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Sample records for del salvador 1991-2001

  1. Remote sensing, image processing and GIS training and technical assistance for Commission Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica Del Rio Lempa (CEL), San Salvador, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, T.C.

    1988-10-25

    The Commission Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica Del Rio Lempa (CEL) has purchased an ERDAS image processing and GIS system which has been installed at CEL facilities in San Salvador. The objective of CEL is to develop the technical capability and expertise for successful use of computer-based image processing and analysis by geographic information system (GIS). Apparently, El Salvador currently does not have this technology and CEL is committed to taking the lead in its development. The objectives of the professional development workshop were to: provide instruction in the background and principles of remote sensing and raster-based GIS; expose the participants to applications of interest; provide hands-on experience using all modules of the ERDAS system; explore with participants and US experts approaches to projects anticipated to use the ERDAS system. The workshop took place at CADI in Fort Collins during October 3--14, 1988. There were five participants from CEL with expertise in the following areas: soil science and watershed management, geology, computer science/information management, hydrology, civil engineering and statistics.

  2. Spina bifida and anencephaly prevalence--United States, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Mathews, T J; Honein, Margaret A; Erickson, J David

    2002-09-13

    Spina bifida and anencephaly are serious birth defects. To reduce the occurrence of these birth defects, the Food and Drug Administration authorized the fortification of all enriched cereal grain products with folic acid in March 1996, with compliance mandatory by January 1998. This report reviews data reported to CDC's National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) regarding spina bifida and anencephaly prevalence for live births in the United States during 1991-2001. Since 1989, NCHS has compiled birth defect data from checkboxes that appear on birth certificates. For consistency in trends, this report uses data for 1991-2001 from all U.S. reporting areas except Maryland, New Mexico, and New York. Data for 2001 are preliminary. During 1996-2001, a 23% decline occurred in neural tube defects (spina bifida and anencephaly combined). Spina bifida declined 24% during this period, and anencephaly declined 21%. The United States has experienced declines in spina bifida and anencephaly cases since folic acid fortification of all enriched cereal grain products. The observed declines have translated into approximately 920 infants being born without these serious defects each year. Continued monitoring of the occurrence of spina bifida and anencephaly will be necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of folic acid fortification.

  3. Water Quality in the Nation's Streams and Aquifers Overview of Selected Findings, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2004-01-01

    This report accompanies the publication of the last 15 of 51 river basin and aquifer assessments by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1991?2001. It highlights selected water-quality findings of regional and national interest through examples from river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. Forthcoming reports in the USGS series ?The Quality of Our Nation?s Waters? will present comprehensive national syntheses of information collected in the 51 study units on pesticides in water, sediment, and fish; volatile organic compounds in major aquifers used for domestic and public supply; nutrients and trace elements in streams and ground water; and aquatic ecology. This report, summaries of the 51 water-quality assessments, and a 1999 national synthesis of information on nutrients and pesticides, are available free of charge as USGS Circulars and on the World Wide Web at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/nawqa_sumr.html.

  4. Pathways between Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Childhood Growth in the Scottish Longitudinal Study, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Silverwood, Richard J; Williamson, Lee; Grundy, Emily M; De Stavola, Bianca L

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4.5 years were related to three measures of socioeconomic disadvantage (mother's education, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, synthetic weekly income). Mediation was examined using two approaches: a 'traditional' mediation analysis and a counterfactual-based mediation analysis. Both analyses identified a negative effect of each measure of socioeconomic disadvantage on height, mediated to some extent by birth weight, and a positive 'direct effect' of mother's education and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation on overweight/obesity, which was partly counterbalanced by a negative 'indirect effect'. The extent of mediation estimated when adopting the traditional approach was greater than when adopting the counterfactual-based approach because of inappropriate handling of intermediate confounding in the former. Our findings suggest that higher birth weight in more disadvantaged groups is associated with reduced social inequalities in height but also with increased inequalities in overweight/obesity.

  5. El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on El Salvador capsulizes specific statistical and descriptive information on geography, demography, government. and economic conditions. The man text describes the people, their history and the nature of the peace process, principal government officials, political conditions, human rights, the state of the economy, foreign relations, and relations with the US. In 1992, the estimated population was about 5 million of which 89% are mestizo (Spanish-Indian), 10% Indian, and 1% Caucasian. 58% live in rural areas. It is largely Roman Catholic. Literacy is about 65% among adults. 6 years of education are compulsory. 40% are engaged in agriculture, 27% in services, and 16% in industry. The gross domestic product was $5.1 billion; per capita income was $1160. El Salvador's history has been marked by frequent revolutions. Almost every present since 1932 has been a military officer. In the more recent past (1969-80), Honduras and El Salvador fought over borders; a peace treaty was signed in 1980, but it was not until 1992 that the land in dispute was awarded by the International Court of Justice to Honduras. During the 1970, efforts by Duarte were made toward democratic reform, but fraud and corruption contributed to the rise of armed guerrilla warfare as a means to bring about change. There were rightist and leftists groups accelerating violence; event he Salvadoran armed forces engaged in lawlessness. The judicial system failed. Nicaragua after 1979 supplied arms and munitions to 5 guerrilla groups. Duarte returned to power and his junta initiated land reform and nationalized banks and marketing of coffee and sugar. The elections in 1982 led to the transfer of power to Alvaro Magana. The new constitution in 1983 appeased some, but land reforms still did not satisfy guerrillas. Duarte was elected again in 1984 and Alfredo Christiani in 1989 in a peaceful transfer of power. In 1991 and 1992 peace accords were signed with the guerrillas. During this 12-year

  6. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in the conterminous United States, excluding the High Plains Regional Ground-Water Study. The data set represents the areas studied during the first decade of the NAWQA Program, from 1991-2001 ("cycle 1"). The coverage is intended only for drawing ILLUSTRATIONS, NOT for spatial analysis. The sources of this coverage were the full resolution NAWQA study unit coverage, which is available at http://water.usgs.gov/lookup/getspatial?nawqacyc1 and the coastline from a 1:2 million county coverage generalized for display at the scale of 1:34 million.

  7. Lessons from El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Presidente , San Salvador. 5. Lee Hockstader, "US Envoy, Colonel Meet Salvadoran Rebels," The Washington Post, 13 September 1991, p. A33. It was during...of 1984 the plan was already dead, After the National Plan came Unidos Para Reconstruir (UPR) in 1988. In essence this operational concept gave each

  8. Spotlight: El Salvador.

    PubMed

    1998-09-01

    As of mid-1998, El Salvador had a population of 5.8 million people residing in a land area of 8000 sq. miles. There were 29 births and 4 deaths per 1000 population, as well as 41 infant deaths for every 1000 live births, and a population growing in size at 2.5% annually. The average woman has 3.9 births during her reproductive lifetime and life expectancy is 65 years for men and 72 years for female. With 39% of El Salvador's population under age 15 years, it will continue to grow rapidly even as birth rates decline. The proportion of urban residents in El Salvador is expected to grow beyond the 1994 level of 45%. Population growth has intensified competition for farmland and jobs, with extreme poverty forcing Salvadoran farmers and laborers to make choices which are beneficial in the short term, but which may cause long-term environmental damage. Human and chemical wastes, often untreated and unregulated, pollute 90% of the rivers and almost all topsoil and drinking water in heavily populated areas. 66% of farmland in the mountainous area is eroded, and the resulting pollution and agricultural runoff threaten shellfish and seafood businesses close to the coast. While forests once covered 85% of El Salvador, now only less than 5% is forest, and much of the cleared land is so degraded that there is little hope of restoring endangered plant and animal species. Most of the country's workers are employed in agriculture, but industrial parks are helping the country's economic growth. 74% of Salvadoran men and 70% of women are literate, school enrollment levels are low, and about 4% of the country's gross national product comes from official development assistance. The El Salvador Environment Fund was created in 1994 to support small projects for environmental protection and child development.

  9. Nontyphoidal Salmonella causing focal infections in patients admitted at a Spanish general hospital during an 11-year period (1991-2001).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Mercedes; de Diego, Isabel; Martínez, Noelia; Rosario Rodicio, M; Carmen Mendoza, M

    2006-08-01

    In focal infections (FI) caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes and recorded at a Spanish hospital 1991-2001, clinical and microbiological features were analyzed. Thirty-five revised episodes were related to infections of the digestive (10), urinary (10), pulmonar (4), vascular (4), osteoarticular (3) and central nervous (3) systems, and with a submaxillary lymph node. At least 16 episodes were associated with previous or concomitant gastroenteritis, 19 with primary or secondary bacteremia, and 18 with underlying diseases of different severity. Eighteen patients were male and 14 female (data were not available for three patients), while 1, 4, 12 and 15 patients were, respectively, categorized as children, young adults, senior adults and elderly. Sources of Salmonella strains were urine (13), blood (11), purulent abscess (8), cerebrospinal fluid (3), peritoneal fluid, pleural fluid, wound exudates, aneurism (2 of each), ascitic fluid, sputum, tracheal aspirate, needle aspirate, bone and lymph node (1 of each) samples. Only 28 Salmonella strains involved in FIs were available for further analysis. They were discriminated into 6 serotypes, and into 13 XbaI macrorestriction, 6 virulence, 11 antimicrobial resistance, 5 integron and 10 plasmid profiles. Broadly, the pattern of serotype distribution of salmonellas involved in FIs matched that of those causing gastroenteritis, with the pandemic Enteritidis and Typhimurium (18 and 6 strains, respectively) being clearly predominant. Within serotype, the same lineages (as revealed by XbaI-macrorestriction analysis as well as R- and V-profiles) were represented in both disease groups, with host-related factors apparently playing a more critical role than the individual strain in the outcome of the disease.

  10. Volcano hazards in the San Salvador region, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Sofield, D.J.; Escobar, C.D.; Pullinger, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    San Salvador volcano is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador (figure 1). This volcano, having a volume of about 110 cubic kilometers, towers above San Salvador, the country’s capital and largest city. The city has a population of approximately 2 million, and a population density of about 2100 people per square kilometer. The city of San Salvador and other communities have gradually encroached onto the lower flanks of the volcano, increasing the risk that even small events may have serious societal consequences. San Salvador volcano has not erupted for more than 80 years, but it has a long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers, and these remnants are commonly referred to by several names. The central part of the volcano, which contains a large circular crater, is known as El Boquerón, and it rises to an altitude of about 1890 meters. El Picacho, the prominent peak of highest elevation (1960 meters altitude) to the northeast of the crater, and El Jabali, the peak to the northwest of the crater, represent remnants of an older, larger edifice. The volcano has erupted several times during the past 70,000 years from vents central to the volcano as well as from smaller vents and fissures on its flanks [1] (numerals in brackets refer to end notes in the report). In addition, several small cinder cones and explosion craters are located within 10 kilometers of the volcano. Since about 1200 A.D., eruptions have occurred almost exclusively along, or a few kilometers beyond, the northwest flank of the volcano, and have consisted primarily of small explosions and emplacement of lava flows. However, San Salvador volcano has erupted violently and explosively in the past, even as recently as 800 years ago. When such eruptions occur again, substantial population and infrastructure will be at risk. Volcanic eruptions are not the only events that present a risk to local

  11. El Salvador and Its Refugees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Gertraude Roth

    Since a 1979 coup, El Salvador has been ruled by a civilian-military junta supported by the oligarchy; officially, the junta is committed to social and economic reforms. Civilian guerrillas oppose the government which they believe is not interested in real reform. The United States supplies financial and military aid to the junta and believes the…

  12. El Salvador: A Communist Objective.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    National Banking System was in the same hands. POLITICAL . Other factors originating the general unrest were the people’s lack of absolute freedom to...aggression by Communist power, through Cuba and Nicaragua. 18 EL SALVADOR SUMMARY DATA (To 1985) GENERAL Political parties: National Conciliation Party... political , economic and social situation of each country. The security of the Latin American countries has been and is constantly threatened by the

  13. El Salvador: Conflict and Change: A Secondary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkens, Craig, Ed.

    This curriculum emphasizes El Salvador's physical and human geography and involves students in active learning situations using critical and creative thinking skills. The seven lessons include: (1) "Why Study El Salvador?"; (2) "Where in the World Is El Salvador?"; (3) "Picturing El Salvador: Looking Beyond the…

  14. The Foreign Policy of Venezuela Toward El Salvador: 1979-1983

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Memorias y Cuentas de otros ministerios y entidades involucradas en el suministro de ayuda a El Salvador, tales como el Kinisterlo de Energia y Minas...que estuviese ligada a cualquier ideologia politica. El Ministro de Energia y Minas, Calderbn. Berti, afirm6 que no existia, de parte de Venezuela, Wia...stamos a largo plazo. La duraci6n del Programa f ue de un aKo, renovable anualmente, previo acuerdo mutuo. En el primer afto de vigencia del acuerdo, los

  15. Women and Science in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Maria Mendez Martınez, Luz; Portillo, Mercy; Elías, José Héctor

    2009-04-01

    Physics is rarely pursued by El Salvadoran students. As in most Latin-American countries, there exists the false idea in El Salvador that some careers should be exclusively for men, such as engineering and hard sciences like physics. Because El Salvador is a natural laboratory for geophysical phenomena, due to the existence of more than 20 volcanoes, prevalent seismic activity, and large production of geothermic energy, geophysics is the most common branch of physics studied in El Salvador. The numbers and gender breakdown of physics and geophysics students at the University of El Salvador in the years since the last IUPAP Women in Physics Conference in 2005 are presented, and the numbers are encouraging.

  16. Women in physics in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, T.; de Contreras, D.; Rivera, W.

    2013-03-01

    Current conditions impose serious limitations on admission to careers and specialization for physicists in general and especially for women in physics. This is a critical issue in a country where political instability, a civil war, and postwar conditions have limited the development of science and technology, and where there are just a few masters in science in the whole university and even fewer professionals with a PhD degree. In the past three years, El Salvador has defined clear lines of work that involve female physicists at the University of El Salvador. These lines are seismology, meteorology, climatology, and physics education.

  17. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  18. [The echinoderms (Echinodermata) from El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Enrique Barraza, José; Roberto Hasbún, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    A list of echinoderms from El Salvador (tropical eastern Pacific) is presented. The results were obtained from field surveys (between the years 2000 and 2004), the scarce literature sources, and Internet information. A total of 37 species and six genera are reported. The most abundant echinoderms in rocky shores were: Phataria unifascialis, Echinometra vanbrunti, Holothuria kefersteini, as well as Astropecten armatus in soft bottoms.

  19. US Policy in El Salvador: Creating Beauty or the Beast?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Salvador received about one million dollars a day in US assistance from 1981 to 1992.’ American involvement in El Salvador and the results that were...achieved have generated a great deal of controversy. One of the most common themes has been the "failure" of US policy in El Salvador. The signing of...was based on the development of a policy that proved to be flexible, effective, and durable. Additionally, I believe that our role in the

  20. The United States and El Salvador.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    economic continuum. Violent uprisings occurred In the mid-1800s as Indigo markets fell and coffee plantations displaced more and more peasants...consequences for El Salvador. It effectively cut off regional markets for the country’s Purgeoning light Industries and forced the return from Honduras of an...pnd more land and other economic resources to producing for the world markets in the heady days of the Alliance, only to be caugt In the world

  1. Why Choose Peace? The El Salvador Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    military options as purely a means to get the Government of El Salvador (GoES) to negotiate for peace.7 Joaquin Villalobos , a former FMLN commander...1996) 8 Joaquin Villalobos , The Salvadoran insurgency: why choose peace?. http://www.c- r.org/our-work/accord/engaging-groups/salvadorean-insurgency.php...annihilate all its men, nor to capture all its arms, only to cause the collapse of its morale. Joaquin Villalobos Commandante, People’s

  2. Many trained at E1 Salvador center.

    PubMed

    1970-02-01

    The Family Planning Association of E1 Salvador is conducting regular week-long courses in family planning for doctors, nurses, social workers and other interested people in El Salvador and the surrounding countries of Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Twelve regional courses on population dynamics, the physiology of reproduction and family planning were held in the academic year 1968-69 at the Faculty of Medicine at the University of El Salvador. Because the demand for places far exceeds the capacity of the Association's training unit, careful selection of candidates is made through consultation with the national family planning associations. Most of those trained are doctors who are being specially equipped to carry out family planning work either as part of government maternal and child health centres or in Association clinics. Many places are also found for nurses and some social workers also attend in order to build up teams for effective clinic management. A few journalists and teachers have been among the trainees as well as groups of religious leaders including Roman Catholics. Lecturers are mainly university personnel drawn from a wide range of disciplines in order to relate family planning not only to health and medicine but also to socio-economic aspects and community welfare. The El Salvador Association, an IPPF member, gets financial support from the Population Council for the training programme but hopes eventually that responsibility for continuing the courses will be taken over by the Government, probably through the Ministry of Education. Another pace-setting activity of the Association has been its close contacts with industry, particulary through the efforts of its President, Mr. Lucio Burgos, General Manager of the El Salvador Power Company, who has gained the interest and support of business and union leaders. Not only do these groups help the work of the Association through fund-raising and public relations activities, but

  3. Expansion of the 5 DE Noviembre hydroelectric project, El Salvador, C.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerte, E.G.; Mendoza, V.; Wang, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    With an area of 21,050 square kilometers, the Republic of El Salvador is the smallest country in Central American. El Salvador, independent since 1821, is a democratic country with its President elected by popular vote for a five-year term. The population in El Salvador was estimated at 5.1 million in 1992. Over the period of 1984 to 1993, the peak load of the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) system, which serves about 98 percent of the country`s power needs, grew 6.5 percent per year. During the same period the energy generation increased at an annual rate of 6.8 percent. These growths were achieved in spite of the political turmoil and civil war that had gripped the country from 1980 to 1992. Since the end of the civil war, the country has witnessed significant economic recovery and growth. System demands will continue to increase at a rapid rate, due primarily to continued economic recovery and expansion resulting from establishment of the now political system. CEL generating facilities will be undergoing significant rehabilitation to correct the problems accumulated over the civil war period.

  4. Children's Voices from El Salvador: War and Peace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decade-long civil war in El Salvador and discusses its historical and cultural roots. Presents 14 letters, 2 poems, and 3 drawings by fourth-grade students in El Salvador that relate to the impact of war on their lives. Provides suggestions for using these letters in social studies classes. (CFR)

  5. [The health system of El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Acosta, Mónica; Sáenz, María del Rocío; Gutiérrez, Blanca; Bermúdez, Juan Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in El Salvador and the main característics of the Salvadoran health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Public Health, and the participation of health care users in the evaluation of the system. It also discusses the most recent policy innovations including the approval of the Law for the Creation of the National Health System, which intends to expand coverage, reduce health inequalities and improve the coordination of public health institutions.

  6. Obituary -- Salvador González Bedolla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, H. José

    1997-04-01

    It is with great sadness that I must communicate the passing of our colleague Salvador Félix González Bedolla. The observational astronomers of the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional owe much to his pioneering effort at San Pedro Mártir, work that formed him as an astronomer, and helped him become one of the best photometric observers in México and, at the Instituto de Astronomóa of the UNAM, the academic technician with the highest productivity of articles derived from observations at the OAN. Salvador was an excellent student. He obtained the highest achievement award (Gabino Barreda) in high school, studied physics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) and also finished the credits for his Master's degree in Physics with only his thesis separating him from his degree, an act which was constantly put off until his death. He began his career in Astronomy in 1973 under Dr. Eugenio Mendoza. Later he worked with Josef Warman in the observation of short period stars in the Observatorio `José Arbol y Bonilla'' in Zacatecas, México. I then began working continuously with him in this field of research which, thanks to his great work capacity, produced very good results. He continued in these fields of research not only within the Institute of Astronomy, but also in other research facilities, especially two: With the variable group from the Observatory at Nice, France, beginning in 1985, specializing in the pulsation of early stars. His main interest was in the β Cep stars and in the possibility of relating these stars to the new types of variables (such as the OB stars, the `53 Per' variables, the `ultrashort' period and the ``slow'' and Be variables) discovered near this zone. Hence, in view of this, his efforts were aimed at monitoring the stars that belong to these new groups in order to discover if they are really different from the classical β Cep stars. Moreover, beginning in 1984, Salvador began working with a group of astronomers from

  7. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report describes the work done during the first year of the study (FY 1988--89), and includes the (1) development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) evaluation of the initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline, and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. The geological model of the field indicates that there are seven (7) major and five (5) minor faults that control the fluid movement in the Ahuachapan area. Some of the faults act as a barrier to flow as indicated by large temperature declines towards the north and west. Other faults act as preferential pathways to flow. The Ahuachapan Andesites provide good horizontal permeability to flow and provide most of the fluids to the wells. The underlying Older Agglomerates also contribute to well production, but considerably less than the Andesites. 84 refs.

  8. Religious Coping, Spirituality, and Substance Use and Abuse Among Youth in High-Risk Communities in San Salvador, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11–17 years) and young adults (18–25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth. PMID:23647129

  9. The genetic male legacy from El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Lovo-Gómez, J; Blanco-Verea, A; Lareu, M V; Brión, M; Carracedo, A

    2007-09-13

    Allele frequencies and haplotype and haplogroup analysis have been performed for 16 Y-chromosome binary markers and 8 Y-chromosome STRs (DYS19, DYS385I and II, DYS389I and II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393). Data was obtained from a general sample of 93 unrelated individuals living in metropolitan areas from El Salvador, and 67 individuals from different historical ethnic groups, Conchagua, San Alejo, Panchimalco, Izalco and finally Nueva Concepción with white people. Levels of admixture among metropolitan and rural areas were evaluated and population substructure measured. A total of 13 haplogroups and 136 different haplotypes were found. The most frequent haplogroup in the general metropolitan population was the European R1b, while in the Indigenous samples considered as a whole the most frequent was the Amerindian haplogroup Q3.

  10. Chaparrastique (San Mighel) Volcano Eruptions since Dec. 29th, 2013, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2015-12-01

    The December 29th, 2013 eruption of Chaparrastique (San Miguel) volcano in El Salvador came as a surprise and was the first of several small eruptions in the past two years. They came after many years of preceeding earthquake swarms and significant degassing. Being the second volcano to erupt in El Salvador in less than ten years, it caused grave concern for the population of the country. Although they were not large eruptions (VEI 2), the materials were widespread and caused deposits of volcanic tephra as far at the capital San Salvador and closed the airports in the vecinity for a couple of days. This is a summary of the research, mitigation and services that were done days after the first eruption on December 29, 2013 and the follwing months. In conjunction with the team of the Direccion General del Observatorio Ambiental from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales possible first response strategies were discussed and decided to obtain results that could be quickly put in place to mitigate and decide on actions such as evacuations or relocations of people living in volcano related high-risk hazard areas. Collection of samples, mapping and measurements of the volcanic tephra in the field together with Digital Globe and areal photography after the event, allowed identification of four different volcanic products that can be correlated to the opening of the vent and ending in the eruption of juvenile materials of basaltic to trachybasaltic composition, and the production of a lahar hazard map based on LaharZ.

  11. 77 FR 1710 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... conditions in El Salvador resulting from a series of earthquakes in 2001, and El Salvador remains unable... of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. See 66 FR 14214 and section 244(a)(b)(1)(B) of the Immigration..., disruption of living conditions in El Salvador resulting from the series of earthquakes that struck...

  12. The Decade of the Seventies in El Salvador: Prelude to Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-05

    Victor. "Estructura y Desarrollo Social en El Salvador," Desarrollo Economica 20:77 (1981): 121-134. Druger, Alexander. "El Salvador’s Marxist Revolution...Studies Vol.13 (April, 1985), pp. 129-152. Gordon, Sara. "El Salvador: Crisis Politica y Movimiento Popular," Estudios Sociales Centroamericanos. 9:27

  13. Diarrhoea and garbage disposal in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rego, R F; Moraes, L R S; Dourado, I

    2005-01-01

    The association of infantile diarrhoea with the presence of garbage in the environment was investigated in Canabrava, a peripheral neighbourhood of Salvador, northeast of Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted with all the 184 children aged less than two years residing in Canabrava, which is located close to the city garbage dump. Variables selected for study included the method used for the disposal of excrement, type of floor, mother's education, unemployment of the head of the family, regularity of the water supply, presence of toilet, storage of garbage inside the house, age, gender, duration of breastfeeding, and the number of people per room. The estimated prevalence of diarrhoea was 21.2%. Exposure to garbage in the environment was found to be the most important factor associated with diarrhoea (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.98, 95% CI 1.56-10.13). Other important variables were the mother's education (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI 1.09-7.13), maternal breastfeeding (AOR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.05-5.04), and unemployment of the head of the family (AOR = 2.09, 95% CI 0.93-4.69). These findings indicate the necessity of adopting solutions in the public domain and of intersectorial policies for the reduction of diarrhoea.

  14. Has El Salvador Fault Zone produced M ≥ 7.0 earthquakes? The 1719 El Salvador earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canora, C.; Martínez-Díaz, J.; Álvarez-Gómez, J.; Villamor, P.; Ínsua-Arévalo, J.; Alonso-Henar, J.; Capote, R.

    2013-05-01

    Historically, large earthquakes, Mw ≥ 7.0, in the Εl Salvador area have been attributed to activity in the Cocos-Caribbean subduction zone. Τhis is correct for most of the earthquakes of magnitude greater than 6.5. However, recent paleoseismic evidence points to the existence of large earthquakes associated with rupture of the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, an Ε-W oriented strike slip fault system that extends for 150 km through central Εl Salvador. Τo calibrate our results from paleoseismic studies, we have analyzed the historical seismicity of the area. In particular, we suggest that the 1719 earthquake can be associated with paleoseismic activity evidenced in the Εl Salvador Fault Ζone. Α reinterpreted isoseismal map for this event suggests that the damage reported could have been a consequence of the rupture of Εl Salvador Fault Ζone, rather than rupture of the subduction zone. Τhe isoseismal is not different to other upper crustal earthquakes in similar tectonovolcanic environments. We thus challenge the traditional assumption that only the subduction zone is capable of generating earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7.0 in this region. Τhis result has broad implications for future risk management in the region. Τhe potential occurrence of strong ground motion, significantly higher and closer to the Salvadorian populations that those assumed to date, must be considered in seismic hazard assessment studies in this area.

  15. [Chitons (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from El Salvador, Central America].

    PubMed

    García-Ríos, Cedar I; Alvarez-Ruiz, Migdalia; Barraza, José E; Rivera, Ana M; Hasbún, Carlos R

    2007-03-01

    Collections of 11 species of shallow water Polyplacophora from El Salvador were made in July 2002. Previously only five species had been documented in El Salvador: Chaetopleura lurida (Sowerby, 1832); Ischnochiton guatemalensis (Thiele, 1910); Ceratozona angusta (Thiele, 1909); Chiton stokesii (Broderip, 1832) and Acantochitona exquisita (Pilsbry, 1893). Of these, L. guatemalensis and A. exquisita were not collected in this census. Seven other species are reported here for El Salvador for the first time: Lepidochitona beanii (Carpenter, 1857); Ischnochiton dispar (Sowerby, 1832); Stenoplax limaciformis (Sowerby, 1832); Callistochiton expressus (Carpenter, 1865); Acanthochitona arragonites (Carpenter, 1867); A. ferreirai (Lyons, 1988) and A. hirudiniformis (Sowerby, 1832). The known geographic distribution of 1. dispar is extended to the north. An un-named species of Lepidochitona is briefly described.

  16. Violence in Counterinsurgency - The Case of El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    observation I had was that the Peruvian military would routinely respond to an insurgent attack by going into a village and killing everyone. The...administration ’would draw the line’ on Soviet expansion in EI Salvador, even if that meant taking military action against Cuba-’ going to the source,’ as he put...enemy and going out and killing him.,,70 The United States fought hard to reduce the heinous acts of death squads in El Salvador. I Using military aid

  17. Religious coping, spirituality, and substance use and abuse among youth in high-risk communities in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Olate, Rene; Vaughn, Michael G

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the relationship between religious coping, spirituality, and substance use in developing nations such as El Salvador. Collected in 2011, the sample consists of 290 high-risk and gang-involved adolescents (11-17 years) and young adults (18-25 years) in San Salvador, El Salvador. Structural equation modeling and logistic regression are employed to examine the associations between the Measure of Religious Coping (RCOPE), the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale, and substance use and abuse. Results suggest that spirituality and, to a far lesser degree, religious coping may serve to protect for substance use and abuse among this high-risk population of Salvadoran youth.

  18. Gang truce for violence prevention, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Hedberg, EC; Amaya, Luis Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the effects on homicide rates of the gang truce that was brokered in El Salvador in 2012. Methods Mathematical models based on municipal-level census, crime and gang-intelligence data were used to estimate the effect of the truce on homicide rates. One model estimated the overall effect after accounting for the linear trend and seasonality in the homicide rate. In a moderated-effect model, we investigated the relationship between the truce effect and the numbers of MS13 (Mara Salvatrucha 13) and Eighteenth-Street gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population. We then ran each of these two models with additional control variables. We compared values before the truce – 1 January 2010 to 29 February 2012 – with those after the truce – 1 March 2012 to 31 December 2013. Findings The overall-effect models with and without additional control variables indicated a homicide rate after the truce that was significantly lower than the value before the truce, giving rate ratios of 0.55 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.49–0.63) and 0.61 (95% CI: 0.54–0.69), respectively. For any given municipality, the effectiveness of the truce appeared to increase as the number of MS13 gang members imprisoned per 100 000 population increased. We did not observe the same significant relationship for imprisoned Eighteenth-Street gang members. Conclusion In the 22 months following the establishment of a national gang truce, the homicide rate was about 40% lower than in the preceding 26 months. The truce’s impact appeared particularly strong in municipalities with relatively high numbers of imprisoned MS13 gang members per 100 000 population. PMID:27708471

  19. The relationship between community structural characteristics, the context of crack use, and HIV risk behaviors in San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; Rivas de Mendoza, Lorena; Glasman, Laura; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores community structural factors in different low-income communities in the San Salvador, El Salvador, that account for differences in the social context in which crack is used and HIV risk behaviors among crack users. Results suggest that both more distal (type of low-income community, level of violent crime, and poverty) and proximate structural factors (type of site where drugs are used, and whether drugs are used within or outside of community of residence) influence HIV risk behaviors among drug users. Additionally, our results suggest that community structural factors influence the historical and geographic variation in drug use sites.

  20. Education and the Production of Diasporic Citizens in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Enrique, III

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Dyrness and Sepúlveda argue that in El Salvador, young people are participants in a diasporic social imaginary that connects them with Salvadorans and other Latinos in the United States--before they have ever left the country. The authors explore how this transnational relationship manifests in two school communities in San…

  1. Scarcity and Survival in El Salvador. Grades Six to Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This unit, designed for use with students in grades 6-12, has two purposes: (1) to inform teachers and students about social and economic conditions in rural El Salvador; and (2) to teach students how to analyze the indicators of such social and economic conditions. The six included lessons incorporate reading, graphing, and critical thinking…

  2. Checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Caleb D; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Álvarez Calderón, Francisco S; Henríquez, Wendy Yamileth; Recinos, H Michelle; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Barraza, Enrique; Herrera, Néstor

    2013-01-23

    The inland fish fauna of El Salvador and its distribution was originally described in 1925 by Samuel Hildebrand. That work has been the main source of information for freshwater fishes of El Salvador up to today. Based on the combination of an intensive literature review, electronic database searches, re-identification of museum specimens, and fieldwork, we hereby provide an updated checklist of the inland fishes of El Salvador. This checklist provides distributional data at the Salvadoran hydrographical and political (by department) levels. The checklist is systematically arranged at the ordinal and familial level and then alphabetically therein. The freshwater fish fauna of El Salvador includes 101 species divided into 64 genera, 29 families, and 14 orders. According to their supposed tolerance to salinity, 73% of these species are peripheral, 23% secondary, and only 4% are primary freshwater fishes. One species is endemic to the country, Amatitlania coatepeque. The low number of primary freshwater fishes and endemics is comparable to the Central American Pacific slope in particular, as well as northern Central America in general.

  3. An Introduction to the Psychedelic Psychotherapy of Salvador Roquet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villoldo, Alberto

    1977-01-01

    Psychosynthesis as developed by Salvador Roquet presents a new method combining Freudian, Frommian, and transpersonal therapies. Its immediate result is to obtain results expected from long-term psychoanalysis in an abbreviated period of time. It also helps the individual take responsibility for his own development. (Author/RK)

  4. A Strategic View of Insurgencies: Insights from El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Perspectivas ," ECA Estudios Centroamericanos, No. 449, March 1986, pp. 169-204. 9. Interviews with General Jose Guillermo Garcia, former Salvadoran minister of...34 Atlantic Monthly, January 1989, pp. 18-25. 48. Villalobos, "El Salvador Perspectiva ." 49. Interviews with Garcia, Lopez Nuila, Magaiia, and Vides. So

  5. Geographic Dimensions of Aging in Canada, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Eric G.; Pacey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Although population aging on a national scale has received much attention in Canada, its geographical dimensions have not. This paper examines the demographic processes that underlie population aging at the provincial and metropolitan scales for the periods 1991 to 1996 and 1996 to 2001. We differentiate between the effects of aging-in-place and…

  6. Hood River Production Program Review, Final Report 1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith; Chapman, Colin; Ackerman, Nicklaus

    2003-12-01

    This document provides a comprehensive review of Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded activities within the Hood River Basin from 1991 to 2001. These activities, known as the Hood River Production Program (HRPP), are intended to mitigate for fish losses related to operation of federal dams in the Columbia River Basin, and to contribute to recovery of endangered and/or threatened salmon and steelhead, as directed by Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration - Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries). The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the HRPP, which authorized BPA to fund salmon and steelhead enhancement activities in the Hood River Basin, was completed in 1996 (BPA 1996). The EIS specified seven years of monitoring and evaluation (1996-2002) after program implementation to determine if program actions needed modification to meet program objectives. The EIS also called for a program review after 2002, that review is reported here.

  7. Factors associated with body image dissatisfaction among adolescents in public schools students in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santana, Mônica L P; Silva, Rita de Cássia R; Assis, Ana M O; Raich, Rosa M; Machado, Maria Ester P C; de J Pinto, Elizabete; de Moraes, Lia T L P; Ribeiro Júnior, Hugo da C

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar la prevalencia de insatisfacción corporal y factores asociados entre estudiantes de Salvador en Brasil. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado en una muestra aleatoria de 1494 adolescentes (852 niñas y 642 niños) de entre 11 y 17 años de edad estudiantes de escuelas públicas en Salvador (Brasil). Los participantes completaron los cuestionarios: Cuestionario de La Figura Corporal y el Inventario de Actitudes Alimentarias. La imagen corporal pudo ser considerada satisfactoria o insatisfactoria. Se obtuvieron datos demográficos, antropométricos y económicos e información sobre la etapa de maduración sexual, la auto-percepción del peso corporal y el consumo de bebidas azucaradas y gaseosas. Para identificar los factores asociados se utilizó el análisis de regresión de Poisson. Resultados: La insatisfacción corporal estuvo presente en el 19,5% de los/as adolescentes, con una prevalencia del 26,6% entre las chicas y el 10% entre los chicos. Independientemente del sexo, la prevalencia de la insatisfacción corporal fue superior entre los/as adolescentes con sobrepeso u obesos (en las niñas, PR: 1,38, IC: 1,09-1,73 y en los niños, PR: 2,26, IC: 1,08-4,75), mayor entre los/as que percibían a sí mismos como “gordos” (en las niñas, PR: 2,85, IC: 2,07-3,93 y en los niños, PR: 3,17, IC: 1,39- 7,23), y entre los/as que tenían actitudes alimentarias negativas (en las niñas, PR: 2,42, IC: 1,91-3,08 y en los niños, PR: 4,67, IC: 2,85-7,63). Una reducción en la insatisfacción corporal se identificó sólo entre las niñas con bajo peso (RP: 0,12, IC: 0,03-0.49).Conclusiones: Se observó una alta ocurrencia de la insatisfacción corporal entre los adolescentes, y que factores biológicos y del comportamiento se asocian con dicha insatisfacción.

  8. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-17

    CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S...REPORT DATE 17 MAR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social ...98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service

  9. Fighting Narcotraffic in Latin America: Mexico and El Salvador - A Comparative Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    QUESTION ......................................................................1 B . SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN MEXICO AND EL...15 B . MEXICO .........................................................................................................17 1. The...Relations ..................................................47 B . EL SALVADOR

  10. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  11. War in El Salvador; The Policies of President Reagan and The Lessons Learned for Today

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    30 Current Policy No. 482, p. 1. 31 Linda Chavez , “U.S. Role in Salvador,” New York Times, 5 May 1983, p. 6. 32 Richard Meislin, “Salvador Vote...Current Documents 1985, Current Policy No. 468, (Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Public Affairs, 1986) p. 1021. 38 Julia Preston, “Part of El Salvador...New York Times, 7 Apr 1983, p. A16. 63 Wood, “Weinberger,” p. 5. 64 Linda Chavez , “Salvador Rebels Make Gains and U.S. Advisors are Glum,” New

  12. Area Handbook Series: El Salvador: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    basic education, and three years secondary education. Major universities National University of El Salvador and Jesuit -run Central American Univer...that had never experienced at first hand the violence of the conflict. On November 16, six Jesuit priests and two women were mur- dered on the campus...murder of the Jesuits . Subsequently, nine members of the army, including a colonel and four lieutenants, were arrested. The colonel, Guillermo Alfredo

  13. El Salvador, Iraq, and Strategic Considerations for Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-22

    1987), 10. 7 Ibid. 8 Ian F.W. Beckett , Modern Insurgencies and Counter-Insurgencies (London: Routledge, 2001), 205. 9 Max G. Manwaring and Court...Prisk, A Strategic View of Insurgencies: Insights from El Salvador (Washington, DC: McNair Papers, No. 8), 3. 10 Beckett , 205. 11 Ibid., 206. 12...Strategic Studies Institute, March 2006), 26. 27 40 Mao Tse-Tung, On Guerrilla Warfare, trans. Samuel B. Griffith II, 2d ed. (Baltimore, MD

  14. Epidemiological situation of leprosy in Salvador from 2001 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Shirlei Cristina; Batos, Claudilson José de Carvalho; Tawil, Lara

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae was first described as the bacillus that causes leprosy, a chronic granulomatous infectious disease, in 1873 by Amauer Hansen. Leprosy is part of a group of 10 neglected diseases and Bahia has endemic levels of this illness, varying between high and very high. The detection of 52 new cases of leprosy in children under 15 years old in Salvador in 2006 is alarming, and suggests an early contact with the disease. The aim of this review is to analyze the epidemiological situation, the detection rate and evaluate the clinical and epidemiological profile of leprosy in Salvador, in the period 2001-2009. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using secondary data collected at Notifiable Diseases Information System Database (SINAN) through the notification of patients with leprosy. Over these nine years 3,226 patients were reported, with a predominance of: females (51.5%), and clinical multibacillary forms in the general population (51.7%), but when we analyze those under 15 years old, paucibacillary forms (tuberculoid + indeterminate) prevailed. The tuberculoid form was the most diagnosed type of presentation. The annual detection rate in Salvador remained at a very high level of endemicity during the studied period and for those under 15 years old it ranged between high and very high. Grade 2 disabilities both at the time of diagnosis and at discharge after cure, varied between low and medium. Based on these data we conclude that the high levels of leprosy detection rates in the general population, plus the variation between high and very high levels in those under 15 years old, associated with the medium level of grade 2 disabilities at the time of diagnosis and discharge, demonstrate the need for improvement on the existing services, investment in active case finding and training of the healthcare professionals in Salvador.

  15. Monitoring and behavior of unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Chávez, José Alexander; Landaverde, José; Landaverde, Reynaldo López; Tejnecký, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Field monitoring and laboratory results are presented for an unsaturated volcanic pyroclastic. The pyroclastic belongs to the latest plinian eruption of the Ilopango Caldera in the Metropolitan Area of San Salvador, and is constantly affected by intense erosion, collapse, slab failure, sand/silt/debris flowslide and debris avalanche during the rainy season or earthquakes. Being the flowslides more common but with smaller volume. During the research, preliminary results of rain threshold were obtained of flowslides, this was recorded with the TMS3 (a moisture sensor device using time domain transmission) installed in some slopes. TMS3 has been used before in biology, ecology and soil sciences, and for the first time was used for engineering geology in this research. This device uses electromagnetic waves to obtain moisture content of the soil and a calibration curve is necessary. With the behavior observed during this project is possible to conclude that not only climatic factors as rain quantity, temperature and evaporation are important into landslide susceptibility but also information of suction-moisture content, seepage, topography, weathering, ground deformation, vibrations, cracks, vegetation/roots and the presence of crust covering the surface are necessary to research in each site. Results of the field monitoring indicates that the presence of biological soil crusts a complex mosaic of soil, green algae, lichens, mosses, micro-fungi, cyanobacteria and other bacteria covering the slopes surface can protect somehow the steep slopes reducing the runoff process and mass wasting processes. The results obtained during the assessment will help explaining the mass wasting problems occurring in some pyroclastic soils and its possible use in mitigation works and early warning system.

  16. 78 FR 70092 - 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of Countries Under Section...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE 2013 Special 301 Out-of-Cycle Review of El Salvador: Identification of...-Cycle Reviews would be conducted for El Salvador and Spain. At this time, USTR requests written... whether El Salvador should be identified under Section 182 of the Trade Act. Requests for...

  17. 78 FR 32418 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Salvador resulting from a series of earthquakes in 2001, and El Salvador remains unable, temporarily, to... resulting from a series of earthquakes that occurred in 2001. See 66 FR 14214, Mar. 9, 2001; section 244(b... status in the United States. See section 244(b)(1)(B) of the INA. Three severe earthquakes in January...

  18. Report on dipole-dipole resistivity and technology transfer at the Ahuachapan Geothermal field Ahuachapan, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B. )

    1988-08-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 90 megawatt geothermal-sourced powerplant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the period November 1987 through May 1988 a deep resistivity survey and technology transfer was performed at the AGF at the request of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) as part of a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) project. The resistivity surveying is ongoing at the time of this report under the supervision of CEL personnel. LANL and contract personnel were present at the site during performance of the initial surveying for the purpose of technology transfer. This report presents the results and interpretation of the two initial resistivity survey lines performed on site during and shortly after the technology transfer period.

  19. Results of investigation at the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field, El Salvador. Part 2, Electrical-methods geophysics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, J.B.

    1990-04-01

    The Ahuachapan Geothermal Field (AGF) is a 95 megawatt geothemal-sourced power-plant operated by the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) of El Salvador. During the past decade, as part of an effort to increase in situ thermal reserves in order to realize the full generation capacity of the AGF, extensive surface geophysical coverage has been obtained over the AGF and the prospective Chipilapa area to the east. The geophysical surveys were performed to determine physical property characteristics of the known reservoir and then to search for similar characteristics in the Chipilapa area. A secondary objective was to evaluate the surface recharge area in the highlands to the south of the AGF. The principal surface electrical geophysical methods used during this period were DC resistivity and magnetotellurics. Three available data sets have been reinterpreted using drillhole control to help form geophysical models of the area. The geophysical models are compared with the geologic interpretations.

  20. Lahar-hazard zonation for San Miguel volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Chesner, C.A.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. The volcano, located in the eastern part of the country, rises to an altitude of about 2130 meters and towers above the communities of San Miguel, El Transito, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and the PanAmerican and coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks of the volcano. The population density around San Miguel volcano coupled with the proximity of major transportation routes increases the risk that even small volcano-related events, like landslides or eruptions, may have significant impact on people and infrastructure. San Miguel volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in El Salvador; it has erupted at least 29 times since 1699. Historical eruptions of the volcano consisted mainly of relatively quiescent emplacement of lava flows or minor explosions that generated modest tephra falls (erupted fragments of microscopic ash to meter sized blocks that are dispersed into the atmosphere and fall to the ground). Little is known, however, about prehistoric eruptions of the volcano. Chemical analyses of prehistoric lava flows and thin tephra falls from San Miguel volcano indicate that the volcano is composed dominantly of basalt (rock having silica content

  1. [Leptospiral infection and subclinical presentation among children in Salvador, Bahia].

    PubMed

    Silva, Hagamenon R; Tavares-Neto, José; Bina, José Carlos; Meyer, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to identify the frequency and risk factors of leptospiral infection among children aged between 2 and 15 years in Salvador, Bahia, household contacts of patients (index-cases) hospitalized at Couto Maia Hospital due to Leptospira interrogans (ELISA IgM positive). Among 148 household contacts from 25 selected index-cases, clinical and epidemiological data were collected and ELISA IGM and IgG were performed in paired sera (between 20 days) from 73 (49.3%). This diagnostic method divided the 73 household contacts into three groups: group A (acute or recent leptospiral infection), 30 (41.1%) children, group B (not- infected ) 34 (46.6%) and group C, (past infection) nine (12.3%) children. In group A five (16.7%) had cold syndrome simile. No statistically significant difference was found between groups A and B for sex, race, age and presence of pet dog. However, in group A there was a statistically significant predominance (p < 0.05%) of: contact with natural water courses; index-case sibling aged under fifteen years; female sex and over 9 years old; and principally lack of appropiate trash disposal in the residential area. In conclusion, leptospiral infection in children (from 2 to 15 years of age) in Salvador is underestimated, because it is asymptomatic or presents as a cold syndrome simile.

  2. Seismic sources in El Salvador. A geological and geodetic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Henar, J.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Benito, B.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Canora, C.; Capote, R.; Staller, A.; Tectónica Activa, Paleosismicidad y. Riesgos Asociados UCM-910368

    2013-05-01

    El Salvador Fault Zone is a deformation band of 150 km long and 20 km wide within the Salvadorian volcanic arc. This shear band distributes the deformation between main strike-slip faults trending N90°-100°E and around 30 km long, and secondary normal faults trending between N120°E and N170°E. The ESFZ continues westward and is relieved by the Jalpatagua Fault. Eastward ESFZ becomes less clear disappearing at Golfo de Fonseca. The ESFZ deforms and offsets quaternary deposits with a right lateral movement in its main segments. Five segments have been proposed for the whole fault zone, from the Jalpatagua Fault to the Golfo de Fonseca. Paleoseismic studies in the Berlin and San Vicente Segments reveal an important amount of quaternary deformation. In fact, the San Vicente Segment was the source of the February 13, 2001 destructive earthquake. In this work we propose 18 capable seismic sources within El Salvador. The slip rate of each source has been obtained through out the combination of GPS data and paleoseismic data when it has been possible. We also have calculated maximum theoretical intensities produced by the maximum earthquakes related with each fault. We have taken into account several scenarios considering different possible surface rupture lengths up to 50 km and Mw 7.6 in some of the strike slip faults within ESFZ.

  3. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Exploitation model, performance predictions, economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ripperda, M.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Goranson, C.

    1991-05-01

    The Earth Sciences Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is conducting a reservoir evaluation study of the Ahuachapan geothermal field in El Salvador. This work is being performed in cooperation with the Comision Ejecutiva Hidroelectrica del Rio Lempa (CEL) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with funding from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). This report describes the work done during the second year of the study (FY89--90). The first year's report included (1) the development of geological and conceptual models of the field, (2) the evaluation of the reservoir's initial thermodynamic and chemical conditions and their changes during exploitation, (3) the evaluation of interference test data and the observed reservoir pressure decline and (4) the development of a natural state model for the field. In the present report the results of reservoir engineering studies to evaluate different production-injection scenarios for the Ahuachapan geothermal field are discussed. The purpose of the work was to evaluate possible reservoir management options to enhance as well as to maintain the productivity of the field during a 30-year period (1990--2020). The ultimate objective was to determine the feasibility of increasing the electrical power output at Ahuachapan from the current level of about 50 MW{sub e} to the total installed capacity of 95 MW{sub e}. 20 refs., 75 figs., 10 tabs.

  4. Resources and obstacles to developing and implementing a structural intervention to prevent HIV in San Salvador, El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, A. Michelle; Bodnar, Gloria; Rodriguez, Karla; Guevara, Carmen E

    2009-01-01

    HIV prevention researchers have increasingly advocated structural interventions that address factors in the social, political and economic context to reduce disparities of HIV/AIDS among disadvantaged populations. This paper draws on data collected in three different types of low-income communities (n=6) in the San Salvador metropolitan area in El Salvador. Nine focus group discussions were conducted between January 2006 - July 2007, six with community leaders, and three with crack cocaine users, as well as in-depth interviews with 20 crack users and crack dealers. We explore opportunities and barriers to the implementation of a community-level, structural intervention. We first analyze the different forms of leadership, and other community resources including existing HIV prevention activities that could potentially be used to address the related problems of crack use and HIV in the communities, and the structural factors that may act as barriers to capitalizing on communities’ strengths in interventions. Each of the communities studied demonstrated different resources that stem from each community's unique history and geographic location. HIV testing and prevention resources varied widely among the communities, with resources concentrated in one Older Central community despite a strong need in all communities. In many communities, fear of gang violence and non-responsiveness by government agencies to communities’ needs have discouraged community organizing. In the discussion, we offer concrete suggestions for developing and implementing structural interventions to reduce HIV risks that use communities’ different but complementary resources. PMID:19910099

  5. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: BP America Production Company - Salvador I/II Central Delivery Point

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the BP America Production Company, Salvador I/II Central Delivery Point, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  6. Prevalence of patients receiving renal replacement therapy in El Salvador in 2014.

    PubMed

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Trujillo, Zulma; Colorado, Ana Verónica; Magaña Mercado, Salvador; Henríquez, Carlos Atilio

    El Salvador has the highest renal failure mortality rate in the Americas. Five healthcare providers offer renal replacement therapy (RRT) in the country. The national RRT prevalence has never been reported.

  7. The Impact of the Vietnam Analogy on American Policy in El Salvador from 1979 to 1984

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-03

    the six Jesuits and their two servants.1 42 While many feel this did not go far enough, 80 the fact that the government felt confident enough to... Documentary Publications,1983), vi. 83. Ibid., v. 84. Ibid. 85. Ibid. 125. 86. Ibid., 192. 87. Ibid., 25. 88. Jean-Louis Clariond. El Salvador Arde: La...Salvador: America’s Next Vietnam. Salisbury, NC: Documentary Publications, 1983. Schoultz, Lars. National Security and United States Policy 100

  8. Coffee Beans and Rice Paddies - War on the Cheap: American Advisors in El Salvador and Vietnam

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-19

    COFFEE BEANS AND RICE PADDIES—WAR ON THE CHEAP: AMERICAN ADVISORS IN EL SALVADOR AND VIETNAM A Monograph by LTC Jeremy L. Peifer United...CONTRACT NUMBER Coffee Beans and Rice Paddies – War on the Cheap: American Advisors in El Salvador and Vietnam 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 MONOGRAPH APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate: Lieutenant Colonel Jeremy L. Peifer Monograph Title: Coffee Beans and Rice

  9. Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador Robert D. Ramsey III Global War on Terrorism Occasional Paper 18...Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador / by Robert D. Ramsey III. p. cm. -- ( Global war on terrorism occasional paper 18) 1. Military assistance...history you don’t know. This Global War on Terrorism (GWOT) Occasional Paper (OP) is a timely reminder for the US Army about the history we do not know

  10. Volcano-hazard zonation for San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Major, J.J.; Schilling, S.P.; Pullinger, C.R.; Escobar, C.D.; Howell, M.M.

    2001-01-01

    San Vicente volcano, also known as Chichontepec, is one of many volcanoes along the volcanic arc in El Salvador. This composite volcano, located about 50 kilometers east of the capital city San Salvador, has a volume of about 130 cubic kilometers, rises to an altitude of about 2180 meters, and towers above major communities such as San Vicente, Tepetitan, Guadalupe, Zacatecoluca, and Tecoluca. In addition to the larger communities that surround the volcano, several smaller communities and coffee plantations are located on or around the flanks of the volcano, and major transportation routes are located near the lowermost southern and eastern flanks of the volcano. The population density and proximity around San Vicente volcano, as well as the proximity of major transportation routes, increase the risk that even small landslides or eruptions, likely to occur again, can have serious societal consequences. The eruptive history of San Vicente volcano is not well known, and there is no definitive record of historical eruptive activity. The last significant eruption occurred more than 1700 years ago, and perhaps long before permanent human habitation of the area. Nevertheless, this volcano has a very long history of repeated, and sometimes violent, eruptions, and at least once a large section of the volcano collapsed in a massive landslide. The oldest rocks associated with a volcanic center at San Vicente are more than 2 million years old. The volcano is composed of remnants of multiple eruptive centers that have migrated roughly eastward with time. Future eruptions of this volcano will pose substantial risk to surrounding communities.

  11. Extreme Weather Risk Assessment: The Case of Jiquilisco, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Karla; Ceppi, Claudia; Molero, Juanjo; Rios Insua, David

    2014-05-01

    All major climate models predict increases in both global and regional mean temperatures throughout this century, under different scenarios concerning future trends in population growth or economic and technological development. This consistency of results across models has strengthened the evidence about global warming. Despite the convincing facts and findings of climate researchers, there is still a great deal of skepticism around climate change. There is somewhat less consensus about some of the consequences of climate change, for example in reference to extreme weather changes, in particular as regards more local scales. However, such changes seem to have already considerable impact in many regions across the world in terms of lives, economic losses, and required changes in lifestyles. This may demand appropriate policy responses both at national and local levels. Our work provides a framework for extreme weather multithreat risk management, based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). This may be useful in comparing the effectiveness of different actions to manage risks and inform judgment concerning the appropriate resource allocation to mitigate the risks. The methodology has been applied to the case study of the "El Marillo II" community, located in the municipality of Jiquilisco in El Salvador. There, the main problem related with extreme weather conditions are the frequent floods caused by rainfall, hurricanes , and water increases in the Lempa river nearby located. However, droughts are also very relevant. Based on several sources like SNET, newspapers, field visits to the region and interviews, we have built a detailed database that comprises extreme weather daily data from January 1971 until December 2011. Forecasting models for floods and droughts were built suggesting the need to properly manage the risks. We subsequently obtained the optimal portfolio of countermeasures, given the budget constraints. KEYWORDS: CLIMATE CHANGE, EXTREME WEATHER, RISK

  12. The relationship between community structural characteristics, the context of crack use and HIV risk behaviors in San Salvador, El Salvador1

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; de Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Glasman, Laura; Gaborit, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores community structural factors in different low-income communities in the San Salvador, El Salvador that account for differences in the social context in which crack is used and in the HIV risk behaviors among crack users. Results suggest that both more distal (type of low-income community, level of violent crime and poverty) and proximate structural factors (type of site where drugs are used, and whether drugs are used within or outside of community of residence) influence HIV risk behaviors among drug users. Additionally, our results suggest that community structural factors influence the historical and geographic variation in drug use sites. PMID:22217125

  13. Geological control of earthquake induced landslide in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsige Aga, Meaza

    2010-05-01

    Geological control of earthquake induced landslides in El Salvador. M., Tsige(1), I., Garcia-Flórez(1), R., Mateos(2) (1)Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Geología, Madrid, Spain, (meaza@geo.ucm.es) (2)IGME, Mallorca El Salvador is located at one of the most seismically active areas en Central America, and suffered severe damage and loss of life in historical and recent earthquakes, as a consequence of earthquake induced landslides. The most common landslides were shallow disrupted soil-slides on steep slopes and were particularly dense in the central part of the country. Most of them are cited in the recent mechanically weak volcanic pyroclastic deposits known as "Tierra Blanca" and "Tierra Color Café" which are prone to seismic wave amplification and are supposed to have contributed to the triggering of some of the hundreds of landslides related to the 2001 (Mw = 7.6 and Mw = 6.7), seismic events. The earthquakes also triggered numerous deep large scale landslides responsible for the enormous devastation of villages and towns and are the source for the current high seismic hazard as well. Many of these landslides are located at distances more than 50 and 100 km from the focal distance, although some of them occurred at near field. Until now there has been little effort to explain the causes and concentration of the deep large-scale landslides especially their distribution, failure mechanism and post-rapture behavior of the landslide mass (long run-out). It has been done a field investigation of landslides, geological materiales and interpretation of aerial photographs taken before and after the two 2001 (Mw= 7.6 and Mw= 6.7) El Salvador earthquakes. The result of the study showed that most of the large-scale landslides occured as coherent block slides with the sliding surface parallel to a pre-existing fractures and fault planes (La Leona, Barriolera, El Desague, Jiboa landslides). Besides that the pre-existing fractures are weak zones controlling

  14. Results of nutritional status surveillance in El Salvador, 1975 - 77*

    PubMed Central

    Trowbridge, Frederick L.; Stetler, Harrison C.

    1982-01-01

    Nutritional status surveillance data based on the clinical diagnosis of malnutrition and on weight-for-age, as well as diarrhoeal disease data for preschool age children attending government health clinics in El Salvador are presented for a 3-year period (1975 - 77). Surveillance results indicated consistently higher rates of clinical malnutrition and weight-for-age deficit in rural children as compared with urban children, and higher malnutrition rates in children 1 - 4 years of age as compared with infants less than 1 year old. Consistent seasonal increases in malnutrition were observed that were most pronounced in older preschool children (1 - 4 years) in rural areas. Seasonal peaks in malnutrition consistently followed 1 - 2 months after the major seasonal peak in diarrhoea at the onset of the rainy season, suggesting that diarrhoea may play a role in the etiology of malnutrition. A secondary seasonal peak in diarrhoea in the cooler, dry season was most prominent in infants but was not related to increased malnutrition. These results indicate that nutritional and health status indicators formed from data collected regularly at health centres can demonstrate consistent age group, urban/rural, and seasonal differences in nutritional status that may be useful in identifying risk groups and in monitoring nutritional changes for planning and evaluation purposes. PMID:6982777

  15. Probable flood predictions in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.; Smith, M.E.; Chica, A.M.E.; Litke, D.

    2008-01-01

    A regionalization procedure is presented and used to predict probable flooding in four ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. The flood-prediction problem is sequentially solved for two regions: upstream mountains and downstream alluvial plains. In the upstream mountains, a set of rainfall-runoff parameter values and recurrent peak-flow discharge hydrographs are simultaneously estimated for 20 tributary-basin models. Application of dissimilarity equations among tributary basins (soft prior information) permitted development of a parsimonious parameter structure subject to information content in the recurrent peak-flow discharge values derived using regression equations based on measurements recorded outside the ungauged study basins. The estimated joint set of parameter values formed the basis from which probable minimum and maximum peak-flow discharge limits were then estimated revealing that prediction uncertainty increases with basin size. In the downstream alluvial plain, model application of the estimated minimum and maximum peak-flow hydrographs facilitated simulation of probable 100-year flood-flow depths in confined canyons and across unconfined coastal alluvial plains. The regionalization procedure provides a tool for hydrologic risk assessment and flood protection planning that is not restricted to the case presented herein. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  16. Hemoglobinopathies in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Adorno, Elisângela Vitória; Couto, Fábio David; Moura Neto, José Pereira de; Menezes, Joelma Figueiredo; Rêgo, Marco; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos; Gonçalves, Marilda Souza

    2005-01-01

    Hemoglobinopathies are hereditary disorders of the hemoglobin molecule with a high prevalence worldwide. Brazil has a prevalence of 0.1 to 0.3% of newborns with sickle cell anemia and 20.0 to 25.0% of heterozygous alpha2 thalassemia among African Brazilians. In the present study, we investigated the presence of variant hemoglobins and alpha2(3.7 Kb) and alpha2 (4.2 Kb) thalassemia in newborns from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Samples of umbilical cord blood from a total of 590 newborns were analyzed, of which 57 (9.8%) were FAS; 36 (6.5%) FAC; one (0.2%) SF; and five (0.9%) FSC. One hundred fourteen (22.2%) newborns had alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia, of whom 101 (19.7%) were heterozygous and 13 (2.5%) homozygous, showing statistical significance for hematological data between newborns with normal alpha genes and alpha2(3.7 Kb) thalassemia carriers. The alpha2(4.2 Kb) thalassemia was not found. Frequencies found in the present study confirm that hemoglobinopathies are a public health problem in Brazil, emphasizing the need for neonatal screening and genetic counseling programs.

  17. "Contra Viento y Marea" (Against Wind and Tide): Building Civic Identity among Children of Emigration in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrness, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article examines contrasting approaches to citizenship education in two schools in San Salvador, El Salvador, in the face of highly visible transnational migration. I argue that while transnational realities challenge education for democratic citizenship, educational processes that enable students to interrogate their own transnational…

  18. Channeling Remittances to Education: A Field Experiment Among Migrants from El Salvador*

    PubMed Central

    Ambler, Kate; Aycinena, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We implement a randomized experiment offering Salvadoran migrants matching funds for educational remittances, which are channeled directly to a beneficiary student in El Salvador chosen by the migrant. The matches lead to increased educational expenditures, higher private school attendance, and lower labor supply of youths in El Salvador households connected to migrant study participants. We find substantial “crowd-in” of educational investments: for each $1 received by beneficiaries, educational expenditures increase by $3.72. We find no shifting of expenditures away from other students, and no effect on remittances. PMID:26000091

  19. Demand for sanitation in Salvador, Brazil: a hybrid choice approach.

    PubMed

    Santos, Andreia C; Roberts, Jennifer A; Barreto, Mauricio L; Cairncross, Sandy

    2011-04-01

    Funds to promote access to water and sanitation in developing countries are scarce and most of the investments come from the national governments and households sources, not international resources. In many of these countries, mainly in middle income countries, households are paying direct taxes to access these services, and understanding what determines their choice and motivation is fundamental to promote access to them. It has been argued that is not enough to supply a wide range of alternatives unless the individuals can recognise their benefits and sustainability. The objective of this paper is to understand the choice of sanitation technology by residents in the city of Salvador, Brazil. We propose a unique hybrid choice model that incorporates a set of latent attitudinal variables and explains how the demographic factors within a household influence choice. The substantial difference of our hybrid choice model from descriptive frameworks is that it integrates choice and latent variables (such as attitudes and preferences) allowing us to model explicitly the cognitive process that influences sanitation adoption, draw conclusions from cognitive variables associated with individuals' socio-economic and demographic characteristics, and establishes a causal pathway among these variables. The results show that the attributes of health protection, accessibility, privacy, and house modernisation were what households cared about when opting for flush toilet and sewerage connection, rather than the high cost and consequent household socio-economic status associated with them. The hybrid model is statistically consistent with these findings, and seems to fill the gap between behavioural theory and discrete choice models applied to sanitation.

  20. Television and Educational Reform in El Salvador. Complete Report on the Second Year of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur; And Others

    Research conducted on El Salvador's educational reform program during the 1970 school year is summarized. The primary focus is on the effect of instructional television on that reform. The administrative history of the 1970 school year is briefly reviewed. Learning patterns in the seventh-and eighth-grade television classes are compared with those…

  1. Feedback on Student Learning for Instructional Television in El Salvador. Research Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merino de Manzano, Ana Maria; And Others

    Conventional achievement measurement instruments were not adequate for optimum coordination between classroom and television studio personnel in El Salvador. A more rapid feedback system was tried in 14 seventh grade classrooms. The key factor of this feedback system was that the test results be compiled quickly, preferably within three days, and…

  2. Television and Educational Reform in El Salvador. Complete Report on the Second Year of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schramm, Wilbur; And Others

    Research conducted on El Salvador's educational reform program during the 1970 school year is summarized. The primary focus is on the effect of instructional television on that reform. The administrative history of the 1970 school year is briefly reviewed. Learning patterns in the seventh- and eighth-grade television classes are compared with…

  3. Small States and Big Institutions: USAID and Education Policy Formation in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the institutional power of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in the process of education policy formation in El Salvador during 2003-2005. The results show how bi- and multi-lateral institutions are able to leverage financial and intellectual capital to guide the policymaking process and sway…

  4. U.S. Migrant Networks and Adult Cardiometabolic Health in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michelle Y; Francis, Lori A

    2016-12-01

    Heightened prevalence of cardiometabolic health conditions in areas where infectious disease remains a major public health concern has created an especially challenging situation for developing countries, like El Salvador. Individuals living within migrant households where migrant networks are present may be at a greater risk for the development of cardiometabolic health conditions. Using data from the 2007 El Salvador database of the Latin American Migration Project (LAMP-ESLS4), this study investigates relations between financial remittances, familial U.S. migration history and cardiometabolic health conditions (overweight status, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke) among 534 individuals within 351 households from four different communities within the departments of La Unión, Cabañas, and San Miguel in El Salvador. Adults living in households that had close primary kin with U.S. migration history were almost two times less likely to be overweight (OR 0.456, p < 0.001) and obese (OR 0.453, p < 0.01) when adjusting for age, sex, education and economic well-being. This study highlights the importance of exploring the potential role of U.S. migrant ties in the epidemiologic transition present within developing countries, like El Salvador.

  5. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: BP America Production Company - Salvador I/II Central Delivery Point

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the response to public comments, the final synthetic minor NSR permit, and the administrative record for the BP America Production Company, Salvador I/II CDP, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  6. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' on tomato in El Salvador

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April of 2012, tomato plants grown near the town of Yuroconte in the municipality of La Palma in El Salvador, were observed with symptoms resembling those of “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso) infection. Disease incidence in several fields in the area ranged from 40 to 60%. Heavy infes...

  7. [Vagotonía. The medical thesis of Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Guillermo; Estañol-Vidal, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Salvador Zubirán submitted his thesis for his MD degree in 1923. This thesis falls within the context of the new Mexican physiological medicine and denotes the visionary character of its author. Zubirán appears here as the introducer in Mexico of the physiopharmacological approach in autonomic nervous system disorders.

  8. The Durability of Cultural Influences: How American Foreign Policy Reinforced Historical Biases in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    73 William Bollinger, " Villalobos on "Popular Insurrection"." Latin American Perspectives 16, no. 3...Conflict: The Case of Ronald Reagan and El Salvador." International Studies Quarterly 40, no. 1 (Mar. 1996): 23-44. Bollinger, William. " Villalobos on

  9. EDUCO Schools in El Salvador: A Democratic Tree in a Globalized Forest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    2009-01-01

    This research on the Educacion con Participacion de Communidad (EDUCO) rural schools in El Salvador examined the nature of the reform and its impact on parent involvement and engagement for the local community; the underlying economic and political ideologies of EDUCO; and interpreted these findings to uncover the implications of the reform for…

  10. Philip Morris involvement in the development of an air quality laboratory in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Kummerfeldt, C E; Barnoya, J; Bero, L

    2009-01-01

    Background: The tobacco industry has organised research institutions to generate misleading data on indoor air quality, including second-hand smoke exposure and health effects. Objectives: To describe tobacco industry involvement in the organisation and financial support of an air quality research laboratory in El Salvador. Methods: Tobacco industry documents on the internet were systematically searched from August 2007 to February 2008 for air quality studies undertaken in El Salvador, and laboratory personnel were interviewed. Results: Philip Morris sought to establish a network of air quality laboratories throughout Latin America. In El Salvador, in 1997, through Tabacalera de El Salvador (a subsidiary of Philip Morris) and the Salvadoran Foundation for Economic Development (FUSADES), the industry organised an air quality research laboratory. FUSADES was part of the industry’s Latin American Scientific Network, which consisted of doctors hired as consultants who would send air samples from their research to FUSADES. Philip Morris Scientific Affairs personnel hired LabStat, a Canadian-based laboratory, to provide technical assistance to FUSADES (train and assist the laboratory in air quality measurements). In addition, the Washington-based HMS Group successfully implemented a plan to upgrade the laboratory and obtain international certifications. HMS Group also assisted in searching for sustainable funding for FUSADES, including seeking funds from international aid for Hurricane Mitch. Conclusion: Air quality studies that have used the FUSADES laboratory should be carefully interpreted, given the support that this laboratory received from Philip Morris. PMID:19211614

  11. Impact of U.S. Foreign Policy and Assistance in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-03

    electoral institutions, increase voter registration and education, and support electoral observation.12 U.S. bilateral assistance to El Salvador seeks to...assistance activities have focused on improving election administration by building the institutional capacity of electoral authorities, enhancing voter...access by improving voter registration and education, supporting electoral reforms, and legitimizing election results by supporting electoral

  12. The Rule of Law and the U.S. Quest for Security in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-12

    prostitution, underage prostitution, pornography, and organized vice; gang activity; narcotics trafficking ; identity fraud; document fraud; fraudulent...the criminal organizations involved in human smuggling, arms trafficking , and narcotics trafficking . Salvadoran law enforcement organizations are...Separate case studies examine U.S. efforts to promote the rule of law in El Salvador in response to security threats ranging from human rights violations

  13. Basic Education in El Salvador: Consolidating the Foundations for Quality and Equal Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rincon, Hernan, Ed.; Sala, Mariella, Ed.; Sala, Fiorella, Ed.; Tarnapol Whitacre, Paula, Ed.; Lee, Thomas, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This study of basic education in El Salvador was carried out between September and December of 2003 by a team of researchers. This publication has two parts: (1) The introduction which addresses the main findings of the study and proposes education policy priorities for the next reform effort; and (2) A summary of the original study of basic…

  14. Mitochondrial Echoes of First Settlement and Genetic Continuity in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Antonio; Lovo-Gómez, José; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Cerezo, María; Lareu, María Victoria; Macaulay, Vincent; Richards, Martin B.; Carracedo, Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background From Paleo-Indian times to recent historical episodes, the Mesoamerican isthmus played an important role in the distribution and patterns of variability all around the double American continent. However, the amount of genetic information currently available on Central American continental populations is very scarce. In order to shed light on the role of Mesoamerica in the peopling of the New World, the present study focuses on the analysis of the mtDNA variation in a population sample from El Salvador. Methodology/Principal Findings We have carried out DNA sequencing of the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome in 90 individuals from El Salvador. We have also compiled more than 3,985 control region profiles from the public domain and the literature in order to carry out inter-population comparisons. The results reveal a predominant Native American component in this region: by far, the most prevalent mtDNA haplogroup in this country (at ∼90%) is A2, in contrast with other North, Meso- and South American populations. Haplogroup A2 shows a star-like phylogeny and is very diverse with a substantial proportion of mtDNAs (45%; sequence range 16090–16365) still unobserved in other American populations. Two different Bayesian approaches used to estimate admixture proportions in El Salvador shows that the majority of the mtDNAs observed come from North America. A preliminary founder analysis indicates that the settlement of El Salvador occurred about 13,400±5,200 Y.B.P.. The founder age of A2 in El Salvador is close to the overall age of A2 in America, which suggests that the colonization of this region occurred within a few thousand years of the initial expansion into the Americas. Conclusions/Significance As a whole, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that today's A2 variability in El Salvador represents to a large extent the indigenous component of the region. Concordant with this hypothesis is also the observation of a

  15. Magmatic evolution of the Ilopango Caldera, El Salvador, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zezin, D.; Mann, C. P.; Hernández, W.; Stix, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Ilopango caldera (16 x 13 km) is an active, long-lived magmatic system, erupting voluminous amounts of pyroclastic material numerous times over the course of its evolution. The caldera is presently water filled and the most recent activity is a dome growth event in 1880. Established age constraints from extracaldera pyroclastic sequences, indicate caldera forming events occur ~ every 10,000 years over the last 40,000 years. The most recent pyroclastic eruption (TBJ) is constrained to A.D. 429 erupting 70 km3 DRE of pyroclastic material. We combine major element and trace element chemistry with 40Ar/39Ar age constraints of the intracaldera domes and intracaldera pyroclastic deposits to extent the caldera history. The intracaldera domes are andesitic to rhyolitic in composition (57 - 76 wt. % SiO2), some with basaltic enclaves (54 wt. % SiO2) and pyroclastic units observed inside the caldera (San Agustín Pumice Breccia) are dacitic to rhyolitic in composition (69 -75 wt. % SiO2). Formation of an intracaldera andesitic dome at 359±7.9 ka provides a minimum age of caldera formation and extends the caldera history back ~ 320 ka years. The variable composition of the intracaldera domes, the presence of mafic enclaves in the dome lavas, mafic clasts in the TB4 plinian fall, mafic banding in the TB3 and TB2, attest to the obvious involvement of a more mafic magma The highly evolved compositions of the pyroclastic units and the volume of erupted material, point towards a large evolving magma reservoir at depth. The mafic magma may replenish the subsurface reservoir and act as a catalyst for volcanic eruption. The presence of an intracaldera lake, the regularity with which the volcano erupts and the presence of a more mafic magma are the ingredients for a catastrophic disaster. The Ilopango caldera, located 10 km to the east of the capital city of San Salvador (~ 1.5 million people) poses a threat both locally and globally as demonstrated 1600 years ago as it

  16. Chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in the Bajo Lempa region of El Salvador: Nefrolempa study, 2009.

    PubMed

    Orantes, Carlos M; Herrera, Raúl; Almaguer, Miguel; Brizuela, Elsy G; Hernández, Carlos E; Bayarre, Héctor; Amaya, Juan C; Calero, Denis J; Orellana, Patricia; Colindres, Rosa M; Velázquez, María E; Núñez, Sonia G; Contreras, Verónica M; Castro, Bertha E

    2011-10-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN En El Salvador, la enfermedad renal crónica terminal es la causa principal de muerte hospitalaria en adultos, la segunda causa de muerte en los hombres y la quinta causa principal de muerte entre adultos de ambos sexos en la población general. OBJETIVO Identificar los factores de riesgo de la enfermedad renal crónica y los marcadores de daño renovascular en orina, medir la función renal y caracterizar la prevalencia de enfermedad renal crónica en personas X18 años de edad en la región del Bajo Lempa en El Salvador. METODOS Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico transversal y analítico de la enfermedad renal crónica y los factores de riesgo asociados en individuos con edades X18 años por medio de pesquisa activa en la Región del Bajo Lempa, una zona costera rural en El Salvador. Se efectuaron visitas casa por casa y consultas médicas. Se recolectaron datos epidemiológicos y clínicos que incluían: historia clínica personal y familiar para la enfermedad; factores de riesgo biológicos, de conducta, sociales y ambientales; mediciones físicas; análisis de orina buscando marcadores de daño renovascular y exámenes de sangre (creatinina y glucosa en suero, lipidograma). La tasa de filtración glomerular se calculó usando la fórmula de MDRD (sigla en inglés de Modificación de la Dieta en la Enfermedad Renal). La confirmación de casos de enfermedad renal crónica se realizó en un período de tres meses. Se utilizó la regresión logística múltiple para analizar los datos. RESULTADOS Se estudiaron un total de 375 familias y 775 individuos (343 hombres, 432 mujeres), el 88,3% del total de la población residente en la región. Se observó una elevada prevalencia de factores de riesgo: diabetes mellitus en 10,3%; hipertensión en 16,9%; antecedentes familiares de enfermedad renal crónica en 21,6%; dislipidemias en 63,1%; sobrepeso en 34%; obesidad en 22,4%; síndrome metabólico en 28,8%; uso de medicamentos anti-inZ amatorios no

  17. Assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the February 13, 2001, El Salvador earthquake; a report to the government of El Salvador and the U. S. Agency for International Development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baum, Rex L.; Crone, Anthony J.; Escobar, Demetreo; Harp, Edwin L.; Major, Jon J.; Martinez, Mauricio; Pullinger, Carlos; Smith, Mark E.

    2001-01-01

    On February 13, 2001, a magnitude 6.5 earthquake occurred about 40 km eastsoutheast of the capital city of San Salvador in central El Salvador and triggered thousands of landslides in the area east of Lago de Ilopango. The landslides are concentrated in a 2,500-km2 area and are particularly abundant in areas underlain by thick deposits of poorly consolidated, late Pleistocene and Holocene Tierra Blanca rhyolitic tephras that were erupted from Ilopango caldera. Drainages in the tephra deposits are deeply incised, and steep valley walls failed during the strong shaking. Many drainages are clogged with landslide debris that locally buries the adjacent valley floor. The fine grain-size of the tephra facilitates its easy mobilization by rainfall runoff. The potential for remobilizing the landslide debris as debris flows and in floods is significant as this sediment is transported through the drainage systems during the upcoming rainy season. In addition to thousands of shallow failures, two very large landslides occurred that blocked the Rio El Desague and the Rio Jiboa. The Rio El Desague landslide has an estimated volume of 1.5 million m3, and the Rio Jiboa landslide has an estimated volume of 12 million m3. Field studies indicate that catastrophic draining of the Rio El Desague landslide-dammed lake would pose a minimal flooding hazard, whereas catastrophic draining of the Rio Jiboa lake would pose a serious hazard and warrants immediate action. Construction of a spillway across part of the dam could moderate the impact of catastrophic lake draining and the associated flood. Two major slope failures on the northern side of Volcan San Vicente occurred in the upper reaches of Quebrada Del Muerto and the Quebrada El Blanco. The landslide debris in the Quebrada Del Muerto consists dominantly of blocks of well-lithified andesite, whereas the debris in the Quebrada El Blanco consists of poorly consolidated pyroclastic sediment. The large blocks of lithified rock in

  18. Family planning communications and contraceptive use in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Panama.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J T; Santiso, R; Cisneros, R J; Mascarin, F; Morris, L

    1982-01-01

    Recent contraceptive prevalence surveys in Guatemala, El Salvador, and panama included a module on family planning communications. This module provided useful feedback on the reach of each program and facilitated comparisons between countries. While almost all women in El Salvador have been reached by family planning messages, the percentage of women reached was lower in Panama and Guatemala. In all three countries rural, less educated, and unemployed women who worked inside the home or not at all were least likely to have seen or heard the messages. Exposure to family planning communications emerged as a strong correlate of contraceptive use, as shown in two separate analyses. These findings underscore the importance of communications in promoting contraceptive use.

  19. The red tide event in El Salvador, August 2001-January 2002.

    PubMed

    Enrique Barraza, José; Armero-Guardado, Julio; Valencia de Toledo, Zobeyda Marisol

    2004-09-01

    A red tide event occurred in El Salvador from August 2001 to January 2002. National health authorities usually measured toxin levels in Ostrea iridescens, however other species were analyzed during this microalgae bloom: Anadara similis, Anadara tuberculosa and Modiolus sp. El Salvador authorities consider 400 mouse units/100 g the highest value that is safe for human health. During this period toxin levels in 0. iridescens and Modiolus sp. increased from values under 400 to 3977 and 15,468 mouse units/100 g, respectively. Persistent and higher levels were recorded in oyster and mussel banks on the west part of the country. The Ministry of Health and Social Assistance treated 41 slight to moderate intoxications associated to bivalve mollusks consumption.

  20. [An information system for injuries from external causes (SILEX): a successful project in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Oscar; de Cosío, Gerardo; Clavel-Arcas, Carme; Montoya, Jeannette; Serpas, Mario; Morán de García, Silvia; Concha-Eastman, Alberto

    2008-12-01

    This article examines the stages in developing an information system for injuries from external causes (Sistema de Información de Lesiones de Causa Externa-SILEX), as well as its limitations and achievements. SILEX is a Web-based application for collection, quality control, presentation, and analysis of data available from the hospital system for surveillance of injuries from external causes created by Ministry of Health of El Salvador with data from the hospital emergency services. This system maintains comprehensive information on the injured person-type of injury, intention, injury site, activity being performed at the time of injury, risk factors, etc.-in the form of tables, graphs, and maps, which streamlines the development of intervention plans and prevention initiatives for these types of injuries in El Salvador. This experience is an example of what can be done to close the information gap on injuries by external causes in the Region of the Americas.

  1. [Critical issues for implementing oral health policy in the city of Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva

    2011-05-01

    This study focuses on policy implementation by public organizations. This was a qualitative, exploratory case study focusing on Brazil's National Oral Health Policy, known as "Smiling Brazil", implemented in Salvador, the State capital of Bahia. The study aimed to identify factors that facilitated or hindered the policy's implementation, based on the public policy cycle and Carlos Matus' government triangle concept, for the period from 2004 to 2007. Data collection strategies included analysis of municipal documents, interviews with key informants, and direct observation of top management meetings at the Municipal Health Secretariat. The main factors that hindered implementation of the municipal oral health policy were the project's lack of specificity; lack of human resources; and lack of financial autonomy in the Municipal Health Secretariat. The study showed that the lack of connection between the variables comprising the government triangle raised obstacles to the implementation of oral health policy in Salvador.

  2. Volcanic Hazards of San Miguel Volcano, El Salvador--Initial Work

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, D.; Chesner, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    San Miguel is a Holocene volcano (2130 m) on the volcanic front that has erupted mafic lavas and tephras in small VEI 2 events numerous times in the past 300 years. The city of San Miguel, El Salvador's second largest city ({ ~}300,000) and the economic center of eastern El Salvador, is built 11 km away on the lowermost northeastern flank of the volcano, 2000 m below its summit. A few large towns are built on the west and southwest flanks including San Jorge, San Rafael Oriente, and El Transito. The Pan American and Coastal highways cross the lowermost northern and southern flanks respectively. Coffee plantations cover a large portion of the northern flank whereas the southern flank is mostly ranch land. Historic lava flows from San Miguel occurred between 1699 and 1884 and were mainly erupted from flank vents. Ash fall associated with historic flank eruptions has been reported up to 20 km from the volcano, and fell on the city of San Miguel in 1931. In 1976, small scale fountaining occurred in the summit crater and produced minor ash fall within a few km of the crater. Recently, small debris flows composed mostly of scoria have caused property damage on the northwestern flank of the volcano. Based on its historic activity and its current seismicity, gas emission and rock alteration, San Miguel is perhaps El Salvador's most likely candidate for hazardous activity. We are beginning a hazard study for San Miguel volcano that includes assessment of the hazards from lava flows, ash falls, pyroclastic flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches. This study is important to El Salvador, where volcanic risk is ubiquitous and poorly quantified. As an initial step we have sampled and analyzed 75 samples of lavas, tephras, and pyroclastic flow deposits from the volcano and its vicinity. These analyses indicate that the exposed portion of the cone consists exclusively of basalts and basaltic andesites.

  3. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-18

    America- United States Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), by J. F. Hornbeck, CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and...January 27, 2009. 13 Ibid; Alberto Fajardo, “Funes quiere gobernar cerca Brasil y EEUU,” Reuters, March 16, 2009; “ Presidente electo El Salvador...for Mexico and Central America, by Colleen W. Cook and Clare Ribando Seelke. 26 It is unclear how much bilateral and Mérida Initiative assistance

  4. Transitions to Peace: Effects on Internal Security Forces in Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    rights abuses and to purge the army of its most serious human rights violators.”154 The peace agreement “stipulated that all Salvadoran armed forces...repressive measures that violate individual rights . Despite reports of extrajudicial killings, it is not uncommon for citizens to ignore these...leading human rights violation in both Honduras and Guatemala.”30 El Salvador is not immune to this problem and “there have been reports of a

  5. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    9 Mauricio Funes, “Discurso Toma de Posesión,” June 1, 2009; “Normalizan El Salvador y Cuba relaciones ...CRS Report R40135, Mérida Initiative for Mexico and Central America: Funding and Policy Issues, by Clare Ribando Seelke and June S. Beittel; and CRS...already reestablished diplomatic relations with Cuba .9 Challenges for the Funes Administration Opposition Legislature Although the FMLN increased its

  6. El Salvador: Political, Economic, and Social Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-18

    The current president of El Salvador, Antonio (Tony) Saca of the conservative ARENA party, was elected in March 2004, along with Ana Vilma de Escobar ...per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing...and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information

  7. Correlates of bisexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Kim, Evelyn J; Creswell, Jacob; Guardado, Maria Elena; Shah, Neha; Kim, Andrea A; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Maria Hernandez-Ayala, Flor; Monterroso, Edgar; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-05-01

    Bisexual behaviors may increase transmission pathways of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) from a higher prevalence group to lower prevalence groups in El Salvador. In 2008, men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited in San Salvador and San Miguel using respondent driven sampling. Participants were interviewed and tested for HIV and STIs. Sixteen seeds and 797 MSM participated; 34.9% in San Salvador and 58.8% in San Miguel reported bisexual behavior. Bisexual behavior was associated with drug use (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.57, 95% CI: 1.30-5.06) and insertive anal sex (AOR = 5.45, 95% CI: 3.01-9.87), and inversely associated with having a stable male partner (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26-0.84) and disclosing MSM behavior to family (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75). Bisexual behavior was associated with risk behaviors with male and female partners that may be associated with HIV and STI transmission. Bisexual men displayed a distinct identity calling for tailored interventions.

  8. Epidemiology as discourse: the politics of development institutions in the Epidemiological Profile of El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Aviles, L

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To determine the ways in which institutions devoted to international development influence epidemiological studies.
DESIGN—This article takes a descriptive epidemiological study of El Salvador, Epidemiological Profile, conducted in 1994 by the US Agency for International Development, as a case study. The methods include discourse analysis in order to uncover the ideological basis of the report and its characteristics as a discourse of development.
SETTING—El Salvador.
RESULTS—The Epidemiological Profile theoretical basis, the epidemiological transition theory, embodies the ethnocentrism of a "colonizer's model of the world." This report follows the logic of a discourse of development by depoliticising development, creating abnormalities, and relying on the development consulting industry. The epidemiological transition theory serves as an ideology that legitimises and dissimulates the international order.
CONCLUSIONS—Even descriptive epidemiological assessments or epidemiological profiles are imbued with theoretical assumptions shaped by the institutional setting under which epidemiological investigations are conducted.


Keywords: El Salvador; politics PMID:11160170

  9. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E.; Ko, Albert I.; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rodent control strategies, as this knowledge aids estimation of the temporal stability and spatial connectivity of populations. We screened for genetic variation, characterized the population genetic structure, and evaluated the extent and patterns of gene flow in the urban landscape using 17 microsatellite loci in 146 rats from 9 sites in the city of Salvador, Brazil. These sites were divided between three neighborhoods within the city spaced an average of 2.7 km apart. Surprisingly, we detected very little relatedness among animals trapped at the same site and found high levels of genetic diversity, as well as structuring across small geographic distances. Most FST comparisons among sites were statistically significant, including sites <400 m apart. Bayesian analyses grouped the samples in three genetic clusters, each associated with distinct sampling sites from different neighborhoods or valleys within neighborhoods. These data indicate the existence of complex genetic structure in R. norvegicus in Salvador, linked to the heterogeneous urban landscape. Future rodent control measures need to take into account the spatial and temporal linkage of rat populations in Salvador, as revealed by genetic data, to develop informed eradication strategies. PMID:24118116

  10. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1–4 years; 3) 5–9 years, or 4) 10–14 or 10–11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in

  11. Do Community-Managed Schools Work? An Evaluation of El Salvador's EDUCO Program. Working Paper Series on Impact Evaluation of Education Reforms. Paper No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez, Emmanuel; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    This paper measures the effects on student outcomes of decentralizing educational responsibility to communities and schools. In El Salvador, community-managed schools emerged during the 1980s when public schools could not be extended to rural areas because of the country's civil war. In 1991, El Salvador's Ministry of Education decided to draw on…

  12. [Cerebrovascular diseases as multiple cause of death in Salvador: magnitude and space differences of mortality omitted in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Lessa, I; Silva, M R

    1993-09-01

    Social inequalities and the excess (%) in mortality by cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) unregistered in the official death statistics were studied in Salvador, Brazil, 1988. In an ecological spacial (aggregate) desing, all death mentioning CVD as basic and as associated cause of death were reviewed and distributed, according to their addresses by 66 geographical zones. The mortality rates by CVD (basic+associated) ranged from 22.94 to 376.62/10,000 adults. The mortality fraction not included in the official statistics was 29.1% for Salvador with means between 16.12 and 33.72% in the group of zones of very low to those in the high mortality levels. Seven out of 16 zones included in the 4th quantil showed exceptionally high mortality rates (above those of Salvador + 1.64 x standard deviation corrected by the zones population). The authors discuss possible explanations for the social differences in the mortality profile.

  13. The Changing Face of South Africa's National System of Innovation, 1991?2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael; Blankley, William

    2005-01-01

    The article examines changes in the South African national system of innovation (NSI) since the onset of democracy in 1994. In particular, the recently completed 2001/02 Survey of Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is used to quantify the shifts in R&D activity for the major business, government and higher education players. The major…

  14. Comparison of Hydrologic Data from Monroe County, Michigan, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholas, J.R.; Blumer, Stephen P.; McGowan, Rose M.

    2001-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, there were renewed concerns about the effects of quarry dewatering on nearby domestic ground-water supplies in Monroe County, Michigan. Reports of domestic wells “going dry” are not uncommon historically in Monroe County. Such reports have been linked to droughts, nearby irrigation, quarrying, and other large ground-water uses since as early as 1900 (Sherzer, 1900). Concerns about ground-water availability during the short, but extreme, drought of 1988 prompted the County and the State of Michigan to cooperate with the USGS (U.S. Geological Survey) on a county water resources assessment during the early 1990s (Nicholas and others, 1996). Aquifers in Monroe County generally yield sufficient water for domestic supplies. High transmissivities and low storage in fractured carbonate aquifers and poor water quality at depth (Nicholas and others, 1996), however, make domestic supplies very susceptible to the effects of drought and large withdrawals. Therefore, there are legitimate concerns about sustainable groundwater supplies in the County. Additionally, significant increases in ground-water uses in Monroe County during the past decade coincide with very dry years during the late 1990s. Although ground-water-level data were collected by Monroe County during the last decade, there are not comparable data sets available for many water uses. Therefore, determining whether concerns about domestic wells going dry can be linked to ground-water withdrawals or climate is problematic. In response to recent concerns, the USGS and MDEQ (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality) entered into a cooperative agreement in October 2001 to conduct a study regarding the availability of ground water in Monroe County. The major goal of this study is to determine how widespread are the impacts of quarry dewatering operations. This report summarizes the initial phase of the study which consists of a comparison of hydrologic data from 1991 to 2001. The 1991 data are reported by the USGS in the report by Nicholas and others (1996). Later data come from a variety of sources including USGS, MDEQ, Monroe County, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and ground-water users. All non-USGS data in this report are given as reported; data verification was not a part of this initial phase. The types of data chosen for comparison in this report include water levels of Lake Erie, precipitation at Monroe, streamflow in the River Raisin at Manchester, ground-water use, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. The authors acknowledge the cooperation and provision of data and information by several agencies. Ground-water use for irrigation was provided by Ron Van Til of MDEQ. Quarry discharges were provided by Jennifer Rogers of MDEQ. Ground-water-level data for 1993 to 2001 were provided by the Monroe County Health Department. The authors also acknowledge Carlos Hernandez, Chris Hoard, Tom Morgan, Tom Sabin, and Dave Westjohn for collecting streamflow, ground-water, and ground-water-quality data in autumn, 2001. Sharon Baltusis and Jaye Lunsford assisted in the compilation and presentation of hydrologic data in this report.

  15. Effects of temperature variation on suicide in five U.S. counties, 1991-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, P. G.; McDonald, A. N.; Scheitlin, K. N.; Stapleton, J. E.; Allen, J. S.; Carter, W. M.; Holley, M. R.; Inman, D. D.; Roberts, J. B.

    2007-05-01

    Effects of weather variables on suicide are well-documented, but there is still little consistency among the results of most studies. Nevertheless, most studies show a peak in suicides during the spring season, and this is often attributed to increased temperatures. The purpose of this study is to test the relationship between monthly temperature and monthly suicide, independent of months or seasons, for five counties located across the United States. Harmonic analysis shows that four of the five counties display some seasonal components in the suicide data. However, simple linear regression shows no correlation between suicide and temperature, and discriminant analysis shows that monthly departure from mean annual suicide rates is not a useful tool for identifying months with temperatures that are colder or warmer than the annual average. Therefore, it appears that the seasonality of suicides is due to factors other than temperature.

  16. Evaluation and Statistical Review of Idaho Supplementation Studies :1991-2001.

    SciTech Connect

    Lutch, Jeffrey; Steinhorst, Kirk; Beasley, Chris

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) was developed to evaluate the utility of supplementation as a recovery tool for Snake River basin chinook salmon (Supplementation Technical Workgroup 1987), and to help define the potential role of supplementation in managing Idaho's anadromous fisheries (IDFG 1990; IDFG 1992). Supplementation as defined by the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project group is the use of artificial propagation in the attempt to maintain or increase natural production while maintaining the long-term fitness of the target population (RASP 1992). Poor survival has led to the decline and continued depression of upriver chinook salmon stocks due to mainstem passage and mortality factors associated with the lower Snake and Columbia river dams. Although immediate efforts should focus on alleviating the poor passage and flow conditions, supplementation may concurrently be a viable tool to meet the Northwest Power Planning Council's interim goal of doubling anadromous fish runs in the Columbia River Basin (NPPC 1987) and avoiding short-term loss of spawning aggregates.

  17. The case of the missing person: Alzheimer's disease in mass print magazines 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Juanne N

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is growing in incidence and prevalence in the developed world. Rates have been increasing as populations have been aging. There are still many unknowns regarding prevention, causes, and treatments. The purpose of this article is to analyze the portrayal of Alzheimer's in the highest-circulation mass print English-language magazines published in the United States and Canada over a period of a decade, specifically those for 1991, 1996, and 2001. This research investigates the portrayal of persons with Alzheimer's, the disease itself, caregivers and experts, and the dominant frames or discourses within which Alzheimer's is described. Twenty-five articles from the highest-circulation mass print magazines available in Canada were studied through qualitative and inductive research of both manifest and latent content. One of the most notable findings is the absence of the person with the disease as a person with a voice, with needs and desires. When the disease itself is described it is characterized as fearsome, relentless, and aggressive. Both the unquestioned duty of the individual caregiver and his or her (usually the caregiver is a woman) suffering are emphasized. The disease, its diagnosis, and potential treatments are framed almost exclusively within a medical rather than a political-economy or lifestyle frame. Minimal attention is paid to prevention, early stages of the disease, social support, options for care, or other alternative understandings of issues related to Alzheimer's. The theoretical and practical significance of these findings is considered.

  18. Urban slum structure: integrating socioeconomic and land cover data to model slum evolution in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The expansion of urban slums is a key challenge for public and social policy in the 21st century. The heterogeneous and dynamic nature of slum communities limits the use of rigid slum definitions. A systematic and flexible approach to characterize, delineate and model urban slum structure at an operational resolution is essential to plan, deploy, and monitor interventions at the local and national level. Methods We modeled the multi-dimensional structure of urban slums in the city of Salvador, a city of 3 million inhabitants in Brazil, by integrating census-derived socioeconomic variables and remotely-sensed land cover variables. We assessed the correlation between the two sets of variables using canonical correlation analysis, identified land cover proxies for the socioeconomic variables, and produced an integrated map of deprivation in Salvador at 30 m × 30 m resolution. Results The canonical analysis identified three significant ordination axes that described the structure of Salvador census tracts according to land cover and socioeconomic features. The first canonical axis captured a gradient from crowded, low-income communities with corrugated roof housing to higher-income communities. The second canonical axis discriminated among socioeconomic variables characterizing the most marginalized census tracts, those without access to sanitation or piped water. The third canonical axis accounted for the least amount of variation, but discriminated between high-income areas with white-painted or tiled roofs from lower-income areas. Conclusions Our approach captures the socioeconomic and land cover heterogeneity within and between slum settlements and identifies the most marginalized communities in a large, complex urban setting. These findings indicate that changes in the canonical scores for slum areas can be used to track their evolution and to monitor the impact of development programs such as slum upgrading. PMID:24138776

  19. Disparities in HIV Screening among Pregnant Women – El Salvador, 2011

    PubMed Central

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Nieto Gómez, Ana I.; Dubón Abrego, María A.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Sutton, Madeline Y.; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an accurate estimate of antenatal HIV screening and its determinants among pregnant women in El Salvador and help local authorities make informed decisions for targeted interventions around mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). Methods A total sample of 4,730 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from a random sample of 3,625 households. We collected data on antenatal care services, including HIV screening, during last pregnancy through a pre-established questionnaire. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to examine the association between HIV screening and sociodemographic and health care-related factors. Results A total of 2,929 women were included in this analysis. About 98% of participants reported receiving antenatal care, but only 83% of these reported being screened for HIV. Screening was lower in geographic areas with higher HIV incidence and ranged from 69.1% among women who were not seen by a physician during antenatal care, to 93.7% among those who attended or completed college. Odds for screening varied also by age, employment status, household economic expenditure, possession of health care coverage, health care settings, and number of antenatal care visits. Conclusions We found disparities in HIV screening during antenatal care at the environmental, social, demographic, and structural levels despite a high uptake of antenatal care in El Salvador. Our findings should urge health authorities to tailor and enhance current strategies implemented to eliminate MTCT and reduce inequities and HIV morbidity among women in El Salvador. PMID:24349356

  20. Evolving Hazard Monitoring and Communication at San Vicente Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Gierke, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    El Salvador has 20 potentially active volcanoes, four of which have erupted in the last 100 years. Since San Vicente Volcano has had no historic eruptions, monitoring is not a high priority; especially given the current eruptive crisis at San Miguel Volcano. Though probability of eruptive hazards remains low at San Vicente, it is arguably one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the country due to rainfall-induced landslides and debris-flow risk. At least 250 deaths occurred in November 2009 from landslides and debris flows triggered by Hurricane Ida. This disaster caused the Universidad de El Salvador - Facultad Multidisciplinaria Paracentral (UES-FMP, San Vicente, El Salvador) to partner with governmental and nongovernmental organizations (including the U.S. Peace Corps, U.S. Fulbright Program, Korean International Cooperation Agency, Protección Civil and the Centro de Protección para Desastres (CEPRODE)) to focus its faculty and student research toward hazard monitoring and risk studies. Newly established monitoring efforts include: measurement of surface cracks and localized rainfall by Protección Civil and local residents using crude extensometers and rain gauges; installation of six weather stations that operate within the most at-risk municipalities; seismic refraction surveys to better characterize stratigraphy and seasonal water table changes; and most recently, a USAID/NSF-funded initiative partnered with the UES-FMP to monitor seasonal hydrologic conditions related to flooding and groundwater recharge. The information from these initiatives is now used to communicate current conditions and warnings through a network of two-way radios established by CEPRODE and Protección Civil. Representatives from the multi-institutional team also communicate the data to authorities who make better-informed decisions regarding warnings and evacuations, as well as determine suitable areas for population relocation in the event of a crisis. Data will eventually be used

  1. Risk Behaviors and STI Prevalence Among People with HIV in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Bailey, G; Shah, N; Creswell, J; Guardado, ME; Nieto, AI; Estrada, MC; Cedillos, R; Pascale, JM; Monterroso, E

    2012-01-01

    To date, there are no studies from El Salvador among people with HIV to inform prevention programs. We conducted a study in El Salvador in 2008 among people with HIV using audio computer-assisted interviews on risk behaviors and access to health care. Blood was tested for syphilis and herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2). Active syphilis was defined as RPR titer ≥1:8. Genital specimens were tested for other sexually transmitted infections (STI) by PCR. We evaluated factors associated with unprotected sex with last stable partner of HIV-negative or unknown status among those reporting a stable partner. A total of 811 HIV-positive individuals participated: 413 men and 398 women. Prevalence of Chlamydia and gonorrhea was low (≤1%), while prevalence of other STI was high: Mycoplasma genitalium (14%), syphilis (15% seropositivity, active syphilis 3%) and HSV-2 (85%). In multivariate analysis, disclosing HIV status to partner (OR 0.2, 95% CI: 0.1-0.3, p<0.001), participation in HIV support groups (OR 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-0.8, p=0.01), easy access to condoms (OR 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.9, p=0.04) were protective factors for unprotected sex. Reporting a casual partner in the last 12 months (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.5-8.5, p=0.004). and having an STI (OR 2.6, 95% CI:1.3-5.5, p=0.02) were associated with an increased odds of unprotected sex. Prevention interventions among HIV-positives in El Salvador should focus on increasing condom access, promoting HIV disclosure and couples testing and reducing the number of partners. The positive role of support groups should be used to enhance behavioral change. PMID:23049671

  2. With God's Help I Can Do It: Crack Users' Formal and Informal Recovery Experiences in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Guevara, Carmen Eugenia; Rodriguez, Karla; De Mendoza, Lorena Rivas; Corbett, A. Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Crack use has increased dramatically in El Salvador in the last few decades. As with other developing countries with sudden onsets of drug problems, El Salvador has few medical staff trained in addictions treatment. Little research has examined drug users' attempts to reduce or abstain from drug use in countries where government-regulated formal medical treatment for drug addiction is scarce. This paper uses qualitative and quantitative data gathered from active crack users to explore their formal and informal strategies to reduce or abstain from drugs, and compares these with components of informal and formal treatment in developed countries. PMID:20735191

  3. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.55). Within 2 weeks, influenza in Panama was increased by 1 case for every 1% increase in RH (RR=1.04, p=.003), and it was increased by 2 cases for every 1C increase of minimum temperature (RR=2.01, p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.4). Influenza counts in Guatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza

  4. Cross-bedded limestone facies on San Salvador Island, Bahamas: New perspective on eolian calcarenites

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, M.V. )

    1989-08-01

    Limestones of eolian origin have been known from worldwide tropical regins since the early 1900s. On San Salvador Island, most of the exposed bed rock is Holocene and Pleistocene eolian calcarenite made of skeletal, peloidal, and oolitic fine to medium sand. The Pleistocene Grotto Beach Formation is composed of 50-90% ooids. An eolian interpretation for this interval is supported by paleosols, subaerial crusts, vadose cement, terrestrial fossils, karst features, associated reef and beach deposits, grainfall, sandflow, and climbing ripple strata, and shore-parallel sand bodies. Whole dune-forms are locally preserved; they were stabilized or frozen in place by early cementation and/or vegetation.

  5. [Salvador Armendares: second generation Spanish refugee and pioneer of human genetics in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Villanueva Lozano, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an analysis of Dr. Salvador Armendares' exile and professional career, with the aim of exploring the relation between the intellectual contributions of the second generation of Spanish refugees in Mexico and the origins of medical genetics in that country. The thesis is that the emigration of European refugees due to political issues, where eugenic values were exalted, paradoxically facilitated the establishment of medical genetics in Mexico. Interpretation of cultural, political, and social factors contributes to the analysis, avoiding Eurocentric and expansionist narratives.

  6. Staurojoenina and other symbionts in Neotermes from San Salvador Island, Bahamas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, M.; Margulis, L.

    1997-01-01

    Staurojoenina, a conspicuous hypermastigote protist (undocumented in any Neotermes) and other hindgut symbionts are reported for the first time in Neotermes nr. jouteli, a dry-wood-eating termite (Kalotermitidae), from the red mangroves at the northeast corner of San Salvador Island. Other distinctive protists (Macrotrichomonas, Metadevescovina, two morphotypes of small trichomonads) and bacteria (Arthromitus-type filamentous spore-formers) symbionts were also found in this termite. This Staurojoenina sp. replete with epibiotic bacterial symbionts is not distinguished from previously described species of Staurojoenina.

  7. Late Pennsylvanian and early permian chondrichthyan microremains from San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexico)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derycke-Khatir, C.; Vachard, D.; Degardin, J.-M.; Flores de Dios, A.; Buitron, B.; Hansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The San Salvador Patlanoaya section (Puebla State, Mexico) is known for its richness of many fossil groups. Among them, the calcareous shells have been principally investigated. This paper deals with Missourian-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Leonardian (late Early Permian) Mexican fish remains. A discussion about Helicoprion and related genera, is followed by the systematic description of the revised or discovered taxa: Cooperella typicalis, Moreyella cf. M. typicalis, M. (?) sp., "Sturgeonella" quinqueloba, Hybodontidae gen. sp. 1 and 2, scale indet. Palaeobiogeographic implications are suggested. ?? 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. An Assessment of the National Campaign Plan for El Salvador: Planning for Success or Failure?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-03

    Panama. ’Lydia Chavez , "The Odds in El Savador: Again the U.S. Army Faces an Elusive Enemy," The New York Times Magazine, 24 July 1983, p. 14. 2Charles...34 Facts on File, vol. 43, 17 June 1983, p. 448. 4Lydia Chavez , "U.S. Pilot Program in Salvadoran Area in Danger of Failing," The New York Times, 18 December...marked the beginning of the operational plan as government forces numbering between 4,000 and I Chavez , "The Odds in El Salvador," p. 17. 2Mohr, p

  9. Wounds caused by firearms in El Salvador, 2003-2004: epidemiological issues.

    PubMed

    Paniagua, Ignacio; Crespin, Emperatriz; Guardado, Ademar; Mauricio, Ana

    2005-01-01

    This study presents data from hospital records in El Salvador describing the features of 100 patients admitted to a public hospital with firearm wounds. Wounds caused by Firearms (WFA) account for 70 per cent of homicides; 30 per cent of WFA homicides died in hospital. For every death in hospital there are five admissions who need treatment and survive. The typical victim is a young man with reasonable education but poor earning capacities and some family responsibilities, who lives in an urban setting where drugs, alcohol and firearms are commonplace. Extrapolating from this study, an estimated 2,580 people were treated in El Salvador hospitals during 2003; and of these 2,400 were treated in public hospitals at a cost to the state of 7.4 million USD, just over seven per cent of the health budget. Using further extrapolations, the total social costs for WFA morbidity would amount to around 34 million USD. There needs to be greater controls on firearms, public education on their risks and a more unified surveillance system.

  10. Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway in a developmental checkpoint monitoring Helix-Loop-Helix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    The E-proteins and Id-proteins are, respectively, the positive and negative heterodimer partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein family, and as such contribute to a remarkably large number of cell fate decisions. E-proteins and Id-proteins also function to inhibit or promote cell proliferation and cancer. Using a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila, we show that the Id-protein Extramacrochaetae enables growth by suppressing activation of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway of tumor suppressors, activation that requires transcriptional activation of the expanded gene by the E-protein Daughterless. Daughterless protein binds to an intronic enhancer in the expanded gene, both activating the SWH pathway independently of the transmembrane protein Crumbs, and bypassing the negative feedback regulation that targets the same expanded enhancer. Thus the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway has a cell-autonomous function to prevent inappropriate differentiation due to transcription factor imbalance, and monitors the intrinsic developmental status of progenitor cells, distinct from any responses to cell-cell interactions. PMID:25579975

  11. [Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge Jacinto; Barrett, Thomas; Narváez, Silvia; Caldas, José Miguel; Levav, Itzhak; Saxena, Shekhar

    2007-11-01

    The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect data from the nations. The national mental health systems of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador have serious limitations, especially in primary care, and a marked lack of qualified human resources. Budget allocations for mental health care are barely 1% of the total health care budgets; and the psychiatric hospitals located in the national capitals consume at least 90% of those funds. The limited human and material resources available are concentrated in the respective country capital cities. National mental health policies and legislation have not been adopted; however, all three countries do have national plans in progress. Furthermore, all three have designed and implemented programs for mental health care in case of disaster. Agreements must be reached with offices for the defense of human rights to raise awareness and protection of rights for the mentally ill. In recent years, new experiences have been gained and these should be distributed more widely. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and the WHO-AIMS project have contributed toward developing community models for mental health services. Lastly, priorities have been identified and action items recommended.

  12. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Chagas Disease in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Sasagawa, Emi; Aiga, Hirotsugu; Soriano, Edith Yanira Corado; Marroquín, Blanca Leticia Cuyuch; Ramírez, Marta Alicia Hernández; de Aguilar, Ana Vilma Guevara; Chévez, José Eduardo Romero; Hernández, Hector Manuel Ramos; Cedillos, Rafael Antonio; Misago, Chizuru; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the incidence (any mother to child) and rate (from seropositive mother to child) of mother-to-child transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, a serological census was conducted, targeting pregnant women and infants born to seropositive mothers, in four municipalities of El Salvador. Of 943 pregnant women, 36 (3.8%) were seropositive for T. cruzi. Of 36, 32 proceeded to serological tests of their infants when they became 6–8 months of age. Six infants seropositive at the age of 6–8 months further proceeded to second-stage serological test at the age of 9–16 months. As the result, one infant was congenitally infected. Thus, serological tests at the age of 6–8 months produced five false positives. To ensure earlier effective medication only for true positives, identification of seropositive infants at the age of 9–16 months is crucial. Incidence and rate of mother-to-child transmission were 0.14 (per 100 person-years) and 4.0%, respectively. Estimated number of children infected through mother-to-child transmission in El Salvador (170 per year) was much higher than that of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; seven per year). It is recommended that serological testing for T. cruzi be integrated into those for HIV and syphilis as part of antenatal care package. PMID:26123959

  13. Unrecognized Emergence of Chikungunya Virus during a Zika Virus Outbreak in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Prates, Ana Paula P. B.; Paploski, Igor A. D.; Tauro, Laura B.; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Santana, Perla; Rego, Marta F. S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel

    2017-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) entered Brazil in 2014, causing a large outbreak in Feira de Santana, state of Bahia. Although cases have been recorded in Salvador, the capital of Bahia, located ~100 km of Feira de Santana, CHIKV transmission has not been perceived to occur epidemically, largely contrasting with the Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak and ensuing complications reaching the city in 2015. Methodology/Principal Findings This study aimed to determine the intensity of CHIKV transmission in Salvador between November 2014 and April 2016. Results of all the CHIKV laboratory tests performed in the public sector were obtained and the frequency of positivity was analyzed by epidemiological week. Of the 2,736 tests analyzed, 456 (16.7%) were positive. An increasing in the positivity rate was observed, starting in January/2015, and peaking at 68% in August, shortly after the exanthematous illness outbreak attributed to ZIKV. Conclusions/Significance Public health authorities and health professionals did not immediately detect the increase in CHIKV cases, likely because all the attention was directed to the ZIKV outbreak and ensuing complications. It is important that regions in the world that harbor arbovirus vectors and did not experience intense ZIKV and CHIKV transmission be prepared for the potential co-emergence of these two viruses. PMID:28114414

  14. The comparative and cost-effectiveness of HPV-based cervical cancer screening algorithms in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Campos, Nicole G; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Gage, Julia C; Castle, Philip E; Felix, Juan C; Cremer, Miriam L; Kim, Jane J

    2015-08-15

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women in El Salvador. Utilizing data from the Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador (CAPE) demonstration project, we assessed the health and economic impact of HPV-based screening and two different algorithms for the management of women who test HPV-positive, relative to existing Pap-based screening. We calibrated a mathematical model of cervical cancer to epidemiologic data from El Salvador and compared three screening algorithms for women aged 30-65 years: (i) HPV screening every 5 years followed by referral to colposcopy for HPV-positive women (Colposcopy Management [CM]); (ii) HPV screening every 5 years followed by treatment with cryotherapy for eligible HPV-positive women (Screen and Treat [ST]); and (iii) Pap screening every 2 years followed by referral to colposcopy for Pap-positive women (Pap). Potential harms and complications associated with overtreatment were not assessed. Under base case assumptions of 65% screening coverage, HPV-based screening was more effective than Pap, reducing cancer risk by ∼ 60% (Pap: 50%). ST was the least costly strategy, and cost $2,040 per year of life saved. ST remained the most attractive strategy as visit compliance, costs, coverage, and test performance were varied. We conclude that a screen-and-treat algorithm within an HPV-based screening program is very cost-effective in El Salvador, with a cost-effectiveness ratio below per capita GDP.

  15. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  16. [Sources of interest to the history and culture of health: Arquivo Histórico municipal de Salvador].

    PubMed

    Matos, Maria Teresa Navarro de Britto

    2008-01-01

    Based on documental investigation, supplemented by bibliographic research, this exploratory study recaptures the historical and institutional evolution of Salvador's Municipal History Archives and describes its current organizational structure and documental collection. Special attention is placed on sources of interest to the history and culture of health.

  17. Shifting the Narrative: Child-Led Responses to Climate Change and Disasters in El Salvador and the Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Children and young people are commonly treated in the climate change and disasters literature as victims of natural events requiring protection by adults. This article critiques that narrative, drawing on examples from the Philippines and El Salvador that explore how children's groups have responded to such issues through child-centred…

  18. Dimensions of Child Sexual Abuse before Age 15 in Three Central American Countries: Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speizer, Ilene S.; Goodwin, Mary; Whittle, Lisa; Clyde, Maureen; Rogers, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The prevalence of sexual abuse during childhood or adolescence varies depending on the definitions and age categories used. This study examines the first national, population-based data available on child sexual abuse that occurs before age 15 in three countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. This study uses comparable…

  19. The University as Agent of Social Transformation: The Case of the University of Central America in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiente, Orfilio Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    In 1965, the Jesuit-run Central American University (UCA) was launched in El Salvador as the wealthy family's educational alternative to the increasingly leftist National University. But within a decade, the UCA would shift its focus to the inequalities and injustice experienced by the country's popular majorities and to its own role as society's…

  20. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…

  1. First occurrence of the Salvador Formation in the Jatobá Basin (Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil): Facies characterization and depositional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Melo Ferrer de Morais, Débora

    2016-12-01

    Fan deltas, constituting proximal depositional systems adjacent to boundary faults, are common features associated with rift basins. The Cretaceous fan delta systems of the Salvador Formation, deposited during the rift phase of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá Basin, were first reported in the Recôncavo Basin and later discovered in the Tucano Basin. Because of the absence of any outcrops in the Jatobá Basin until now, these alluvial fans were interpreted solely through seismic analysis. We report the first revealed outcrops of the Salvador Formation in that basin and characterize their depositional systems as interlayered with the lacustrine Candeias Formation. Based on facies and architecture, the alluvial system can be subdivided into three associations: (1) proximal fan delta, characterized by meter-scale conglomerate bodies with a predominance of boulders and cobbles with thin sandstone layers; (2) distal fan delta, characterized by sheet-like pebble conglomerate and sandstone layers with flame and load structures; and (3) lacustrine, further subdivided into shallow lake facies reddish shales and mudstones with oolitic limestones and deep lake facies grey to green shales with pyrite. Paleocurrent measurements for the proximal fan association show paleoflow direction varying from SW to SE, which is expected for the rift phase alluvial system. The Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá rift system has two conglomeratic units, namely the Salvador and Marizal Formations, the former a syn-rift and the latter a post-rift unit. The absence of sedimentary clasts in the conglomerates, very low maturity, the presence of giant clasts, and a visible relationship between boundary faults in the outcrop, define the syn-rift Salvador Formation characteristics. Based on the facies and paleocurrent analyses, the Salvador Formation deposits in Jatobá Basin were interpreted as a deposition of a debris flow-dominated fan delta, indicating the lacustrine setting represented by the Candeias

  2. Transmitted drug-resistance in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adult population in El Salvador, Central America.

    PubMed

    Holguín, Á; Yebra, G; Martín, L; de Pineda, A T; Ruiz, L E; Quezada, A Y; Nieto, A I; Escobar, G

    2013-12-01

    El Salvador harbours one of the largest Central American human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, but few studies have analysed it in depth. Here, we describe the presence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and HIV variants in the HIV-infected adult population in El Salvador. Dried blood spots from 119 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive adults attended in El Salvador were collected in 2011. The TDR was assessed according to the list recommended by the WHO. HIV-1 variants were described using phylogeny. Pol sequences could be amplified in 88 patients (50.6% men), with a mean age of 35 years. Almost all (96.7%) were infected with HIV through sexual practice and 58.7% were recently diagnosed. The mean CD4(+) count was 474 cells/mm(3) and 43.1% and 15.5% of patients showed moderate (<500 CD4 cells) or severe (<200) immune suppression, respectively. HIV-1 viral load was >100 000 copies/mL in 24.7% of patients and <2000 copies/mL in 9.1%. Five samples (5.7%) harboured any TDR mutation: 2.3% for nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), and 1.4% for protease inhibitor (PI). All showed only one TDR single-class resistance mutation: M184I (two cases) for NRTI, K101E and K103N for NNRTI and L23I for PI. All viruses excepting one (URF_BG) belonged to subtype B. No phylogenetic TDR networks were found. In conclusion, we report a TDR prevalence of 5.7% in El Salvador, lower than in other Central American studies. Periodical studies are essential to monitor and prevent TDR emergence in low-income and middle-income regions. Also, more efforts are needed to promote early diagnosis and prevention of infection in El Salvador.

  3. Meningococcal Carriage among Adolescents after Mass Meningococcal C Conjugate Vaccination Campaigns in Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Amélia Maria Pithon Borges; Ribeiro, Guilherme Sousa; Ferreira, Ítalo Eustáquio; Moura, Ana Rafaela Silva Simões; Felzemburgh, Ridalva Dias Martins; de Lemos, Ana Paula Silva; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; de Moraes, José Cassio

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal bacterium of the human nasopharynx. In rare cases, it penetrates the mucosa, entering the blood stream and causing various forms of disease. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent invasive disease not only by direct effect in vaccinated individuals but also by herd protection, preventing acquisition of carriage, which interrupts transmission and leads to protection of unvaccinated persons. In 2010 in Salvador, Brazil, an outbreak of group C meningococcal disease led to a mass meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination drive, targeting those <5 and 10–24 years of age. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with N. meningitidis carriage among adolescents from Salvador, Brazil, in the post-vaccination period. In spring 2014, we performed a cross-sectional study involving 1,200 public school students aged 11–19 years old. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected to identify N. meningitidis. Of the 59 colonized participants, 36 (61.0%) carried non-groupable N. meningitidis, while genogroup B (11.9%), Y (8.5%), E (6.8%), Z (5.1%), C (3.4%), and W (3.4%) were also detected. The overall prevalence of N. meningitidis carriage was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6–6.1%); the prevalence of N. meningitidis genogroup C was 0.17% (95% CI, 0.0–0.40%). There was no difference by age. Factors associated with carriage were having only one, shared, bedroom in the household (PR, 2.02; 95% CI, 0.99–4.12, p = 0.05); the mother being the only smoker in the home (PR, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.16–5.29; p = 0.01); and going to pubs/parties more than 5 times/month (PR, 2.61; 95% CI, 1.38–4.92; p = 0.02). Our findings show that the N. meningitidis carriage rate in adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, is low and is potentially influenced by the low prevalence of N. meningitidis genogroup C. However, continued surveillance is important to identify changes in the dynamics of N. meningitidis

  4. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904–1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The “Marvels of Illusion” exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the “Marvels of Illusion” exhibit. PMID:26483651

  5. Congenital Chikungunya Virus Infection after an Outbreak in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Lyra, Priscila Pinheiro Ribeiro; Campos, Gúbio Soares; Bandeira, Igor Dórea; Sardi, Silvia Ines; Costa, Lilian Ferreira de Moura; Santos, Flávia Rocha; Ribeiro, Carlos Alexandre Santos; Jardim, Alena Maria Barreto; Santiago, Ana Cecília Travassos; de Oliveira, Patrícia Maria Ribeiro; Moreira, Lícia Maria Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There is little information about the congenital chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission. We describe two cases of well-documented congenital CHIKV infection in Salvador-Brazil, where CHIKV has been identified since 2014. The outbreak in the city led to the clinical CHIKV diagnoses of both pregnant women 2 days before delivery. Urine and blood samples from the mothers and newborns were collected and tested for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for Zika, dengue, and CHIKV. Both neonates and mothers had positive urine and serum PCR results for CHIKV. The newborns had significant perinatal complications and were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The purpose of our case report is to show how severe congenital CHIKV infection can be and the importance to include CHIKV infection in the differential diagnosis of neonatal sepsis when mothers have clinical signs of the disease and live in an affected area. PMID:27555980

  6. Marvels of illusion: illusion and perception in the art of Salvador Dali.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Conde, Susana; Conley, Dave; Hine, Hank; Kropf, Joan; Tush, Peter; Ayala, Andrea; Macknik, Stephen L

    2015-01-01

    The surrealist movement aimed to blur the distinction between the real and the imagined. Such lack of a border between demonstrable truth and fantasy is perhaps most apparent in the art of Spanish painter Salvador Dali (1904-1989). Dali included numerous illusions in his artworks, with the intent to challenge the viewers' perceptions of reality and to enable them to see beyond the surface. The "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit, shown at The Dali Museum in St. Petersburg, FL., from June 14 to October 12, 2014, showcased Dali paintings, prints and sculptures centered on illusory themes. Here, we review the significance of illusions in Dali's art, focusing on the pieces displayed at the "Marvels of Illusion" exhibit.

  7. Substance Abuse Disorders Treatment in El Salvador: Analysis of Policy-Making-Related Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use and substance abuse disorders have increased dramatically in developing countries during recent decades. Sadly, treatment for people diagnosed as manifesting and/or attributed with substance abuse disorders in developing countries is usually inadequate to meet demand, not evidence based, and of poor quality. In response, international health organizations have developed best-practice guidelines for substance user treatment in developing countries, although little research has evaluated their implementation. This opinion piece will examine one such effort to improve substance user treatment in El Salvador. It will be argued that the program failed (2007–2008) because of a lack of political will by the Salvadoran government through their Ministry of Health to effectively supervise, monitor, and subsidize substance user treatment. PMID:23186469

  8. Hippo Pathway Phylogenetics Predicts Monoubiquitylation of Salvador and Merlin/Nf2

    PubMed Central

    Newfeld, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently we employed phylogenetics to predict that the cellular interpretation of TGF-β signals is modulated by monoubiquitylation cycles affecting the Smad4 signal transducer/tumor suppressor. This prediction was subsequently validated by experiments in flies, frogs and mammalian cells. Here we apply a phylogenetic approach to the Hippo pathway and predict that two of its signal transducers, Salvador and Merlin/Nf2 (also a tumor suppressor) are regulated by monoubiquitylation. This regulatory mechanism does not lead to protein degradation but instead serves as a highly efficient “off/on” switch when the protein is subsequently deubiquitylated. Overall, our study shows that the creative application of phylogenetics can predict new roles for pathway components and new mechanisms for regulating intercellular signaling pathways. PMID:23272121

  9. Health sector response to security threats during the civil war in E1 Salvador.

    PubMed Central

    Brentlinger, P. E.

    1996-01-01

    During the recent civil war in E1 Salvador, as in other modern wars, human rights abuses adversely affected health workers, patients, and medical facilities. The abuses themselves have been described in reports of human rights advocacy organisations but health sector adaptations to a hostile wartime environment have not. Agencies engaged in health work during the civil war adapted parties such as training of community based lay health workers, use of simple technology, concealment of patients and medical supplies, denunciation of human rights abuses, and multilevel negotiations in order to continue providing services. The Salvadorean experience may serve as a helpful case study for medical personnel working in wars elsewhere. Images p1471-a p1472-a p1473-a PMID:8973238

  10. No choice in El Salvador. The Catholic church works overtime to prohibit abortion rights.

    PubMed

    Farmer, A

    1999-12-01

    The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy reports on the recent amendment of the Constitution to recognize life from the moment of conception. Researcher Soledad Varela discovered that the Catholic Church in El Salvador had been actively engaged in manipulative tactics to sway an already conservative legislature into passing the extreme laws. Although some legislators were in favor of this amendment, some believe that the reform was wrong and that therapeutic abortions and terminations of pregnancies resulting from rape should not be penalized. Restrictive abortion laws did not stop abortions from occurring; in fact, the UN estimated that 35% of all pregnancies in Chile end in illegal abortions. With the new restrictions, mothers are abandoning unwanted newborns. Illegal practitioners have become harder to trace. Nevertheless, others seem to be successful at evading the law. The wealthy have the right to choose and still avail themselves of legal, more liberal abortion laws from other countries.

  11. Pre-Columbian estucado pottery from El Salvador: A multi-technique investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodo, A.

    2016-03-01

    Pottery is one of the main productions of the pre-Columbian cultures in the Mesoamerican area. Among the others, the estucado pottery represents a very particular type of ceramic, widespread in Maya territory but still never investigated systematically. The peculiarity of this ceramic lies in the unusual application of the color decoration and in the excellent conservation conditions. Seventeen ceramic fragments from El Salvador have been analysed by Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and XRPD, both as fragments and in cross-sections, in order to investigate the manufacturing technique and to understand the good and unexpected conservation state. In both cases, the presence and the chemical nature of a thin white layer (engobe) between the ceramic bulk and the colored decorations seems to be determinant.

  12. El Salvador, Chile porphyry copper deposit revisited: Geologic and geochronologic framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornejo, P.; Tosdal, R.M.; Mpodozis, C.; Tomlinson, A.J.; Rivera, O.; Fanning, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Eocene (42 to 41 Ma) El Salvador porphyry copper deposit in the Indio Muerto district, northern Chile (26?? 15??? S Lat.), formerly thought to have formed at the culmination of a 9-m.y. period of episodic magmatism, is shown by new mapping, U-Pb and K-Ar geochronology, and petrologic data to have formed during the younger of two distinct but superposed magmatic events - a Paleocene (???63 to 58 Ma) and an Eocene (44 to 41 Ma) event. In the district, high-K Paleocene volcano-plutonic activity was characterized by a variety of eruptive styles and magmatic compositions, including a collapse caldera associated with explosive rhyolitic magmatism (El Salvador trap-door caldera), a post-collapse rhyolite dome field (Cerro Indio Muerto), and andesitic-trachyandesitic stratovolcanos (Kilo??metro Catorce-Los Amarillos sequence). Precaldera basement faults were reactivated during Paleocene volcanism as part of the collapse margin of the caldera. Beneath Cerro Indio Muerto, where the porphyry Cu deposit subsequently formed, the intersection of two major basement faults and the NNE-striking rotational axis of tilted ignimbrites of the Paleocene El Salvador caldera localized emplacement of post-collapse rhyolite domes and peripheral dikes and sills. Subsequent Eocene rhyolitic and granodioritic-dacitic porphyries intruded ???14 m.y. after cessation of Paleocene magmatism along the same NNE-striking structural belt through Cerro Indio Muerto as did the post-collapse Paleocene rhyolite domes. Eocene plutonism over a 3-m.y. period was contemporaneous with NW-SE-directed shortening associated with regional sinistral transpression along the Sierra Castillo fault, lying ???10 km to the east. Older Eocene rhyolitic porphyries in the Indio Muerto district were emplaced between 44 and 43 Ma, and have a small uneconomic Cu center associated with a porphyry at Old Camp. The oldest granodioritic-dacitic porphyries also were emplaced at ???44 to 43 Ma, but their petrogenetic relation to

  13. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  14. [Hygiene practices in a street market in the city of Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Minnaert, Ana Cláudia de Sá Teles; Freitas, Maria do Carmo Soares

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this research is to understand the meaning of the practices concerning food hygiene in a street market in Salvador, the capital of Bahia State in Brazil. The ethnographic study presents two main categories for symbolic production related to hygiene practices: cleanliness as order and dirtiness as disorder. These cultural codes make correspondence with the studies of Mary Douglas and Nobert Elias. The codes present particularities to decode everyday life, in which concept and hygiene practices are aspects normalized, in daily activity, for persons who share the space of street market: vendors, consumers, street cleaners and official inspectors. The techno-scientific knowledge and sanitary legislation are strange to the symbolic system of street market vendors. The laws are ineffective and their influence is of little importance in the creation of hygiene practices. Official inspectors' attitudes are coercive and punitive and do not take into account any cultural values when enforcing new hygiene practices.

  15. Catching-up with pentavalent vaccine: Exploring reasons behind lower rotavirus vaccine coverage in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Burnett, Eleanor; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Flannery, Brendan; Kleinbaum, David; de Oliveira, Lucia Helena; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2015-11-27

    Rotavirus vaccine was introduced in El Salvador in 2006 and is recommended to be given concomitantly with DTP-HepB-Haemophilus influenzae type b (pentavalent) vaccine at ages 2 months (upper age limit 15 weeks) and 4 months (upper age limit 8 months) of age. However, rotavirus vaccination coverage continues to lag behind that of pentavalent vaccine, even in years when national rotavirus vaccine stock-outs have not occurred. We analyzed factors associated with receipt of oral rotavirus vaccine among children who received at least 2 doses of pentavalent vaccine in a stratified cluster survey of children aged 24-59 months conducted in El Salvador in 2011. Vaccine doses included were documented on vaccination cards (94.4%) or in health facility records (5.6%). Logistic regression and survival analysis were used to assess factors associated with vaccination status and age at vaccination. Receipt of pentavalent vaccine by age 15 weeks was associated with rotavirus vaccination (OR: 5.1; 95% CI 2.7, 9.4), and receipt of the second pentavalent dose by age 32 weeks was associated with receipt of two rotavirus vaccine doses (OR: 5.0; 95% CI 2.1-12.3). Timely coverage with the first pentavalent vaccine dose was 88.2% in the 2007 cohort and 91.1% in the 2008 cohort (p=0.04). Children born in 2009, when a four-month national rotavirus vaccine stock-out occurred, had an older median age of receipt of rotavirus vaccine and were less likely to receive rotavirus on the same date as the same dose of pentavalent vaccine than children born in 2007 and 2008. Upper age limit recommendations for rotavirus vaccine administration contributed to suboptimal vaccination coverage. Survey data suggest that late rotavirus vaccination and co-administration with later doses of pentavalent vaccine among children born in 2009 helped increase rotavirus vaccine coverage following shortages.

  16. The growth and erosion of cinder cones in Guatemala and El Salvador: Models and statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, Karen; Walker, Jim; Borgia, Andrea; Turrin, Brent; Neri, Marco; Swisher, Carl, III

    2011-04-01

    Morphologic data for 147 cinder cones in southern Guatemala and western El Salvador are compared with data from the San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona (USA), Cima volcanic field, California (USA), Michoácan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Mexico, and the Lamongan volcanic field, East Java. The Guatemala cones have an average height of 110 +/- 50 m, an average basal diameter of 660 +/- 230 m and an average top diameter of 180 +/- 150 m. The general morphology of these cones can be described by their average cone angle of slope (24 +/- 7), average height-to-radius ratio (0.33 +/- 0.09) and their flatness (0.24 +/- 0.18). Although the mean values for the Guatemalan cones are similar to those for other volcanic fields (e.g., San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona; Cima volcanic field, California; Michoácan-Guanajuato volcanic field, Mexico; and Lamongan volcanic field, East Java), the range of morphologies encompasses almost all of those observed worldwide for cinder cones. Three new 40Ar/ 39Ar age dates are combined with 19 previously published dates for cones in Guatemala and El Salvador. There is no indication that the morphologies of these cones have changed over the last 500-1000 ka. Furthermore, a re-analysis of published data for other volcanic fields suggests that only in the Cima volcanic field (of those studied) is there clear evidence of degradation with age. Preliminary results of a numerical model of cinder cone growth are used to show that the range of morphologies observed in the Guatemalan cinder cones could all be primary, that is, due to processes occurring at the time of eruption.

  17. Factors associated with food insecurity in households of public school students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Bittencourt, Liliane; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria; de Jesus Pinto, Elizabete; Aliaga, Marie Agnes; de Cássia Ribeiro-Silva, Rita

    2013-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191.73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment.

  18. Factors Associated with Food Insecurity in Households of Public School Students of Salvador City, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Liliane de Souza; dos Santos, Sandra Maria Chaves; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus; Aliaga, Marie Agnès

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to find out the factors associated with food insecurity (FI) in households of the students aged 6-12 years in public schools of Salvador city, Bahia, Brazil. The study included 1,101 households. Food and nutritional insecurity was measured using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (BFIS). Data on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics as well as environmental and housing conditions were collected during the interviews conducted with the reference persons. Multivariate polytomous logistic regression was used in assessing factors associated with food insecurity. We detected prevalence of food insecurity in 71.3% of the households. Severe and moderate forms of FI were diagnosed in 37.1% of the households and were associated with: (i) female gender of the reference person in the households (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.47-3.31); (ii) a monthly per-capita income below one-fourth of the minimum wage (US$ 191,73) (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.68-4.08); (iii) number of residents per bedroom below 3 persons (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96); and (iv) inadequate housing conditions (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-4.49). Socioeconomic inequalities determine the factors associated with FI of households in Salvador, Bahia. Identifying vulnerabilities is necessary to support public policies in reducing food insecurity in the country. The results of the present study may be used in re-evaluating strategies that may limit the inequalities in school environment. PMID:24592588

  19. Subsurface architecture of a strike-slip collapse structure: insights from Ilopango caldera, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxby, Jennifer; Gottsmann, Joachim; Cashman, Katherine; Gutierrez, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    While most calderas are created by roof collapse along ring-like faults into an emptying magma reservoir during a large and violent explosive eruption, an additional condition for caldera formation may be tectonically induced extensional stresses. Here we provide geophysical insights into the shallow sub-volcanic plumbing system of a collapse caldera in a major strike-slip tectonic setting by inverting Bouguer gravity data from the Ilopango caldera in El Salvador. Despite a long history of catastrophic eruptions with the most recent in 500 A.D., the internal architecture of the caldera has not been investigated, although studies of the most recent eruption have not identified the ring faults commonly associated with caldera collapse. The gravity data show that low-density material aligned along the principal stress orientations of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) forms a pronounced gravity low beneath the caldera. Extending to around 6 km depth, the low density structure likely maps a complex stacked shallow plumbing system composed of magmatic and fractured hydrothermal reservoirs. A substantial volume of the plumbing system must be composed of a vapour phase to explain the modeled negative density contrasts. We use these constraints to map the possible multi-phase parameter space contributing to the subsurface architecture of the caldera and propose that the local extension along the complex ESFZ controls accumulation, ascent and eruption of magma at Ilopango. The data further suggest that future eruptions at Ilopango could be facilitated by rapid rise of magma along conjugate fault damage zones through a mechanically weak crust under tension. This may explain the absence of clear ring fault structures at the caldera.

  20. Spread pattern of the first dengue epidemic in the city of Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Florisneide R; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Costa, Maria da Conceição N; Carvalho, Marilia S; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-01-01

    Background The explosive epidemics of dengue that have been occurring in various countries have stimulated investigation into new approaches to improve understanding of the problem and to develop new strategies for controlling the disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of diffusion of the first dengue epidemic that occurred in the city of Salvador in 1995. Methods The epidemiological charts and records of notified cases of dengue in Salvador in 1995 constituted the source of data. The cases of the disease were georeferenced according to census areas (spatial units) and epidemiological weeks (temporal unit). Kernel density estimation was used to identify the pattern of spatial diffusion using the R-Project computer software program. Results Of the 2,006 census areas in the city, 1,400 (70%) registered cases of dengue in 1995 and the spatial distribution of these records revealed that by the end of 1995 practically the entire city had been affected by the virus, with the largest concentration of cases occurring in the western region, composed of census areas with a high population density and predominantly horizontal residences compared to the eastern region of the city, where there is a predominance of vertical residential buildings. Conclusion The pattern found in this study shows the characteristics of the classic process of spreading by contagion that is common to most infectious diseases. It was possible to identify the epicenter of the epidemic from which centrifugal waves of the disease emanated. Our results suggest that, if a more agile control instrument existed that would be capable of rapidly reducing the vector population within a few days or of raising the group immunity of the population by means of a vaccine, it would theoretically be possible to adopt control actions around the epicenter of the epidemic and consequently reduce the incidence of the disease in the city. This finding emphasizes the need for further

  1. Titan2D Based Pyroclastic Flows Hazard Maps for Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajo, J. V.; Martinez-Hackert, B.; Escobar, C. D.; Gutierrez, R. E.

    2009-05-01

    Santa Ana Volcano is located in the Apaneca Volcanic Field located to the west of El Salvador, Central America. It is one the six active volcanoes monitor by the Servicios Nacionales de Estudios Territoriales (SNET) in El Salvador, out of twenty that are considered active in this small country by Smithsonian definition. The Santa Ana Volcano is surrounded by rural communities in its proximal areas and in its close distal areas by the second largest city of the country. On October 1st 2005, after a few months of increased fumarolic and seismic activity, it erupted generating a 10 km high steam and ash plume, reportedly seen by some aircraft and estimated using photography by SNET members. Ash was deposited to the west, north-west part of the country, following typical wind pattern for the region, as well as small pyroclastic flows and major lahars in its eastern part. Coffee plantations were lost, as was some crop of coffee in the following season. However, to the west the ash fertilized the land and resulted in an enhanced harvest of coffee beans. Only 2 people were killed from the Blast, thanks to the auto evacuation of proximal communities. Whilst the last eruption had a relatively low human life toll, a stronger eruption spells havoc almost certainly for the region. At this moment no exhaustive study and understanding exists of the pyroclastic flows generated by the Santa Ana Volcano nor a map for this particular hazard. This study proposes the use of Titan2D for those two purposes, using a DEM generated by the SNET using topographic maps as well as DEMs generated using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Images (ASTER).

  2. Social network characteristics and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in San Salvador: identifying opportunities for HIV prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents' social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population.

  3. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  4. Social Network Characteristics and HIV Vulnerability Among Transgender Persons in San Salvador: Identifying Opportunities for HIV Prevention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Barrington, Clare; Wejnert, Cyprian; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; Bailey, Gabriela Paz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve understanding of HIV vulnerability and opportunities for HIV prevention within the social networks of male-to-female transgender persons in San Salvador, El Salvador. We compare HIV prevalence and behavioral data from a sample of gay-identified men who have sex with men (MSM) (n = 279), heterosexual or bisexual identified MSM (n = 229) and transgender persons (n = 67) recruited using Respondent Driven Sampling. Transgender persons consistently reported higher rates of HIV risk behavior than the rest of the study population and were significantly more likely to be involved in sex work. While transgender persons reported the highest rates of exposure to HIV educational activities they had the lowest levels of HIV-related knowledge. Transgender respondents’ social networks were homophilous and efficient at recruiting other transgender persons. Findings suggest that transgender social networks could provide an effective and culturally relevant opportunity for HIV prevention efforts in this vulnerable population. PMID:21538082

  5. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Mexico, El Salvador and Panama.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Symptoms of sugarcane orange rust were observed on July 17, 2008 in sugarcane varieties, Mex 57-1285, Mex 61-230 and Co 301 (a clone received in Mexico in 1953) at the Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Caña de Azúcar en Tuxtla Chico, Chiapas, Mexico.In El Salvador, from August 2008 through ...

  6. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  7. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; de Antinori, María E. Barnett; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/Findings Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07–1.31) and 1.32 (1.08–1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08–1.93) and 1.97 (1.34–2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6–0.86) and 0.79 (0.69–0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7–0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01–1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05–1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5–0.9). Conclusions/Significance The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had

  8. Routine childhood vaccination programme coverage, El Salvador, 2011-In search of timeliness.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Castaneda, Eduardo; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Elas, Miguel; Baltrons, Rafael; Crespin-Elías, Elner Osmin; Pleitez, Oscar A Rivera; de Campos, María Isabel Quintanilla; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina

    2014-01-16

    While assessing immunization programmes, not only vaccination coverage is important, but also timely receipt of vaccines. We estimated both vaccination coverage and timeliness, as well as reasons for non-vaccination, and identified predictors of delayed or missed vaccination, for vaccines of the first two years of age, in El Salvador. We conducted a cluster survey among children aged 23-59 months. Caregivers were interviewed about the child immunization status and their attitudes towards immunization. Vaccination dates were obtained from children immunization cards at home or at health facilities. We referred to the 2006 vaccination schedule for children below two years: one dose of BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) at birth; rotavirus at two and four months; three doses of pentavalent - DTP (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis), hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) - and of oral poliomyelitis vaccine (polio) at two, four, and six months; first MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) at 12 months; and first boosters of DTP and OPV at 18 months. Timeliness was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis; Cox and logistic regression were used to identify predictors of vaccination. We surveyed 2550 children. Coverage was highest for BCG (991%; 95% CI: 98.8-99.5) and lowest for rotavirus, especially second dose (86.3%; 95% CI: 84.2-88.4). The first doses of MMR and DTP had 991% (95% CI: 98.5-99.6) and 977% (95% CI: 970-985), respectively. Overall coverage was 837% (95% CI: 81.4-86.0); 96.4% (95% CI: 95.4-97.5), excluding rotavirus. However, only 26.7% (95% CI: 24.7-28.8) were vaccinated within the age interval recommended by the Expanded Programme on Immunization. Being employed and using the bus for transport to the health facility were associated with age-inappropriate vaccinations; while living in households with only two residents and in the "Paracentral", "Occidental", and "Oriental" regions was associated with age-appropriate vaccinations. Vaccination coverage was high in El

  9. Tsunami evacuation analysis, modelling and planning: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Riancho, Pino; Aguirre-Ayerbe, Ignacio; Aniel-Quiroga, Iñigo; Abad Herrero, Sheila; González Rodriguez, Mauricio; Larreynaga, Jeniffer; Gavidia, Francisco; Quetzalcoalt Gutiérrez, Omar; Álvarez-Gómez, Jose Antonio; Medina Santamaría, Raúl

    2014-05-01

    for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan. The framework has been applied to the El Salvador case study through the project "Tsunami Hazard and Risk Assessment in El Salvador", funded by AECID during the period 2009-12, demonstrating its applicability to site-specific response times and population characteristics.

  10. Scale-Up of an Human Papillomavirus Testing Implementation Program in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Morales Velado, Mario; Felix, Juan; Castle, Philip E.; Kim, Jane; Gage, Julia C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador is a demonstration project to introduce a lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA test into a public sector project. Started in October 2012, The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador consists of 3 phases and will ultimately screen 30,000 women. Results of phase 2 of the project are presented. The objective of this project was to compare colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management for HPV-positive women. Material and Methods In phase 2, a total of 8,050 women, aged 30 to 49 years, were screened; 6,761 provided both self- and provider-collected specimens and 1,289 provided only provider-testing specimens. HPV results from self-collected specimens were not used in clinical management decisions. Women with provider-collected HPV-positive results were treated based on the strategy assigned to their community; the strategy was colposcopy management (CM) or screen-and-treat (ST) management if they were cryotherapy eligible or colposcopy if not eligible. Outcomes were assessed 6 months after screening. Results Overall, 489 (12.3%) of 3,963 women receiving CM and 465 (11.4%) of 4,087 women receiving ST tested HPV positive. In the CM cohort, 216 (44.2%) of 489 completed their intervention (203 treated, 11 diagnosed negative, 2 pregnant). In the ST cohort, 411 (88.4%) of 465 completed their intervention (407 treated, 2 diagnosed negative, 1 pregnant). Overall agreement between HPV test results from self-collected and provider-collected specimens was 93.7%, with a κ value of 0.70 (95% CI = 0.68–0.73). Conclusions Human papillomavirus testing with ST management resulted in an approximately twice completion rate compared with CM management. Agreement between self- and provider-based sampling was good and might be used to extend screening to women in areas that are more difficult to reach. PMID:27922905

  11. [Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. The first clinical case reported in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Zamora, Mauricio; Ortez-González, Carlos Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Introduccion. La hemiplejia alternante de la infancia (HAI) es una enfermedad rara, caracterizada por episodios repetidos de hemiplejia que afectan alternativamente a un hemicuerpo, son de inicio preferente antes de los 18 meses, duran de minutos a varios dias, e incluso pueden dejar tetraplejico durante un tiempo al lactante, si antes de que se acabe un episodio comienza otro o si estos ocurren de manera simultanea. La descripcion clinica incluye, ademas de estos ataques plejicos, otras manifestaciones paroxisticas presentes practicamente en todos los niños diagnosticados de este trastorno y que son, ademas, de aparicion mas precoz. Consisten en ataques tonicos, ataques distonicos, movimientos oculares anormales y trastornos autonomicos. El hecho de que estos sintomas precedan a la clinica tipica provoca en bastantes ocasiones un retraso en el diagnostico definitivo. Caso clinico. Varon de un año y nueve meses que inicia clinica de crisis tonicas a las dos semanas de vida, posteriormente episodios de hemiplejia que se manifiestan de forma alternante a los 11 meses de vida, y ademas presenta retraso psicomotor global. Al principio de los sintomas se diagnostico epilepsia, no respondio a multiples farmacos antiepilepticos, y el electroencefalograma, la neuroimagen y las pruebas complementarias en sangre y orina fueron normales/negativos. Presento respuesta favorable a la flunaricina. Conclusion. Es el primer paciente descrito de HAI en El Salvador. El diagnostico precoz y acertado de HAI es fundamental para iniciar farmacoterapia y mejorar el pronostico y calidad de vida de los pacientes y sus familias.

  12. HIV Treatment for Alcohol and Non-Injection Drug Users in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Petroll, Andy; Johnson, Kali; Glasman, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, many developing countries have introduced and expanded the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to persons living with HIV (PLH). However, AIDS-related mortality continues to be high particularly among drug users. In this article, we present results from in-depth interviews with 13 HIV medical providers and 29 crack cocaine and alcohol using PLH in El Salvador. Providers endorsed negative attitudes toward substance using PLH and warned PLH that combining cART with drugs and alcohol would damage their livers and kidneys resulting in death. Upon diagnosis, PLH received little information about HIV treatment and many suffered depression and escalated their drug use. PLH reported suspending cART when they drank or used drugs because of providers’ warnings. Substance using PLH were given few strategies and resources to quit using drugs. Messages from medical providers discourage drug users from initiating or adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may contribute to treatment abandonment. PMID:25595149

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Confirmed by Forensic Examination in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Welington Dos Santos; Barroso-Junior, Ubirajara de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Child sexual abuse is a worldwide public health issue. The objective of this study was to describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of children in cases of sexual abuse confirmed by material evidence at forensic examination. Cases of children younger than 12 years examined for suspected sexual abuse at the Institute of Forensic Medicine in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, were reviewed retrospectively. The period evaluated was between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criterion was the coroner's confirmation of sexual abuse based on material evidence. The mean age of the children in whom sexual abuse was confirmed was 8.2 (SD, 2.9) years, and 208 cases were female (83.9%). In 94% of the cases, the reason for carrying out the forensic examination was a report of sexual abuse. Less than 1% of the aggressors were female. A ruptured hymen was the finding that confirmed sexual abuse in 172 cases, corresponding to 83% of cases in girls. There were 2 cases of pregnancy. Recent anal or perianal lesions were present in 35 (87.5%) of the confirmed cases involving boys. Laboratory confirmation based on the detection of spermatozoa or prostate-specific antigen occurred in only 4.2% of cases. In all these cases, sample collection was performed within 24 hours of the alleged abuse. Thus, in the majority of cases with material evidence of sexual abuse, the confirmation criteria consisted of a ruptured hymen and recent perianal lesions.

  14. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R S; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-04-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted in 1989 among children aged between 5 and 14 years old living in nine poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (pop. 2.44 million), capital of Bahia State, in Northeast Brazil. Three of these areas had benefited from both drainage and sewerage, 3 from improved drainage only, and 3 from neither. The children studied thus belonged to 3 exposure groups regarding their level of sanitation infrastructure. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and stool examinations of the children 5-14 years old were performed to measure nematode infection. Comparison of the sewerage group with the drainage-only group and the latter with the control (no sewerage or drainage) group showed that, when the level of community sanitation was better, the prevalence of infection among children was less, but risk factors identified for infection were more numerous and more significant. Intensity of infection with Trichuris, but not with Ascaris or hookworm, was also less. The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.

  15. Impact of drainage and sewerage on diarrhoea in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes, L R; Cancio, Jacira Azevedo; Cairncross, Sandy; Huttly, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A longitudinal prospective study of the effect of drainage and sewerage systems on diarrhoea in children aged < 5 years was conducted in 9 poor urban areas of the city of Salvador (population 2.44 million) in north-east Brazil in 1989-90. Due to complex political and administrative reasons, 3 areas had benefited from drainage improvements, 3 from both drainage and sewerage improvements, and 3 from neither. An extensive questionnaire was applied to collect information on each child and on the conditions of the household, and mothers recorded diarrhoea episodes in their children aged < 5 years daily for 1 year, using calendars. Fortnightly home visits were made to collect the data. The incidence of diarrhoea in children in neighbourhoods with drainage was less than two-thirds, and in neighbourhoods with drainage and sewerage less than one-third, of the incidence in neighbourhoods with neither. After controlling for potential confounders, the proportion of children with 'frequent diarrhoea' showed the same significant trend across the study groups. Though the groups were not exactly comparable, more than one child was monitored per household, and it was not possible to rotate fieldworkers between study groups, the study provides evidence that community sanitation can have an impact on diarrhoeal disease, even without measures to promote hygiene behaviour.

  16. HIV Treatment for Alcohol and Non-Injection Drug Users in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Bodnar, Gloria; Petroll, Andy; Johnson, Kali; Glasman, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Since the mid-1990 s, many developing countries have introduced and expanded the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) to persons living with HIV (PLH). However, AIDS-related mortality continues to be high particularly among drug users. In this article, we present results from in-depth interviews with 13 HIV medical providers and 29 crack cocaine and alcohol using PLH in El Salvador. Providers endorsed negative attitudes toward substance using PLH and warned PLH that combining cART with drugs and alcohol would damage their livers and kidneys resulting in death. Upon diagnosis, PLH received little information about HIV treatment and many suffered depression and escalated their drug use. PLH reported suspending cART when they drank or used drugs because of providers' warnings. Substance using PLH were given few strategies and resources to quit using drugs. Messages from medical providers discourage drug users from initiating or adhering to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and may contribute to treatment abandonment.

  17. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  18. Incorporating human rights into reproductive health care provider education programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Zuniga, Karen Padilla; Billings, Deborah L; Blandon, Marta Maria

    2013-07-01

    Health care providers play a central role in the promotion and protection of human rights in patient care. Consequently, the World Medical Association, among others, has called on medical and nursing schools to incorporate human rights education into their training programs. This report describes the efforts of one Central American nongovernmental organization to include human rights - related content into reproductive health care provider training programs in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Baseline findings suggest that health care providers are not being adequately prepared to fulfill their duty to protect and promote human rights in patient care. Medical and nursing school administrators, faculty, and students recognize the need to strengthen training in this area and are enthusiastic about incorporating human rights content into their education programs. Evaluation findings suggest that exposure to educational materials and methodologies that emphasize the relationship between human rights and reproductive health may lead to changes in health care provider attitudes and behaviors that help promote and safeguard human rights in patient care.

  19. First results on small ruminant brucellosis and tuberculosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Linderot de Cardona, Kristina; De Gracia Scanapieco, Abelardo; Braun, Peggy G

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a first-time study performed in El Salvador on the presence or absence of antibodies to three important animal diseases in small ruminants. The work was conducted in the west and central departments of the country, selecting 42 and 43 cantons with an existing sheep and goat population, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 396 sheep and 335 goats and tested for seropositivity to Brucella (B.) spp. The specimens from goats were also tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) virus. Four (1 %) sheep and none of the goats were seropositive by Rose Bengal test. All animals were negative by indirect ELISA (iELISA) for B. abortus. All animals were negative by iELISA for CAE. A total of 383 sheep and 330 goats underwent the single intradermal cervical tuberculin (SICT) test for tuberculosis. Seventy (18 %) sheep and 43 (13 %) goats reacted to the SICT test. Those reactors were subjected to the single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, and one (0.3 %) goat was deemed to be a positive reactor. No mycobacteria were diagnosed in concluding analyses, and further studies are considered necessary to determine the prevalence of the investigated diseases. Additionally, it is recommended that small ruminants should be included in the national eradication program on bovine brucellosis and tuberculosis to prevent potential reservoirs.

  20. [Implantation of the emergency ambulance service in Salvador, Bahia: reality and challenges].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Célia Maria Sales; Mussi, Fernanda Carneiro

    2008-12-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the implementation of the emergency ambulance service of Salvador, Bahia (SAMU-192). The Ministry of Health provided the legal basis and regulations for its implementation. The main purpose of this service is the provision of free primary level healthcare to individuals, with clinical, surgical, traumatic and psychiatric aggravations that cause suffering, sequels or death and occur outside the hospital environment. The specific goals of SAMU-192 was to grant free healthcare to urgency and emergency situations, under the hierarchy and regulations of the Single Health System (SUS) of the Brazilian government, assuring that public resources will be available and integrated to the complementary healthcare network. Investments for the installation of the service were agreed on in the city and with federal and state management commissions. To turn SAMU-192 into reality, several challenges need to be accomplished, including community education, professional qualification and evaluation of human and material resources so as to provide basic emergency care with the appropriate quality.

  1. Periodontal profile and presence of periodontal pathogens in young African-Americans from Salvador, Ba, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Ligia Valéria; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Aquino, Davi Romeiro; de Carvalho Filho, Jonas; Cortelli, José Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the periodontal status and the presence of periodontopathogens in 132 young, black ethnic subjects who live in Salvador/Bahia-Brazil and have never smoked. Periodontal Probing Depth (PPD), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were measured and analyzed by ANOVA and Wilcoxon tests (p<0.05) according to gender and age. The presence of A.actinomycetemcomitans, P.gingivalis, E.corrodens and F.nucleatum was determined by PCR and was analyzed by ANOVA, Wilcoxon, Student-t tests (p<0.05). Mean values of PPD and CAL were 2.18 and 1.0mm, respectively. Clinical parameters did not show differences between subjects of varying gender and age. The microbial prevalence was observed to be 95.45% for E.corrodens followed by F.nucleatum with 68.18%, A.actinomycetemcomitans with 45.45% and P gingivalis with 40.9%. An association between the presence of pathogens and gender and age was not observed (p<0.05). PPD, CAL and PI were not associated with P.gingivalis; however, GI appeared in higher frequencies among subjects without P.gingivalis. In this young, black ethnic, Brazilian population, a high percentage (96.96%) of subjects harbored at least one selected periodontal pathogen, but most subjects showed a healthy periodontal status. Further investigations are required to evaluate the actual influence of the presence of these bacterial species. PMID:24031206

  2. "Popular" health and the state: dialectics of the peace process in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Smith-Nonini, S

    1997-03-01

    The poor performance of large-scale "vertical" rural health programs tied to state Ministries of Health in Third World countries has often been attributed to a lack of "political will". But that term tells little about the conditions that favor health reform and may obscure disparate power relations and struggles over development. This work explores such a struggle over community health that emerged as part of the peace process in a former war zone of El Salvador since the 1992 ceasefire. The formalized negotiations (and behind-the-scenes confrontations) over health in Chalatenango province took place between Ministry of Health administrators and proponents of a "popular" health system that has functioned in repopulated villages of rebel-controlled Chalatenango since 1987. The Ministry has set up its own national (U.S. AID-designed) community health worker program, and agreed in theory with the popular system's emphasis on village-based lay health promoters; however, in negotiations and efforts at collaboration in Chalatenango the Ministry has been unwilling to support the promoters in the popular system, to accommodate local participation in health decision-making, or to restructure its own physician-centered practices around the need for more comprehensive approaches to health.

  3. Palliative care in Córdoba: experience of the Marie Curie Foundation and the Oncology Service of Sanatorio del Salvador.

    PubMed

    Rubio, L A

    1998-07-01

    Córdoba is a city with 1,300,000 inhabitants located in the center of Argentina. Although Palliative Medicine is a discipline that has been present for a little over 10 years, it has not developed in step with demand, owing to lack of political will and insufficient support from the Health Administration. However, the existing units have expanded, thanks to the efforts of their staff members, who help hundreds of terminally ill patients and their families, provide training at undergraduate and postgraduate university levels, and make information available to the general public through different activities in the community.

  4. Three thousand years of flank and central vent eruptions of the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and their effects on El Cambio archeological site: a review based on tephrostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado Granados, H.; Hernández, W.; Pullinger, C.; Chávez, H.; Castillo Taracena, C. R.; Cañas-Dinarte, C.

    2011-09-01

    The volcanic events of the last 3,000 years at San Salvador volcanic complex are reviewed using detailed stratigraphic records exposed in new excavations between 2005 and 2007, at El Cambio archeological site (Zapotitán Valley, El Salvador), and in other outcrops on the northern and northwestern sectors of the complex. The sequences that overlie Tierra Blanca Joven (cal. 429 ± 107 ad), from the Ilopango caldera, comprise the Loma Caldera (cal. 590 ± 90 ad) and El Playón (1658-1671) deposits and the San Andrés Tuff (cal. 1031 ± 29 ad), related to El Boquerón Volcano. The surge deposits within the El Playón, San Andrés Tuff and overlying Talpetate II sequences indicate the significance of phreatomagmatic phases in both central vent and flank eruptions during the last 1,600 years. Newly identified volcanic deposits underlying Tierra Blanca Joven at El Cambio extend the stratigraphic record of the area to 3,000 years bp. Paleosols interstratified with those deposits contain cultural artifacts which could be associated with the Middle Preclassic period (900-400 bc). If correct, human occupation of the site during the Preclassic period was more intense than previously known and volcanic eruptions must have affected prehistoric settlements. The archeological findings provide information on how prehistoric populations dealt with volcanic hazards, thousands of years ago in the eastern Zapotitán Valley, where several housing projects are currently being developed. The new stratigraphic and volcanological data can be used as a basis for local and regional hazard assessment related to future secondary vent activity in the San Salvador Volcanic Complex.

  5. Explosive and Phreatomagmatic Activity from San Salvador Volcanic Complex (El Salvador) and Their Effects on El Cambio Archaeological Site: a Review of the Last 3000 yrs. Based on Volcanic Stratigraphy Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrés, D.; Delgado, H.; Pullinger, C.; Castillo, R.; Chávez, H. I.

    2007-05-01

    El Cambio archeological site (ECAS; Zapotitán Valley), 4 km NW from the San Salvador Volcanic Complex comprises 3000 yrs. of pyroclastic record. Sheets (1983) identified different levels rich in cultural remains intercalated within the volcanic deposits, indicating that different prehistoric settings were affected by San Salvador volcano eruptions, and giving information on the reoccupation frequency in the area. Accordingly, ECAS was occupied since the Late Pre-Classic period until before the last plinian eruption of Ilopango Caldera (425AD) reference, that originated the Tierra Blanca Joven (TBJ), pyroclastic deposits generally used as key-layer in stratigraphic reconstructions. Within the next two centuries, there is no evidence of human occupation at ECAS until the end of Late Classic which was a period of maximum splendor in the valley. During this time the area was affected by at least 3 eruptions from the San Salvador volcanic complex that produced the: Laguna Caldera volcanic fall deposits (which affected Joya de Cerén archeological site in 625AD), "Talpetate" surge deposits or Toba de San Andrés (600-900AD), and fall deposits of El Playón volcano (1658). We report new data on volcanic stratigraphy and archeological history including the following: a) the phreatomagmatic nature of eruptions that affected the area, the new excavations allowed the detailed study of surge deposits indicating magma-water interaction at Laguna Caldera and El Playón, previously considered strombolian eruptions; b)document the occupation of ECAS during Middle Pre-Classic period, new surge deposits below TBJ have been identified (with Middle Pre-Classic artifacts and pottery), that had not been documented before, extending the historic record up to 3000 yrs. BP. and c) detailed study of the "Talpetate" deposits, this sequence consists of fall, pyroclastic flow and surge deposits, present in the rim and slopes of San Salvador Volcano, which can be correlated with surge deposits

  6. Attributes of patient-centered primary care associated with the public perception of good healthcare quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Doubova, Svetlana V; Guanais, Frederico C; Pérez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Canning, David; Macinko, James; Reich, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluated primary care attributes of patient-centered care associated with the public perception of good quality in Brazil, Colombia, Mexico and El Salvador. We conducted a secondary data analysis of a Latin American survey on public perceptions and experiences with healthcare systems. The primary care attributes examined were access, coordination, provider-patient communication, provision of health-related information and emotional support. A double-weighted multiple Poisson regression with robust variance model was performed. The study included between 1500 and 1503 adults in each country. The results identified four significant gaps in the provision of primary care: not all respondents had a regular place of care or a regular primary care doctor (Brazil 35.7%, Colombia 28.4%, Mexico 22% and El Salvador 45.4%). The communication with the primary care clinic was difficult (Brazil 44.2%, Colombia 41.3%, Mexico 45.1% and El Salvador 56.7%). There was a lack of coordination of care (Brazil 78.4%, Colombia 52.3%, Mexico 48% and El Salvador 55.9%). Also, there was a lack of information about healthy diet (Brazil 21.7%, Colombia 32.9%, Mexico 16.9% and El Salvador 20.8%). The public's perception of good quality was variable (Brazil 67%, Colombia 71.1%, Mexico 79.6% and El Salvador 79.5%). The primary care attributes associated with the perception of good quality were a primary care provider 'who knows relevant information about a patient's medical history', 'solves most of the health problems', 'spends enough time with the patient', 'coordinates healthcare' and a 'primary care clinic that is easy to communicate with'. In conclusion, the public has a positive perception of the quality of primary care, although it has unfulfilled expectations; further efforts are necessary to improve the provision of patient-centered primary care services in these four Latin American countries.

  7. Identification of Focal Mechanisms of Seisms Occurring in the San Salvador Volcano-Ilopango Lake Area Between 1994 and March 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Maria Mendez Martinez, Luz de; Portillo, Mercy

    2009-04-19

    We studied the geographic area located in the central part of El Salvador, between the San Salvador Volcano (Quezaltepec) and Ilopango Lake. Its latitude is between 13 deg. 36' and 13 deg. 54', and longitude is between -89 deg. 18' and -88 deg. 57'. This area is directly affected by the WNW axis, the most prominent weak tectonic system in the region. Our research aimed to determine the focal mechanisms of seisms occurring in the studied area between 1994 and March 2005. Our analysis provided information about displacement types of the geological faults, using the wave impulse P method and computer applications ARCGIS and SEISAN, with the subroutine FOCMEC. Information of the studied seisms was obtained from the National Service of Territorial Studies (SNET) database. Geographic models used in the preparation of maps are from the geographic information system of the School of Physics at the University of El Salvador. The 37 focal mechanisms on the map of faults were identified in digital seismographs to determinate the arrival polarity of the wave P for each seism station. Data from the focal mechanisms were analyzed and correlated with their replications. The analysis allowed us to identify evidences to consider the fault continuity not reported by the last geological mission in El Salvador conducted in the 1970s. The fault continuity is located northwest of the studied geographical area, between San Salvador City and the San Salvador Volcano. The compression and strain axes for this area are two main horizontal force axes. The average orientation for the strain axis is NNE-SSW, and WNW-SEE for the compression axis. There is also important seismic activity in the Ilopango Lake and surrounding area. However, data did not allow us to make any inference. The tensors distribution resulted in a high dispersion corresponding to typical fauces models.

  8. Active crustal deformation of the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ) using GPS data: Implications in seismic hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staller, Alejandra; Benito, Belen; Jesús Martínez-Díaz, José; Hernández, Douglas; Hernández-Rey, Román; Alonso-Henar, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    El Salvador, Central America, is part of the Chortis block in the northwestern boundary of the Caribbean plate. This block is interacting with a diffuse triple junction point with the Cocos and North American plates. Among the structures that cut the Miocene to Pleistocene volcanic deposits stands out the El Salvador Fault Zone (ESFZ): It is oriented in N90º-100ºE direction, and it is composed of several structural segments that deform Quaternary deposits with right-lateral and oblique slip motions. The ESFZ is seismically active and capable of producing earthquakes such as the February 13, 2001 with Mw 6.6 (Martínez-Díaz et al., 2004), that seriously affected the population, leaving many casualties. This structure plays an important role in the tectonics of the Chortis block, since its motion is directly related to the drift of the Caribbean plate to the east and not with the partitioning of the deformation of the Cocos subduction (here not coupled) (Álvarez-Gómez et al., 2008). Together with the volcanic arc of El Salvador, this zone constitutes a weakness area that allows the motion of forearc block toward the NW. The geometry and the degree of activity of the ESFZ are not studied enough. However their knowledge is essential to understand the seismic hazard associated to this important seismogenic structure. For this reason, since 2007 a GPS dense network was established along the ESFZ (ZFESNet) in order to obtain GPS velocity measurements which are later used to explain the nature of strain accumulation on major faults along the ESFZ. The current work aims at understanding active crustal deformation of the ESFZ through kinematic model. The results provide significant information to be included in a new estimation of seismic hazard taking into account the major structures in ESFZ.

  9. Comparisons of the 1995 and 1998 coral bleaching events on the patch reefs of San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Thomas A; Smith, Garriet W

    2003-06-01

    Coral patch reefs around San Salvador Island, Bahamas have been monitored with the aid of Earthwatch volunteers three times a year since 1992. During that period two significant mass bleaching events occurred: autumn 1995, and late summer 1998. Elsewhere in 1995, bleaching was caused by higher-than-normal summer sea temperatures; in San Salvador, however, temperatures were normal. In 1998 a prolonged period of higher-than-normal sea temperatures preceded bleaching on San Salvador and worldwide. During the 1995 event, one of the monitored reefs had twice the percentage of coral colonies bleached as the other two. Bleaching was more evenly distributed among the reefs during the 1998 event. In 1995 Agaricia agaricites was significantly more affected than other coral species, with almost 50% of all its colonies showing bleaching. Bleaching was more evenly spread among coral species in 1998, with five species showing bleaching on more than 40% of their colonies. Bleaching began on Millepora as early as August during the 1998 event and progressed to other species through the remainder of the autumn. In 1995 bleaching was not seen until late autumn and appeared to impact all affected species at about the same time. Recovery from the 1995 event was complete: no coral death or damage above normal background levels were seen. In the 1998 event, all Acropora cervicornis on the monitored reefs died and A. palmata was severely damaged. Millepora sp. lost almost half of their live tissue, and Montastraea sp. showed significant tissue damage following this event. Phototransect analysis suggests that more than 20% of total live tissue on affected species died during the 1998 event. A. cervicornis has demonstrated no re-growth from 1998 to 2000 on monitored reefs. Monitoring has suggested significant differences in causes and courses in these two events.

  10. GPS-derived coupling estimates for the Central America subduction zone and volcanic arc faults: El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Mora, F.; DeMets, C.; Alvarado, D.; Turner, H. L.; Mattioli, G.; Hernandez, D.; Pullinger, C.; Rodriguez, M.; Tenorio, C.

    2009-12-01

    We invert GPS velocities from 32 sites in El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua to estimate the rate of long-term forearc motion and distributions of interseismic coupling across the Middle America subduction zone offshore from these countries and faults in the Salvadoran and Nicaraguan volcanic arcs. A 3-D finite element model is used to approximate the geometries of the subduction interface and strike-slip faults in the volcanic arc and determine the elastic response to coupling across these faults. The GPS velocities are best fit by a model in which the forearc moves 14-16 mmyr-1 and has coupling of 85-100 per cent across faults in the volcanic arc, in agreement with the high level of historic and recent earthquake activity in the volcanic arc. Our velocity inversion indicates that coupling across the potentially seismogenic areas of the subduction interface is remarkably weak, averaging no more than 3 per cent of the plate convergence rate and with only two poorly resolved patches where coupling might be higher along the 550-km-long segment we modelled. Our geodetic evidence for weak subduction coupling disagrees with a seismically derived coupling estimate of 60 +/- 10 per cent from a published analysis of earthquake damage back to 1690, but agrees with three other seismologic studies that infer weak subduction coupling from 20th century earthquakes. Most large historical earthquakes offshore from El Salvador and western Nicaragua may therefore have been intraslab normal faulting events similar to the Mw 7.3 1982 and Mw 7.7 2001 earthquakes offshore from El Salvador. Alternatively, the degree of coupling might vary with time. The evidence for weak coupling indirectly supports a recently published hypothesis that much of the Middle American forearc is escaping to the west or northwest away from the Cocos Ridge collision zone in Costa Rica. Such a hypothesis is particularly attractive for El Salvador, where there is little or no convergence obliquity to drive the

  11. Comparison of flank margin cave development on San Salvador island, Bahamas, and Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mylroie, J.; Carew, J.L.; Frank, E.F.; Larsen, Matthew C.; Boardman, M.

    1995-01-01

    Despite differences in rock age and geologic setting, both San Salvador and Isla do Mona show evidence of re-invasion of the flank margin caves by dissolutionally aggressive water following a vadose interval. The flank margin caves have very similar morphologies and characteristics, and the only major difference is attrutable to the larger lens size and the longer duration of stable lens position on Isla de Mona. The data indicate that dissolution occurs rapidly in these environments, and despite the development of large voids, the same geochemical environment can be re-established after an emergence episode. 

  12. Is It Still a Disaster if It is Routine? A Case Study in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, T.; Rios Sanchez, M.; MacLennan, C.; Gierke, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador is among the world's highest ranked in terms of risks of natural disasters. According to a United Nations study, almost 90% of the country's territory is highly susceptible to the effects of a natural disaster and correspondingly 95% of the country's population lives within the disaster-prone regions. This high vulnerability, coupled with the country's relatively small area, has led to some paradoxical situations involving the way disaster risk is managed at the local level. One extreme example occurs annually in a small town that borders a large, shallow lake (laguna). The lake level rises by 2 to 4 meters during every year's wet season from May to October, prompting the surrounding families to temporarily relocate in response to these annual floods. A series of storms related to Tropical Depression 12E during the 2011 wet season resulted in flooding levels of nearly 5 meters. Nearly 300 households were evacuated, and a government-run emergency shelter was set up nearby. Owing to the regularity of the situation, however, not a single person needed to use the emergency shelter. Many of those who are most affected by the annual flooding will move their belongings to second homes (their own or those of relatives or friends) in advance of the wet season but remain in their flood-prone dwellings so as to be eligible to receive the aid that is sure to come when the lake level rises. Considerable funds are provided to the community for relief. This scenario occurs predictably every year. The regularity of the flooding raises questions concerning the local views on the normalcy of the flooding. To evaluate the local perceptions of flood risk, a vulnerability analysis was conducted using surveys and interviews. To better characterize the flooding risks, a hazard analysis was performed using satellite imagery and GIS. In addition to the surveys of families affected by flooding each year, the residents living in higher elevations unaffected by flooding were

  13. Regularized joint inverse estimation of extreme rainfall amounts in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    A regularized joint inverse procedure is presented and used to estimate the magnitude of extreme rainfall events in ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. Since streamflow measurements reflect temporal and spatial rainfall information, peak-flow discharge is hypothesized to represent a similarity measure suitable for regionalization. To test this hypothesis, peak-flow discharge values determined from streamflow recurrence information (10-year, 25-year, and 100-year) collected outside the study basins are used to develop regional (country-wide) regression equations. Peak-flow discharge derived from these equations together with preferred spatial parameter relations as soft prior information are used to constrain the simultaneous calibration of 20 tributary basin models. The nonlinear range of uncertainty in estimated parameter values (1 curve number and 3 recurrent rainfall amounts for each model) is determined using an inverse calibration-constrained Monte Carlo approach. Cumulative probability distributions for rainfall amounts indicate differences among basins for a given return period and an increase in magnitude and range among basins with increasing return interval. Comparison of the estimated median rainfall amounts for all return periods were reasonable but larger (3.2-26%) than rainfall estimates computed using the frequency-duration (traditional) approach and individual rain gauge data. The observed 25-year recurrence rainfall amount at La Hachadura in the Paz River basin during Hurricane Mitch (1998) is similar in value to, but outside and slightly less than, the estimated rainfall confidence limits. The similarity in joint inverse and traditionally computed rainfall events, however, suggests that the rainfall observation may likely be due to under-catch and not model bias. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  14. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Lescano, Andres G; Lucas, Carmen; Gilles, Duncan; Biese, Brian J; Stolovitz, Gary; Reaves, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th) Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st) to June 3(rd), 2011. Personnel (n = 241) completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate) and 67 (27%) reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days) and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49%) individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62%) individuals and 9 (15%) had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7), Cryptosporidium (5), and Cyclospora (4) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001) and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001) were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  15. BetaS-haplotypes in sickle cell anemia patients from Salvador, Bahia, Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M S; Bomfim, G C; Maciel, E; Cerqueira, I; Lyra, I; Zanette, A; Bomfim, G; Adorno, E V; Albuquerque, A L; Pontes, A; Dupuit, M F; Fernandes, G B; dos Reis, M G

    2003-10-01

    BetaS-Globin haplotypes were studied in 80 (160 betaS chromosomes) sickle cell disease patients from Salvador, Brazil, a city with a large population of African origin resulting from the slave trade from Western Africa, mainly from the Bay of Benin. Hematological and hemoglobin analyses were carried out by standard methods. The betaS-haplotypes were determined by PCR and dot-blot techniques. A total of 77 (48.1%) chromosomes were characterized as Central African Republic (CAR) haplotype, 73 (45.6%) as Benin (BEN), 1 (0.63%) as Senegal (SEN), and 9 (5.63%) as atypical (Atp). Genotype was CAR/CAR in 17 (21.3%) patients, BEN/BEN in 17 (21.3%), CAR/BEN in 37 (46.3%), BEN/SEN in 1 (1.25%), BEN/Atp in 1 (1.25%), CAR/Atp in 6 (7.5%), and Atp/Atp in 1 (1.25%). Hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrit values did not differ among genotype groups but were significantly higher in 25 patients presenting percent fetal hemoglobin (%HbF) > or = 10% (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). The median HbF concentration was 7.54+/-4.342% for the CAR/CAR genotype, 9.88 3.558% for the BEN/BEN genotype, 8.146 4.631% for the CAR/BEN genotype, and 4.180+/-2.250% for the CAR/Atp genotype (P = 0.02), although 1 CAR/CAR individual presented an HbF concentration as high as 15%. In view of the ethnic and geographical origin of this population, we did not expect a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for CAR/CAR and BEN/BEN homozygous haplotypes and a high proportion of heterozygous CAR/BEN haplotypes since the State of Bahia historically received more slaves from Western Africa than from Central Africa.

  16. Metal speciation and environmental impact on sandy beaches due to El Salvador copper mine, Chile.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Marco; Massolo, Serena; Frache, Roberto; Correa, Juan A

    2005-01-01

    Several coastal rocky shores in northern Chile have been affected by the discharges of copper mine tailings. The present study aims to analyze the chemical speciation of heavy metals in relation to the diversity of sessile species in the rocky intertidal benthic community on the northern Chilean coast, which is influenced by the presence of copper mine tailings. In particular, the chemical forms of Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in beach sediment samples collected in the area influenced by El Salvador mine tailings were studied using a sequential chemical extraction method. In general, all the elements present a maximum concentration in the area near the actual discharge point (Caleta Palito). With regard to Cu and Mn, the concentrations range between 7.2-985 and 746-22,739 microg/g respectively, being lower than background levels only in the control site of Caleta Zenteno. Moreover, the correlation coefficients highlight that Fe, Mn and Ni correlate significantly and positively in the studied area, showing a possible common, natural origin, whilst Cu shows a negative correlation with Fe, Mn and Ni. It could be possible that Cu has an anthropogenic origin, coming from mining activity in the area. Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn are mostly associated with the residual phase, whilst Cu presents a different speciation pattern, as resulted from selective extractions. In fact, Cu is highly associated with organic and exchangeable phases in contaminated localities, whilst it is mainly bound to the residual phase in control sites. Moreover, our results, compared to local biological diversity, showed that those sites characterized by the highest metal concentrations in bioavailable phase had the lowest biodiversity.

  17. [Case study: operation of a mother-child nutrition program in El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Menchú, M T; de Márquez, D; Osegueda, O T; Sibrián, R

    1989-09-01

    One of the oldest international efforts in their combat of malnutrition have been the mother-child food programs (MCFP). The purpose of the study herein discussed was to detect the problems that affect the operation of the MCFP of the Ministry of Health of El Salvador, and to identify feasible measures to apply in a short term. This work analyzed the following: a) the operation of the program from the selection of the beneficiary to the delivery of the ration; b) the evolution of the beneficiaries, and c) the perception of the MCFP on mothers' part. The study covered 40 Health Services selected from all over the country; the revision of 556 children's files, and interviews to 136 mothers. It was found that the nurse is the person who plays the main role in the MCFP; that the most used criterion to enter or leave the program is the nutritional condition of the beneficiaries; that priority is given to children over pregnant women; that for most of the children there is a control kept on growth and vaccinations; and that what is mostly supervised is food handling and beneficiaries. Study of the children's files revealed that the average age of the children who enter the program is 18 months and at departure, 24 months, with a permanence of five months; and that the weight-for-age retardation when entering and leaving was similar for all the children studied, although it was different when the analysis was made by permanence and by age groups. Mothers' opinion on the MCFP permitted inference of what occurs at household levels with the donated foods; nevertheless, it is a subject that merits further study. Results of the study confirm some findings of others, although since they are specific for this Program, they allowed the appropriate decision-making for corrective measures of the MCPF.

  18. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful.

  19. The El Salvador and Philippines Tsunamis of August 2012: Insights from Sea Level Data Analysis and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    We studied two tsunamis from 2012, one generated by the El Salvador earthquake of 27 August ( Mw 7.3) and the other generated by the Philippines earthquake of 31 August ( Mw 7.6), using sea level data analysis and numerical modeling. For the El Salvador tsunami, the largest wave height was observed in Baltra, Galapagos Islands (71.1 cm) located about 1,400 km away from the source. The tsunami governing periods were around 9 and 19 min. Numerical modeling indicated that most of the tsunami energy was directed towards the Galapagos Islands, explaining the relatively large wave height there. For the Philippines tsunami, the maximum wave height of 30.5 cm was observed at Kushimoto in Japan located about 2,700 km away from the source. The tsunami governing periods were around 8, 12 and 29 min. Numerical modeling showed that a significant part of the far-field tsunami energy was directed towards the southern coast of Japan. Fourier and wavelet analyses as well as numerical modeling suggested that the dominant period of the first wave at stations normal to the fault strike is related to the fault width, while the period of the first wave at stations in the direction of fault strike is representative of the fault length.

  20. The Politics of Privatization and Decentralization in Global School Reform: The Value of Equity Claims for Neoliberalism at the World Bank and in El Salvador.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, Cheryl

    This paper focuses on the role of the World Bank and its subsidiaries in promoting the neoliberal educational reforms of privatization and decentralization globally and in El Salvador. Neoliberalism is first defined as a sociopolitical philosophy that supports concepts such as the free market, market-driven education, and the use of a voucher…

  1. Rising from the Ashes: How the Global Education Policy of Community-Based Management Was Born from El Salvador's Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the emergence of global education policies and conflict-affected contexts by analysing the trajectory of community-level education decentralization within and beyond El Salvador from the 1980s, during the country's civil war, to the 2000s, by which point this approach to education governance was being…

  2. Analyzing the Learning of the Taking Personal and Social Responsibility Model within a New Physical Education Undergraduate Degree Program in El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andre, Mauro H.; Mandigo, James L.

    2013-01-01

    El Salvador has an unfortunate history that includes a military regime and a civil war that together created a legacy of violence in which the country still struggles nowadays. Salud Escolar Integral (SEI) was created in 2005 by universities, federal governments, a corporate sponsor, and sport associations as a program to combat youth violence…

  3. Mapping a Shallow Volcaniclastic Aquifer with GPR and ER in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, W. E.; Ferrantelli, C.; Harry, D. L.

    2009-12-01

    Populations living in mountainous, volcanic terrains often use shallow aquifers as their main source of fresh water. These volcaniclastic aquifers are often limited in lateral extent and thickness, which complicates efforts to identify optimal well locations. Remote villages generally lack the resources to fund hydrogeologic investigations that can aid in reducing the risk of digging or drilling dry wells. The village of La Laguneta, El Salvador, located in a 0.5 km2 basin on the flank of a 2,100-m high stratovolcano, relies entirely on groundwater for its freshwater needs. During the dry season, water levels drop by an average of 5 m, causing the public well to produce at inadequate rates (<4 L/min) and many hand-dug wells to dry up. Based on simple basin geometry 2 wells were drilled in 2006; however, both were dry. In this study ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity (ER) were used to map the lateral and vertical extent of the shallow aquifer and identify the locations of maximum saturated thickness. The aquifer unit is surficial Quaternary tephra overlying bedrock consisting of a weathered Tertiary-age intermediate-composition pyroclastic unit. The GPR results provide good images to depths of 10 m with average maximum penetration of ~30 m in most places. Three radar facies are identified and correlated to stratigraphy obtained from lithostratigraphic logs. The upper two facies are interpreted to be unconsolidated Quaternary deposits whereas the underlying facies is interpreted to be bedrock. A GPR-derived bedrock map identifies 2 ~13-m deep sub-basins separated by a bedrock high. The ER results identify 3 electrically distinct zones. The upper 2 zones consist of an overlying resistive unit and an underlying conductive unit with the interface corresponding to the contact between the upper 2 radar facies. The third and deepest resistivity zone is highly resistive and corresponds with the locations of the bedrock highs. Based on the bedrock map

  4. Recent Intermediate Depth Earthquakes in El Salvador, Central Mexico, Cascadia and South-West Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, A.; Gardi, A.; Gutscher, M.; Madariaga, R.

    2001-12-01

    be favored by stress transfer between intermediate depth and interplate zone during the earthquake cycle, flexural stresses associated with bendings which are not only present at ``flat slab'' geometry but also at ``normal'' dipping subduction zone, seem to govern the location of intermediate depth seismicity and to explain their focal mechanisms in El Salvador, SW Japon, Cascadia and Central Mexico.

  5. El Niño, Climate, and Cholera Associations in Piura, Peru, 1991-2001: A Wavelet Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Iván J; Grady, Sue C

    2016-03-01

    In Peru, it was hypothesized that epidemic cholera in 1991 was linked to El Niño, the warm phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. While previous studies demonstrated an association in 1997-1998, using cross-sectional data, they did not assess the consistency of this relationship across the decade. Thus, how strong or variable an El Niño-cholera relationship was in Peru or whether El Niño triggered epidemic cholera early in the decade remains unknown. In this study, wavelet and mediation analyses were used to characterize temporal patterns among El Niño, local climate variables (rainfall, river discharge, and air temperature), and cholera incidence in Piura, Peru from 1991 to 2001 and to estimate the mediating effects of local climate on El Niño-cholera relationships. The study hypothesis is that El Niño-related connections with cholera in Piura were transient and interconnected via local climate pathways. Overall, our findings provide evidence that a strong El Niño-cholera link, mediated by local hydrology, existed in the latter part of the 1990s but found no evidence of an El Niño association in the earlier part of the decade, suggesting that El Niño may not have precipitated cholera emergence in Piura. Further examinations of cholera epicenters in Peru are recommended to support these results in Piura. For public health planning, the results may improve existing efforts that utilize El Niño monitoring for preparedness during future climate-related extremes in the region.

  6. Asthma Hospitalization Rates among Children, and School Building Conditions, by New York State School Districts, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Erin; Kielb, Christine; Lin, Shao

    2006-01-01

    School-age children spend a significant portion of their day at school where they can be exposed to asthma triggers, but little information exists regarding potential relationships between childhood asthma and school environmental factors. This study examined patterns of asthma hospitalization and possible factors contributing to asthma…

  7. Effects of Habitat Characteristics and Water Quality on Macroinvertebrate Communities along the Neversink Riverin Southeastern New York, 1991-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, Anne G.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Carter, James L.; Lester, Gary T.

    2008-01-01

    The Neversink River, in the Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York State, feeds the Neversink Reservoir, which diverts 85 percent of the river?s flow to New York City. Acidification of several headwater reaches has affected macroinvertebrate assemblages throughout the river system above the reservoir, and the alteration of flow conditions below the reservoir dam has affected macroinvertebrate assemblages for at least 10 kilometers downstream from the reservoir. In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy, compiled data from 30 stream reaches to quantify the effects of acidification and of the reservoir on the structure and function of macroinvertebrate assemblages throughout the Neversink River. Acidic headwater reaches supported greater numbers of acid-tolerant chironomid taxa and fewer numbers of acid-sensitive Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera than neutral reaches, and fewer scraper individuals and more shredder individuals. The 14 reaches below the reservoir, with sharply decreased flows and altered flow patterns compared to reaches above the reservoir, supported more Chironomidae and fewer Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera than the upper reaches; they also had greater numbers of shredder individuals and fewer scraper and filterer individuals than reaches above the reservoir. Water-quality variables such as pH and aluminum concentration appear to have affected macroinvertebrate assemblages more strongly in the headwaters than below the reservoir, whereas physical-habitat variables such as mean channel width and water temperature have affected these assemblages more strongly downstream from the reservoir than in the headwaters. The water-quality changes due to acidification, combined with the decreased flows and lowered water temperatures below the reservoir, have disrupted downstream continuum of macroinvertebrate communities that would normally be observed from the headwaters to the mouth. The information presented herein provides a basis for further evaluation of the Neversink and similar river systems, and for assessment of the effectiveness of future conservation efforts.

  8. Co-seismic deformation of the August 27, 2012 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5, 2012 Mw 7.6 Costa Rica earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, H.; La Femina, P. C.; DeMets, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Hernández, D.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the co-seismic deformation of two significant earthquakes that occurred along the Middle America trench in 2012. The August 27 Mw 7.3 El Salvador and September 5 Mw 7.6 Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica earthquakes, were examined using a combination of episodic and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data. USGS finite fault models based on seismic data predict fundamentally different characteristics for the two ruptures. The El Salvador event occurred in a historical seismic gap and on the shallow segment of the Middle America Trench main thrust, rupturing a large area, but with a low magnitude of slip. A small tsunami was observed along the coast in Nicaragua and El Salvador, additionally indicating near-trench rupture. Conversely, the Nicoya, Costa Rica earthquake was predicted to have an order of magnitude higher slip on a spatially smaller patch deeper on the main thrust. We present results from episodic and continuous geodetic GPS measurements made in conjunction with the two earthquakes, including data from newly installed COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) sites. Episodic GPS measurements made in El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua following the earthquakes, allow us to estimate the co-seismic deformation field from both earthquakes. Because of the small magnitude of the El Salvador earthquake and its shallow rupture the observed co-seismic deformation is small (<2 cm). Conversely, the Costa Rica earthquake occurred directly beneath a seismic and geodetic network specifically designed to capture such events. The observed displacements exceeded 0.5 m and there is a significant post-seismic transient following the earthquake. We use our estimated co-seismic offsets for both earthquakes to model the magnitude and spatial variability of slip for these two events.

  9. Drug use and treatment success among gang and non-gang members in El Salvador: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This article focuses on examining drug abuse treatment (DAT) in El Salvador highlighting gang vs. non-gang membership differences in drug use and treatment outcomes. Methods Cross-sectional and prospective cohort designs were employed to examine the study aims. The 19 centers that met the study’s inclusion criteria of one year or less in planned treatment offered varying treatment services: individual, group, family, and vocational therapy, dual diagnosis treatment, psychological testing, 12-step program, and outreach and re-entry aftercare. Most directors describe their treatment approach as “spiritual.” Data were collected from 625 patients, directors, and staff from the 19 centers at baseline, of which 34 patients were former gang members. Seventy-two percent (72%) of the former patients (448) were re-interviewed six-months after leaving treatment and 48% were randomly tested for drug use. Results Eighty-nine percent (89%) of the DAT patients at baseline were classified as heavy alcohol users and 40% were using illegal drugs, i.e., crack, marijuana, cocaine, tranquilizers, opiates, and amphetamines. There were large decreases after treatment in heavy alcohol and illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activities. Gang members reported illegal drug use, crime, and gang related risk activity more than non-gang members, yet only 5% of the study participants were gang members; further, positive change in treatment outcomes among gang members were the same or larger as compared to non-gang members. Conclusions Alcohol use is the drug of choice among DAT patients in El Salvador with gang member patients having used illegal drugs more than non-gang members. The study shows that DAT centers successfully reduced the use of illegal drugs and alcohol among gang and non-gang members. Although our study could not include a control group, we believe that the DAT treatment centers in El Salvador contributed to producing this treatment success among

  10. Risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis in pre-school children in the city of Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Prado, M S; Strina, A; Barreto, M L; Oliveira-Assis, Ana Marlúcia; Paz, Lívia Maria; Cairncross, S

    2003-10-01

    A cross-sectional study of 694 children aged 2 to 45 months selected from 30 clusters throughout the city of Salvador, Bahia (pop. 2.3 million) was carried out as part of a longitudinal study of diarrhoea in order to identify risk factors for infection with Giardia duodenalis. Variables studied included three social and demographic factors (such as mother's education and marital status), five relating to the peri-domestic environment (rubbish disposal, open sewers, paving of the street), seven relating to the home itself (house construction, susceptibility to flooding, water supply and sanitation) as well as a score for hygiene behaviour based on structured observation. After multivariate analysis using a hierarchical model, only four significant risk factors were found: (a) number of children in the household under five years (b) rubbish not collected from the house (c) presence of visible sewage nearby, and (d) absence of a toilet. All four were significant at the 1% level.

  11. [Voluntary abortion and domestic violence among women attended at a public maternity hospital of Salvador-BA].

    PubMed

    Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; Gesteira, Solange Maria Dos Anjos; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça; Santos Mota, Rosana; Pérez, Bárbara Angélica Gómez; Gomes, Nadirlene Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative study in order to study domestic violence in women with induced abortion. Interviews were conducted with 147 women hospitalized for induced abortion in a public maternity hospital in Salvador, Bahia. The subjects are characterized by mostly women, black, poorly educated, economically dependent on spouses, experienced psychological abuse, physical and sexual abuse committed by their spouses. Almost half of the women were victims of domestic violence during the current pregnancy, and that was the reason for inducing abortion for 67% of them. The study reveals an association between experience of domestic violence and induced abortion. As mental health consequences, they developed symptoms of post trauma stress disorder. It is necessary that the health professionals consider the cues to identify domestic violence as a health problem associated with induced abortion, which requires a transformation on the training model, including domestic violence as a health issue.

  12. Highlights from the IV International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation (ISTA), October 20-21, 2011, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Renato D; Becker, Richard C; Newby, L Kristin; Peterson, Eric D; Hylek, Elaine M; Granger, Christopher B; Crowther, Mark; Wang, Tracy; Carvalho, Antonio C; Berwanger, Otavio; Giraldez, Roberto R; Feitosa, Gilson Soares; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto; Darze, Eduardo; Kalil, Renato A K; Andrande, Marianna; Boas, Fabio Villas; Andrade, Jadelson; Rocha, Ana Thereza; Harrington, Robert A; Lopes, Antonio C; Garcia, David A

    2012-07-01

    To discuss and share knowledge about advances in the care of patients with thrombotic disorders, the Fourth International Symposium of Thrombosis and Anticoagulation was held in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, from October 20-21, 2011. This scientific program was developed by clinicians for clinicians and was promoted by three major clinical research institutes: the Brazilian Clinical Research Institute, the Duke Clinical Research Institute of the Duke University School of Medicine, and Hospital do Coração Research Institute. Comprising 2 days of academic presentations and open discussion, the symposium had as its primary goal to educate, motivate, and inspire internists, cardiologists, hematologists, and other physicians by convening national and international visionaries, thought-leaders, and dedicated clinician-scientists. This paper summarizes the symposium proceedings.

  13. Structural Factors Influencing Patterns of Drug Selling and Use and HIV Risk in the San Salvador Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article explores differences in the social context in which crack sales and use and HIV risk take place in seven low-income communities in San Salvador, and structural factors that may influence these differences. The organization of drug selling varied among the communities on a number of dimensions including: whether drug sales were open or closed systems; the type of drug-selling site; and the participation of drug users in drug-distribution roles. Drug-use sites also varied according to whether crack was used in private, semiprivate, or public spaces, and whether individuals used drugs alone or with other drug users. Three patterns of drug use and selling were identified based on the dimensions outlined above. Structural factors that influenced these patterns included the geographic location of the communities, their physical layout, gang involvement in drug sales, and police surveillance. Implications for HIV risk and prevention are explored for each pattern. PMID:20550091

  14. The 14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses (July 1–4, 2009; Salvador, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The "14th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses" was held in Salvador, Bahia, from July 1st to July 4th 2009. The aim of this biennial meeting is to promote discussion and share new findings between researchers and clinicians for the benefit of patients infected by human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV). HTLV infects approximately 15–20 million individuals worldwide and causes a broad spectrum of diseases including neurodegeneration and leukemia. The scientific program included a breadth of HTLV research topics: epidemiology, host immune response, basic mechanisms of protein function, virology, pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment. Exciting new findings were presented in these different fields, and the new advances have led to novel clinical trials. Here, highlights from this conference are summarized. PMID:19686596

  15. The dilemma of a practice: experiences of abortion in a public maternity hospital in the city of Salvador, Bahia.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Cecilia; Menezes, Greice; Reis, Ana Paula Dos

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses abortion and miscarriage from the perspective of women admitted to a public maternity hospital in Salvador (BA), Brazil. Based on qualitative and quantitative research, it draws on participant observation of everyday hospital life. Taking an ethnographic approach, it addresses the hospital experiences of women who had miscarriages or induced abortions, also presenting the views of health professionals. It argues that the way the institution structures care for abortion and miscarriage involves symbolic processes that profoundly affect women's experiences. The discrimination against women who have had abortions/miscarriages is an integral part of the structure, organization and culture of these institutions, and does not derive solely from the individual actions of healthcare personnel.

  16. A new method for monitoring global volcanic activity. [Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Nicaragua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D. H.; Allen, R.; Eaton, J. P.

    1974-01-01

    The ERTS Data Collection System makes it feasible for the first time to monitor the level of activity at widely separated volcanoes and to relay these data rapidly to one central office for analysis. While prediction of specific eruptions is still an evasive goal, early warning of a reawakening of quiescent volcanoes is now a distinct possibility. A prototypical global volcano surveillance system was established under the ERTS program. Instruments were installed in cooperation with local scientists on 15 volcanoes in Alaska, Hawaii, Washington, California, Iceland, Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The sensors include 19 seismic event counters that count four different sizes of earthquakes and six biaxial borehole tiltmeters that measure ground tilt with a resolution of 1 microradian. Only seismic and tilt data are collected because these have been shown in the past to indicate most reliably the level of volcano activity at many different volcanoes. Furthermore, these parameters can be measured relatively easily with new instrumentation.

  17. Time Lags between Exanthematous Illness Attributed to Zika Virus, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and Microcephaly, Salvador, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Paploski, Igor A.D.; Prates, Ana Paula P.B.; Cardoso, Cristiane W.; Kikuti, Mariana; Silva, Monaise M. O.; Waller, Lance A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Kitron, Uriel

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection emerged as a public health emergency after increasing evidence for its association with neurologic disorders and congenital malformations. In Salvador, Brazil, outbreaks of acute exanthematous illness (AEI) attributed to Zika virus, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and microcephaly occurred in 2015. We investigated temporal correlations and time lags between these outbreaks to identify a common link between them by using epidemic curves and time series cross-correlations. Number of GBS cases peaked after a lag of 5–9 weeks from the AEI peak. Number of suspected cases of microcephaly peaked after a lag of 30–33 weeks from the AEI peak, which corresponded to time of potential infections of pregnant mothers during the first trimester. These findings support the association of GBS and microcephaly with Zika virus infection and provide evidence for a temporal relationship between timing of arboviral infection of pregnant women during the first trimester and birth outcome. PMID:27144515

  18. HTLV-1 is predominantly sexually transmitted in Salvador, the city with the highest HTLV-1 prevalence in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, David; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios; Taylor, Graham P.; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Barreto, Mauricio L.; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Background Salvador is the city with the highest number of HTLV-1 infected individuals in Brazil, yet the main route of HTLV-1 transmission is unknown. Objective To investigate the association of syphilis infection as a proxy for sexual transmission of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of this city. Methods A cross sectional population-based study was conducted with 3,451 serum samples obtained by a representative simple random sampling. Data on gender, age, income, and years of education were collected by questionnaire and the presence of HTLV, HIV and Treponema pallidum infection was determined by serology. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent effect of the potential explanatory variables to HTLV-1 infection and Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% CI were calculated. Results The majority of studied individuals were female (56.4%), had less than 7 years of education (55.3%) and earned two or less minimum wages (52.0%). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 was 1.48% (51/3,451; 95% CI: 1.10%– 1.94%), which increased with age. Only three persons younger than 17 (3/958; 0.31%; CI 95% 0.06–0.91) years were infected by HTLV-1. Among the 45 syphilis positives, 12 (26.7%) were HTLV positive, while among 21 HIV positives, only one (4.8%) was HTLV positive. HTLV-1 infection was found to be associated with syphilis infection (ORADJUSTED 36.77; 95% CI 14.96–90.41). Conclusion The data presented herein indicate that horizontal transmission between adults is the main route of HTLV-1 infection in the general population of Salvador and that this is likely to occur through sexual contact. PMID:28158226

  19. Determinants of Health Service Responsiveness in Community-Based Vector Surveillance for Chagas Disease in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Ken; Zúniga, Concepción; Romero, Eduardo; Morales, Zoraida; Maguire, James H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Central American countries face a major challenge in the control of Triatoma dimidiata, a widespread vector of Chagas disease that cannot be eliminated. The key to maintaining the risk of transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi at lowest levels is to sustain surveillance throughout endemic areas. Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras integrated community-based vector surveillance into local health systems. Community participation was effective in detection of the vector, but some health services had difficulty sustaining their response to reports of vectors from the population. To date, no research has investigated how best to maintain and reinforce health service responsiveness, especially in resource-limited settings. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed surveillance and response records of 12 health centers in Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras from 2008 to 2012 and analyzed the data in relation to the volume of reports of vector infestation, local geography, demography, human resources, managerial approach, and results of interviews with health workers. Health service responsiveness was defined as the percentage of households that reported vector infestation for which the local health service provided indoor residual spraying of insecticide or educational advice. Eight potential determinants of responsiveness were evaluated by linear and mixed-effects multi-linear regression. Health service responsiveness (overall 77.4%) was significantly associated with quarterly monitoring by departmental health offices. Other potential determinants of responsiveness were not found to be significant, partly because of short- and long-term strategies, such as temporary adjustments in manpower and redistribution of tasks among local participants in the effort. Conclusions/Significance Consistent monitoring within the local health system contributes to sustainability of health service responsiveness in community-based vector surveillance of Chagas disease. Even with

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition fluxes of particulate trace metals in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de P. Pereira, Pedro A.; Lopes, Wilson A.; Carvalho, Luiz S.; da Rocha, Gisele O.; de Carvalho Bahia, Nei; Loyola, Josiane; Quiterio, Simone L.; Escaleira, Viviane; Arbilla, Graciela; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    Respiratory system is the major route of entry for airborne particulates, being the effect on the human organism dependent on chemical composition of the particles, exposure time and individual susceptibility. Airborne particulate trace metals are considered to represent a health hazard since they may be absorbed into human lung tissues during breathing. Fossil fuel and wood combustion, as well as waste incineration and industrial processes, are the main anthropic sources of metals to the atmosphere. In urban areas, vehicular emissions—and dust resuspension associated to road traffic—become the most important manmade source. This work investigated the atmospheric concentrations of TSP, PM 10 and elements such as iron, manganese, copper and zinc, from three different sites around Salvador Region (Bahia, Brazil), namely: (i) Lapa Bus Station, strongly impacted by heavy-duty diesel vehicles; (ii) Aratu harbor, impacted by an intense movement of goods, including metal ores and concentrates and near industrial centers and; (iii) Bananeira Village located on Maré Island, a non-vehicle-influenced site, with activities such as handcraft work and fishery, although placed near the port. Results have pointed out that TSP concentrations ranged between 16.9 (Bananeira) and 354.0 μg m -3 (Aratu#1), while for PM 10 they ranged between 30.9 and 393.0 μg m -3, both in the Lapa Bus Station. Iron was the major element in both Lapa Station and Aratu (#1 and #2), with average concentrations in the PM 10 samples of 148.9, 79.6 and 205.0 ng m -3, respectively. Zinc, on the other hand, was predominant in samples from Bananeira, with an average concentration of 145.0 ng m -3 in TSP samples, since no PM 10 sample was taken from this site. The main sources of iron in the Lapa Station and Aratu harbor were, respectively, soil resuspension by buses and discharge of solid granaries, as fertilizers and metal ores. On the other hand, zinc and copper in the bus station were mainly from

  1. [Strategic planning models at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pastrana, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (Spanish acronym INCMNSZ) is a third tier healthcare facility operated by the Mexican Ministry of Health, ando ver the years various strategic planning models have been used in its development. This paper present a brief overview of some of those strategic planning models and their application and concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and challenges than remain.

  2. Habitat use patterns of the invasive red lionfish Pterois volitans: a comparison between mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pimiento, Catalina; Nifong, James C.; Hunter, Margaret E.; Monaco, Eric; Silliman, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific red lionfish Pterois volitans is widespread both in its native and its non-native habitats. The rapid invasion of this top predator has had a marked negative effect on fish populations in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean. It is now well documented that lionfish are invading many tropical and sub-tropical habitats. However, there are fewer data available on the change in lionfish abundance over time and the variation of body size and diet across habitats. A recent study in San Salvador, Bahamas, found body size differences between individuals from mangrove and reef systems. That study further suggested that ontogenetic investigation of habitat use patterns could help clarify whether lionfish are using the mangrove areas of San Salvador as nurseries. The aim of the present study is to determine temporal trends in lionfish relative abundance in mangrove and reef systems in San Salvador, and to further assess whether there is evidence suggesting an ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reef areas. Accordingly, we collected lionfish from mangrove and reef habitats and calculated catch per unit effort (a proxy for relative abundance), compared body size distributions across these two systems, and employed a combination of stable isotope, stomach content, and genetic analyses of prey, to evaluate differences in lionfish trophic interactions and habitat use patterns. Our results show that populations may have increased in San Salvador during the last 4 years, and that there is a strong similarity in body size between habitats, stark differences in prey items, and no apparent overlap in the use of habitat and/or food resources. These results suggest that there is not evidence an for ontogenetic shift from mangroves to reefs, and support other studies that propose lionfish are opportunistic forages with little movement across habitats.

  3. Incidence, mortality, and prevalence of end-stage chronic renal disease in the Bajo Lempa region of El Salvador: A ten-year community registry.

    PubMed

    García-Trabanino, Ramón; Hernández, Carolina; Rosa, Adrián; Domínguez Alonso, Jesús

    The Bajo Lempa is an impoverished rural coastal region of El Salvador affected by the chronic kidney disease (CKD) epidemic known as Mesoamerican nephropathy. The local community organisation Fondo Social de Emergencia para la Salud (FSES) (Emergency social fund for health) is helping to fight the epidemic in 42 communities of the region (19,223 inhabitants; average age 26.7 years; 48.5% male; 40.2% <18 years).

  4. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Granieri, Domenico; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni B.; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael; Papale, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    San Miguel volcano, also known as Chaparrastique, is a basaltic volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA). Volcanism is induced by the convergence of the Cocos Plate underneath the Caribbean Plate, along a 1200-km arc, extending from Guatemala to Costa Rica and parallel to the Central American Trench. The volcano is located in the eastern part of El Salvador, in proximity to the large communities of San Miguel, San Rafael Oriente, and San Jorge. Approximately 70,000 residents, mostly farmers, live around the crater and the city of San Miguel, the second largest city of El Salvador, ten km from the summit, has a population of ~180,000 inhabitants. The Pan-American and Coastal highways cross the north and south flanks of the volcano.San Miguel volcano has produced modest eruptions, with at least 28 VEI 1-2 events between 1699 and 1967 (datafrom Smithsonian Institution http://www.volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=343100). It is characterized by visible milddegassing from a summit vent and fumarole field, and by intermittent lava flows and Strombolian activity. Since the last vigorous fire fountaining of 1976, San Miguel has only experienced small steam explosions and gas emissions, minor ash fall and rock avalanches. On 29 December 2013 the volcano erupted producing an eruption that has been classified as VEI 2. While eruptions tend to be low-VEI, the presence of major routes and the dense population in the surrounding of the volcano increases the risk that weak explosions with gas and/or ash emission may pose. In this study, we present the first inventory of SO2, CO2, HCl, and HF emission rates on San Miguel volcano, and an analysis of the hazard from volcanogenic SO2 discharged before, during, and after the December 2013 eruption. SO2 was chosen as it is amongst the most critical volcanogenic pollutants, which may cause acute and chronicle disease to humans. Data were gathered by the geochemical monitoring network managed by the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

  5. Heavy metals, arsenic, and pesticide contamination in an area with high incidence of chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes in El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, D. A.; Ribó, A.; Quinteros, E.; Mejia, R.; Jovel, R.; VanDervort, D.; Orantes, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease of non-traditional causes is epidemic in Central America, Southern Mexico and other regions of the world such as Sri Lanka, where the origin of the illness is attributed to exposure to agrochemicals and arsenic in soils and groundwater. In Central America, several causes have been suggested for this illness including: high ambient temperatures and chronic dehydration, and toxic effects of agrochemicals. Previous research using step-wise multivariate regression in El Salvador found statistically significant correlation between the spatial distribution of the number of sick people per thousand inhabitants and the percent area cultivated with sugar cane, cotton, and beans, and maximum ambient temperature, with sugar cane cultivation as the most significant factor. This study aims to investigate the possible effects of agricultural activities in the occurrence of this illness looking at heavy metal, arsenic and pesticide contamination in soil, water and sediments of a community located in Bajo Lempa region (Ciudad Romero, El Salvador) and heavily affected by this illness. The Bajo Lempa region is close to Lempa River delta, in the Pacific coast. Ground and surface water, sediment and soil samples were collected in the village where the patients live and in the agricultural areas where they work. With respect to the heavy metals, lead and cadmium where detected in the soils but below the standards for cultivated soils, however, they were not detected in the majority of surface and groundwater. Of the inorganic contaminants, arsenic was present in most soil, sediments, and water samples with some concentrations considerable higher than the standards for cultivated lands and drinking water. Statistically different concentrations in soils were found for the village soils and the cultivated soils, with arsenic higher in the cultivated soils. For the pesticides, results show a significant pollution of soil and groundwater of organochlorine pesticides

  6. Analysis of the spatial dynamics and drivers of forest cover change in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaneda, Hector

    This work studies the changes of forest cover that have happened in the Lempa River Basin of El Salvador during the period 1979-2003. Although historically the trend has been towards the loss of forest cover since colonial times, over the period of study a large increase in forest cover was detected. The main tool of evaluation was the analysis of LANDSAT satellite imagery. Images for the dates 1979, 1990-91, and 2003 were classified into forest and noon-forest land covers. Then the changes in land cover were analyzed to determine what were the social, geophysical and climatic drivers determining why and where these new forest appeared. The results indicate that there has been an overall increase in forest cover from 20% in 1979 to 43% in 2003. Although there has been extensive deforestation, this has happened mostly around the main urban centers within the basin. In the more rural and remote areas, the tendency has been towards a resurgence in forest cover. The increase in forest was found to be significantly related to remittances, inaccessibility to roads and markets, density of urban populations, poverty and the civil war of the 1980s. Among the geospatial factors that determined where deforestation and reforestation happened were distance to roads and urban centers, slope, elevation, land use capability, and irrigation potential. The results indicate that the tendency in the future will be towards further reforestation but at a slower rate. Although reforestation and deforestation happened simultaneously, there are clear differences in the spatial patterns that each of these phenomena follow. In terms of climate, it was found areas subjected to inter-annual rainfall extremes due to El Nino Southern Oscillation, particularly areas with low agricultural potential, were more likely to be abandoned and left to revert to forest than those with more stable rainfall. The results of this study support the hypothesis that El Salvador is undergoing a Forest Transition

  7. El Salvador, 13 January and SEA-TAC, 28 February: Two recent examples of "snappy" intraplate earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OKAL, E. A.; Kirby, S. H.

    2001-05-01

    The two recent damaging earthquakes in El Salvador (13 January) and in the Seattle-Tacoma area (28 February, hereafter "SEA-TAC") do not express relative motion at a plate boundary contact, but rather are examples of normal faulting events occurring inside the downgoing slab. Similar events have included the Oaxaca earthquake of 30 September 1999, the shock in the Central Valley of Chile on 15 October 1997, as well as the large event farther South on 25 January 1939. In previous studies, we had applied the formalism of the energy-to-moment ratio introduced by Newman and Okal [1998] to this class of events, and found that the parameter THETA = log (E/M sub 0 ) characterizing the repartition of energy between high and low frequencies, was as much as a full unit greater than expected from scaling laws (-4.90), meaning that the seismic source spectrum is biased towards high frequencies, resulting in a possibly faster, more "snappy" moment release than predicted by global scaling laws. As a result, this effect canoffset the generally greater hypocentral depth of the intraslab events, and result in higher levels of accelerations in the near-field, and consequently in more severe damage, reaching catastrophic proportions for the 1939 Chilean event. Because of their generally lower magnitudes, intraslab earthquakes may recur more often than the large "mega-thrust" events, and thus be a significant, possibly the primary, contributor to seismic risk in the relevant geographical areas [S.H. Kirby, Fall 1999 AGU meeting]. As of the time of writing, preliminary average THETA values are -4.79 for the El Salvador event, and -4.54 for the SEA-TAC earthquake. The former can thus be regarded as mildly fast, and comparable in this respect to the Oaxaca event of 30 September 1999. While not reaching the values observed in Chile (-4.0), the THETA value for the SEA-TAC earthquake qualifies the event as definitely "fast". We will present refined computations, including a reassessment of

  8. The relative contribution of immigration or local increase for persistence of urban schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Blanton, Ronald E; Barbosa, Lúcio M; Reis, Eliana A; Carmo, Theomira M; Dos Santos, Cláudio R A; Costa, Jackson M; Aminu, Peace T; Blank, Walter A; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C; Silva, Luciano K; Reis, Mitermayer G

    2015-03-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely.

  9. [Sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral profile of women infected with HTLV-1 in Salvador, Bahia, an endemic area for HTLV].

    PubMed

    Moxoto, Ivanoska; Boa-Sorte, Ney; Nunes, Ceuci; Mota, Augusto; Dumas, Alexandre; Dourado, Inês; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to describe the sociodemographic, epidemiological and behavioral characteristics of women infected with HTLV-1 (64) and uninfected women (66) in Salvador, Bahia. The serological diagnosis was obtained via Elisa, Western Blot and Immunofluorescence. Epidemiological and sociodemographic data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. The chi-squared or Fisher test was used for categorical data and ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis (3 groups) and the T-test or Mann-Whitney (2 groups) were used for continuous data. Associated variables were adjusted using logistic regression. More than half (57.8%) of the seropositive women were asymptomatic. The symptomatic women (with HAM/TSP) had fewer years of education. Comparison between seronegative and seropositive women showed that blood transfusion, anal sex practices, first sexual intercourse before the age of 18 years and three or more sexual partners over women's lifetime were risk factors for HTLV-1 infection. The prevention of both sexual transmission and vertical transmission (breastfeeding) should be reinforced. Prenatal screening is of paramount importance.

  10. An assessment of health sector guidelines and services for treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Billings, Deborah L; Paredes-Gaitan, Yolanda; Padilla Zuniga, Karen

    2012-12-01

    In Central America, approximately 12% of women report ever having been forced to have sex by an intimate male partner, and sexual violence by others is also a frequent experience. All Central American countries are signatories to human rights agreements that oblige States to ensure access to comprehensive health services for victims of sexual violence, but there is limited information as to whether these agreements have been translated into policy and practice. This article critically examines health sector guidelines for the treatment of sexual violence in El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua, and reports on an assessment of services in 34 private- and public-sector facilities in the four countries. Overall, policies were consistent with international agreements and included guidance on detection and documentation of violence, forensic examination, treatment, referral and follow-up care. However, only a small proportion of women who experience sexual violence actually seek care. The challenge facing all four countries is to turn policy into practice. Screening practices were inconsistent, and policies needed to indicate more clearly the roles and responsibilities of health care providers and forensic specialists. Finally, women's right to privacy and confidentiality in reports of cases to legal authorities needed further consideration, as well as the importance of providing all services at a single location.

  11. The Relative Contribution of Immigration or Local Increase for Persistence of Urban Schistosomiasis in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Ronald E.; Barbosa, Lúcio M.; Reis, Eliana A.; Carmo, Theomira M.; dos Santos, Cláudio R. A.; Costa, Jackson M.; Aminu, Peace T.; Blank, Walter A.; Reis, Renato Barbosa; Guimarães, Isabel C.; Silva, Luciano K.; Reis, Mitermayer G.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is increasing across the globe, and diseases once considered rural can now be found in urban areas due to the migration of populations from rural endemic areas, local transmission within the city, or a combination of factors. We investigated the epidemiologic characteristics of urban immigrants and natives living in a neighborhood of Salvador, Brazil where there is a focus of transmission of Schistosoma mansoni. In a cross-sectional study, all inhabitants from 3 sections of the community were interviewed and examined. In order to determine the degree of parasite differentiation between immigrants and the native born, S. mansoni eggs from stools were genotyped for 15 microsatellite markers. The area received migrants from all over the state, but most infected children had never been outside of the city, and infected snails were present at water contact sites. Other epidemiologic features suggested immigration contributed little to the presence of infection. The intensity and prevalence of infection were the same for immigrants and natives when adjusted for age, and length of immigrant residence in the community was positively associated with prevalence of infection. The population structure of the parasites also supported that the contribution from immigration was small, since the host-to-host differentiation was no greater in the urban parasite population than a rural population with little distant immigration, and there had been little differentiation in the urban population over the past 7 years. Public health efforts should focus on eliminating local transmission, and once eliminated, reintroduction from distant migration is unlikely. PMID:25775457

  12. [Two surgery schools: Madrid and Barcelona. Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal (150th anniversary of their birth)].

    PubMed

    Vázquez de Quevedo, Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Two eminent Spanish surgeons from the positivism period were born 150 years ago: Ribera Sans and Salvador Cardenal. To mark this anniversary I have studied their written work and their contribution to Spanish surgery as pioneers. Each school had its own place although they kept certain parallelism. Ribera worked in Madrid as a professor for 23 years and had many disciples. He initiated digestive, pediatric and thoracic surgery. He was a professor at San Carlos just like the surgeons: San Martín and Guedea. He was director of the Niño Jesús Hospital and a R. A. N. M. academic. Cardenal is a distinguished surgeon who carried out his work in Barcelona. He extended the use of the antiseptic method in Spanish surgery. He became Director of the Sagrado Corazón Hospital. He was also named Honorary professor of surgery and a member of the Royal School of Surgery in England, and R. A. Barcelona. His work was closely related to Dr. Ferrán's. His son was León Cardenal.

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meats and prepared foods in public hospitals in salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Wellington Luis Reis; Ferreira, Jeane dos Santos; Carvalho, Joelza Silva; Cerqueira, Ellayne Souza; Oliveira, Lucimara Cardoso; Almeida, Rogeria Comastri de Castro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in raw meat and fish and foods prepared from them for patient consumption in public hospitals in Salvador, Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. A total of 114 samples of raw meat and fish (chicken, n = 30; beef, n = 30; pork, n = 24; and fish, n = 30) and 63 samples of prepared foods (made with chicken, n = 15; beef, n = 15; pork, n = 15; and fish, n = 18) were collected from the kitchens of 10 different hospitals. Of the 114 investigated raw meat and fish samples, 28.1% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 23.3% beef, 23.3% chicken, 37.5% pork, and 30% fish samples. Of the prepared foods, 9.5% were positive for MRSA, which comprised 5.6% chicken products, 6.7% pork products, and 22.2% fish products. MRSA contamination was not detected in prepared beef dishes. A statistical analysis showed no association between the presence of MRSA and the type of raw food (P > 0.05). The high prevalence of MRSA among the raw foods tested and the presence of the microorganism in prepared foods emphasizes the necessity of enforcing hygienic practices within hospital kitchens.

  14. [4 cases of annular pancreas at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Maroun Marun, C; Uscanga, L; Robles-Díaz, G; Campuzano Fernández, M

    1992-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly due to malrotation of the pancreatic ventral yolk. Although it has been described in young and middle age adults it predominates in children. Its clinical picture is that of duodenal obstruction or acute pancreatitis episodes. In this paper we report four cases of AP that were seen at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City. Three were females and three were less than twenty years old. In one case the diagnosis was established at birth and the operation done in another hospital. In another patient a diagnosis of pyloric hypertrophy was made and a pyloroplasty was performed. This young man was admitted in our hospital because of abdominal pain and hyperamylasemia. An eighty four year old woman was seen due to abdominal pain, nausea and vomit. In all cases the diagnosis of AP was carried out with radiological studies and confirmed by laparotomy. Surgical procedures consisted of duodenal-duodenal anastomosis in two, sphincteroplasty in one, and gastrojejunoanastomosis in the other. Two patients are asymptomatic, one died in the postoperative period, and one was lost for follow up. These four cases represent all the experience of our institute and correspond to one case in 36,735 admissions.

  15. [Retrospective evaluation of 500 endoscopic cholangiopancreatographies performed at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubiran"].

    PubMed

    Elizondo, J; Gallo, S; Valdovinos, M A; Paez, R

    1989-01-01

    We evaluated 500 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographies (ERCP) performed on 422 patients during a 5-year period in the Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Department, Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, México, D.F. ERCP combines endoscopic and radiologic techniques in order to obtain high quality opacification of pancreatic and biliary ducts. The rate of success for cannulation was 90%; desired duct opacification was possible in 89%. The most frequent indication for ERCP was to establish the differential diagnosis for jaundice; biliary stones in the common bile duct was the most frequent diagnosis, followed by normal biliary ducts. Pancreatography was normal in 74% of patients. ERCP complications were detected in 5.6%; fever and transient pain was the most common complaint in 1.6%. Mortality attributable to the procedure was 0.8%. From histological corroboration of cases by surgery or postmortem studies, diagnostic sensitivity was 92%, specificity 76%, positive predictive value 96% and a prevalence of 89%. We conclude that ERCP is highly sensitive and specific in diagnosing bilio-pancreatic-duodenal disease. Our results are comparable to other's experiences published throughout the world.

  16. [Feeding habits of Lutjanus guttatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae) at Los Cóbanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador].

    PubMed

    Rodrigo Rojas, José; Maravilla, Erick; Chicas, Francisco

    2004-03-01

    Abstract: A total of 175 spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus were collected monthly in the Los Cobanos and Puerto La Libertad, El Salvador, from January to December 2000 to determine its feeding habits. The fishes studied ranged 9.8 - 58.0 cm in total length. Were collected using push-net and hook and line. This snapper is a bentonic opportunistic carnivorous predator. The total biomass of the stomach contents was 260.5 g. Crustaceans (Squillidae, Portunidae, Dynomenidae. Penaeidae, Sicyoniidae, Callianassidae), were the most abundant group: they accounted for 50.4% of the total biomass. Numerically, Portunus asper was the most abundant prey. Ontogenic differences were observed in the diet. In juveniles (16 cm TL). at any time of the year, the most frequent and abundant components were crustaceans and in adults were crustaceans, fishes and mollusks. The relative importance of different components of the diet was assessed with two indexes that combine. in different ways. percentage frequency of occurrence, percentage number and percentage weight of prey categories. The commercial use this resource and the absence of management strategies are discussed.

  17. Neotectonic deformation within an extensional stepover in El Salvador magmatic arc, Central America: Implication for the interaction of arc magmatism and deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garibaldi, Nicolás; Tikoff, Basil; Hernández, Walter

    2016-12-01

    Dominantly westward movement of the El Salvador forearc at rates of 11 mm/yr is accommodated by a series of E-W to WNW oriented, dextral, strike-slip fault zones herein referred to as the El Salvador Fault System (ESFS). The geometry of the ESFS defines a series of extensional step-overs. Along the arc, basaltic volcanism in the stepovers is associated with NNW-oriented normal faults, whereas rhyolitic volcanism is associated with strike-slip fault zones of the ESFS. On the ESFS, the San Salvador Extensional Stepover (SSES) is bound to the south by the San Vicente fault zone, where the rhyolitic Ilopango caldera is located. In the SSES, tephras from Ilopango -the Tierra Blanca (TB) sequence- track long-term elongation. Older TB units (TB5-8) contain abundant normal faults; lying unconformably above these older TB units, younger TB members (TBJ, TB2-4) are generally unfaulted. Analyses of faults in TB5-8 indicate NE- to ENE-oriented elongation in the SSES. Deformation occurred between deposition of the TB4 and TB5 units, during quiescence of the Ilopango eruptive center. Using this temporal constraint, minimum elongation rates of 3.50 × 10- 15 s- 1, 2.06 × 10- 14 s- 1 and 4.42 × 10- 14 s- 1 were calculated for three traverses. From regional geodetic data and fault kinematics throughout El Salvador, we interpret the SSES as part of a series of pull-apart structures along the arc axis. The calculated paleostress orientations are consistent with a pull-apart geometry resulting from forearc movement. The extensional deformation occurs during a 50 k.y. lull in rhyolitic activity, suggesting an interplay between magmatism and deformation within the arc. During significant rhyolitic volcanic activity, only minor elongation is observed in the SSES, despite ongoing translation of the Salvadoran forearc. We speculate that rhyolitic magmatism along upper crustal faults may facilitate strike-slip movement on the ESFS, rather than distributing deformation throughout the

  18. Binge Drinking among Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in San Salvador: Correlates and Sexual Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Erin; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Hembling, John

    2015-08-01

    High rates of heavy alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) have been linked to increased vulnerability for HIV and poor mental health. While theories explaining elevated drinking levels among sexual minorities have been forwarded, few investigations have assessed the potential pathways using empirical data, particularly with an explicit focus on self-stigma and among MSM and TW in low- and middle-income countries. This study examined the relationship between stigma-related stress (specifically, self-stigma and concealment of one's sexual orientation) and binge drinking in a sample of MSM and TW (n = 670) in San Salvador, El Salvador, recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Levels of alcohol consumption among participants were high: only 39 % of the sample did not drink alcohol or did not binge drink, while 34 % engaged in binge drinking at least weekly. Among MSM, high self-stigma was associated with binge drinking at least weekly (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.1, p < 0.05). No such relationship was found with less than weekly binge drinking. Among both MSM and TW, having a female partner was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 3.3, p < 0.05) and binge drinking at least weekly (aRRR = 3.4, p < 0.05), while disclosure of sexual orientation to multiple types of people was associated with binge drinking less than weekly (aRRR = 2.9 for disclosure to one-two types of people, p < 0.01; aRRR = 4.0 for disclosure to three-nine types of people, p < 0.01). No such relationship was found with at least weekly binge drinking. Binge drinking at least weekly was marginally associated with a number of sexual health outcomes, including high number of lifetime partners (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, p < 0.10), inconsistent condom use with a non-regular partner (aOR = 0.5, p < 0.10), and decreased intention to test for HIV in the next 12 months (a

  19. Social vulnerability as a contributing factor to disasters in Central America: A case study at San Vicente volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, L. J.; Henquinet, K. B.; Gierke, J. S.; Rose, W. I.

    2012-12-01

    El Salvador's geographic location on the Pacific Ring of Fire at the juncture of the Caribbean and Cocos plates exposes its population to various natural hazards, including volcanic eruptions (e.g., Santa Ana in 2005), earthquakes (e.g., January 13 and February 13, 2001), and landslides and flooding due to tropical rainfall events (e.g., Hurricane Mitch in 1998, Hurricane Stan in 2005). Such hazards can be devastating anywhere, but the condition of social vulnerability in which many Salvadorans currently live exacerbates the impacts of these hazards. Aspects contributing to most rural Salvadorans being marginalized include a colonial history marked by ethnic discrimination and laws prohibiting land ownership, lack of access to desirable land in an agrarian society, a poor education system, global economic policies that foster inequality, political marginalization, a bloody civil conflict, and rampant criminality and violence. In November 2009, an extreme rainfall event triggered landslides and lahars killing over 200 people at San Vicente volcano. This disaster brought to light weaknesses in disaster preparedness and response plans. Despite the existence of recent hazard maps and lahar inundation models (2001), and the occurrence of a similar, deadly event in 1934, the population appeared to be unaware of the risk, and lacked the organization and decision-making protocols to adequately deal with the emergency. Therefore, in the aftermath of the 2009 lahars, much of the focus on disaster risk reduction (DRR) initiatives has been aimed at the communities affected by this most recent event. Our study examines root causes of social vulnerability and assesses the apparent impacts of these interventions on the population, including individual's perceptions regarding these risk-reducing interventions. Two years after the event, though aid abounds, many people remain vulnerable to hazards in this area. Semi-structured interviews were completed with survivors of the 2009

  20. Zoonotic potential of multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli obtained from healthy poultry carcasses in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Martins, Liliane Vilela; Nascimento, Danielle Cristina de Oliveira; Ventura, Roberta Ferreira; Batista, Jacqueline Ellen Camelo; Silva, Ayrles Fernanda Brandão; Ralph, Maria Taciana; Vaz, Renata Valença; Rabello, Carlos Boa-Viagem; Silva, Isabella de Matos Mendes da; Evêncio-Neto, Joaquim

    2013-01-01

    The zoonotic potential to cause human and/or animal infections among multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli from avian origin was investigated. Twenty-seven extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli isolates containing the increased survival gene (iss) were obtained from the livers of healthy and diseased poultry carcasses at two slaughterhouses in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. The antimicrobial resistance-susceptibility profiles were conducted with antibiotics of avian and/or human use by the standardized disc-diffusion method. Antimicrobial resistance was higher for levofloxacin (51.8%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (70.4%), ampicillin (81.5%), cefalotin (88.8%), tetracycline (100%) and streptomycin (100%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations above the resistance breakpoints of doxycycline, neomycin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin reached, respectively, 88.0%, 100%, 75% and 91.7% of the isolates. Strains with high and low antimicrobial resistance were i.p. administered to Swiss mice, and histopathological examination was carried out seven days after infection. Resistance to goat and human serum complement was also evaluated. The results show that Swiss mice challenged with strain 2B (resistant to 11 antimicrobials) provoked a severe degeneration of hepatocytes besides lymphocytic infiltration in the liver, whereas the spleen showed areas of degeneration of the white and red pulp. Conversely, the spleen and liver of mice challenged with strain 4A (resistant to two antimicrobials) were morphologically preserved. In addition, complement resistance to goat and human serum was high for strain 2B and low for strain 4A. Our data show that multidrug resistance and pathogenesis can be correlated in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli strains obtained from apparently healthy poultry carcasses, increasing the risk for human public healthy.

  1. Assessment of earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility in El Salvador based on an Artificial Neural Network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Rodríguez, M. J.; Malpica, J. A.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents an approach for assessing earthquake-triggered landslide susceptibility using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The computational method used for the training process is a back-propagation learning algorithm. It is applied to El Salvador, one of the most seismically active regions in Central America, where the last severe destructive earthquakes occurred on 13 January 2001 (Mw 7.7) and 13 February 2001 (Mw 6.6). The first one triggered more than 600 landslides (including the most tragic, Las Colinas landslide) and killed at least 844 people. The ANN is designed and programmed to develop landslide susceptibility analysis techniques at a regional scale. This approach uses an inventory of landslides and different parameters of slope instability: slope gradient, elevation, aspect, mean annual precipitation, lithology, land use, and terrain roughness. The information obtained from ANN is then used by a Geographic Information System (GIS) to map the landslide susceptibility. In a previous work, a Logistic Regression (LR) was analysed with the same parameters considered in the ANN as independent variables and the occurrence or non-occurrence of landslides as dependent variables. As a result, the logistic approach determined the importance of terrain roughness and soil type as key factors within the model. The results of the landslide susceptibility analysis with ANN are checked using landslide location data. These results show a high concordance between the landslide inventory and the high susceptibility estimated zone. Finally, a comparative analysis of the ANN and LR models are made. The advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are discussed using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves.

  2. Tectonic interpretation of the 13 february 2001, mw 6.6, El Salvador Earthquake: New evidences of coseismic surface rupture and paleoseismic activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Diaz, J. J.; Canora, C.; Villamor, P.; Capote, R.; Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Berryman, K.; Bejar, M.; Tsige, M.

    2009-04-01

    In February 2001 a major strike slip earthquake stroke the central part of El Salvador causing hundreds of people killed, thousands injured and extensive damage. After this event the scientific effort was mainly focused on the study of the enormous and catastrophic landslides triggered by this event and no evidences of surface faulting were detected. This earthquake was produced by the reactivation of the Ilopango-San Vicente segment of the El Salvador Fault Zone. Recently, a surface rupture displacement on the ground was identified. The analysis of aerial and field photographs taken few hours after the event and the mapping of the conserved ground structures shows a pure strike-slip displacement ranging from 20 to 50 cm, with secondary features indicating dextral shearing. The paleoseismic analysis made through the excavation of six trenches and Radiocarbon dating indicate a minimum slip rate of 2.0 mm/yr and a recurrence of major ruptures (Mw > 6.5) lower than 500 yr. These evidences give interesting local data to increase our understanding about the tectonic behavior and the way how active deformation develops along the northern limit of the forearc sliver related to the Centroamerican subduction area.

  3. Initial Analysis of Inner Crater Eruptive Deposits and Modeling of the 2005 Eruption of Ilamatepec (Santa Ana) Volcano, El Salvador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Hackert, B.; Bajo, J. V.; Escobar, D.; Gutierrez, E.

    2011-12-01

    The October 1st, 2005 eruption of Ilamatepec Volcano, also known as Santa Ana Volcano in El Salvador, Central America, was a relatively small phreatic possibly phreatomagmatic eruption that generated an approximately 10km high ash column, with a volume of 1.5 million cubic meters. It generated small pyroclastic density currents, and shortly after the eruption a hot lahar. All of these volcanic products present grat danger to the surrounding population and the surrounding fertile lands growing coffe and sugar cane, the major export products. To better understand the eruptive behavior of this active composite volcano, older deposits need to be studied. An initial analysis of the inner crater eruptive deposits was undertaken in 2011. The many layers that can be seen within the crater suggest that Santa Ana volcano alternates its eruptions from phreatic to phreatomagmatic to magmatic, back to phreatomagmatic to phreatic with a period of rest in between. The last magmatic eruption of the Santa Ana Volcano took place in 1904. There are some historical records of it, and the scoracious materials and lava flows can still be well traced on the flanks and the crater of Ilamatepec, while the 2005 eruption has been eroded away in most areas of the flanks. Observations and data collected in 2005 and 2011 indicate that pyroclastic density currents went not only to the Southeastern flanks of the volcano, but also towards the Northwestern flanks, an area behind the highest rim of the volcano. Deposits up to 0.5 m were found in 2011, after significant erosion already had taken place. We present here the partial stratigraphic column taken within the inner crater walls that indicate alternating eruption styles from eruptions well pre-1904, with radiocarbon dating pending. Additionally, we show the results of the modeling of pyroclastic deposits, and lahars using Titan2D on DEMs extracted from the only topographic map (pre-1980) which has a 10 m resolution of the volcano, and a DEM

  4. Dyslipidemia, Diet and Physical Exercise in Children on Treatment With Antiretroviral Medication in El Salvador: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sonego, Michela; Sagrado, Maria José; Escobar, Gustavo; Lazzerini, Marzia; Rivas, Estefanie; Martín-Cañavate, Rocio; Pérez de López, Elsy; Ayala, Sandra; Castaneda, Luis; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dyslipidemias are common in HIV-infected children, especially if treated with protease inhibitors, but there are few data on how to treat dyslipidemias in this population. We estimated the dyslipidemia prevalence and its association with treatment, diet and physical exercise in children on antiretroviral treatment at the El Salvador reference center for pediatric HIV care (CENID). Methods: Information was gathered regarding socio-demographic characteristics, treatment, diet and physical activity of 173 children aged 5–18 years and receiving antiretroviral therapy. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), viral load and CD4 T-lymphocytes were measured. Abnormal concentrations were defined as triglycerides ≥130 mg/dL in 10- to 18-year olds and ≥100 mg/dL in <10-year olds; total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL; LDL-C ≥130 mg/dL and HDL-C ≤35 mg/dL. We adjusted 4 different multivariate models to assess the independent association of each type of dyslipidemia with protease inhibitors, diet and physical exercise. Results: Of the 173 children, 83 (48%) had hypertriglyceridemia and 25 (14.5%) hypercholesterolemia. High LDL-C concentrations were observed in 17 children (9.8%) and low HDL-C in 38 (22%). Treatment with protease inhibitors was significantly associated with hypertriglyceridemia [prevalence ratio (PR) 2.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0–3.8] and hypercholesterolemia (PR 9.0; 95% CI: 3.6–22.2). Higher adherence to a “high fat/sugar diet” was associated with hypercholesterolemia (PR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1–2.3) and high LDL-C (PR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0–2.9). Compared with those exercising <3 times/week, children exercising ≥7 times were less likely to have low HDL-C (PR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2–0.7). Conclusions: These results suggest that a healthy diet and exercise habits can contribute to controlling some aspects of the lipid profile in this population. PMID:27254031

  5. A descriptive study of youth risk behavior in urban and rural secondary school students in El Salvador

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Andrew E; Selwyn, BJ; Kelder, Steven H

    2006-01-01

    Background Adolescence is an important stage of life for establishing healthy behaviors, attitudes, and lifestyles that contribute to current and future health. Health risk behavior is one indicator of health of young people that may serve both as a measure of health over time as well as a target for health policies and programs. This study examined the prevalence and distribution of youth health risk behaviors from five risk behavior domains–aggression, victimization, depression and suicidal ideation, substance use, and sexual behaviors–among public secondary school students in central El Salvador. Methods We employed a multi-stage sampling design in which school districts, schools, and classrooms were randomly selected. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire based on the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention's Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Sixteen schools and 982 students aged 12–20 years participated in the study. Results Health risk behaviors with highest prevalence rates included: engagement in physical fight (32.1%); threatened/injured with a weapon (19.9%); feelings of sadness/hopelessness (32.2%); current cigarette use (13.6%); and no condom use at last sexual intercourse (69.1%). Urban and male students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of most youth risk behaviors; female students reported statistically significant higher prevalence of feelings of sadness/hopelessness (35.6%), suicidal ideation (17.9%) and, among the sexually experienced, forced sexual intercourse (20.6%). Conclusion A high percentage of Salvadoran adolescents in this sample engaged in health risk behaviors, warranting enhanced adolescent health promotion strategies. Future health promotion efforts should target: the young age of sexual intercourse as well as low condom use among students, the higher prevalence of risk behaviors among urban students, and the important gender differences in risk behaviors, including the higher

  6. Osteoporosis-related life habits and knowledge about osteoporosis among women in El Salvador: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Rauda, Roberto; Martinez-Garcia, Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder, characterized by reduced bone mass, deterioration of bone structure, increased bone fragility, and increased fracture risk. It is more frequent to find among women than men at a 4:1 ratio. Evidence suggests that to adopt changes on some life habits can prevent or delay development of osteoporosis. Several osteoporosis-risk factors have been confirmed in the US and western Europe, but in El Salvador there are neither reliable epidemiological statistics about this skeletal disorder nor studies addressing osteoporosis-risk factors in women. The aim of this study was to determinate the extent of osteoporosis knowledge, the levels of both daily calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity, and the influence of several osteoporosis-risk factors on these variables in three age groups of Salvadorean women. Methods In this exploratory cross-sectional study, an osteoporosis knowledge assessment questionnaire incluiding a food frequency and a physical activity record section were used to collect data and it was delivered through a face-to-face interview. A convenience sample (n = 197) comprised of three groups of women aged 25–35 years, 36–49 years, and over 49 years was taken. Among-group comparisons of means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. To determinate the overall influence of osteoporosis-risk factors, the multivariate analysis was used. Results Study results indicated that better educated women had more knowledge about osteoporosis than women with a low education level, regardless of age, even though this knowledge was rather fair. Older women got more weight-bearing physical activity at home and less at place of employment than reported by the younger women; however, neither group performed sufficient high-intensity WBPA to improve bone mass. Regardless of age, the most women consumed 60% or less than the Dietary Reference Intake of calcium and depend on household income, lactose intolerance and coffee

  7. [Building bridges: interdisciplinarity in practice. PopTrans Study: a study with transvestites and transsexual women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Dourado, Ines; Silva, Luís Augusto V da; Magno, Laio; Lopes, Maycon; Cerqueira, Caio; Prates, Adriana; Brignol, Sandra; MacCarthy, Sarah

    2016-10-10

    Trans persons, including transvestites and transsexual women, show disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates when compared to the rest of the population. However, few quantitative/qualitative studies have addressed trans persons in Brazil. Thus, a team of researchers from different fields is developing an interdisciplinary research project with the objective of shedding light on living conditions and ways of life among transvestites and transsexual women, while investigating determinant factors for HIV infection, syphilis, and hepatitis B and C. The article is intended to describe the experience with the implementation and development of an ethno-epidemiological study in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Mapping the population began with a formative survey that was crucial for orienting the epidemiological survey. The production of ethno-epidemiological data posed a daily challenge for the researchers, triggering a series of reflections on the limits of our concepts and categories for translating the diversity of study participants' practices and experiences.

  8. Use of strontium isotopes to constrain the timing and mode of dolomitization of upper Cenozoic sediments in a core from San Salvador, Bahamas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swart, Peter K.; Ruiz, Joaquin; Holmes, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    The 87Sr/86Sr ratios and the activity ratios of 234U/238U and 230Th/238U have been measured in dolomites from a 168-m-deep core taken on the island of San Salvador, Bahamas. These data suggest two periods of dolomitization. The first episode dolomitized Miocene age sediments during the latest Miocene, and the second dolomitized the Pliocene portion of the core and was still active as recently as 150 ka. The late timing of the second episode argues against penecontemporaneous models of dolomitization for the Pliocene sediments. Instead, dolomitization is favored either as a result of mixing-zone development during the large Pleistocene sea-level changes or by movement of seawater through the platform.

  9. Social networks of men who have sex with men: a study of recruitment chains using Respondent Driven Sampling in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brignol, Sandra Mara Silva; Dourado, Inês; Amorim, Leila Denise; Miranda, José Garcia Vivas; Kerr, Lígia R F S

    2015-11-01

    Social and sexual contact networks between men who have sex with men (MSM) play an important role in understanding the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). In Salvador (Bahia State, Brazil), one of the cities in the survey Behavior, Attitudes, Practices, and Prevalence of HIV and Syphilis among Men Who Have Sex with Men in 10 Brazilian Cities, data were collected in 2008/2009 from a sample of 383 MSM using Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Network analysis was used to study friendship networks and sexual partner networks. The study also focused on the association between the number of links (degree) and the number of sexual partners, in addition to socio-demographic characteristics. The networks' structure potentially facilitates HIV transmission. However, the same networks can also be used to spread messages on STI/HIV prevention, since the proximity and similarity of MSM in these networks can encourage behavior change and positive attitudes towards prevention.

  10. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  11. Tectonic fabric revealed by AARM of the proterozoic mafic dike swarm in the Salvador city (Bahia State): São Francisco Craton, NE Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, M. Irene B.; Berquó, Thelma S.

    2008-04-01

    Magnetic fabric and rock magnetism studies were performed on 25 unmetamorphosed mafic dikes of the Meso-Late Proterozoic (˜1.02 Ga) dike swarm from Salvador (Bahia State, NE Brazil). This area lies in the north-eastern part of the São Francisco Craton, which was dominantly formed/reworked during the Transamazonian orogeny (2.14-1.94 Ga). The dikes crop out along the beaches and in quarries around Salvador city, and cut across both amphibolite dikes and granulites. Their widths range from a few centimeters up to 30 m with an average of ˜4 m, and show two main trends N140-190 and N100-120 with vertical dips. Magnetic fabrics were determined using both anisotropy of low-field magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). The magnetic mineralogy was investigated by many experiments including remanent magnetization measurements at variable low temperatures (10-300 K), Mössbauer spectroscopy, high temperature magnetization curves (25-700 °C) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The rock magnetism study suggests pseudo-single-domain magnetite grains carrying the bulk magnetic susceptibility and AARM fabrics. The magnetite grains found in these dikes are large and we discard the presence of single-domain grains. Its composition is close to stoichiometric with low Ti substitution, and its Verwey transition occurs around 120 K. The main AMS fabric recognized in the swarm is so-called normal, in which the Kmax- Kint plane is parallel to the dike plane and the magnetic foliation pole ( Kmin) is perpendicular to it. This fabric is interpreted as due to magma flow, and analysis of the Kmax inclination permitted to infer that approximately 80% of the dikes were fed by horizontal or sub-horizontal flows ( Kmax < 30°). This interpretation is supported by structural field evidence found in five dikes. In addition, based on the plunge of Kmax, two mantle sources could be inferred; one of them which fed about 80% of the swarm

  12. ["Where there's a woman, there's a Pap smear": the meanings assigned to cervical cancer prevention among women in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Rico, Ana María; Iriart, Jorge Alberto Bernstein

    2013-09-01

    This study focuses on the meanings assigned to practices for cervical cancer prevention among women from low-income neighborhoods in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This was a qualitative study based on content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 15 women 24 to 68 years of age. The results showed high appreciation of the Pap smear test, performed as part of routine gynecological examination (but without the patient necessarily having biomedical knowledge of its role). Besides accessibility and quality of health services, other factors influence the way the women assign meaning to cervical cancer prevention. Moral values associated with sexuality and gender influence risk perception, adoption of preventive practices, and interpretation of cervical cytology results. The ongoing practice of the Pap smear test is part of the construction of femininity, which is associated with maturity and personal responsibility for self care in a context of medicalization of the female body.

  13. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  14. Probing The Buried Remains of The Todos los Santos, City of San Salvador in Hoping Island with Shallow Subsurface Geophysics Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yi-fan; Chang, Pin-yu; Eugenio Borao Mateo, José

    2013-04-01

    The study in ancient sites with GPR is widely documented over several decades. This non-invasive geophysical method provides a rapid measure for anthropogenic objects and therefore serves as a guide for possible excavation for the next stage of archaeological surveys. City of San Salvador, which is a Dutch colonial city consisted of fortress, hospitals and churches in 17 century, is located in the Hoping Island in Keelung, Taiwan. The fortress and its affiliated structures were abandoned and left collapsing since the mid-17th century. Some relics of the fortress wall were still remained until the early 20th century but the fast development projects in the island has caused the relics demolished or buried under building or road pavements. Many wells and bones have been found around the area belong to over three hundred years ago. As a consequence, the government initiated a new excavation project at the parking lot where the ancient convent of Todos los Santos is believed since 2011 in order to find the remains of the convent in city of San Salvador. Meanwhile we have surveyed with GPR to help guiding the excavation location. In this case, we surveyed with wide-angle-refraction/reflection (WARR) of GPR as well as common-offset array, to compensate the defect of traditional common-offset of lack of longitudinal resolution with velocity profile, and the combination of velocity profile and common-offset data helped distinguish the signals from other noises and further located the position of subsurface structures. After data analysis and numerical modeling of the buried materials, we have located the possible remains of walls of the convent or other structures around 0.9 to 1.3 meters in depth that can offer useful information to better plan the archaeological excavations.

  15. Gazetteer of El Salvador,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    ND16 1L) Hacienda La Poza PPL 13 20’N 88 30W ESI4 CK37 ND6-10 Itaciend, ,t ulh, see La Puebla PPL 13 55’N 89 19 W ES05 BL43 ND16.09 /I n(l, /, Is -l...8933’W ES05 BK29 ND16-09 La Providencia, Rio STMI 13󈧢’N 89-33’W ES05 BK29 N016-09 La Puebla PPL 13-55’N 8919’W ES05 BL43 ND16-09 La Puente PPL 13󈧹’N...ND16-69 Las Visiones , Cerro MT 14 06’N 89 20W ES03 BL45 ND15-05 Las Vueltas PPL 14-06’N 8853’W ES03 BL95 ND 16-05 Las Vueltas. Municipio de ADM3 14 06’N

  16. Gangs in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    laws for juvenile legislation establish that young people under 15 are not criminally responsible. They should not be held criminally responsible...the juvenile offenders law to guarantee their judicial treatment when they commit serious crimes, even though they were or not related to gangs...corrupt officials from the judiciary and prosecution, tougher sentences , executing anti- gang laws against under-age individuals’ parents who break the law

  17. Caller Characteristics, Call Contents, and Types of Assistance Provided by Caller Sex and Age Group in a Canadian Inuit Crisis Line in Nunavut, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Josephine C. H.; Maranzan, Kathryn Amanda; Boone, Margaret; Vander Velde, John; Levy, Sheila

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of calls made to a northern Canadian Inuit crisis line in the territory of Nunavut between 1991 and 2001 revealed that the majority of users were adult females who called to discuss problems primarily related to relationships and loneliness/boredom. Younger callers tended to make prank calls. The volunteer staff used mostly empathetic…

  18. Are health inequalities between differently deprived areas evident at different ages? A longitudinal study of census records in England and Wales, 1991-2001.

    PubMed

    Norman, Paul; Boyle, Paul

    2014-03-01

    The notion that mortality inequalities between differently deprived areas vary by age is logical since not all causes of death increase in risk with age and not all causes of death are related to the gradient of deprivation. In addition to the cause-age and cause-deprivation relationships, population migration may redistribute the population such that the health-deprivation relationship varies by age. We calculate cross-sectional all cause mortality and self-reported limiting long-term illness (LLTI) rate ratios of most to least deprived areas to demonstrate inequalities at different ages. We use longitudinal data to investigate whether there are changes in the distribution of cohorts between differently deprived areas over time and whether gradients of LLTI with deprivation also change. We find similar deprivation inequalities by age for all cause mortality and self-reported health with less inequality for young adults and the elderly but the greatest inequalities during mid life. Over time there are systematic movements of cohorts between differently deprived areas and associated increases and decreases in the gradient of LLTI across deprivation. It seems likely that population migration does influence inequalities by age. Further work should investigate whether the situation exists for other morbidities and, to better inform public health policy, whether restricting summary measures of area health to ages between 30 and 60 when inequalities are greatest will highlight between area differences.

  19. Is There a Home Advantage in School Readiness for Young Children? Trends in Parent Engagement in Cognitive Activities with Young Children, 1991-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaub, Maryellen

    2015-01-01

    The desire to understand the "home advantage" has spurred a large body of research describing the contribution of differences in family background and parenting styles to school readiness and the achievement gap. Using the National Household Education Survey at two time points provides a fuller picture of the trends in parenting and…

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Bacterial Vaginosis and Other Vulvovaginitis in a Population of Sexually Active Adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and other vulvovaginitis in a population of sexually active adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth Moreira; Machado, Márcia Sacramento Cunha; Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando Borges da; Pimentel, Rodrigo Fernandes Weyll; Ferreira, Tatiana Teixeira; Leoni, Fernanda Maria Silva; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12-28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14-30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.

  2. [Dental caries in 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, in 2001].

    PubMed

    Cangussu, Maria Cristina Teixeira; Castellanos, Roberto Augusto; Pinheiro, Márcia Farias; de Albuquerque, Silvana Rodrigues; Pinho, Cristina

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the caries experience of 12- and 15-year-old schoolchildren from public and private schools in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, and to identify the access of children to dental services and the coverage of such services, which might be related to differences between the groups. Cross-sectional data were obtained from 3,313 clinical exams, which followed the WHO (1997) criteria for the diagnosis of dental caries. The analysis was carried out by means of the Student's t test, the chi-square test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences regarding DMFT and frequency of caries-free individuals between public and private schools. However, while F (filled teeth) was the most prevalent component of the index in subjects from private schools, M (missing teeth) was the most common in those from public schools. The access to dental services in the last year was the only variable associated to the differences between both groups. Thus, the importance of access to dental services and social benefits must be pointed out in order to guarantee equity in oral health.

  3. [Trap-nests used by Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Centridini) at secondary Atlantic Forest fragments, in Salvador, Bahia State].

    PubMed

    Drummont, Patrícia; Silva, Fabiana O da; Viana, Blandina F

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-five nests of Centris (Heterocentris) terminata Smith were collected in trap-nests, during November/2001 and January/2003, at two fragments (PZGV e CFO-UFBA) of secondary Atlantic Forest, in Salvador, Bahia State (13 degrees 01' W e 38 degrees 30' S). The highest nest frequencies occurred from December to February (summer), with no nests foundations from August to October (winter - early spring). Two-hundred eight adults emerged from 347 brood cells, being 164 males and 116 females (1: 0.42). During the study period sex ratio was male biased (chi2 = 9.342; gl = 10; P < 0.05). C. terminata nested in holes with diameters 6, 8, 10 mm, but 84,2% were constructed in 8 and 10 mm. nests had one to seven cells arranged in a linear series with the cells partitions built with a mixture of sand and resin or oil. Male is significantly smaller than female, which emerges from the first cells constructed. Immature mortality occurred in 14.1% of brood cells (n = 49), of which 13.0% were due fail in development and 1.2% due to parasitism of Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) e Tetraonyx sp. (Coleoptera: Meloidae). In the study site, weather, mainly pluviosity, rather than natural enemies influenced seasonal population abundance. The long period of nesting activity, local abundance and usage of trap nests, suggest the potential of C. terminata for management aiming at pollination of native and cultivated plants.

  4. [Prevalence of pre-hypertension and arterial hypertension and evaluation of associated factors in children and adolescents in public schools in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Pinto, Sônia Lopes; Silva, Rita de Cássia Ribeiro; Priore, Silvia Eloíza; Assis, Ana Marlúcia Oliveira; Pinto, Elizabete de Jesus

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to assess pre-hypertension and hypertension-related factors in 1,125 seven- to-14-year-old subjects enrolled in the public school system in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. Exposure variables, namely body mass index, waist circumference, gender, age, physical activity, environmental and housing status, family income, diet, schooling, and maternal age were analyzed by polytomous logistic regression, and the outcome variable was categorized as normal, pre-hypertensive, and hypertensive. Prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.1%, including the prevalence of both hypertension (4.8%) and pre-hypertension (9.3%). An association was shown between pre-hypertension and overweight (OR: 3.13; 95%CI: 1.75-5.57). Hypertension was associated with overweight (OR: 3.02; 95%CI: 1.45-6.28), female gender (OR: 2.49; 95%CI: 1.24-4.98), and high-risk eating patterns (OR: 1.93; 95%CI: 1.04-3.56). In short, prevalence of pre-hypertension and hypertension in children and adolescents was higher among girls and individuals with overweight and inadequate diet.

  5. Integration of land-sharing and land-sparing conservation strategies through regional networking: the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor as a lifeline for carnivores in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Crespin, Silvio J; García-Villalta, Jorge E

    2014-10-01

    Nations with little remaining natural habitat and small extent are challenged when trying to achieve biodiversity targets. We show that the Central American nation of El Salvador cannot viably sustain populations of 87 % of its extant carnivores, especially in the case of large-bodied species with low population densities. Current land-sparing strategies will not suffice; therefore we propose that land-sharing strategies be implemented in tandem with protected areas to expand current conservation efforts via new regional networks. In Central America such a network can be established by linking international protected area systems in a way that implements the existing vision for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. Specifically, we propose a re-envisioning of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor in which land-sharing practices are adopted throughout the agricultural matrix while ensuring formal protection of the remaining natural habitat. Such an integration of land-sparing and land-sharing could result in the creation of an effective network of protected areas, thereby increasing the probability of safeguarding species with populations that overlap national borders.

  6. A conserved serine residue regulates the stability of Drosophila Salvador and human WW domain-containing adaptor 45 through proteasomal degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Di Wu, Shian

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Ser-17 is key for the stability of Drosophila Sav. •Ala mutation of Ser-17 promotes the proteasomal degradation of Sav. •Ser-17 residue is not the main target of Hpo-induced Sav stabilization. •Hpo-dependent and -independent mechanisms regulate Sav stability. •This mechanism is conserved in the homologue of Sav, human WW45. -- Abstract: The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a conserved tumor suppressor pathway that controls organ size through the coordinated regulation of apoptosis and proliferation. Drosophila Salvador (Sav), which limits organ size, is a core component of the Hpo pathway. In this study, Ser-17 was shown to be important for the stability of Sav. Alanine mutation of Ser-17 promoted the proteasomal degradation of Sav. Destabilization and stabilization of the Sav protein mediated by alanine mutation of Ser-17 and by Hpo, respectively, were independent of each other. This implies that the stability of Sav is controlled by two mechanisms, one that is Ser-17-dependent and Hpo-independent, and another that is Ser-17-independent and Hpo-dependent. These dual mechanisms also regulated the human counterpart of Drosophila Sav, WW domain-containing adaptor 45 (WW45). The conservation of this regulation adds to its significance in normal physiology and tumorigenesis.

  7. [What patients think of the services of the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán"].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-González, C; Vargas-Vorácková, F; Castillo-Rentería, C; Pérez Pimentel, L; Martínez Mata, R A

    1990-01-01

    The quality of care has always been a subject of interest to the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición "Salvador Zubirán", in order to improve its services. This interest led to the present survey which aims to evaluate the patient's global satisfaction and to identify specific problems susceptible of improvement. One hundred and seventy-one patients or relatives attending eight different services of the Institute were interviewed. Opinions about the following aspects were explored by means of service-specific questionnaires: sociodemographic characteristics, satisfaction with care, waiting periods, patient-personnel relationship, hospital environment, food quality, drug availability and costs. Results of the survey show a high level of satisfaction with the services provided, i.e. 33% of the patients considered it good, and 64% excellent. However, and in agreement with other reports, this high level of satisfaction does not necessarily reflect an absence of problems, i.e. long waiting periods, insufficient restrooms, failures in getting information about their health status, and occasional absence of drugs in the pharmacy were identified. Continuation of this kind of surveys in our setting leads not only to the identification of problems, but also to the evaluation of the impact that resulting measures may have on the patient's satisfaction.

  8. [Clinico-pathological diagnostic agreement among 429 autopsies from the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán].

    PubMed

    Angeles-Angeles, A; Quintanilla Martínez, L; Muñoz Fernández, L; Espinoza Vázquez, B; Victoría Peralta, P

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of clinical and autopsy findings of the cases studied between 1984 and 1988, were made at the Department of Pathology of the Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran in Mexico City. The goal was to determine the accuracy of clinical diagnoses. The total number of cases was 429. A decreasing number of autopsies as a function of time was observed. Thus, in 1985, 34.65% of the deaths was autopsied, whereas in 1988, the number dropped to 21.16%, overall mean of 27.31%. In 229 autopsies (53.8%), 353 findings of clinical significance were found; of these, 86 were in the main diagnoses and 267 in the causes of death. There were 171 overdiagnoses with therapeutic implications, 38 in the main diagnoses and 133 in the causes of death. Overdiagnoses and underdiagnoses were most common in infectious diseases, followed by respiratory and digestive diseases, while endocrinologic and rheumatologic diseases had the highest diagnostic concordance. It was also found that the diagnostic accuracy did not improve with time of hospitalization. A brief analyses of the probable causes of the decrease in the number of autopsies is made. It is concluded that, in spite of the great advances in clinical and technological knowledge, the high frequency of disagreements between clinical and anatomical diagnoses, indicate that autopsy continues playing a key role in the quality control of medical practice. This justifies by itself the performance of necropsies.

  9. The unrest of the San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Hernandez, Douglas Antonio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Handal, Louis; Polío, Cecilia; Rapisarda, Salvatore; Scarlato, Piergiorgio

    2016-08-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of San Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a column more than 9 km high and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic density currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force, made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multiparametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors (designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes) and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were colocated into multiparametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  10. Emission of gas and atmospheric dispersion of SO2 during the December 2013 eruption at San Miguel volcano (El Salvador, Central America)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granieri, Domenico; Salerno, Giuseppe; Liuzzo, Marco; La Spina, Alessandro; Giuffrida, Giovanni; Caltabiano, Tommaso; Giudice, Gaetano; Gutierrez, Eduardo; Montalvo, Francisco; Burton, Michael R.; Papale, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    San Miguel volcano, El Salvador, erupted on 29 December 2013, after a 46 year period characterized by weak activity. Prior to the eruption a trend of increasing SO2 emission rate was observed, with all values measured after mid-November greater than the average value of the previous year (~310 t d-1). During the eruption, SO2 emissions increased from the level of ~330 t d-1 to 2200 t d-1, dropping after the eruption to an average level of 680 t d-1. Wind measurements and SO2 emission rates during the preeruptive, syneruptive, and posteruptive stages were used to model SO2 dispersion around the volcano. Atmospheric SO2 concentration exceeded the dangerous threshold of 5 ppm in the crater region and in some sectors with medium elevation of the highly visited volcanic cone. Combining the SO2 emission rate with measured CO2/SO2, HCl/SO2, and HF/SO2 plume gas ratios, we estimate the CO2, HCl, and HF outputs for the first time on this volcano.

  11. Fidelity of rocky intertidal mollusks in subtidal death assemblages to their counterpart life assemblages: a case study in San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Ramos, Diego A.

    2016-04-01

    Rocky shores preserved in the geological record were rarely reported until a couple of decades ago. Even today, most of the literature focuses on bioerosional features in these high-energy environments due to their higher fossilization potential relative to shell material. Hard parts of taxa adapted to intertidal rocky shores may be preserved as allochthonous material in death assemblages (DAs) formed in adjacent shallow subtidal habitats due to lateral mixing. To test if life assemblages (LAs) of rocky intertidal mollusks (RIM) are faithfully recorded in shallow subtidal DAs, two ~30 m long transects across a proximal-distal gradient were studied on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. These transects encompass a proximal ripple field which grades into a facies dominated by green algae, and a distal ripple field. A total of 22 bulk samples, representing 155 liters of sediment, were wet-sieved with a 2-mm mesh. The samples yielded 528 RIM shells representing 15 species. Unexpectedly, abundance and compositional similarity of RIM shells to counterpart LAs sharply peaks along a belt of lag deposits of coarse sands fringing proximal ripple fields, in transition to green algae communities. These results suggest that, although a substantial transport of intertidal shells takes place in shallow subtidal environments, the signal is diluted in background sediment composition even in close proximity to the shore (30 m), and significant concentrations (loosely packed) of RIM shells in subtidal DAs might be used as a proxy to pinpoint past rocky intertidal environments.

  12. [Robbers on board: exposure to violence, insecurity, and other health hazards among mass transportation workers and passengers in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Paes-Machado, Eduardo; Levenstein, Charles

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of violent crime on working conditions, health, and security for bus drivers and ticket takers in the mass transportation system in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. The research included 195 interviews with workers, labor union officials, passengers, management, and police. In the last ten years there have been 20,572 robberies in a fleet of 2,400 buses operated by 10,151 workers, with 67 deaths and more than US$500,000 in company losses. Perpetrators are typically poor, unemployed youths, the majority of whom first offenders, seeking easy money primarily for leisure pursuits. The average "take" from such robberies is minimal. The authors observed a pattern of bus robberies as a psychological power game which, for bus workers, apart from physical injuries and fatalities, generates fear, identity conflicts, tense relations with passengers, and labor conflicts involving the recovery of stolen fares and worker and passenger security issues. The article also outlines and evaluates the efficiency of security measures including the use of lethal force by police.

  13. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  14. The He-CO 2 isotope and relative abundance characteristics of geothermal fluids in El Salvador and Honduras: New constraints on volatile mass balance of the Central American Volcanic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leeuw, G. A. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Fischer, T. P.; Walker, J. A.

    2007-06-01

    We report helium and carbon isotope and relative abundance data of fumaroles, hot springs, water springs, mud-pots and geothermal wells from El Salvador and Honduras to investigate both along and across-arc controls on the release of CO 2 from the subducted slab. El Salvador localities show typical volcanic front volcanic gas signatures, with 3He/ 4He ratios of 5.2-7.6 RA, δ13C values of - 3.6‰ to - 1.3‰ and CO 2/ 3He ratios of 8-25 × 10 9. In Honduras, we find similar values only for volatiles collected in the Sula Graben region located ˜ 200 km behind the volcanic front. All other areas in Honduras show significantly lower 3He/ 4He ratios (0.7-3.5 RA), lower δ13C values (< - 7.3‰) and more variable CO 2/ 3He ratios (6.2 × 10 7-2.0 × 10 11): characteristics consistent with degassing-induced fractionation of CO 2 and He and/or interaction with crustal rocks. The provenance of CO 2 released along the volcanic front is dominated by subducted marine carbonates (L = 76 ± 4%) and organic sediments (S = 14 ± 3%), with the mantle wedge (M) contributing 10 ± 3% to the total carbon flux. The L/S ratio of the El Salvador volatiles (average = 5.6) is comparable to volcanic front localities in Costa Rica and Nicaragua [A.M. Shaw, D.R. Hilton, T.P. Fischer, L.A. Walker, G.E. Alvarado, Contrasting He-C relationships in Nicaragua and Costa Rica: insights into C cycling through subduction zones. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 214 (2003) 499-513] but is approximately one-half the input value of sediments at the trench (L. Li, G.E. Bebout, Carbon and nitrogen geochemistry of sediments in the Central American convergent margin: Insights regarding subduction input fluxes, diagenesis, and paleoproductivity, J. Geophys. Res. 110 (2005), doi: 10.1029/2004JB003276). We use the L/S ratio of El Salvador geothermal fluids, together with estimates of the CO 2 output flux from the arc, to constrain the amount and composition of subducted sediments involved in the supply of CO 2 to the

  15. Developing and Transitioning Numerical Air Quality Models to Improve Air Quality and Public Health Decision-Making in El Salvador and Costa Rica As Part of the Servir Applied Sciences Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A.; Huff, A. K.; Gomori, S. G.; Sadoff, N.

    2014-12-01

    In order to enhance the capacity for air quality modeling and improve air quality monitoring and management in the SERVIR Mesoamerica region, members of SERVIR's Applied Sciences Team (AST) are developing national numerical air quality models for El Salvador and Costa Rica. We are working with stakeholders from the El Salvador Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources (MARN); National University of Costa Rica (UNA); the Costa Rica Ministry of the Environment, Energy, and Telecommunications (MINAET); and Costa Rica National Meteorological Institute (IMN), who are leaders in air quality monitoring and management in the Mesoamerica region. Focusing initially on these institutions will build sustainability in regional modeling activities by developing air quality modeling capability that can be shared with other countries in Mesoamerica. The air quality models are based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and incorporate meteorological inputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, as well as national emissions inventories from El Salvador and Costa Rica. The models are being optimized for urban air quality, which is a priority of decision-makers in Mesoamerica. Once experimental versions of the modeling systems are complete, they will be transitioned to servers run by stakeholders in El Salvador and Costa Rica. The numerical air quality models will provide decision support for stakeholders to identify 1) high-priority areas for expanding national ambient air monitoring networks, 2) needed revisions to national air quality regulations, and 3) gaps in national emissions inventories. This project illustrates SERVIR's goal of the transition of science to support decision-making through capacity building in Mesoamerica, and it aligns with the Group on Earth Observations' health societal benefit theme. This presentation will describe technical aspects of the development of the models and outline key steps in our successful

  16. Evolution of garnet distribution, shape and composition in high-grade pelitic migmatites of Salvador da Bahia, Brazil: insights from LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncalves, Philippe; Raimondo, Tom; Santos de Souza, Jailma

    2016-04-01

    Garnet is a widely used mineral in metamorphic petrology and more particularly for thermobarometric modelling to reconstruct the P-T-t evolution of Earth's crust. This is due to its ubiquity in high grade rocks (T > 450°C), its occurrence in many assemblages of interest for thermobarometry, and mostly to its ability to preserve chemical zoning. Two types of zoning are distinguished: growth and diffusion zoning. Growth zoning reflects crystallisation coeval with changes in P-T conditions or bulk composition. This type of zoning is therefore particularly useful to unravel the P-T evolution of open systems and determine the growth mechanisms involved. However, growth zoning in major elements is commonly altered by processes such as volume diffusion, which is particularly efficient at high temperatures and for elements like Fe or Mg that have high diffusion coefficients. In such cases, information that relates to the environmental conditions of garnet growth is either totally or partially obliterated. To minimise the impact of this process on growth zoning and retain useful information, trace elements are more appropriate because of their lower diffusion coefficients compared to major elements. In this study, the distribution of trace elements in garnet has been imaged using an emerging LA-ICP-MS mapping technique. This is achieved by rastering of the focused laser beam in linear transects, which are then stitched together by post-acquisition processing to form a quantified or semi-quantified image of the trace element distribution, with excellent detection limits (ppb) over a wide isotopic range (7Li to 238U) and minimal sample preparation required. This technique has been applied to high-grade pelitic gneisses and migmatites from the Paleoproterozoic Itabuna-Salvador-Curaça belt (adjacent to the Farol da Bara, Salvador da Bahia, Brazil). Structurally, it is located in a steeply-dipping high strain zone that may have played a major role in the segregation and

  17. The unrest of S. Miguel volcano (El Salvador, CA): installation of the monitoring network and observed volcano-tectonic ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, A.; Hernandez, D.; Gutiérrez, E.; Handal, L.; Polío, C.; Rapisarda, S.; Scarlato, P.

    2015-10-01

    On 29 December 2013, the Chaparrastique volcano in El Salvador, close to the town of S. Miguel, erupted suddenly with explosive force, forming a more than 9 km high column and projecting ballistic projectiles as far as 3 km away. Pyroclastic Density Currents flowed to the north-northwest side of the volcano, while tephras were dispersed northwest and north-northeast. This sudden eruption prompted the local Ministry of Environment to request cooperation with Italian scientists in order to improve the monitoring of the volcano during this unrest. A joint force made up of an Italian team from the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia and a local team from the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales was organized to enhance the volcanological, geophysical and geochemical monitoring system to study the evolution of the phenomenon during the crisis. The joint team quickly installed a multi-parametric mobile network comprising seismic, geodetic and geochemical sensors, designed to cover all the volcano flanks from the lowest to the highest possible altitudes, and a thermal camera. To simplify the logistics for a rapid installation and for security reasons, some sensors were co-located into multi-parametric stations. Here, we describe the prompt design and installation of the geodetic monitoring network, the processing and results. The installation of a new ground deformation network can be considered an important result by itself, while the detection of some crucial deforming areas is very significant information, useful for dealing with future threats and for further studies on this poorly monitored volcano.

  18. Programming the body, planning reproduction, governing life: the '(ir-) rationality' of family planning and the embodiment of social inequalities in Salvador da Bahia (Brazil).

    PubMed

    De Zordo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines family planning in Brazil as biopolitics and explores how the democratization of the State and of reproductive health services after two decades of military dictatorship (1964-1984) has influenced health professionals' and family planning users' discourses and practices. Do health professionals envisage family planning as a 'right' or do they conceive it, following the old neo-Malthusian rationale, as a 'moral duty' of poor people, whose 'irrational' reproduction jeopardizes the family's and the nation's well being? And how do their patients conceptualize and embody family planning? To answer these questions, this paper draws on 13 months of multi-sited ethnographic research undertaken between 2003 and 2005 in two public family planning services in Salvador da Bahia, where participant observation was undertaken and unstructured interviews were conducted with 11 health professionals and 70 family planning users, mostly low income black women. The paper examines how different bio-political rationalities operate in these services and argues that the old neo-Malthusian rationale and the current, dominant discourse on reproductive rights, gender equality and citizenship coexist. The coalescence of different biopolitical rationalities leads to the double stigmatization of family planning users as 'victims' of social and gender inequalities and as 'irrational' patients, 'irresponsible' mothers and 'bad' citizens if they do not embody the neo-Malthusian and biomedical rationales shaping medical practice. However, these women do not behave as 'docile bodies': they tactically use medical and non-medical contraceptives not only to be good mothers and citizens, but also to enhance themselves and to attain their own goals.

  19. The Influence of the Digital Divide on Face Preferences in El Salvador: People without Internet Access Prefer More Feminine Men, More Masculine Women, and Women with Higher Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18–25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries. PMID:25006801

  20. Factors affecting carriage and intensity of infection of Calodium hepaticum within Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from an urban slum environment in Salvador, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Walker, R; Carvalho-Pereira, T; Serrano, S; Pedra, G; Hacker, K; Taylor, J; Minter, A; Pertile, A; Panti-May, A; Carvalho, M; Souza, F N; Nery, N; Rodrigues, G; Bahiense, T; Reis, M G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Begon, M; Costa, F

    2017-01-01

    Urban slum environments in the tropics are conducive to the proliferation and the spread of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens to humans. Calodium hepaticum (Brancroft, 1893) is a zoonotic nematode known to infect a variety of mammalian hosts, including humans. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are considered the most important mammalian host of C. hepaticum and are therefore a potentially useful species to inform estimates of the risk to humans living in urban slum environments. There is a lack of studies systematically evaluating the role of demographic and environmental factors that influence both carriage and intensity of infection of C. hepaticum in rodents from urban slum areas within tropical regions. Carriage and the intensity of infection of C. hepaticum were studied in 402 Norway rats over a 2-year period in an urban slum in Salvador, Brazil. Overall, prevalence in Norway rats was 83% (337/402). Independent risk factors for C. hepaticum carriage in R. norvegicus were age and valley of capture. Of those infected the proportion with gross liver involvement (i.e. >75% of the liver affected, a proxy for a high level intensity of infection), was low (8%, 26/337). Sixty soil samples were collected from ten locations to estimate levels of environmental contamination and provide information on the potential risk to humans of contracting C. hepaticum from the environment. Sixty percent (6/10) of the sites were contaminated with C. hepaticum. High carriage levels of C. hepaticum within Norway rats and sub-standard living conditions within slum areas may increase the risk to humans of exposure to the infective eggs of C. hepaticum. This study supports the need for further studies to assess whether humans are becoming infected within this community and whether C. hepaticum is posing a significant risk to human health.

  1. The influence of the digital divide on face preferences in El Salvador: people without internet access prefer more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity.

    PubMed

    Batres, Carlota; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies on face preferences have found that online and laboratory experiments yield similar results with samples from developed countries, where the majority of the population has internet access. No study has yet explored whether the same holds true in developing countries, where the majority of the population does not have internet access. This gap in the literature has become increasingly important given that several online studies are now using cross-country comparisons. We therefore sought to determine if an online sample is representative of the population in the developing country of El Salvador. In studies of Hispanic men and women aged 18-25, we tested facial masculinity and adiposity preferences by collecting data in person as well as online. Our results showed that there were no differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access, whether they were tested online or in person. This provides evidence that testing style does not bias preferences among the same population. On the other hand, our results showed multiple differences in preferences between people who reported having internet access and people who reported not having internet access. More specifically, we found that people without internet access preferred more feminine men, more masculine women, and women with higher adiposity than people with internet access. We also found that people without internet access had fewer resources (e.g. running water) than people with internet access, suggesting that harshness in the environment may be influencing face preferences. These findings suggest that online studies may provide a distorted perspective of the populations in developing countries.

  2. Fossilization of nanobes studied by transmission electron microscopy and constraints related to their population - recent and late quaternary reefbanks (San Salvador Island, the Bahamas; Heron Island, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hladil, J.; Gemperle, A.; Carew, J. L.; Bosak, P.; Slavik, L.; Pruner, P.; Charvatova, K.; Mylroie, J. E.; Jell, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    SEM analyses of rocks from Blow Hole Cave and The Gulf sections (San Salvador Island, Bahamas) found that ca 90-95% of peloids (and minor parts of other particles and cements) are substantially rebuilt into tiny corpuscles of ovoid, rotund cylindrical or slightly bent shapes (50-80 × 60-120 nm). About 20-30% of them form short and branched chains. These fabrics resemble `accumulations of ant eggs', have 40-60% fine porosity, correspond to better morpho-definitions of nanobes (cons. by R.L. Folk, 2002), and put a new light on micritization processes. The rocks strongly rebuilt by nanobes negatively correlate with magnetic susceptibility, but slightly contribute to NGR (uranium, gamma-ray spectrometry). In spite of strongly negative correlation to magnetic horizons, the nanobes are also present there, but to a lesser extent. The suspensions with nanobes (extracted by pump from the pores of rocks preserved in glutaraldehyde) exhibit a variety of preservation stages - from amorphous organics to completely fossilized corpuscles (studied by TEM). Early stages of fossilization are characterized by a gradually increasing amount of very fine crystalline inclusions, which are triangular to tetragonal in shape, and 3-15 nm long (mean size ˜ 6 nm). The TEM diffractograms provided data about face-centered cubic structures of B1 type (NaCl-like), with strongest 2nd and 3rd reflections on 0.240 and 0.170 nm and mean lattice parameter of 0.4813 nm. The substance was clearly identified as CaO. The difference to 0.4802 nm (ICDD data for pure CaO) is explained by effects of impurities Sr (+) > Fe, Mn (-). The number of CaO inclusions fluctuates from a few to 5 × 104 / μ {m3}. The CaO nucleation is possible in natural necrotic high-pH low-Eh organic coagulates; but presence of glutaraldehyde can facilitate the process. Other fossilization stages show unstable amorphous to crystalline calcium carbonate, homogeneous aragonite and calcite, and calcite replacing aragonite along sharp

  3. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  4. Découverte de microfossiles au passage Dévonien Mississippien à San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexique): conséquences biogéographiques et géodynamiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachard, Daniel; Flores de Dios, Antonio

    2002-12-01

    Carbonate microfossils Petschoria (?), Kettnerammina, Kamaena, and Tolypammina (?) allow to biostratigraphically date the base of the sedimentary cover in San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla State, Mexico). They are indicative of the former Tournaisian, i.e. the Latest Devonian (Strunian) and the Earliest Mississippian Kinderhookian (= Hastarian). Deposits of this period are very poorly known in Mexico, and appear to be confined to a rift affecting only Patlanoaya, some areas of the Sonora and Chihuahua states (Mexico) and the Pedregosa Basin (New Mexico, USA). This rift is connected with the Rheic Ocean that opens, whereas the Antler Ocean is probably entirely closed in this period, as confirmed by the microfossil migration ways. To cite this article: D. Vachard, A. Flores de Dios, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 1095-1101.

  5. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  6. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  7. Frequent epigenetic inactivation of KIBRA, an upstream member of the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) tumor suppressor network, is associated with specific genetic event in B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hill, Victoria K; Dunwell, Thomas L; Catchpoole, Daniel; Krex, Dietmar; Brini, Anna T; Griffiths, Mike; Craddock, Charles; Maher, Eamonn R; Latif, Farida

    2011-03-01

    The WW-domain containing protein KIBRA has recently been identified as a new member of the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway in Drosophila and is shown to act as a tumor suppressor gene in Drosophila. This pathway is conserved in humans and members of the pathway have been shown to act as tumor suppressor genes in mammalian systems. We determined the methylation status of the 5' CpG island associated with the KIBRA gene in human cancers. In a large panel of cancer cell lines representing common epithelial cancers KIBRA was unmethylated. But in pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) cell lines KIBRA showed frequent hypermethylation and silencing of gene expression, which could be reversed by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In ALL patient samples KIBRA was methylated in 70% B-ALL but was methylated in < 20% T-ALL leukemia (p = 0.0019). In B-ALL KIBRA methylation was associated with ETV6/RUNX1 [t(12;21) (p13;q22)] chromosomal translocation (p = 0.0082) phenotype, suggesting that KIBRA may play an important role in t(12;21) leukemogenesis. In ALL paired samples at diagnosis and remission KIBRA methylation was seen in diagnostic but not in any of the remission samples accompanied by loss of KIBRA expression in disease state compared to patients in remission. Hence KIBRA methylation occurs frequently in B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia but not in epithelial cancers and is linked to specific genetic event in B-ALL.

  8. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    EPA Science Inventory

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  9. El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, J. D.

    2009-08-01

    This paper resume the investigation entitled ``El libro del Relogio del Palacio de las Horas''. That consist in an edition of the original text of the book of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours from the Books of the knowledge of Astronomy of Alfonso X (Manuscript 156, Complutense University). And a description of the astronomical functionality of the Clock of the Palace of the Hours. It includes a geometric description of the positional astronomy on which the operation of the Palace is based.

  10. Determinación del perfil instrumental del EBASIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieva, M. F.; Rodriguez, M. V.; Pintado, O. I.

    Se calcula el perfil instrumental para el telescopio de 2,15m del CASLEO con EBASIM. Para ello se usaron flats de cielo y el espectro solar FTS de Kurucz. El método, que se puede utilizar para otras configuraciones instrumentales, es convolucionar ambos espectros para obtener los coeficientes de corrección.

  11. Mal del pinto in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Francisco; Rein, Charles R.; Arias, Oswaldo

    1955-01-01

    This report deals with the geographical distribution, prevalence, epidemiology, etiology, serological, clinical, and histopathological features, and treatment of mal del pinto, or pinta, in Mexico. Repository penicillin preparations (PAM and Panbiotic) have been found highly effective in the treatment of this endemic, non-venereal treponematosis. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13260889

  12. El Salvador at War: An Oral History

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    branched out into another organized group known as the Ligas Populares-28 de Febrero (Popular Leagues-28th of February). At one point these guerrilla...spectacular blows against the government’s forces. The leader of the National Resistance or FARN, Fuerzas Armadas de La Resistencia Nacional (Armed Forces...they run things. For example, they are always willing to align themselves with anyone. Presently, we have a labor union that was "once the BPR, Ligas

  13. Sword Paper. Strategic Country Assessment, El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-04

    de la Guerra y sus Perspectivas ," ECA, Estudios Centroamericanos, (#449, marzo 1986), pp. 169-204. Also see: "The Role of Unity in the Revolutionary... Perspectivas ," ECA. Estudios Centroamericanos, (#449, marzo 1986), pp. 105. 19 - ~ ~ " - 4 *~* * IRA 4 J J Ci 00 0 C1) A 11 -IL 00 49ja 20 The principal

  14. National Agenda 2025 of El Salvador.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-07

    Periods of Development 15 STRATEGY FOR DESIGN OF A NATIONAL AGENDA 17 Implementation Plan 18 Need for Active Political Participation 19 Contents...their political plans , but those efforts were not effective, because they were not legitimized by the people. Their policies benefited only a specific...umbrella, live in social harmony, and improve government efficiency; however, those plans were ineffective because they were attempted over too short

  15. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light 1 to Marina Del Rey Light 4. (b) A line drawn from Marina Del...

  16. Calidad del aire interior en las escuelas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA ha desarrollado el Programa de Herramientas de Calidad del Aire Interior para las Escuelas para reducir la exposición a los contaminantes ambientales en las mismas a través de la adopción voluntaria de las prácticas para manejar la calidad del aire int

  17. Produccion Gaseosa del Cometa Halley: Erupciones Y Fotodisociacion del Radical OH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN:En este trabajo informamos la detecci6n de 20 erupciones en la li'nea de =18cm (1667MHz) del radical OH en el Cometa Halley.Las observaciones incluyen todos los monitoreos existentes y se extienden desde 120 dias antes del perihelio hasta 90 dias despues.Se detectan bruscos crecimientos en el flujo medido,hasta un factor 1O,seguidos por decaimientos lentos asociados con la fotodisociaci6n del OH. Se obtuvieron valores para el tiempo de vida fotoquimico del OH y del H2O basandose en el modelo desarrollado previamente por Silva(1988). Esos tiempos de vida estan de acuerdo con predicciones teoricas y con las observaciones en el Ultravioleta, y los resultados, los que son fuertemente dependientes de la velocidad heliocentrica del Coineta (variando hasta un factor 6), han sido calculados para varios rangos de velocidad entre +28 y -28 km/seg. Key wo'L :

  18. El Salvador’s Crime Prevention Policies - From Mano Dura to El Salvador Seguro

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    1 A. MAJOR RESEARCH QUESTION..........................................................2 B ...12 F . THESIS OVERVIEW .............................................................................15 II. EL SALVADOR’S GANGS AND MANO...Street Gang and the Mara Salvatrucha in Los Angeles ..............................................................................20 b . Criminal

  19. Intertextual Sexual Politics: Illness and Desire in Enrique Gomez Carrillo's "Del amor", "del dolor y del vicio" and Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaGreca, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the intertextuality between Aurora Caceres's "La rosa muerta" (1914) and the novel "Del amor, del dolor y del vicio" (1898) by her ex-husband, Enrique Gomez Carrillo. Caceres strategically mentions Gomez Carrillo's novel in "La rosa muerta" to invite a reading of her work in dialogue with his. Both narratives follow the sexual…

  20. Calidad de Imagen del Telescopio UNAM212

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos, F. J.; Teiada de Vargas, C.

    1987-05-01

    El telescopio UNAM2l2, del Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, situado en la Sierra de San Pedro Mártir (Baja California, México), cumplira en un futuro muy cercano siete años de uso para fines de investigación astronómica. Aunque en este tiempo no se ha efectuado un estudio sistemático acerca de su comportamiento óptico y de los factores que influyen en la calidad de las imágenes, se han realizado pruebas diversas, estudios parciales y reuniones especificas, cuyos resultados no siempre se han difundido ampliamente y generalmente no se han presentado por escrito. Es por ello que hemos creido necesario intentar una recopilación de la información existente para poder con ella establecer un diagnóstjco que, aunque no sea definitivo, sirva de base para futuros trabajos tendientes a optimizar el comportamiento óptico del telescopio. Es evidente que un buen número de las conclusiones que se presentan son resultado del trabajo de muchas personas ó de esfuerzos colectivos. Asimismo, hemos tratado de localizar información bibliográfica que pueda ser de utilidad. Nuestro objetivo primordial ha consistido en centrarnos en la óptica del telescopio y su calidad, pero también se han considerado otros aspectos que puedan afectar las imágenes obtenidas tales como: celda del primario, `seeing' local y externo, flexiones posibles en la estructura mecánica del telescopio, etc.

  1. Visiting the Gödel universe.

    PubMed

    Grave, Frank; Buser, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Visualization of general relativity illustrates aspects of Einstein's insights into the curved nature of space and time to the expert as well as the layperson. One of the most interesting models which came up with Einstein's theory was developed by Kurt Gödel in 1949. The Gödel universe is a valid solution of Einstein's field equations, making it a possible physical description of our universe. It offers remarkable features like the existence of an optical horizon beyond which time travel is possible. Although we know that our universe is not a Gödel universe, it is interesting to visualize physical aspects of a world model resulting from a theory which is highly confirmed in scientific history. Standard techniques to adopt an egocentric point of view in a relativistic world model have shortcomings with respect to the time needed to render an image as well as difficulties in applying a direct illumination model. In this paper we want to face both issues to reduce the gap between common visualization standards and relativistic visualization. We will introduce two techniques to speed up recalculation of images by means of preprocessing and lookup tables and to increase image quality through a special optimization applicable to the Gödel universe. The first technique allows the physicist to understand the different effects of general relativity faster and better by generating images from existing datasets interactively. By using the intrinsic symmetries of Gödel's spacetime which are expressed by the Killing vector field, we are able to reduce the necessary calculations to simple cases using the second technique. This even makes it feasible to account for a direct illumination model during the rendering process. Although the presented methods are applied to Gödel's universe, they can also be extended to other manifolds, for example light propagation in moving dielectric media. Therefore, other areas of research can benefit from these generic improvements.

  2. Radio-Observaciones del OH EN la Coma del Cometa Halley Desde EL Hemisferio Sur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Cersosimo, J. C.; Martin, M. C.; Arnal, E. M.; Poppel, W. G. L.; Colomb, F. R.; Mazzaro, J.; Olalde, J. C.; Boriakoff, V.; Mirabel, I. F.

    1987-05-01

    Se utilizó una antena de 30 metros del Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomía para observaciones diarias Cf ebrero a abril de 1986) de la transición en 1667 MHz ( λ = 18 cm) del OH en la coma del cometa Halley. De las observaciones realizadas se concluye: 1) El número promedio de moléculas de OH en la coma durante 37 días de observación fue de (8.9±3.5)x1034 moléculas, lo que implica una tasa de producción promedio de OH de 1.8x1029 moléculas seg-1 y consecuentemente una pérdida de masa promedio de 17±6 toneladas seg-1 . Este valor está de acuerdo con las mediciones realizadas por las sondas Vega y Giotto. 2) El monitoreo desde el lAR revela la existencia de variaciones bruscas en los flujos de absorción del OH. Estas variaciones son consistentes con los modelos que representan la producción gaseosa a partir de ejecciones y/o desprendimientos discretos de materia congelada del núcleo. 3) Las variaciones en la densidad de flujo son consistentes con las estimaciones de los tiem- pos de vida medios del H2O y del OH en presencia del campo de radiación solar. 4) Se encuentra una correlación entre la intensidad del flujo absorbido y anisotropías en Ia dinamica de la coma.

  3. Manual del McVCO 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McChesney, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    El McVCO es un generador de frecuencias basado en un microcontrolador que reemplaza al oscilador controlado por voltaje (VCO) utilizado en telemetría analógica de datos sísmicas. Acepta señales de baja potencia desde un sismómetro y produce una señal subportadora modulada en frecuencia adecuada para enlaces telefónicos o vía radio a un lugar remoto de recolección de datos. La frecuencia de la subportadora y la ganancia pueden ser seleccionadas mediante un interruptor. Tiene la opción de poder operar con dos canales para la observación con ganancia alta y baja. El McVCO fue diseñado con el propósito de mejorar la telemetría analógica de las señales dentro de la Pacific Northwest Seismograph Network (PNSN) (Red Sismográfica del Noroeste del Pacífico). Su desarrollo recibió el respaldo del Programa de Geofísica de la Universidad de Washington y del "Volcano Hazards and Earthquake Hazards programs of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) (Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Volcánicos y Programa de Investigaciones de Riesgos Sísmicos de los EEUU). Cientos de instrumentos se han construido e instalado. Además de utilizarlo el PNSN, el McVCO es usado por el Observatorio Vulcanológico de Alaska para monitorear los volcanes aleutianos y por el USGS Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (Programa de Ayuda en las Catástrofes Volcánicas del USGS) para responder a crisis volcánicas en otros países. Este manual cubre el funcionamiento del McVCO, es una referencia técnica para aquellos que necesitan saber con más detalle cómo funciona el McVCO, y cubre una serie de temas que requieren un trato explícito o que derivan del despliegue del instrumento.

  4. [Revista de Gastroenterologia del Peru: 25 years].

    PubMed

    Celestino Fernández, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    In this article is described in a very summarized form the history of the Revista de Gastroenterología del Perú (RGP) that dates from the same origins of the Sociedad de Gastroenterología del Perú, when based in October 30 of 1952 already glimpse the presence of the RGP as the official organ for the publication for studies of doctors of the society or foreign guests. We spent 29 years, and this idea becomes reality; and today the RGP turns to their XXV anniversary. The RGP, to locate itself as the Peruvian medical publication best reputation.

  5. 33 CFR 80.1118 - Marina Del Rey, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marina Del Rey, CA. 80.1118 Section 80.1118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1118 Marina Del Rey, CA. (a) A line drawn from Marina Del Rey Breakwater South Light...

  6. Hopeful (protein InDel) monsters?

    PubMed

    Tóth-Petróczy, Agnes; Tawfik, Dan S

    2014-06-10

    In this issue of Structure, Arpino and colleagues describe in atomic detail how a protein stomachs a deletion within a helix, an event that rarely occurs in nature or in the lab. Can insertions and deletions (InDels) trigger dramatic structural transitions?

  7. Vigilando la Calidad del Agua de los Grandes Rios de la Nacion: El Programa NASQAN del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lurry, Dee L.; Reutter, David C.; Wells, Frank C.; Rivera, M.C.; Munoz, A.

    1998-01-01

    La Oficina del Estudio Geologico de los Estados Unidos (U.S. Geological Survey, 0 USGS) ha monitoreado la calidad del agua de la cuenca del Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte) desde 1995 como parte de la rediseiiada Red Nacional para Contabilizar la Calidad del Agua de los Rios (National Stream Quality Accounting Network, o NASOAN) (Hooper and others, 1997). EI programa NASOAN fue diseiiado para caracterizar las concentraciones y el transporte de sedimento y constituyentes quimicos seleccionados, encontrados en los grandes rios de los Estados Unidos - incluyendo el Misisipi, el Colorado y el Columbia, ademas del Rio Grande. En estas cuatro cuencas, el USGS opera actualmente (1998) una red de 40 puntos de muestreo pertenecientes a NASOAN, con un enfasis en cuantificar el flujo en masa (la cantidad de material que pasa por la estacion, expresado en toneladas por dial para cada constituyente. Aplicacando un enfoque consistente, basado en la cuantificacion de flujos en la cuenca del Rio Grande, el programa NASOAN esta generando la informacion necesaria para identificar fuentes regionales de diversos contaminantes, incluyendo sustancias qui micas agricolas y trazas elementos en la cuenca. EI efecto de las grandes reservas en el Rio Grande se puede observar segun los flujos de constituyentes discurren a 10 largo del rio. EI analisis de los flujos de constituyentes a escala de la cuenca proveera los medios para evaluar la influencia de la actividad humana sobre las condiciones de calidad del agua del Rio Grande.

  8. Del Norte means north to recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, J.T.

    1998-06-01

    Del Norte Regional Recycling and Transfer Station is owned by the city of Oxnard, California and operated by BLT Enterprises, Inc. The Del Norte facility--located in southwestern Ventura County about an hour northwest of Los Angeles--processes polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic containers, aluminum, steel, glass, old corrugated containers (OCC), newspapers, computer printout paper, white and colored ledger paper, coated book, supermix paper, telephone books, and old magazines. According to the company, there has been virtually no community opposition to the site. The facility has few neighbors, and those are agricultural. To keep the community relationship strong, the facility`s design and location all but eliminated odor and noise complaints. The building was designed against the prevailing wind pattern, and BLT processes odorous material fast. A misting system installed for dust suppression also can be used with a solution for odor control should the need arise.

  9. Procesamiento Digital de Imagenes del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrin, L.; Fuenmayor, F.; Naranjo, O.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones fotográficas del cometa Halley, obtenidas con los telescopios Schmidt de 1-m del CIDA, y de 35 cms de la ULA. Se hicieron exposiciones desde 2 segundos a 30 minutos y se utilizaron emulsiones IIa-O, 103a-F, y 103a-D, guladas manualmente 0 automaticámente. Las imágenes fueron digitalizadas con el microdensitómetro PDS, y procesadas con el sistema HACIENDA del CCIBM. Se experimentó con la Transformada de Fourier en dos dimensiones, y con la aplicación de filtros de paso alto y bajo. Se encontró que el metodo de "autocorrelación" es el mejor para separar "la vegetación" de "la montaña". Se aplicaron diversas técnicas a fin de cubrir ambos extremos: a) enfatizar detalles débiles en la cola, y b) penetrar en las regiones más intensas de la coma. Se lograron ambos objetivos. Detalles en la cola permitieron determinar velocidades de propagación de unos 50 a 90 kms/ seg. Se pudieron detectar no menos de tres perturbaciones en "Y", y una en 5? Co de Cisne). Se cree que las primeras están asociadas a eventos de desconexión. Se puede separar la cola de gas de la de polvo. Las fotos de color permiten enfatizar diferentes regiones espectrales con mayor claridad aún. El "balance" del color puede ser hecho con la computadora.

  10. del, Einstein, Mach, Gamow, and Lanczos: Gödel's remarkable excursion into cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    2009-06-01

    This article is an expanded version of a talk given at the International Symposium Celebrating the 100th Birthday of Kurt Gödel (Vienna, 2006). It seeks to trace the path which led this preeminent mathematical logician to discover one of the famous results of General Relativity, the rotating Gödel Universe. This universe has some remarkable properties, which gave the philosophers plenty to worry about. It allows a person to travel into his own past, with all the ensuing causal paradoxes; it allows no unique temporal ordering of events; and though Gödel's Universe is rigid and infinite, the Foucault pendulum planes everywhere in it rotate in unison, a clear affront to adherents of Mach's Principle. We also discuss some lesser known precursors in the field, who just missed discovering Gödel's universe. While the article gives all the necessary derivations in simplified form (for example, of the metric and its geodesics), much of it should be accessible to the general reader, who can simply skip most of the mathematics. [Reprinted, with permission, from Kurt Gödel and the Foundations of Mathematics: Horizons of Truth, edited by Matthias Baaz, Christos H. Papadimitriou, Dana S. Scott, Hilary Putnam, and Charles L. Harper, Jr. (Cambridge U. P., New York, 2009).

  11. Morphology, geology and geochemistry of the "Salar del Gran Bajo del Gualicho" (Rio Negro, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angelucci, A.; Barbieri, M.; Brodtkorb, A.; Ciccacci, S.; Civitelli, G.; De Barrio, R.; Di, Filippo M.; Fredi, P.; Friedman, I.; Lombardi, S.; Schalamuk, A.I.; Toro, B.

    1996-01-01

    A multidisciplinary study of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho area (Rio Negro - Argentina) was carried out; the aim was to delineate its geological and geomorphological evolution and to estabilish the genesis of salts filling the depression. Climatic conditions were analized first to individuate their role in the present morphogenetic processes; moreover the main morphological features of present landscape were examined as well as the stratigraphy of the outcropping formations, and of the Gran Bajo del Gualicho Formation in particular. Finally, a possible geomorphological evolution of the studied area was traced. Geophysical analyses allowed to estabilish that the paleosurface shaped on the crystalline basement is strongly uneven and shows evidence of the strong tectonic phases it underwent. The result of isotope analyses confirmed that the salt deposits on the Gran Bajo del Gualicho bottom were produced by fresh water evaporation, while strontium isotope ratio suggested that such waters were responsible for solubilization of more ancient evaporitic deposits.

  12. Kurt Gödels Brünner Verwandte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Dora

    2007-11-01

    The author of this memoir Dora Müller (born 1920) belongs - as well as Kurt Gödel-to the German minority playing an important role in the past life of Brno. The marriage of his son included her among the Gödels collaterals. She was chemist, but also pianist, historician, participant of antinacist movement and iniciator of Czech-German understanding after war. Following her personal experiences, remembrances of Gödels relatives and documental materials, she evokes the atmosphere of broader family milieu of Kurt Gödel.

  13. An evening at "La Clinica del Pueblo".

    PubMed

    Shefsky, M L

    1986-01-01

    This article describes a typical evening at the Clinica del Pueblo in the Hispanic neighborhood of Adams-Morgan in Washington, D.c. The Clinical del Pueblo began operating in 1983 in response to the urgen medical needs of Central American refugees arriving in the Washington D.c. area. The refugees bring with them severe trauma, fear, and health problems caused by the civil was and exacerbated by inadequate or non-existant health services. Approximately 80,000 Salvadoran refugees live in the area. They do not receive adequate health care for 3 reasons. 1) Because the US goverment is unwilling to recognize them as true refugees, they live with the constant threat of deportatin back to the violence from which they have fled. 2) Refugees lack the ability to pay for private care. 3) Langauage and culture create frightening barriers to health care for the refugees. For those who do seek care, these barriers can lead to the inadequate or incomplete diagnoses and poor compliance and follow-up. Plenty International and the Central American Refugee Center responded to these problems by organizing a free clinic to provide not only medical care but also a training course for volunteers. The director of the clinic organizes the course, the classes are taught by a variety of people including the clinic's volunteer physicians, nurses, and public health educators as well as graduates of previus training courses and people from the wider community. The services of the clinic reach only a small portion of the population in need. However, the fact that free medical services are now available to some Central American refugees make the Clinica del Pueblo an important program.

  14. Huave de San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca (Huave of San Mateo del Mar, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Huave, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in San Mateo del Mar, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of…

  15. Pastoral del Nino: Bringing the Abundant Life to Paraguayan Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Ann Berghout; Aquino, Cyle; Burro, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Pastoral del Nino is transforming children's lives in rural Paraguay. Part of Pastoral Social (Catholic Social Services), Pastoral del Nino's primary focus is to bring "vida en abundancia" (the abundant life) to families by ensuring that mothers survive childbirth and children reach their first birthdays. In addition, the organization…

  16. 33 CFR 110.111 - Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. 110.111 Section 110.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.111 Marina del Rey Harbor, Calif. An area...

  17. [Strengths and future of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Dolci, Germán

    2014-01-01

    The journals of medicine arose as a communication tool more than 200 years ago. At the beginning, their nature was local; later, their aim was to spread medical information along the nation; and, finally, they sought to reach the world distribution. The Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social was published for the first time 52 years ago, and it has walked its way from local to international distribution. This journal has 23 000 subscribers, it is included in Medline and it reached a 0.112 SCImago Journal Rank in 2012. Its website receives around 200 000 visits monthly and 45 % are foreign visits. In the future, the peer review system is going to be strengthened, and the journal is going to offer audio, video, and applications to reinforce interactive participation between authors, readers in order to reach modernity and draw young new attention.

  18. Illuminating water and life: Emilio Del Giudice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan

    2015-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics theory of water put forward by Del Giudice and colleagues provides a useful foundation for a new science of water for life. The interaction of light with liquid water generates quantum coherent domains in which the water molecules oscillate between the ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water. This produces a plasma of almost free electrons favoring redox reactions, the basis of energy metabolism in living organisms. Coherent domains stabilized by surfaces, such as membranes and macromolecules, provide the excited interfacial water that enables photosynthesis to take place, on which most of life on Earth depends. Excited water is the source of superconducting protons for rapid intercommunication within the body. Coherent domains can also trap electromagnetic frequencies from the environment to orchestrate and activate specific biochemical reactions through resonance, a mechanism for the most precise regulation of gene function.

  19. Wave maps from Gödel's universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, Elisabetta; Dragomir, Sorin; Magliaro, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Using a result by Koch (1988 Trans. Am. Math. Soc. 307 827-41) we realize Gödel's universe G_{α }^{4}=({{{R}}^{4}},{{g}_{α}}) as the total space of a principal {R}-bundle over a strictly pseudo-convex CR manifold M3 and exploit the analogy between {{g}_{Yalpha;}} and Fefferman's metric {{F}_{θ}} (Fefferman 1976 Ann. Math. 103 395-416 104 393-4) to show that for any {R}-invariant wave map Φ of G_{α}^{4} into a Riemannian manifold N, the corresponding base map φ :{{M}^{3}}\\to N is subelliptic harmonic, with respect to a canonical choice of contact form θ on M3. We show that the subelliptic Jacobi operator J_{b}^{φ} of ϕ has a discrete Dirichlet spectrum on any bounded domain D\\subset {{M}^{3}} supporting the Poincaré inequality on \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN) and Kondrakov compactness, i.e. compactness of the embedding \\mathop{W}\\limits^{\\circ }{}_{H}^{1,2}(D,{{φ }^{-1}}TN)\\hookrightarrow {{L}^{2}}(D,{{φ}^{-1}}TN). We exhibit an explicit solution π :G_{α}^{4}\\to {{M}^{3}} to the wave map system on G_{α}^{4}, of index in{{d}^{Ω}}(π)\\geqslant 1 for any bounded domain Ω \\subset G_{α}^{4}. Mounoud's distance (Mounoud 2001 Differ. Geom. Appl. 15 47-57) d_{{{G}_{0}}, Ω }^{∞}({{g}_{α }}, {{F}_{θ}}) is bounded below by a constant depending only on the rotation frequency of Gödel's universe, thus giving a measure of the bias of {{g}_{α}} from being Fefferman like in the region Ω \\subset {{{R}}^{4}}.

  20. Estudio teórico del CO2. Orbitales de valencia y del ``core''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olalla Gutiérrez, E.

    Hemos calculado las intensidades de las transiciones E1 a los miembros de las series de Rydberg con origen en los orbitales ``no enlazantes'' del dióxido de carbono, especie de conocida relevancia atmosférica. Se han computado, asimismo, los continuos de fotoionización correspondientes a los distintos canales de ionización, representándolos como densidad espectral de fuerza de oscilador frente a la energía del fotón incidente; mostramos los resultados df/dE para la fotoionización total de esta especie en el intervalo 15-60 eV. Todos los cálculos se han llevado a cabo mediante la formulación Molecular del Método de los Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico, MQDO [1,2]. La calidad de los resultados que presentamos se ha evaluado en base a la comparación con los datos, tanto experimentales como teóricos, disponibles en la bibliografía. El acuerdo encontrado es altamente satisfactorio

  1. [La Medicina del Lavoro: 100 volumes].

    PubMed

    Zocchetti, C

    2009-01-01

    With these pages La Medicina del Lavoro starts its 100th volume, so we have yet another historical occasion to celebrate the oldest occupational health journal in the world that is still publishing. Over the last few years we have had many occasions to celebrate, for example several anniversaries of the Journal (the 80th volume in 1989, 90 years in 1992, 100 years in 2001); the centenary of the foundation of the Clinica del Lavoro "Luigi Devoto" of Milan in 2001; the celebration of the 300 years' anniversary of the publication of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba by Bernardino Ramazzini, and we obviously hope to continue for many years to come in this positive outlook. One hundred volumes makes for a very large collection, with the highs and lows ofthe Journal's history (here we mean the variations in number of pages and physical size of the Journal). It is thanks to the Editors-in-chief(there have been very few so we can cite them all: Luigi Devoto, 1901-1936; Luigi Preti, 1936-1941; Enrico Vigliani, 1943-1992; e Vito Foà, 1992 to the present); the contributors who in various ways and with varying degrees of commitment but always with an exceptional personal participation, that it has been possible to reach 100 volumes, starting with C. Moreschi who, along with Luigi Devoto, was the first and sole editor at the Journal's foundation; up to the present extended and impressive editorial board; the printers (from the first. Tipografia Cooperativa, Via dei Molini in Pavia, to the latest: Casa Editrice Mattioli in Fidenza); the sponsors, including the most evident who, via advertising (rather limited as a matter offact), directly gave information about themselves, but also those who have often been or are behind the scenes, ensuring fundamental support which is not visible; content. articles, news, events, reports, ideas, opinions, photographs, tables, numbers... etc, which are really impossible to sum up. But the true collection which, for obvious reasons, cannot be

  2. Area Handbook Series: Ecuador: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    West, 1975. "Detengamos la violencia : Declaraci6n del Consejo Permanente del Episcopado," Celam [Bogota], 24, No. 202, October-Novem- ber 1985, 18-19...Socialdemocracia en la Mitad del Mundo," Nueva Sociedad [San Salvador], No. 96, July/August 1988, 8-10. Chapter 5 Alexander, RobertJ. "Ecuador

  3. Civil-Military Relations and Militarization in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    1  B .  THESIS OVERVIEW AND CHAPTER OUTLINE ....................................5  1.  Counter-Arguments...18  B .  CIVIL WAR: 1979–1992 ...............................................................................23  C.  DEMOCRATIZATION...39  A.  EFFECTIVENESS .........................................................................................39  B

  4. El Salvador: The Prospects for a Successful Revolution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    270; Paul Kennedy, "Guatemala Rebels Step Up Fight Against Regime," New York Times, 20 Dec. 1964, p. 38; Henry Giniger, "Guatemalan Rebel Bars Any...reported in Gott and Rose. 219Paul Kennedy, "Guatemala Rebels Step Up Fight Against Regime," New York Times, 20 Dec. 1964, p. 38; Henry Giniger, "Guatemala...by United States," Washington Post, 28 Jan. 1984, p. 3; "Salvadoran Army See Gains in New ive," New York Times, 16 Feb. 1986, p. 3; "Colonel Vargas

  5. Employment of the El Salvador Armed Forces for Internal Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    Factores que inciden en el consumo de drogas licitas e ilícitas” http://www.uees.edu.sv/crea2/1_factores.htm, (accessed November 15 2010). 10 La...Primerísima “Suma preocupación por consumo de droga ” June 29, 2008, http://www.radiolaprimerisima.com/noticias/32517, (accessed November 15 2010). 11 La...confirma n- investigacion -a-alto-jefe-policial-salvadoreno&catid=92:ultimas-noticias&Itemid=117, accessed January, 08 2011). 23 El Diario de Hoy

  6. Hydrogeologic model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Bodvarsson, G.S. ); Retana, M.; Cuellar, G. )

    1989-01-01

    A hydrogeological model of the Ahuachapan geothermal field has been developed. It considers the lithology and structural features of the area and discerns their impact on the movement of cold and hot fluids in the system. Three aquifers were identified, their zones of mixing and flow patterns were obtained on the basis of temperature and geochemical data from wells and surface manifestations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  7. Bromophenol concentrations in fish from Salvador, BA, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline S; Silva, Vilma M; Veloso, Márcia C C; Santos, Gislaine V; Andrade, Jailson B de

    2009-06-01

    The main objective of this work is to evaluate the occurrence of bromophenols (2bromophenol, 4bromophenol, 2,4dibromophenol, 2,6dibromophenol and 2,4,6tribromophenol), in the flesh and guts in two species of the LutjanidaeFamily: Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus. The bromophenols were extracted by steam distillation with pentaneether (7:3 v/v), identified by reverse phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLCUV), and quantified bythe externalstandard method. Total bromophenol concentrations were similar in the muscle of both species, rangingfrom 36 ng g(1) to 349 ng g(1). The total bromophenol concentrations in stomach (ranging from 12 ng g(1) to 586 ng g(1))were slightly higher than in muscle. The presence of bromophenol in the muscles of the species under study may occuras a result of their diet. The results of this work are therefore expected to contribute toward a better understanding ofthe path of bromophenol absorption from the fish's stomach to the rest of its body.

  8. Strategic Thinking: A Proposal to Reduce Violence in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Development Program (UNDP), “Informe Sobre Desarrollo Humano Para América Central 2009-2010: Abrir Espacios a la Seguridad Ciudadana y el Desarrollo ... Humano ,” October 2009, cited by Clare Ribando Seelke in “Gangs in Central America” Congressional Research Service (CRS for Congress) October 2009, http

  9. Medicolegal investigation of political killings in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J L; Gruschow, J; Stover, E

    1989-06-17

    An axiom of Thomas Hobbes states that "people are never more helpless than when the force meant to protect their rights turns against them." Hobbes' axiom holds true today, with Amnesty International reporting that hundreds of thousands have been murdered by their governments. This article examines the medicolegal aspects of an investigation into the deaths of two Salvadoran peasants who were reportedly tortured and executed by soldiers in February 1988. One of the authors, Thomsen, participated in the investigation as a court-ordered expert, and as a representative of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of a Salvadoran legal aid organization. His necropsy findings are reported with observations and comments. The article concludes with suggestions for initiatives that might be undertaken by individual physicians and institutions to improve the quality and impartiality of medicolegal investigations into political killings.

  10. Results of investigations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Goff, F.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Hanold, B.

    1990-04-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahuachapan. High-temperature downhole instruments, including a temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity spinner/temperature/pressure (STP), and fluid sampler, were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine if chemical deposits were present in well casings or liners and to investigate a suspected break in the casing in one well. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 80 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut-in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. The geochemical data obtained show a system configuration like that proposed by C. Laky and associates in 1989. Our data indicate recharge to the system from the volcanic highlands south of the field. Additionally, our data indicate encroachment of dilute fluids into deeper production zones because of overproduction. 17 refs., 50 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1989-08-01

    These are appendices F through I of the Ahuachapan Geothermal Field Reservoir Analysis. The volume contains: well logs, water chemistry plots, gas chemistry plots, temperature plots, and flow plots. (JEF)

  12. The Civil-Military Gap in El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this...Hernandez in USA, Colonel Arturo Molina studied in Mexico. After this period, civilians were presidents and had similar experiences: Napoleon

  13. The Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador: Reservoir analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Aunzo, Z.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Laky, C.; Lippmann, M.J.; Steingrimsson, B.; Truesdell, A.H.; Witherspoon, P.A.; Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik; Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA )

    1989-08-01

    These are appendices A thru E of the Ahuachapan geothermal field reservoir analysis. The volume contains: mineralogy contours, ionic chlorine and silicon dioxide contours, well summaries, and temperature and pressure effects. (JEF)

  14. Microearthquakes in the ahuachapan geothermal field, el salvador, central america.

    PubMed

    Ward, P L; Jacob, K H

    1971-07-23

    Microearthquakes occur on a steeply dipping plane interpreted here as the fault that allows hot water to circulate to the surface in the geothermal region. These small earthquakes are common in many geothermal areas and may occur because of the physical or chemical effects of fluids and fluid pressure.

  15. Living Legacy: A Conversation with Carolina Gomez del Valle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori Life, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Carolina Gomez del Valle has been involved in training other Montessorians in Mexico, Chile, Nicaragua, Peru, and Taiwan. This interview explores her experiences with Montessori education and describes how she has woven her religious training and Montessori philosophy together. (PAM)

  16. On some structure results for Gödel-type spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaue, Matthias; Scherfner, Mike

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we prove structure results on Gödel-type spacetimes, which we understand as stationary charged perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations with geodesic flow. Given in a standard product form, we investigate relations between the vorticity and the geometry of the fiber. For the four dimensional case in particular, we classify the Gödel-type spacetimes with constant vorticity scalar. We give a complete list of the solutions, which provides a generalization of an observation by Gödel, proved later by Ozsváth: The Gödel spacetime and Einstein's static universe are the only stationary Λ-dust solutions of Einstein's equations with positive energy density that are spatially homogeneous.

  17. Estudio del sistema simbiótico AR Pavonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiroga, C.; Brandi, E.; Ferrer, O.; García, L.; Barbá, R.

    Se presenta un estudio espectroscópico y polarimétrico de la binaria eclipsante AR Pavonis a partir de observaciones obtenidas con el telescopio de 2.15 m. del CASLEO (San Juan). El estudio de la naturaleza del sistema se realizó a través del análisis de algunos espectros reunidos entre los años 1990 y 1995 y de datos polarimétricos correspondientes al intervalo 1995 y 1997. El análisis espectroscópico indica que AR Pav está compuesta por una gigante roja M3.7 y una componente caliente compacta, con una temperatura mayor a 90000 K y una luminosidad del orden de 500Lsolar. A lo largo del período orbital, las variaciones observadas en flujo y en velocidades radiales, reflejan que las emisiones permitidas se forman en una región que rodea la componente caliente. El estudio de la polarización lineal de AR Pav indica que además de una componente interestelar, existe una componente intrínseca del sistema que varía temporalmente y con la longitud de onda de la luz polarizada. El distinto comportamiento del grado de polarización y del ángulo de posición observado en fases diferentes, sugiere que distintos mecanismos pueden estar actuando, dependiendo de la región de scattering observado a lo largo de la línea de la visual.

  18. 65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photographer unknown March 1931 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION B, HIGHWAY 1, 1-DN-1-B #66A, STA. 166.0+00 WIDENED ROADBED BEFORE COVERING LOG CRIB, 3-31. BACK READS: WIDENING ROAD BED WITH LOGS, APPROX 30 SQUARE & 60 LONG ON DN-1 SEC B STA 156+. Stamped office copy, - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. Extreme Environments in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, C.; D'Antoni, H.; Burgess, S.; Zamora, J.; Skiles, J.

    2007-12-01

    The upper timberline of the Andes Cordillera on the island of Tierra del Fuego at the tip of South America is an environment subject to extreme conditions. In order to further understand this environment, ecosystem parameters were measured within two transects of the Andes at Glaciar Martial and Cerro Guanaco. The measurements included pH, soil temperature, soil moisture, nitrogen, sodium and potassium concentration, chlorophyll absorbance, and irradiance in the ultraviolet range (200-400 nm). These data comprise a survey that serves as a baseline for an intensive research program. Chlorophyll concentration and soil data were within the range of our observations at several other sites, from Lapataia Bay on the southwestern boundary with Chile, through the eastern end of Lake Fagnano. However, unusual levels of solar irradiance were found in the open sites of both transects while those in the forest exhibited lower UV values, suggesting strong absorption and/or reflection by the forest canopy. High levels of UV radiation damage important biomolecules and may be partially responsible for the presence of life forms such as the krummholz belt in the upper timberline. These UV values may be due to the effects of global ozone depletion and the ozone hole. The low temperatures, strong winds, snow and ice-covered soil and especially the exposure to UV radiation make this area an extreme environment for life.

  20. Confirming and Improving Ross Variable Star RV Del

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Tyler R.; Sanchez, Rick; Palser, Sage; Schultze, Kendra; Kenney, Jessica; Thompson, Briana; DeCoster, Richard; Mills, Frank; Osborn, Wayne; Hoette, Vivian L.; Skynet Junior Scholars; Stone Edge Observatory

    2017-01-01

    RV Del is an intrinsic pulsating variable star in the constellation Delphinus, discovered by Ross (1926). The AAVSO list RV Del as a RRAB type of variable star. RV Del has been found to have a magnitude that varies from 12.9 - 14.2 and a period of 11.9553 hours.The purpose of our research of RV Del is to confirm and improve previous results as well as explore different methods to engage middle school students in the scientific method and astronomy. The SKYNET network of telescopes allows students to request images from a group of international research class telescopes. The telescope request process allows students first-hand experience in astronomy while the data analysis allows students to understand advance software systems to produce publishable results. Data is being gathered using the SKYNET network and Stone Edge Observatory to gather photometry of RV Del and create a new light curve. Findings will be presented the January 2017 AAS.

  1. DEL-TYPE Universes in f(T) Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Di; Wu, Puxun; Yu, Hongwei

    2012-09-01

    The issue of causality in f(T) gravity is investigated by examining the possibility of existence of the closed timelike curves in the Gödel-type metric. By assuming a perfect fluid as the matter source, we find that the fluid must have an equation of state parameter greater than minus one in order to allow the Gödel solutions to exist, and furthermore the critical radius rc, beyond which the causality is broken down, is finite and it depends on both matter and gravity. Remarkably, for certain f(T) models, the perfect fluid that allows the Gödel-type solutions can even be normal matter, such as pressureless matter or radiation. However, if the matter source is a special scalar field rather than a perfect fluid, then rc → ∞ and the causality violation is thus avoided.

  2. May Gödel's Ideas Be Addressed Philosophically?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokulil, Miloš

    2007-11-01

    del emphasised philosophy as an important tool in science. Much less is known about his religious background. We should bear in mind that our evaluational perspective differs very much from the one in which Gödel lived. He was personally sure that there must be another existence after death-an afterlife (''of unlimited life span''). As a ''Baptized Lutheran'' he did not include ''Trinity'' in his creed. He was also certain that mind is separate from matter. This text tries to include Libet's ''readiness potential'' into the debate concerning the specificity of the mind. Neither Gödel's identification of materialism with mechanism nor his vision of the ''spirit'' are a viable solution of the problem.

  3. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de 21-cm del Hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100 micrones, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5 Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  4. The novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation in a family with prelingual sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Michael B; Grigoriadou, Maria; Koutroumpe, Maria; Kokotas, Haris

    2012-07-01

    Non-syndromic hearing loss is one of the most common hereditary determined diseases in human, and the disease is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. Mutations in the GJB2 gene, encoding connexin 26 (Cx26), are a major cause of non-syndromic recessive hearing impairment in many countries and are largely dependent on ethnic groups. Due to the high frequency of the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the Greek population, we have previously suggested that Greek patients with sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness should be tested for the c.35delG mutation and the coding region of the GJB2 gene should be sequenced in c.35delG heterozygotes. Here we present on the clinical and molecular genetic evaluation of a family suffering from prelingual, sensorineural, non-syndromic deafness. A novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) GJB2 mutation was detected in compound heterozygosity with the c.35delG GJB2 mutation in the proband and was later confirmed in the father, while the mother was homozygous for the c.35delG GJB2 mutation. We conclude that compound heterozygosity of the novel c.247_249delTTC (p.F83del) and the c.35delG mutations in the GJB2 gene was the cause of deafness in the proband and his father.

  5. Mejoras en la exactitud del reloj de ángulo horario del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Para aumentar la exactitud en el control del ángulo horario del telescopio, se está implementando el uso de un reloj con una precisión de 1/100 seg. En conjunto con el encoder que otorga la posición con un acierto de 0,012 seg. de arco, se podrá implementar otro dígito en el reloj de ángulo horario con la posibilidad de ver las décimas. Esto, sumado a la precisión ya lograda en declinación, permitirá realizar offsets con mayor exactitud.

  6. Cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento: el estado del arte

    PubMed Central

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Bendersky, Damián

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: La cirugía de los trastornos del comportamiento (CTC) se está convirtiendo en un tratamiento más común desde el desarrollo de la neuromodulación. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de la historia, indicaciones actuales, técnicas y blancos quirúrgicos de la CTC. Dividimos su historia en 3 eras: la primera comienza en los inicios de la psicocirugía y termina con el desarrollo de las tícnicas estereotácticas, cuando comienza la segunda era. Ésta se caracteriza por la realización de lesiones estereotácticas. Nos encontramos transitando la tercera era, que comienza cuando la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) comienza a ser usada en CTC. Resultados: A pesar de los errores graves cometidos en el pasado, hoy en día, la CTC está renaciendo. Los trastornos psiquiátricos que se más frecuentemente se tratan con cirugía son: depresión refractaria, trastorno obsesivo-compulsivo y síndrome de Tourette. Además, algunos pacientes con agresividad fueron tratados quirúrgicamente. Hay varios blancos estereotácticos descriptos para estos trastornos. La estimulación vagal puede ser usada también para depresión. Conclusión: Los resultados de la ECP en estos trastornos parecen alentadores. Sin embargo, se necesitan más estudios randomizados para establecer la efectividad de la CTC. Debe tenerse en cuenta que una apropiada selección de pacientes nos ayudará a realizar un procedimiento más seguro así como también a lograr mejores resultados quirúrgicos, conduciendo a la CTC a ser más aceptada por psiquiatras, pacientes y sus familias. Se necesita mayor investigación en varios temas como: fisiopatología de los trastornos del comportamiento, indicaciones de CTC y nuevos blancos quirúrgicos. PMID:25165612

  7. Design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly.

    PubMed

    de Croon, G C H E; Groen, M A; De Wagter, C; Remes, B; Ruijsink, R; van Oudheusden, B W

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges in robotics is to develop a fly-like robot that can autonomously fly around in unknown environments. In this paper, we discuss the current state of the DelFly project, in which we follow a top-down approach to ever smaller and more autonomous ornithopters. The presented findings concerning the design, aerodynamics and autonomy of the DelFly illustrate some of the properties of the top-down approach, which allows the identification and resolution of issues that also play a role at smaller scales. A parametric variation of the wing stiffener layout produced a 5% more power-efficient wing. An experimental aerodynamic investigation revealed that this could be associated with an improved stiffness of the wing, while further providing evidence of the vortex development during the flap cycle. The presented experiments resulted in an improvement in the generated lift, allowing the inclusion of a yaw rate gyro, pressure sensor and microcontroller onboard the DelFly. The autonomy of the DelFly is expanded by achieving (1) an improved turning logic to obtain better vision-based obstacle avoidance performance in environments with varying texture and (2) successful onboard height control based on the pressure sensor.

  8. 77 FR 50080 - Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Del Norte County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice.... The purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title II of the Act....

  9. Interdisciplinary Unit: La Isla del Encanto (The Enchanted Island).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford-Guerrera, Rebecca

    This document presents a series of 14 lesson plans in an interdisciplinary Spanish unit on "La isla del encanto/The Enchanted Island." The materials were prepared for students in grades 5 or 6 who have had basic Spanish instruction in previous grades. The students should also be familiar with basic concepts in English such as math…

  10. Cosmogenic Radionuclides in the Campo Del Cielo Iron Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, R. G.; FernandezNiello, J. O.; Reedy, R. C.; Fifield, L. K.; diTada, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10, Al-26, Cl-36, Ca-41, and Ni-59 were measured in the Campo del Cielo iron meteorite. Our results led us to conclude that the pre-atmospheric radius might have been approximately 2 m. Comparisons with other big bodies are also presented. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Faculty Activity Analysis in the Universidad Tecnica Del Estado Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadima, Oscar

    An analysis of academic activities of college faculty at the eight campuses of Chile's Universidad Tecnica del Estado was conducted. Activities were grouped into seven categories: direct teaching, indirect teaching, research, community services, faculty development, academic administration, and other activities. Following the narrative…

  12. Extensión del Formalismo de Orbitales de Defecto Cuántico al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, J. M.; Martín, I.; Velasco, A. M.

    El estudio experimental de las interacciones de átomos Rydberg altamente excitados con campos eléctricos ha experimentado un creciente interés durante las dos últimas décadas debido, en gran medida, al desarrollo de nuevas técnicas para crear y estudiar átomos Rydberg en el laboratorio. Acompañando a estas nuevas técnicas experimentales, es necesario el desarrollo de modelos teóricos que nos permitan contrastar sus medidas y conocer mejor los fundamentos de los mismos. Desde el punto de vista teórico el conocimiento del desdoblamiento de los niveles energéticos de un átomo en función de la magnitud del campo eléctrico aplicado (lo que se conoce como mapa Stark) es el mejor punto de partida para la descripción del sistema y un prerrequisito fundamental para el cálculo de distintas propiedades atómicas en presencia del campo eléctrico tales como intensidades de transición, umbrales de ionización de campo eléctrico, tiempos de vida, posición y anchura de cruces evitados, etc. En este trabajo presentamos la adaptación del método de orbitales de defecto cuántico [1,2,3] al tratamiento del efecto Stark (SQDO) [4] y su aplicación al cálculo de los desdoblamientos energéticos y fuerzas de oscilador de estados Rydberg en los átomos de Li, Na y K. El propósito de este estudio es, por un lado, desarrollar métodos fiables para la determinación de propiedades atómicas en presencia de campos eléctricos y, por otro, mostrar la fiabilidad de las funciones de onda QDO en la descripción del efecto Stark en sistemas atómicos.

  13. Analisis del contenido curricular de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia para la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico: 1993-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Montanez, Melissa

    Esta investigacion de naturaleza cualitativa se ocupo de realizar un analisis de contenido documental de los Documentos Normativos del Programa de Ciencias en el area de biologia de la escuela superior del sistema de educacion publica de Puerto Rico del periodo 1993-2012. Los documentos analizados fueron: Guia Curricular, 1995; Marco Curricular, 2003; Estandares de Excelencia, 1996, 2000 y Estandares de Contenido y Expectativas de Grado, 2007. Se indago si hubo cambios en significados en los Componentes Estructurales: Naturaleza de la ciencia, Paradigmas para la ensenanza de la ciencia, Funcion del curriculo formal, Mision de la ensenanza de la ciencia; Contenidos, destrezas y competencias, Estrategias de ensenanza y Evaluacion/Assessment del aprendizaje. El analisis sugiere que no hubo cambios sustanciales en los significados de los Componentes Estructurales. Los documentos estudiados muestran mayormente caracteristicas similares, aunque los documentos mas recientes eran mas descriptivos, explicativos y especificos.

  14. Biological and behavioral determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C E; Hernández, M

    2005-05-01

    The reproductive history of 182 women in postreproductive life or near menopause from the Chilean part of Tierra del Fuego was traced back by means of familial interviews. These postmenopausal women represent the population since almost the beginning of the settlement, and their reproductive years were spent on the island. Path analysis was applied to analyze fertility determinants of these women and to propose a complex model of interconnections among factors. The reproductive history of these women is characterized by a long fertile span, a short childbearing period, and low fertility. Age at menarche is relatively late, and the age of the women at first birth is mainly determined by their late age at marriage. The use of contraception is related to both spacing and stopping behaviors. The late age of women at marriage, the rhythm of conception, and practices of contraception are proposed as the main determinants of fertility in Tierra del Fuego.

  15. The first century of the "clinica del lavoro" in Milan.

    PubMed

    Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Foà, Vito

    2005-01-01

    The Clinica del Lavoro was created in Milan at the beginning of the 20th century by Luigi Devotto, who deemed it essential for physicians and health researchers to get involved in the life and health problems of working populations. The main roles of the Clinica del Lavoro were to educate medical students and train physicians; study actual workplaces, examine health and safety hazards and their noxious effects; and create initiatives and services to protect and promote workers' health. Important scientific contributions were made in several fields, including chemical carcinogenesis, effects of mineral and biologicalfibers, mechanism of action of silica dust, methods for the detection and measurements of toxic substances in both the work environment and workers' biological media.

  16. New records of fishes at Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.

    1996-01-01

    Isla del Coco lies at 5 degrees 32'N latitude, 87 degrees 04'W longitude and is the sole peak of the Cocos Ridge exposed above sea level. This isolated island formed approximately 2 million years ago. It rises 575 m above the surface of the sea and covers 46 km2 (Castillo et aI., 1988). Five hundred km to the NNE is Costa Rica; 630 km SSW are the Galapagos Islands; 650 km to the E is Isla Malpelo, Colombia; and approximately 8,000 km W lie the Line Islands. Costa Rica claimed Isla del Coco in 1832 and declared it a National Park in 1978. The area of the park was increased to include the adjacent waters 5 km offshore in 1984 and 25 km offshore in 1991.

  17. Prognostic Impact of del(17p) and del(22q) as Assessed by Interphase FISH in Sporadic Colorectal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    González-González, María; Muñoz-Bellvis, Luís; Mackintosh, Carlos; Fontanillo, Celia; Gutiérrez, M. Laura; Abad, M. Mar; Bengoechea, Oscar; Teodosio, Cristina; Fonseca, Emilio; Fuentes, Manuel; De Las Rivas, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Background Most sporadic colorectal cancer (sCRC) deaths are caused by metastatic dissemination of the primary tumor. New advances in genetic profiling of sCRC suggest that the primary tumor may contain a cell population with metastatic potential. Here we compare the cytogenetic profile of primary tumors from liver metastatic versus non-metastatic sCRC. Methodology/Principal Findings We prospectively analyzed the frequency of numerical/structural abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 7, 8, 13, 14, 17, 18, 20, and 22 by iFISH in 58 sCRC patients: thirty-one non-metastatic (54%) vs. 27 metastatic (46%) disease. From a total of 18 probes, significant differences emerged only for the 17p11.2 and 22q11.2 chromosomal regions. Patients with liver metastatic sCRC showed an increased frequency of del(17p11.2) (10% vs. 67%;p<.001) and del(22q11.2) (0% vs. 22%;p = .02) versusnon-metastatic cases. Multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) showed that the only clinical and cytogenetic parameters that had an independent adverse impact on patient outcome were the presence of del(17p) with a 17p11.2 breakpoint and del(22q11.2). Based on these two cytogenetic variables, patients were classified into three groups: low- (no adverse features), intermediate- (one adverse feature) and high-risk (two adverse features)- with significantly different OS rates at 5-years (p<.001): 92%, 53% and 0%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Our results unravel the potential implication of del(17p11.2) in sCRC patients with liver metastasis as this cytogenetic alteration appears to be intrinsically related to an increased metastatic potential and a poor outcome, providing additional prognostic information to that associated with other cytogenetic alterations such as del(22q11.2). Additional prospective studies in larger series of patients would be required to confirm the clinical utility of the new prognostic markers identified. PMID:22912721

  18. 2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. COURSE OF THE LATERAL THROUGH DEL NORTHWEST MAR PARK. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. 1939 DROP STRUCTURE IN DEL MAR PARK SURMOUNTED BY RECENT PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE. - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. Determinacion de Caracteristicas Opticas del Telescopio OAN150

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galan, M. J.; Cobos, F. J.

    1987-05-01

    En el Observatorio de Calar Alto, en Almería, España, está ubicado un telescopio de 15O-cms de diámetro -construído por REOSC- perteneciente al Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, con sede en Madrid, España. La infraestructura técnica del OAN ha sido tradicionalmente débil y actualmente se está haciendo un esfuerzo por fortalecerla. Existe una información muy limitada del telescopio en general; de su óptica en particular se conocían los valores de los parámetros principales pero sin saber si éstos corresponden a valores teóricos ó de construcción. Por ello se consideró necesario iniciar una investigación para conocer en detalle los valores reales de las componentes ópticas del telescopio, obteniéndose algunos resultados de interés. El primario del telescopio OANl5O es aproximadamente F/3 y el siste ma en su conjunto es F/8.2, con su sistema corrector de campo. En términos generales, la imagen es satisfactoria en todo el campo y, sin sistema corrector, la imagen axial también es buena. En un futuro muy cercano se piensa diseñar instrumentación adicional para este telescopio. Conocer con mayor precisión sus características puede ser de gran utilidad para tal fin, pues se efectúan los cálculos considerando conjuntamente al telescopio y al instrumento.

  1. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  2. Estudio multifrecuencia del medio interestelar cercano a HD 192281

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnal, E. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Cichowolski, S.; Pineault, S.; St-Louis, N.

    Una de las causas que modifica la estructura y dinámica del medio interestelar es la acción que los vientos de las estrellas de gran masa ejercen sobre el mismo. En este trabajo, mediante el uso de datos interferométricos obtenidos en la banda de radio en la transición de λ˜21-cm del hidrógeno neutro y de imágenes de la emisión de continuo en las bandas de 408 y 1420 MHz, de imágenes HIRES del satélite IRAS en 60 y 100μm, y de observaciones de continuo obtenidas con radiotelescopios de disco simple en 2695, 4850 y 8350 MHz se ha realizado un estudio multifrecuencia de los efectos que los vientos estelares de HD 192281, una estrella de tipo espectral O5,Vn((f))p, han tenido sobre el medio interestelar que rodea a la misma.

  3. Modeling Visibility in the EL Paso del Norte Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. M.; Medina, R.; DuBois, D. W.; Novlan, D.

    2013-12-01

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts in air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic Extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Airshed to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Airshed. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using our methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Airshed. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso del Norte Region.

  4. Modeling visibility in the Paso del Norte (PDN) Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina Calderon, Richard

    Poor visibility is a subject of growing public concern throughout the U.S, and an active area of research. Its societal impacts on air quality, aviation transport and traffic are significant. Aerosols play a fundamental role in the attenuation of solar radiation, and also affect visibility. The scattering and extinction coefficients of aerosol particles in the Paso del Norte Region have been calculated using the T- matrix model in conjunction with a laser particle counter. Inter-comparison of the model's results of the scattering and absorption coefficients against the corresponding data from a Photoacustic extinctiometer instrument (which measures in-situ absorption and scattering coefficients of aerosol particles) shows excellent agreement. In addition, the volume-weighted method is used to determine the composite index of refraction which is representative of the aerosols for the Paso del Norte Region to obtain information of the type of aerosol particles present in the Region. The Single Scattering Albedo has also been retrieved using this methodology to obtain further insight into the type of aerosols present on a given day. Finally, the Koschmieder equation has been used to calculate the visual range or visibility, and was correlated with the PM2.5 and PM10 particle concentration present in the Region. Our methodology will allow a better understanding of the size and type of aerosol particles that are most detrimental to the visibility for the Paso Del Norte Region.

  5. Los plaguicidas y la contaminacion del medio ambiente Venezolano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Stickel, W.H.

    1972-01-01

    RESUMEN DE RECOMENDACIONES Recomendaciones para el Programa de Investigacion: 1. Establecer un sistema de muestreo biologico para detectar los niveles tendencias de los productos quimicos toxicos en un peque?o numero de si tios representativos. 2. Mantener continua vigilancia de la contaminacion ambiental, mediante la seleccion acertadamente dirigida de las zonas afectadas y de las fuentes de contaminacion. 3. Realizar estudios acerca de las poblaciones de animales silvestres, y del exito de los procesos reproductivos de las especies o grupos clayes de animales que se consideran mas gravemente afectados. 4. Preparar recomendaciones para una accion gubernamental de proteccion al hombre, a la fauna silvestre y al medio ambiente. Recomendaciones para la Accion Administrativa: 1. Establecer limites a la tolerancia de los residuos de plaguicidas en los alimentos. Constituye una medida clave para disminuir la contaminacion ambiental. 2. Establecer normas de calidad del agua para las corrientes, represas, la gos y otros cuerpos. Es la segunda medida clave para reducir la contaminacion del ambiente 3. Exigir un tratamiento adecuado de los efluentes industriales, especialmente antes de que se construyan las nuevas plantas. 4. Exigir a los agricultores que en el uso de plaguicidas sigan los consejos tecnicos autorizados y negar a los vendedores el derecho a recomendar productos por su cuenta. 5. Tomar medidas para recoger y eliminar los recipientes y sobrantes de los plaguicidas.

  6. [Validazione del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire, un questionario diagnostico autosomministrato per il gioco d'azzardo patologico basato sui criteri del DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Pascucci, Marco; de Waure, Chiara; Bellomo, Antonello; Conte, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    RIASSUNTO. Scopo. Il DSM-5 presenta delle modifiche nei criteri diagnostici per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, rispetto alla precedente edizione del manuale; è pertanto necessario sviluppare nuovi strumenti diagnostici. Questo studio ha valutato le caratteristiche psicometriche del Gambling Disorder Screening Questionnaire (GDSQ), un questionario sviluppato per l'autosomministrazione, basato sui criteri diagnostici del DSM-IV e del DSM-5 per il gioco d'azzardo patologico, misurandone la validità e la consistenza interna e sottoponendo il questionario all'analisi delle componenti principali. Metodi. 71 pazienti reclutati da un ambulatorio dedicato al gioco d'azzardo patologico e 70 controlli sono stati valutati con il GDSQ, con il South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS) e con valutazione psichiatrica. Risultati. Il test ha mostrato una buona sensibilità, specificità, consistenza interna, correlazione con il SOGS. L'esclusione del criterio degli atti illeciti e l'abbassamento del punteggio di cut-off a quattro criteri positivi, come suggerito dal DSM-5, migliora la sensibilità e consistenza interna del test. Discussione e conclusioni. Il GDSQ può essere considerato un utile test di screening per il gioco d'azzardo patologico. Inoltre, questo studio conferma il miglioramento nell'accuratezza diagnostica dei criteri elencati nella quinta edizione del Manuale Diagnostico e Statistico dei Disturbi Mentali rispetto alla precedente edizione.

  7. The 2012 Reactivation of Nevado del Ruiz Volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordoñez, M.; Lopez, C.; Cortes, G. P.; Londoño, J.; Battaglia, M.

    2012-12-01

    Nevado Del Ruiz volcano is most known for its tragic November 13, 1985 explosive event, when a small eruption produced an enormous lahar that buried and destroyed the town of Armero in Tolima, causing an estimated 25,000 deaths. Similar but less deadly incidents occurred in 1595 and 1845, again where a small explosive eruption was followed by a large lahar. Other minor explosive events occurred in 1805, 1828-9, and 1989. The Armero tragedy was a major factor in the establishment of a volcano monitoring program in Colombia. The network monitoring Nevado del Ruiz volcano has dramatically improved since the 1985 eruption and now includes geodetic, geophysical, geochemical and visual monitoring. The activity of Nevado Del Ruiz between 1985 and 1991 saw significant increases in seismicity and significant gas emissions with the main eruptive events of November 13, 1985 and September 1st, 1989. The volcano became seismically active again in 1995 and 2002, whit an increase in seismicity, without any gas emission or eruption. In October 2010 the volcano entered in a new phase of unrest with increased seismicity (HB events), deformation and gas emissions, likely associated with a new magma intrusion. In February, 2012 the volcano had a new and significant increase in seismicity (VT-LP), followed in May and June 2012 by small phreatic and phreato-magmatic eruption. This eruptive activity is still ongoing. Deformation measurements at Nevado Del Ruiz volcano have been carried out since just after the tragic eruption of the 13th of November 1985. In 2007 seven new electronic tilt meters were set up to monitor the deformation. Significant uplift was measured from August 2007 to October 2010, for a total cumulative value of more than 500 microradians. From the end of 2011 to July 2012, moderate changes of uplift were detected for a total of 70 microradians. The analysis of these deformation data shows a pattern of surface displacement associated with an intrusion of new magma

  8. Comportamiento del Helio en estrellas químicamente peculiares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaroda, S. M.; López García, Z.; Leone, F.; Catalano, F.

    Las estrellas químicamente peculiares (CP) se caracterizan por tener deficiencias y sobreabundancias de algunos elementos químicos de hasta 106 veces la abundancia solar. Además presentan variaciones en las líneas espectrales. Se piensa que ello se debe a que los campos magnéticos presentes en este tipo de estrellas son principalmente dipolares, con un eje de simetría diferente del eje de rotación. La distribución de los elementos sobreabundantes y deficientes no es homogénea sobre la superficie estelar y las variaciones observadas serían una consecuencia directa de la rotación estelar. Entre los elementos con abundancia anómala se encuentra el Helio, cuyas líneas tienen intensidades que no son consistentes con una abundancia normal, que no puede ser determinada del modo usual, o sea, considerando una atmósfera con composición solar. Con el fin de determinar la abundancia de este elemento, se inició un estudio de estrellas anómalas de Helio, Hew y He strong. Además se determinarán las abundancias de otros elementos anómalos como ser el Si, Cr, Mg, Mn y Fe. Las mismas se determinan del modo tradicional, o sea: a) medida de los anchos equivalentes de las líneas de los distintos elementos analizados; b) adopción de la temperatura efectiva, gravedad y abundancia del Helio; c) cálculo del modelo de atmósfera d) comparación con las observaciones y reinicio de un proceso iterativo hasta lograr un acuerdo entre todos los parámetros analizados. Las observaciones se llevaron a cabo en el Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito. Se observaron setenta y ocho estrellas anómalas de Helio. En este momento se está procediendo a calcular las abundancias correspondientes a los distintos elementos químicos. Para ello se hace uso de los modelos de Kurucz, ATLAS9. Los cálculos NLTE de las líneas de Helio se llevan a cabo con el programa MULTI y se compararán con los realizados con el programa WIDTH9 de Kurucz (LTE), con el objeto de resaltar la importancia de

  9. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  10. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001. Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. motor vehicle and traffic safety. Data include: (1) motor vehicle occupants and non-occupants killed and injured, 1991-2001; (2) persons killed and injured, and fatality and injury rates, 1991-2001; (3) restraint use rates for passenger car occupants in fatal crashes, 1991 and 2001; (4)…

  11. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (3) total pedalcyclist…

  12. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Pedestrians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Data tables include: (1) trends in pedestrian and total traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (2) pedestrians killed and injured, by age group, 2001; (3) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (4) pedestrian fatalities, by time of day and day of week,…

  13. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Pedalcylists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on traffic accidents involving U.S. bicyclists. Data include: (1) trends in pedalcyclist and total traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (2) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (3) pedalcyclists killed and injured, and fatality and injury rates, by age and sex, 2000 [2001 population data by age group…

  14. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create an integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components...

  15. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Ground Data System, Receivables and Deliverables (REC/DELs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlton, Magdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents one JPL element manager's approach to describe a complex Ground Data System (GDS) with its receivables and deliverables (REC/DEL). The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Ground Data System is the integrated set of ground software, hardware, facilities and networks that support mission operation. REC/DEL is a powerful tool for specifying hierarchy of commitments among systems and teams. Receivable of a system is a deliverable of another system. Focusing on tangible products enables the manager to objectively measure progress in a schedule. Jet Propulsion Laboratory mandates the use of REC/DEL for flight projects. Tutorial and training is provided for managers to create integrated REC/DEL database using automated systems. Project schedules are based on REC/DELs. This paper is not focusing on the mechanics of REC/DEL database creation, but it provides a guideline how one systematically creates categories of deliverables and receivables for ground data system components.

  16. Effect of GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG genetic polymorphisms on risk of congenital deafness in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Y; Zhong, M; Chen, J; Yan, Y L; Lin, X F; Li, X

    2017-02-08

    Congenital deafness is a serious and irreversible condition in humans. The GJB2 gene is implicated in the pathogenesis of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss. Its 235delC and 30-35delG polymorphisms are reported to be associated with risk of hereditary deafness. However, the effect of the interaction between GJB2 235delC and 30-35delG and environmental factors on congenital deafness has not been described. Therefore, we performed a case-control study to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on congenital deafness risk, and their interaction with maternal and other environmental factors in the development of this disease. Between March 2014 and May 2015, 118 patients with congenital deafness and 242 healthy controls were enrolled into our study. Compared with the GG genotype, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) [and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for the 235delC GC and CC genotypes were 4.66 (1.77-13.07) and 8.28 (2.06-47.52), respectively. Individuals harboring the GC+CC genotypes were at a greatly increased risk of congenital deafness compared to those with the GG genotype (OR = 5.65, 95%CI = 2.54-13.18). However, no significant relationship was established between the 30-35delG variant and this disease. The 235delC polymorphism exhibited an interaction with use of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in conferring susceptibility to congenital deafness (chi-square = 8.76, P = 0.003). In conclusion, our study suggests that the GJB2 235delC polymorphism, but not the 30-35delG variant, contributes to congenital deafness susceptibility in the Chinese population examined, and demonstrates an interaction with consumption of aminoglycoside antibiotics during pregnancy in exerting this effect.

  17. Non-seasonality of births in Tierra del Fuego (Chile).

    PubMed

    Pascual, J; García-Moro, C; Hernández, M

    2000-01-01

    Tierra del Fuego is situated at the southern tip of the American continent, which conditions its environmental and climatic characteristics. The colonizing population arrived, at the end of the 19th century, from other Chilean regions (particularly from Chiloé) and diverse European countries, especially Britain and Croatia, but also Germany, Spain and Italy. In the present study, the existence of a seasonal pattern in 5430 births registered in the Chilean population of Tierra del Fuego from 1890 to 1995 was analysed. The analysis showed no seasonal distribution of births in the periods 1890-1920 and from 1946 to the present day, a phenomenon rarely reported in the literature. The absence of seasonality in birth distribution could be related to the great diversity in the origins of the population's families, the constant renovation of this and the declining importance of the administrative capital of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Porvenir, in favour of Punta Arenas, capital of the Magellanic region. In the period of maximum development of the capital of the province, a seasonal pattern was detected with a peak in April and a trough in October, which corresponds with a maximum of conceptions in July and, in general, during the early southern winter and a decline in births from late spring to mid-summer, with a trough in January. This birth distribution is interpreted as a subordination of activity and social life to the annual sheep cycle. In addition to temporal trends, the influence on the observed patterns of environmental parameters, father's occupation, seasonality of marriage and the origin of the parents were analysed.

  18. Optical photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomov, T.; Ilkiewicz, K.; Swierczynski, E.; Belcheva, M.; Dimitrov, D.

    2013-08-01

    We report optical BV photometry and spectroscopy of Nova Del 2013, carried out between August 14.88 UT and August 15.08 UT. Using a 60 cm Cassegrain telescope at the Nicolaus Copernicus University Observatory (Torun, Poland) we estimated the V brightness of the Nova to be 6.31+/-0.02 mag and 6.18+/-0.03 mag on Aug. 14.94 UT and Aug. 15.02 UT respectively. HD 194113 (F2, V=8.00 mag) was used as a comparison star.

  19. A novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Connexin 26 gene causes non-syndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Onsori, Habib; Rahmati, Mohammad; Fazli, Davood

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the Connexin 26 (Cx26) gene are a common cause of hereditary hearing loss in different populations. In the present study, an Iranian patient with bilateral hearing loss underwent molecular analysis for the causative mutation. DNA studies were performed for the Cx26 gene by PCR and sequencing methods. We describe a novel compound heterozygous mutation (35delG, 363delC) in the Cx26 gene that is strongly associated with congenital non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL).

  20. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Del Valle Bilingual Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlich, Roselin; Shore, Marietta Saravia

    This content analysis schedule for the Del Valle Bilingual Education Program of Del Valle, Texas, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the…

  1. 62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. R.L.T., photographer November 1, 1934 DEL NORTE COUNTY, SECTION D, HIGHWAY 1. REDWOOD CLEARING ON EXISTING LINE, 1-DN-71-A #26, R.L.T. 11-1-34. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  2. [Recommendations to improve the scientific communication process in the Revista Médica del IMSS].

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Ivón

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the position of the Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social among the different journals, in this editorial we enumerate a series of recommendations to ameliorate the practices of the different actors who participate in the scientific communication process of this journal.

  3. Primer registro para Peru del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae: Cicadellini)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    En este articulo se reporta por primera vez para el Peru una especies del genero Nielsonia Young, 1977, de material procedente del Departamento de Tumbes. El genero ha sido reportada anteriormente de Ecuador, como unico registro para Sudamerica, y America Central. El unico especimen hembra encontra...

  4. Efecto del Programa de Entrenamiento “Manejo del Dolor” en la Documentación de Enfermería en el Expediente Electrónico

    PubMed Central

    Monsiváis, María Guadalupe Moreno; Guzmán, Ma. Guadalupe Interial; Flores, Paz Francisco Sauceda; Arreola, Leticia Vázquez

    2012-01-01

    Resumen En el presente trabajo se muestra la importancia de entrenar al personal de enfermería para mejorar la documentación en el expediente electrónico. Se eligió el manejo del dolor por ser un área prioritaria; una alta proporción de pacientes en período post operatorio cursa con dolor, por lo tanto, la documentación debe ser útil para la toma de decisiones clínicas. Se implementó un programa de entrenamiento denominado “Manejo del Dolor” dirigido al personal de enfermería. Se utilizó la tecnología de la información como herramienta para fortalecer el conocimiento con base en la revisión sistemática de la literatura; el personal de enfermería participante seleccionó la mejor evidencia; posteriormente se trabajó en la transferencia de este conocimiento a la práctica a través del diseño de un protocolo para el manejo del dolor. Se concluye que el conocimiento del manejo del dolor es fundamental para que enfermería documente con mayor precisión sus intervenciones. PMID:24199106

  5. Screening of antibacterial activity of Amaicha del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) propolis.

    PubMed

    Nieva Moreno, M I; Isla, M I; Cudmani, N G; Vattuone, M A; Sampietro, A R

    1999-12-15

    Propolis is extensively used in Argentine folk medicine. Alcoholic extracts of propolis from four localities of Amaicha del Valle (El Paraiso, La Banda Este, La Banda Oeste and El Molino), Province of Tucumán and from Cerrillos, Province of Santiago del Estero, Argentina were prepared. All showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria, the propolis from La Banda Este being the most active (MIC = 7.8 microg/ml) against Streptococcus piogenes, an antibiotic resistant bacterium. Thin layer chromatographic (TLC) separation profiles of propolis from Amaicha del Valle region were similar but differ from the alcoholic extract of the propolis from Cerrillos, another phytogeographical region of Argentina (provincia chaqueña). Bioautographic assays of the TLC profiles showed that several separated compounds of the Amaicha del Valle propolis have antibacterial activity. The difference in composition between Amaicha del Valle and Cerrillos propolis coincides with a different phytogeographical formation.

  6. Assessing Glacier Hazards At Ghiacciaio Del Belvedere, Macugnaga, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeberli, W.; Chiarle, M.; Mortara, G.; Mazza, A.

    The uppermost section of the Valle Anzasca behind and above the community of Macugnaga in the Italian Alps is one of the most spectacular high-mountain land- scapes in Europe, with gigantic rock walls and numerous steep hanging glaciers. Its main glacier, Ghiacciaio del Belvedere at the foot of the huge Monte Rosa east face, is a heavily debris-covered glacier flowing on a thick sediment bed. Problems with floods, avalanches and debris flows from this ice body have been known for extended time periods. Most recently, however, the evolution of this highly dynamic environ- ment has become more dramatic. An outburst of Lago delle Locce, an ice-dammed lake at the confluenec of the tributary Ghiacciaio delle Locce with Ghiacciaio del Belvedere, caused heavy damage in 1979 and necessitated site investigation and con- struction work to be done for flood protection. The intermittent glacier growth ten- dency in the 1970es induced strong bulging of the glacier surface and, in places, caused the glacier tongue to override historical morains and to destroy newly-grown forest stands. A surge-type flow acceleration started in the lower parts of the Monte- Rosa east face during summer 2000, leading to strong crevassing and deformation of Ghiacciaio del Belvedere and extreme bulging of its orographic right margin. High water pressure and accelerated movement lasted into winter 2001/2002: the ice now started overriding the LIA moraine near Rifugio Zamboni of the CAI. In addition but rather independently, a most active detachment zone for rock falls and debris flows developed for several years now in the east face of Monte Rosa, somewhat more to the south of the accelerated glacier movement and at an altitude where relatively warm permafrost must be expected. Besides the scientific interest in these phenomena, the growing hazard potential to the local infrastructure must be considered seriously. Es- pecially potentials for the destabilization of large rock and ice masses in the

  7. [History of Instituto Nacional de Salud Ocupacional del Peru].

    PubMed

    Cossio-Brazzan, Juan M

    2012-06-01

    In Peru, the industry's development has made economic improvements but at the same time, it has had a major impact on the health of the workers; for that reason, it was necessary to generate control mechanisms. So, in 1940 it was created the Departmento de Higiene Industrial, which in 1956 was changed to Instituto de Salud Ocupacional, but it was deactivated in 1994. However, in 2001 it reappeared into the Ministerio de Salud organizational structure with the name of Instituto de Salud Ocupacional "Alberto Hurtado Abadía". Actually, it is the Centro Nacional de Salud Ocupacional y Protección del Ambiente para la Salud (CENSOPAS), organ of the Instituto Nacional de Salud which continues working in synergy with other institutions and sectors, making research to protect the health of exposed persons (workers and community) to contamination and risks associated with economic activities.

  8. Spatially Controlled Fe Isotope Variations at Torres del Paine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajos, N.; Lundstrom, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in mass-spectrometry have identified systematic trends of non-traditional stable isotope variation in igneous rocks with differentiation index. We present new Fe isotope data for the Torres del Paine igneous complex in southern Chile. The multi-composition pluton consists of a 1 km vertical exposure of homogenous granite overlying a contemporaneous and possibly cogenetic 0.5 km mafic gabbro suite. Whereas previous isotopic investigations do little to address variations across important magmatic contacts, this study focuses on a first-of-its-kind spatially dependent non-traditional stable isotope investigation of an igneous pluton. Samples were collected at Torres del Paine in spatially significant transects, focusing on major contacts between country rock, granite and mafic units. Results collected by bracketed double spike MC-ICP-MS (2s precision of ×0.03) show an increase in δ56Fe towards the high silica margins of the pluton with values as high as δ56Fe 0.36. Additionally, the data show a decrease in δ56Fe toward the mafic center of the pluton with δ56Fe values ranging from δ56Fe -0.05 to 0.18. Samples collected on the contact between the granite and mafic complex show intermediate values of δ56Fe= 0.18(×) 0.03. Country rock samples in contact with granite show an isotopically light signature of δ56Fe=0.04 (×) 0.03. Analysis of 50 samples in total show a trend of increasing δ56Fe with SiO2 content. The process responsible for Fe isotope variations remains debated but is suggested to reflect four mechanisms: (1) crustal assimilation, (2) fractional crystallization, (3) late stage fluid exsolution [1] and (4) thermal migration [3]. Preliminary results show that mechanisms #1 and #2 would produce isotopic signatures opposite of those seen at Torres del Paine and other plutonic rocks. Isotopically light Torres country rock samples reveal that assimilation of rocks would not produce the isotopically heavy granites seen at Torres. Based on

  9. Argentine gas system underway for Gas del Estado

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.

    1980-10-01

    Gas del Estado's giant 1074-mile Centro-Oeste pipeline project - designed to ultimately transport over 350 million CF/day of natural gas from the Neuquen basin to the Campo Duran-Buenos Aires pipeline system - is now underway. The COGASCO consortium of Dutch and Argentine companies awarded the construction project will also operate and maintain the system for 15 years after its completion. In addition to the 30-in. pipelines, the agreement calls for a major compressor station at the gas field, three intermediate compressor stations, a gas-treatment plant, liquids-recovery facilities, and the metering, control, communications, and maintenance equipment for the system. Fabricated in Holland, the internally and externally coated pipe will be double-jointed to 80-ft lengths after shipment to Argentina; welders will use conventional manual-arc techniques to weld the pipeline in the field.

  10. Taphonomy of guanaco bones in Tierra del Fuego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Luis Alberto

    1990-11-01

    Guanaco carcasses are deposited in great quantities in Cabo San Pablo, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), as a result of winter stress. Taphonomic studies indicate that the gnawing action of foxes on guanaco ( Lama guanicoe) carcasses produces only very tenuous marks on the bones. Lack of sustained interest in the carcasses by carnivores results in slow disarticulation. The articulated and disarticulated bones are exposed to heavy trampling by guanacos, a process that produces vertical migration of small/dense bones and fracturing of the most weathered bones. An understanding of this ongoing process is important for local archaeology, since modern bones are migrating into archaeological contexts. A regional approach to taphonomy is the most appropriate instrument to solve this and other related problems.

  11. Circular structures of Bajada del Diablo (Argentina): geophysical signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prezzi, C. B.; Orgeira, M. J.; Martinez, O.; Acevedo, R. D.; Ponce, F.; Goldmann, G.; Magneres, I.; Rabassa, J.

    2016-05-01

    Bajada del Diablo is located in the Northern Patagonian Massif, Chubut, Argentina. The study area includes several circular structures found in Miocene olivine basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex and in the Late Pliocene/Early Pleistocene Pampa Sastre conglomerates. An impact origin has been proposed for these circular structures. With the aim of further investigate the proposed impact origin, topographic, gravimetric, magnetic, resistivity, palaeomagnetic and electromagnetic surveys in two circular structures (`8' and `G') located in Pampa Sastre conglomerates and in basalts of the Quiñelaf Eruptive Complex were carried out. The new geophysical results support the hypothesis of an impact origin. However, the confirmation of such an origin through the findings of shock metamorphism evidences and/or the recovery of meteorites remains elusive.

  12. Renewable energy load assessment for Boquillas Del Carmen Coahuila, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, R.

    1995-08-01

    This report outlines the estimates that were made in 1992 of the potential load requirements for Boquillas del Carmen, a small Mexican village on the northern border of the state of Coahuila, Mexico near Big Bend National Park in southern Texas. The study was made to help determine the possibility that village might be electrified by solar or wind energy. Various estimates of are given of the potential load based on estimates ranging from basic use of lights, radio, television, and small household appliances to microwave ovens, refrigerators, and direct evaporative coolers. The low-energy consumption case was estimated to be at 23.0 kWh/month per residence per month, and the high-energy consumption case (with cooling) was 140.7 kWh/month per residence. On average, the typical residence is occupied by five individuals.

  13. Ozone studies in the Paso del Norte region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra-Davila, Fernando

    The Paso del Norte region forms the largest contiguous bi-national conglomerate on the US-Mexico border. With a combined population of around 2 million inhabitants, the Paso del Norte region is isolated, more than 500 km away from the nearest urban area of comparable size, thus making it an ideal location for air quality studies of an isolated urban environment. The meteorological conditions leading to a high ozone episode in this region, such as the historical ozone episode of June 2006, are analyzed. It is well known that stagnation and minimal winds, high temperatures, and pressure ridges over the region are conducive to high ozone episodes. In addition, the planetary boundary height is studied to understand its impact on high ozone episodes. Several studies report that ground level ozone non-attainment regulations could be caused not only by local emissions, but also by atmospheric transport. In this work the atmospheric advection of pollutants into the region is analyzed using HYSPLIT backward trajectories. Furthermore, a novel backward trajectory clustering technique is implemented for the summer of 2006. The "ozone weekend effect" (OWE) is a phenomenon by which in some geographical regions ambient ozone concentrations tend to be higher on weekends than on weekdays, despite the lower emissions of ozone precursors during those days. The observed local OWE has never previously been studied in terms of the photolysis rates of four of the main ozone precursors. In this research a novel method that allows the calculation of actinic fluxes, photolysis frequencies and photolysis rates with a high degree of accuracy and reliability has been developed. This method utilizes a combination of the experimental data available for this region in conjunction with a radiative transfer model (TUV model). Three weekend-weekday cases during summers 2006, 2009 and 2010 are studied in this work. In this research, the photolysis impact on the local OWE is studied. The results

  14. Phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise

    2015-07-28

    Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.

  15. High precision ages from the Torres del Paine Intrusion, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, J.; Baumgartner, L.; Cosca, M.; Ovtcharova, M.; Putlitz, B.; Schaltegger, U.

    2006-12-01

    The upper crustal bimodal Torres del Paine Intrusion, southern Chile, consists of the lower Paine-Mafic- Complex and the upper Paine-Granite. Geochronologically this bimodal complex is not well studied except for a few existing data from Halpern (1973) and Sanchez (2006). The aim of this study is to supplement the existing data and to constrain the age relations between the major magmatic pulses by applying high precision U-Pb dating on accessory zircons and 40Ar/39Ar-laser-step-heating-ages on biotites from the Torres del Paine Intrusion. The magmatic rocks from mafic complex are fine to medium-grained and vary in composition from quartz- monzonites to granodiorites and gabbros. Coarse-grained olivine gabbros have intruded these rocks in the west. The granitic body is represented by a peraluminous, biotite-orthoclase-granite and a more evolved leucocratic granite in the outer parts towards the host-rock. Field observations suggest a feeder-zone for the granite in the west and that the granite postdates the mafic complex. Two granite samples of the outermost margins in the Northeast and South were analyzed. The zircons were dated by precise isotope-dilution U-Pb techniques of chemically abraded single grains. The data are concordant within the analytical error and define weighted mean 206/238U ages of 12.59 ± 0.03 Ma and 12.58 ± 0.01 Ma for the two samples respectively. A 40Ar/39Ar-age for the second sample yield a date of 12.37 ± 0.11 Ma. Three 40Ar/39Ar -ages of biotites were obtained for rocks belonging to the mafic complex. A hbl-bio- granodiorite from the central part, approximately 150 m below the subhorizontal contact with the granite, gives an age of 12.81 ± 0.11 Ma. A hbl-bio-granodiorite and an olivine-gabbro west of the feeder-zone date at 12.42 ± 0.14 Ma and 12.49 ± 0.11 Ma, respectively. The obtained older age of 12.81 Ma for the granodiorite in the central part is consistent with structural relationships of brittle fracturing of the mafic

  16. Volcanic hazard maps of the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra, Eduardo; Cepeda, Hector

    1990-07-01

    Although the potential hazards associated with an eruption of Nevado del Ruiz volcano were known to civil authorities before the catastrophic eruption there in November 1985, their low perception of risk and the long quiescent period since the last eruption (140 years), caused them to wait for stronger activity before developing an eruption alert system. Unfortunately, the eruption occurred suddenly after a period of relative quiet, and as a result more than 25,000 people were killed. Although it was accurate and reasonably comprehensive, the hazard map that existed before the eruption was poorly understood by the authorities and even less so by the general population, because the scientific terminology and probabilistic approach to natural hazards were unfamiliar to many of them. This confusion was shared by the communication media, which at critical times placed undue emphasis on the possibility of lava flows rather than on the more imminent threat from mudflows, in keeping with the popular but often inaccurate perception of volcanic eruptions. This work presents an updated hazard map of Nevado del Ruiz that combines information on various hazardous phenomena with their relative probability of occurrence in order to depict numerical "hazard levels" that are easily comprehensible to nonspecialists and therefore less susceptible to misinterpretation. The scale of relative risk is arbitrary, ranging from five to one, and is intended to provide an intuitive indication of danger to people, property and crops. The map is meant to facilitate emergency preparedness and management by political and civil authorities, to educate the public concerning volcanic hazards and to assist in land-use planning decisions.

  17. [Epidemiology of dog bite lesions in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Padinger, Patricia; Elissondo, María C; Pérez, Héctor

    2008-01-01

    The coexistence between man and dog has resulted in mutual benefits during thousands of years, nevertheless some problems have recently arisen where bite injuries have an important role. The aim of this work was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of dog bite lesions which occurred during a year in Tierra del Fuego. A descriptive observational, transversal study of patients who were admitted with dog bite injuries to clinic and pediatric emergency services of hospitals and health centers was carried out between 3/1/05 and 3/1/06. A total of 382 records were made. The children group represents 49.5%. The group between 5 and 9 year-old was the most affected (44.4%; IC95% 37.2-51.8). In the adult group, that between 15 and 24 year-old was the most affected (29.5%; IC95% 23.2-36.5). More lesions were registered in men (57.6%) than in women (42.4%) (chi2 = 8.6, p = 0.003). During spring and summer months, 56.5% of the lesions were registered. A 72.8% of the incidents occurred on the public highway. Dogs of big size were responsible of 49.7% (IC95% 44.6-54.9) of the injuries. The 89.8% of the incidents were caused by another person's dog. Of the lesions, 55.8% (IC95% 50.6-60.8) were registered in lower extremities and 11% (IC95% 8.1-14.7) in head and neck. These data show that dog bite lesions affect the health and impact in the quality of life of the population of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Magnetism and Magnetic Materials (38th) Held at Minneapolis, Minnesota on 15-18 November 1993. (Journal of Applied Physics. Volume 75, Number 10, Part 28

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-15

    G. Rivero, E. Fraga, and A. Hernando I Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, Laboratorio "Salvador Velayos, "Apdo. Correos 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid...Spain J. M. Barandiarin Dpto de Electricidad y Electronica, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao, Spain Four components of the

  19. Deficiency of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) aggravates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Young; Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Eun Young

    2014-03-07

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a lung disease wherein lung parenchyma is gradually and irreversibly replaced with collagen. The molecular pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis is not fully understood and the only effective treatment available is lung transplantation. To test if Del-1, an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule, may be implicated in the development of pulmonary fibrosis, we induced pulmonary fibrosis in wild type (WT) and Del-1(-/-) mice by intratracheal administration of bleomycin. Del-1 expression in the lung was decreased in the WT mice treated with bleomycin compared to control mice. In addition, bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis increased collagen deposition and TGF-β production in the lung of Del-1(-/-) mice. Finally, Del-1(-/-) mice treated with bleomycin displayed higher weight loss and greater mortality than did WT mice identically treated. These findings suggest that Del-1 may negatively regulate development of pulmonary fibrosis. Further delineation of a role for Del-1 in the development of pulmonary fibrosis will broaden our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease and hopefully help develop potential therapeutics.

  20. Max Brödel: his art, legacy, and contributions to neurosurgery through medical illustration.

    PubMed

    Patel, Smruti K; Couldwell, William T; Liu, James K

    2011-07-01

    Max Brödel is considered the father of modern medical illustration. This report reviews his contributions to neurosurgery as a medical illustrator. Max Brödel, a young artist from Leipzig, Germany, was hired at Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1894, where he illustrated an operative textbook of gynecology for Howard A. Kelly. Although Brödel did not have any formal medical training, he quickly acquired knowledge of anatomy, pathology, physiology, and surgery. Brödel's extraordinary illustrations were characterized by an aerial perspective that conveyed the surgeon's operative viewpoint and precise surgical anatomy. He masterfully incorporated tissue realism with cross-sectional anatomy to accentuate concepts while maintaining topographical accuracy. Brödel's reputation spread quickly and resulted in collaborations with prominent surgeons, such as Cushing, Halsted, and Dandy. Cushing, who also possessed artistic talent, became a pupil of Brödel and remained a very close friend. In 1911, Brödel was appointed the director of the Department of Art as Applied to Medicine at Johns Hopkins, the first academic department of its kind in the world. For the next several decades, he trained generations of renowned medical illustrators. Just as Osler, Halsted, and Cushing passed their skills and knowledge to future leaders of medicine and surgery, Brödel did the same for the field of medical illustration. The advancement of neurosurgical education has been greatly facilitated by Max Brödel's artistic contributions. His unique ability to synthesize art and medicine resulted in timeless illustrations that remain indispensable to surgeons. The art produced by his legacy of illustrators continues to flourish in neurosurgical literature today.

  1. Max Brödel's contributions to otolaryngology-head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D

    1986-11-01

    Max Brödel arrived in the United States in 1894 to work as a medical illustrator at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. He brought with him an extensive background in medical sciences and illustration. This allowed him to develop an advanced style and technique that would greatly influence the profession of medical illustration. Much of Brödel's work concerned the head and neck region and is of particular interest to otolaryngologists. This article reviews the historical aspects of Brödel's career and highlights his contributions to Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery.

  2. Spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her and HR Del

    SciTech Connect

    Pilyogin, L.S.

    1986-03-01

    This paper considers the formation of the spatial shell structure of the novas DQ Her (1934) and HR Del (1967). It is shown that the existence of polar caps is due to the influence of the second component of the system on the angular distribution of the mass shell depth of the mainshell. The ratio of the mass shell depth in the equatorial ring and in the polar caps is 1.13 for DQ Her and 2.7 for HR Del. The ratio of the maximal densities in the equatorial ring and the polar caps is of order 3 for DQ Her and of order 70 for HR Del.

  3. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  4. A Silicate Inclusion in Puente del Zacate, a IIIA Iron Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Edward J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Clayton, Robert N.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.; Moore, Carleton B.; Steele, Ian M.

    1996-09-01

    The IIIA and IIIB iron meteorites are considered to have formed in the cores of asteroids. A silicate inclusion within the IIIA meteorite Puente del Zacate consisting of olivine (Fa_4), low-calcium pyroxene (Fs_6Wo_1), chromium diopside (Fs_3Wo47), plagioclase (An14Or_4), graphite, troilite, chromite, daubreelite, and iron metal resembles inclusions in IAB iron meteorites. The oxygen isotopic composition of the Puente del Zacate inclusion is like chromite and phosphate inclusions in other IIIA and IIIB irons. The Puente del Zacate inclusion may have been derived from the lower mantle of the IIIAB parent asteroid.

  5. RASTREO DEL CANCER COLORRECTAL CONOCIMIENTO Y ACTITUD DE LA POBLACION

    PubMed Central

    CASAL, ENRIQUE R.; VELAZQUEZ, ELIZABETH N.; MEJIA, RAUL M.; CUNEO, ALDO; PEREZ-STABLE, ELISEO J.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR) cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%). Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27), sigmoideoscopía (11) y colonoscopía (20). Una mayoría afirmó que “se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara” (95%), o “no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje” (87%). Contestar afirmativamente que “los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes” se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37) p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica. PMID:19414294

  6. Fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion and the Landau quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, G. Q.; de S. Oliveira, J. R.; Bakke, K.; Furtado, C.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we analyze Dirac fermions in Gödel-type background space-times with torsion. We also consider the Gödel-type space-times embedded in a topological defect background. We show that relativistic bound states solutions to the Dirac equation can be obtained by dealing with three cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion, where a cosmic string passes through these three cases of the space-time. We obtain the relativistic energy levels for all cases of the Gödel-type solutions with torsion with a cosmic string, where we show that there exists an analogy with the Landau levels for Dirac particles. We also show that the presence of torsion in the space-time yields new contributions to the relativistic spectrum of energies and that the presence of the topological defect modifies the degeneracy of the relativistic energy levels.

  7. Eleven new cases of del(9p) and features from 80 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Huret, J L; Leonard, C; Forestier, B; Rethoré, M O; Lejeune, J

    1988-01-01

    We report 11 cases of del(9p) and review 69 previously published ones. Of the 80 cases, 39 have a del(9p) as the sole anomaly. The symptoms are typical and diagnosis should be suspected at birth. The sex ratio does not appear to be unbalanced. A cardiac murmur is often present but surgery is rarely necessary. Mean IQ is 48. The number of reported cases with an associated trisomy has previously been underestimated. Death in infancy, owing mainly to gross visceral malformations, occurs more often in cases of del(9p) with another unbalanced chromosome segment (16/41) than in cases of del(9p) as the sole anomaly (1/39). Images PMID:3070043

  8. Taos Smart Growth Implementation Assistance: Concepts for the Paseo del Pueblo Sur Corridor

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes a technical assistance project with Taos, NM, to help make development along State Highway 68, the Paseo del Pueblo Sur commercial corridor, economically stronger and more attractive.

  9. Energy and Momentum in Spacetime Homogeneous GÖDEL-TYPE Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.

    Using Einstein and Papapetrou energy-momentum complexes, we explicitly calculate the energy and momentum distribution associated with spacetime homogeneous Gödel-type metrics. We obtain that the two definitions of energy-momentum complexes do not provide the same result for these type of metrics. However, it is shown that the results obtained are reduced to the energy-momentum densities of Gödel metric already available in the literature.

  10. Exact Solution of the Massless Dkp Equation in a Nonstationary GÖDEL-TYPE Cosmological Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havare, Ali; Aydogdu, Oktay; Yetkin, Taylan

    In this paper the massless Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau equation in a nonstationary rotating, causal Gödel-type cosmological background is studied. Exact solutions of the corresponding field equation are obtained and used to calculate the frequency spectrum of photon in nonstationary Gödel-type universe. To compare the results found with the classical field solutions, we also solved Maxwell's equations as given in the appendix.

  11. Estudio multiespectral del remanente de supernova W 28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubner, G.; Velázquez, P.; Castelletti, G.

    Se presentan observaciones en continuo de radio con muy alta resolución angular y sensibilidad del remanente de supernova (RSN) W28. Las observaciones fueron realizadas con el interferómetro Very Large Array (Estados Unidos), en las configuraciones C y D, en 1415 y 324 MHz. Por la gran extensión de este remanente (diámetro ~ 1o), las observaciones en 1415 MHz se realizaron en modo mosaico, combinando 48 apuntamientos diferentes en una única imagen. En ambas frecuencias los datos se procesaron con el agregado de observaciones de menor resolución angular, a fin de recuperar información en todas las frecuencias espaciales y obtener estimaciones precisas de densidad de flujo. Las imágenes resultantes muestran por primera vez la presencia de extensiones con forma de arco, cuya naturaleza se investiga. Las observaciones en radio se comparan con una imagen óptica de W28, y con la emisión en rayos X, observada con el satélite ROSAT. Este remanente muestra una clara morfología híbrida, tipo cáscara en frecuencias de radio y de centro lleno en las bandas óptica y de rayos X blandos.

  12. Seismicity following the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zollweg, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Over 200 of the best-recorded earthquakes occurring near Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, between December 1985 and May 1986 are examined for spatial patterns, information on local stress orientations, and evidence for seismogenic structures that may be related to magma-transport processes. These earthquakes occurred following the devastating eruption of November 13, 1985. Earthquake activity that is probably related to the volcanic system occurs over a large area, of the order of 50 km2. A pattern of earthquakes beneath the southern half of Ruiz may be the expression of a conduit system, but evidence is inconclusive due to low spatial resolution of most hypocenters. Epicenter and first-motion plots suggest most earthquakes occur on small faults of varying orientation. Most seismicity during this time period was unrelated to mapped faults, including some with Holocene offsets, except for the Villamaria Fault near Ruiz's northeast sector. Composite focal mechanisms show a variation of nearly 90?? in the strike of T-axes and indicate Ruiz is in a zone of local extension. ?? 1990.

  13. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  14. Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.V.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-11-01

    The results of VOC determinations of ambient air samples collected at surface air quality monitoring sites and near sources of interest on the US and Mexican side of the border during six weeks of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study are reported. Carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated cartridges at three surface sites and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. Whole air samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratory for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (gc-fid). Several sources were sampled: rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane fuel, petroleum refinery, and industrial manufacturing site. Spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions are presented. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Cuidad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Cuidad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons.

  15. ``Campo del Cielo'' Meteorites: Astronomical Heritage and Cultural Colonialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Alejandro Martín; Altman, Agustina

    2012-09-01

    In the province of Chaco, Argentina, there is a very unique dispersion of metallic meteorites called ``Campo del Cielo''. One of the meteoric fragments of this dispersion, the meteorite called ``El Chaco'', consisting of 37 tons, is the second heaviest in the world. These meteorites are of great importance to the worldview of the Moqoit, aboriginal people that inhabit this region. For the local Creole population the meteorites are also relevant, that's why they have being cited in numerous documents and reports since the colonial period. During the first months of 2012, two Argentine artists and the Artistic Director of the German contemporary art exhibition called dOCUMENTA (13) tried to move ``El Chaco'' meteorite to Germany in order to exhibit it as an artistic object. Due to the fact that moving the meteorite could have a negative impact according to the Moqoit cosmology and that they were not able to participate in the decision they begun a manifestation against the movement of El Chaco. The opposition made by aboriginal communities and experts in cultural astronomy was able to stop the transfer. The whole process and its impact on the local community have promoted a deep discussion about art, science and cultural colonialism. In this paper we aim to address this debate and its consequences. This will allow us to think about contemporary forms of colonialism that are hidden in many scientific and artistic projects. Furthermore, we aim to debate about the most effective ways of protecting astronomical heritage in the Third World.

  16. MALARIA VECTORS IN SAN JOSÉDEL GUAVIARE, ORINOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    PubMed Central

    JIMÉNEZ, IRENE P.; CONN, JAN E.; BROCHERO, HELENA

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine Anopheles species composition and their natural infectivity by human Plasmodium in 2 localities with the highest malaria transmission in San Jose del Guaviare, Guaviare, Colombia. A total of 1,009 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected using human landing catches during 8 months in 2010. Anopheles darlingi was the most abundant (83.2%) followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (8.6%), Anopheles braziliensis (3.8%), An. oswaldoi s.l. (1%), and An. rangeli (0.3%). Anopheles darlingi showed the highest human biting rate, and it was found naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax VK210 (0.119%) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. All species were collected biting both indoors and outdoors. Anopheles darlingi showed biting activity overnight with an indoor peak between 1200–0100 h. Therefore, we recommend that malaria prevention strategies focus on 1) insecticide-treated nets to reduce human–vector contact when people are most exposed and unprotected; 2) accurate diagnoses; 3) adequate treatment for patients; 4) more timely epidemiological notification; and 5) improved entomological surveillance. PMID:25102591

  17. CHEK2 c.1100delC allele is rarely identified in Greek breast cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Apostolou, Paraskevi; Fostira, Florentia; Papamentzelopoulou, Myrto; Michelli, Maria; Panopoulos, Christos; Fountzilas, George; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Voutsinas, Gerassimos E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis

    2015-04-01

    The CHEK2 gene encodes a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in maintenance of genomic integrity and the DNA repair mechanism. CHEK2 germline mutations are associated with increased risk of breast cancer and other malignancies. From a clinical perspective, the most significant mutation identified is the c.1100delC mutation, which is associated with an approximately 25% lifetime breast cancer risk. The distribution of this mutation shows wide geographical variation; it is more prevalent in the Northern European countries and less common, or even absent, in Southern Europe. In order to estimate the frequency of the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation in Greek breast cancer patients, we genotyped 2,449 patients (2,408 females and 41 males), which was the largest series ever tested for c.1100delC. The mean age of female and male breast cancer diagnosis was 49 and 59 years, respectively. All patients had previously tested negative for the Greek BRCA1 founder and recurrent mutations. The CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation was detected in 0.16% (4 of 2,408) of females, all of whom were diagnosed with breast cancer before the age of 50 years. Only one c.1100delC carrier was reported with breast cancer family history. The present study indicates that the CHEK2 c.1100delC mutation does not contribute substantially to hereditary breast cancer in patients of Greek descent.

  18. Multi-InDel Analysis for Ancestry Inference of Sub-Populations in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kuan; Ye, Yi; Luo, Tao; Hou, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Ancestry inference is of great interest in diverse areas of scientific researches, including the forensic biology, medical genetics and anthropology. Various methods have been published for distinguishing populations. However, few reports refer to sub-populations (like ethnic groups) within Asian populations for the limitation of markers. Several InDel loci located very tightly in physical positions were treated as one marker by us, which is multi-InDel. The multi-InDel shows potential as Ancestry Inference Marker (AIM). In this study, we performed a genome-wide scan for multi-InDels as AIM. After examining the FST distributions in the 1000 Genomes Database, 12 candidates were selected and validated for eastern Asian populations. A multiplexed assay was developed as a panel to genotype 12 multi-InDel markers simultaneously. Ancestry component analysis with STRUCTURE and principal component analysis (PCA) were employed to estimate its capability for ancestry inference. Furthermore, ancestry assignments of trial individuals were conducted. It proved to be very effective when 210 samples from Han and Tibetan individuals in China were tested. The panel consisting of multi-InDel markers exhibited considerable potency in ancestry inference, and was suggested to be applied in forensic practices and genetic population studies. PMID:28004788

  19. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether ‘classical’ signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10365.001 PMID:26701908

  20. Unravelling druggable signalling networks that control F508del-CFTR proteostasis.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Ramanath Narayana; Parashuraman, Seetharaman; Iorio, Francesco; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Capuani, Fabrizio; Carissimo, Annamaria; Carrella, Diego; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Subramanian, Advait; Bounti, Laura; Persico, Maria; Carlile, Graeme; Galietta, Luis; Thomas, David Y; Di Bernardo, Diego; Luini, Alberto

    2015-12-23

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The most frequent mutation (F508del-CFTR) results in altered proteostasis, that is, in the misfolding and intracellular degradation of the protein. The F508del-CFTR proteostasis machinery and its homeostatic regulation are well studied, while the question whether 'classical' signalling pathways and phosphorylation cascades might control proteostasis remains barely explored. Here, we have unravelled signalling cascades acting selectively on the F508del-CFTR folding-trafficking defects by analysing the mechanisms of action of F508del-CFTR proteostasis regulator drugs through an approach based on transcriptional profiling followed by deconvolution of their gene signatures. Targeting multiple components of these signalling pathways resulted in potent and specific correction of F508del-CFTR proteostasis and in synergy with pharmacochaperones. These results provide new insights into the physiology of cellular proteostasis and a rational basis for developing effective pharmacological correctors of the F508del-CFTR defect.

  1. Use of multi-InDels as novel markers to analyze 13 X-chromosome haplotype loci for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangyao; Ye, Yi; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have been proposed to identify insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphisms in humans for forensic genetic studies. However, the discriminatory power of InDels is limited by the poor polymorphisms of diallelic markers. To improve their discriminatory power, we developed multi-InDel, a novel autosomal marker comprising more than two InDel loci that are tightly linked by their physical position and combined into a specific marker by a pair of PCR primers. This strategy gives at least three haplotypes for each multi-InDel marker. Such markers can be potentially very useful in forensic applications. In this study, we focused on multi-InDel markers located on X chromosome (ChrX). A multiplex system with 13 multi-InDel markers, including 28 InDel loci in ChrX, was developed. To validate the multi-InDel panel, the haplotype distribution in a population sample and in a set of pedigrees was investigated. This study demonstrates usefulness of these markers for individual identification and relationship studies. We highlight the fact that the multi-InDel markers located on ChrX can provide new supporting information for complex kinship testing.

  2. El uso de la neuromodulación para el tratamiento del temblor

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Damián; Ajler, Pablo; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El temblor puede ser un desorden incapacitante y el tratamiento de primera línea para estos pacientes es farmacológico. Sin embargo, este tratamiento puede llevar a una reducción satisfactoria del temblor en sólo el 50% de los pacientes con temblor esencial. La talamotomía era el tratamiento de elección para el temblor refractario al tratamiento médico hasta que comenzó a utilizarse la estimulación cerebral profunda (ECP) del núcleo ventral intermedio (Vim) del tálamo. En la actualidad, raramente se realiza la talamotomía. Métodos: Este artículo es una revisión no sistemática de las indicaciones, resultados, parámetros de programación y técnica quirúrgica de la ECP del Vim para el tratamiento del temblor. Resultados: Aunque los resultados clínicos son similares usando la talamotomía o la ECP del Vim, la primera causa más efectos adversos que la última. Además, la ECP puede ser usada bilateralmente, mientras que la talamotomía tiene un alto riesgo de causar disartria cuando se realiza de ambos lados. La ECP del Vim logró una adecuada mejoría del temblor en varias series de pacientes con temblor causado por temblor esencial, enfermedad de Parkinson o esclerosis múltiple. Además del Vim, hay otros blancos que están siendo usados por varios autores, tales como la zona incerta y las radiaciones prelemniscales. Conclusión: La ECP del Vim es un tratamiento útil para el temblor incapacitante refractario al tratamiento médico. Es esencial realizar una precisa selección de pacientes, así como utilizar una técnica quirúrgica correcta. Aún se desconoce el mejor blanco estereotáctico para el temblor, aunque el Vim es el más usado. PMID:25165613

  3. Resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannberg, P. K.; Constable, S.

    2015-12-01

    In March of 2015 we mapped the resistivity structure of the Del Mar methane seep in the inner California borderlands using a deep towed electromagnetic (EM) source and receiver array. Located in the San Diego trough at a depth of 1km, the seep site is on the flank of a mound associated with a transpressive step in the San Diego trough fault. The seep site has previously been associated with seafloor pockmarks, acoustic wipeouts, chemosynthetic communities, and active methane bubble venting. Controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) surveys are performed by deep-towing an EM source that is transmitting a known signal; this signal is detected by towed receivers. This transmitted signal is altered by the electrical properties of the surrounding environment. Compared to seismic methods, EM methods are largely insensitive to free gas, making it an especially useful tool for detecting electrically resistive methane hydrate in areas of active gas venting. We used a 50m dipole transmitting 100A, with 3-axis electric field receivers spaced at 130m, 230m, 330m, and 430m behind the transmitter dipole center. The receiver data are inverted using MARE2DEM, a finite element 2D inversion routine. The inversion results show the background resistivity of the trough sediments to be about 1-2 ohmm, and are largely featureless outside of the seep site. However at the seep site we see a decanter-shaped 100 ohmm resistor whose base is 100m below the seafloor, and 1km wide at its widest. This feature narrows at the top to form a pipe structure about 200m wide that extends to the seafloor. These resistive structures are interpreted to be methane hydrate resulting from methane rich fluid flow along faults associated with the transpressional system that brackets the seep site.

  4. 1996 Paso del Norte ozone study VOC measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Seila, R.L.; Main, H.; Arriaga, J.L.; Martinez, G.; Ramadan, A.B.

    1999-07-01

    Ambient air VOC samples were collected at surface air quality monitoring sites, near sources of interest, and aloft on the US and Mexican side of the border during a six week period of the 1996 Paso del Norte Ozone Study. On nine intensive operations (IOP) days, when high ozone concentrations were forecast, five 2-hr samples were collected at five IOP sites, three on the US side and two on the Mexican side. Six special survey sites on the US side and two on the Mexican side were sampled to characterize up-wind, down-wind and other emissions. In Ciudad Juarez, rush hour traffic, propane-powered bus exhaust, automobile paint shop emissions, propane and butane fuels, and an industrial manufacturing site were sampled. Carbonyl samples were collected at three surface sites. Carbonyl and canister grab samples were also collected during aircraft and hot air balloon flights. Most of the hydrocarbon samples were collected in electro-polished stainless steel canisters which were returned to laboratories for determination of C-2 to C-10+ hydrocarbons by cryogenic preconcentration GC-FID. The carbonyl samples were collected on DNPH impregnated C-18 Sep-Pak cartridges and analyzed by HPLC to quantify 13, C-1 to C-8 species. This paper presents the spatial and temporal characteristics of VOC species concentrations and compositions to examine the differences and similarities of the various locations and time periods. Overall surface TNMOC values ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppmC with the highest concentrations being recorded in the morning at three vehicle-dominated sites, two in Ciudad Juarez and one in downtown El Paso. Toluene in El Paso samples and propane, which is used as a cooking and transportation fuel in Ciudad Juarez, were the most abundant hydrocarbons. The most abundant carbonyls were acetaldehyde and acetone.

  5. Telomere dynamics in patients with del (5q) MDS before and under treatment with lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Beier, Fabian; Masouleh, Behzad Kharabi; Buesche, Guntram; Ventura Ferreira, Monica S; Schneider, Rebekka K; Ziegler, Patrick; Wilop, Stefan; Vankann, Lucia; Gattermann, Norbert; Platzbecker, Uwe; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Götze, Katharina S; Nolte, Florian; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Haase, Detlef; Kreipe, Hans; Panse, Jens; Blasco, Maria A; Germing, Ulrich; Brümmendorf, Tim H

    2015-09-21

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with an acquired, isolated deletion of chromosome 5q (del (5q) MDS), represent a clonal disorder of hematopoiesis and a clinically distinct entity of MDS. Treatment of del (5q) MDS with the drug lenalidomide has significantly improved quality of life leading to transfusion independence and complete cytogenetic response rates (CCR) in the majority of patients. Telomeres are located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes and are linked to replicative history/potential as well as genetic (in) stability of hematopoietic stem cells. Here, we analyzed telomere length (TL) dynamics before and under lenalidomide treatment in the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow of del (5q) patients enrolled in the LEMON-5 study (NCT01081431). Hematopoietic cells from del (5q) MDS patients were characterized by significantly shortened TL compared to age-matched healthy controls. Telomere loss was more accelerated in patients with longer disease duration (>2 years) and more pronounced cytopenias. Sequential analysis under lenalidomide treatment revealed that previously shortened TL in peripheral blood cells was significantly "elongated" towards normal levels within the first six months suggesting a shift from clonal del (5q) cells towards normal hematopoiesis in lenalidomide treated MDS patients. Taken together our findings suggest that the development of the del (5q) clone is associated with accelerated telomere shortening at diagnosis. However, upon induction of CCR and reoccurrence of normal hematopoiesis, the lack of a persistent TL deficit argues against telomere-mediated genetic instability neither as a disease-promoting event of del (5q) MDS nor for lenalidomide mediated development of secondary primary malignancies of the hematopoietic system in responding patients.

  6. Genetic modifiers of CHEK2*1100delC associated breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Muranen, Taru A.; Greco, Dario; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Khan, Sofia; Hogervorst, Frans; Verhoef, Senno; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Schoemaker, Minouk; Swerdlow, Anthony; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Bermisheva, Marina; Kristensen, Vessela; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hillemans, Peter; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Brauch, Hiltrud; Hamann, Ute; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W.M.; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Arndt, Volker; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Devilee, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; John, Esther M.; Whittemore, Alice S.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Easton, Douglas F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CHEK2*1100delC is a founder variant in European populations conferring a 2–3 fold increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Epidemiologic and family studies have suggested that the risk associated with CHEK2*1100delC is modified by other genetic factors in a multiplicative fashion. We have investigated this empirically using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Methods With genotype data of 39,139 (624 1100delC carriers) BC patients and 40,063 (224) healthy controls from 32 BCAC studies, we analyzed the combined risk effects of CHEK2*1100delC and 77 common variants in terms of a polygenic risk score (PRS) and pairwise interaction. Results The PRS conferred an odds ratio (OR) of 1.59 [95% CI 1.21–2.09] per standard deviation for BC for CHEK2*1100delC carriers and 1.58 [1.55–1.62] for non-carriers. No evidence for deviation from the multiplicative model was found. The OR for the highest quintile of the PRS was 2.03 [0.86–4.78] for CHEK2*1100delC carriers placing them to the high risk category according to UK NICE guidelines. OR for the lowest quintile was 0.52 [0.16–1.74], indicating life-time risk close to population average. Conclusion Our results confirm the multiplicative nature of risk effects conferred by CHEK2*1100delC and the common susceptibility variants. Furthermore, the PRS could identify the carriers at a high life-time risk for clinical actions. PMID:27711073

  7. Manipulating proteostasis to repair the F508del-CFTR defect in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Speranza; Tosco, Antonella; Villella, Valeria R; Raia, Valeria; Kroemer, Guido; Maiuri, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a lethal monogenic disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene that entails the (diagnostic) increase in sweat electrolyte concentrations, progressive lung disease with chronic inflammation and recurrent bacterial infections, pancreatic insufficiency, and male infertility. Therapies aimed at restoring the CFTR defect have emerged. Thus, a small molecule which facilitates chloride channel opening, the potentiator Ivacaftor, has been approved for the treatment of CF patients bearing a particular class of rare CFTR mutations. However, small molecules that directly target the most common misfolded CFTR mutant, F508del, and improve its intracellular trafficking in vitro, have been less effective than expected when tested in CF patients, even in combination with Ivacaftor. Thus, new strategies are required to circumvent the F508del-CFTR defect. Airway and intestinal epithelial cells from CF patients bearing the F508del-CFTR mutation exhibit an impressive derangement of cellular proteostasis, with oxidative stress, overactivation of the tissue transglutaminase (TG2), and disabled autophagy. Proteostasis regulators such as cysteamine can rescue and stabilize a functional F508del-CFTR protein through suppressing TG2 activation and restoring autophagy in vivo in F508del-CFTR homozygous mice, in vitro in CF patient-derived cell lines, ex vivo in freshly collected primary patient's nasal cells, as well as in a pilot clinical trial involving homozygous F508del-CFTR patients. Here, we discuss how the therapeutic normalization of defective proteostasis can be harnessed for the treatment of CF patients with the F508del-CFTR mutation.

  8. [Guideline for the assessment of clinical research proposals. Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social].

    PubMed

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Grijalva-Otero, Israel; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham; Cruz-López, Miguel; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Salamanca-Gómez, Fabio Abdiel

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la investigación médica es una herramienta fundamental para lograr el avance de la ciencia al mejorar las acciones encaminadas a proteger, promover y restaurar la salud del individuo y de la sociedad en general. Las tres características imprescindibles para que un protocolo de investigación sea autorizado son: relevancia científica, calidad técnica y el cumplimiento de los aspectos éticos. Material y métodos: estudio retrospectivo efectuado con base en la búsqueda específica en Pubmed, Medline, Ovid y Google Scholar con los términos: peer review, research proposals, review and protocols and reviewers. Debido a que no se identificó ningún artículo que refiriera específicamente los criterios para evaluar protocolos de investigación clínica, se hizo un consenso entre los vocales de la Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, que está integrada por investigadores titulares de la institución, todos pertenecientes al Sistema Nacional de Investigadores. Se discutieron los criterios que debieran componer una revisión adecuada y cuáles debieran ser los rubros que deben incluirse en el análisis. Resultados: se integraron los criterios específicos que le permitirán al revisor de un protocolo de investigación realizar una crítica con bases metodológicas aceptadas por un consenso de investigadores. Conclusiones: un revisor debe ser considerado como un promotor del avance del conocimiento científico que, mediante sus comentarios y su dictamen, permite que los investigadores incrementen la calidad de sus protocolos de investigación.

  9. Modelo semi-empírico de protuberancia solar a partir del diagnóstico de densidades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirigliano, D.; Vial, J. C.; Rovira, M.

    A partir de la observación del espectro del quintuplete de C III alrededor de 1175 Å, se ha realizado el diagnóstico de la densidad y presión electrónica, basado en el cálculo del cociente de las intensidades observadas. Una vez establecida la densidad electrónica, y con el cálculo de las velocidades Doppler, hemos investigado el flujo de masa en la protuberancia en función de la temperatura. Estableciendo como hipótesis la conservación del número de partículas que ingresan y salen del cuerpo de la protuberancia, se investiga la variación del área de un tubo de flujo semi-empírico en función de la temperatura. A partir de dicho diagnóstico, se examina el comportamiento del radio del tubo magnético en función de la temperatura, los que dan cuenta de la abertura de las líneas de campo magnético que confinan el plasma y de la divergencia del campo magnético en diferentes alturas de la atmósfera solar.

  10. High mountain soils and periglacial features at the Torres del Paine, National Park Torres del Paine, Chile.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senra, Eduardo; Schaefer, Carlos; Simas, Felipe; Gjorup, Davi

    2015-04-01

    The Torres del Paine National Park (TPNP) is located on the southern limit of the Andean Southern Ice Field, part of the Magallanes and Antartica Chilena region, in the province of Ultima Esperanza. The TPNP has a very heterogeneous climate due to orographic influence and wet air masses from the Pacific. The geology is basically Cretaceous metasedimentary rocks and Miocene granitic plutons and batholiths. We studied the main soils and geoenvironments of Mt Ferrier mountain and its surroundings, based on soils , landforms and vegetation aspects. The geoenvironmental stratification was based on the combined variation and integration of pedo-litho-geomorphological features with the vegetation. WE used detailed geological maps, a DEM and slope maps and WorlView II satellite images. Fifteen soils profiles were sampled and classified according to Soil Taxonomy (2010) at all genovironments, ranging from 50 m a.s.l to the at high plateau just below the permanent snowline, under periglacial conditions (~1004m asl). Three soil temperature and moisture monitoring sites were set, allowing for 24 consecutive months (2011 to 2013). Seven geoenvironments were identified with distinct soil and landform characteristics, all with a similar geological substrate. The landform and vegetation have a strong connection with the landscape dynamic, controlling erosional and depositional processes, resulting from glacier advances and retreats in the Late Quaternary. Wind blown materials is widespread, in the form of loess material, accumulating in the higher parts of the landscape. On the other hand, accumulation of organic matter in the water-saturated depressions is common in all altitudes. Generally the soils are acidic and dystrophic, with little exceptions. The following geoenvironments were identified: Periglacial Tundra, Loess slopes, Talus and scarpmentd, Fluvio-glacial terraces, Fluvio-lacustrine plains, Moraines and Paleodunes. The regional pedology show the occurrence of five soil

  11. Using Del-1 to Tip the Angiogenic Balance in Endothelial Cells in Modular Constructs

    PubMed Central

    Ciucurel, Ema C.; Vlahos, Alexander E.

    2014-01-01

    Modular tissue engineering is a method of building vascularized tissue-engineered constructs. Submillimeter-sized collagen pieces (modules) coated with a layer of endothelial cells (EC; vascular component), and with embedded functional cells, are self-assembled into a larger, three-dimensional tissue. In this study, we examined the use of developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1), an extracellular matrix protein with proangiogenic properties, as a means of tipping the angiogenic balance in human umbilical vein endothelial cells incorporated in modular tissue-engineered constructs. The motivation was to enhance the vascularization of these constructs upon transplantation in vivo, in this case, without the use of exogenous mesenchymal stromal cells. EC were transduced using a lentiviral construct to overexpress Del-1. The Del-1 EC formed more sprouts in a fibrin gel sprouting assay in vitro compared with eGFP (control) transduced EC, as expected. Del-1 EC had a distinct profile of gene expression (upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9], urokinase-type plasminogen activator [uPA/PLAU], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF-A], and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1]; downregulation of angiopoietin-2 [Ang2]), also supporting the notion of “tipping the angiogenic balance”. On the other hand, contrary to our expectations, when Del-1 EC-coated modules were implanted subcutaneously in a severe combined immunodeficient/beige animal model, the proangiogenic effect of Del-1 was less remarkable. There was only a small increase in the number of blood vessels formed in Del-1 implants compared with the eGFP implants, and only few blood vessels formed at the implant site in both cases. This was presumed due to limited EC survival after transplantation. We speculate that if we could improve EC survival in our study (for example, by adding other prosurvival factors or supporting cells), we would see a greater Del-1-induced angiogenic benefit in vivo as a

  12. La implantacion del enfoque constructivista en el aula de ciencia: Estudio de caso multiple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arroyo Betancourt, Luz I.

    Esta investigacion estudia la implantacion del enfoque constructivista en tres aulas de ciencia del contexto puertorriqueno. Se auscultaron las practicas educativas que utilizan maestras consideradas constructivistas y la correspondencia de sus practicas educativas con los elementos esenciales de la didactica que proponen los teoricos de los planteamientos constructivistas. Se ausculto, ademas, a que vision del enfoque constructivista responden las expresiones de las maestras acerca de su practica educativa y como compara con su quehacer, a la luz de los elementos esenciales de las visiones constructivistas piagetiana, social y radical. Se utilizo el diseno de estudio descriptivo de caso multiple. El estudio se baso en entrevistas a profundidad, revision de documentos y observacion no participativa a la sala de clases. El contexto fueron tres escuelas publicas de la Region Educativa de San Juan, una elemental, una intermedia y una superior. Los resultados confirmaron que la transicion hacia el enfoque constructivista es un proceso que toma tiempo, dedicacion y la participacion en adiestramientos y readiestramientos acerca del nuevo enfoque. Las maestras coinciden en la mayoria de las practicas educativas que utilizan para implantar el enfoque constructivista de ensenanza y difieren en algunas debido, probablemente, a que han tenido que adaptarlas a los correspondientes niveles de ensenanza: elemental, intermedio y superior. Dos de las maestras planifican por conceptos generadores, mientras que una de ellas planifica siguiendo la guia que recibe del Departamento de Educacion. Difieren ademas, en el enfasis que confieren al inquirir cientifico. Con relacion a la correspondencia entre la vision manifestada por las maestras a la luz de las visiones piagetiana, social y radical, aparentemente, las preguntas del protocolo de entrevistas no lograron evocar la informacion con suficiente profundidad, por lo que la investigadora tuvo que inferir las visiones de las

  13. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure via Multi-InDel markers on the X chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Guang Yao; Ye, Yi; Hou, Yi Ping

    2016-01-01

    Detecting population structure and estimating individual biogeographical ancestry are very important in population genetics studies, biomedical research and forensics. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has long been considered to be a primary ancestry-informative marker (AIM), but it is constrained by complex and time-consuming genotyping protocols. Following up on our previous study, we propose that a multi-insertion-deletion polymorphism (Multi-InDel) with multiple haplotypes can be useful in ancestry inference and hierarchical genetic population structures. A validation study for the X chromosome Multi-InDel marker (X-Multi-InDel) as a novel AIM was conducted. Genetic polymorphisms and genetic distances among three Chinese populations and 14 worldwide populations obtained from the 1000 Genomes database were analyzed. A Bayesian clustering method (STRUCTURE) was used to discern the continental origins of Europe, East Asia, and Africa. A minimal panel of ten X-Multi-InDels was verified to be sufficient to distinguish human ancestries from three major continental regions with nearly the same efficiency of the earlier panel with 21 insertion-deletion AIMs. Along with the development of more X-Multi-InDels, an approach using this novel marker has the potential for broad applicability as a cost-effective tool toward more accurate determinations of individual biogeographical ancestry and population stratification. PMID:27535707

  14. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding

    SciTech Connect

    Schürpf, Thomas; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Jin-huan; Wang, Rui; Springer, Timothy A.; Wang, Jia-huai

    2012-11-13

    Developmental endothelial cell locus-1 (Del-1) glycoprotein is secreted by endothelial cells and a subset of macrophages. Del-1 plays a regulatory role in vascular remodeling and functions in innate immunity through interaction with integrin {alpha}{sub V}{beta}{sub 3}. Del-1 contains 3 epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats and 2 discoidin-like domains. An Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif in the second EGF domain (EGF2) mediates adhesion by endothelial cells and phagocytes. We report the crystal structure of its 3 EGF domains. The RGD motif of EGF2 forms a type II' {beta} turn at the tip of a long protruding loop, dubbed the RGD finger. Whereas EGF2 and EGF3 constitute a rigid rod via an interdomain calcium ion binding site, the long linker between EGF1 and EGF2 lends considerable flexibility to EGF1. Two unique O-linked glycans and 1 N-linked glycan locate to the opposite side of EGF2 from the RGD motif. These structural features favor integrin binding of the RGD finger. Mutagenesis data confirm the importance of having the RGD motif at the tip of the RGD finger. A database search for EGF domain sequences shows that this RGD finger is likely an evolutionary insertion and unique to the EGF domain of Del-1 and its homologue milk fat globule-EGF 8. The RGD finger of Del-1 is a unique structural feature critical for integrin binding.

  15. VEGF: a modifier of the del22q11 (DiGeorge) syndrome?

    PubMed

    Stalmans, Ingeborg; Lambrechts, Diether; De Smet, Frederik; Jansen, Sandra; Wang, Jian; Maity, Sunit; Kneer, Paige; von der Ohe, Maren; Swillen, Ann; Maes, Christa; Gewillig, Marc; Molin, Daniel G M; Hellings, Peter; Boetel, Thurid; Haardt, Maartin; Compernolle, Veerle; Dewerchin, Mieke; Plaisance, Stephane; Vlietinck, Robert; Emanuel, Beverly; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Scambler, Peter; Morrow, Bernice; Driscol, Deborah A; Moons, Lieve; Esguerra, Camila V; Carmeliet, Geert; Behn-Krappa, Annett; Devriendt, Koen; Collen, Désiré; Conway, Simon J; Carmeliet, Peter

    2003-02-01

    Hemizygous deletion of chromosome 22q11 (del22q11) causes thymic, parathyroid, craniofacial and life-threatening cardiovascular birth defects in 1 in 4,000 infants. The del22q11 syndrome is likely caused by haploinsufficiency of TBX1, but its variable expressivity indicates the involvement of additional modifiers. Here, we report that absence of the Vegf164 isoform caused birth defects in mice, reminiscent of those found in del22q11 patients. The close correlation of birth and vascular defects indicated that vascular dysgenesis may pathogenetically contribute to the birth defects. Vegf interacted with Tbx1, as Tbx1 expression was reduced in Vegf164-deficient embryos and knocked-down vegf levels enhanced the pharyngeal arch artery defects induced by tbx1 knockdown in zebrafish. Moreover, initial evidence suggested that a VEGF promoter haplotype was associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular birth defects in del22q11 individuals. These genetic data in mouse, fish and human indicate that VEGF is a modifier of cardiovascular birth defects in the del22q11 syndrome.

  16. Multiplex pyrosequencing of InDel markers for forensic DNA analysis.

    PubMed

    Bus, Magdalena M; Karas, Ognjen; Allen, Marie

    2016-12-01

    The capillary electrophoresis (CE) technology is commonly used for fragment length separation of markers in forensic DNA analysis. In this study, pyrosequencing technology was used as an alternative and rapid tool for the analysis of biallelic InDel (insertion/deletion) markers for individual identification. The DNA typing is based on a subset of the InDel markers that are included in the Investigator(®) DIPplex Kit, which are sequenced in a multiplex pyrosequencing analysis. To facilitate the analysis of degraded DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) fragments were kept short in the primer design. Samples from individuals of Swedish origin were genotyped using the pyrosequencing strategy and analysis of the Investigator(®) DIPplex markers with CE. A comparison between the pyrosequencing and CE data revealed concordant results demonstrating a robust and correct genotyping by pyrosequencing. Using optimal marker combination and a directed dispensation strategy, five markers could be multiplexed and analyzed simultaneously. In this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrate that multiplex InDel pyrosequencing analysis is possible. However, further studies on degraded samples, lower DNA quantities, and mixtures will be required to fully optimize InDel analysis by pyrosequencing for forensic applications. Overall, although CE analysis is implemented in most forensic laboratories, multiplex InDel pyrosequencing offers a cost-effective alternative for some applications.

  17. BRCA1 4153delA founder mutation in Russian ovarian cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krylova, Nadezhda Yu; Lobeiko, Oksana S; Sokolenko, Anna P; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Rozanov, Maxim E; Mitiushkina, Natalia V; Gergova, Madina M; Porhanova, Tatiana V; Urmancheyeva, Adel F; Maximov, Sergey Ya; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2006-09-15

    The BRCA1 4153delA allele is frequently referred to as the Russian founder mutation, as it was initially detected in several cancer families from Moscow. Our earlier studies have demonstrated 1% occurrence of BRCA1 4153delA heterozygosity in familial and/or early-onset and/or bilateral Russian breast cancer (BC) patients. Since literature data suggest that the 4153delA variant is more associated with ovarian cancer (OC) than with BC, we expected to reveal a highly elevated frequency of this genotype in Russian ovarian cancer series. However, real-time allele-specific PCR genotyping has detected only two BRCA1 4153delA carriers out of 177 unselected OC patients (1.1%). Both these carriers were early-onset and had serous carcinomas of grade 3. Thus, our study supports neither the Russian origin of BRCA1 4153delA mutation, nor its selectivity towards ovarian versus breast cancer predisposition.

  18. Del1 Knockout Mice Developed More Severe Osteoarthritis Associated with Increased Susceptibility of Chondrocytes to Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Tran, Misha C.; Bhatia, Namrata J.; Hsing, Alexander W.; Chen, Carol; LaRussa, Marie F.; Fattakhov, Ernst; Rashidi, Vania; Jang, Kyu Yun; Choo, Kevin J.; Nie, Xingju; Mathy, Jonathan A.; Longaker, Michael T.; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.; Helms, Jill A.; Yang, George P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective We identified significant expression of the matricellular protein, DEL1, in hypertrophic and mature cartilage during development. We hypothesized that this tissue-specific expression indicated a biological role for DEL1 in cartilage biology. Methods Del1 KO and WT mice had cartilage thickness evaluated by histomorphometry. Additional mice underwent medial meniscectomy to induce osteoarthritis, and were assayed at 1 week for apoptosis by TUNEL staining and at 8 weeks for histology and OA scoring. In vitro proliferation and apoptosis assays were performed on primary chondrocytes. Results Deletion of the Del1 gene led to decreased amounts of cartilage in the ears and knee joints in mice with otherwise normal skeletal morphology. Destabilization of the knee led to more severe OA compared to controls. In vitro, DEL1 blocked apoptosis in chondrocytes. Conclusion Osteoarthritis is among the most prevalent diseases worldwide and increasing in incidence as our population ages. Initiation begins with an injury resulting in the release of inflammatory mediators. Excessive production of inflammatory mediators results in apoptosis of chondrocytes. Because of the limited ability of chondrocytes to regenerate, articular cartilage deteriorates leading to the clinical symptoms including severe pain and decreased mobility. No treatments effectively block the progression of OA. We propose that direct modulation of chondrocyte apoptosis is a key variable in the etiology of OA, and therapies aimed at preventing this important step represent a new class of regenerative medicine targets. PMID:27505251

  19. Ectopsocidae (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera') from Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-04-14

    The results of a survey of the psocid family Ectopsocidae in Valle del Cauca and NNP Gorgona, are here presented. Fifteen species were identified, in the genera Ectopsocus (14 species), and Ectopsocopsis (one species); four of the Ectopsocus species are new to science and are here described and illustrated. The male of E. thorntoni García Aldrete is here described. Records of Ectopsocopsis cryptomeriae (Enderlein), Ectopsocus briggsi McLachlan, E. californicus Banks, E. columbianus Badonnel, E. maindroni Badonnel, E. meridionalis Ribaga, E. pilosus Badonnel, E. richardsi Pearman, E. titschacki Jentsch, and E. vilhenai Badonnel, are provided. Ten species were found only in Valle del Cauca, two species were found only in the NNP Gorgona, and three species were found at both sites. The specimens studied are deposited in the Entomological Museum, Universidad del Valle, Santiago de Cali, Colombia (MUSENUV).

  20. Biotic association and palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the "Loma del Pterodaustro" fossil site (Early Cretaceous, Argentina)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiappe, L.; Rivarola, D.; Cione, A.; Fregenal-Martinez, M.; Sozzi, H.; Buatois, L.; Gallego, O.; Laza, J.; Romero, E.; Lopez-Arbarello, A.; Buscalioni, A.; Marsicano, C.; Adamonis, S.; Ortega, F.; McGehee, S.; Di, Iorio O.

    1998-01-01

    A sedimentological analysis of the basal section of the Early Cretaceous, lacustrine Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" (San Luis, Argentina) and a summary of its biological components are presented. Three sedimentological facies can be recognized in the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation. Fossil remains are particularly abundant in laminated claystones of a facies interpreted as deposits formed in offshore areas of the lake. The preservation of delicate structures allows recognition of these deposits as a Konservat Lagersta??tte. Up to now, rocks at "Loma del Pterodaustro" have yielded plants, conchostracans, semionotid and pleuropholid fishes, pterodactyloid pterosaurs, and a variety of invertebrate traces. The chronology of the Lagarcito Formation is discussed and it is concluded that this unit is of Albian age. The palaeoenvironment of deposition of the basal sequence of the Lagarcito Formation at "Loma del Pterodaustro" is interpreted as a perennial, shallow lake developed within an alluvial plain, under semiarid climatic conditions.

  1. L'eliosismologia: onde sismiche per studiare l'interno del Sole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Negli ultimi cinquanta anni siamo stati testimoni di una straordinaria rivoluzione della conoscenza e comprensione della nostra stella grazie alla nascita dell'Eliosismologia, lo studio delle oscillazioni solari. Analogamente a ciò che accade nella Terra durante i terremoti, anche l'interno del Sole è pervaso continuamente da onde sismiche che provocano piccole oscillazioni, ovvero deformazioni della fotosfera. Le oscillazioni sono la manifestazione di diversi processi che avvengono all'interno della struttura del Sole e le frequenze sismiche dei modi osservati e misurati sulla superficie sono legate direttamente ai parametri fisici degli strati interni attraversati dalle onde sismiche. Lo studio delle oscillazioni rappresenta, quindi, l'unico metodo diretto per studiare la struttura e la dinamica interna del Sole. In questo articolo verranno illustrate le caratteristiche generali delle oscillazioni solari e verranno presentati i risultati importanti e i progressi notevoli raggiunti grazie all'Eliosismologia.

  2. Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects of Misiones and Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.

    PubMed

    López Lastra, Claudia C; Scorsetti, Ana C; Marti, Gerardo A; Coscarón, Sixto

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen species of Trichomycetes living in the guts of aquatic insects are reported from two provinces of Argentina, Misiones and Tierra del Fuego. Twelve of the species belong to the Harpellales and two are Amoebidiales. Five harpellid species are reported from Misiones in the extreme northeast of the country (Genistellospora homothallica, Harpella tica, Smittium culisetae, Smittium sp., Stachylina sp.) and seven are from Tierra del Fuego, the southern tip of South America (H. meridianalis, Glotzia sp., S. culicis, S. cellaspora, S. imitatum, Stachylina minima, Penella simulii). Insect hosts all were immature stages of Culicidae, Simuliidae, Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae (Insecta: Diptera), and Ephemeroptera and Plecoptera. The lower diversity of Trichomycetes found at Misiones, which has a subtropical climate and rainforest vegetation, was due possibly to the warmer temperatures of the water (15-24 C), compared to the colder streams of Tierra del Fuego (9-15 C), with forests and steppes as typical vegetation.

  3. Mejoras en el apuntado del telescopio de 2,15 mts de CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aballay, J. L.; Casagrande, A. R.; Pereyra, P. F.; Marún, A. H.

    Con el objeto de optimizar el funcionamiento del telescopio de 2,15 mts. de CASLEO, se están eliminando los motores de calar, de guía y mecánica asociada. Para ésto, se están diseñando dos electrónicas que gobernarán, solamente, el motor de slew y el de tracking. Con el control del motor de slew se realizarán las funciones de slew y calar, controlando desde una PC la placa que maneja las rampas de velocidad. De este modo, el movimiento será programado y por lo tanto, más suave y preciso. Con el control del motor de tracking, a través de un generador de frecuencias programable desde una PC, se proveerá los movimientos necesarios para el tracking y guía.

  4. Development and Utilization of InDel Markers to Identify Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Disease Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Dang, Phat M.; Chen, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Peanut diseases, such as leaf spot and spotted wilt caused by Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus, can significantly reduce yield and quality. Application of marker assisted plant breeding requires the development and validation of different types of DNA molecular markers. Nearly 10,000 SSR-based molecular markers have been identified by various research groups around the world, but less than 14.5% showed polymorphism in peanut and only 6.4% have been mapped. Low levels of polymorphism limit the application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in peanut breeding programs. Insertion/deletion (InDel) markers have been reported to be more polymorphic than SSRs in some crops. The goals of this study were to identify novel InDel markers and to evaluate the potential use in peanut breeding. Forty-eight InDel markers were developed from conserved sequences of functional genes and tested in a diverse panel of 118 accessions covering six botanical types of cultivated peanut, of which 104 were from the U.S. mini-core. Results showed that 16 InDel markers were polymorphic with polymorphic information content (PIC) among InDels ranged from 0.017 to 0.660. With respect to botanical types, PICs varied from 0.176 for fastigiata var., 0.181 for hypogaea var., 0.306 for vulgaris var., 0.534 for aequatoriana var., 0.556 for peruviana var., to 0.660 for hirsuta var., implying that aequatoriana var., peruviana var., and hirsuta var. have higher genetic diversity than the other types and provide a basis for gene functional studies. Single marker analysis was conducted to associate specific marker to disease resistant traits. Five InDels from functional genes were identified to be significantly correlated to tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infection and leaf spot, and these novel markers will be utilized to identify disease resistant genotype in breeding populations. PMID:26617627

  5. Epidemiological surveillance of ovine hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego, Patagonia Argentina, 1997-1999.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Fabián; Gonzalo, Roberto; Pérez, Héctor; Aparici, Inés; Soto, Ximena; Guerrero, Juvenal; Cerrone, Gloria; Elissondo, Celina

    2006-06-15

    Cystic echinococcosis is the most prevalent zoonosis in Tierra del Fuego province, Argentina, with important economic, productive and public health consequences. The present work was performed to determine the ovine prevalence in Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, as well as to evaluate the quality of diagnostic systems in slaughterhouses. Moreover, genetic analyses to characterize the strain of Echinococcus granulosus involved in the region were done. The first actions to perform a diagnosis of the epidemiological situation of hydatidosis in Tierra del Fuego were done between 1976 and 1977. A canine prevalence of 80% and an ovine prevalence of 55% results were obtained. Since 1979 the control program of Hydatidosis of Tierra del Fuego was implemented. It was based on semiannual canine anthelmintic treatment with praziquantel at dose of 5mg/kg, and complemented with sanitary education and canine and ovine epidemiological surveillance. During May 1997-January 1999: 5,916 sheep coming from 20 farms of the programmatic area were evaluated. In the lamb category, hydatid cysts were not found. In the adults category, 62 infected animals were found (3.2%). The ovine prevalence was 1.1% and there was 100% of coincidence between diagnosis in the slaughterhouse, re-inspection in the laboratory and histopathological study. The marked decrease in the prevalence observed for sheep infection evidenced a destabilization of the biological cycle of the parasite. This could be explained by the application of a control program with uninterrupted systematic actions. Polymerase chain reaction-ribosomal ITS-1 DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis and partial sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were used to characterize E. granulosus isolates collected from different regions of Tierra del Fuego to determine which genotypes occurred in this region. The results revealed the presence of the G1 genotype (sheep-dog strain

  6. An unexpected effect of TNF-α on F508del-CFTR maturation and function.

    PubMed

    Bitam, Sara; Pranke, Iwona; Hollenhorst, Monika; Servel, Nathalie; Moquereau, Christelle; Tondelier, Danielle; Hatton, Aurélie; Urbach, Valérie; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle; Hinzpeter, Alexandre; Edelman, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multifactorial disease caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene ( CFTR), which encodes a cAMP-dependent Cl (-) channel. The most frequent mutation, F508del, leads to the synthesis of a prematurely degraded, otherwise partially functional protein. CFTR is expressed in many epithelia, with major consequences in the airways of patients with CF, characterized by both fluid transport abnormalities and persistent inflammatory responses. The relationship between the acute phase of inflammation and the expression of wild type (WT) CFTR or F508del-CFTR is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate this effect. The results show that 10 min exposure to TNF-alpha (0.5-50ng/ml) of F508del-CFTR-transfected HeLa cells and human bronchial cells expressing F508del-CFTR in primary culture (HBE) leads to the maturation of F508del-CFTR and induces CFTR chloride currents. The enhanced CFTR expression and function upon TNFα is sustained, in HBE cells, for at least 24 h. The underlying mechanism of action involves a protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway, and occurs through insertion of vesicles containing F508del-CFTR to the plasma membrane, with TNFα behaving as a corrector molecule. In conclusion, a novel and unexpected action of TNFα has been discovered and points to the importance of systematic studies on the roles of inflammatory mediators in the maturation of abnormally folded proteins in general and in the context of CF in particular.

  7. Haplotype analysis of the 185delAG BRCA1 mutation in ethnically diverse populations

    PubMed Central

    Laitman, Yael; Feng, Bing-Jian; Zamir, Itay M; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Duncan, Paul; Port, Danielle; Thirthagiri, Eswary; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Evans, Gareth; Latif, Ayse; Newman, William G; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth; Zidan, Jamal; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Goldgar, David; Friedman, Eitan

    2013-01-01

    The 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation is encountered primarily in Jewish Ashkenazi and Iraqi individuals, and sporadically in non-Jews. Previous studies estimated that this is a founder mutation in Jewish mutation carriers that arose before the dispersion of Jews in the Diaspora ∼2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to assess the haplotype in ethnically diverse 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation carriers, and to estimate the age at which the mutation arose. Ethnically diverse Jewish and non-Jewish 185delAG*BRCA1 mutation carriers and their relatives were genotyped using 15 microsatellite markers and three SNPs spanning 12.5 MB, encompassing the BRCA1 gene locus. Estimation of mutation age was based on a subset of 11 markers spanning a region of ∼5 MB, using a previously developed algorithm applying the maximum likelihood method. Overall, 188 participants (154 carriers and 34 noncarriers) from 115 families were included: Ashkenazi, Iraq, Kuchin-Indians, Syria, Turkey, Iran, Tunisia, Bulgaria, non-Jewish English, non-Jewish Malaysian, and Hispanics. Haplotype analysis indicated that the 185delAG mutation arose 750–1500 years ago. In Ashkenazim, it is a founder mutation that arose 61 generations ago, and with a small group of founder mutations was introduced into the Hispanic population (conversos) ∼650 years ago, and into the Iraqi–Jewish community ∼450 years ago. The 185delAG mutation in the non-Jewish populations in Malaysia and the UK arose at least twice independently. We conclude that the 185delAG* BRCA1 mutation resides on a common haplotype among Ashkenazi Jews, and arose about 61 generations ago and arose independently at least twice in non-Jews. PMID:22763381

  8. The novel complex allele [A238V;F508del] of the CFTR gene: clinical phenotype and possible implications for cystic fibrosis etiological therapies.

    PubMed

    Diana, Anna; Polizzi, Angela Maria; Santostasi, Teresa; Ratclif, Luigi; Pantaleo, Maria Giuseppina; Leonetti, Giuseppina; Iusco, Danila Rosa; Gallo, Crescenzio; Conese, Massimo; Manca, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Few mutations in cis have been annotated for F508del homozygous patients. Southern Italy patients who at a first analysis appeared homozygous for the F508del mutation (n=63) or compound heterozygous for the F508del and another mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (n=155) were searched for the A238V mutation in exon 6. The allelic frequency of the complex allele [A238V;F508del] was 0.04. When the whole data set was used (comprised also of 56 F508del/F508del and 34 F508del/other mutation controls), no differences reached the statistical significance in the clinical parameters, except chloride concentrations which were lower in [A238V;F508del]/other mutation compared with F508del/other mutation (P=0.03). The two study groups presented less complications than the control groups. Within the minimal data set (34 F508del/F508del, 27 F508del/other mutation, 4 [A238V;F508del]/F508del cases and 5 [A238V;F508del]/other mutation cases); that is, presenting all the variables in each patient, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity presented a trend to lower levels in the study groups in comparison with the F508del/F508del group, and C-reactive protein approximated statistically significant higher levels in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation as compared with F508del/F508del patients (P=0.09). The analysis of statistical dependence among the variables showed a significant anticorrelation between chloride and body mass index in the [A238V;F508del]/other mutation group. In conclusion, the complex allele [A238V;F508del] seems to be associated with less general complications than in the control groups, on the other hand possibly giving a worse pulmonary phenotype and higher systemic/local inflammatory response. These findings have implications for the correct recruitment and clinical response of F508del patients in the clinical trials testing the new etiological drugs for cystic fibrosis.

  9. Interactions between carbon sequestration and shade tree diversity in a smallholder coffee cooperative in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Richards, Meryl Breton; Méndez, V Ernesto

    2014-04-01

    Agroforestry systems have substantial potential to conserve native biodiversity and provide ecosystem services. In particular, agroforestry systems have the potential to conserve native tree diversity and sequester carbon for climate change mitigation. However, little research has been conducted on the temporal stability of species diversity and aboveground carbon stocks in these systems or the relation between species diversity and aboveground carbon sequestration. We measured changes in shade-tree diversity and shade-tree carbon stocks in 14 plots of a 35-ha coffee cooperative over 9 years and analyzed relations between species diversity and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration was positively correlated with initial species richness of shade trees. Species diversity of shade trees did not change significantly over the study period, but carbon stocks increased due to tree growth. Our results show a potential for carbon sequestration and long-term biodiversity conservation in smallholder coffee agroforestry systems and illustrate the opportunity for synergies between biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation.

  10. Diarrhea Outbreak During U.S. Military Training In El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    February to June each year in Latin America. In 2011, activities included engineering, dental , and medical projects to aid citizens in the local vicinity...locations, and medical aid station. Logistic difficulties prevented the assessment of off-base work sites and food providers. No environmental sampling...practices were stopped following the diarrheal outbreak as a prevention measure. Testing of the base water distribution system and point-of-use locations

  11. Perspectives in Early Childhood Education: Belize, Brazil, Mexico, El Salvador and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell-Farmer, Judith Lynne; Cook, Pamela R.; Farmer, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) provision is becoming a growing priority. During the past twenty years, Latin America has shown a growing recognition in the provision of educational programs for young children, birth to age eight, is essential. Urban and rural populations intimated in 2009, that many countries utilizing equitable access to…

  12. 77 FR 2990 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... for the re-registration period to state that the period runs from January 9, 2012 through March 12...-registration period would run from January 9, 2012 through March 9, 2012. DHS is issuing this correction...

  13. Salvador Minuchin's structural family therapy and its application to multicultural family systems.

    PubMed

    Navarre, S E

    1998-01-01

    The structural approach to family therapy offers a useful perspective to the nurse therapist working with families with various cultural backgrounds. Asian and Hispanic families are examined to illustrate using Minuchin's approach to family counseling. The rationale for the structural approach is explored, and specific therapeutic techniques for practice are described. Nurses who work with culturally diverse families might profit by using this approach.

  14. 75 FR 38589 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Salvador Dali: The Late...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... October 19, 1999, as amended, and Delegation of Authority No. 257 of April 15, 2003 , I hereby determine... exhibition or display of the exhibit objects at the High Museum of Art, Atlanta, GA, from on or about...

  15. Establishment of a Comprehensive Military Medical System during Wartime in El Salvador: A Retrospective View

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    the more convinced we became that the crisis there is real, and acute; that the United States must act to meet it, and act boldly; that the stakes are...is hampered by high levels of national unemployment. The Telecommunications Health System (ANTEL) and the Teachers Health Program ( Bienestar ...now is a question of what might become. Whatever its roots in the past, the crisis in Central America exists urgently in the present, and its

  16. Food poisoning due to consumption of the marine gastropod Plicopurpura columellaris in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Barraza, José Enrique

    2009-11-01

    Finishing a red tide event (November 2005-April 2006), and after ingestion of 40-50 specimens of Plicopurpura columellaris (Muricidae), four Salvadoran girls, ranging from 4 to 11 years, presented intoxication symptoms within one hour. They were taken to hospital after more than two hours of symptoms. One fatality occurred when the elder girl died after six hours of ingestion. Specimen samples were taken from the place where the girls took the gastropods. Mouse bioassay indicated as if the collected specimens contained 7-million mouse units/100 g of saxitoxins.

  17. 75 FR 39556 - Extension of the Designation of El Salvador for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-09

    ... application forms together. You may apply for application and/or biometrics fee waivers if you are unable to....uscis.gov . Biometric Services Fee Biometrics (such as fingerprints) are required for all applicants...

  18. Right-Sizing Intervention: The Philippines, El Salvador, and the Future of American Foreign Internal Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    foreign cultures often depicts intervention as a uniquely American activity, based on a propensity for attempts to “engineer” solutions to complex...it is true that compromises must be made to sustain working relationships. Such considerations, however, should not drive solutions such as costly...obscure the significant challenges faced by advisors in the US Embassy’s Military Group (MILGROUP). The coffee plantations and craggy volcanic

  19. El Salvador and Guatemala: Security Sector Reform and Political Party System Effects on Organized Crime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). 117 Ibid. 118 Call...Free Market Myth.” June 2005. http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /2975 (accessed May 22, 2009). ———. “Labor Unrest and Organized Crime.” September 1995...http://www.envio.org.ni/ articulo /1891 (accessed June 8, 2009). Richani, Nazih. “Systems of Violence and their Political Economy in Post-Conflict

  20. Intervention to reduce heat stress and improve efficiency among sugarcane workers in El Salvador: Phase 1

    PubMed Central

    Bodin, T; García-Trabanino, R; Weiss, I; Jarquín, E; Glaser, J; Jakobsson, K; Lucas, R A I; Wesseling, C; Hogstedt, C; Wegman, D H

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic heat stress and dehydration from strenuous work in hot environments is considered an essential component of the epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Central America. Objective (1) To assess feasibility of providing an intervention modelled on OSHA's Water.Rest.Shade programme (WRS) during sugarcane cutting and (2) to prevent heat stress and dehydration without decreasing productivity. Methods Midway through the 6-month harvest, the intervention introduced WRS practices. A 60-person cutting group was provided water supplied in individual backpacks, mobile shaded rest areas and scheduled rest periods. Ergonomically improved machetes and efficiency strategies were also implemented. Health data (anthropometric, blood, urine, questionnaires) were collected preharvest, preintervention, mid-intervention and at the end of harvest. A subsample participated in focus group discussions. Daily wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) were recorded. The employer provided individual production records. Results Over the harvest WBGT was >26°C from 9:00 onwards reaching average maximum of 29.3±1.7°C, around 13:00. Postintervention self-reported water consumption increased 25%. Symptoms associated with heat stress and with dehydration decreased. Individual daily production increased from 5.1 to a high of 7.3 tons/person/day postintervention. This increase was greater than in other cutting groups at the company. Focus groups reported a positive perception of components of the WRS, and the new machete and cutting programmes. Conclusions A WRS intervention is feasible in sugarcane fields, and appears to markedly reduce the impact of the heat stress conditions for the workforce. With proper attention to work practices, production can be maintained with less impact on worker health. PMID:27073211

  1. State Capacity and Effectiveness in Combating Crime: A Comparative Study of El Salvador and Guatemala

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    result other than overpopulating prisons and hardening gang members. Most detrimental it focused resources away from the primary causes of homicide...conviction rate. Plan Escoba only served to overpopulate the prisons, over-burden a weak 173 E. Martinez

  2. Security in Transition: Police Reform in El Salvador and South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), Chapter six and ten; Jean -Paul Brodeur, Comparisons in Policing: An International Perspective...Defence Force, 1994), 25. 126 Cited in Elisabeth Jean Wood, Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent transitions in South Africa and El...and processing of criminal cases; 147 J.G. Fivaz , Status Report: Transformation of the South

  3. The "Facts" of El Salvador According to Objective and New Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braman, Sandra

    The debate between objective and new journalism centers upon the question of which approach factually depicts reality. Both genres, however, are part of one fact/fiction matrix in which all narrative forms since John Locke have been based upon factuality. The difference between the genres is that new journalism relies upon the sensory data of…

  4. U.S. - Latin American Relations Beyond Cuba, Panama, Nicaragua and El Salvador

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-08

    Ecuador, Venezuela and Mexico borrowed heavily in order to expand their economies in the belief that oil prices would continue to rise. 15 The banks...paying old debt with new debt became common. Things kept going on with an apparent air of business as usual until October 1982 when Mexico was not...in the continent. Positive long term instruments of policy such as economic cooperation, military alliances, educacion and transfer of technology

  5. "Daddy Daycare," Daffy Duck, and Salvador Dali: Popular Culture and Children's Art Viewing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Angela; Guberman, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In contemporary society, what, why, and how students come to gain knowledge and understandings of art defies traditional boundaries. In part, this is because of the prevalence of many forms of popular visual culture. In this article, the authors present three vignettes that demonstrate the ways in which three young children created connections…

  6. Investigator profile. An interview with Salvador Contreras Balderas, Ph.D. Interview by Vicki Glaser.

    PubMed

    Contreras Balderas, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Dr. Contreras Balderas is Professor Emeritus in the Department of Biology at Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Monterrey, Mexico). He received a Master's degree and Ph.D. in Biological Sciences from Tulane University (New Orleans, LA) and wrote his dissertation on Ichthyology. He was awarded the President's Excellence Award of the American Fisheries Society. Dr. Contreras Balderas is Founder, President, and Honorary Member of the Mexican Society of Zoology, the Ichthyological Society of Mexico, and the Desert Fishes Council, is an ex-officio member of the Coalition for the Sustainable Development of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, U.S. & Mexico, and is a member of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife's Rio Grande Fishes Recovery Team. Dr. Contreras Balderas's areas of expertise include fish faunas, fishes at risk, exotic species, aquatic restoration, environmental impacts as detected by fishes, integral conservation, integral basin/ecosystem management, and ecological evaluation of integrity in basins.

  7. Learning to Communicate an Adult Literacy Programme in Post-War El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther

    2005-01-01

    The experiences of men and women who participated in a Salvadoran adult literacy program belie the instrumentalist discourse of adult education, for they identified psychosocial benefits as the most meaningful aspects of the program. Attending literacy classes did not change their material situation as underemployed "campesinos/as," but…

  8. Decentralization and Privatization of Education in El Salvador: Assessing the Experience. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchelli, Helga Cuellar

    This paper presents the most notorious decentralization and privatization policies of education delivery included in the 1995-2005 education reform plan and briefly explains some of the factors justifying their existence, potential success, and possible limitations. It also examines the capacity of a privatization strategy, contracting…

  9. Pre-exploitation state of the Ahuachapán geothermal field, El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aunzo, Z.; Laky, C.; Steingrimsson, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.; Truesdell, A.H.; Escobar, C.; Quintanilla, A.; Cuellar, G.

    1991-01-01

    The lithology and structural features of the Ahuachapán geothermal area and their impact on the movement of cold and hot fluids within the system are described, as well as the development and evaluation of the natural state model of the field. Four major lithologic units are present in Ahuachapán and three major aquifers have been identified; flow patterns and zones of fluid mixing were located on the basis of temperature and geochemical data from wells and surface manifestations. Geologic structures control the heat and fluid recharge and the flow within the reservoir. Modeling studies suggest, in agreement with field data, an overall average transmissivity of 25–35 darcy-meters, and indicate that the system is recharged by waters with temperatures greater than 250°C. The total thermal throughflow for the Ahuachapán reservoir in the unexploited state is estimated to be about 250 MWt.

  10. Diagenesis and sea level change in a Pleistocene Coral Reef, San Salvador, Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.; Kurkjy, K.A.; Curran, H.A.

    1985-02-01

    Near the Cockburn Town reef (dated 125,000 yr B.P.), precisely surveyed bench marks are related to accurately measured mean sea level, and they provide a convenient datum plane. This coral reef developed during a sea level highstand of no more than 10,000 yr, which was insufficient time for significant subsidence; however, subsidence of approximately 3 m may have occurred since the formation of the reef. Sea level changes were caused by fluctuations in glacial-ice volume. The upper beach to dune transition, which is in the calcarenites overlying the reef, is at +4 m. A minimum highstand of +7 m is indicated when corrected for subsidence. Below +2.5 m, marine aragonite cement occurs within the intragranular pore space of the following: Halimeda plates, benthic foraminifera, Favreina (Callianassid fecal pellets), gastropods, and corals. Marine aragonite cement also occurs as intergranular isopachous rims on matrix grains of coral rubblestone. Remaining pore space was partly to completely occluded by freshwater vadose calcite cements, which occur without marine cements in the overlying shallow subtidal, beach, and dune calcarenites. No unequivocal freshwater phreatic cements, which occur without marine cements in the overlying shallow subtidal, beach, and dune calcarenites. No unequivocal freshwater phreatic cements have been found, although syntaxial overgrowths and irregular calcite rims about grains do occur in finer grained sediments where local patches of freshwater saturation occurred within the vadose zone. Later calchification, which affected all facies, is characterized by alveolar texture, whisker calcite, microsparite, rare bladed calcite spar, Microcodium, and rhizocretions.

  11. The Other September 11: Teaching about the 1973 Overthrow of Chilean President Salvador Allende

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetto, Katy; Lamb, Alexandra; Cohen, Robert

    2009-01-01

    September 11, 2001, is a day most American high school students remember. They may not fully grasp the events that took place, the reasons behind the terrorist attacks on the United States, or their implications, but they remember. They were children when this national trauma occurred--and they saw those unforgettable television images of the…

  12. Orthopedics nursing patients' profile of a public hospital in Salvador-Bahia

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Renata Reis Matutino; Ribeiro, Natália Fonseca; de Andrade, Aline Mendonça; Jaques, Bruno Dórea

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the profile of patients treated in the trauma and orthopedics nursing of a trauma care referral public hospital of in the state of Bahia. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in which data were collected from medical records of patients in the period from July to December 2008. RESULTS: The profile of the patients involved was formed by subjects mostly male young subjects, victims of trauma from accidents, especially those with motorcycles or car runover. On the other hand,the most frequent traumas associated with urban violence were perforations by gunshot and stab wounds. The primary injury presented by these individuals was exposed fracture of the femur and the most common treatment was external fixation. The most frequent in-hospital complication was wound infection, which required another surgical approach. Most inpatients were discharged and only one death was reported during this period. CONCLUSION: The results of this study corroborate those from other institutions in the country, which may contribute to elaborate public policies for accidents and violence prevention. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453666

  13. Integrating Early Childhood Education in a Health Program: An Example from El Salvador

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borisova, Ivelina; Coddington, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    The early childhood years (conception to age 8) are not only the most critical time for human growth but also for development and learning. Neurological and behavioral scientists document how inadequate stimulation and interactions can disrupt basic neural circuitry and cause long-term challenges for child's cognitive development. Yet, despite the…

  14. America - Las Americas. Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor; And Others

    These publications were written for teachers to use with migrant children in elementary grades to highlight individual differences between the countries that make up the Americas by providing historical, geographical, and cultural information about them on a quarterly basis. The three issues presented here focus on nations of Central America with…

  15. Gonadal dysgenesis, Turner syndrome with 46,XX,del(18p)3

    SciTech Connect

    Telvi, L.; Ion, R.; Bernheim, A.

    1994-09-01

    The authors report a case of a female infant with gonadal dysgenesis, clinical features of Turner syndrome and a de novo del(18p). The factors controlling gonadal dysgenesis and Turner syndrome are unknown to date. The genes involved could be located not only on X chromosome but also on autosomes. The present case suggests that one of these genes is situated on the short arm of chromosome 18. We conclude that patients with del(18p) syndrome should be evaluated for gonadal dysgenesis.

  16. Black hole remnant and quantum tunnelling in three-dimensional Gödel spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the modified Dirac equation in a three-dimensional gravity background, we investigate the quantum correction to tunnelling radiation from a Gödel black hole, and discuss the black hole remnant employing fermion's tunnelling. The corrected tunnelling probability is derived, and the modified Hawking temperature is found as well. It is worth emphasizing that, only when the condition j> αω(3 r -- r +) is satisfied, emitting both a mass particle and a massless particle, the remnant of the Gödel black hole may arise.

  17. An InDel-based linkage map of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    PubMed

    Li, Weipeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Wu, Zhiming; Qin, Cheng; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xin; Cui, Junjie; Zhang, Li; Hu, Kailin

    Two independent pepper (Capsicum annuum) genomes were published recently, opening a new era of molecular genetics research on pepper. However, pepper molecular marker technologies are still mainly focusing on the simple sequence repeats derived from public database or genomic library. The development and application of the third generation marker system such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, structure variations as well as insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) is still in its infancy. In the present study, we developed InDel markers for pepper genetic mapping with the convenience of two whole-genome re-sequenced inbred lines BA3 (C. annuum) and B702 (C. annuum). A total of 154,519 and 149,755 InDel (1-5 bp) sites were identified for BA3 and B702, respectively, by the alignment of re-sequencing reads to Zunla-1 reference genome. Then, 14,498 InDel sites (only 4 and 5 bp) that are different between BA3 and B702 were predicted. Finally, within a random set of 1,000 primer pairs, 251 InDel markers were validated and mapped onto a linkage map using F2 population derived from the intraspecific cross BA3 × B702. The first InDel-based map, named as BB-InDel map, consisted of 12 linkage groups, covered a genetic distance of 1,178.01 cM and the average distance between bin markers was 5.01 cM. Compared to the Zunla-1 reference physical map, high consistency was observed on all 12 chromosomes, and the total length of scaffold anchored and physical distance covered by this map was 299.66 and 2,558.68 Mb, respectively, which accounted for 8.95 and 76.38 % of the Zunla-1 reference genome (3.35 Gb), respectively. Furthermore, 37 scaffolds (total length of 36.21 Mb) from the pseudo-chromosome (P0) of the current genome assembly were newly assigned to the corresponding chromosomes by 40 InDel markers. Thus, this map provided good genome coverage and would be useful for basic and applied research in pepper.

  18. A new fish, Peristedion nesium (Scorpaeniformes: Peristediidae) from Isla del Coco, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Bussing, William A

    2010-12-01

    Several expeditions in recent years to Isla del Coco have increased the total number of species of fishes known from the island. Several of these species have been described as new endemics (Bussing 1983, 1990, 1991a, 1991b, 1997). During the 1972 R/V Searcher Expedition to Costa Rica several trawl collections were made around Isla del Coco. At five localities in depths between 110 and 180m, 86 specimens of a new species of Peristedion were taken and are described herein. A key to the four species of Eastern Pacific Peristedion is included.

  19. Refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia with subsequent del(5q) MDS: complete remission of both after lenalidomide.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Thomas Bech; Frederiksen, Henrik; Marcher, Claus Werenberg; Preiss, Birgitte

    2017-01-04

    A patient with refractory primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) characterised by severe skin and mucosal bleedings was treated with several ITP-directed therapies including cyclophosphamide. He later developed therapy-related del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome with no dysplastic morphological features in bone marrow. He remained severely thrombocytopenic, which suggests ongoing immune mediated platelet destruction. After two 3 week cycles of low-dose lenalidomide, complete cytogenetic remission and complete normalisation of platelet count were observed. This suggests that lenalidomide may be a viable treatment option for ITP in the presence of del(5q) not responding to standard treatments.

  20. Ecos del Cosmos: A radio astroexperience at the Universitat de Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Ballesteros, F. J.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2017-03-01

    During the last three years Ecos del Cosmos has been a radio program dedicated to spreading astronomical hot news to the Universitat de València community and beyond, and also topics of general astronomical interest. To do this, this program by Ràdio Universitat has conducted live interviews with researchers, explored relationships of astronomy with humanities and society, performed contests and explained in a simple way the main monthly ephemerides. A version of Ecos del Cosmos was broadcasted in the Onda Cero’s summer program ''Jelo en verano''conducted by Arturo Tellez.

  1. Archivo de placas astrométricas del Observatorio de La Plata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Sisto, R.; Orellana, R. B.

    Se ha realizado una base de datos con las placas fotográficas obtenidas con el Astrográfico del Observatorio de La Plata. Se han clasificado un total de 3000 placas obtenidas para asteroides y cometas. El acceso a la base de datos se hará por FTP y la misma contendrá la siguiente información: fecha y tiempo de exposición, coordenadas del centro de placa, tipo de emulsión fotográfica, estado de la placa, objeto fotografiado.

  2. A review on Balanites aegyptiaca Del (desert date): phytochemical constituents, traditional uses, and pharmacological activity

    PubMed Central

    Chothani, Daya L.; Vaghasiya, H. U.

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Zygophyllaceae), known as ‘desert date,’ is spiny shrub or tree up to l0 m tall, widely distributed in dry land areas of Africa and South Asia. It is traditionally used in treatment of various ailments i.e. jaundice, intestinal worm infection, wounds, malaria, syphilis, epilepsy, dysentery, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhoid, stomach aches, asthma, and fever. It contains protein, lipid, carbohydrate, alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, and organic acid. Present review summarizes the traditional claims, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of B. aegyptiaca Del reported in scientific literature. PMID:22096319

  3. Do crustal deformations observed by GPS in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) reflect glacial-isostatic adjustment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, L.; Richter, A.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Perdomo, R.; Del Cogliano, D.; Dietrich, R.; Fritsche, M.

    2010-09-01

    Vertical site velocities determined by geodetic GPS observations in the Lago Fagnano area, Tierra del Fuego main island, are interpreted with respect to their potential relation with the glacial-isostatic crustal response to ice mass changes. The spatial pattern of the uplift rates, in combination with the horizontal crustal deformation pattern, point towards a fault-tectonic rather than glacial-isostatic origin of the determined vertical crustal deformations. This implies rather small GIA effects pointing towards relatively small Holocene ice-mass changes in Tierra del Fuego. However, these findings are considered to be preliminary. They should be confirmed by additional observations covering an extended area with GPS sites.

  4. Development of EST-based SNP and InDel markers and their utilization in tetraploid cotton genetic mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were analyzed in silico in order to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion-deletion polymorphisms (InDels) in cotton. A total of 1349 EST-based SNP and InDel markers were developed by comparing ESTs between Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense, m...

  5. 75 FR 39668 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Rio del Oro...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... (FEIS) for the Rio del Oro Specific Plan Project, a proposed master-planned, mixed use development... a mixed- use development in the approximately 3,828-acre Rio del Oro Specific Plan Area. In response... (City). The City is the local agency responsible for preparing an Environmental Impact Report...

  6. DELIVERING TIMELY AIR QUALITY, TRAFFIC, AND WEATHER INFORMATION TO YOUR COMMUNITY/THE PASO DEL NORTE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a technology transfer handbook for the EMPACT Paso del Norte Project. The EMPACT Paso del Norte Environmental Monitoring Project is a mobile vehicle emissions project that involves the international community of El Paso, TX; Sundland Park, NM; and Juarez, Mexico...

  7. Del(15q) is a recurrent “minor route” cytogenetic abnormality in the clonal evolution of chronic myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, C. Cameron; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Apostolidou, Effrosyni; Cortes, Jorge E.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Lu, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Del(15q) is known to occur in acute leukemias, but has been described rarely in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We describe five cases of CML associated with del(15q). There were four men and one woman. Bone marrow aspirate smears demonstrated increased blasts in all cases at the time of del(15q) detection, showing accelerated phase in two and myeloid blast phase in three. Conventional cytogenetic analysis showed t(9;22) and del(15q), as well as other inconsistent clonal abnormalities. All patients received imatinib mesylate, four received additional chemotherapy, and two underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). For the three patients who did not receive ASCT, one died, one was in persistent blast phase, and one was in clinical remission with molecular evidence of residual disease, 16, 6, and 34 months after identification of del(15q), respectively. For the two patients who underwent ASCT, one died and one was in clinical remission with molecular evidence of disease, 15 and 64 months after identification of del(15q), respectively. Our findings indicate that del(15q) is a recurrent cytogenetic abnormality that may be seen either at initial presentation of advanced disease or emerge during disease progression. Del(15q) appears to be associated with a poor prognosis in CML. PMID:19480932

  8. Identification and functional characterisation of a novel KCNJ2 mutation, Val302del, causing Andersen-Tawil syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ördög, Balázs; Hategan, Lidia; Kovács, Mária; Seprényi, György; Kohajda, Zsófia; Nagy, István; Hegedűs, Zoltán; Környei, László; Jost, Norbert; Katona, Márta; Szekeres, Miklós; Forster, Tamás; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Sepp, Róbert

    2015-07-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the KCNJ2 gene encoding for the inward rectifier potassium channel subunit Kir2.1 cause Andersen-Tawil Syndrome (ATS), a rare genetic disorder characterised by periodic paralysis, ventricular arrhythmias, and dysmorphic features. Clinical manifestations of the disease appear to vary greatly with the nature of mutation, therefore, functional characterisation of ATS-causing mutations is of clinical importance. In this study, we describe the identification and functional analysis of a novel KCNJ2 mutation, Val302del, identified in a patient with ATS. Heterologously expressed wild type (WT) and Val302del mutant alleles showed similar subcellular distribution of the Kir2.1 protein with high intensity labelling from the membrane region, demonstrating normal membrane trafficking of the Val302del Kir2.1 variant. Cells transfected with the WT allele displayed a robust current with strong inward rectification, while no current above background was detected in cells expressing the Val302del Kir2.1 subunit. Co-transfection of CHO cells with the WT and the Val302del Kir2.1 revealed a dose-dependent inhibitory effect of the Val302del Kir2.1 mutant subunit on WT Kir2.1 currents. These observations indicate that the WT and the Val302del mutant subunits co-assemble in the cell membrane and that the mutation affects potassium conductivity and (or) gating of the WT/Val302del heteromeric Kir2.1 channels.

  9. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte... specified waters of the James River to protect mariners from the hazards associated with live fire and... conduct a live fire and explosive training event onboard the M/V Del Monte in the vicinity of the...

  10. Calumenin contributes to ER-Ca(2+) homeostasis in bronchial epithelial cells expressing WT and F508del mutated CFTR and to F508del-CFTR retention.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Réginald; Antigny, Fabrice; Buscaglia, Paul; Norez, Caroline; Huguet, Florentin; Castelbou, Cyril; Trouvé, Pascal; Becq, Frédéric; Frieden, Maud; Férec, Claude; Mignen, Olivier

    2017-02-04

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent fatal genetic disease in Caucasian populations. Mutations in the chloride channel CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene are responsible for functional defects of the protein and multiple associated dysregulations. The most common mutation in patients with CF, F508del-CFTR, causes defective CFTR protein folding. Thus minimal levels of the receptor are expressed at the cell surface as the mutated CFTR is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where it correlates with defective calcium (Ca(2+)) homeostasis. In this study, we discovered that the Ca(2+) binding protein Calumenin (CALU) is a key regulator in the maintenance of ER-Ca(2+) calcium homeostasis in both wild type and F508del-CFTR expressing cells. Calumenin modulates SERCA pump activity without drastically affecting ER-Ca(2+) concentration. In addition, reducing Calumenin expression in CF cells results in a partial restoration of CFTR activity, highlighting a potential function of Calumenin in CFTR maturation. These findings demonstrate a pivotal role for Calumenin in CF cells, providing insights into how modulation of Calumenin expression or activity may be used as a potential therapeutic tool to correct defects in F508del-CFTR.

  11. Causal Transformation of GÖDEL-TYPE Spacetimes in Conformal Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusin, Pawel

    The Gödel-type metrics are considered as backgrounds of the sigma-models. In the conformal field theory such backgrounds are deformed by the exactly marginal operators. We examine, how the closed timelike curves (CTCs) transform under such deformations.

  12. Exploración del Sistema Solar -- Una mirada hacia el futuro

    NASA Video Gallery

    ¿Piensas que ya sabemos todo acerca de nuestro sistema solar? La realidad es que apenas hemos comenzado con lo que hay para conocer. Únete a la NASA, en el envío de misiones a los confines del sist...

  13. Dolores Del Rio, the First "Latin Invasion", and Hollywood's Transition to Sound

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Mary

    2005-01-01

    The career and promotion of Mexican actress Dolores Del Rio as a case study of how Hollywood's shift to sound film affected Latino and Latina actors is examined. It reveals the way in which the starring opportunities for Latinos dwindled when accent and language increasingly marked them as nonwhite in the 1930s in the talkie films.

  14. Acantholachesilla gen. n. (Psocodea:'Psocoptera': Lachesillidae: Eolachesillinae: Graphocaeciliini) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Aldrete, Alfonso N García; Manchola, Oscar Fernando Saenz; Obando, Ranulfo González

    2014-06-25

    Acantholachesilla saltoensis gen. et sp. n. is described from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, in the Lachesillidae, tribe Graphocaeciliini (Eolachesillinae). The genus is related to Dagualachesilla and Dagualachesilloides that occur in the same area, differing from them in the male clunial projection, phallosome, and female subgenital plate and gonapophyses.

  15. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. ); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  16. Climatic controls on debris-flow activity and sediment aggradation: The Del Medio fan, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Sara; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Tofelde, Stefanie; Wittmann, Hella; Scherler, Dirk; Mey, Jürgen; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-12-01

    In the Central Andes, several studies on alluvial terraces and valley fills have linked sediment aggradation to periods of enhanced sediment supply. However, debate continues over whether tectonic or climatic factors are most important in triggering the enhanced supply. The Del Medio catchment in the Humahuaca Basin (Eastern Cordillera, NW Argentina) is located within a transition zone between subhumid and arid climates and hosts the only active debris-flow fan within this intermontane valley. By combining 10Be analyses of boulder and sediment samples within the Del Medio catchment, with regional morphometric measurements of nearby catchments, we identify the surface processes responsible for aggradation in the Del Medio fan and their likely triggers. We find that the fan surface has been shaped by debris flows and channel avulsions during the last 400 years. Among potential tectonic, climatic, and autogenic factors that might influence deposition, our analyses point to a combination of several favorable factors that drive aggradation. These are in particular the impact of occasional abundant rainfall on steep slopes in rock types prone to failure, located in a region characterized by relatively low rainfall amounts and limited transport capacity. These characteristics are primarily associated with the climatic transition zone between the humid foreland and the arid orogen interior, which creates an imbalance between sediment supply and sediment transfer. The conditions and processes that drive aggradation in the Del Medio catchment today may provide a modern analog for the conditions and processes that drove aggradation in other nearby tributaries in the past.

  17. Community Arts Programs: Cohesion and Difference Case Studies. Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiebert-Gruen, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    A comparative case study of two cultural institutions, Henry Street Settlement and El Museo del Barrio, founded almost eighty years apart, were involved in social justice causes and community arts. Although both of these institutions participated in the political activism of their time, they also demonstrated an important adaptability. They were…

  18. Shed Some Light on the Subject: Teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's "Luces de bohemia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jason Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This essay seeks to provide parallel and interchangeable approaches to teaching Ramon del Valle-Inclan's challenging play "Luces de bohemia". A greater understanding of the cultural and mental frameworks of the early twentieth-century Spanish spectator will permit students to penetrate the dense intertextuality that characterizes Valle's…

  19. CHEK2 ∗1100delC Mutation and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Y.

    2014-01-01

    Although the causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown, previous studies support the role of genetic factors in the development of prostate cancer. CHEK2 plays a critical role in DNA replication by responding to double-stranded breaks. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge of the role of a genetic variant, 1100delC, of CHEK2 on prostate cancer risk and discuss the implication for potential translation of this knowledge into clinical practice. Currently, twelve articles that discussed CHEK2∗1100delC and its association with prostate cancer were identified. Of the twelve prostate cancer studies, five studies had independent data to draw conclusive evidence from. The pooled results of OR and 95% CI were 1.98 (1.23–3.18) for unselected cases and 3.39 (1.78–6.47) for familial cases, indicating that CHEK2∗1100delC mutation is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. Screening for CHEK2∗1100delC should be considered in men with a familial history of prostate cancer. PMID:25431674

  20. Urban Impact of Dissolved Metals in the Paso del Norte Segment of the Rio Grande

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiwan, Sumayeh Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    The Paso del Norte segment of the Rio Grande experiences two seasons per year; the (wet) irrigation season and the (dry) non-irrigation season. The goal of this study was to improve the understanding of occurrence and contribution of dissolved metals in this region during the non-irrigation season. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate…