syphilis infection as a proxy for sexual transmission of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of this city. A cross sectional population-based study was conducted with 3,451 serum samples obtained by a representative simple random sampling. Data on gender, age, income, and years of education were collected by questionnaire and the presence of HTLV, HIV and Treponema pallidum infection was determined by serology. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effect of the potential explanatory variables to HTLV-1 infection and Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. The majority of studied individuals were female (56.4%), had less than 7 years of education (55.3%) and earned two or less minimum wages (52.0%). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 1.48% (51/3,451; 95% CI: 1.10%- 1.94%), which increased with age. Only three persons younger than 17 (3/958; 0.31%; CI 95% 0.06-0.91) years were infected by HTLV-1. Among the 45 syphilis positives, 12 (26.7%) were HTLV positive, while among 21 HIV positives, only one (4.8%) was HTLV positive. HTLV-1 infection was found to be associated with syphilis infection (ORADJUSTED 36.77; 95% CI 14.96-90.41). The data presented herein indicate that horizontal transmission between adults is the main route of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of Salvador and that this is likely to occur through sexual contact.

  2. HTLV-1 is predominantly sexually transmitted in Salvador, the city with the highest HTLV-1 prevalence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, David; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Taylor, Graham P.; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Salvador is the city with the highest number of HTLV-1 infected individuals in Brazil, yet the main route of HTLV-1 transmission is unknown. Objective To investigate the association of syphilis infection as a proxy for sexual transmission of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of this city. Methods A cross sectional population-based study was conducted with 3,451 serum samples obtained by a representative simple random sampling. Data on gender, age, income, and years of education were collected by questionnaire and the presence of HTLV, HIV and Treponema pallidum infection was determined by serology. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effect of the potential explanatory variables to HTLV-1 infection and Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. Results The majority of studied individuals were female (56.4%), had less than 7 years of education (55.3%) and earned two or less minimum wages (52.0%). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 1.48% (51/3,451; 95% CI: 1.10%– 1.94%), which increased with age. Only three persons younger than 17 (3/958; 0.31%; CI 95% 0.06–0.91) years were infected by HTLV-1. Among the 45 syphilis positives, 12 (26.7%) were HTLV positive, while among 21 HIV positives, only one (4.8%) was HTLV positive. HTLV-1 infection was found to be associated with syphilis infection (ORADJUSTED 36.77; 95% CI 14.96–90.41). Conclusion The data presented herein indicate that horizontal transmission between adults is the main route of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of Salvador and that this is likely to occur through sexual contact. PMID:28158226

  3. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H

    2015-01-01

    Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with limited resources, countries can improve health service

  4. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with

  5. [Family, friends, and other sources of information associated with the initiation of sexual relations by adolescents in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; López-Del Burgo, Cristina; Carlos, Silvia; Calatrava, María; Osorio, Alfonso; Irala, Jokin de

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to verify the influence of messages Salvadorian youth receive about sexuality, affection, and leisure from family, friends, and the media on the initiation of sexual activity. Cross-sectional study based on a representative sample of 2 615 students (from 13 to 19 years of age) in El Salvador. A random systematic sampling was used to select 30 schools. Sociodemographic aspects, lifestyles, and sources of information on sexuality and love used by the young people were collected. The average age of the young people studied was 15 (SD = 1.8). In all, 638 (24.4%) of the young people stated that they had had sexual relations. The following factors are associated with a greater probability of having had sexual relations: a perception that siblings (OR = 1.8, CI 95%: 1.2-2.7) or friends (OR = 1.7, CI 95%: 1.3-2.2) encourage them to have sex. Protective factors were found to be the supervision of parents (OR = 0.5, CI 95%: 0.4-0.7); messages received from friends that encourage abstinence (OR = 0.7, CI 95%: 0.6-1.0) or from siblings (OR = 0.7, CI 95%: 0.5-0.8); and favorable messages related to marriage received from parents (OR = 0.4, CI 95%: 0.3-0.6). Messages from family and friends are factors that seem to influence the initiation of sexual activity by young people. Sexual health promotion programs in El Salvador should take these factors into account.

  6. Clinical characteristics of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in women of agricultural communities in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Herrera Valdés, Raúl; Orantes, Carlos M; Almaguer López, Miguel; López Marín, Laura; Arévalo, Pedro Alfonso; Smith González, Magaly J; Morales, Fabrizio E; Bacallao, Raymed; Bayarre, Héctor D; Vela Parada, Xavier F

    2015-01-01

    A chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes (CKDu) has emerged in Central America and elsewhere, predominantly affecting male farmworkers. In El Salvador (2009), it was the second cause of death in men > 18 years old. Causality has not been determined. Most available research focused on men and there is scarce data on women. Describe the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of CKDu in women of agricultural communities in El Salvador. A descriptive study was carried out in 10 women with CKDu stages 2, 3a, and 3b. Researchers studied demographics, clinical examination; hematological and biochemical analyses, urine sediment, renal injury markers, and assessed renal, cardiac, and peripheral arteries, liver, pancreas, and lung anatomy and functions. Kidney biopsy was performed in all. Data was collected on the Lime Survey platform and exported to SPSS 19.0. Patient distribution by stages: 2 (70%), 3a (10%), 3b (20%). Occupation: agricultural 7; non-agricultural 3. agrochemical exposure 100%; farmworkers 70%; incidental malaria 50%, NSAIDs use 40%; hypertension 40%. nocturia 50%; dysuria 50%; arthralgia 70%; asthenia 50%; cramps 30%, profuse sweating 20%. Renal markers: albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) > 300 mg/g 90%; β microglobulin and neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin (NGAL) presence in 40%. Kidney function: hypermagnesuria 100%; hyperphosphaturia 50%, hypercalciuria 40%; hypernatriuria 30%; hyponatremia 60%, hypocalcemia 50%. Doppler: tibial artery damage 40%. Neurological: reflex abnormalities 30%; Babinski and myoclonus 20%. Neurosensorial hypoacusis 70%. Histopathology: damage restricted mostly to the tubulo-interstitium, urine was essentially bland. CKDu in women is a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy with varied extrarenal symptoms.

  7. [Prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths and prevalence of malaria among schoolchildren in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Sorto, Óscar René; Portillo, Alexandra Manoella; Aragón, Miguel Ángel; Saboyá, Martha Idalí; Ade, María Paz; Minero, Miguel Ángel; Hernández, Marta Alicia; Mena, Amada Gloria; Peña, Rodolfo; Mejía, Victor Manuel; Carter, Keith

    2015-01-01

    El Salvador does not have recent data on the prevalence of infection with soil-transmitted helminths among children aged under 15 years of age. As one of the countries in the Americas that reports few malaria cases, eradication of this disease from El Salvador is considered to be feasible. To determine the prevalence and intensity of infection by soil-transmitted helminths, as well as the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. in schoolchildren aged 8-10. A cross-sectional study was carried out in each of the five eco-epidemiological zones of the country (coastal plain, central basin, volcanic range, coastal range and mountain zone). In all 1,325 students we studied the presence of geohelminthiasis, with 152 of them also being tested for malaria. The Kato-Katz technique was used to detect geohelminths while diagnosis of malaria was performed using the rapid diagnostic test, microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of geohelminthiasis was 7.9% (95%CI 6.6-9.5%). Values for the five eco-epidemiological zones were as follows: coastal plain, 14.9% (95%CI 10.9-19.7%); central plateau, 9.4% (95%CI 6.5-13.3%); volcanic range, 6.6% (95%CI 4.2-10.5%); coastal range, 5.9% (95%CI 3.8-9.4%), and mountain zone, 2.6% (95%CI 1.4-5.7%). The overall rate of high intensity infection with any of the geohelminth species was 0.3%. No schoolchildren were found infected with Plasmodium spp. by any of the three diagnostic techniques used. Prevalence of geohelminths was low and Trichuris trichiura was the predominant species. Intensity of infection with any of the species of geohelminths was light (<1%). The risk factors associated with infection by soil-transmitted helminths were defecation in the open air, being barefoot and living in coastal areas.

  8. Decline in rotavirus hospitalizations and health care visits for childhood diarrhea following rotavirus vaccination in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Yen, Catherine; Armero Guardado, Julio A; Alberto, Patricia; Rodriguez Araujo, David S; Mena, Carlos; Cuellar, Elizabeth; Nolasco, Jenny Brenda; De Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Pastor, Desiree; Tate, Jacqueline E; Parashar, Umesh D; Patel, Manish M

    2011-01-01

    A recent postlicensure study from El Salvador showed that the monovalent rotavirus vaccine conferred 76% protection against rotavirus hospitalizations. We further examined the impact of rotavirus vaccination on the national burden of childhood diarrhea to help assess the total public health benefits of vaccination. We compared all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus-specific hospitalization rates during prevaccine year 2006, with postvaccine years 2008 and 2009 in children < 5 years of age from 7 sentinel surveillance hospitals. We also compared annual rates of diarrhea-related healthcare events during prevaccine years 2005 and 2006 with postvaccine years 2008 and 2009 to examine the national burden of healthcare utilization for all-cause diarrhea. Among sentinel surveillance hospitals, rotavirus hospitalization rates among children < 5 years of age declined by 81% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 78%-84%) in 2008 when 2-dose rotavirus vaccine coverage was 50% among infants < 1 year; the decline was 69% (95% CI: 65%-73%) in 2009 when 2-dose vaccine coverage was 61% among infants < 1 year, compared with 2006. The greatest declines were observed in children ≤ 1 year of age, although sizeable reductions were also observed among children ≥ 2 years in 2008. National diarrhea-related healthcare visits during rotavirus season decreased by 48% (95% CI: 47%-48%) in 2008 and by 35% (95% CI: 34%-35%) in 2009 compared with the mean rate from the 2005 and 2006 rotavirus seasons. Rotavirus vaccination had a substantial public health impact on rotavirus disease and overall diarrhea events in El Salvador. Important age-related changes in diarrheal incidence emphasize the need for ongoing rotavirus surveillance after vaccine introduction.

  9. Social network-based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high-risk individuals in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Ann M; Murillo, Wendy; de Maria Hernandez, Flor; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Eron, Joseph J; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-05-01

    HIV in Central America is concentrated among certain groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSWs). We compared social recruitment chains and HIV transmission clusters from 699 MSM and 787 FSWs to better understand factors contributing to ongoing HIV transmission in El Salvador. Phylogenies were reconstructed using pol sequences from 119 HIV-positive individuals recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and compared with RDS chains in 3 cities in El Salvador. Transmission clusters with a mean pairwise genetic distance ≤ 0.015 and Bayesian posterior probabilities =1 were identified. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated among MSM. Sequences from 34 (43%) MSM and 4 (10%) FSW grouped in 14 transmission clusters. Clusters were defined by risk group (12 MSM clusters) and geographic residence (only 1 spanned separate cities). In 4 MSM clusters (all n = 2), individuals were also members of the same RDS chain, but only 2 had members directly linked through recruitment. All large clusters (n ≥ 3) spanned >1 RDS chain. Among MSM, factors independently associated with cluster membership included recent infection by BED assay (P = 0.02), sex with stable male partners (P = 0.02), and sex with ≥ 3 male partners in the past year (P = 0.04). We found few HIV transmissions corresponding directly with the social recruitment. However, we identified clustering in nearly one-half of MSM suggesting that RDS recruitment was indirectly but successfully uncovering transmission networks, particularly among recent infections. Interrogating RDS chains with phylogenetic analyses may help refine methods for identifying transmission clusters.

  10. Device-associated infections rates in pediatrics and neonatal intensive care units in El Salvador: findings of the INICC.

    PubMed

    Dueñas, Lourdes; Bran de Casares, Ana; Rosenthal, Victor Daniel; Jesús Machuca, Lilian

    2011-07-04

    This study aimed to determine the rate of device-associated, health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), the excess in length of stay, the mortality, and the hand hygiene compliance in a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and a neonatal ICU (NICU) in a hospital member of the International Infection Control Consortium (INICC) in El Salvador. A prospective cohort, active DA-HAI surveillance study was conducted on patients admitted in the pediatric and neonatal ICUs from January 2007 to November 2009. The protocol and methodology implemented were developed by INICC. Data were collected in the participating ICUs, and analyzed at INICC headquarters by proprietary software. DA-HAI rates were recorded by applying the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network. Of 1,145 patients hospitalized in the PICU for 9,517 days, 177 acquired DA-HAIs (overall rate 15.5%), and 18.6 DA-HAIs per 1,000 ICU-days. Furthermore, 1,270 patients hospitalized in the NICU for 30,663 days acquired 302 DA-HAIs (overall rate 23.8%), and 9.8 DA-HAIs per 1,000 ICU-days. The central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLA-BSI) rates in the NICU and PICU were 9.9 and 10.0 per 1,000 catheter-days respectively. The ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate was 16.1 per 1,000 ventilator-days in the NICU and 12.1 in the PICU.The catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) rate was 5.8 per 1,000 catheter-days in the PICU. DA-HAI rates in the PICU and NICU of our hospital were higher than international standards; infection control programs including surveillance and antibiotic policies must be a priority in El Salvador

  11. Social network based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high risk individuals in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Ann M.; Murillo, Wendy; de Maria Hernandez, Flor; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Eron, Joseph J.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV in Central America is concentrated among certain groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared social recruitment chains and HIV transmission clusters from 699 MSM and 757 FSW to better understand factors contributing to ongoing HIV transmission in El Salvador. Methods Phylogenies were reconstructed using pol sequences from 119 HIV-positive individuals recruited by respondent driven sampling (RDS) and compared to RDS chains in three cities in El Salvador. Transmission clusters with a mean pairwise genetic distance ≤0.015 and Bayesian posterior probabilities=1 were identified. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated among MSM. Results Sequences from 34 (43%) MSM and 4 (10%) FSW grouped in 14 transmission clusters. Clusters were defined by risk group (12 MSM clusters) and geographic residence (only one spanned separate cities). In 4 MSM clusters (all n=2), individuals were also members of the same RDS chain but only 2 had members directly linked through recruitment. All large clusters (n≥3) spanned more than one RDS chain. Among MSM, factors independently associated with cluster membership included recent infection by BED assay (P=0.02), sex with stable male partners (P=0.02), and sex with ≥3 male partners in past year (P=0.04). Conclusions We found few HIV transmissions corresponding directly with the social recruitment. However, we identified clustering in nearly one half of MSM suggesting RDS recruitment was indirectly but successfully uncovering transmission networks, particularly among recent infections. Interrogating RDS chains with phylogenetic analyses may help refine methods for identifying transmission clusters. PMID:23364512

  12. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 μg m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 μg m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from

  13. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    contenido cientifico y lenguaje . Profesor Tu or t94 ~6Ad~/~ 1/ 0 Fecha ESTA TESIS HA SIDO APROBADA EN NOMBRE DE LA UNIVERSIDAD SIMON BOLIVAR POR EL...su mandato se ianifest6 un acercamiento a las naciones en vias de desarrollo , inclusive al Caribe angloparlante (16). Con la llegada a la presidencia...Caribe. La pollitca exterior del presidentt Perez se furadament6 en la lucha do los palses en desarrollo por establecer un "nuevo orden econdaico

  14. Habitat use patterns of the invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans: a comparison between mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pimiento, Catalina; Nifong, James C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Monaco, Eric; Silliman, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific red lionfish Pterois volitans is widespread both in its native and its non-native habitats. The rapid invasion of this top predator has had a marked negative effect on fish populations in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. It is now well documented that lionfish are invading many tropical and sub-tropical habitats. However, there are fewer data available on the change in lionfish abundance over time and the variation of body size and diet across habitats. A recent study in San Salvador, Bahamas, found body size differences between individuals from mangrove and reef systems. That study further suggested that ontogenetic investigation of habitat use patterns could help clarify whether lionfish are using the mangrove areas of San Salvador as nurseries. The aim of the present study is to determine temporal trends in lionfish relative abundance in mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, and to further assess whether there is evidence suggesting an ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reef areas. Accordingly, we collected lionfish from mangrove and reef habitats and calculated catch per unit effort (a proxy for relative abundance), compared body size distributions across these two systems, and employed a combination of stable isotope, stomach content, and genetic analyses of prey, to evaluate differences in lionfish trophic interactions and habitat use patterns. Our results show that populations may have increased in San Salvador during the last 4 years, and that there is a strong similarity in body size between habitats, stark differences in prey items, and no apparent overlap in the use of habitat and/or food resources. These results suggest that there is not evidence an for ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reefs, and support other studies that propose lionfish are opportunistic forages with little movement across habitats.

  15. [Strategic planning models at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pastrana, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Spanish acronym INCMNSZ) is a third tier healthcare facility operated by the Mexican Ministry of Health, ando ver the years various strategic planning models have been used in its development. This paper present a brief overview of some of those strategic planning models and their application and concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and challenges than remain.

  16. Incidence, mortality, and prevalence of end-stage chronic renal disease in the Bajo Lempa region of El Salvador: A ten-year community registry.

    PubMed

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Hernández, Carolina; Rosa, Adrián; Domínguez Alonso, Jesús

    The Bajo Lempa is an impoverished rural coastal region of El Salvador affected by the chronic kidney disease (CKD) epidemic known as Mesoamerican nephropathy. The local community organisation Fondo Social de Emergencia para la Salud (FSES) (Emergency social fund for health) is helping to fight the epidemic in 42 communities of the region (19,223 inhabitants; average age 26.7 years; 48.5% male; 40.2% <18 years).

  17. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  18. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  19. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  20. El Salvador, 13 January and SEA-TAC, 28 February: Two recent examples of "snappy" intraplate earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OKAL, E. A.; Kirby, S. H.

    2001-05-01

    The two recent damaging earthquakes in El Salvador (13 January) and in the Seattle-Tacoma area (28 February, hereafter "SEA-TAC") do not express relative motion at a plate boundary contact, but rather are examples of normal faulting events occurring inside the downgoing slab. Similar events have included the Oaxaca earthquake of 30 September 1999, the shock in the Central Valley of Chile on 15 October 1997, as well as the large event farther South on 25 January 1939. In previous studies, we had applied the formalism of the energy-to-moment ratio introduced by Newman and Okal [1998] to this class of events, and found that the parameter THETA = log (E/M sub 0 ) characterizing the repartition of energy between high and low frequencies, was as much as a full unit greater than expected from scaling laws (-4.90), meaning that the seismic source spectrum is biased towards high frequencies, resulting in a possibly faster, more "snappy" moment release than predicted by global scaling laws. As a result, this effect canoffset the generally greater hypocentral depth of the intraslab events, and result in higher levels of accelerations in the near-field, and consequently in more severe damage, reaching catastrophic proportions for the 1939 Chilean event. Because of their generally lower magnitudes, intraslab earthquakes may recur more often than the large "mega-thrust" events, and thus be a significant, possibly the primary, contributor to seismic risk in the relevant geographical areas [S.H. Kirby, Fall 1999 AGU meeting]. As of the time of writing, preliminary average THETA values are -4.79 for the El Salvador event, and -4.54 for the SEA-TAC earthquake. The former can thus be regarded as mildly fast, and comparable in this respect to the Oaxaca event of 30 September 1999. While not reaching the values observed in Chile (-4.0), the THETA value for the SEA-TAC earthquake qualifies the event as definitely "fast". We will present refined computations, including a reassessment of

  1. [Sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral profile of women infected with HTLV-1 in Salvador, Bahia, an endemic area for HTLV].

    PubMed

    Moxoto, Ivanoska; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Nunes, Ceuci; Mota, Augusto; Dumas, Alexandre; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral characteristics of women infected with HTLV-1 (64) and uninfected women (66) in Salvador, Bahia. The serological diagnosis was obtained via Elisa, Western Blot and Immunofluorescence. Epidemiological and sociodemographic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. The chi-squared or Fisher test was used for categorical data and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (3 groups) and the T-test or Mann-Whitney (2 groups) were used for continuous data. Associated variables were adjusted using logistic regression. More than half (57.8%) of the seropositive women were asymptomatic. The symptomatic women (with HAM/TSP) had fewer years of education. Comparison between seronegative and seropositive women showed that blood transfusion, anal sex practices, first sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years and three or more sexual partners over women's lifetime were risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. The prevention of both sexual transmission and vertical transmission (breastfeeding) should be reinforced. Prenatal screening is of paramount importance.

  2. Increased rates of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus outbreak in the Salvador metropolitan area, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Juliane M. A. S.; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R.; Percio, Jadher; Nóbrega, Martha E.; Vargas, Alexander; Lanzieri, Tatiana M.; Leite, Priscila L.; Staples, J. Erin; Fischer, Marc X.; Powers, Ann M.; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Burns, P. L.; Borland, Erin M.; Ledermann, Jeremy P.; Mossel, Eric C.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Belay, Ermias B.; Salinas, Jorge L.; Badaro, Roberto D.; Sejvar, James J.; Coelho, Giovanini E.

    2017-01-01

    In mid-2015, Salvador, Brazil, reported an outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), coinciding with the introduction and spread of Zika virus (ZIKV). We found that GBS incidence during April–July 2015 among those ≥12 years of age was 5.6 cases/100,000 population/year and increased markedly with increasing age to 14.7 among those ≥60 years of age. We conducted interviews with 41 case-patients and 85 neighborhood controls and found no differences in demographics or exposures prior to GBS-symptom onset. A higher proportion of case-patients (83%) compared to controls (21%) reported an antecedent illness (OR 18.1, CI 6.9–47.5), most commonly characterized by rash, headache, fever, and myalgias, within a median of 8 days prior to GBS onset. Our investigation confirmed an outbreak of GBS, particularly in older adults, that was strongly associated with Zika-like illness and geo-temporally associated with ZIKV transmission, suggesting that ZIKV may result in severe neurologic complications. PMID:28854206

  3. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cláudio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

  4. [Two surgery schools: Madrid and Barcelona. Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal (150th anniversary of their birth)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez de Quevedo, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Two eminent Spanish surgeons from the positivism period were born 150 years ago: Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal. To mark this anniversary I have studied their written work and their contribution to Spanish surgery as pioneers. Each school had its own place although they kept certain parallelism. Ribera worked in Madrid as a professor for 23 years and had many disciples. He initiated digestive, pediatric and thoracic surgery. He was a professor at San Carlos just like the surgeons: San Martín and Guedea. He was director of the Niño Jesús Hospital and a R. A. N. M. academic. Cardenal is a distinguished surgeon who carried out his work in Barcelona. He extended the use of the antiseptic method in Spanish surgery. He became Director of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital. He was also named Honorary professor of surgery and a member of the Royal School of Surgery in England, and R. A. Barcelona. His work was closely related to Dr. Ferrán's. His son was León Cardenal.

  5. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meats and prepared foods in public hospitals in salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens.

  6. [4 cases of annular pancreas at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Maroun Marun, C; Uscanga, L; Robles-Díaz, G; Campuzano Fernández, M

    1992-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly due to malrotation of the pancreatic ventral yolk. Although it has been described in young and middle age adults it predominates in children. Its clinical picture is that of duodenal obstruction or acute pancreatitis episodes. In this paper we report four cases of AP that were seen at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City. Three were females and three were less than twenty years old. In one case the diagnosis was established at birth and the operation done in another hospital. In another patient a diagnosis of pyloric hypertrophy was made and a pyloroplasty was performed. This young man was admitted in our hospital because of abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia. An eighty four year old woman was seen due to abdominal pain, nausea and vomit. In all cases the diagnosis of AP was carried out with radiological studies and confirmed by laparotomy. Surgical procedures consisted of duodenal-duodenal anastomosis in two, sphincteroplasty in one, and gastrojejunoanastomosis in the other. Two patients are asymptomatic, one died in the postoperative period, and one was lost for follow up. These four cases represent all the experience of our institute and correspond to one case in 36,735 admissions.

  7. [Retrospective evaluation of 500 endoscopic cholangiopancreatographies performed at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubiran"].

    PubMed

    Elizondo, J; Gallo, S; Valdovinos, M A; Paez, R

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated 500 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies (ERCP) performed on 422 patients during a 5-year period in the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Department, Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D.F. ERCP combines endoscopic and radiologic techniques in order to obtain high quality opacification of pancreatic and biliary ducts. The rate of success for cannulation was 90%; desired duct opacification was possible in 89%. The most frequent indication for ERCP was to establish the differential diagnosis for jaundice; biliary stones in the common bile duct was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by normal biliary ducts. Pancreatography was normal in 74% of patients. ERCP complications were detected in 5.6%; fever and transient pain was the most common complaint in 1.6%. Mortality attributable to the procedure was 0.8%. From histological corroboration of cases by surgery or postmortem studies, diagnostic sensitivity was 92%, specificity 76%, positive predictive value 96% and a prevalence of 89%. We conclude that ERCP is highly sensitive and specific in diagnosing bilio-pancreatic-duodenal disease. Our results are comparable to other's experiences published throughout the world.

  8. An 8000-year record of vegetation, climate, and human disturbance from the Sierra de Apaneca, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dull, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    An ˜8000-cal-yr stratigraphic record of vegetation change from the Sierra de Apaneca, El Salvador, documents a mid-Holocene warm phase, followed by late Holocene cooling. Pollen evidence reveals that during the mid-Holocene (˜8000-5500 cal yr B.P.) lowland tropical plant taxa were growing at elevations ˜200-250 m higher than at present, suggesting conditions about 1.0°C warmer than those prevailing today. Cloud forest genera ( Liquidambar, Juglans, Alnus, Ulmus) were also more abundant in the mid-Holocene, indicating greater cloud cover during the dry season. A gradual cooling and drying trend began by ˜5500 cal yr B.P., culminating in the modern forest composition by ˜3500 cal yr B.P. A rise in pollen from weedy plant taxa associated with agriculture occurred ˜5000 cal yr B.P., and pollen from Zea first appeared in the record at ˜4440 cal yr B.P. Human impacts on local vegetation remained high throughout the late Holocene, but decreased abruptly following the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ) eruption of Volcán Ilopango at ˜1520 cal yr B.P. The past 1500 years are marked by higher lake levels and periodic depositions of exogenous inorganic sediments, perhaps indicating increased climatic variability.

  9. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  10. Epidemic cholera in rural El Salvador: risk factors in a region covered by a cholera prevention campaign

    PubMed Central

    Quick, R. E.; Thompson, B. L.; Zuniga, A.; Dominguez, G.; De Brizuela, E. L.; De Palma, O.; Almeida, S.; Valencia, A.; Ries, A. A.; Bean, N. H.; Blake, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Latin American cholera epidemic, El Salvador began a prevention programme in April 1991. The first case was confirmed in August, and 700 cases were reported within 3 months. A matched case-control study was conducted in rural La Libertad Department in November 1991. Illness was associated with eating cold cooked or raw seafood (odds ratio [OR] = 7·0; 95% confidence limits [CL] = 1·4, 35·0) and with drinking water outside the home (OR = 8·8; 95% CL = 1·7, 44·6). Assertion of knowledge about how to prevent cholera (OR = 0·2; 95% CL = 0·1, 0·8) and eating rice (OR = 0·2; 95% CL = 0·1, 0·8) were protective. More controls than patients regularly used soap (OR = 0·3; 95% CL = 0·1, 1·0). This study demonstrated three important points for cholera prevention: (1) seafood should be eaten cooked and hot; (2) populations at risk should be taught to treat household drinking water and to avoid drinking water outside the home unless it is known to be treated; and (3) education about hygiene can be an important tool in preventing cholera. PMID:7705488

  11. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  12. Epidemic cholera in rural El Salvador: risk factors in a region covered by a cholera prevention campaign.

    PubMed

    Quick, R E; Thompson, B L; Zuniga, A; Dominguez, G; De Brizuela, E L; De Palma, O; Almeida, S; Valencia, A; Ries, A A; Bean, N H

    1995-04-01

    In response to the Latin American cholera epidemic, El Salvador began a prevention programme in April 1991. The first case was confirmed in August, and 700 cases were reported within 3 months. A matched case-control study was conducted in rural La Libertad Department in November 1991. Illness was associated with eating cold cooked or raw seafood (odds ratio [OR] = 7.0; 95% confidence limits [CL] = 1.4, 35.0) and with drinking water outside the home (OR = 8.8; 95% CL = 1.7, 44.6). Assertion of knowledge about how to prevent cholera (OR = 0.2; 95% CL = 0.1, 0.8) and eating rice (OR = 0.2; 95% CL = 0.1, 0.8) were protective. More controls than patients regularly used soap (OR = 0.3; 95% CL = 0.1, 1.0). This study demonstrated three important points for cholera prevention: (1) seafood should be eaten cooked and hot; (2) populations at risk should be taught to treat household drinking water and to avoid drinking water outside the home unless it is known to be treated; and (3) education about hygiene can be an important tool in preventing cholera.

  13. Increased rates of Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus outbreak in the Salvador metropolitan area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, Ashley R; Malta, Juliane M A S; Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Percio, Jadher; Nóbrega, Martha E; Vargas, Alexander; Lanzieri, Tatiana M; Leite, Priscila L; Staples, J Erin; Fischer, Marc X; Powers, Ann M; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Burns, P L; Borland, Erin M; Ledermann, Jeremy P; Mossel, Eric C; Schonberger, Lawrence B; Belay, Ermias B; Salinas, Jorge L; Badaro, Roberto D; Sejvar, James J; Coelho, Giovanini E

    2017-08-01

    In mid-2015, Salvador, Brazil, reported an outbreak of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), coinciding with the introduction and spread of Zika virus (ZIKV). We found that GBS incidence during April-July 2015 among those ≥12 years of age was 5.6 cases/100,000 population/year and increased markedly with increasing age to 14.7 among those ≥60 years of age. We conducted interviews with 41 case-patients and 85 neighborhood controls and found no differences in demographics or exposures prior to GBS-symptom onset. A higher proportion of case-patients (83%) compared to controls (21%) reported an antecedent illness (OR 18.1, CI 6.9-47.5), most commonly characterized by rash, headache, fever, and myalgias, within a median of 8 days prior to GBS onset. Our investigation confirmed an outbreak of GBS, particularly in older adults, that was strongly associated with Zika-like illness and geo-temporally associated with ZIKV transmission, suggesting that ZIKV may result in severe neurologic complications.

  14. An assessment of health sector guidelines and services for treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Billings, Deborah L; Paredes-Gaitan, Yolanda; Padilla Zuniga, Karen

    2012-12-01

    In Central America, approximately 12% of women report ever having been forced to have sex by an intimate male partner, and sexual violence by others is also a frequent experience. All Central American countries are signatories to human rights agreements that oblige States to ensure access to comprehensive health services for victims of sexual violence, but there is limited information as to whether these agreements have been translated into policy and practice. This article critically examines health sector guidelines for the treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and reports on an assessment of services in 34 private- and public-sector facilities in the four countries. Overall, policies were consistent with international agreements and included guidance on detection and documentation of violence, forensic examination, treatment, referral and follow-up care. However, only a small proportion of women who experience sexual violence actually seek care. The challenge facing all four countries is to turn policy into practice. Screening practices were inconsistent, and policies needed to indicate more clearly the roles and responsibilities of health care providers and forensic specialists. Finally, women's right to privacy and confidentiality in reports of cases to legal authorities needed further consideration, as well as the importance of providing all services at a single location. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Event centrality and posttraumatic outcomes in the context of pervasive violence: a study of teachers in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Roland, Ashli G; Currier, Joseph M; Rojas-Flores, Lisseth; Herrera, Sofia

    2014-05-01

    It is well established that the importance assigned to a trauma can affect one's recovery and psychological health in numerous ways. Event centrality is an increasingly popular construct that captures the tendency among survivors to reevaluate and possibly accommodate their worldviews posttrauma. The centrality given to trauma appears to serve as a "double-edged sword" in that this construct might factor prominently in both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic growth (PTG). Focusing on 257 violence-exposed teachers from educational departments throughout El Salvador, we examined whether the centrality assigned by the teachers to stressful life events uniquely predicted both PTSD symptomatology and PTG. Results revealed that event centrality was positively related to both PTSD and PTG, even when controlling for demographic factors, violence exposure, and depression. In addition, PTSD symptomatology and PTG were not associated with one another in this sample. In summary, these findings support the role of event centrality as a contributing factor for PTSD and PTG among persons exposed to pervasive trauma.

  16. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk reduction: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Abad, S.; González, M.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Medina, R.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan. The framework has been applied to the El Salvador case study, demonstrating its applicability to site-specific response times and population characteristics.

  17. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone by integrating geodetic, seismological and geological data: application in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, A.; Benito, B.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Hernández, D.; Hernández-Rey, R.

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90-100E direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  18. Unearthing The Eruptive Personality Of El Salvador's Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) Volcano Though In-depth Stratigraphic Analysis Of Pre-1904 Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallant, E.; Martinez-Hackert, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Santa Ana (Ilamatepec) volcano (2384 m) in densely populated El Salvador Central America presents serious volcanic hazard potential. The volcano is a prevalent part of every day life in El Salvador; the sugarcane and coffee belt of the country are to its Southern and Western flanks, recreational areas lies to its East, and second and third largest cities of El Salvador exist within its 25 km radius. Understanding the eruptive characteristics and history is imperative due to the volcano's relative size (the highest in the country) and it's explosive, composite nature. Historical records indicate at least 9 potential VEI 3 eruptions since 1521 AD. The volcano's relative inaccessibility and potential hazards do not promote a vast reservoir of research activity, as can be seen in the scarcity of published papers on topics prior to the 1904 eruption. This research represents the first steps towards creating a comprehensive stratigraphic record of the crater and characterizing its eruptive history, with an eventual goal of recreating the volcanic structure prior to its collapse. Samples of pre-1904 eruptive material were taken from the southern wall of an E-W oriented fluvial gully located within the SSW of the tertiary crater. These were analyzed using thin sections and optical microscopy, grain size distribution techniques, and scanning electron microscopy. The 15-layer sequence indicates an explosive history characterized by intense phreatomagmatic phases, plinian, sub-plinian and basaltic/andesitic composition strombolian activity. Another poster within the session will discuss an older sequence within the walls of the secondary crater. Further detailed studies will be required to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of Santa Ana Volcano.

  19. Drug resistance prevalence in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected pediatric populations in Honduras and El Salvador during 1989-2009.

    PubMed

    Holguín, Africa; Erazo, Karen; Escobar, Gustavo; de Mulder, Miguel; Yebra, Gonzalo; Martín, Leticia; Jovel, Luis Enrique; Castaneda, Luis; Pérez, Elsy

    2011-05-01

    Emergence of viral resistance is a major obstacle for antiretroviral treatment (ART) effectiveness. Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) variants and drug-resistance mutations were identified in naive and antiretroviral drug-experienced children with virologic failure, in Honduras and El Salvador. Dried blood spots (DBS) from 80 individuals (54 from Honduras, 26 from El Salvador) infected during their childhood between 1989 and 2009 were collected in 2009. The HIV pol region was amplified and sequenced to identify antiretroviral-resistant mutations according to the 2009 International AIDS Society. The genotypic drug resistance interpretation was performed using the Stanford algorithm. HIV-1 variants were characterized by phylogenetic analysis and subtyping tools. HIV-1 protease and reverse transcription sequences were obtained from DBS specimens in 71 and 66 patients, respectively, of the 80 patients. All children were native Central Americans carrying subtype B, with a mean age of 9 years, most were male (65%), perinatally infected (96%), with moderate/severe AIDS symptoms (70%), and receiving first line ART at the time of sequencing (65%). Diagnostic delay was frequently observed. Infected children from Honduras presented longer ART experience and clinical outcomes, and more frequent severe symptoms. Resistant variants infected 1 of 11 naive children from El Salvador but none of the perinatally infected naive children from Honduras. Resistance was higher among ART-exposed individuals in both countries and similar for protease inhibitors (16%), nucleoside reverse transcription inhibitors (44%-52%), and nonnucleoside reverse-transcription inhibitors (66.7%). One in 10 pretreated children in each country was infected with resistant viruses to the 3 drug families. Our data support the need for continued surveillance of resistance patterns using DBS at national levels among naive and pretreated children to optimize the ART regimens.

  20. Patterns and predictors of current cigarette smoking in women and men of reproductive age-Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras.

    PubMed

    Tong, Van T; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina M; Dietz, Patricia M; England, Lucinda J

    2011-09-01

    To estimate smoking prevalence by gender, describe patterns of cigarette use, and identify predictors of current smoking in reproductive-age adults in four Latin American countries. Self-reported smoking was examined using data from Reproductive Health Surveys of women aged 15-49 years in Ecuador (2004), El Salvador (2002-2003), Guatemala (2002), and Honduras (2001), and of men aged 15-59 years in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras for the same years. Current smoking was assessed by demographic characteristics, and independent associations were examined using logistic regression. Data were weighted to be nationally representative of households with reproductive-age women and men. Current smoking prevalence ranged from 2.6% (Guatemala) to 13.1% (Ecuador) for women and from 23.1% (Guatemala) to 34.9% (El Salvador) for men. In Ecuador, 67.6% of female smokers were non-daily users; in other countries, daily use was more prevalent than non-daily use for both men and women. In daily users, the median number of cigarettes smoked per day ranged from 1.9 (Ecuador, Honduras) to 2.3 (Guatemala) for women and from 2.1 (Guatemala) to 3.6 (Honduras) for men. In bivariate analysis, smoking prevalence in all countries was highest in women who lived in urban areas, were previously married, and/or had high socioeconomic status. Risk factors for smoking varied by country and gender. National tobacco control programs in these countries should aggressively target high-risk populations (reproductive-age men) and maintain low prevalence in low-risk populations (reproductive-age women). More research is needed to understand addiction patterns in non-daily smokers.

  1. Neotectonic deformation within an extensional stepover in El Salvador magmatic arc, Central America: Implication for the interaction of arc magmatism and deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, Nicolás; Tikoff, Basil; Hernández, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Dominantly westward movement of the El Salvador forearc at rates of 11 mm/yr is accommodated by a series of E-W to WNW oriented, dextral, strike-slip fault zones herein referred to as the El Salvador Fault System (ESFS). The geometry of the ESFS defines a series of extensional step-overs. Along the arc, basaltic volcanism in the stepovers is associated with NNW-oriented normal faults, whereas rhyolitic volcanism is associated with strike-slip fault zones of the ESFS. On the ESFS, the San Salvador Extensional Stepover (SSES) is bound to the south by the San Vicente fault zone, where the rhyolitic Ilopango caldera is located. In the SSES, tephras from Ilopango -the Tierra Blanca (TB) sequence- track long-term elongation. Older TB units (TB5-8) contain abundant normal faults; lying unconformably above these older TB units, younger TB members (TBJ, TB2-4) are generally unfaulted. Analyses of faults in TB5-8 indicate NE- to ENE-oriented elongation in the SSES. Deformation occurred between deposition of the TB4 and TB5 units, during quiescence of the Ilopango eruptive center. Using this temporal constraint, minimum elongation rates of 3.50 × 10- 15 s- 1, 2.06 × 10- 14 s- 1 and 4.42 × 10- 14 s- 1 were calculated for three traverses. From regional geodetic data and fault kinematics throughout El Salvador, we interpret the SSES as part of a series of pull-apart structures along the arc axis. The calculated paleostress orientations are consistent with a pull-apart geometry resulting from forearc movement. The extensional deformation occurs during a 50 k.y. lull in rhyolitic activity, suggesting an interplay between magmatism and deformation within the arc. During significant rhyolitic volcanic activity, only minor elongation is observed in the SSES, despite ongoing translation of the Salvadoran forearc. We speculate that rhyolitic magmatism along upper crustal faults may facilitate strike-slip movement on the ESFS, rather than distributing deformation throughout the

  2. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p < 0.05). No such relationship was found with less than weekly binge drinking. Among both MSM and TW, having a female partner was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 3.3, p < 0.05) and binge drinking at least weekly (aRRR = 3.4, p < 0.05), while disclosure of sexual orientation to multiple types of people was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 2.9 for disclosure to one-two types of people, p < 0.01; aRRR = 4.0 for disclosure to three-nine types of people, p < 0.01). No such relationship was found with at least weekly binge drinking. Binge drinking at least weekly was marginally associated with a number of sexual health outcomes, including high number of lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, p < 0.10), inconsistent condom use with a non-regular partner (aOR = 0.5, p < 0.10), and decreased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (a

  3. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  4. Disadvantaged pre-schoolers attending day care in Salvador, Northeast Brazil have a low prevalence of anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Lander, Rebecca L; Bailey, Karl B; Lander, Alastair G; Alsaleh, Abdulmonem A; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo C; Mattos, Angela P; Barreto, Danile L; Houghton, Lisa A; Morison, Ian M; Williams, Sheila M; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2014-09-01

    To examine the micronutrient status of disadvantaged pre-schoolers from Northeast Brazil, following the introduction of pro-poor policies, by assessing the prevalence of anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies and the role of sociodemographic factors, genetic Hb disorders and parasitic infections. In a cross-sectional study, data on sociodemographic status, health, growth, genetic Hb disorders, parasites and nutrient supply from day-care meals were obtained. Fasting blood samples were collected and analysed for Hb, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, folate, vitamin B₁₂, retinol, Zn and Se. Seven philanthropic day-care centres serving urban slums in Salvador, Northeast Brazil. Pre-schoolers aged 3-6 years from disadvantaged households. Of the 376 sampled children, 94 % were of black or mixed race; 33 % and 29 % had at least one genetic Hb disorder and intestinal parasite, respectively. Stunting and underweight were ≤5 %; 14 % were overweight. Day-care centres supplied micronutrient-dense meals and snacks each weekday. Less than 10 % of pre-schoolers had anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies. Predictors (P < 0·05) of Hb were α(3·7) thalassaemia, Se and retinol (but not ferritin). Micronutrient predictors (P < 0·05) were: elevated α₁-glycoprotein for ferritin, Hb AS and BMI Z-score >1 for transferrin receptor, Zn and elevated α₁-glycoprotein for retinol, sex and helminths for Se, helminths for vitamin B₁₂, and Giardia intestinalis infection for serum folate. Impaired growth, anaemia and micronutrient deficiencies were uncommon among these disadvantaged pre-schoolers attending day care. A range of interventions including provision of micronutrient-dense, fortified day-care meals, deworming and vitamin A supplementation likely contributed to improved micronutrient status, suggesting expanded coverage of these programmes.

  5. Hepatitis C virus infection and spontaneous clearance in HTLV-1 and HIV co-infected patients in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Le Marchand, Chloe; Bahia, Fabianna; Page, Kimberly; Brites, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    While 20-40% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfection will spontaneously clear the virus, less is known regarding clearance with coinfections. HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) coinfection occurs due to shared routes of transmission and is prevalent in Brazil. To compare the proportion of patients who have spontaneously cleared HCV in patients with HCV monoinfection to patients coinfected by HCV/HIV, or HCV/HIV/HTLV-1. Using medical records from two clinics in Salvador, Brazil, including demographic data and serological markers of HCV, HIV and HTLV-I/II, cross-sectional data was obtained from 197 patients. Patients who were anti-HCV positive and HCV RNA negative, and who did not receive HCV treatment were defined as having cleared infection. Nineteen patients (9.5%) showed evidence of spontaneous HCV clearance; with clearance in 9 of 108 (8.3%) patients in the HCV monoinfected group, 5 of 68 (7.4%) patients with HCV/HIV, and 5 of 21 (23.8%) patients with HCV/HIV/HTLV. Demographic data were not associated with HCV clearance status. Patients coinfected with both HIV and HTLV-1 had increased odds (5.50; 95% CI 1.00, 30.17) of spontaneous clearance of HCV compared with patients who were HIV negative or of unknown HIV status. Our study found that patients coinfected with HIV and HTLV-1 were more likely to spontaneously clear hepatitis C virus than patients with HIV/HCV or HCV alone. The effects of HTLV coinfection on the immune response of such patients may be associated with these findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Understanding the complex determinants of height and adiposity in disadvantaged daycare preschoolers in Salvador, NE Brazil through structural equation modelling.

    PubMed

    Lander, Rebecca L; Williams, Sheila M; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Mattos, Angela P; Barreto, Danile L; Houghton, Lisa A; Bailey, Karl B; Lander, Alastair G; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2015-10-23

    Earlier we reported on growth and adiposity in a cross-sectional study of disadvantaged Brazilian preschoolers. Here we extend the work on these children, using structural equation modelling (SEM) to gather information on the complex relationships between the variables influencing height and adiposity. We hope this information will help improve the design and effectiveness of future interventions for preschoolers. In 376 preschoolers aged 3-6 years attending seven philanthropic daycares in Salvador, we used SEM to examine direct and indirect relationships among biological (sex, ethnicity, birth order, maternal height and weight), socio-economic, micronutrient (haemoglobin, serum selenium and zinc), and environmental (helminths, de-worming) variables on height and adiposity, as reflected by Z-scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ). Of the children, 11 % had HAZ < -1, 15 % had WHZ < -1, and 14 % had BMIZ > 1. Of their mothers, 8 % had short stature, and 50 % were overweight or obese. Based on standardized regression coefficients, significant direct effects (p < 0.05) for HAZ were maternal height (0.39), being white (-0.07), having helminth infection (-0.09), and serum zinc (-0.11). For BMIZ, significant direct effects were maternal weight (0.21), extremely low SES (-0.15), and haemoglobin (0.14). Indirect (p < 0.05) effects for HAZ were sex (being male) (-0.02), helminth infection (-0.01), de-worming treatment (0.01), and serum selenium (-0.02), and for BMIZ were extremely low SES (-0.001), helminth infection (-0.004), and serum selenium (0.02). Of the multiple factors influencing preschoolers' growth, helminth infection was a modifiable risk factor directly and indirectly affecting HAZ and BMIZ, respectively. Hence the WHO de-worming recommendation should include preschoolers living in at-risk environments as well as school-aged children.

  7. Acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling for HPV DNA testing among women in rural El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Alan J; Gage, Julia C; Alfaro, Karla M; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Villalta, Sofia; Miranda, Esmeralda; Cremer, Miriam L

    2014-08-01

    To determine the acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling among women participating in public sector HPV-based cervical cancer screening in El Salvador. Two thousand women aged 30-49 years underwent self-collected and provider-collected sampling with careHPV between October 2012 and March 2013 (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). After sample collection, a random sample of women (n=518) were asked about their experience. Participants were questioned regarding sampling method preference, previous cervical cancer screening, HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, HPV risk factors, and demographic information. All 518 women approached to participate in this questionnaire study agreed and were enrolled, 27.8% (142 of 511 responding) of whom had not received cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years and were considered under-screened. Overall, 38.8% (n=201) preferred self-collection and 31.9% (n=165) preferred provider collection. Self-collection preference was associated with prior tubal ligation, HPV knowledge, future self-sampling preference, and future home-screening preference (P<0.05). Reasons for self-collection preference included privacy/embarrassment, ease, and less pain; reasons cited for provider-collection preference were result accuracy and provider knowledge/experience. Self-sampling was found to be acceptable, therefore screening programs could consider offering this option either in the clinic or at home. Self-sampling at home may increase coverage in low-resource countries and reduce the burden that screening places upon clinical infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of a low-cost liquid-based Pap test in rural El Salvador: a split-sample study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jin; Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Felix, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    We sought to test the diagnostic efficacy of a low-cost, liquid-based cervical cytology that could be implemented in low-resource settings. A prospective, split-sample Pap study was performed in 595 women attending a cervical cancer screening clinic in rural El Salvador. Collected cervical samples were used to make a conventional Pap (cell sample directly to glass slide), whereas residual material was used to make the liquid-based sample using the ClearPrep method. Selected samples were tested from the residual sample of the liquid-based collection for the presence of high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Of 595 patients, 570 were interpreted with the same diagnosis between the 2 methods (95.8% agreement). There were comparable numbers of unsatisfactory cases; however, ClearPrep significantly increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and decreased the diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. ClearPrep identified an equivalent number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases as the conventional Pap. High-risk human papillomavirus was identified in all cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer as well as in 78% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions out of the residual fluid of the ClearPrep vials. The low-cost ClearPrep Pap test demonstrated equivalent detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with the conventional Pap smear and demonstrated the potential for ancillary molecular testing. The test seems a viable option for implementation in low-resource settings.

  9. Coverage of HIV prevention components among people with long-standing diagnosed HIV infection in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jerry O; Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Lee, Janet C; Isabel Nieto, Ana; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-09-01

    There is scarce information on prevention coverage and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in people with HIV in resource-limited settings. Six hundred eighty nine sexually active people diagnosed with HIV ≥12 months before the study, including 110 men who have sex with men, 237 heterosexual men, and 342 women, were recruited from HIV support groups and hospitals in El Salvador and completed self-administered computer-assisted questionnaires and STI testing. Logistic models identified correlates of exposure to posttest counseling (POC) and subsequent prevention interventions (PIs). Past-year transmission risk factors included unprotected sex with noncommercial partners (28.7%), having multiple sex partners (76.4%), a casual sex partner (31.4%), selling (3.5%) and purchasing sex (6.4%), herpes simplex virus type 2 (86.3%), and treatable STIs (18.6%). Men who have sex with men reported more recent casual partners, sex work, and alcohol and drug use than other subgroups. POC (22.8%), PIs (31.3%), and access to advice and information regarding HIV at the point of HIV care (24.1%) were limited. Of subjects with past-year STI symptoms (N = 267), 44.1% had sought medical attention. In multivariate analysis, POC was negatively associated with multiple partners. PI was associated with self-initiated testing, treatable STIs, and female sex. Both outcomes were associated with HIV-related discrimination outside of the health services context. Coverage of POC, PIs, and treatment-seeking for STI symptoms was low among individuals with diagnosed HIV infection, although most were in regular contact with care and treatment. Prevention programs at testing and treatment sites should be intensified and should incorporate risk behavior screening to improve targeting.

  10. Zoonotic potential of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli obtained from healthy poultry carcasses in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Martins, Liliane Vilela; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ventura, Roberta Ferreira; Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Silva, Ayrles Fernanda Brandão; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Vaz, Renata Valença; Rabello, Carlos Boa-Viagem; Silva, Isabella de Matos Mendes da; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    The zoonotic potential to cause human and/or animal infections among multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from avian origin was investigated. Twenty-seven extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates containing the increased survival gene (iss) were obtained from the livers of healthy and diseased poultry carcasses at two slaughterhouses in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted with antibiotics of avian and/or human use by the standardized disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was higher for levofloxacin (51.8%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (70.4%), ampicillin (81.5%), cefalotin (88.8%), tetracycline (100%) and streptomycin (100%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations above the resistance breakpoints of doxycycline, neomycin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin reached, respectively, 88.0%, 100%, 75% and 91.7% of the isolates. Strains with high and low antimicrobial resistance were i.p. administered to Swiss mice, and histopathological examination was carried out seven days after infection. Resistance to goat and human serum complement was also evaluated. The results show that Swiss mice challenged with strain 2B (resistant to 11 antimicrobials) provoked a severe degeneration of hepatocytes besides lymphocytic infiltration in the liver, whereas the spleen showed areas of degeneration of the white and red pulp. Conversely, the spleen and liver of mice challenged with strain 4A (resistant to two antimicrobials) were morphologically preserved. In addition, complement resistance to goat and human serum was high for strain 2B and low for strain 4A. Our data show that multidrug resistance and pathogenesis can be correlated in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains obtained from apparently healthy poultry carcasses, increasing the risk for human public healthy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. The 2012 August 27 Mw7.3 El Salvador earthquake: expression of weak coupling on the Middle America subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, Halldor; LaFemina, Peter C.; DeMets, Charles; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Mattioli, Glen S.; Rogers, Robert; Rodriguez, Manuel; Marroquin, Griselda; Tenorio, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Subduction zones exhibit variable degrees of interseismic coupling as resolved by inversions of geodetic data and analyses of seismic energy release. The degree to which a plate boundary fault is coupled can have profound effects on its seismogenic behaviour. Here we use GPS measurements to estimate co- and post-seismic deformation from the 2012 August 27, Mw7.3 megathrust earthquake offshore El Salvador, which was a tsunami earthquake. Inversions of estimated coseismic displacements are in agreement with published seismically derived source models, which indicate shallow (<20 km depth) rupture of the plate interface. Measured post-seismic deformation in the first year following the earthquake exceeds the coseismic deformation. Our analysis indicates that the post-seismic deformation is dominated by afterslip, as opposed to viscous relaxation, and we estimate a post-seismic moment release one to eight times greater than the coseismic moment during the first 500 d, depending on the relative location of coseismic versus post-seismic slip on the plate interface. We suggest that the excessive post-seismic motion is characteristic for the El Salvador-Nicaragua segment of the Central American margin and may be a characteristic of margins hosting tsunami earthquakes.

  12. Numerical modelling of rapid, flow-like landslides across 3-D terrains: a Tsunami Squares approach to El Picacho landslide, El Salvador, September 19, 1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiajia; Ward, Steven N.; Xiao, Lili

    2015-06-01

    Flow-like landslides are rapidly moving fluid-solid mixtures that can cause significant destruction along paths that run far from their original sources. Existing models for run out prediction and motion simulation of flow-like landslides have many limitations. In this paper, we develop a new method named `Tsunami Squares' to simulate the generation, propagation and stoppage of flow-like landslides based on conservation of volume and momentum. Landslide materials in the new method form divisible squares that are displaced, then further fractured. The squares move under the influence of gravity-driven acceleration and suffer decelerations due to basal and dynamic frictions. Distinctively, this method takes into account solid and fluid mechanics, particle interactions and flow regime transitions. We apply this approach to simulate the 1982 El Picacho landslide in San Salvador, capital city of El Salvador. Landslide products from Tsunami Squares such as run out distance, velocities, erosion and deposition depths and impacted area agree well with field investigated and eyewitness data.

  13. Tectonic interpretation of the 13 february 2001, mw 6.6, El Salvador Earthquake: New evidences of coseismic surface rupture and paleoseismic activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Canora, C.; Villamor, P.; Capote, R.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Berryman, K.; Bejar, M.; Tsige, M.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2001 a major strike slip earthquake stroke the central part of El Salvador causing hundreds of people killed, thousands injured and extensive damage. After this event the scientific effort was mainly focused on the study of the enormous and catastrophic landslides triggered by this event and no evidences of surface faulting were detected. This earthquake was produced by the reactivation of the Ilopango-San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Recently, a surface rupture displacement on the ground was identified. The analysis of aerial and field photographs taken few hours after the event and the mapping of the conserved ground structures shows a pure strike-slip displacement ranging from 20 to 50 cm, with secondary features indicating dextral shearing. The paleoseismic analysis made through the excavation of six trenches and Radiocarbon dating indicate a minimum slip rate of 2.0 mm/yr and a recurrence of major ruptures (Mw > 6.5) lower than 500 yr. These evidences give interesting local data to increase our understanding about the tectonic behavior and the way how active deformation develops along the northern limit of the forearc sliver related to the Centroamerican subduction area.

  14. Study of the Contribution of Population Education to Educational Renewal and Innovation in El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines and Tunisia. Co-ordinated Action Programme for the Advancement of Population Education (CAPAPE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Population Education Section.

    Presented are four national case studies carried out by the Population Education Section of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (Unesco). Designed to assess the effects of population education programs on the educational process, these research projects focused on El Salvador, The Republic of Korea, Philippines,…

  15. Implications of different digital elevation models and preprocessing techniques to delineate debris flow inundation hazard zones in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, E. R.; Griffin, R.; Irwin, D.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rains and steep, volcanic slopes in El Salvador cause numerous landslides every year, posing a persistent threat to the population, economy and environment. Although potential debris inundation hazard zones have been delineated using digital elevation models (DEMs), some disparities exist between the simulated zones and actual affected areas. Moreover, these hazard zones have only been identified for volcanic lahars and not the shallow landslides that occur nearly every year. This is despite the availability of tools to delineate a variety of landslide types (e.g., the USGS-developed LAHARZ software). Limitations in DEM spatial resolution, age of the data, and hydrological preprocessing techniques can contribute to inaccurate hazard zone definitions. This study investigates the impacts of using different elevation models and pit filling techniques in the final debris hazard zone delineations, in an effort to determine which combination of methods most closely agrees with observed landslide events. In particular, a national DEM digitized from topographic sheets from the 1970s and 1980s provide an elevation product at a 10 meter resolution. Both natural and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain limit the accuracy of current landslide hazard assessments derived from this source. Global products from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global DEM (ASTER GDEM) offer more recent data but at the cost of spatial resolution. New data derived from the NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) in 2013 provides the opportunity to update hazard zones at a higher spatial resolution (approximately 6 meters). Hydrological filling of sinks or pits for current hazard zone simulation has previously been achieved through ArcInfo spatial analyst. Such hydrological processing typically only fills pits and can lead to drastic modifications of original elevation values

  16. Predicting carbon benefits from climate-smart agriculture: High-resolution carbon mapping and uncertainty assessment in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Coops, Nicholas C; Chan, Kai M A; Fonte, Steven J; Siles, Pablo; Smukler, Sean M

    2017-11-01

    Agroforestry management in smallholder agriculture can provide climate change mitigation and adaptation benefits and has been promoted as 'climate-smart agriculture' (CSA), yet has generally been left out of international and voluntary carbon (C) mitigation agreements. A key reason for this omission is the cost and uncertainty of monitoring C at the farm scale in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes. A largely overlooked alternative is to monitor C at more aggregated scales and develop C contracts with groups of land owners, community organizations or C aggregators working across entire landscapes (e.g., watersheds, communities, municipalities, etc.). In this study we use a 100-km(2) agricultural area in El Salvador to demonstrate how high-spatial resolution optical satellite imagery can be used to map aboveground woody biomass (AGWB) C at the landscape scale with very low uncertainty (95% probability of a deviation of less than 1%). Uncertainty of AGWB-C estimates remained low (<5%) for areas as small as 250 ha, despite high uncertainties at the farm and plot scale (34-99%). We estimate that CSA adoption could more than double AGWB-C stocks on agricultural lands in the study area, and that utilizing AGWB-C maps to target denuded areas could increase C gains per unit area by 46%. The potential value of C credits under a plausible adoption scenario would range from $38,270 to $354,000 yr(-1) for the study area, or about $13 to $124 ha(-1) yr(-1), depending on C prices. Considering farm sizes in smallholder landscapes rarely exceed 1-2 ha, relying solely on direct C payments to farmers may not lead to widespread CSA adoption, especially if farm-scale monitoring is required. Instead, landscape-scale approaches to C contracting, supported by satellite-based monitoring methods such as ours, could be a key strategy to reduce costs and uncertainty of C monitoring in heterogeneous smallholder landscapes, thereby incentivizing more widespread CSA adoption. Copyright

  17. Osteoporosis-related life habits and knowledge about osteoporosis among women in El Salvador: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Rauda, Roberto; Martinez-Garcia, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder, characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone structure, increased bone fragility, and increased fracture risk. It is more frequent to find among women than men at a 4:1 ratio. Evidence suggests that to adopt changes on some life habits can prevent or delay development of osteoporosis. Several osteoporosis-risk factors have been confirmed in the US and western Europe, but in El Salvador there are neither reliable epidemiological statistics about this skeletal disorder nor studies addressing osteoporosis-risk factors in women. The aim of this study was to determinate the extent of osteoporosis knowledge, the levels of both daily calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity, and the influence of several osteoporosis-risk factors on these variables in three age groups of Salvadorean women. Methods In this exploratory cross-sectional study, an osteoporosis knowledge assessment questionnaire incluiding a food frequency and a physical activity record section were used to collect data and it was delivered through a face-to-face interview. A convenience sample (n = 197) comprised of three groups of women aged 25–35 years, 36–49 years, and over 49 years was taken. Among-group comparisons of means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. To determinate the overall influence of osteoporosis-risk factors, the multivariate analysis was used. Results Study results indicated that better educated women had more knowledge about osteoporosis than women with a low education level, regardless of age, even though this knowledge was rather fair. Older women got more weight-bearing physical activity at home and less at place of employment than reported by the younger women; however, neither group performed sufficient high-intensity WBPA to improve bone mass. Regardless of age, the most women consumed 60% or less than the Dietary Reference Intake of calcium and depend on household income, lactose intolerance and coffee

  18. A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E; Selwyn, BJ; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and distribution of youth health risk behaviors from five risk behavior domains–aggression, victimization, depression and suicidal ideation, substance use, and sexual behaviors–among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. Methods We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire based on the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Sixteen schools and 982 students aged 12–20 years participated in the study. Results Health risk behaviors with highest prevalence rates included: engagement in physical fight (32.1%); threatened/injured with a weapon (19.9%); feelings of sadness/hopelessness (32.2%); current cigarette use (13.6%); and no condom use at last sexual intercourse (69.1%). Urban and male students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of most youth risk behaviors; female students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of feelings of sadness/hopelessness (35.6%), suicidal ideation (17.9%) and, among the sexually experienced, forced sexual intercourse (20.6%). Conclusion A high percentage of Salvadoran adolescents in this sample engaged in health risk behaviors, warranting enhanced adolescent health promotion strategies. Future health promotion efforts should target: the young age of sexual intercourse as well as low condom use among students, the higher prevalence of risk behaviors among urban students, and the important gender differences in risk behaviors, including the higher

  19. Dyslipidemia, Diet and Physical Exercise in Children on Treatment With Antiretroviral Medication in El Salvador: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Sonego, Michela; Sagrado, Maria José; Escobar, Gustavo; Lazzerini, Marzia; Rivas, Estefanie; Martín-Cañavate, Rocio; Pérez de López, Elsy; Ayala, Sandra; Castaneda, Luis; Aparicio, Pilar; Custodio, Estefanía

    2016-10-01

    Dyslipidemias are common in HIV-infected children, especially if treated with protease inhibitors, but there are few data on how to treat dyslipidemias in this population. We estimated the dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with treatment, diet and physical exercise in children on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). Information was gathered regarding socio-demographic characteristics, treatment, diet and physical activity of 173 children aged 5-18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), viral load and CD4 T-lymphocytes were measured. Abnormal concentrations were defined as triglycerides ≥130 mg/dL in 10- to 18-year olds and ≥100 mg/dL in <10-year olds; total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL; LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL and HDL-C ≤35 mg/dL. We adjusted 4 different multivariate models to assess the independent association of each type of dyslipidemia with protease inhibitors, diet and physical exercise. Of the 173 children, 83 (48%) had hypertriglyceridemia and 25 (14.5%) hypercholesterolemia. High LDL-C concentrations were observed in 17 children (9.8%) and low HDL-C in 38 (22%). Treatment with protease inhibitors was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0-3.8] and hypercholesterolemia (PR 9.0; 95% CI: 3.6-22.2). Higher adherence to a "high fat/sugar diet" was associated with hypercholesterolemia (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3) and high LDL-C (PR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0-2.9). Compared with those exercising <3 times/week, children exercising ≥7 times were less likely to have low HDL-C (PR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2-0.7). These results suggest that a healthy diet and exercise habits can contribute to controlling some aspects of the lipid profile in this population.

  20. Initial Analysis of Inner Crater Eruptive Deposits and Modeling of the 2005 Eruption of Ilamatepec (Santa Ana) Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    The October 1st, 2005 eruption of Ilamatepec Volcano, also known as Santa Ana Volcano in El Salvador, Central America, was a relatively small phreatic possibly phreatomagmatic eruption that generated an approximately 10km high ash column, with a volume of 1.5 million cubic meters. It generated small pyroclastic density currents, and shortly after the eruption a hot lahar. All of these volcanic products present grat danger to the surrounding population and the surrounding fertile lands growing coffe and sugar cane, the major export products. To better understand the eruptive behavior of this active composite volcano, older deposits need to be studied. An initial analysis of the inner crater eruptive deposits was undertaken in 2011. The many layers that can be seen within the crater suggest that Santa Ana volcano alternates its eruptions from phreatic to phreatomagmatic to magmatic, back to phreatomagmatic to phreatic with a period of rest in between. The last magmatic eruption of the Santa Ana Volcano took place in 1904. There are some historical records of it, and the scoracious materials and lava flows can still be well traced on the flanks and the crater of Ilamatepec, while the 2005 eruption has been eroded away in most areas of the flanks. Observations and data collected in 2005 and 2011 indicate that pyroclastic density currents went not only to the Southeastern flanks of the volcano, but also towards the Northwestern flanks, an area behind the highest rim of the volcano. Deposits up to 0.5 m were found in 2011, after significant erosion already had taken place. We present here the partial stratigraphic column taken within the inner crater walls that indicate alternating eruption styles from eruptions well pre-1904, with radiocarbon dating pending. Additionally, we show the results of the modeling of pyroclastic deposits, and lahars using Titan2D on DEMs extracted from the only topographic map (pre-1980) which has a 10 m resolution of the volcano, and a DEM

  1. Dyslipidemia, Diet and Physical Exercise in Children on Treatment With Antiretroviral Medication in El Salvador: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sonego, Michela; Sagrado, Maria José; Escobar, Gustavo; Lazzerini, Marzia; Rivas, Estefanie; Martín-Cañavate, Rocio; Pérez de López, Elsy; Ayala, Sandra; Castaneda, Luis; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemias are common in HIV-infected children, especially if treated with protease inhibitors, but there are few data on how to treat dyslipidemias in this population. We estimated the dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with treatment, diet and physical exercise in children on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). Methods: Information was gathered regarding socio-demographic characteristics, treatment, diet and physical activity of 173 children aged 5–18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), viral load and CD4 T-lymphocytes were measured. Abnormal concentrations were defined as triglycerides ≥130 mg/dL in 10- to 18-year olds and ≥100 mg/dL in <10-year olds; total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL; LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL and HDL-C ≤35 mg/dL. We adjusted 4 different multivariate models to assess the independent association of each type of dyslipidemia with protease inhibitors, diet and physical exercise. Results: Of the 173 children, 83 (48%) had hypertriglyceridemia and 25 (14.5%) hypercholesterolemia. High LDL-C concentrations were observed in 17 children (9.8%) and low HDL-C in 38 (22%). Treatment with protease inhibitors was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–3.8] and hypercholesterolemia (PR 9.0; 95% CI: 3.6–22.2). Higher adherence to a “high fat/sugar diet” was associated with hypercholesterolemia (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.3) and high LDL-C (PR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0–2.9). Compared with those exercising <3 times/week, children exercising ≥7 times were less likely to have low HDL-C (PR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7). Conclusions: These results suggest that a healthy diet and exercise habits can contribute to controlling some aspects of the lipid profile in this population. PMID:27254031

  2. Is There a Home Advantage in School Readiness for Young Children? Trends in Parent Engagement in Cognitive Activities with Young Children, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Maryellen

    2015-01-01

    The desire to understand the "home advantage" has spurred a large body of research describing the contribution of differences in family background and parenting styles to school readiness and the achievement gap. Using the National Household Education Survey at two time points provides a fuller picture of the trends in parenting and…

  3. Caller Characteristics, Call Contents, and Types of Assistance Provided by Caller Sex and Age Group in a Canadian Inuit Crisis Line in Nunavut, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Josephine C. H.; Maranzan, Kathryn Amanda; Boone, Margaret; Vander Velde, John; Levy, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of calls made to a northern Canadian Inuit crisis line in the territory of Nunavut between 1991 and 2001 revealed that the majority of users were adult females who called to discuss problems primarily related to relationships and loneliness/boredom. Younger callers tended to make prank calls. The volunteer staff used mostly empathetic…

  4. Caller Characteristics, Call Contents, and Types of Assistance Provided by Caller Sex and Age Group in a Canadian Inuit Crisis Line in Nunavut, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Josephine C. H.; Maranzan, Kathryn Amanda; Boone, Margaret; Vander Velde, John; Levy, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of calls made to a northern Canadian Inuit crisis line in the territory of Nunavut between 1991 and 2001 revealed that the majority of users were adult females who called to discuss problems primarily related to relationships and loneliness/boredom. Younger callers tended to make prank calls. The volunteer staff used mostly empathetic…

  5. Is There a Home Advantage in School Readiness for Young Children? Trends in Parent Engagement in Cognitive Activities with Young Children, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Maryellen

    2015-01-01

    The desire to understand the "home advantage" has spurred a large body of research describing the contribution of differences in family background and parenting styles to school readiness and the achievement gap. Using the National Household Education Survey at two time points provides a fuller picture of the trends in parenting and…

  6. Are health inequalities between differently deprived areas evident at different ages? A longitudinal study of census records in England and Wales, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Boyle, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The notion that mortality inequalities between differently deprived areas vary by age is logical since not all causes of death increase in risk with age and not all causes of death are related to the gradient of deprivation. In addition to the cause-age and cause-deprivation relationships, population migration may redistribute the population such that the health-deprivation relationship varies by age. We calculate cross-sectional all cause mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) rate ratios of most to least deprived areas to demonstrate inequalities at different ages. We use longitudinal data to investigate whether there are changes in the distribution of cohorts between differently deprived areas over time and whether gradients of LLTI with deprivation also change. We find similar deprivation inequalities by age for all cause mortality and self-reported health with less inequality for young adults and the elderly but the greatest inequalities during mid life. Over time there are systematic movements of cohorts between differently deprived areas and associated increases and decreases in the gradient of LLTI across deprivation. It seems likely that population migration does influence inequalities by age. Further work should investigate whether the situation exists for other morbidities and, to better inform public health policy, whether restricting summary measures of area health to ages between 30 and 60 when inequalities are greatest will highlight between area differences.

  7. Activities of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in the upper Snake River Basin, Idaho and western Wyoming, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Walton H.

    1997-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a full-scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. The long-term goals of the NAWQA Program are to describe the status and trends in the water quality of a large part of the Nation's rivers and aquifers and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors that affect water-quality conditions. In meeting these goals, the program will produce water-quality, ecological, and geographic information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the national, State, and local levels. A major component of the program is study-unit investigations, upon which national-level assessment activities are based. The program's 60 study-unit investigations are associated with principal river basins and aquifer systems throughout the Nation. Study units encompass areas from 1,200 to more than 65,000 mi2 (square miles) and incorporate about 60 to 70 percent of the Nation's water use and population served by public water supply. In 1991, the upper Snake River Basin was among the first 20 NAWQA study units selected for implementation. From 1991 to 1995, a high-intensity data-collection phase of the upper Snake River Basin study unit (fig. 1) was implemented and completed. Components of this phase are described in a report by Gilliom and others (1995). In 1997, a low-intensity phase of data collection began, and work continued on data analysis, report writing, and data documentation and archiving activities that began in 1996. Principal data-collection activities during the low-intensity phase will include monitoring of surface-water and ground-water quality, assessment of aquatic biological conditions, and continued compilation of environmental setting information.

  8. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  9. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  10. Analysis of rainfall-triggered landslide hazards through the dynamic integration of remotely sensed, modeled and in situ environmental factors in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric Ross

    Landslides pose a persistent threat to El Salvador's population, economy and environment. Government officials share responsibility in managing this hazard by alerting populations when and where landslides may occur as well as developing and enforcing proper land use and zoning practices. This thesis addresses gaps in current knowledge between identifying precisely when and where slope failures may initiate and outlining the extent of the potential debris inundation areas. Improvements on hazard maps are achieved by considering a series of environmental variables to determine causal factors through spatial and temporal analysis techniques in Geographic Information Systems and remote sensing. The output is a more dynamic tool that links high resolution geomorphic and hydrological factors to daily precipitation. Directly incorporable into existing decision support systems, this allows for better disaster management and is transferable to other developing countries.

  11. Use of strontium isotopes to constrain the timing and mode of dolomitization of upper Cenozoic sediments in a core from San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swart, Peter K.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Holmes, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and the activity ratios of 234U/238U and 230Th/238U have been measured in dolomites from a 168-m-deep core taken on the island of San Salvador, Bahamas. These data suggest two periods of dolomitization. The first episode dolomitized Miocene age sediments during the latest Miocene, and the second dolomitized the Pliocene portion of the core and was still active as recently as 150 ka. The late timing of the second episode argues against penecontemporaneous models of dolomitization for the Pliocene sediments. Instead, dolomitization is favored either as a result of mixing-zone development during the large Pleistocene sea-level changes or by movement of seawater through the platform.

  12. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  13. Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm

  14. High cadmium residues observed during a pilot study in shorebirds and their prey downstream from the El Salvador copper mine, Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeer, K. ); Castilla, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Untreated mining wastes, at the rate of 39,000 tons per day, are discharged through a semi-artificial canal directly to the marine shore from the El Salvador copper mine in northern Chile. The tailings were deposited on a sandy beach near Chanaral between 1938 and 1974 and since 1975 at Caleta Palito, 8 km north of Chanaral. Since no chemical analyses of marine organisms have been conducted along the 20 km beach area contaminated with tailings, a pilot study was initiated in the last weeks of November 1981 and March 1982 to determine cadmium and copper residues in discharged mine tailings on the beach deposits, algae, marine invertebrates, shorebirds and prey from their stomachs. The results of the analyses are presented here.

  15. [Building bridges: interdisciplinarity in practice. PopTrans Study: a study with transvestites and transsexual women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dourado, Ines; Silva, Luís Augusto V da; Magno, Laio; Lopes, Maycon; Cerqueira, Caio; Prates, Adriana; Brignol, Sandra; MacCarthy, Sarah

    2016-10-10

    Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C. The article is intended to describe the experience with the implementation and development of an ethno-epidemiological study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Mapping the population began with a formative survey that was crucial for orienting the epidemiological survey. The production of ethno-epidemiological data posed a daily challenge for the researchers, triggering a series of reflections on the limits of our concepts and categories for translating the diversity of study participants' practices and experiences.

  16. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  17. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  18. Prevalence of transmitted HIV-1 drug resistance among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Wendy; Lorenzana de Rivera, Ivette; Albert, Jan; Guardado, María Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    Transmitted drug resistance has important implications for the successful use and management of therapy among persons infected with HIV. We estimated the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance in 145 samples from female sex workers (n = 47) and men who have sex with men (n = 98) in El Salvador. Samples were collected during March to September 2008, using a respondent driven sampling. The HIV-1 pol gene was sequenced to identify drug resistance mutations and transmitted drug resistance was scored as recommended by World Health Organization. Specimens were classified as recent or established infections using the Immunoglobulin G-Capture BED-Enzyme Immunoassay. The overall prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was 9.4% (95% CI: 4.7-16.1%), and was 5.9% for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 4.2% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and 0.8% for protease inhibitors. Transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 10.3% (95% CI: 2.8-24.2%) among female sex workers, and 9.0% (95% CI: 3.6-17.6%) among men who have sex with men. Nineteen patients were classified as having recent infection (16.2%, 95% CI: 10.1-24.2%), while 98 patients (83.8%, 95% CI: 75.8-89.9%) were classified as having established infections. Transmitted drug resistance among recent and established infections was similar at 10.5% and 9.2%, respectively. This study shows that the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance is moderate among female sex workers and men who have sex with men in El Salvador. These results highlight the importance of transmitted drug resistance surveillance in a representative sample of recently infected patients following the World Health Organization guidelines. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Factors affecting attendance to cervical cancer screening among women in the Paracentral Region of El Salvador: a nested study within the CAPE HPV screening program.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Karla M; Gage, Julia C; Rosenbaum, Alan J; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Miranda, Esmeralda; Villalta, Sofia; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam L

    2015-10-16

    Cervical cancer is the third most commonly occurring cancer among women and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide, with more than 85 % of these cases occurring in developing countries. These global disparities reflect the differences in cervical cancer screening rates between high-income and medium- and low-income countries. At 19 %, El Salvador has the lowest reported screening coverage of all Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to identify factors affecting public sector HPV DNA-based cervical cancer screening participation in El Salvador. This study was nested within a public sector screening program where health promoters used door-to-door outreach to recruit women aged 30-49 years to attend educational sessions about HPV screening. A subgroup of these participants was chosen randomly and questioned about demographic factors, healthcare utilization, previous cervical cancer screening, and HPV knowledge. Women then scheduled screening appointments at their public health clinics. Screening participants were adherent if they attended their scheduled appointment or rescheduled and were screened within 6 months. The association between non-adherence and demographic variables, medical history, history of cancer, sexual history, birth control methods, and screening barriers was assessed using Chi-square tests of significance and logistic regression. All women (n = 409) enrolled in the study scheduled HPV screening appointments, and 88 % attended. Non-adherence was associated with a higher number of lifetime partners and being under-screened-defined as not having participated in cervical cancer screening within the previous 3 years (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively); 22.8 % of participants in this study were under-screened. Adherence to cervical cancer screening after educational sessions was higher than expected, in part due to interactions with the community-based health promoters as well as the educational session

  20. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  1. Re-Os geochronology of the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile: Tracking analytical improvements in accuracy and precision over the past decade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Morgan, John W.; Markey, Richard J.; Watanabe, Yasushi

    2014-04-01

    Sulfide minerals from the El Salvador porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, Chile, were dated by Re-Os geochronology to clarify the timing and duration of mineralization. As these data are collected over the past 10 years, they chronicle the evolution of Re-Os analytical procedures and improvements in spike-sample equilibration, mass spectrometry and data reduction. Included in the data is the first tennantite-pyrite Re-Os isochron along with tennantite-enargite-pyrite Os tracing of ore metals based on initial osmium systematics (187Os/188Osi). Porphyry-associated mineralization follows the traditional early (A), transitional (B), and late (D) stage classification of relative timing of vein formation. Most Cu- and Mo-bearing sulfides were deposited during stages A and B. Field relationships clearly show the B-stage veins are older than the D-stage veins. Samples analyzed with Carius tube digestion and mixed-double spike indicate B-stage molybdenite mineralization between 41.8 and 41.2 Ma. These ages best represent the timing of main-stage mineralization at El Salvador. A five-point 187Re-187Os isochron for pyrite-tennantite from the latest D-stage veins yields an age of 42.37 ± 0.45 Ma. The isochron age, while older, is within error of early analyses of molybdenite by alkaline fusion digestion using single Re and Os spikes (42.4-42.0 Ma). A separate pyrite and tennantite-enargite pair containing significant common Os yields an initial 187Os/188Os ratio of 0.134 ± 0.042, compatible with a predominantly mantle origin. We appreciate the early analyses for their historical significance while emphasize the geological implications of the 41.8-41.2 Ma molybdenite ages. Temperature estimates by sulfur thermometry and fluid inclusions are 390-510 °C for the B-stage molybdenites and 230-240 °C for the latest D-stage pyrite and tennantite. Analyses based on Carius tube digestion and updated spike calibrations suggest a ∼0.6 m.y. duration (∼41.8 to 41.2 Ma) in-line with published

  2. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  3. Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlín geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Jasmin; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.; Clark, James R.

    2005-07-01

    Composite fragments sampled at solid collectors and drains of two-phase, re-injection, and vapour pipelines of the Berlín geothermal field, El Salvador, consist mainly of sulphide- and electrum-bearing aluminium-rich amorphous silica scale, sulphide- and electrum-bearing saponitic/vermiculitic clay from the reservoir, and altered metallic pipe linings containing As-S-bearing iron oxide-oxyhydroxide grains. Siliceous and clay-rich precipitates contain concentrations of gold and silver in excess of 180 and 8000 ppm, respectively, and appreciable concentrations of copper, lead, zinc, and antimony. Altered iron fragments contain substantial arsenic. Copper, lead, and zinc occur mainly as chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite, respectively, in amorphous silica and clay; near the surface, chalcopyrite transported from depth alters to bornite. Gold and silver occur mainly as electrum, which deposited with base metal sulphides in the clay precipitates, and amorphous silica at higher levels in the well. Electrum precipitates in the wells due to the rapid drop in temperature and loss of H 2S associated with boiling. The concentration of gold in vapour is ˜4 times greater than that in water from associated wellheads. This suggests that gold can be transported efficiently by vapour, and implies that such transport may be important in the formation of some hydrothermal ore deposits.

  4. Monogenetic, behind-the-front volcanism in southeastern Guatemala and western El Salvador: 40Ar/ 39Ar ages and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, James A.; Singer, Brad S.; Jicha, Brian R.; Cameron, Barry I.; Carr, Michael J.; Olney, Jessica L.

    2011-04-01

    Eighteen lavas erupted from cinder cones behind the volcanic front in southeastern Guatemala and western El Salvador have been dated using the 40Ar/ 39Ar method on groundmass separates. Plateau ages range between 1069.5 ± 22.1and 37 ± 12.0 ka. The majority of dated lavas are younger than 600 ka. Importantly, cinder cone lavas become progressively younger toward the volcanic front/trench. In addition, the lavas become systematically depleted in Cs, Ba, rare earth elements, Cs/Zr, La/Zr, and δ18O with time. The baseline values of these same geochemical parameters increase with distance from the volcanic front. The cinder cone lavas are closely associated with rifting south of the North American-Caribbean plate boundary. The trenchward migration of behind-the-front volcanism may be linked to a westward migration of this rifting. Existing evidence suggests there was an important change in the face of volcanism behind the volcanic front in southeastern Guatemala: from a small number of large polygenetic volcanoes to abundant smaller monogenetic cones. The temporal/spatial changes in the geochemistry of cinder cone lavas is attributed to decreasing contamination by Paleozoic basement rocks, both with time and with diminishing distances to the volcanic front.

  5. Integration of land-sharing and land-sparing conservation strategies through regional networking: the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor as a lifeline for carnivores in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Silvio J; García-Villalta, Jorge E

    2014-10-01

    Nations with little remaining natural habitat and small extent are challenged when trying to achieve biodiversity targets. We show that the Central American nation of El Salvador cannot viably sustain populations of 87 % of its extant carnivores, especially in the case of large-bodied species with low population densities. Current land-sparing strategies will not suffice; therefore we propose that land-sharing strategies be implemented in tandem with protected areas to expand current conservation efforts via new regional networks. In Central America such a network can be established by linking international protected area systems in a way that implements the existing vision for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Specifically, we propose a re-envisioning of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in which land-sharing practices are adopted throughout the agricultural matrix while ensuring formal protection of the remaining natural habitat. Such an integration of land-sparing and land-sharing could result in the creation of an effective network of protected areas, thereby increasing the probability of safeguarding species with populations that overlap national borders.

  6. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  7. [Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants.

  8. [What patients think of the services of the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán"].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, C; Vargas-Vorácková, F; Castillo-Rentería, C; Pérez Pimentel, L; Martínez Mata, R A

    1990-01-01

    The quality of care has always been a subject of interest to the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán", in order to improve its services. This interest led to the present survey which aims to evaluate the patient's global satisfaction and to identify specific problems susceptible of improvement. One hundred and seventy-one patients or relatives attending eight different services of the Institute were interviewed. Opinions about the following aspects were explored by means of service-specific questionnaires: sociodemographic characteristics, satisfaction with care, waiting periods, patient-personnel relationship, hospital environment, food quality, drug availability and costs. Results of the survey show a high level of satisfaction with the services provided, i.e. 33% of the patients considered it good, and 64% excellent. However, and in agreement with other reports, this high level of satisfaction does not necessarily reflect an absence of problems, i.e. long waiting periods, insufficient restrooms, failures in getting information about their health status, and occasional absence of drugs in the pharmacy were identified. Continuation of this kind of surveys in our setting leads not only to the identification of problems, but also to the evaluation of the impact that resulting measures may have on the patient's satisfaction.

  9. [Clinico-pathological diagnostic agreement among 429 autopsies from the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Angeles-Angeles, A; Quintanilla Martínez, L; Muñoz Fernández, L; Espinoza Vázquez, B; Victoría Peralta, P

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of clinical and autopsy findings of the cases studied between 1984 and 1988, were made at the Department of Pathology of the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City. The goal was to determine the accuracy of clinical diagnoses. The total number of cases was 429. A decreasing number of autopsies as a function of time was observed. Thus, in 1985, 34.65% of the deaths was autopsied, whereas in 1988, the number dropped to 21.16%, overall mean of 27.31%. In 229 autopsies (53.8%), 353 findings of clinical significance were found; of these, 86 were in the main diagnoses and 267 in the causes of death. There were 171 overdiagnoses with therapeutic implications, 38 in the main diagnoses and 133 in the causes of death. Overdiagnoses and underdiagnoses were most common in infectious diseases, followed by respiratory and digestive diseases, while endocrinologic and rheumatologic diseases had the highest diagnostic concordance. It was also found that the diagnostic accuracy did not improve with time of hospitalization. A brief analyses of the probable causes of the decrease in the number of autopsies is made. It is concluded that, in spite of the great advances in clinical and technological knowledge, the high frequency of disagreements between clinical and anatomical diagnoses, indicate that autopsy continues playing a key role in the quality control of medical practice. This justifies by itself the performance of necropsies.

  10. [Robbers on board: exposure to violence, insecurity, and other health hazards among mass transportation workers and passengers in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paes-Machado, Eduardo; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of violent crime on working conditions, health, and security for bus drivers and ticket takers in the mass transportation system in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The research included 195 interviews with workers, labor union officials, passengers, management, and police. In the last ten years there have been 20,572 robberies in a fleet of 2,400 buses operated by 10,151 workers, with 67 deaths and more than US$500,000 in company losses. Perpetrators are typically poor, unemployed youths, the majority of whom first offenders, seeking easy money primarily for leisure pursuits. The average "take" from such robberies is minimal. The authors observed a pattern of bus robberies as a psychological power game which, for bus workers, apart from physical injuries and fatalities, generates fear, identity conflicts, tense relations with passengers, and labor conflicts involving the recovery of stolen fares and worker and passenger security issues. The article also outlines and evaluates the efficiency of security measures including the use of lethal force by police.

  11. [Prevalence of pre-hypertension and arterial hypertension and evaluation of associated factors in children and adolescents in public schools in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sônia Lopes; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Priore, Silvia Eloíza; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to assess pre-hypertension and hypertension-related factors in 1,125 seven- to-14-year-old subjects enrolled in the public school system in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Exposure variables, namely body mass index, waist circumference, gender, age, physical activity, environmental and housing status, family income, diet, schooling, and maternal age were analyzed by polytomous logistic regression, and the outcome variable was categorized as normal, pre-hypertensive, and hypertensive. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.1%, including the prevalence of both hypertension (4.8%) and pre-hypertension (9.3%). An association was shown between pre-hypertension and overweight (OR: 3.13; 95%CI: 1.75-5.57). Hypertension was associated with overweight (OR: 3.02; 95%CI: 1.45-6.28), female gender (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.24-4.98), and high-risk eating patterns (OR: 1.93; 95%CI: 1.04-3.56). In short, prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents was higher among girls and individuals with overweight and inadequate diet.

  12. I/S and C/S mixed layers, some indicators of recent physical-chemical changes in active geothermal systems: The case study of Chipilapa (El Salvador)

    SciTech Connect

    Beaufort, D.; Papapanagiotou, P.; patrier, P.; Fouillac, A.M.; Traineau, H.

    1996-01-24

    I/S and C/S mixed layers from the geothermal field of Chipilapa (El Salvador) have been studied in details in order to reevaluate their potential use as indicator of the thermodynamic conditions in which they were formed. It is funded that overprinting of clay bearing alteration stages is common. For a given alteration stage, the spatial variation of I/S and C/S mixed layer ininerals is controlled by kinetics of mixed layer transformation and not only by temperature. Clay geo-thermometers cannot give reliable results because the present crystal-chemical states of the I/S and C/S mixed layers is not their initial state, it was aquired during the overall hydrothermal history which post dated the nucleation of smectitic clay material at high temperature. Occurrences of smectites or smectite-rich mixed layers at high temperature in reservoirs is a promising guide for reconstruct the zones in which boiling or mixing of non isotherinal fluids occurred very recently or still presently.

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  14. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver: 10 years' experience at the Insituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    de la Mora, G; Olivera, M; de la Cerda, R; Arista, J; Kershenobich, D; Uribe, M

    1994-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran. We reviewed all liver biopsy reports from January 1982 to December 1991. From patient records we obtained the following data: clinical, biochemical, imaging studies and we reviewed the histological material. We correlated clinical, biochemical and histological data. From 2963 biopsies reviewed we obtained 16 cases of NASH. We found a 7:1 female/male ratio. Median age was 30 years and six patients were obese. Eleven patients had concomitant disease (diabetes in seven) and nine were using drugs. All had been studied for biochemical abnormalities and were asymptomatic. Ten patients had hepatomegaly and six splenomegaly. Ultrasound suggested the diagnosis in 50% of the cases. All had steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate, necrosis, fibrosis and Mallory bodies at different stages. One case had cirrhosis on initial biopsy and two developed cirrhosis on follow-up (one and eight years later). We did not find any correlation between clinical, biochemical or imaging characteristics and histological findings. When we compared these findings between obese and non obese patients and primary and secondary NASH we did not find any differences between groups. NASH is infrequent in our institution. The underlying pathogenesis seems to be multifactorial. There is no biochemical-histological correlation. Cirrhosis can develop in some cases.

  15. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granieri, Domenico; Salerno, Giuseppe; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael R.; Papale, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    San Miguel volcano, El Salvador, erupted on 29 December 2013, after a 46 year period characterized by weak activity. Prior to the eruption a trend of increasing SO2 emission rate was observed, with all values measured after mid-November greater than the average value of the previous year (~310 t d-1). During the eruption, SO2 emissions increased from the level of ~330 t d-1 to 2200 t d-1, dropping after the eruption to an average level of 680 t d-1. Wind measurements and SO2 emission rates during the preeruptive, syneruptive, and posteruptive stages were used to model SO2 dispersion around the volcano. Atmospheric SO2 concentration exceeded the dangerous threshold of 5 ppm in the crater region and in some sectors with medium elevation of the highly visited volcanic cone. Combining the SO2 emission rate with measured CO2/SO2, HCl/SO2, and HF/SO2 plume gas ratios, we estimate the CO2, HCl, and HF outputs for the first time on this volcano.

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulvovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Pimentel, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll; Ferreira, Tatiana Teixeira; Leoni, Fernanda Maria Silva; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12-28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14-30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  17. [Dental caries in 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in 2001].

    PubMed

    Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Castellanos, Roberto Augusto; Pinheiro, Márcia Farias; de Albuquerque, Silvana Rodrigues; Pinho, Cristina

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and to identify the access of children to dental services and the coverage of such services, which might be related to differences between the groups. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 3,313 clinical exams, which followed the WHO (1997) criteria for the diagnosis of dental caries. The analysis was carried out by means of the Student's t test, the chi-square test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences regarding DMFT and frequency of caries-free individuals between public and private schools. However, while F (filled teeth) was the most prevalent component of the index in subjects from private schools, M (missing teeth) was the most common in those from public schools. The access to dental services in the last year was the only variable associated to the differences between both groups. Thus, the importance of access to dental services and social benefits must be pointed out in order to guarantee equity in oral health.

  18. Fidelity of rocky intertidal mollusks in subtidal death assemblages to their counterpart life assemblages: a case study in San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2016-04-01

    Rocky shores preserved in the geological record were rarely reported until a couple of decades ago. Even today, most of the literature focuses on bioerosional features in these high-energy environments due to their higher fossilization potential relative to shell material. Hard parts of taxa adapted to intertidal rocky shores may be preserved as allochthonous material in death assemblages (DAs) formed in adjacent shallow subtidal habitats due to lateral mixing. To test if life assemblages (LAs) of rocky intertidal mollusks (RIM) are faithfully recorded in shallow subtidal DAs, two ~30 m long transects across a proximal-distal gradient were studied on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. These transects encompass a proximal ripple field which grades into a facies dominated by green algae, and a distal ripple field. A total of 22 bulk samples, representing 155 liters of sediment, were wet-sieved with a 2-mm mesh. The samples yielded 528 RIM shells representing 15 species. Unexpectedly, abundance and compositional similarity of RIM shells to counterpart LAs sharply peaks along a belt of lag deposits of coarse sands fringing proximal ripple fields, in transition to green algae communities. These results suggest that, although a substantial transport of intertidal shells takes place in shallow subtidal environments, the signal is diluted in background sediment composition even in close proximity to the shore (30 m), and significant concentrations (loosely packed) of RIM shells in subtidal DAs might be used as a proxy to pinpoint past rocky intertidal environments.

  19. A pilot study of community-based self-sampling for HPV testing among non-attenders of cervical cancer screening programs in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Laskow, Bari; Figueroa, Ruben; Alfaro, Karla M; Scarinci, Isabel C; Conlisk, Elizabeth; Maza, Mauricio; Chang, Judy C; Cremer, Miriam

    2017-08-01

    To establish the feasibility and acceptability of home-based HPV self-sampling among women who did not attend screening appointments in rural El Salvador. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from May 2015 to January 2016 among 60 women aged 30-59 years who were not pregnant, provided informed consent, had not been screened in 2 years, had no history of pre-cancer treatment, and did not attend a scheduled HPV screening. Participants completed questionnaires and received educational information before being given an opportunity to self-sample with the Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. Self-sampling was accepted by 41 (68%) participants. Almost all women chose to self-sample because the process was easy (40/41, 98%), could be performed at home (40/41, 98%), and saved time (38/41, 93%), and because they felt less embarrassed (33/41, 80%). The most common reason for declining the test was not wanting to be screened (8/19, 42%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV types among women who accepted self-sampling was 17% (7/41). For most women, community-based self-sampling was an acceptable way to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. In low-resource countries, incorporating community-based self-sampling into screening programs might improve coverage of high-risk women. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Risk Factors for Adopting Extreme Weight-Control Behaviors among Public School Adolescents in Salvador, Brazil: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    de Santana, Mônica Leila Portela; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Raich, Rosa María; Machado, Maria Ester Pereira da Conceição; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; de Moraes, Lia Terezinha Lana Pimenta; Ribeiro, Hugo da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the risk factors for extreme weight-control behaviors among adolescents in public school in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. A case-control study nested to a cross-sectional study, including 252 adolescents of both sexes, age between 11 to 17 years, with 84 cases and 168 age-matched controls was conducted. The variable outcome is represented by extreme weight-control behaviors, integrated by following the variables: self-induced vomiting and the use of laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills. Covariables included body image dissatisfaction, dieting, prolonged fasting, and self-perception of body weight. The study also investigated the demographic and anthropometric variables and economic conditions of the students' families. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for the adoption of extreme weight-control behaviors among adolescents. Among the adolescents investigated, the conditional logistic regression explained 22% the occurrence of extreme weight-control behaviors and showed that these behaviors were positively associated to overweight (odds ratio [OR] = 3.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-9.17), body image dissatisfaction (OR = 3.87; 95% CI, 1.75-8.54), and the adoption of a restrictive diet (OR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.16-6.91). The results of this study suggest that among adolescents, overweight, body image dissatisfaction, and restrictive diet are important risk factors to adoption of extreme weight-control behaviors.

  1. Validation and utilization of PCR for differential diagnosis and prevalence determination of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in Salvador City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fred Luciano Neves; Gonçalves, Marilda de Souza; Soares, Neci Matos

    2011-01-01

    Amoebiasis is an infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica and is a potential health risk in countries in which health barriers are inappropriate. Since the discovery of Entamoeba dispar, the prevalence of amoebiasis has been modified. This study has standardized the PCR technique applied for the diagnosis of different species of the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex and has evaluated the prevalence of infection among patients attending private and public clinical laboratories in Salvador City, Bahia State, Brazil. Analysis of 52,704 stool samples by microscopic examination demonstrated that 1,788 (3.4%) were positive for the E. histolytica/E. dispar complex and infection occurred more often in samples originated from public clinical laboratories (5.0%) than those that came from private laboratories (3.2%). PCR performed in approximately 15% (262) E. histolytica/E. dispar complex positive samples, randomly chosen, amplified 227 samples (86.6%), all of them positive for E. dispar. The non-amplified 35 samples (13.4%) were also negative for E. histolytica-specific galactose adhesin. Moreover, to exclude a probable infection caused by E. hartmanni, morphometric analysis demonstrated that non-amplified samples had cyst sizes comparable to E. histolytica/E. dispar (>10 µm). The absence of amplification of these samples indicates the presence of PCR inhibitors in the stool samples or the presence of DNA from Entamoeba species other than E. dispar, E. histolytica or E. hartmanni.

  2. Family context and incidence of dental caries in preschool children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Tatiana Frederico de; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; Cabral, Maria Beatriz Barreto de Souza; Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Floriano, Fabiana Raynal

    2012-06-01

    Psychosocial factors influence family care and can jeopardize child development. This study aimed to analyze the association between maternal common mental disorders and incidence of early dental caries in preschool-age children living in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in a cohort design. A total of 472 children were examined and their mothers were interviewed from 2007 to 2008. Incidence of at least one tooth with caries was 21.19%, while 7.84% of the children showed high risk of caries. The results after adjusting for the child's age and maternal schooling showed that maternal common mental disorders were associated with high caries risk in deciduous teeth (adjusted RR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.05-5.56, among children with 6 or fewer home appliances in the household; adjusted RR = 3.44, 95%CI: 1.06-11.17, among those that brushed twice or less per day). Maternal mental problems were associated with the development of caries in preschoolers.

  3. The He-CO 2 isotope and relative abundance characteristics of geothermal fluids in El Salvador and Honduras: New constraints on volatile mass balance of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G. A. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Walker, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    We report helium and carbon isotope and relative abundance data of fumaroles, hot springs, water springs, mud-pots and geothermal wells from El Salvador and Honduras to investigate both along and across-arc controls on the release of CO 2 from the subducted slab. El Salvador localities show typical volcanic front volcanic gas signatures, with 3He/ 4He ratios of 5.2-7.6 RA, δ13C values of - 3.6‰ to - 1.3‰ and CO 2/ 3He ratios of 8-25 × 10 9. In Honduras, we find similar values only for volatiles collected in the Sula Graben region located ˜ 200 km behind the volcanic front. All other areas in Honduras show significantly lower 3He/ 4He ratios (0.7-3.5 RA), lower δ13C values (< - 7.3‰) and more variable CO 2/ 3He ratios (6.2 × 10 7-2.0 × 10 11): characteristics consistent with degassing-induced fractionation of CO 2 and He and/or interaction with crustal rocks. The provenance of CO 2 released along the volcanic front is dominated by subducted marine carbonates (L = 76 ± 4%) and organic sediments (S = 14 ± 3%), with the mantle wedge (M) contributing 10 ± 3% to the total carbon flux. The L/S ratio of the El Salvador volatiles (average = 5.6) is comparable to volcanic front localities in Costa Rica and Nicaragua [A.M. Shaw, D.R. Hilton, T.P. Fischer, L.A. Walker, G.E. Alvarado, Contrasting He-C relationships in Nicaragua and Costa Rica: insights into C cycling through subduction zones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214 (2003) 499-513] but is approximately one-half the input value of sediments at the trench (L. Li, G.E. Bebout, Carbon and nitrogen geochemistry of sediments in the Central American convergent margin: Insights regarding subduction input fluxes, diagenesis, and paleoproductivity, J. Geophys. Res. 110 (2005), doi: 10.1029/2004JB003276). We use the L/S ratio of El Salvador geothermal fluids, together with estimates of the CO 2 output flux from the arc, to constrain the amount and composition of subducted sediments involved in the supply of CO 2 to the

  4. Developing and Transitioning Numerical Air Quality Models to Improve Air Quality and Public Health Decision-Making in El Salvador and Costa Rica As Part of the Servir Applied Sciences Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Huff, A. K.; Gomori, S. G.; Sadoff, N.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the capacity for air quality modeling and improve air quality monitoring and management in the SERVIR Mesoamerica region, members of SERVIR's Applied Sciences Team (AST) are developing national numerical air quality models for El Salvador and Costa Rica. We are working with stakeholders from the El Salvador Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARN); National University of Costa Rica (UNA); the Costa Rica Ministry of the Environment, Energy, and Telecommunications (MINAET); and Costa Rica National Meteorological Institute (IMN), who are leaders in air quality monitoring and management in the Mesoamerica region. Focusing initially on these institutions will build sustainability in regional modeling activities by developing air quality modeling capability that can be shared with other countries in Mesoamerica. The air quality models are based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and incorporate meteorological inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, as well as national emissions inventories from El Salvador and Costa Rica. The models are being optimized for urban air quality, which is a priority of decision-makers in Mesoamerica. Once experimental versions of the modeling systems are complete, they will be transitioned to servers run by stakeholders in El Salvador and Costa Rica. The numerical air quality models will provide decision support for stakeholders to identify 1) high-priority areas for expanding national ambient air monitoring networks, 2) needed revisions to national air quality regulations, and 3) gaps in national emissions inventories. This project illustrates SERVIR's goal of the transition of science to support decision-making through capacity building in Mesoamerica, and it aligns with the Group on Earth Observations' health societal benefit theme. This presentation will describe technical aspects of the development of the models and outline key steps in our successful

  5. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  6. [Frequency of peritoneal transport in a population of the Hospital General Regional No. 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Chávez Valencia, Venice; Orizaga de la Cruz, Citlalli; Pazarin Villaseñor, Héctor Leonardo; Fuentes Ramírez, Francisco; Parra Michel, Renato; Aragaki, Yuritomo; Márquez Magaña, Isela; García Cárdenas, Mario Alberto; Campos Enrique, Rojas

    2014-12-01

    The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) is a common test used in the adequacy of peritoneal dialysis (PD). To determine the frequency of presentation of different types of peritoneal transport in patients on PD ranking with Twardowski, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ) and Hospital de Especialidades del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente (IMSS-HE, CMNO) and establish themselves. Descriptive and transversal study. Included with PET on PD patients between April 2011 to September 2012; any gender, 16 years or older, in DP minimum of 4 weeks. PEP performed standardized bags of 2.5%. Performed 235 PET. We can classify peritoneal transport with Twardowski in high (H) 34%, high average (HA) 37%, low average (LA) 25%, and low (L) 4% peritoneal transport rates. INCMNSZ percentages H was 34%, HA 32%, LA 23%, and L 11%; using the CMNO HE was H 26%, HA 31%, LA 31%, and L 12%. From our data, the percentage of patients with H was 22%, HA 33%, LA 32%, and L13%. Classifying patients according to type of transport with Twardowski will under-diagnose the low and overestimate high transport, and can alter survival forecasts.

  7. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  8. Genetic profiles and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae non-PCV10 serotype isolates recovered from meningitis cases in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Jailton; Dos Anjos, Eder Silva; Cordeiro, Soraia M; Dos Santos, Milena S; Escobar, Eliane C; Lobo, Paulo R; Carvalho, Maria da Gloria; Reis, Mitermayer G; Reis, Joice N; Campos, Leila C

    2016-10-01

    In 2010, the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10) was introduced into the Brazilian childhood vaccination programme. Concerns have been raised that non-vaccine serotypes could increase in prevalence and reduce the benefits of vaccination; therefore, we examined non-PCV10 isolates recovered from meningitis during pre- (January 2008-May 2010) and post-vaccine (June 2010-December 2012) periods. Surveillance for pneumococcal meningitis was established at the Reference Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Salvador, Brazil. Serotypes were determined by multiplex PCR and/or Quellung reaction. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by E-test and broth microdilution. Genotyping used PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing. A total of 148 cases of meningitis were identified from January 2008 to December 2012, 77 (52 %) of which were due to non-PCV10 isolates, with 50 (52.1 %) from pre-vaccine and 27 (52 %) from post-vaccine periods. In the post-vaccine period, the non-PCV10 serotypes 12F (n=6; 22.2 %), 10A (n=3; 11.1 %), 15B (n=2; 7.4 %) and 18B (n=2; 7.4 %) were the most prevalent. Forty-three isolates (55.8 %) were non-susceptible to one or more antibiotics. Non-susceptibility to penicillin was observed among serotypes 19A (three isolates), 9N (one isolate) and 12F (one isolate). PFGE and multi-locus sequence typing results demonstrated a wide genetic diversity among the isolates. During the early period following PCV10 introduction, no obvious emergence of a particular serotype was evident among non-PCV10 strains. This study underscores the importance of monitoring any changes among non-PCV10 cases after the introduction of PCV10.

  9. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  10. [Small bowel tumors: experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán"].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ramón, A; Cerino-Palomino, V; Medina-Franco, H

    2012-01-01

    Malignant tumors of the small bowel are uncommon and include multiple histologic strains, which helps explain the existing limited understanding of them. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgically treated small bowel tumors and to determine the clinical and pathological characteristics that can have an impact on patient outcome. A retrospective, observational, and descriptive study was carried out. The case records of patients with small bowel tumor that were surgically treated at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán" from 1990 to August 2011 were analyzed using the SPSS version 17.0 statistical package. Thirty-eight small bowel tumor patients were found that had been operated on within the time frame studied. Fifteen of them were women (39.50%) and 23 were men (60.50%), and the mean age was 55.6 years. The histologic distribution was 13 adenocarcinomas (34.20%), 10 neuroendocrine tumors (26.30%), 8 sarcomas (21.10%) and 4 lymphomas (10.50%). There was an increase in the incidence of sarcomas and adenocarcinomas, whereas lymphomas and neuroendocrine tumors were evenly distributed. An increase in small bowel tumor incidence in the last few years was observed and adenocarcinoma was the most frequent tumor in the study population. It is important to have a high degree of suspicion for this disease when patients present with symptoms such as gastrointestinal bleeding, bowel obstruction, anemia, and weight loss, because early diagnosis is essential for guaranteeing favorable outcome. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence and effects of child sexual abuse in a poor, rural community in El Salvador: a retrospective study of women after 12 years of civil war.

    PubMed

    Barthauer, L M; Leventhal, J M

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to examine the epidemiology of child sexual abuse (CSA) among women in a poor, rural community in El Salvador, which was recovering from a 12-year civil war. A cross-sectional, door-to-door survey was administered to 83 women. The LA Times Sexual Abuse Survey was used to determine the prevalence of CSA. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HCL) was used to measure long-term psychological sequelae of abuse (somatization, anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and obsessive-compulsive traits). Information also was obtained about participation and number of relatives killed in the country's 12-year civil war. Of the 83 women interviewed, 14 (17%) reported a total of 21 experiences of CSA. The median age of abuse was 14 years. The majority of perpetrators (90.4%) were strangers, friends, or neighbors. None was a parent. The only significant difference between abused and non-abused women was on the depression measure, where abused women showed more pathology. After controlling for the number of relatives killed in the war, however, that difference failed to reach statistical significance. Differences in the epidemiology of CSA from that of other countries may be secondary to a different social structure in the rural Salvadoran community and non-disclosure by the women surveyed. The lack of difference in psychological symptoms between abused and non-abused women may be related to the different characteristics of the abuse and perpetrators. It also may be secondary to adverse social conditions such as poverty and war, which could obscure the long-term effects of CSA.

  12. The Influence of the Digital Divide on Face Preferences in El Salvador: People without Internet Access Prefer More Feminine Men, More Masculine Women, and Women with Higher Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18–25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  13. Factors affecting carriage and intensity of infection of Calodium hepaticum within Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from an urban slum environment in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Walker, R; Carvalho-Pereira, T; Serrano, S; Pedra, G; Hacker, K; Taylor, J; Minter, A; Pertile, A; Panti-May, A; Carvalho, M; Souza, F N; Nery, N; Rodrigues, G; Bahiense, T; Reis, M G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Begon, M; Costa, F

    2017-01-01

    Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.

  14. Evidences of volcanic unrest on high-temperature fumaroles by satellite thermal monitoring: The case of Santa Ana volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiolo, M.; Coppola, D.; Barahona, F.; Benítez, J. E.; Cigolini, C.; Escobar, D.; Funes, R.; Gutierrez, E.; Henriquez, B.; Hernandez, A.; Montalvo, F.; Olmos, R.; Ripepe, M.; Finizola, A.

    2017-06-01

    On October 1st, 2005, Santa Ana volcano (El Salvador) underwent a VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption after approximately one century of rest. Casualties and damages to some of the local infrastructures and surrounding plantations were followed by the evacuation of the nearby communities. The analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) infrared data reveals that the main explosion was preceded by a one-year-long thermal unrest, associated to the development of a fumaroles field, located at the western rim of the summit crater lake. By combining space-based thermal flux and ground-based measurements (seismicity, sulfur emissions and lake temperatures), we suggest that the activity observed at Santa Ana between 2004 and 2005 was driven by the gradual intrusion of an undegassed magma body at a very shallow depth. Magma injection induced thermal anomalies associated with sustained degassing from the fumaroles field and promoted the interaction between the magmatic-hydrothermal system and the overlying water table. This process culminated into the VEI 3 phreatomagmatic eruption of October 2005 that strongly modified the shallow structure of the crater area. The subsequent three-years-long activity resulted from self-sealing of the fracture system and by the opening of a new fracture network directly connecting the deeper hydrothermal system with the crater lake. Our results show that satellite-based thermal data allow us to detect the expansion of the high-temperature fumarolic field. This may precede an explosive eruption and/or a lava dome extrusion. In particular, we show that thermal records can be analyzed with other geochemical (i.e. SO2 emissions) and geophysical (seismicity) data to track a shallow magmatic intrusion interacting with the surrounding hydrothermal system. This provides a remarkable support for volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting, particularly in remote areas where permanent ground data acquisition is hazardous, expensive

  15. Heat stress, dehydration, and kidney function in sugarcane cutters in El Salvador--A cross-shift study of workers at risk of Mesoamerican nephropathy.

    PubMed

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Jarquín, Emmanuel; Wesseling, Catharina; Johnson, Richard J; González-Quiroz, Marvin; Weiss, Ilana; Glaser, Jason; José Vindell, Juan; Stockfelt, Leo; Roncal, Carlos; Harra, Tamara; Barregard, Lars

    2015-10-01

    An epidemic of progressive kidney failure afflicts sugarcane workers in Central America. Repeated high-intensity work in hot environments is a possible cause. To assess heat stress, dehydration, biomarkers of renal function and their possible associations. A secondary aim was to evaluate the prevalence of pre-shift renal damage and possible causal factors. Sugarcane cutters (N=189, aged 18-49 years, 168 of them male) from three regions in El Salvador were examined before and after shift. Cross-shift changes in markers of dehydration and renal function were examined and associations with temperature, work time, region, and fluid intake were assessed. Pre-shift glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) from serum creatinine. The mean work-time was 4 (1.4-11) hours. Mean workday temperature was 34-36 °C before noon, and 39-42 °C at noon. The mean liquid intake during work was 0.8L per hour. There were statistically significant changes across shift. The mean urine specific gravity, urine osmolality and creatinine increased, and urinary pH decreased. Serum creatinine, uric acid and urea nitrogen increased, while chloride and potassium decreased. Pre-shift serum uric acid levels were remarkably high and pre-shift eGFR was reduced (<60 mL/min) in 23 male workers (14%). The high prevalence of reduced eGFR, and the cross-shift changes are consistent with recurrent dehydration from strenuous work in a hot and humid environment as an important causal factor. The pathophysiology may include decreased renal blood flow, high demands on tubular reabsorption, and increased levels of uric acid. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neotectonic development of the El Salvador Fault Zone and implications for deformation in the Central America Volcanic Arc: Insights from 4-D analog modeling experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, Jorge; Schreurs, Guido; Martinez-Díaz, José Jesús; Álvarez-Gómez, José Antonio; Villamor, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    The El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) is an active, approximately 150 km long and 20 km wide, segmented, dextral strike-slip fault zone within the Central American Volcanic Arc striking N100°E. Although several studies have investigated the surface expression of the ESFZ, little is known about its structure at depth and its kinematic evolution. Structural field data and mapping suggest a phase of extension, at some stage during the evolution of the ESFZ. This phase would explain dip-slip movements on structures that are currently associated with the active, dominantly strike slip and that do not fit with the current tectonic regime. Field observations suggest trenchward migration of the arc. Such an extension and trenchward migration of the volcanic arc could be related to slab rollback of the Cocos plate beneath the Chortis Block during the Miocene/Pliocene. We carried out 4-D analog model experiments to test whether an early phase of extension is required to form the present-day fault pattern in the ESFZ. Our experiments suggest that a two-phase tectonic evolution best explains the ESFZ: an early pure extensional phase linked to a segmented volcanic arc is necessary to form the main structures. This extensional phase is followed by a strike-slip dominated regime, which results in intersegment areas with local transtension and segments with almost pure strike-slip motion. The results of our experiments combined with field data along the Central American Volcanic Arc indicate that the slab rollback intensity beneath the Chortis Block is greater in Nicaragua and decreases westward to Guatemala.

  17. Trends in tuberculosis notification and treatment outcomes in prisons: a country-wide assessment in El Salvador from 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Gilberto; Garay, Julio; Aragon, Miguel; Decroo, Tom; Zachariah, Rony

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe trends in tuberculosis (TB) notification and treatment outcomes in 25 prisons in El Salvador from 2009-2014 and to determine if a set of interventions introduced in 2011 affected TB case finding and management. Methods This was operational research that utilized a retrospective cohort study of program data from 2009-2014. The package of interventions introduced in 2011 provides staff training, engages inmates in TB case finding, and offers diagnosis through mobile X-ray and Xpert® MTB/RIF. Results Case notification rates per 100 000 prisoners tripled, from 532 in 2009 to 1 688 in 2014-about 50 times that of the general population. Individual data were analyzed for 1 177 patients who started TB treatment, among whom 1 056 (89.7%) cases were bacteriologically-confirmed: 966 (92%) were diagnosed through smear microscopy; 42 (4%) with Xpert® MTB/RIF; and 48 (5%) through cultures. Cumulative treatment success and cure rates were over 95% and 90%, respectively. However, among 113 patients with previously-treated TB, drug sensitivity testing results were available for only 53 (47.%). One patient was diagnosed with mono-drug resistant TB. Conclusions These findings show that TB notification increased exponentially since introduction of the intervention package and that excellent treatment outcomes were sustained. Both are of vital relevance to countries striving for TB elimination. Notification might be improved further by providing systematic TB screening upon prison entry and periodically thereafter. Furthermore, previously-treated TB patients should receive prioritized screening for drug resistance.

  18. Use of inhaler devices and asthma control in severe asthma patients at a referral center in the city of Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ana Carla Carvalho; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Leite, Mylene; Almeida, Paula; Castro, Lourdes; Cruz, Constança Sampaio; Stelmach, Rafael; Cruz, Alvaro Augusto

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the use of inhaler devices by patients with severe asthma treated via the Programa para o Controle da Asma e Rinite Alérgica na Bahia(ProAR, Bahia State Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis Control Program), recording the frequency of their errors in performing key steps and the relationship between such errors and the lack of asthma control. A cross-sectional study involving 467 patients enrolled in the ProAR in the city of Salvador, Brazil. The devices evaluated were metered dose inhalers (MDIs), with or without a spacer, and dry powder inhalers (DPIs; Pulvinal® or Aerolizer®). For the assessment of the inhalation technique, a checklist was used; the patients were asked to demonstrate the technique so that an interviewer could observe all of the steps performed. For the assessment of asthma control, we used the 6-item asthma control questionnaire. Most of the patients showed appropriate inhalation techniques when using the devices. When using an MDI, few patients made mistakes in the key step of "coordinating activation and inhalation" (5.2% and 9.1% with and without the use of a spacer, respectively). During Pulvinal® use, 39% of the patients did not inhale quickly and deeply, compared with only 5.8% during Aerolizer® use. Of the patients that made use of Aerolizer® alone, 71.3% appropriately performed all of the essential steps, and their asthma was controlled. Most of the patients in this sample, all of whom had been submitted to periodic checks of their inhalation technique (as part of the program), used the devices appropriately. Proper inhalation technique is associated with asthma symptom control.

  19. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  20. Il problema del litio.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Antona, F.

    1995-03-01

    Contents: 1. Introduzione. 2. La nucleosintesi del Big Bang. 3. Il litio nelle stelle di popolazione II. 4. I modelli stellari standard. 5. Il litio negli ammassi aperti. 6. Meccanismi di distruzione "non standard". 7. I modelli non-standard applicati alla popolazione II. 8. L'evoluzione Galattica del litio. 9. Quali stelle producono litio? 10. Il litio come elemento chiave per dare un nome agli oggetti stellari più minuscoli. 11. Conclusioni.