Science.gov

Sample records for del sector centro-este

  1. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  2. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper. Funcion del banco mundial en el sector de la electricidad: politicas para efectuar una reforma institucional, regulatoria y financiera eficaz

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The paper outlines the World Bank's new policies for the energy sector. It recommends several new policies to improve the performance of the electric power sector in developing countries. Bank loans for electric power will go first to countries clearly committed to improving the performance of their power sectors. The Bank will also discourage subsidies on energy prices and will encourage private investment in utilities. And it will provide financing to help the least developed countries import power where local generation is not practical.

  3. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  4. Regulatory Information By Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  5. Mineral Processing Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the nonmetallic mineral processing sector (NAICS 327), including NESHAPs for asbestos and hazardous waste, and wastewater permit information.

  6. Three Dimensional Sector Design with Optimal Number of Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xue, Min

    2010-01-01

    In the national airspace system, sectors get overloaded due to high traffic demand and inefficient airspace designs. Overloads can be eliminated in some cases by redesigning sector boundaries. This paper extends the Voronoi-based sector design method by automatically selecting the number of sectors, allowing three-dimensional partitions, and enforcing traffic pattern conformance. The method was used to design sectors at Fort-Worth and Indianapolis centers for current traffic scenarios. Results show that new designs can eliminate overloaded sectors, although not in all cases, reduce the number of necessary sectors, and conform to major traffic patterns. Overall, the new methodology produces enhanced and efficient sector designs.

  7. Buildings Sector Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  8. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  9. Sector-scanning echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, W. L.; Griffith, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical sector scanner is described in detail, and its clinical application is discussed. Cross sectional images of the heart are obtained in real time using this system. The sector scanner has three major components: (a) hand held scanner, (b) video display, and (c) video recorder. The system provides diagnostic information in a wide spectrum of cardiac diseases, and it quantitates the severity of mitral stenosis by measurement of the mitral valve orifice area in diagnosing infants, children and adults with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

  10. Normas finales de desempeño para fuentes nuevas y revisión de tecnología y riesgos del sector de refinería de petróleo-resumen de cambios

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La Agencia de Protección Ambiental (EPA, por sus siglas en inglés) emitió un reglamento final que mejorará significativamente la calidad del aire en los vecindarios cercanos a las refinerías de petróleo mediante un control más exhaustivo de las emisiones a

  11. Sector Study Guideline

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    LIMITS . . . . . . . . 8 5.1 Market Groups . ................ 8 5.2 Market Group A and the Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment...9 5.3 Market Groups B and Level of Effort (LOE) Assessment . . . . . . . . . 10 5.4 Market Group C and the Level of Effort Assessment 11 5.5... Market Groups Al, B1, C1 versus A2, B2, C2 (LOE) 11 6.0 AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 7.0 OVERVIEW OF THE PROPOSED SECTOR

  12. Chiral Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Co, Raymond T.; Harigaya, Keisuke; Nomura, Yasunori

    2017-03-01

    We present a simple and natural dark sector model in which dark matter particles arise as composite states of hidden strong dynamics and their stability is ensured by accidental symmetries. The model has only a few free parameters. In particular, the gauge symmetry of the model forbids the masses of dark quarks, and the confinement scale of the dynamics provides the unique mass scale of the model. The gauge group contains an Abelian symmetry U (1 )D , which couples the dark and standard model sectors through kinetic mixing. This model, despite its simple structure, has rich and distinctive phenomenology. In the case where the dark pion becomes massive due to U (1 )D quantum corrections, direct and indirect detection experiments can probe thermal relic dark matter which is generically a mixture of the dark pion and the dark baryon, and the Large Hadron Collider can discover the U (1 )D gauge boson. Alternatively, if the dark pion stays light due to a specific U (1 )D charge assignment of the dark quarks, then the dark pion constitutes dark radiation. The signal of this radiation is highly correlated with that of dark baryons in dark matter direct detection.

  13. The sun's magnetic sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.; Scherrer, P. H.; Howard, R.

    1975-01-01

    The synoptic appearance of solar magnetic sectors is studied using 454 sector boundaries observed at earth during 1959-1973. The sectors are clearly visible in the photospheric magnetic field. Sector boundaries can be clearly identified as north-south running demarcation lines between regions of persistent magnetic polarity imbalances. These regions extend up to about 35 deg of latitude on both sides of the equator. They generally do not extend into the polar caps. The polar cap boundary can be identified as an east-west demarcation line marking the poleward limit of the sectors. The typical flux imbalance for a magnetic sector is about 4 x 10 to the 21st power Maxwells.

  14. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  15. Exploring Oman's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saqlawi, Juman; Madani, Kaveh; Mac Dowell, Niall

    2016-04-01

    Located in a region where over 40% of the world's oil and gas reserves lie and in a trend similar to that of its neighbors, Oman's economy has been reliant on crude oil export since the 1970's. Being aware of the dangers of this reliance along with the discovery of Natural Gas since the 1980s, the Omani government's policy of diversifying its economy has shifted its reliance on Oil to another fossil fuel, namely Natural Gas. Given that energy is the lifeline of Oman's economy, effective and efficient forward planning and policy development is essential for the country's current and future economic development. This presentation explores the current status of the energy sector in Oman from home production and import to eventual final uses. The presentation highlights the major issues with Oman's current energy policies and suggests various strategies that could be adopted by Oman for a more efficient and sustainable future.

  16. Uncertainty bounds using sector theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.; Schmidt, David K.

    1989-01-01

    An approach based on sector-stability theory can furnish a description of the uncertainty associated with the frequency response of a model, given sector-bounds on the individual parameters of the model. The application of the sector-based approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant multivariable systems is presently explored, and the approach is applied to two generic forms of parameter uncertainty in order to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results obtained show that sector-uncertainty bounds can be used to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model.

  17. Partnership in Sector Wide Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolley, Hilary

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of bilateral support to the education sector in Tonga and the Solomon Islands, this paper will explore how the discourse of "partnership" has been interpreted and activated within the Sector wide approach (SWAp). In concentrating particularly on the relationship between the respective Ministries of Education and New…

  18. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Fixed Gear Sector, as defined in § 648.87(d)(1) or (2), joins a new sector, or fishes pursuant to the... in a sector may only fish in a particular stock area, as specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(A... that sector to fish under the provisions of the common pool or in another sector in the year...

  19. Thermal relics in hidden sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Jonathan L; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo E-mail: huitzut@uci.edu

    2008-10-15

    Dark matter may be hidden, with no standard model gauge interactions. At the same time, in WIMPless models (WIMP: weakly interacting massive particles) with hidden matter masses proportional to hidden gauge couplings squared, the hidden dark matter's thermal relic density may naturally be in the right range, preserving the key quantitative virtue of WIMPs. We consider this possibility in detail. We first determine model-independent constraints on hidden sectors from big bang nucleosynthesis and the cosmic microwave background. Contrary to conventional wisdom, large hidden sectors are easily accommodated. A flavour-free version of the standard model is allowed if the hidden sector is just 30% colder than the observable sector after reheating. Alternatively, if the hidden sector contains a one-generation version of the standard model with characteristic mass scale below 1 MeV, even identical reheating temperatures are allowed. We then analyse hidden sector freeze-out in detail for a concrete model, solving the Boltzmann equation numerically and explaining the results from both observable and hidden sector points of view. We find that WIMPless dark matter does indeed obtain the correct relic density for masses in the range keV{approx}

  20. Temperature compensation for miniaturized magnetic sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Mahadeva P. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Temperature compensation for a magnetic sector used in mass spectrometry. A high temperature dependant magnetic sector is used. This magnetic sector is compensated by a magnetic shunt that has opposite temperature characteristics to those of the magnet.

  1. Textile Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 313)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the textile and leather manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs for leather tanning and fabric printing, and small business guidance for RCRA hazardous waste requirements.

  2. Chemical Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 325)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    find EPA regulatory information for the chemical manufacturing sector, including NESHAPs, the SNAP program for ozone depleting substances,effluent guidelines, and new and existing chemicals testing requirements under TSCA.

  3. Wood and Paper Manufacturing Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find EPA regulatory information for the wood product and paper manufacturing sectors, including paper, pulp and lumber. Information includes NESHAPs and effluent guidelines for pulp and paper rulemaking, and compliance guidelines

  4. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  5. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fixed Gear Sector, as defined in § 648.87(d)(1) or (2), joins a new sector, or fishes pursuant to the...) Areas that can be fished. Vessels in a sector may only fish in a particular stock area, as specified in... penalty shall be applied to any member permit/vessel that leaves that sector to fish under the...

  6. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Fixed Gear Sector, as defined in § 648.87(d)(1) or (2), joins a new sector, or fishes pursuant to the...) Areas that can be fished. Vessels in a sector may only fish in a particular stock area, as specified in... penalty shall be applied to any member permit/vessel that leaves that sector to fish under the...

  7. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  8. Network topology of economic sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djauhari, Maman A.; Gan, Siew Lee

    2016-09-01

    A lot of studies dealing with stock network analysis, where each individual stock is represented by a univariate time series of its closing price, have been published. In these studies, the similarity of two different stocks is quantified using a Pearson correlation coefficient on the logarithmic price returns. In this paper, we generalize the notion of similarity between univariate time series into multivariate time series which might be of different dimensions. This allows us to deal with economic sector network analysis, where the similarity between economic sectors is defined using Escoufier’s vector correlation RV. To the best of our knowledge, there is no study dealing with this notion of economic sector similarity. Two examples of data from the New York stock exchange will be presented and discussed, and some important results will be highlighted.

  9. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  10. Inter-Sectoral Educational Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This book contains papers discussing inter-sectoral educational planning in countries belonging to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Intersectoral educational planning is interpreted as educational policy formation by any country which takes into consideration influences generated by that country's social and…

  11. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  12. Sectoral shifts and aggregate unemployment

    SciTech Connect

    Loungani, P.

    1986-01-01

    Some recent research has taken the view that sectoral or industry-specific shocks significantly affect aggregate unemployment by increasing the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required. The empirical evidence for this view rests on the finding that during the 1950s - and again during the 1970s - there was a positive correlation between aggregate unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth rates. This thesis demonstrates that this correlation arises largely because oil price shocks affect both unemployment and the dispersion of employment growth. Once the dispersion due to oil shocks is accounted for, the residual dispersion in employment has very low explanatory power for unemployment. Since the dispersion index does not measure pure sectoral shifts, an alternate measure of dispersion is developed that serves as a better proxy for the amount of inter-industry labor reallocation required each period. Estimates using this measure suggest that, during the 1950s, temporary increases in the relative price of oil were responsible for generating the observed correlation. On the other hand, sectoral shifts were important during the 1970s; in particular, the 1973 oil price increase has had significant reallocative effects on the economy. This contention is subjected to further tests by looking at the time-series behavior of employment in durable-goods industries and also by following the inter-industry movements of workers over time through the use of panel data.

  13. Energy Sector Impacts and Opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmark, R. L.; Macknick, J.; Martinez, A.; Hallett, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    The power sector is the largest user of freshwater in the U.S. The dominant use of water in power plants is for steam cycle cooling. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the U.S. has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Certain areas employ once-through cooling technologies with high withdrawals and low consumptive uses, whereas other areas employ recirculating cooling technologies with relatively low withdrawals but high consumptive uses. As water availability differs widely throughout the nation, assessments of water withdrawal and consumption impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional differences. The U.S. electricity portfolio is likely to evolve in coming years, shaped by various energy policies and economic drivers on both the national and regional level, which will impact power sector water demands. It is likely that the U.S. will continue to decarbonize its electricity industry, leading to more low-carbon technologies. However, many low-carbon technologies, such as coal with carbon capture and storage, nuclear, and concentrated solar power, can use more water than the current electricity portfolio average. National- and state-level water policies have been proposed (and enacted) that affect cooling system choices for power plants, with resulting implications for water use as well as power plant installed and operating costs and reliability. Energy policy analyses that do not consider power plant cooling system impacts may miss an important component power plant siting decisions. Similarly, water policies that do not take into consideration potential impacts on power plant operations or comprehensive regional water budget impacts may have deleterious effects on the energy industry. Analysis of future energy scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints as well as different policies can provide useful insights about likely changes to both

  14. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  15. Dynamically Evolving Sectors for Convective Weather Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drew, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    A new strategy for altering existing sector boundaries in response to blocking convective weather is presented. This method seeks to improve the reduced capacity of sectors directly affected by weather by moving boundaries in a direction that offers the greatest capacity improvement. The boundary deformations are shared by neighboring sectors within the region in a manner that preserves their shapes and sizes as much as possible. This reduces the controller workload involved with learning new sector designs. The algorithm that produces the altered sectors is based on a force-deflection mesh model that needs only nominal traffic patterns and the shape of the blocking weather for input. It does not require weather-affected traffic patterns that would have to be predicted by simulation. When compared to an existing optimal sector design method, the sectors produced by the new algorithm are more similar to the original sector shapes, resulting in sectors that may be more suitable for operational use because the change is not as drastic. Also, preliminary results show that this method produces sectors that can equitably distribute the workload of rerouted weather-affected traffic throughout the region where inclement weather is present. This is demonstrated by sector aircraft count distributions of simulated traffic in weather-affected regions.

  16. Sectoral approaches to improve regional carbon budgets

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Pete; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Marland, Gregg

    2008-06-01

    Humans utilise about 40% of the earth s net primary production (NPP) but the products of this NPP are often managed by different sectors, with timber and forest products managed by the forestry sector and food and fibre products from croplands and grasslands managed by the agricultural sector. Other significant anthropogenic impacts on the global carbon cycle include human utilization of fossil fuels and impacts on less intensively managed systems such as peatlands, wetlands and permafrost. A great deal of knowledge, expertise and data is available within each sector. We describe the contribution of sectoral carbon budgets to our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Whilst many sectors exhibit similarities for carbon budgeting, some key differences arise due to differences in goods and services provided, ecology, management practices used, landmanagement personnel responsible, policies affecting land management, data types and availability, and the drivers of change. We review the methods and data sources available for assessing sectoral carbon budgets, and describe some of key data limitations and uncertainties for each sector in different regions of the world. We identify the main gaps in our knowledge/data, show that coverage is better for the developed world for most sectors, and suggest how sectoral carbon budgets could be improved in the future. Research priorities include the development of shared protocols through site networks, a move to full carbon accounting within sectors, and the assessment of full greenhouse gas budgets.

  17. Macroscopic theory of dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris

    A simple Lagrangian with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term turned out an adequate tool for macroscopic description of the dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant [1]. Space-like and time-like massive vector fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like massive vector field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves [2]. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the universe [3]. In particular, the singular big bang turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with the accelerate expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution corresponds to the particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions in the absence of vector fields. The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows to analyse the main properties of the dark sector analytically and avoid unnecessary model assumptions. It opens a possibility to trace how the additional attraction of the space-like dark matter, dominating in the galaxy scale, transforms into the elastic repulsion of the time-like dark matter, dominating in the scale of the Universe. 1. B. E. Meierovich. "Vector fields in multidimensional cosmology". Phys. Rev. D 84, 064037 (2011). 2. B. E. Meierovich. "Galaxy rotation curves driven by massive vector fields: Key to the theory of the dark sector". Phys. Rev. D 87, 103510, (2013). 3. B. E. Meierovich. "Towards the theory of the evolution of the Universe". Phys. Rev. D 85, 123544 (2012).

  18. Probing the string winding sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldazabal, Gerardo; Mayo, Martín; Nuñez, Carmen

    2017-03-01

    We probe a slice of the massive winding sector of bosonic string theory from toroidal compactifications of Double Field Theory (DFT). This string subsector corresponds to states containing one left and one right moving oscillators. We perform a generalized Kaluza Klein compactification of DFT on generic 2 n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds and show that, up to third order in fluctuations, the theory coincides with the corresponding effective theory of the bosonic string compactified on n-dimensional toroidal constant backgrounds, obtained from three-point amplitudes. The comparison between both theories is facilitated by noticing that generalized diffeomorphisms in DFT allow to fix generalized harmonic gauge conditions that help in identifying the physical degrees of freedom. These conditions manifest as conformal anomaly cancellation requirements on the string theory side. The explicit expression for the gauge invariant effective action containing the physical massless sector (gravity+antisymmetric+gauge+ scalar fields) coupled to towers of generalized Kaluza Klein massive states (corresponding to compact momentum and winding modes) is found. The action acquires a very compact form when written in terms of fields carrying O( n, n) indices, and is explicitly T-duality invariant. The global algebra associated to the generalized Kaluza Klein compactification is discussed.

  19. Responsible leader behavior in health sectors.

    PubMed

    Longest, Beaufort

    2017-02-06

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to expand attention to responsible leader behavior in the world's health sectors by explaining how this concept applies to health sectors, considering why health sector leaders should behave responsibly, reviewing how they can do so, and asserting potential impact through an applied example. Design/methodology/approach This paper is a viewpoint, reflecting conceptualizations rooted in leadership literature which are then specifically applied to health sectors. A definition of responsible leader behavior is affirmed and applied specifically in health sectors. Conceptualizations and viewpoints about practice of responsible leader behavior in health sectors and potential consequences are then discussed and asserted. Findings Leadership failures and debacles found in health, but more so in other sectors, have led leadership researchers to offer insights, many of them empirical, into the challenges of leadership especially by more clearly delineating responsible leader behavior. Practical implications Much of what has been learned in the research about responsible leader behavior offers pathways for health sector leaders to more fully practice responsible leadership. Social implications This paper asserts and provides a supporting example that greater levels of responsible leader behavior in health sectors hold potentially important societal benefits. Originality/value This paper is the first to apply emerging conceptualizations and early empirical findings about responsible leader behavior specifically to leaders in health sectors.

  20. Research Frontiers in Public Sector Performance Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhonghua, Cai; Ye, Wang

    In "New Public Management" era, performance measurement has been widely used in managerial practices of public sectors. From the content and features of performance measurement, this paper aims to explore inspirations on Chinese public sector performance measurement, which based on a review of prior literatures including influencial factors, methods and indicators of public sector performance evaluation. In the end, arguments are presented in this paper pointed out the direction of future researches in this field.

  1. Security Force Assistance and Security Sector Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    development, and planning, 63 Shultz: Security Force Assistance and Security Sector Reform budgeting and management are critical in reforming a defense...and Security Sector Reform Richard H. Shultz, Jr. JSOU Report 13-5 September 2013 Joint Special Operations University 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard...Assistance and Security Sector Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  2. Healthcare and Social Assistance Sector (NAICS 62)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental regulations and information for the Healthcare sector, including doctor's offices, hospitals, and medical laboratories. Includes information about dental amalgam wastewater, sterilizers, and medical waste.

  3. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  4. Do Sectoral Training Funds Stimulate Training?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamphuis, Pascal; Glebbeek, Arie C.; Van Lieshout, Harm

    2010-01-01

    Sectoral levelling funds are an arrangement aimed at alleviating a well-known theoretical problem of underinvestment in worker training because of free-rider behaviour of firms. In the Netherlands, collective agreements require firms to participate in such funds in a number of sectors. Using a comprehensive dataset of Dutch firms, we attempt to…

  5. Entrepreneurship Education: Towards an Industry Sector Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Ita; Hynes, Briga

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the requirements for an industry sector approach to entrepreneurship education--the information and communications technology (ICT) sector. A modified Process Framework for Entrepreneurship Education is presented focusing specifically on ICT. The primary components of the Process Framework are…

  6. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  7. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.17 Horizontal sectors. (a)(1... intensities. The intensities shall decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 and 3 degrees outside the prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for...

  8. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  9. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  10. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  11. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  12. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.17 Horizontal sectors. (a)(1... intensities. The intensities shall decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 and 3 degrees outside the prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for...

  13. 33 CFR 84.19 - Vertical sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required intensity of electric lights as fitted shall be maintained on the horizontal. (d) In the case of... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.19 Vertical sectors. (a) The vertical sectors of electric lights as fitted, with the exception of lights on sailing vessels underway...

  14. 33 CFR 84.17 - Horizontal sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... RULES ANNEX I: POSITIONING AND TECHNICAL DETAILS OF LIGHTS AND SHAPES § 84.17 Horizontal sectors. (a)(1... intensities. The intensities shall decrease to reach practical cut-off between 1 and 3 degrees outside the prescribed sectors. (2) For sternlights and masthead lights and at 22.5 degrees abaft the beam for...

  15. FORCE Sectoral Survey on European Retail Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertzeletou, Tina

    1993-01-01

    A sectoral survey focused on ways in which vocational training plans are formulated and analysis of the cost effectiveness of continuing vocational training at the company level. It examined techniques applied to developing continuing vocational training and improving access. National surveys carried out for the retail trade sector revealed…

  16. National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR)

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-06-30

    The goal of the National Electric Sector Cybersecurity Organization Resource (NESCOR) project was to address cyber security issues for the electric sector, particularly in the near and mid-term. The following table identifies the strategies from the DOE Roadmap to Achieve Energy Delivery Systems Cybersecurity published in September 2011 that are applicable to the NESCOR project.

  17. Dark Sectors 2016 Workshop: Community Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Jim; et al.

    2016-08-30

    This report, based on the Dark Sectors workshop at SLAC in April 2016, summarizes the scientific importance of searches for dark sector dark matter and forces at masses beneath the weak-scale, the status of this broad international field, the important milestones motivating future exploration, and promising experimental opportunities to reach these milestones over the next 5-10 years.

  18. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... new sector, or fishes pursuant to the provisions of the common pool. (i) GB cod PSC for permits... only fish in a particular stock area, as specified in paragraphs (b)(1)(ii)(A) through (F) of this... penalty shall be applied to any member permit/vessel that leaves that sector to fish under the...

  19. Youth Employment in the Hospitality Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Bradley R.

    A study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to analyze the long-term effects of hospitality industry employment on youth. The subsample extracted for the study included all youth who were aged 16-24 in 1980 and employed in the civilian sector for pay at any time in the year. Statistics indicated the hospitality sector was…

  20. Mixed-Sector Tertiary Education. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    This research overview provides the key messages arising from two related projects investigating tertiary education institutions that have recently begun to offer tertiary programs outside the sector of their initial establishment and the sector of the majority of their enrolments. These are TAFE institutes offering higher education programs,…

  1. The Economic Effects of a Booming Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corden, W. M.

    1983-01-01

    Since the 1970s, economists have recognized that a booming export sector of the economy can have unfortunate consequences for other sectors and lead to both appreciation of that nation's currency and a weakening position for its exports. A model to stimulate the effects of this situation is discussed. (IS)

  2. Labor in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.

    Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…

  3. Education and Human Resources Sector Assessment Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pigozzi, Mary Joy; Cieutat, Victor J.

    This manual endorses and adopts the sector-assessment approach for planning and managing the allocation of educational resources. Chapter 1 presents the manual's goals. Chapter 2 describes the manual's content and information sources, explains the term "sector assessment," identifies the groups that benefit from recommendations made by…

  4. Dimensions of the Independent Sector: A Statistical Profile. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia Ann; Weitzman, Murray S.

    The second in a biennial series of statistical profiles of the independent sector (voluntary sector, third sector, or nonprofit sector) describes and charts the activities of groups and individuals associated with this sector. Included are voluntary organizations, foundations, the social responsibility programs of corporations, and people who…

  5. Contracting in Complex Operations: Toward Developing a Contracting Framework for Security Sector Reconstruction and Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    ongoing administra’!ioo aod out processing (as required), aod periodic unit \\Uits ( to em:un deployed LEP penollDel a.Tt performing: tbeir duties L~ W tbe... aod implement core systems, processes and organizations; recnri~ equip, trnio and field forces. This approach was applied to the llu:ee major...completed lhe conceptual design of the Defense Sector aod emphasized the development of the MoD aod GS decision-making and other core processes

  6. Air Traffic Sector Configuration Change Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatterji, Gano B.; Drew, Michael

    2010-01-01

    A Mixed Integer Linear Programming method is used for creating sectors in Fort Worth, Cleveland, and Los Angeles centers based on several days of good-weather traffic data. The performance of these sectors is studied when they are subjected to traffic data from different days. Additionally, the advantage of using different sector designs at different times of day with varying traffic loads is examined. Specifically, traffic data from 10 days are used for design, and 47 other days are played back to test if the traffic-counts stay below the design values used in creating the partitions. The primary findings of this study are as follows. Sectors created with traffic from good-weather days can be used on other good-weather days. Sector configurations created with two hours of traffic can be used for 6 to 12 hours without exceeding the peak-count requirement. Compared to using a single configuration for the entire day, most of the sector-hour reduction is achieved by using two sector configurations -one during daytime hours and one during nighttime hours.

  7. Acid deposition research in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.; Wisniewski, J.; Nelson, J.

    1984-02-01

    Acid deposition research funded by the private sector since 1980 is reviewed. Types of studies (e.g., atmospheric processes, emissions and monitoring, environmental effects) supported by the private sector during this period are overviewed. The specific industries/organizations (e.g., electric utility industry, environmental interest groups) funding reserach during 1980-1982 are discussed, with relation to the number of studies supported and funds (by year) provided by each. Finally, 13 research projects supported by the private sector and initiated by December 1983, each at greater than $1 million, are described.

  8. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP) sponsors clearances for private sector partners who are responsible for critical...

  9. Multi-Sector Sustainability Browser (MSSB)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A browser which lets the user navigate through text and graphics and understand the interrelationship among four key sectors of a community crucial to sustainability: Land Use, Buildings and Infrastructure, Transportation, and Materials Management.

  10. Climate Leadership in the Financial Sector Webinar

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Financial sector winners from the 2015 Climate Leadership Awards discuss best practices and challenges faced by their corporations based on their experience of attempting to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and address climate risk.

  11. Occupational health scenario of Indian informal sector

    PubMed Central

    NAG, Anjali; VYAS, Heer; NAG, Pranab

    2016-01-01

    Workers in the Indian informal sector are engaged with different occupations. These occupations involve varied work related hazards. These occupational hazards are a consequent risk to health. The study aimed to determine occupational health scenario in the Indian Informal sector. One thousand eleven hundred twenty two workers from five different occupations namely weaving (handloom and power loom), construction, transportation, tobacco processing and fish processing were assessed by interviewer administered health questionnaire. Workers suffered from musculo-skeletal complaints, respiratory health hazards, eye problems and skin related complaints. There was a high prevalence of self-reported occupational health problems in the selected sectors. The study finds that workers have occupational exposures to multiple hazards. The absence of protective guards aggrevate their health condition. The study attempts to draws an immediate attention on the existing health scenario of the Indian Informal sector. PMID:26903262

  12. Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 211)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental regulatory information for oil and gas extraction sectors, including oil and natural gas drilling. Includes information about NESHAPs for RICE and stationary combustion engines, and effluent guidelines for synthetic-based drilling fluids

  13. Automotive Sectors (NAICS 336, 4231, 8111)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find regulatory, compliance, and enforcement information for environmental laws and regulations for the automotive sectors, which includes transportation equipment manufacturing, and establishments involved in repair and maintenance services for vehicles

  14. Ship and Boat Building Sector (NAICS 3336)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the shipbuilding sector (NAICS 3336), including NESHAPs and air toxics regulations, nonroad engines and vehicles, managing used oil, and polluted runoff from marinas and boating areas.

  15. Market Report for the Industrial Sector, 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sastri, Bhima; Brueske, Sabine; de los Reyes, Pamela; Jamison, Keith; Justiniano, Mauricio; Margolis, Nancy; Monfort, Joe; Raghunathan, Anand; Sabouni, Ridah

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of trends in industrial-sector energy use. It focuses on some of the largest and most energy-intensive industrial subsectors and several emerging technologies that could transform key segments of industry.

  16. Pharmaceutical and Medicine Manufacturing Sector (NAICS 3254)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the pharmaceutical manufacturing sector, including essential uses of CFCs, NESHAP for pharmaceutical production, effluent guidelines for wastewater and management of hazardous waste.

  17. Building recycling rates through the informal sector.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David C; Araba, Adebisi O; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2009-02-01

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  18. Building recycling rates through the informal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, David C.; Araba, Adebisi O.; Chinwah, Kaine; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-02-15

    Many developing country cities aspire to modern waste management systems, which are associated with relatively high recycling rates of clean, source separated materials. Most already have informal sector recycling systems, which are driven solely by the revenues derived from selling recovered materials, even though they are saving the formal sector money by reducing waste quantities. There is clear potential for 'win-win' co-operation between the formal and informal sectors, as providing support to the informal sector, to build recycling rates and to address some of the social issues could reduce the overall costs of waste management for the formal sector. This paper shows that recycling rates already achieved by the informal sector can be quite high, typically in the range from 20% to 50%; often up to half of this is in the form of clean, source separated materials collected directly from households and businesses by itinerant waste buyers. Four country case studies provide a number of lessons on how this solid foundation could be used to build high recycling rates of clean materials.

  19. Cyclical absenteeism among private sector, public sector and self-employed workers.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers.

  20. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  1. Nanotechnology in agri-food sector.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of nanotechnology developments using nanodevices/nanomaterials opens up potential novel applications in agriculture and food sector. Smart delivery systems, biosensors, and nanoarrays are being designed to solve the problems faced in agriculture sector. Similarly, food sector is also benefited through the use of smart biosensors, packaging materials, and nanonutraceuticals. Despite the great potential of nanotechnology in agri-food sector, people are ambiguous about use in food applications because of suspected potential health risks and environmental concerns. Nanoparticles, due to their unique characteristics, including small size, shape, high surface area, charge, chemical properties, solubility and degree of agglomeration can cross cell boundaries or pass directly from the lungs into the blood stream and ultimately reach to all of the organs in the body. This is the reason why they may pose higher risk than the same mass and material of larger particles. In this paper, we have made an attempt to give an overview of nanotechnology developments in agri-food sector, risks associated with nanomaterials and toxicity regulations for policy framework.

  2. Coupling the inflationary sector to matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Wrase, Timm

    2016-04-01

    We describe the coupling of matter fields to an inflationary sector of supergravity, the inflaton Φ and a stabilizer S, in models where the Kähler potential has a flat inflaton direction. Such models include, in particular, advanced versions of the hyperbolic α-attractor models with a flat inflaton direction Kähler potential, providing a good fit to the observational data. If the superpotential is at least quadratic in the matter fields U i , with restricted couplings to the inflaton sector, we prove that under certain conditions: i) The presence of the matter fields does not affect a successful inflationary evolution. ii) There are no tachyons in the matter sector during and after inflation. iii) The matter masses squared are higher than 3 H 2 during inflation. The simplest class of theories satisfying all required conditions is provided by models with a flat direction Kähler potential, and with the inflaton Φ and a stabilizer S belonging to a hidden sector, so that matter fields have no direct coupling to the inflationary sector in the Kähler potential and in the superpotential.

  3. [The creation of the informal sector in urban areas].

    PubMed

    Papayungan, M M

    1984-12-01

    The development of the informal sector of the economy in urban areas of Indonesia is analyzed. The author notes that this sector is dominated by high rates of migration from rural areas, limited employment opportunities for the unskilled in the modern sector, and a demand for low-priced services and products from the informal sector. (summary in ENG)

  4. Hospital expenses in a sector model.

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, B; Pliska, S R

    1985-01-01

    This review summarizes the capabilities and contributions of quantitative sector models for understanding trends in hospital expenses and the effects thereon of various public policies. After some brief historical notes on the use of analogous models in other policy areas, the general classes of national, partial, and narrow health sector models are introduced with special attention to method of validation and behavioral structure. Fourteen published models, described and critically reviewed with regard to these criteria, are assessed for their individual application to important policy and behavioral issues. Suggestions are offered for improvements and new initiatives in the use of sector models both in forecasting and in the study of procompetitive policies and reimbursement rule changes. PMID:3918960

  5. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  6. Implementing Montessori Education in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David, Ed.

    This book on implementing Montessori education in the public sector begins with a historical and social overview that reveals the usefulness of Montessori pedagogy as a means of national public school reform. The second chapter discusses equipment needed for Montessori schools, the scope and sequence of curriculum used, and minimal expectations…

  7. Parallel Education and Defining the Fourth Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chessell, Diana

    1996-01-01

    Parallel to the primary, secondary, postsecondary, and adult/community education sectors is education not associated with formal programs--learning in arts and cultural sites. The emergence of cultural and educational tourism is an opportunity for adult/community education to define itself by extending lifelong learning opportunities into parallel…

  8. Marketing in the Australian Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favaloro, Chrissa

    2015-01-01

    This article examines domestic marketing in the Australian higher education sector, specifically, the marketing investment patterns of universities and their levels of student growth as a return on marketing investment. Marketing expenditure by universities has risen 23 per cent in the five years to 2013, with several institutions allocating in…

  9. Multi-sectoral interventions for healthy growth.

    PubMed

    Casanovas, Ma del Carmen; Lutter, Chessa K; Mangasaryan, Nune; Mwadime, Robert; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Aguilar, Ana Maria; Kopp, Ciro; Rico, Luis; Ibiett, Gonzalo; Andia, Doris; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    The risk of stunted growth and development is affected by the context in which a child is born and grows. This includes such interdependent influences as the political economy, health and health care, education, society and culture, agriculture and food systems, water and sanitation, and the environment. Here, we briefly review how factors linked with the key sectors can contribute to healthy growth and reduced childhood stunting. Emphasis is placed on the role of agriculture/food security, especially family farming; education, particularly of girls and women; water, sanitation, and hygiene and their integration in stunting reduction strategies; social protection including cash transfers, bearing in mind that success in this regard is linked to reducing the gap between rich and poor; economic investment in stunting reduction including the work with the for-profit commercial sector balancing risks linked to marketing foods that can displace affordable and more sustainable alternatives; health with emphasis on implementing comprehensive and effective health care interventions and building the capacity of health care providers. We complete the review with examples of national and subnational multi-sectoral interventions that illustrate how critical it is for sectors to work together to reduce stunting.

  10. Rabi multi-sector reservoir simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Bruijnzeels, C.; O`Halloran, C.

    1995-12-31

    To ensure optimum ultimate recovery of the 46 meter thick oil rim of the Rabi Field in Gabon, a full field simulation model was required. Due to it`s size and complexity, with local cusping, coning and geological circumstances dominating individual well behavior, a single full field model would be too large for existing hardware. A method was developed to simulate the full field with 5 separate sector models, whilst allowing the development in one sector model to have an effect on the boundary conditions of another sector. In this manner, the 13 x 4.5 km field could be simulated with a horizontal well spacing down to 175 meter. This paper focuses on the method used to attach single 3-phase tank cells to a sector simulation grid in order to represent non-simulated parts of the field. It also describes the history matching methodology and how to run a multisector model in forecasting mode. This method can be used for any reservoir, where size and complexity require large reservoir simulation models that normally could not be modeled within the constraints of available computer facilities. Detailed studies can be conducted on specific parts of a field, whilst allowing for dynamic flow and pressure effects caused by the rest of the field.

  11. Indigenous Students in the Tertiary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandias, Susan; Fuller, Don; Larkin, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Important recent objectives of indigenous education policy in Australia have been aimed at redressing indigenous economic and social disadvantage through increasing student retention, progression and completion rates in both compulsory and post-compulsory education. The two sectors of the tertiary education system, vocational education and…

  12. Benchmarking for the Learning and Skills Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Jane

    This document is designed to introduce practitioners in the United Kingdom's learning and skills sector to the principles and practice of benchmarking. The first section defines benchmarking and differentiates metric, diagnostic, and process benchmarking. The remainder of the booklet details the following steps of the benchmarking process: (1) get…

  13. Quality Assurance in Ontario's Postsecondary Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Tim

    2012-01-01

    It is generally accepted that Canadian postsecondary education enjoys an international reputation for quality. However, Canada does not have an accepted, national framework to understand, measure, or clearly define the actual quality of the postsecondary education sector. In this, Canada is seen as unique when compared with other developed…

  14. [Organization and technology in the catering sector].

    PubMed

    Tinarelli, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    The catering industry is a service characterized by a contract between customer and supplier. In institutional catering industry, the customer is represented by public administration; in private catering industry, the customer is represented by privates. The annual catering trades size is about 6.74 billions of euros, equally distributed between health sector (hospitals, nursing homes), school sector and business sector (ivorkplace food service), with the participation of nearly 1.200 firms and 70.000 workers. Major services include off-premises catering (food prepared away from the location where it's served) and on-premises catering (meals prepared and served at the same place). Several tools and machineries are used during both warehousing and food refrigerating operations, and during preparation, cooking, packaging and transport of meals. In this sector, injuries, rarely resulting serious or deadly, show a downward trend in the last years. On the contrary, the number of occupational diseases shows an upward trend. About the near future, the firms should become global outsourcer, able to provide other services as cleaning, transport and maintenance. In addition, they should invest in innovation: from tools and machineries technology to work organization; from factory lay-out to safely and health in the workplaces.

  15. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods.

  16. Public Sector Bargaining and Strikes. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Service Research Council, Vienna, VA.

    It is the opinion of the authors of this position paper that collective bargaining in the public sector causes an increase in strikes and employee unrest, resulting in a diminution of public services. The authors assert that public employee collective bargaining means giving unions the power to control government through intimidation of the…

  17. Educational Assistance to the Urban Informal Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxenham, John

    1984-01-01

    The urban informal sector are the adolescents and adults of cities in developing countries who have had little or no education and expend much inventiveness and energy to avoid starvation, while working in activities such as pedlar or shoeshiner. What educational assistance could and should be provided for them is discussed. (RM)

  18. Yukawa sector in SO(10) (Abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, A.

    2007-10-03

    Grand Unified Theories based on the group SO(10) generically provide interesting and testable relations between the charged fermions and neutrino sector masses and mixings. In the light of the recent neutrino data, we reexamine these relations both in supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models, and give a brief review of their present status.

  19. Developing a Defense Sector Assessment Rating Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    kms/details.cfm?ord279=title&q279=Public+Oversight&lng=en&id=95396 & nav1 = 5 “Conducting an Assessment,” in Coleen Rausch, ed., Combating Serious Crimes... 5 Section One: Characteristics of the Defense Sector... 5 Section Two: Assessment of Defense Institutions and Processes

  20. 50 CFR 648.87 - Sector allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector allocation. 648.87 Section 648.87 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the NE Multispecies and Monkfish Fisheries §...

  1. [Eco-efficiency of Jiaozuo industry sectors].

    PubMed

    Du, Yan-chun; Jiang, Pan; Mao, Jian-su; Xu, Lin-yu

    2011-05-01

    Jiaozuo city was taken as a representative industry city and its industry energy consumption and industry emissions such as wastewater,solid waste, SO2, dust and so on were selected as corresponding environmental loads. The contribution rate to the environmental loads and eco-efficiencies of Jiaozuo industry sectors were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that, the industry sector with the highest energy eco-efficiency is Mining and Processing of Ferrous Metal Ores (FMM), 43.19 x 10(4) yuan x tce(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.003%; the one with the highest wastewater-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Transport Equipment (TRM), 3.58 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest solid waste-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery( SMM), 323.22 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.005%; the one with the highest SO2 emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery (SMM), 19.74 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest dust emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Rubber (RUM), 6.75 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.001%. It can be seen that the industry sector with high value of eco-efficiency always contributes less to its environmental load, which results that the industry sectors with high eco-efficiencies only play a weak role in leading the overall industry eco-efficiency. A succinct distance index (SDI) was proposed to estimate the differences between Jiaozuo and China average for their eco-efficiency of every industrial sector. The values of SDI range from -1 to 63.45, and the absolute value of SDI with positive value is much greater than that with negative value, which indicates that the values of eco-efficiencies for the advanced industry sectors of Jiaozuo city are much higher than those for China's industry sectors average.

  2. China's industrial sector in an international context

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Lehman, Bryan; Sinton, Jonathan

    2000-05-01

    The industrial sector accounts for 40% of global energy use. In 1995, developing countries used an estimated 48 EJ for industrial production, over one-third of world total industrial primary energy use (Price et al., 1998). Industrial output and energy use in developing countries is dominated by China, India, and Brazil. China alone accounts for about 30 EJ (National Bureau of Statistics, 1999), or about 23% of world industrial energy use. China's industrial sector is extremely energy-intensive and accounted for almost 75% of the country's total energy use in 1997. Industrial energy use in China grew an average of 6.6% per year, from 14 EJ in 1985 to 30 EJ in 1997 (Sinton et al., 1996; National Bureau of Statistics, 1999). This growth is more than three times faster than the average growth that took place in the world during the past two decades. The industrial sector can be divided into light and heavy industry, reflecting the relative energy-intensity of the manufacturing processes. In China, about 80% of the energy used in the industrial sector is consumed by heavy industry. Of this, the largest energy-consuming industries are chemicals, ferrous metals, and building materials (Sinton et al., 1996). This paper presents the results of international comparisons of production levels and energy use in six energy-intensive subsectors: iron and steel, aluminum, cement, petroleum refining, ammonia, and ethylene. The sectoral analysis results indicate that energy requirements to produce a unit of raw material in China are often higher than industrialized countries for most of the products analyzed in this paper, reflecting a significant potential to continue to improve energy efficiency in heavy industry.

  3. Universal Industrial Solution and Industrial Sectors Module for Pulp and Paper Sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution and its detrimental effects on health have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies in the industrial sector. However, stringent regulatory policies can potentially adversely affect domestic and international trade. Therefore E...

  4. Supersymmetric extended string field theory in NSn sector and NSn - 1-R sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Masako; Kato, Mitsuhiro

    2016-09-01

    We construct a class of quadratic gauge invariant actions for extended string fields defined on the tensor product of open superstring state space for multiple open string Neveu-Schwarz (NS) sectors with or without one Ramond (R) sector. The basic idea is the same as for the bosonic extended string field theory developed by the authors [1]. The theory for NSn sector and NS n - 1-R sector contains general n-th rank tensor fields and (n - 1)-th rank spinor-tensor fields in the massless spectrum respectively. In principle, consistent gauge invariant actions for any generic type of 10-dimensional massive or massless tensor or spinor-tensor fields can be extracted from the theory. We discuss some simple examples of bosonic and fermionic massless actions.

  5. Environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector: the case of the defence sector.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Tomás B; Alves, Inês; Subtil, Rui; Joanaz de Melo, João

    2007-03-01

    The development of environmental performance policy indicators for public services, and in particular for the defence sector, is an emerging issue. Despite a number of recent initiatives there has been little work done in this area, since the other sectors usually focused on are agriculture, transport, industry, tourism and energy. This type of tool can be an important component for environmental performance evaluation at policy level, when integrated in the general performance assessment system of public missions and activities. The main objective of this research was to develop environmental performance policy indicators for the public sector, specifically applied to the defence sector. Previous research included an assessment of the environmental profile, through the evaluation of how environmental management practices have been adopted in this sector and an assessment of environmental aspects and impacts. This paper builds upon that previous research, developing an indicator framework--SEPI--supported by the selection and construction of environmental performance indicators. Another aim is to discuss how the current environmental indicator framework can be integrated into overall performance management. The Portuguese defence sector is presented and the usefulness of this methodology demonstrated. Feasibility and relevancy criteria are applied to evaluate the set of indicators proposed, allowing indicators to be scored and indicators for the policy level to be obtained.

  6. Benefits Assessment of Algorithmically Combining Generic High Altitude Airspace Sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod; Lai, Chok Fung; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2009-01-01

    In today's air traffic control operations, sectors that have traffic demand below capacity are combined so that fewer controller teams are required to manage air traffic. Controllers in current operations are certified to control a group of six to eight sectors, known as an area of specialization. Sector combinations are restricted to occur within areas of specialization. Since there are few sector combination possibilities in each area of specialization, human supervisors can effectively make sector combination decisions. In the future, automation and procedures will allow any appropriately trained controller to control any of a large set of generic sectors. The primary benefit of this will be increased controller staffing flexibility. Generic sectors will also allow more options for combining sectors, making sector combination decisions difficult for human supervisors. A sector-combining algorithm can assist supervisors as they make generic sector combination decisions. A heuristic algorithm for combining under-utilized air space sectors to conserve air traffic control resources has been described and analyzed. Analysis of the algorithm and comparisons with operational sector combinations indicate that this algorithm could more efficiently utilize air traffic control resources than current sector combinations. This paper investigates the benefits of using the sector-combining algorithm proposed in previous research to combine high altitude generic airspace sectors. Simulations are conducted in which all the high altitude sectors in a center are allowed to combine, as will be possible in generic high altitude airspace. Furthermore, the algorithm is adjusted to use a version of the simplified dynamic density (SDD) workload metric that has been modified to account for workload reductions due to automatic handoffs and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). This modified metric is referred to here as future simplified dynamic density (FSDD). Finally

  7. Modeling the U.S. Border Patrol Tucson Sector for the Deployment and Operations of Border Security Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    with a force multiplier of border security resources. They are as follows: Operation Hold-the-Line – The USBP implemented an El Paso , Texas Border...into nine USBP Sectors: San Diego and El Centro, California; Yuma and Tucson, Arizona; El Paso (New Mexico and two counties in Texas); Marfa, Del...for various ways to control the influx of illegal immigration in the concentrated border areas of San Diego and El Paso . The INS focused enforcement

  8. Top partner probes of extended Higgs sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron; Thaler, Jesse

    2013-08-01

    Natural theories of the weak scale often include fermionic partners of the top quark. If the electroweak symmetry breaking sector contains scalars beyond a single Higgs doublet, then top partners can have sizable branching ratios to these extended Higgs sector states. In fact, top partner decays may provide the most promising discovery mode for such scalars, especially given the large backgrounds to direct and associated production. In this paper, we present a search strategy for top partner decays to a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark, focusing on the case where the charged Higgs dominantly decays to third-generation quarks to yield a multi- b final state. We also discuss ways to extend this search to exotic neutral scalars decaying to bottom quark pairs.

  9. Advanced metering techniques in the federal sector

    SciTech Connect

    Szydlowski, R.F.; Chvala, W.D. Jr.; Halverson, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The lack of utility metering in the federal sector has hampered introduction of direct billing of individual activities at most military installations. Direct billing will produce accountability for the amount of energy used and is a positive step toward self-directed energy conservation. For many installations, automatic meter reading (AMR) is a cost-effective way to increase the number of meters while reducing labor requirements and providing energy conservation analysis capabilities. The communications technology used by some of the AMR systems provides other demand-side management (DSM) capabilities. This paper summarizes the characteristics and relative merits of several AMR/DSM technologies that may be appropriate for the federal sector. A case study of an AMR system being installed at Fort Irwin, California, describes a cost-effective two-way radio communication system used for meter reading and load control.

  10. Approximate flavor symmetries in the lepton sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A. ); Silva, J.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Approximate flavor symmetries in the quark sector have been used as a handle on physics beyond the standard model. Because of the great interest in neutrino masses and mixings and the wealth of existing and proposed neutrino experiments it is important to extend this analysis to the leptonic sector. We show that in the seesaw mechanism the neutrino masses and mixing angles do not depend on the details of the right-handed neutrino flavor symmetry breaking, and are related by a simple formula. We propose several [ital Ansa]$[ital uml]---[ital tze] which relate different flavor symmetry-breaking parameters and find that the MSW solution to the solar neutrino problem is always easily fit. Further, the [nu][sub [mu]-][nu][sub [tau

  11. Fine-scale characteristics of interplanetary sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Neubauer, F. M.; Barnstoff, H.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of the interplanetary sector boundaries observed by Helios 1 within sector transition regions was studied. Such regions consist of intermediate (nonspiral) average field orientations in some cases, as well as a number of large angle directional discontinuities (DD's) on the fine scale (time scales 1 hour). Such DD's are found to be more similar to tangential than rotational discontinuities, to be oriented on average more nearly perpendicular than parallel to the ecliptic plane to be accompanied usually by a large dip ( 80%) in B and, with a most probable thickness of 3 x 10 to the 4th power km, significantly thicker previously studied. It is hypothesized that the observed structures represent multiple traversals of the global heliospheric current sheet due to local fluctuations in the position of the sheet. There is evidence that such fluctuations are sometimes produced by wavelike motions or surface corrugations of scale length 0.05 - 0.1 AU superimposed on the large scale structure.

  12. Muon dynamics in a toroidal sector magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, J.C.; Fernow, R.C.; Palmer, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The present scenario for the cooling channel in a high brightness muon collider calls for a quasi-continuous solenoidal focusing channel. The beam line consists of a periodic array of hydrogen absorbers immersed in a solenoid with alternating focusing field and rf linacs at the zero field points. Solenoids and toroidal sectors have a natural place in muon collider design given the large emittance of the beam and consequently, the large transverse momentum of the initial pion beam or the decay muon beam. Bent solenoids as shown were studied for use at the front end of the machine, as part of the capture channel and more recently as part of a diagnostic setup to measure the position and momentum of muons. The authors present a Hamiltonian formulation of muon dynamics in toroidal sector solenoids (bent solenoid).

  13. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Finance Corporation (IFC), a World Bank affiliate, has declared its intention to step up its programs to assist the private sector in Africa. Many...and much of it is financed by I the rue Monsieur [the aid Ministry]. In many ways, therefore, France’s "progressive" approach to North-South relations...and the BCEAO together provide a unique and efficient financial system that offers external financing , French-style banking practices, and guarantees

  14. Learning from Transforming the Commercial Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    that large-scale institutional transformation is indeed ongoing. Several emerging phenomena characterize this trend. Intellectual Capital In the...importance and the new source of wealth is intellectual capital . This il- luminates an underlying shift in as- sumptions: critical assets of an organi- zation...the private sector that base their operating as- sumptions on intellectual capital . Their structures and practices differ from traditional approaches

  15. Experimental Searches for Dark Sector Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jim

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the state of experimental searches for Dark Sector dark matter, focussing on current and planned experiments that look for evidence of dark photon production. The accessible dark photon masses range from about 1 MeV to about 1 GeV, cover several orders of magnitude in the dimensionless coupling constant to normal matter. Experiments include fixed target and collider experiments, seeking inclusive or exclusive final state signatures, produced from either leptonic and hadronic initial states.

  16. Management by missions in the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Fonseca Pires, J; Rey, C; Más-Machuca, M; Bastons, M

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of the mission statement in the healthcare sector. It's also argued that only formal declaration of the mission it's insufficient to the appropriate professional coordination of doctors, nurses and managers. It's proposed a systematic approach to facilitate the introduction of the mission within the systems of the organization, what is called "Management by missions." It promotes horizontal and vertical integration between doctors, nurses and managers. Criteria that ensure this integration are specified.

  17. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... comments concerning Reinstatement, with change, of a previously approved ICR for the Critical... sector partners who are responsible for critical infrastructure protection but would not otherwise...

  18. 76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity...

  19. Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors.

    PubMed

    Unger, Nadine; Bond, Tami C; Wang, James S; Koch, Dorothy M; Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T; Bauer, Susanne

    2010-02-23

    A much-cited bar chart provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change displays the climate impact, as expressed by radiative forcing in watts per meter squared, of individual chemical species. The organization of the chart reflects the history of atmospheric chemistry, in which investigators typically focused on a single species of interest. However, changes in pollutant emissions and concentrations are a symptom, not a cause, of the primary driver of anthropogenic climate change: human activity. In this paper, we suggest organizing the bar chart according to drivers of change-that is, by economic sector. Climate impacts of tropospheric ozone, fine aerosols, aerosol-cloud interactions, methane, and long-lived greenhouse gases are considered. We quantify the future evolution of the total radiative forcing due to perpetual constant year 2000 emissions by sector, most relevant for the development of climate policy now, and focus on two specific time points, near-term at 2020 and long-term at 2100. Because sector profiles differ greatly, this approach fosters the development of smart climate policy and is useful to identify effective opportunities for rapid mitigation of anthropogenic radiative forcing.

  20. Decentralising the health sector: issues in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Collins, C; Araujo, J; Barbosa, J

    2000-06-01

    The health sector in Brazil has undergone important changes, particularly with the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). Decentralisation is an important principle of SUS and advances have been made in transferring responsibilities and resources to the local government units, known as municipios. This article describes the changes introduced, focusing on the system of municipio classification and the funding mechanisms introduced through the basic operating rule (BOR) of 1996. The paper then moves on to analysing three key issues of decentralisation in Brazil that are related to the policy process, the system of decentralisation and the output of decentralisation. Firstly, the formal process by which decisions on health sector reform are made is discussed with particular attention being paid to the negotiated and relatively open policy space. Secondly, the role of the states is discussed within the decentralised system. Thirdly, the impact of decentralisation on equity is discussed with particular reference to the resourcing of the Municipal Health Funds. The article concludes by emphasising the political nature of health sector decentralisation and the need to develop the conditions for effectiveness in decentralisation programmes.

  1. Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors

    PubMed Central

    Unger, Nadine; Bond, Tami C.; Wang, James S.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Bauer, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    A much-cited bar chart provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change displays the climate impact, as expressed by radiative forcing in watts per meter squared, of individual chemical species. The organization of the chart reflects the history of atmospheric chemistry, in which investigators typically focused on a single species of interest. However, changes in pollutant emissions and concentrations are a symptom, not a cause, of the primary driver of anthropogenic climate change: human activity. In this paper, we suggest organizing the bar chart according to drivers of change—that is, by economic sector. Climate impacts of tropospheric ozone, fine aerosols, aerosol-cloud interactions, methane, and long-lived greenhouse gases are considered. We quantify the future evolution of the total radiative forcing due to perpetual constant year 2000 emissions by sector, most relevant for the development of climate policy now, and focus on two specific time points, near-term at 2020 and long-term at 2100. Because sector profiles differ greatly, this approach fosters the development of smart climate policy and is useful to identify effective opportunities for rapid mitigation of anthropogenic radiative forcing. PMID:20133724

  2. HSCT Sector Combustor Evaluations for Demonstration Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, Stuart; Heberling, Paul; Kastl, John; Matulaitis, John; Huff, Cynthia

    2004-01-01

    In LET Task 10, critical development issues of the HSCT lean-burn low emissions combustor were addressed with a range of engineering tools. Laser diagnostics and CFD analysis were applied to develop a clearer understanding of the fuel-air premixing process and premixed combustion. Subcomponent tests evaluated the emissions and operability performance of the fuel-air premixers. Sector combustor tests evaluated the performance of the integrated combustor system. A 3-cup sector was designed and procured for laser diagnostics studies at NASA Glenn. The results of these efforts supported the earlier selection of the Cyclone Swirler as the pilot stage premixer and the IMFH (Integrated Mixer Flame Holder) tube as the main stage premixer of the LPP combustor. In the combustor system preliminary design subtask, initial efforts to transform the sector combustor design into a practical subscale engine combustor met with significant challenges. Concerns about the durability of a stepped combustor dome and the need for a removable fuel injection system resulted in the invention and refinement of the MRA (Multistage Radial Axial) combustor system in 1994. The MRA combustor was selected for the HSR Phase II LPP subscale combustor testing in the CPC Program.

  3. Abnormal economics in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Hsaio, W C

    1995-01-01

    The implosion of centrally-planned economies has led to a widespread and uncritical belief that a free market is the best mechanism for structuring the economic and social sectors. Many international agencies have pushed this belief on the developing nations. This paper offers a critical analysis of the effectiveness of using free market principles to structure the health sector. We try to answer two questions: in what spheres can the market operate freely? In what spheres is government action required? According to economic theory, the market is only appropriate for producing and distributing private goods. This study analyzed health care and subdivides it into three categories (public, merit, and private goods) to clarify where the market has a legitimate role. Next, we analyze two of the five markets in the health sector--financing and delivery--and assess the respective roles of the market and government Competitive markets have certain prerequisites. We identify the major market failures by evaluating where these conditions are not satisfied. Next, we draw on international experience to ascertain the seriousness of those failures and the capacity of government action to correct them. Lessons are drawn for developing nations about the appropriateness of market strategies to finance and deliver health care.

  4. Dark matter freeze-out in a nonrelativistic sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappadopulo, Duccio; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Trevisan, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    A thermally decoupled hidden sector of particles, with a mass gap, generically enters a phase of cannibalism in the early Universe. The Standard Model sector becomes exponentially colder than the hidden sector. We propose the cannibal dark matter framework, where dark matter resides in a cannibalizing sector with a relic density set by 2-to-2 annihilations. Observable signals of cannibal dark matter include a boosted rate for indirect detection, new relativistic degrees of freedom, and warm dark matter.

  5. New Technologies to Assist Training in Hospitality Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balta, Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Hospitality sector needs new technological training tools, which can assist to improve sector employees' skills and services quality. The sector might be more interactive when these technological training tools used on the job-training program. This study addresses to issue of illumination of new technologic tools that enforce training in which…

  6. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8... § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred economic... authorized to approve different employers in different economic sectors....

  7. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  8. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8... § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred economic... authorized to approve different employers in different economic sectors....

  9. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8... § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred economic... authorized to approve different employers in different economic sectors....

  10. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8... § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred economic... authorized to approve different employers in different economic sectors....

  11. 22 CFR 139.8 - Target economic sectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Target economic sectors. 139.8 Section 139.8... § 139.8 Target economic sectors. Job/Training under the IPPCTP will be authorized for preferred economic... authorized to approve different employers in different economic sectors....

  12. Accounting for School-Sector Differences in University Entrance Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Gary

    2009-01-01

    School-sector differences in student performance are often viewed as largely reflecting the intake characteristics of students and having little to do with differences in the provision of teaching and learning between school sectors. The contrary view is that school-sector differences show that non-government schools "add value" to…

  13. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector.

  14. Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  15. Counting (green) jobs in Queensland's waste and recycling sector.

    PubMed

    Davis, Georgina

    2013-09-01

    The waste and recycling sector has been identified as a green industry and, as such, jobs within this sector may be classed as 'green jobs'. Many governments have seen green jobs as a way of increasing employment, particularly during the global financial crisis. However, the methods used to define and quantify green jobs directly affect the quantification of these green jobs. In December 2010, Queensland introduced a waste strategy that stated intent to increase green jobs within the waste sector. This article discusses the milieu and existing issues associated with quantifying green jobs within Queensland's waste and recycling sector, and provides a review of the survey that has sought to quantify the true size of the Queensland industry sector. This research has identified nearly 5500 jobs in Queensland's private waste management and recycling sector, which indicates that official data do not accurately reflect the true size of the sector.

  16. Financial development and sectoral CO2 emissions in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maji, Ibrahim Kabiru; Habibullah, Muzafar Shah; Saari, Mohd Yusof

    2017-03-01

    The paper examines the impacts of financial development on sectoral carbon emissions (CO2) for environmental quality in Malaysia. Since the financial sector is considered as one of the sectors that will contribute to Malaysian economy to become a developed country by 2020, we utilize a cointegration method to investigate how financial development affects sectoral CO2 emissions. The long-run results reveal that financial development increases CO2 emissions from the transportation and oil and gas sector and reduces CO2 emissions from manufacturing and construction sectors. However, the elasticity of financial development is not significant in explaining CO2 emissions from the agricultural sector. The results for short-run elasticities were also consistent with the long-run results. We conclude that generally, financial development increases CO2 emissions and reduces environmental quality in Malaysia.

  17. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Delgass, W. Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H2CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H2 and CO2 recycled from the H2-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H2CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce ≈30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H2CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H2 storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H2CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H2 in the H2CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H2CAR is that there is no additional CO2 release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO2. PMID:17360377

  18. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Rakesh; Singh, Navneet R; Ribeiro, Fabio H; Delgass, W Nicholas

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H(2)CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H(2) and CO(2) recycled from the H(2)-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H(2)CAR process. (i) The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. (ii) Whereas the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce approximately 30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H(2)CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. (iii) The synthesized liquid provides H(2) storage in an open loop system. (iv) Reduction to practice of the H(2)CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H(2) in the H(2)CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H(2)CAR is that there is no additional CO(2) release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO(2).

  19. Sustainable fuel for the transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Delgass, W.N.

    2007-03-20

    A hybrid hydrogen-carbon (H{sub 2}CAR) process for the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels is proposed wherein biomass is the carbon source and hydrogen is supplied from carbon-free energy. To implement this concept, a process has been designed to co-feed a biomass gasifier with H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} recycled from the H{sub 2}-CO to liquid conversion reactor. Modeling of this biomass to liquids process has identified several major advantages of the H{sub 2}CAR process. The land area needed to grow the biomass is <40% of that needed by other routes that solely use biomass to support the entire transportation sector. Whereras the literature estimates known processes to be able to produce {approx}30% of the United States transportation fuel from the annual biomass of 1.366 billion tons, the H{sub 2}CAR process shows the potential to supply the entire United States transportation sector from that quantity of biomass. The synthesized liquid provides H{sub 2} storage in an open loop system. Reduction to practice of the H{sub 2}CAR route has the potential to provide the transportation sector for the foreseeable future, using the existing infrastructure. The rationale of using H{sub 2} in the H{sub 2}CAR process is explained by the significantly higher annualized average solar energy conversion efficiency for hydrogen generation versus that for biomass growth. For coal to liquids, the advantage of H{sub 2}CAR is that there is no additional CO{sub 2} release to the atmosphere due to the replacement of petroleum with coal, thus eliminating the need to sequester CO{sub 2}.

  20. Transferring technology to the public sector.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alper, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately four years ago the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under NASA sponsorship, began to devote some of its resources to examining ways to transfer space technology to the civil sector. As experience accumulated under this program, certain principles basic to success in technology transfer became apparent. An adequate definition of each problem must be developed before any substantial effort is expended on a solution. In most instances, a source of funds other than the potential user is required to support the problem definition phase of the work. Sensitivity to the user's concerns and effective interpersonal communications between the user and technical personnel are essential to success.

  1. Airlift Recirculation Well Final Report - Southern Sector

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.M.

    1999-05-18

    Chlorinated solvents used in the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS) from 1952-1982 have contaminated the groundwater under the site. To comply with the requirements of the current SCDHEC Part B Permit, this plume is being addressed by a multi-phase program under the direction of the Environmental Restoration Division at SRS. This report details the first phase of this program, the containment of the portion of the plume greater than 500 ppb (TCE) within the Southern Sector of the A/M Area.

  2. Interacting dark sector with transversal interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

    2015-03-26

    We investigate the interacting dark sector composed of dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation for a spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background by introducing a three-dimensional internal space spanned by the interaction vector Q and solve the source equation for a linear transversal interaction. Then, we explore a realistic model with dark matter coupled to a scalar field plus a decoupled radiation term, analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era and find that our model is consistent with the recent measurements of cosmic microwave background anisotropy coming from Planck along with the future constraints achievable by CMBPol experiment.

  3. [Health, hospitality sector and tobacco industry].

    PubMed

    Abella Pons, Francesc; Córdoba Garcia, Rodrigo; Suárez Bonel, Maria Pilar

    2012-11-01

    To present the strategies used by the tobacco industry to meet government regulatory measures of its products. To demonstrate the relationship between tobacco industry and the hospitality sector. Note that the arguments and strategies used routinely by the hospitality industry have been previously provided by the tobacco industry. Location of key documents by meta-search, links to declassified documents, specific websites of the tobacco and hospitality industry, news sources and published articles in health journals. This review reveals the close relationship between tobacco industry and hospitality sector. It highlights the strategies carried out by the tobacco industry, including strategic hoarding of information, public relations, lobbying, consultation program, smoker defence groups, building partnerships, intimidation and patronage. The arguments and strategies used by the hospitality industry to match point by point that used by the tobacco industry. These arguments are refutable from the point of view of public health as it is scientifically proven that totally smoke-free environments are the only way to protect non-smokers from tobacco smoke exposure and its harmful effects on health.

  4. Emissions from India's transport sector: Statewise synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Shwetmala

    A decentralized emission inventories are prepared for road transport sector of India in order to design and implement suitable technologies and policies for appropriate mitigation measures. Globalization and liberalization policies of the government in 90's have increased the number of road vehicles nearly 92.6% from 1980-1981 to 2003-2004. These vehicles mainly consume non-renewable fossil fuels, and are a major contributor of green house gases, particularly CO 2 emission. This paper focuses on the statewise road transport emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2, PM and HC), using region specific mass emission factors for each type of vehicles. The country level emissions (CO 2, CH 4, CO, NO x, N 2O, SO 2 and NMVOC) are calculated for railways, shipping and airway, based on fuel types. In India, transport sector emits an estimated 258.10 Tg of CO 2, of which 94.5% was contributed by road transport (2003-2004). Among all the states and Union Territories, Maharashtra's contribution is the largest, 28.85 Tg (11.8%) of CO 2, followed by Tamil Nadu 26.41 Tg (10.8%), Gujarat 23.31 Tg (9.6%), Uttar Pradesh 17.42 Tg (7.1%), Rajasthan 15.17 Tg (6.22%) and, Karnataka 15.09 Tg (6.19%). These six states account for 51.8% of the CO 2 emissions from road transport.

  5. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011. PMID:21798001

  6. The private sector, international development and NCDs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Christine; Kingo, Lise; Raynaud, Olivier

    2011-07-28

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  7. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks.

    PubMed

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of "preferentiality" in countries' trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members' trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech "Textiles and Textile Articles" and the high-tech "Electronics" sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns.

  8. The AIDS threat and the private sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, D

    1999-01-01

    While commercial sector managers throughout southern Africa have invested considerable funds to ensure that reaching the year 2000 does not disrupt the routine functioning of their computer systems, they are failing to address the considerable damage which HIV/AIDS will likely inflict upon companies' human resources. How these managers address AIDS in the workplace will determine whether their companies survive the first decade of the 21st century. Based upon the most recently available statistics, the Metropolitan-Doyle model, developed in 1988 to produce estimates of the progression of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, projects that as of 1999, 11% of South Africa's work force is infected with HIV and an estimated 0.6% are sick with AIDS. The percentages of the country's work force projected to have HIV and to be sick due to AIDS in 2010 are 21% and 2.9%, respectively. The direct costs of AIDS will be felt through rising employee benefit and medical insurance costs, and there will also be numerous indirect costs in the workplace. Management and labor need to work together to find a proactive, holistic solution to the AIDS crisis facing South Africa. The indirect costs of HIV/AIDS to the commercial sector and the elements of a holistic solution to the AIDS problem are discussed.

  9. Environmental management in North American mining sector.

    PubMed

    Asif, Zunaira; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the environmental issues and management practices in the mining sector in the North America. The sustainable measures on waste management are recognized as one of the most serious environmental concerns in the mining industry. For mining activities, it will be no surprise that the metal recovery reagents and acid effluents are a threat to the ecosystem as well as hazards to human health. In addition, poor air quality and ventilation in underground mines can lead to occupational illness and death of workers. Electricity usage and fuel consumption are major factors that contribute to greenhouse gases. On the other hand, many sustainability challenges are faced in the management of tailings and disposal of waste rock. This paper aims to highlight the problems that arise due to poor air quality and acid mine drainage. The paper also addresses some of the advantages and limitations of tailing and waste rock management that still have to be studied in context of the mining sector. This paper suggests that implementation of suitable environmental management tools like life cycle assessment (LCA), cleaner production technologies (CPTs), and multicriteria decision analysis (MCD) are important as it ultimately lead to improve environmental performance and enabling a mine to focus on the next stage of sustainability.

  10. Hidden sector DM models and Higgs physics

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, P.

    2014-06-24

    We present an extension of the standard model to dark sector with an unbroken local dark U(1){sub X} symmetry. Including various singlet portal interactions provided by the standard model Higgs, right-handed neutrinos and kinetic mixing, we show that the model can address most of phenomenological issues (inflation, neutrino mass and mixing, baryon number asymmetry, dark matter, direct/indirect dark matter searches, some scale scale puzzles of the standard collisionless cold dark matter, vacuum stability of the standard model Higgs potential, dark radiation) and be regarded as an alternative to the standard model. The Higgs signal strength is equal to one as in the standard model for unbroken U(1){sub X} case with a scalar dark matter, but it could be less than one independent of decay channels if the dark matter is a dark sector fermion or if U(1){sub X} is spontaneously broken, because of a mixing with a new neutral scalar boson in the models.

  11. Configuring Airspace Sectors with Approximate Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Gupta, Pramod

    2010-01-01

    In response to changing traffic and staffing conditions, supervisors dynamically configure airspace sectors by assigning them to control positions. A finite horizon airspace sector configuration problem models this supervisor decision. The problem is to select an airspace configuration at each time step while considering a workload cost, a reconfiguration cost, and a constraint on the number of control positions at each time step. Three algorithms for this problem are proposed and evaluated: a myopic heuristic, an exact dynamic programming algorithm, and a rollouts approximate dynamic programming algorithm. On problem instances from current operations with only dozens of possible configurations, an exact dynamic programming solution gives the optimal cost value. The rollouts algorithm achieves costs within 2% of optimal for these instances, on average. For larger problem instances that are representative of future operations and have thousands of possible configurations, excessive computation time prohibits the use of exact dynamic programming. On such problem instances, the rollouts algorithm reduces the cost achieved by the heuristic by more than 15% on average with an acceptable computation time.

  12. Mathematical Models for the Education Sector, A Survey. (Les Modeles Mathematiques du Sector Enseignement.) Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The purposes of this volume are to report a survey of current practice in the construction and use of mathematical models for the education sector: to identify the most important technical and substantive problems confronting the model-building effort; and to bridge the gap between the advancing research pursuit of model-building and the lagging…

  13. Prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Green, Amy E; Fettes, Danielle L; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the prevalence of maltreatment among youths in public sectors of care despite the critical public health concern and the burden of suffering on such youths. The current study examined the prevalence of multiple types of maltreatment across five public sectors of care. Youths aged 11-18 (n = 1,135) enrolled in one of five public sectors of care reported on their maltreatment history using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Across all sectors, 78% of youth reported experiencing at least moderate levels of maltreatment with the majority (58%) reporting multiple types of maltreatment. The prevalence of maltreatment was highest for youths involved in the alcohol/drug (86%) and child welfare (85%) sectors, and lowest in the serious emotional disturbance sector (72%). Logistic regressions were conducted to examine differences in the likelihood of multiple types of maltreatment by sector affiliation, controlling for the effects of gender, race/ethnicity, and age. The results indicate that rates of maltreatment across sectors do not differ greatly from those in child welfare. The high incidence of maltreatment across all sectors, not solely child welfare, indicates that all youth in public sectors of care should be screened for a history of maltreatment when they enter into care.

  14. Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Franco, Lynne Miller; Bennett, Sara; Kanfer, Ruth

    2002-04-01

    Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual's degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers' willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms

  15. Effect of Dynamic Sector Boundary Changes on Air Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Lee, Paul; Kessell, Angela; Homola, Jeff; Zelinski, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    The effect of dynamic sector boundary changes on air traffic controller workload was investigated with data from a human-in-the-loop simulation. Multiple boundary changes were made during simulated operations, and controller rating of workload was recorded. Analysis of these data showed an increase of 16.9% in controller workload due to boundary changes. This increased workload was correlated with the number of aircraft handoffs and change in sector volume. There was also a 12.7% increase in average workload due to the changed sector design after boundary changes. This increase was correlated to traffic flow crossing points getting closer to sector boundaries and an increase in the number of flights with short dwell time in a sector. This study has identified some of the factors that affect controller workload when sector boundaries are changed, but more research is needed to better understand their relationships.

  16. Child and Adolescent Obesity and Employment Sector in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Zimmer, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Despite its importance as a part of the economic reform in China, sectoral employment has been overlooked as a potential determinant of child and adolescent obesity (CAO). Using large-scale longitudinal data from surveys conducted from 1989 to 2006, this paper examines the relationship between the sector in which a parent is employed and CAO, with the sector being based on ownership and categorised as either state or non-state. Analyses of over 1,700 children and adolescents show that children and adolescents whose parents work in the state sector are less likely to be obese. Patterns of sectoral employment's effect are robust across time periods, in fixed-effects models, and across multiple measures of obesity. Additionally, the paper shows that socioeconomic characteristics of the parent, such as income, education, and occupation, typically thought to be important predictors of CAO, are not as important when the parental working sector is included in the models. PMID:24298293

  17. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-26

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  18. Supersymmetric leptogenesis with a light hidden sector

    SciTech Connect

    De Simone, Andrea; Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Weniger, Christoph E-mail: mathias.garny@ph.tum.de E-mail: christoph.weniger@desy.de

    2010-07-01

    Supersymmetric scenarios incorporating thermal leptogenesis as the origin of the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry generically predict abundances of the primordial elements which are in conflict with observations. In this paper we propose a simple way to circumvent this tension and accommodate naturally thermal leptogenesis and primordial nucleosynthesis. We postulate the existence of a light hidden sector, coupled very weakly to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, which opens up new decay channels for the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, thus diluting its abundance during nucleosynthesis. We present a general model-independent analysis of this mechanism as well as two concrete realizations, and describe the relevant cosmological and astrophysical bounds and implications for this dark matter scenario. Possible experimental signatures at colliders and in cosmic-ray observations are also discussed.

  19. Occupational Hazards in the Thai Healthcare Sector.

    PubMed

    Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Mawn, Barbara; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Healthcare personnel work in vulnerable conditions that can adversely impact physical and/or mental health. This paper aims to synthesize the state of knowledge on work-related illnesses, injuries, and risks experienced by Thai healthcare workers. We found that Thai healthcare personnel, like others worldwide, are at risk for injury related to needle sticks and sharp instruments; infectious diseases due to biological hazards exposure such as airborne pathogens and patient secretions; muscle pain due to workload and long duration of work; and psychological disorders related to stressful working conditions. Because detailed surveillance data are limited for the Thai healthcare workforce, we recommend that additional surveillance data on Thai healthcare workers' health outcomes be collected. Future research efforts should also focus on evidence-based interventions in order to develop methods to prevent and treat occupational health injuries and illnesses acquired in the workplace for Thai healthcare sector workers.

  20. Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimento, L. P.; Carneiro, S.

    2015-03-01

    We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

  1. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  2. Utility Sector Impacts of Reduced Electricity Demand

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Katie

    2014-12-01

    This report presents a new approach to estimating the marginal utility sector impacts associated with electricity demand reductions. The method uses publicly available data and provides results in the form of time series of impact factors. The input data are taken from the Energy Information Agency's Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) projections of how the electric system might evolve in the reference case, and in a number of side cases that incorporate different effciency and other policy assumptions. The data published with the AEO are used to define quantitative relationships between demand-side electricity reductions by end use and supply-side changes to capacity by plant type, generation by fuel type and emissions of CO2, Hg, NOx and SO2. The impact factors define the change in each of these quantities per unit reduction in site electricity demand. We find that the relative variation in these impacts by end use is small, but the time variation can be significant.

  3. Search for Dark Sector at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yuping

    The BESIII experiment, a low-energy high-intensity frontier running in tau-charm energy region, provides good opportunity for the search of the exotic particles predicted in new physics models in dark sector scenario. Using data samples taken at the peak of J/ψ, ψ(2S), and ψ(3770), some of the highlights including the search for the dark photon using initial state radiation reactions e+e- → γISRe+e- and e+e- → γISRμ+μ-, the search for CP-odd light Higgs boson A0 in J/ψ → γA0, and the search for invisible decays of η and η' are presented.

  4. Long-term migration of the solar sector structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, C. L.; Heath, D. F.

    1979-01-01

    The magnetic sector boundaries on the sun and in the solar wind are shown to have a high correlation with winter low pressure systems on earth. The vorticity-area index typically declines by about 10% during several days centered on the time when a sector boundary sweeps past the earth. Evidence that both the sector structure and solar activity levels can be understood as being under the influence of the same regular, internal solar mechanism is presented.

  5. The interplanetary and solar magnetic field sector structures, 1962 - 1968

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The interplanetary magnetic field sector structure was observed from late 1962 through 1968. During this time it has been possible to study the manner in which the sector pattern and its relation to the photospheric magnetic field configuration changes from solar minimum to solar maximum. Observations were also made relating sector boundaries to specific regions on the solar disk. These and other observations related to the solar origin of the interplanetary field are briefly reviewed.

  6. Discovering Preferential Patterns in Sectoral Trade Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, Isabella; Piccardi, Carlo; Tajoli, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the patterns of import/export bilateral relations, with the aim of assessing the relevance and shape of “preferentiality” in countries’ trade decisions. Preferentiality here is defined as the tendency to concentrate trade on one or few partners. With this purpose, we adopt a systemic approach through the use of the tools of complex network analysis. In particular, we apply a pattern detection approach based on community and pseudocommunity analysis, in order to highlight the groups of countries within which most of members’ trade occur. The method is applied to two intra-industry trade networks consisting of 221 countries, relative to the low-tech “Textiles and Textile Articles” and the high-tech “Electronics” sectors for the year 2006, to look at the structure of world trade before the start of the international financial crisis. It turns out that the two networks display some similarities and some differences in preferential trade patterns: they both include few significant communities that define narrow sets of countries trading with each other as preferential destinations markets or supply sources, and they are characterized by the presence of similar hierarchical structures, led by the largest economies. But there are also distinctive features due to the characteristics of the industries examined, in which the organization of production and the destination markets are different. Overall, the extent of preferentiality and partner selection at the sector level confirm the relevance of international trade costs still today, inducing countries to seek the highest efficiency in their trade patterns. PMID:26485163

  7. Characterizing the development of sectoral gross domestic product composition.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Raphael; Spies, Michael; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

    2013-07-01

    We consider the sectoral composition of a country's gross domestic product (GDP), i.e., the partitioning into agrarian, industrial, and service sectors. Exploring a simple system of differential equations, we characterize the transfer of GDP shares between the sectors in the course of economic development. The model fits for the majority of countries providing four country-specific parameters. Relating the agrarian with the industrial sector, a data collapse over all countries and all years supports the applicability of our approach. Depending on the parameter ranges, country development exhibits different transfer properties. Most countries follow three of eight characteristic paths. The types are not random but show distinct geographic and development patterns.

  8. Conic sectors for sampled-data feedback systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P. M.; Stein, G.; Athans, M.

    1983-01-01

    The conic-sector analysis of the closed-loop stability and robustness of a multivariable-analog-system controller based on sampled-data feedback compensation is investigated. Conic sectors and sampled-data feedback systems are defined, and the existence of a conic sector containing a sampled-data operator is established mathematically. An example is presented to prove that the conic sector is computable and gives sufficient conditions of closed-loop stability. A procedure for determining sampled-data-operator gain is also derived.

  9. Reheating the Standard Model from a hidden sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenkanen, Tommi; Vaskonen, Ville

    2016-10-01

    We consider a scenario where the inflaton decays to a hidden sector thermally decoupled from the visible Standard Model sector. A tiny portal coupling between the hidden and the visible sectors later heats the visible sector so that the Standard Model degrees of freedom come to dominate the energy density of the Universe before big bang nucleosynthesis. We find that this scenario is viable, although obtaining the correct dark matter abundance and retaining successful big bang nucleosynthesis is not obvious. We also show that the isocurvature perturbations constituted by a primordial Higgs condensate are not problematic for the viability of the scenario.

  10. Acerca del moho

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    El moho forma parte del medio ambiente natural. Afuera del hogar, el moho juega un papel en la naturaleza al desintegrar materias organicas tales como las hojas que se han caido o los arboles muertos. El moho puede crecer adentro del hogar cuando las espor

  11. Public-Sector Information Security: A Call to Action for Public-Sector CIOs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Objectives ........................14 Recommendation 4: Develop Security Metrics ............................16 Recommendation 5 : Develop Enterprise-IT...us, especially if they understand it better than we do.… 4. They will attack the seams of our technology infrastructure.… 5 . Our technology, like our...sure unwanted intrusions, security breaches, penetrations, and vulnerabilities. The reporting E X E C U T I V E S U M M A R Y 5 PUBLIC-SECTOR

  12. 75 FR 70725 - Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... Spectrum Policy Seminar for the Utility Sector AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... . One recommendation in the report was to provide more information to the utility sector on spectrum... grid technologies. At this spectrum policy seminar, senior officials from the Federal...

  13. Sector Growth Demonstration in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA continues to work with the Bay states and DC to adress areas of concern identified in the final reports. EPA has asked each state and DC to prepare a Sector Load Growth Demonstration using the Sector Load Growth techical memorandum as a guide.

  14. Reflections on the Tertiary Education Sector in Australia. Conference Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The split between higher education and vocational education and training (VET) in Australia is not clean. This paper discusses a number of aspects of this tertiary education sector: the Australian Qualifications Framework (AQF), which describes the qualifications offered by the three education sectors: schools, higher education and VET; student…

  15. General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound, looking north. Antenna Array is in background, behind Communications Antennas, Receiver Building, and Water Storage Tank - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Antenna Array, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  16. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 270.14 Update of sector participant data. The Council will submit to NMFS at the end of each...

  17. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 270.14 Update of sector participant data. The Council will submit to NMFS at the end of each...

  18. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 270.14 Update of sector participant data. The Council will submit to NMFS at the end of each...

  19. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 270.14 Update of sector participant data. The Council will submit to NMFS at the end of each...

  20. Probing the non-minimal Higgs sector at the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.; Komamiya, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.

    1987-11-01

    Non-minimal Higgs sectors occur in the Standard Model with more than one Higgs doublet, as well as in theories that go beyond the Standard Model. In this report, we discuss how Higgs search strategies must be altered, with respect to the Standard Model approaches, in order to probe the non-minimal Higgs sectors at the SSC.

  1. Pay Premiums for Economic Sector and Race: A Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daymont, Thomas N.

    Using data from the older men's file of the National Longitudinal Surveys, two issues related to the labor market implications of dual economy theory were examined: variations in rates of pay among economic sectors (competitive, monopoly, and public) and variation in relative opportunities for blacks across sectors. The primary analytical problem…

  2. General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Six Compound, looking east. Water Storage Tank is at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Six Water Storage Plant, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  3. Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Five Compound, looking southwest. Water Tank to right, Receiver Building to left, antenna array in background - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Five Water Storage Tank, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  4. Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of Sector Four Compound, looking southwest. Water Storage Tank in center behind fence, in front of Receiver Building - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  5. General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Sector Four Compound looking northwest. Water Storage Tank is at right, Receiver Building in center, and Communications Antennas at left - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Tulelake Radar Site Receive Sector Four Water Storage Facility, Unnamed Road West of Double Head Road, Tulelake, Siskiyou County, CA

  6. Adults with Cognitive Disabilities in the Technical Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronsky, Stacy A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the number of jobs created in the technical sector (Casserly, 2012), it is essential to identify how adults with cognitive disabilities can be best supported in professional environments and evolving sectors. Some career paths and jobs can be more understanding of learning disabilities than others (Nicholas, 2011). This is dependent not only…

  7. Gearing Up: An Interim Report on the Sectoral Employment Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Mark; Roder, Anne; King, Elisabeth; Stillman, Joseph

    A study assessed the first two years of a three-year initiative to test the potential of extending sectoral employment strategies among 10 organizations, most of which were new to the sectoral employment field. Five organizations increasing low-income workers' access to good jobs were ARCH; PhAME; Training, Inc.; WIRE-Net; and Project QUEST. Five…

  8. A Guide to Discipline in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, Joel

    This monograph was prepared as an initial effort in development of a body of material for training public sector managers. It sets forth the basic principles of grievance arbitration covering discipline in the public sector. Major sections are devoted to the topics of just or proper cause for discipline, due process, the nature of discipline, and…

  9. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  10. Foreign direct investment in the electricity sector: the Indian perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, A.K.; Vohra, Ekta

    2008-08-15

    So far, India is losing out in the competition against other emerging economies to attract more foreign direct investment to its electricity sector. This is in large part because the Indian approach towards power sector reforms is more haphazard than the more orderly and sensitive growth model of Singapore and Latin American economies. (author)

  11. Electric power sector in Mexico: Past, present, and future developments

    SciTech Connect

    Arriola, E. )

    1994-06-01

    This article reviews electric power sector development in Mexico. The topics of the article include the historic aspects of the development of a national interconnected system, current power demand and system capacity, electric energy exports and imports, expected growth and generation projects under construction, and future development of the electric power sector under the new law.

  12. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.72 Sectoral contact points. Each party shall appoint and confirm in writing contact points to be responsible for activities under subparts A and B of this part....

  13. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.72 Sectoral contact points. Each party shall appoint and confirm in writing contact points to be responsible for activities under subparts A and B of this part....

  14. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.72 Sectoral contact points. Each party shall appoint and confirm in writing contact points to be responsible for activities under subparts A and B of this part....

  15. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.72 Sectoral contact points. Each party shall appoint and confirm in writing contact points to be responsible for activities under subparts A and B of this part....

  16. 21 CFR 26.72 - Sectoral contact points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sectoral contact points. 26.72 Section 26.72 Food...Frameworkâ Provisions § 26.72 Sectoral contact points. Each party shall appoint and confirm in writing contact points to be responsible for activities under subparts A and B of this part....

  17. Sector Distinctions and the Privatization of Public Education Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current trends indicate declining distinctions between "public" and "private" sectors in education. Reformers see sector barriers as unnecessary impediments to innovation, distracting attention and effort from "what works". This analysis questions whether trends in education policy are simply a natural evolution away…

  18. Accelerators in various sectors of the world economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyaev, A. P.; Varzar', S. M.; Borschegovskaya, P. Y.; Belousov, A. V.; Bliznyuk, U. A.

    2016-12-01

    Ionizing radiation is widely being used in medicine and agricultural and industrial sectors. Its sources are X-ray tubes, natural and manmade isotopes, and accelerators. This paper presents data on accelerator facilities operating in various sectors of the world economy.

  19. Quality in the Australian VET Sector: What Has Been Happening?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger

    2015-01-01

    VET (vocational education and training) is a fascinating sector. Aligned closely with the labour market and sandwiched between two major sectors, it is continually buffeted by political winds, susceptible to the ideologies of different governments. Often labelled the "poor cousin", debates continue to rage about its quality. This paper…

  20. Partnerships with the Public Sector: Vocational Education Resource Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evaluation and Training Inst., Los Angeles, CA.

    Designed to assist community college administrators and faculty in enhancing vocational education programs and services, this resource package contains information on successful partnership programs between California Community Colleges (CCC) and public sector entities. Following a brief overview of public sector partnerships, the report presents…

  1. ICT and Web Technology Based Innovations in Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sangeeta Namdev, Dhamdhere

    2012-01-01

    ICT made real magic and drastic changes in all service sectors along with higher education and library practices and services. The academic environment is changing from formal education to distance and online learning mode because of ICT. Web technology and mobile technology has made great impact on education sector. The role of Open Access,…

  2. Convective Weather Forecast Accuracy Analysis at Center and Sector Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yao; Sridhar, Banavar

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed convective forecast accuracy analysis at center and sector levels. The study is aimed to provide more meaningful forecast verification measures to aviation community, as well as to obtain useful information leading to the improvements in the weather translation capacity models. In general, the vast majority of forecast verification efforts over past decades have been on the calculation of traditional standard verification measure scores over forecast and observation data analyses onto grids. These verification measures based on the binary classification have been applied in quality assurance of weather forecast products at the national level for many years. Our research focuses on the forecast at the center and sector levels. We calculate the standard forecast verification measure scores for en-route air traffic centers and sectors first, followed by conducting the forecast validation analysis and related verification measures for weather intensities and locations at centers and sectors levels. An approach to improve the prediction of sector weather coverage by multiple sector forecasts is then developed. The weather severe intensity assessment was carried out by using the correlations between forecast and actual weather observation airspace coverage. The weather forecast accuracy on horizontal location was assessed by examining the forecast errors. The improvement in prediction of weather coverage was determined by the correlation between actual sector weather coverage and prediction. observed and forecasted Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM) data collected from June to September in 2007. CWAM zero-minute forecast data with aircraft avoidance probability of 60% and 80% are used as the actual weather observation. All forecast measurements are based on 30-minute, 60- minute, 90-minute, and 120-minute forecasts with the same avoidance probabilities. The forecast accuracy analysis for times under one-hour showed that the errors in

  3. The impact of oil price on Malaysian sector indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Luan, Yeap Pei; Ee, Ong Joo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, vector error correction model (VECM) has been utilized to model the dynamic relationships between world crude oil price and the sector indices of Malaysia. The sector indices have been collected are covering the period Jan 1998 to Dec 2013. Surprisingly, our investigations show that oil price changes do not Granger-cause any of the sectors in all of Malaysia. However, sector indices of Food Producer and Utilities are found to be the cause of the changes in world crude oil prices. Furthermore, from the results of variance decomposition, very high percentage of shocks is explained by world crude oil price itself over the 12 months and small impact from other sector indices.

  4. The Mexican petrochemical sector in the NAFTA negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Kessel, G.; Kim, C.S.

    1993-12-31

    Since 1985, there have been important changes in the Mexican petrochemical sector, including trade liberalization, deregulation and the elimination of subsidies. NAFTA represents another step towards liberalization of the sector. Given the low tariffs currently applied to international trade among the three nations, the authors do not anticipate major impacts of NAFTA on trade flows. Nevertheless, the elimination of restrictions to foreign investment is expected to increase capital flows into the sector and to promote productivity increases. On the other hand, the new barriers to trade in petrochemical feedstocks and the restrictions on private investment in infrastructure may negatively affect the sector`s growth, making it necessary to adjust domestic regulations to improve the performance of Pemex. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. How to Effect Change Through Cross-sector Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, R.; Elinich, K.; Johnson, R.; Allen, L. B.; Crowley, K. J.; Bachrach, E.

    2014-12-01

    Collaboration is important for effecting large-scale changes, but it is difficult, time-consuming, and requires sustained effort on the part of all collaborating parties. Collaboration among organizations within a single sector (education, policy, or advocacy, for example) is easier than collaboration across sectors, where differences in language, expertise, expectations, and goals can be barriers to shared outcomes. Improving our collective response to climate change is an outcome shared across sectors, providing an opportunity for cross-sector collaboration. The Climate and Urban System Partnership is a network of cross-sector organizations in four cities, with each city forming a local Community of Practice, a group of learners coming together to try new things and learn from each other. We present findings from the first two years of this CCEP-II project, including results from learning sciences, evaluation, and design studies in Pittsburgh, New York, Washington, DC, and Philadelphia.

  6. Venus ionopause 'clouds' and IMF sector boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhmann, Janet G.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, Hanying; Ma, Yingjuan; Zhang, Tielong; McEnulty, T.

    Disconnected or partially connected structures observed by the PVO Langmuir Probe near the ionopause of Venus were called 'clouds' by Brace et al. (1980). These authors speculated that the loss of atmosphere represented by these features could be significant compared to other loss processes. Russell et al. (1982) subsequently showed that the clouds occurred together with sharp rotations in the magnetic field. They suggested that the extreme draping of the interplanetary field that occurs near the ionopause at the draping poles could exert JxB forces sufficient to pull the ionospheric plasma in the cloud tailward and out into the heliosphere. But in 1991, Ong et al. demonstrated via analysis of many clouds that they are not generally seen in the polar regions of the draped magnetosheath field. Instead they occur at times when the interplanetary magnetic field undergoes a sudden rotation, as in interplanetary field sector boundaries. We discuss the statistics of such rotations at the orbit of Venus and their frequency as a function of solar cycle. Whether they enable or enhance escape or not requires simulation studies, but this study calls attention to the potential importance of time dependent external conditions.

  7. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    DOE PAGES

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; ...

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions andmore » show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.« less

  8. Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector

    SciTech Connect

    Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.

    2016-02-17

    The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions and show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.

  9. Latin American petroleum sector at crossroads

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1992-07-06

    This paper reports that Latin America's petroleum industry stands at a precarious crossroads of change. Fundamental changes of democratization, privatization, and economic reform that have marked South America's petroleum sectors since the late 1980s are seeping into other Latin American regions. An unprecedented return of capital that had fled the region in the 1980s - Latin America's lost decade - is under way in full force. That demonstrates the improved credibility of the region's economic reform programs, reports the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB). Even as those reform efforts marked progress in South America in 1991, however, that progress has been threatened in 1992 by political scandal, government crisis, and environmental controversy. Just as the fitful transition to capitalism in the former U.S.S.R. has threatened to collapse the former Soviet republics into chaos because of its economic fallout, so has economic reform in such nations as Brazil, Peru, and Venezuela stumbled. On the other hand, privatization continues apace in Argentina and Mexico. Those Latin American nations and others caught in the rising tide of privatization pulled by an increasingly market oriented global economy continue to avow their commitment to economic reform.

  10. Employment of Geoscientists in the Private Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    In the private sector, major employers of geoscientists engage in diverse activities ranging from resource exploration and extraction, assessment of geologic hazards, and determination of environmental impacts. These firms actively recruit, from the breadth of geoscience disciplines, technically qualified individuals with the ability to make pragmatic decisions in the context of multidisciplinary teams that commonly include non-scientists. Moreover, they expect applicants to communicate effectively verbally and in writing, as well as demonstrate skills and experience in integrating field investigations, conducting laboratory studies, and accomplishing computer modeling. These applicants should be capable of simultaneously working in multiple projects which are rapidly evolving. Successful recruiting and employment requires interactions between the job applicant and potential employer conducted with honesty and integrity. Resumes and associated transmittal letters should be directed to specific employers based on the applicant's review of information on the firm from the Internet and other sources. "Shotgun" or blanket approaches are seldom productive. Participation in pertinent professional societies, internships, and summer employment can provide valuable experiences and opportunities for networking with potential employers.

  11. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This report analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP-8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0, 50, and 100 percent. The data show that SPK fuel (an FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  12. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Himmel, Alexander I.

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for vμ → $\\bar{v}$μ transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |Δ$\\bar{m}$atm 2| = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat) ± 0.06(syst)) x 10-3 eV2 and sin2(2$\\bar{θ}$23) = 0.860-0.12+0.11(stat) ± 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  13. Scenario development in China's electricity sector

    SciTech Connect

    Steenhof, P.A.; Fulton, W.

    2007-07-15

    The continuing growth of China's electricity sector will affect global environmental and economic sustainability due to its impacts on greenhouse gas emissions and global resource depletion. In 2005, the generation of electricity in China resulted in the emissions of 2290 million metric tonnes of carbon dioxide (approximately 53% of the nation's total) and required 779 million metric tonnes of coal (approximately 50% of China's total coal consumption). These figures are expected to increase with China's economic growth. In order to gauge the range in which fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions could grow a scenario-based conceptual model has been developed by the authors (published in this journal). The application and analysis of this shows that under a business as usual (BAU) scenario, electricity generation could contribute upwards of 56% of China's energy related greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. Meanwhile, consumption of coal will also increase, growing to nearly 60% of total national demand by 2020. However, variations in a number of key drivers could produce significant deviation from the BAU scenario. With accelerated economic output, even with greater technological advances and greater potential to bring natural gas on stream, carbon dioxide emissions would rise 10% above the BAU. Alternatively, in a scenario where China's economy grows at a tempered pace, less investment would be available for advanced technologies, developing natural gas infrastructure, or nuclear energy. In this scenario, reduced economic growth and electricity demand would thereby be countered by reduced efficiency and a higher contribution of coal.

  14. Fifteen years of sector-wide approach (SWAp) in Bangladesh health sector: an assessment of progress

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, Karar Zunaid; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Ijdi, Rashida -E-; Escudero, Gabriela Maria; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Reza, M M

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) of the Government of Bangladesh embarked on a sector-wide approach (SWAp) modality for the health, nutrition and population (HNP) sector in 1998. This programmatic shift initiated a different set of planning disciplines and practices along with institutional changes in the MOHFW. Over the years, the SWAp modality has evolved in Bangladesh as the MOHFW has learnt from its implementation and refined the program design. This article explores the progress made, both in terms of achievement of health outcomes and systems strengthening results, since the implementation of the SWAp for Bangladesh’s health sector. Secondary analyses of survey data from 1993 to 2011 as well as a literature review of published and grey literature on health SWAp in Bangladesh was conducted for this assessment. Results of the assessment indicate that the MOHFW made substantial progress in health outcomes and health systems strengthening. SWAps facilitated the alignment of funding and technical support around national priorities, and improved the government’s role in program design as well as in implementation and development partner coordination. Notable systemic improvements have taken place in the country systems with regards to monitoring and evaluation, procurement and service provision, which have improved functionality of health facilities to provide essential care. Implementation of the SWAp has, therefore, contributed to an accelerated improvement in key health outcomes in Bangladesh over the last 15 years. The health SWAp in Bangladesh offers an example of a successful adaptation of such an approach in a complex administrative structure. Based on the lessons learned from SWAp implementation in Bangladesh, the MOHFW needs to play a stronger stewardship and regulatory role to reap the full benefits of a SWAp in its subsequent programming. PMID:26582744

  15. Preliminary technology report for Southern Sector bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.L.; White, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Jones, D.; Berry, C.

    1997-06-01

    This project was designed to demonstrate the potential of intrinsic bioremediation and phytoremediation in the Southern Sector of the A/M-Area at the Savannah River Site. A subsurface plume of trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene (PCE) is present in the Lost Lake aquifer upgradient of the study site and is predicted to impact the area at some point in the future. The surface area along the Lost lake aquifer seep line where the plume is estimated to emerge was identified. Ten sites along the seep line were selected for biological, chemical, and contaminant treatability analyses. A survey was undertaken in this area to to quantify the microbial and plant population known to be capable of remediating TCE and PCE. The current groundwater quality upgradient and downgradient of the zone of influence was determined. No TCE or PCE was found in the soils or surface water from the area tested at this time. A TCE biodegradation treatability test was done on soil from the 10 selected locations. From an initial exposure of 25 ppm of TCE, eight of the samples biodegraded up to 99.9 percent of all the compound within 6 weeks. This biodegradation of TCE appears to be combination of aerobic and anaerobic microbial activity as intermediates that were detected in the treatability test include vinyl chloride (VC) and the dichloroethenes (DCE) 1,2-cis-dichloroethylene and 1,1-dichloroethylene. The TCE biological treatability studies were combines with microbiological and chemical analyses. The soils were found through immunological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis with direct fluorescent antibodies (DFA) and microbiological analysis to have a microbial population of methanotrophic bacteria that utilize the enzyme methane monooxygenase (MMO) and cometabolize TCE.

  16. Alternate-Fueled Combustion-Sector Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Nikita T.; Thomas, Anna E.; Shouse, Dale T.; Neuroth, Craig; Hendricks, Robert C.; Lynch, Amy; Frayne, Charles W.; Stutrud, Jeffrey S.; Corporan, Edwin; Hankins, Terry

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet rapidly growing demand for fuel, as well as address environmental concerns, the aviation industry has been testing alternate fuels for performance and technical usability in commercial and military aircraft. Currently, alternate aviation fuels must satisfy MIL-DTL- 83133F(2008) (military) or ASTM D 7566- Annex(2011) (commercial) standards and are termed drop-in fuel replacements. Fuel blends of up to 50% alternative fuel blended with petroleum (JP-8), which have become a practical alternative, are individually certified on the market. In order to make alternate fuels (and blends) a viable option for aviation, the fuel must be able to perform at a similar or higher level than traditional petroleum fuel. They also attempt to curb harmful emissions, and therefore a truly effective alternate fuel would emit at or under the level of currently used fuel. This paper analyzes data from gaseous and particulate emissions of an aircraft combustor sector. The data were evaluated at various inlet conditions, including variation in pressure and temperature, fuel-to-air ratios, and percent composition of alternate fuel. Traditional JP-8+100 data were taken as a baseline, and blends of JP- 8+100 with synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene (SPK) fuel (Fischer-Tropsch (FT)) were used for comparison. Gaseous and particulate emissions, as well as flame luminosity, were assessed for differences between FT composition of 0%, 50%, and 100%. The data showed that SPK fuel (a FT-derived fuel) had slightly lower harmful gaseous emissions, and smoke number information corroborated the hypothesis that SPK-FT fuels are cleaner burning fuels.

  17. Sectoral Economies, Economic Contexts, and Attitudes toward Immigration

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Do economic considerations shape attitudes toward immigration? In this article, we consider the relationship between economic interests and immigration preferences by examining how developments in individuals' sectors of employment affect these views. Using survey data across European countries from 2002 to 2009 and employing new measures of industry-level exposure to immigration, we find that sectoral economies shape opinions about immigration. Individuals employed in growing sectors are more likely to support immigration than are those employed in shrinking sectors. Moreover, the economic context matters: Making use of the exogenous shock to national economies represented by the 2008 financial crisis, we show that sector-level inflows of immigrant workers have little effect on preferences when economies are expanding, but that they dampen support for immigration when economic conditions deteriorate and confidence in the economy declines. These sectoral effects remain even when controlling for natives' views about the impact of immigration on the national economy and culture. When evaluating immigration policy, individuals thus appear to take into account whether their sector of employment benefits economically from immigration. PMID:24363457

  18. Cross-Sector Impact Analysis of Industrial Efficiency Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William; CreskoEngineering, Joe; Carpenter, Alberta; Masanet, Eric; Nimbalkar, Sachin U; Shehabi, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The industrial or manufacturing sector is a foundational component to all economic activity. In addition to being a large direct consumer of energy, the manufacturing sector also produces materials, products, and technologies that influence the energy use of other economic sectors. For example, the manufacturing of a lighter-weight vehicle component affects the energy required to ship that component as well as the fuel efficiency of the assembled vehicle. Many energy efficiency opportunities exist to improve manufacturing energy consumption, however comparisons of manufacturing sector energy efficiency investment opportunities tend to exclude any impacts that occur once the product leaves the factory. Expanding the scope of analysis to include energy impacts across different stages of product life-cycle can highlight less obvious opportunities and inform actions that create the greatest economy-wide benefits. We present a methodology and associated analysis tool (LIGHTEnUP Lifecycle Industry GHgas, Technology and Energy through the Use Phase) that aims to capture both the manufacturing sector energy consumption and product life-cycle energy consumption implications of manufacturing innovation measures. The tool architecture incorporates U.S. national energy use data associated with manufacturing, building operations, and transportation. Inputs for technology assessment, both direct energy saving to the manufacturing sector, and indirect energy impacts to additional sectors are estimated through extensive literature review and engineering methods. The result is a transparent and uniform system of comparing manufacturing and use-phase impacts of technologies.

  19. Has the Swap Influenced Aid Flows in the Health Sector?

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Rohan; Mortimer, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    The sector wide approach (SWAp) emerged during the 1990s as a mechanism for managing aid from the multiplicity of development partners that operate in the recipient country's health, education or agricultural sectors. Health SWAps aim to give increased control to recipient governments, allowing greater domestic influence over how health aid is allocated and facilitating allocative efficiency gains. This paper assesses whether health SWAps have increased recipient control of health aid via increased general sector-support and have facilitated (re)allocations of health aid across disease areas. Using a uniquely compiled panel data set of countries receiving development assistance for health over the period 1990-2010, we employ fixed effects and dynamic panel models to assess the impact of introducing a health SWAp on levels of general sector-support for health and allocations of health-sector aid across key funding silos (including HIV, 'maternal and child health' and 'sector-support'). Our results suggest that health SWAps have influenced health-sector aid flows in a manner consistent with increased recipient control and improvements in allocative efficiency.

  20. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans.

    PubMed

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2011-04-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee's work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers' need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans.

  1. How does retiree health insurance influence public sector employee saving?

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert L; Mitchell, Olivia S

    2014-12-01

    Economic theory predicts that employer-provided retiree health insurance (RHI) benefits have a crowd-out effect on household wealth accumulation, not dissimilar to the effects reported elsewhere for employer pensions, Social Security, and Medicare. Nevertheless, we are unaware of any similar research on the impacts of retiree health insurance per se. Accordingly, the present paper utilizes a unique data file on respondents to the Health and Retirement Study, to explore how employer-provided retiree health insurance may influence net household wealth among public sector employees, where retiree healthcare benefits are still quite prevalent. Key findings include the following: Most full-time public sector employees anticipate having employer-provided health insurance coverage in retirement, unlike most private sector workers.Public sector employees covered by RHI had substantially less wealth than similar private sector employees without RHI. In our data, Federal workers had about $82,000 (18%) less net wealth than private sector employees lacking RHI; state/local workers with RHI accumulated about $69,000 (or 15%) less net wealth than their uninsured private sector counterparts.After controlling on socioeconomic status and differences in pension coverage, net household wealth for Federal employees was $116,000 less than workers without RHI and the result is statistically significant; the state/local difference was not.

  2. Behavioral economics perspectives on public sector pension plans

    PubMed Central

    BESHEARS, JOHN; CHOI, JAMES J.; LAIBSON, DAVID; MADRIAN, BRIGITTE C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the pension plan features of the states and the largest cities and counties in the U.S. Unlike in the private sector, defined benefit (DB) pensions are still the norm in the public sector. However, a few jurisdictions have shifted toward defined contribution (DC) plans as their primary savings plan, and fiscal pressures are likely to generate more movement in this direction. Holding fixed a public employee’s work and salary history, we show that DB retirement income replacement ratios vary greatly across jurisdictions. This creates large variation in workers’ need to save for retirement in other accounts. There is also substantial heterogeneity across jurisdictions in the savings generated in primary DC plans because of differences in the level of mandatory employer and employee contributions. One notable difference between public and private sector DC plans is that public sector primary DC plans are characterized by required employee or employer contributions (or both), whereas private sector plans largely feature voluntary employee contributions that are supplemented by an employer match. We conclude by applying lessons from savings behavior in private sector savings plans to the design of public sector plans. PMID:21789032

  3. [Gender equity in health sector reform policies in Latin America and the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Elsa Gómez

    2002-01-01

    Gender equity is increasingly being acknowledged as an essential aspect of sustainable development and more specifically, of health development. The Pan American Health Organization's Program for Women, Health, and Development has been piloting for a year now a project known as Equidad de género en las políticas de reforma del sector de salud, whose objective is to promote gender equity in the health sector reform efforts in the Region. The first stage of the project is being conducted in Chile and Peru, along with some activities throughout the Region. The core of the project is the production and use of information as a tool for introducing changes geared toward achieving greater gender equity in health, particularly in connection with malefemale disparities that are unnecessary, avoidable, and unfair in health status, access to health care, and participation in decision-making within the health system. We expect that in three years the project will have brought about changes in the production of information and knowledge, advocacy, and information dissemination, as well as in the development, appropriation, and identification of intersectoral mechanisms that will make it possible for key figures in government and civil society to work together in setting and surveying policy on gender equity in health.

  4. Dark matter and dark forces from a supersymmetric hidden sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, S.; Goodsell, M. D.; Ringwald, A.

    2013-01-01

    We show that supersymmetric “dark force” models with gravity mediation are viable. To this end, we analyze a simple string-inspired supersymmetric hidden sector model that interacts with the visible sector via kinetic mixing of a light Abelian gauge boson with the hypercharge. We include all induced interactions with the visible sector such as neutralino mass mixing and the Higgs portal term. We perform a detailed parameter space scan comparing the produced dark matter relic abundance and direct-detection cross sections to current experiments.

  5. Theory and Motivations of Dark Sector Dark Matter and Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Philip

    2017-01-01

    We present the theory and motivations underlying ``dark'' or ``hidden'' sector dark matter and new force scenarios. Dark sector scenarios with sub-GeV mass scales have attracted particular attention in the past several years, motivated in part by findings from direct detection, satellite, and LHC experiments, as well as precision measurements. Moreover, these scenarios offer some of the simplest and least explored possibilities for dark matter. As such, sub-GeV dark sector scenarios have become the focus of a broad and growing international program of experiments.

  6. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the assessment of results obtained by three NASA studies aimed at determining the global market for stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications areas of the rural sector. An attempt was made to identify technical, social, and institutional barriers to PV system implementation, as well as the funding sources available to potential users. Country- and sector-specific results are discussed, and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector are suggested for the benefit of American PV products manufacturers.

  7. Brownfields Shifting Gears: Driving Toward Auto Sector Property Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is an overview of community success stories. By building strong partnerships and setting priorities for recovery and revitalization, the public and private sectors are realizing a great deal of success in addressing idle industrial brownfields.

  8. India's growing clinical research sector: opportunity for global companies.

    PubMed

    Varawalla, Nermeen

    2007-06-01

    Backed by a compelling foundation of essential requirements necessary for effective clinical trial conduct, and aided by initiatives that address concerns of data quality, regulatory timelines and IP protection, the clinical development sector in India has experienced annual revenue growth rates of 25% in the past two to three years, and is poised to participate substantially in global drug development. As both clinical trial sponsors and CROs increase their research capabilities in India, the clinical development sector is facing challenges with staff resourcing and facilities. Existing initiatives in the clinical sector must continue, and further investment must be made by stakeholders to overcome the current limitations in sector growth. Furthermore, global organizations seeking to derive long-term sustainable revenue growth and competitive advantage in the global marketplace from their business units in India must establish an appropriate organizational culture and an effective intra-organizational and industry interface for their operations.

  9. Voluntary agreements in the industrial sector in China

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Sinton, Jonathan

    2003-03-31

    China faces a significant challenge in the years ahead to continue to provide essential materials and products for a rapidly-growing economy while addressing pressing environmental concerns. China's industrial sector is heavily dependent on the country's abundant, yet polluting, coal resources. While tremendous energy conservation and environmental protection achievements were realized in the industrial sector in the past, there remains a great gulf between the China's level of energy efficiency and that of the advanced countries of the world. Internationally, significant energy efficiency improvement in the industrial sector has been realized in a number of countries using an innovative policy mechanism called Voluntary Agreements. This paper describes international experience with Voluntary Agreements in the industrial sector as well as the development of a pilot program to test the use of such agreements with two steel mills in Shandong Province, China.

  10. Printing and Related Support Activities Sector (NAICS 323)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory and compliance information for the printing sector, including NESHAPs for paper surface coating, RCRA hazardous waste guide for small business, and a pollution prevention guidance for lithographic and screen printing

  11. Questions and Answers About Alternatives in Each Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following list of questions and answers provides an overview of the regulations governing the use of substitutes that are reviewed under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) program in various industrial sectors.

  12. American Indian and Alaska Native Tribal Governments Sectors (NAICS 921150)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information for Tribal Governments Sectors. Learn about American Indian Tribal laws and regulations, tribal drinking water programs, as well as greenhouse gas programs and NESHAPs for boilers and landfills

  13. Promoting a Veteran Workforce for the Water Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA signed a memorandum of understanding with the Department of Veterans Affairs to work jointly on promotional activities to help connect veterans with disabilities with career opportunities in the water sector.

  14. Mining (except Oil and Gas) Sector (NAICS 212)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Regulatory and enforcement information for the mining sector, including metal mining & nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying. Includes information about asbestos, coal mining, mountaintop mining, Clean Water Act section 404, and abandoned mine lands

  15. Elements affecting food waste in the food service sector.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Lotta; Reinikainen, Anu; Katajajuuri, Juha-Matti; Silvennoinen, Kirsi; Hartikainen, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Avoidable food waste is produced in the food service sector, with significant ecological and economical impacts. In order to understand and explain better the complex issue of food waste a qualitative study was conducted on the reasons for its generation in restaurants and catering businesses. Research data were collected during three participatory workshops for personnel from three different catering sector companies in Finland. Based on synthesized qualitative content analysis, eight elements influencing production and reduction of food waste were identified. Results revealed the diversity of managing food waste in the food service sector and how a holistic approach is required to prevent and reduce it. It is crucial to understand that food waste is manageable and should be an integral component of the management system. The model of eight factors provides a framework for recognition and management of food waste in the food service sector.

  16. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  17. Energy finance data warehouse: Tracking revenues through the power sector

    DOE PAGES

    Claire, Zeng; Hendrickson, Stephen; Lee, Sangkeun; ...

    2017-03-24

    Reliable data is needed to understand financial relationships in the power sector. However, relevant data acquisition and visualization can be a challenge due to the fragmented nature of the power sector. The Energy Policy and Systems Analysis office of the U.S. Department of Energy led a team of data scientists at Oak Ridge National Lab to collect revenue information from a variety of sources.

  18. Development of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options for Alberta's Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyam, Veena

    Alberta is the third largest economy in Canada and is expected to grow significantly in the coming decade. The energy sector plays a major role in Alberta's economy. The objective of this research is to develop various greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigations scenarios in the energy demand and supply sectors for the Province of Alberta. This is done through an energy-environment planning and forecasting tool called Long Range Energy Alternative Planning system model (LEAP). By using LEAP, a sankey diagram for energy and emission flows for the Province of Alberta has been developed. A reference case also called as business-as-usual scenario was developed for a study period of 25 years (2005-2030). The GHG mitigation scenarios encompassed various demand and supply side scenarios. In the energy conversion sector, mitigation scenarios for renewable power generation and inclusion of supercritical, ultra-supercritical and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants were investigated. In the oil and gas sector, GHG mitigation scenarios with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) option were considered. In Alberta's residential and commercial sector 4-6 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG mitigation could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the industrial sector up to 40 MT of CO2 equivalents per year of GHG reduction could be achieved with efficiency improvement. In the energy conversion sector large GHG mitigation potential lies in the oil and gas sector and also in power plants with carbon capture and storage (CCS) option. The total GHG mitigation possible in the supply side option is between 20--70 MT CO2 equivalents per year.

  19. Interplanetary magnetic sector polarity inferred from polar geomagnetic field observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Lassen, K.; Wilcox, J. M.; Gonzalez, W.; Colburn, D. S.

    1971-01-01

    In order to infer the interplanetary sector polarity from polar geomagnetic field diurnal variations, measurements were carried out at Godhavn and Thule (Denmark) Geomagnetic Observatories. The inferred interplanetary sector polarity was compared with the polarity observed at the same time by Explorer 33 and 35 magnetometers. It is shown that the polarity (toward or away from the sun) of the interplanetary magnetic field can be reliably inferred from observations of the polar cap geomagnetic fields.

  20. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  1. A Comparison of Cross-Sector Cyber Security Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Evans

    2005-09-01

    This report presents a review and comparison (commonality and differences) of three cross-sector cyber security standards and an internationally recognized information technology standard. The comparison identifies the security areas covered by each standard and reveals where the standards differ in emphasis. By identifying differences in the standards, the user can evaluate which standard best meets their needs. For this report, only cross-sector standards were reviewed.

  2. University-Private Sector Research Partnerships in the Innovation Ecosystem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    researches with the flexibility to engage in sabbaticals and career transitions between academia, government, and the private sector. The Federal government...to support these career paths among their faculty. These practices can also be integrated into the structure of Federally funded university research... careers in this sector. However, it is difficult to imagine how this workforce expansion and overall increase in research capacity can be maintained by

  3. The pharmaceutical sector inquiry: 'Hamlet' in a nutshell.

    PubMed

    den Exter, André

    2010-03-01

    In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.

  4. Computer program for flat sector thrust bearing performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presler, A. F.; Etsion, I.

    1977-01-01

    A versatile computer program is presented which achieves a rapid, numerical solution of the Reynolds equation for a flat sector thrust pad bearing with either compressible or liquid lubricants. Program input includes a range in values of the geometric and operating parameters of the sector bearing. Performance characteristics are obtained from the calculated bearing pressure distribution. These are the load capacity, center of pressure coordinates, frictional energy dissipation, and flow rates of liquid lubricant across the bearing edges. Two sample problems are described.

  5. E-Learning Readiness in the Academic Sector of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laohajaratsang, Thanomporn

    2009-01-01

    As e-learning in the academic sector serves as a crucial driving force in the development of e-learning in Thailand, this article looks at e-learning readiness in Thailand with a focus on the academic sector. The article is divided into four parts: (1) a brief history of e-learning in Thailand; (2) the infrastructure related to e-learning…

  6. Security Sector Reform’s Utility in Conflict Prevention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-10

    NUMBER Security Sector’s Reforms ’ Utility in Conflict Prevention 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...force assistance and foreign internal defense are only two components of security sector reform ; thus, the promise that they will prevent conflict is...dubious at best. This study examines the various approaches to security sector reform and then applies the U.S. government’s methodology to security

  7. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) works with technology experts to project the cost and performance of future residential and commercial sector photovoltaic (PV) and small wind installations rather than developing technology projections in-house. These reports have always been available by request. By providing the reports online, EIA is increasing transparency for the assumptions used for our Annual Energy Outlook buildings sector distributed generation projections.

  8. United States Industrial Sector Energy End Use Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Shehabi, Arman; Morrow, William R.; Masanet, Eric

    2012-05-11

    The United States Department of Energy’s (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) conducts the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS) to provide detailed data on energy consumption in the manufacturing sector. The survey is a sample of approximately 15,000 manufacturing establishments selected from the Economic Census - Manufacturing Sector. MECS provides statistics on the consumption of energy by end uses (e.g., boilers, process, electric drives, etc.) disaggregated by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) categories. The manufacturing sector (NAICS Sector 31-33) consists of all manufacturing establishments in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. According to the NAICS, the manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The establishments are physical facilities such as plants, factories, or mills. For many of the sectors in the MECS datasets, information is missing because the reported energy use is less than 0.5 units or BTUs, or is withheld to avoid disclosing data for individual establishments, or is withheld because the standard error is greater than 50%. We infer what the missing information likely are using several approximations techniques. First, much of the missing data can be easily calculated by adding or subtracting other values reported by MECS. If this is not possible (e.g. two data are missing), we look at historic MECS reports to help identify the breakdown of energy use in the past and assume it remained the same for the current MECS. Lastly, if historic data is also missing, we assume that 3 digit NAICS classifications predict energy use in their 4, 5, or 6 digit NAICS sub-classifications, or vice versa. Along with addressing data gaps, end use energy is disaggregated beyond the specified MECS allocations using additional industry specific energy consumption data. The result is a

  9. Energy Sector Adaptation in Response to Water Scarcity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. A.; Fricko, O.; Parkinson, S.; Riahi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global energy systems models have largely ignored the impacts of water scarcity on the energy sector and the related implications for climate change mitigation. However, significant water is required in the production of energy, including for thermoelectric power plant cooling, hydropower generation, irrigation for bioenergy, and the extraction and refining of liquid fuels. With a changing climate and expectations of increasing competition for water from the agricultural and municipal sectors, it is unclear whether sufficient water will be available where needed to support water-intensive energy technologies in the future. Thus, it is important that water use and water constraints are incorporated into energy systems models to better understand energy sector adaptation to water scarcity. The global energy systems model, MESSAGE, has recently been updated to quantify the water consumption and withdrawal requirements of the energy sector and now includes several cooling technologies for addressing water scarcity. This study introduces water constraints into the model to examine whether and how the energy sector can adapt to water scarcity over the next century. In addition, the implications for climate mitigation are evaluated under a scenario in which warming is limited to 2˚C over the pre-industrial level. Given the difficulty of introducing meaningful water constraints into global models, we use a simplistic approach and evaluate a series of scenarios in which the water available to the energy sector is systematically reduced. This approach allows for the evaluation of energy sector adaptations under various levels of water scarcity and can provide insight into how water scarcity, whether from climate change or competing demands, may impact the energy sector in different world regions. This study will provide insight into the following questions: How does the energy sector adapt to water scarcity in different regions? What are the costs associated with adaptation

  10. Thermal dark matter from a highly decoupled sector

    SciTech Connect

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-11-17

    It has recently been shown that if the dark matter is in thermal equilibrium with a sector that is highly decoupled from the Standard Model, it can freeze out with an acceptable relic abundance, even if the dark matter is as heavy as ~1–100 PeV. In such scenarios, both the dark and visible sectors are populated after inflation, but with independent temperatures. The lightest particle in the dark sector will be generically long-lived and can come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Upon decaying, these particles can significantly reheat the visible sector, diluting the abundance of dark matter and thus allowing for dark matter particles that are much heavier than conventional WIMPs. In this study, we present a systematic and pedagogical treatment of the cosmological history in this class of models, emphasizing the simplest scenarios in which a dark matter candidate annihilates into hidden sector particles which then decay into visible matter through the vector, Higgs, or lepton portals. In each case, we find ample parameter space in which very heavy dark matter particles can provide an acceptable thermal relic abundance. We also discuss possible extensions of models featuring these dynamics.

  11. Thermal dark matter from a highly decoupled sector

    DOE PAGES

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-11-17

    It has recently been shown that if the dark matter is in thermal equilibrium with a sector that is highly decoupled from the Standard Model, it can freeze out with an acceptable relic abundance, even if the dark matter is as heavy as ~1–100 PeV. In such scenarios, both the dark and visible sectors are populated after inflation, but with independent temperatures. The lightest particle in the dark sector will be generically long-lived and can come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Upon decaying, these particles can significantly reheat the visible sector, diluting the abundance of dark mattermore » and thus allowing for dark matter particles that are much heavier than conventional WIMPs. In this study, we present a systematic and pedagogical treatment of the cosmological history in this class of models, emphasizing the simplest scenarios in which a dark matter candidate annihilates into hidden sector particles which then decay into visible matter through the vector, Higgs, or lepton portals. In each case, we find ample parameter space in which very heavy dark matter particles can provide an acceptable thermal relic abundance. We also discuss possible extensions of models featuring these dynamics.« less

  12. Sector mapping method for 3D detached retina visualization.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yi-Ran; Zhao, Yong; Zhong, Jie; Li, Ke; Lu, Cui-Xin; Zhang, Bing

    2016-10-01

    A new sphere-mapping algorithm called sector mapping is introduced to map sector images to the sphere of an eyeball. The proposed sector-mapping algorithm is evaluated and compared with the plane-mapping algorithm adopted in previous work. A simulation that maps an image of concentric circles to the sphere of the eyeball and an analysis of the difference in distance between neighboring points in a plane and sector were used to compare the two mapping algorithms. A three-dimensional model of a whole retina with clear retinal detachment was generated using the Visualization Toolkit software. A comparison of the mapping results shows that the central part of the retina near the optic disc is stretched and its edges are compressed when the plane-mapping algorithm is used. A better mapping result is obtained by the sector-mapping algorithm than by the plane-mapping algorithm in both the simulation results and real clinical retinal detachment three-dimensional reconstruction.

  13. Commissioning the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector

    SciTech Connect

    Millet, F.; Claudet, S.; Ferlin, G.; Perin, A.; Riddone, G.; Serio, L.; Soubiran, M.; Tavian, L.; Ronayette, L.; Rabehl, R.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The LHC machine, composed of eight sectors with superconducting magnets and accelerating cavities, requires a complex cryogenic system providing high cooling capacities (18 kW equivalent at 4.5 K and 2.4 W at 1.8 K per sector produced in large cold boxes and distributed via 3.3-km cryogenic transfer lines). After individual reception tests of the cryogenic subsystems (cryogen storages, refrigerators, cryogenic transfer lines and distribution boxes) performed since 2000, the commissioning of the cryogenic system of the first LHC sector has been under way since November 2006. After a brief introduction to the LHC cryogenic system and its specificities, the commissioning is reported detailing the preparation phase (pressure and leak tests, circuit conditioning and flushing), the cool-down sequences including the handling of cryogenic fluids, the magnet powering phase and finally the warm-up. Preliminary conclusions on the commissioning of the first LHC sector will be drawn with the review of the critical points already solved or still pending. The last part of the paper reports on the first operational experience of the LHC cryogenic system in the perspective of the commissioning of the remaining LHC sectors and the beam injection test.

  14. Mitigation technologies and measures in energy sector of Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Pilifosova, O.; Danchuk, D.; Temertekov, T.

    1996-12-31

    An important commitment in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change is to conduct mitigation analysis and to communicate climate change measures and policies. In major part reducing CO{sub 2} as well as the other greenhouse gas emissions in Kazakstan, can be a side-product of measures addressed to increasing energy efficiency. Since such measures are very important for the national economy, mitigation strategies in the energy sector of Kazakstan are directly connected with the general national strategy of the energy sector development. This paper outlines the main measures and technologies in energy sector of Kazakstan which can lead to GHG emissions reduction and presents the results of current mitigation assessment. The mitigation analysis is addressed to energy production sector. A baseline and six mitigation scenarios were developed to evaluate the most attractive mitigation options, focusing on specific technologies which have been already included in sustainable energy programs. According to the baseline projection, Kazakstan`s CO{sub 2} emissions will not exceed their 1990 level until 2005. The potential for CO{sub 2} emission reduction is estimated to be about 11 % of the base line emission level by the end of considered period (in 2020). The main mitigation options in the energy production sector in terms of mitigation potential and technical and economical feasibility include rehabilitation of thermal power plants aimed to increasing efficiency, use of nuclear energy and further expansion in the use of hydro energy based on small hydroelectric power plants.

  15. Assessing global resource utilization efficiency in the industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Marc A

    2013-09-01

    Designing efficient energy systems, which also meet economic, environmental and other objectives and constraints, is a significant challenge. In a world with finite natural resources and large energy demands, it is important to understand not just actual efficiencies, but also limits to efficiency, as the latter identify margins for efficiency improvement. Energy analysis alone is inadequate, e.g., it yields energy efficiencies that do not provide limits to efficiency. To obtain meaningful and useful efficiencies for energy systems, and to clarify losses, exergy analysis is a beneficial and useful tool. Here, the global industrial sector and industries within it are assessed by using energy and exergy methods. The objective is to improve the understanding of the efficiency of global resource use in the industrial sector and, with this information, to facilitate the development, prioritization and ultimate implementation of rational improvement options. Global energy and exergy flow diagrams for the industrial sector are developed and overall efficiencies for the global industrial sector evaluated as 51% based on energy and 30% based on exergy. Consequently, exergy analysis indicates a less efficient picture of energy use in the global industrial sector than does energy analysis. A larger margin for improvement exists from an exergy perspective, compared to the overly optimistic margin indicated by energy.

  16. Thermal dark matter from a highly decoupled sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berlin, Asher; Hooper, Dan; Krnjaic, Gordan

    2016-11-01

    It has recently been shown that if the dark matter is in thermal equilibrium with a sector that is highly decoupled from the Standard Model, it can freeze out with an acceptable relic abundance, even if the dark matter is as heavy as ˜1 - 100 PeV . In such scenarios, both the dark and visible sectors are populated after inflation, but with independent temperatures. The lightest particle in the dark sector will be generically long-lived and can come to dominate the energy density of the Universe. Upon decaying, these particles can significantly reheat the visible sector, diluting the abundance of dark matter and thus allowing for dark matter particles that are much heavier than conventional WIMPs. In this paper, we present a systematic and pedagogical treatment of the cosmological history in this class of models, emphasizing the simplest scenarios in which a dark matter candidate annihilates into hidden sector particles which then decay into visible matter through the vector, Higgs, or lepton portals. In each case, we find ample parameter space in which very heavy dark matter particles can provide an acceptable thermal relic abundance. We also discuss possible extensions of models featuring these dynamics.

  17. Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosale, Shobhana

    The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public…

  18. General and Partial Equilibrium Modeling of Sectoral Policies to Address Climate Change in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Pizer, William; Burtraw, Dallas; Harrington, Winston; Newell, Richard; Sanchirico, James; Toman, Michael

    2003-03-31

    This document provides technical documentation for work using detailed sectoral models to calibrate a general equilibrium analysis of market and non-market sectoral policies to address climate change. Results of this work can be found in the companion paper, "Modeling Costs of Economy-wide versus Sectoral Climate Policies Using Combined Aggregate-Sectoral Model".

  19. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-09-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  20. The role of criminal law within the healthcare sector.

    PubMed

    Alhafaji, Yasmin

    2012-12-01

    Health is for most of us the most precious thing one can have. However, in practice situations occur where the patient is harmed within the healthcare institution. Traditionally, there are several ways to protect individuals in society: with civil, criminal and administrative procedures. Over the years in the Netherlands complaints procedures were established in which the complaints about healthcare providers' performance can be handled. Recently, there are some developments within the criminal law that concern the healthcare sector. Examples are: the establishment of the Public Prosecution Service's Expertise Center on Medical Matters, appointments of medical prosecutors. In addition, in legal literature suggestions are made that criminal law is nowadays applied in order to provide redress to the patients (relatives) and as a 'safety tool' that is to ensure security and to counter the risks within the healthcare sector. The article discusses the role of criminal law within the healthcare sector, and in particular, whether criminal procedure is suitable for handling complaints about healthcare.

  1. The worldwide market for photovoltaics in the rural sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide market for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems in three specific segments of the rural sector were determined. The worldwide market for photovoltaic power systems for village power, cottage industry, and agricultural applications were addressed. The objectives of these studies were to: The market potential for small stand-alone photovoltaic power system in specific application areas was assessed. Technical, social and institutional barriers to PV utilization were identified. Funding sources available to potential users was also identified and marketing strategies appropriate for each sector were recommended to PV product manufacturers. The studies were prepared on the basis of data gathered from domestic sources and from field trips to representative countries. Both country-specific and sector-specific results are discussed, and broadly applicable barriers pertinent to international marketing of PV products are presented.

  2. Prototype sector production for the STAR inner TPC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi; STAR Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is upgrading the Inner TPC sectors (iTPC). By increasing the number of inner pad rows from 13 to 40 and renewing the inner sector wires, this major detector upgrade will improve the rapidity coverage from |η| < 1 to |η| < 1.5, provide better momentum resolution, and better energy loss (dE/dx) resolution. The iTPC upgrade is crucial to STAR Beam Energy Scan Phase II (BES- II) program, which will provide in-depth understanding on QCD phase diagram and in-medium modification. In this paper we report on progress on the iTPC sector construction. The iTPC module fabrication techniques and testing results from the first full size prototype are presented.

  3. Agricultural sector impacts of making ethanol from grain

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzmark, D.; Ray, D.; Parvin, G.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a model of the effects on the agricultural sector of producing ethanol from corn in the United States between 1979 and 1983. The model is aggregated at the national level, and results are given for all of the major food and feed crops, ethanol joint products, farm income, government payment, and agricultural exports. A stochastic simulation was performed to ascertain the impacts of yield and demand variations on aggregate performance figures. Results indicate minimal impacts on the agricultural sector for production levels of less than 1 billion gallons of ethanol per year. For higher production levels, corn prices will rise sharply, the agricultural sector will be more vulnerable to variations in yields and demands, and joint-product values will fall. Possibilities for ameliorating such effects are discussed, and such concepts as net energy and the biomass refinery are explored.

  4. Real & Financial Sectors, ``koq Financenaann..'' & Elbio Dagotto's Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    2016-10-01

    In conjunctions between PMRI/Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia fom Dr. RK Sembiring to ``ASTRANOMICS'': the New Reality in Business Aviation herewith provided `interaction between real & financial sector' and financialisation from Heinrich Bortis: ``the Real & Financial Sector of a Monetary Production Economy in the perspective of classical-Keynesian political economy'' ever specifies ``sector Riil'' from HE. Mr. Ir. Aburizal Bakrie. Instead describes the context of CMR/Colossal Magnetoresistance cq Carlos SLIM, the richest entrepreneur in the world 2014 also obtaines Dagotto & Tokura: ``Strongly correlated Electronic Materials: Present & Future'',MRS Bulletin, Nov, 2008. Ever existed of UN Secretary General Kofie Atta Annan, for Lih-AT TA-ruh di mana?'' are ```koq Financenaann..?'' in-between conjunctions. CMR are other notions of GiantMagnetoresistance from Fert & Grundberg who awarded with Nobel Prize in Physics, 2007. Heartfelt Gratitudes to HE. Mr. Prof. Ir. HANDOJO.

  5. Laparoscopic management of post-cholecystectomy sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Nilanjan; Narasimhan, Mohan; Gunaraj, Alwin; Ardhanari, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Vascular injuries during laparoscopic cholecystectomy can occur similar to biliary injuries and mostly represented by intraoperative bleeding. Hepatic artery system pseudoaneurysm are rare. It occurs in the early or late postoperative course. Patients present with pallor, signs of haemobillia and altered liver function. We report a case of right posterior sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm detected 2 weeks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and successfully repaired laparoscopically. We also describe how laparoscopic pringle clamping saved the conversion. The actively bleeding right posterior sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed by CT angiogram. Embolisation, usually the treatment of choice, would have risked liver insufficiency as hepatic artery proper was at risk because the origin the bleeding artery was just after its bifurcation. Isolated right hepatic artery embolisation can also cause hepatic insufficiency. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of laparoscopic repair of post-laparoscopic cholecystectomy bleeding sectoral artery pseudoaneurysm. PMID:24501508

  6. A fair day's wage? Perceptions of public sector pay.

    PubMed

    Furnham, Adrian; Stieger, Stefan; Haubner, Tanja; Voracek, Martin; Swami, Viren

    2009-12-01

    There is a scarcity of evidence pertaining to the general public's perception of public sector pay. Hence, in the present study, 161 women and 149 men were asked to estimate the wages 35 public sector professions should receive annually in the fictitious nation of Maldoria, based on a comparison value of an annual income of T10,000 for general practitioners. Analysis showed that only pilots were given a higher annual income than general practitioners; miners and local government workers were also provided with relatively high annual incomes. By contrast, newscasters were provided with the lowest annual income. Participants' sex did not affect these evaluations, and other demographic variables and public sector-related information of the participants were poor predictors of their evaluations. The implications of this research on public attitudes toward wage determination are discussed, and avenues for further research highlighted.

  7. Dark matter antibaryons from a supersymmetric hidden sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, Nikita; Morrissey, David E.; Sigurdson, Kris; Tulin, Sean

    2012-11-01

    The cosmological origin of both dark and baryonic matter can be explained through a unified mechanism called hylogenesis where baryon and antibaryon numbers are divided between the visible sector and a GeV-scale hidden sector, while the Universe remains net baryon symmetric. The “missing” antibaryons, in the form of exotic hidden states, are the dark matter. We study model-building, cosmological, and phenomenological aspects of this scenario within the framework of supersymmetry, which naturally stabilizes the light hidden sector and electroweak mass scales. Inelastic dark matter scattering on visible matter destroys nucleons, and nucleon decay searches offer a novel avenue for the direct detection of the hidden antibaryonic dark matter sea.

  8. Chile: pioneer in deregulation of the electric power sector

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnick, H. )

    1994-06-01

    This article examines the deregulation of the electric power sector in Chile. Chile was the leader in Latin America in the restructuring of the electric power sector, and its case merits particular analysis. Although a small system (70% of installed capacity is hydroelectric with 2,800 MW maximum demand in 1993), its development has been observed with interest by many institutions, particularly by the World Bank and most recently by other Latin American countries, and several countries have followed its steps. The Chilean 1982 electricity law was a worldwide pioneer in deregulating the electric power sector to create market conditions where generators compete to provide electrical energy to large consumers, sharing a transmission system open to all and paying fees for that system. The law formalized what had taken place in the country since 1978, several years before market approaches were formulated in the US and implemented in the United Kingdom.

  9. Priority mitigation measures in non-energy sector in Kazakstan

    SciTech Connect

    Mizina, S.V.; Pilifosova, O.V.; Gossen, E.F.

    1996-12-31

    Fulfilling the Commitments on UN FCCC through the U.S. Country Studies Program, Kazakstan has developed the national GHG Inventory, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and estimated the possibility of mitigation measures in certain sectors. Next step is developing National Climate Change Action Plan. That process includes such major steps as setting priorities in mitigation measures and technologies, their comprehensive evaluation, preparation implementation strategies, developing the procedure of incorporation of the National Action Plan into other development plans and programs. This paper presents programs and measures that can reduce GHG emissions in non-energy sector. Measures in land-use change and forestry, agriculture and coal mining are considered. Current situation in non-energy sector of Kazakstan is discussed. The amount of GHG emissions reduction and cost analysis presented in this paper was developed with the use of IPCC recommendations.

  10. Competences in demand within the Spanish agricultural engineering sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-09-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers (50 farming sector employers); (3) competences required by farming sector professionals and former students (70 professionals). The surveys show significant differences between what competences agricultural employers require of graduates and the competences they acquire during their agricultural engineering degree courses. Recruiters are looking for generic competences such as the ability to coordinate groups and place less importance on knowledge of engineering, biology, applied economics and legislation. Of the computer-related competences, those most in demand by sector professionals were related to the use of Microsoft Office/Excel (used by 79% of professionals). Surveys were used to redesign some subjects of the degrees.

  11. Impacts of climate change on the global forest sector

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perez-Garcia, J.; Joyce, L.A.; McGuire, A.D.; Xiao, X.

    2002-01-01

    The path and magnitude of future anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide will likely influence changes in climate that may impact the global forest sector. These responses in the global forest sector may have implications for international efforts to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide. This study takes a step toward including the role of global forest sector in integrated assessments of the global carbon cycle by linking global models of climate dynamics, ecosystem processes and forest economics to assess the potential responses of the global forest sector to different levels of greenhouse gas emissions. We utilize three climate scenarios and two economic scenarios to represent a range of greenhouse gas emissions and economic behavior. At the end of the analysis period (2040), the potential responses in regional forest growing stock simulated by the global ecosystem model range from decreases and increases for the low emissions climate scenario to increases in all regions for the high emissions climate scenario. The changes in vegetation are used to adjust timber supply in the softwood and hardwood sectors of the economic model. In general, the global changes in welfare are positive, but small across all scenarios. At the regional level, the changes in welfare can be large and either negative or positive. Markets and trade in forest products play important roles in whether a region realizes any gains associated with climate change. In general, regions with the lowest wood fiber production cost are able to expand harvests. Trade in forest products leads to lower prices elsewhere. The low-cost regions expand market shares and force higher-cost regions to decrease their harvests. Trade produces different economic gains and losses across the globe even though, globally, economic welfare increases. The results of this study indicate that assumptions within alternative climate scenarios and about trade in forest products are important factors

  12. Electricity savings potentials in the residential sector of Bahrain

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, H.; Morsy, M.G.; Al-Baharna, N.S.

    1996-08-01

    Electricity is the major fuel (over 99%) used in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors in Bahrain. In 1992, the total annual electricity consumption in Bahrain was 3.45 terawatt-hours (TWh), of which 1.95 TWh (56%) was used in the residential sector, 0.89 TWh (26%) in the commercial sector, and 0.59 TWh (17%) in the industrial sector. Agricultural energy consumption was 0.02 TWh (less than 1%) of the total energy use. In Bahrain, most residences are air conditioned with window units. The air-conditioning electricity use is at least 50% of total annual residential use. The contribution of residential AC to the peak power consumption is even more significant, approaching 80% of residential peak power demand. Air-conditioning electricity use in the commercial sector is also significant, about 45% of the annual use and over 60% of peak power demand. This paper presents a cost/benefit analysis of energy-efficient technologies in the residential sector. Technologies studied include: energy-efficient air conditioners, insulating houses, improved infiltration, increasing thermostat settings, efficient refrigerators and freezers, efficient water heaters, efficient clothes washers, and compact fluorescent lights. We conservatively estimate a 32% savings in residential electricity use at an average cost of about 4 fils per kWh. (The subsidized cost of residential electricity is about 12 fils per kWh. 1000 fils = 1 Bahrain Dinar = US$ 2.67). We also discuss major policy options needed for implementation of energy-efficiency technologies.

  13. [Eco-efficiency of industry sectors for China].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian-Su; Zeng, Run; Du, Yan-Chun; Jiang, Pan

    2010-11-01

    Industry is the main source of resource consumption and environmental emissions of China, and the analyzing of eco-efficiencies for industrial sectors may provide essential information for the restructure of industrial system and the improvement of environmental quality of China. The industry composition was analyzed and the relationship between the industry and its environment was established. The energy consumption and the main environmental emissions such as wastewater, solid waste, industry SO2, smog, dust were chosen as the environmental impact categories, the corresponding eco-efficiencies of industry were defined and estimated for China in 2007. The results are as follows: the energy efficiency is 615.5 x 10(4) yuan x ktce(-1), the wastewater and solid waste related eco-efficiencies are 54.3 x 10(4) yuan x kt(-1) and 1.9 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively; industry SO2, smog, dust related eco-efficiencies are 59.6 x 10(4), 169.2 x 10(4) and 184.6 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), respectively. The eco-efficiencies of 39 industry sectors were analyzed extensively and the results showed that, the distribution of industrial sectors in above eco-efficiencies is uneven, and the order of industrial sector in industry will vary with industry sector and eco-efficiency category. Meanwhile, for the same category of eco-efficiency, the values for different industry sectors may change from centuplicate to several thousand folds, therefore a great possibility for the improvement of industry eco-efficiency is exist in the restructure of industry system.

  14. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  15. A carbon footprint simulation model for the cork oak sector.

    PubMed

    Demertzi, Martha; Paulo, Joana Amaral; Arroja, Luís; Dias, Ana Cláudia

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, a simulation model for the calculation of the carbon footprint of the cork oak sector (CCFM) is developed for the first time. A life cycle approach is adopted including the forest management, manufacturing, use and end-of-life stages. CCFM allows the user to insert the cork type used as raw material and its respective quantity and the distances in-between the various stages. The user can choose among different end-of-life destination options for the used cork products. The option of inserting different inputs, allows the use of the present simulation model for different cork oak systems, in different countries and with different conditions. CCFM allows the identification of the stages and products with the greatest carbon footprint and thus, a better management of the sector from an environmental perspective. The Portuguese cork oak sector is used as an application example of the model. The results obtained showed that the agglomeration industry is the hotspot for the carbon footprint of the cork sector mainly due to the production of the resins that are mixed with the cork granules for the production of agglomerated cork products. The consideration of the biogenic carbon emissions and sequestration of carbon at the forest in the carbon footprint, resulted to a great decrease of the sector's carbon footprint. Future actions for improvement are suggested in order to decrease the carbon footprint of the entire cork sector. It was found that by decreasing by 10% the emission factor of the agglomeration and transformation industries, substituting the transport trucks by more recent ones and by decreasing by 10% the cork products reaching the landfilling end-of-life destinations (while increasing the quantities reaching incineration and recycling), a decrease of the total CF (excluding the biogenic emissions and sequestration) of the entire cork industry by 10% can be achieved.

  16. Espectroscopia del Cometa Halley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, O.; Fuenmayor, F.; Ferrin, L.; Bulka, P.; Mendoza, C.

    1987-05-01

    Se reportan observaciones espectroscópicas del cometa Halley. Los espectros fueron tomados usando el espectrógrafo del telescopio reflector de 1 metro del Observatorio Nacional de Venezuela. Se utilizó óptica azul, con una red de difracción de 600 lineas/min, obteniéndose una dispersión de 74.2 A/mm y una resolución de 2.5 A, en el rango espectral de 3500 a 6500 A. Seis placas fueron tomadas con emulsión IIa-O y dos con IIa-D. Los tiempos de exposición fueron entre 10 y 150 minutos. El cometa se encontraba entre 0.70 y 1.04 UA del Sol, y entre 1.28 y 0.73 UA de la Tierra. Las emisiones más prominentes en el espectro, son las del CN, C2, y C3. Otras emisiones detectadas corresponden a CH, NH2 y Na. Los espectros muestran un fuerte continuo, indicando un contenido significativo de polvo. Se detectó mayor intensidad del contínuo, en la dirección anti solar, lo cual es evidencia de la cola de polvo.

  17. Plasmon coupling in the double-sector structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jianxia; Miao, Runcai; Dong, Jun

    2017-03-01

    A silver nanostructure consisting of double sectors is proposed in this paper. In addition, the plasmon resonance and electric field enhancement have been investigated theoretically. It is found that, in this structure, the multiple resonances produce, which is tunable by the parameter of the structure. The localized electromagnetic fields can be produced at the tips of the structure. In addition, the enhanced electromagnetic fields can be observed between the sectors in a wide scale at the lower energy peak. The result of the investigation has great significance for the production of practical nanostructures and the improvement of possible applications.

  18. Dark Forces and Dark Matter in a Hidden Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Hidden sectors in connection with GeV-scale dark forces and dark matter are not only a common feature of physics beyond the Standard Model such as string theory and SUSY but are also phenomenologically of great interest regarding recent astrophysical observations. The hidden photon in particular is also searched for and constrained by laboratory experiments, the current status of which will be presented here. Furthermore, several models of hidden sectors containing in addition a dark matter particle will be examined regarding their consistency with the dark matter relic abundance and direct detection experiments.

  19. Infrastructure opportunities in South America: Energy sector. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The report, conducted by CG/LA, Inc., was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report was assembled for the South American Infrastructure Conference held in New Orleans. It contains a regional overview of infrastructure activities in ten countries represented at the conference. Also covered are project listings in five sectors, including Energy, Transportation, Environment, Telecommunications, and Industry. The study covers TDA case studies as well as project financeability. The ten countries covered in the report include the following: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela. This volume focuses on the Energy Sector in South America.

  20. Iris sector heterochromia as a marker for neural crest disease.

    PubMed

    Brazel, S M; Sullivan, T J; Thorner, P S; Clarke, M P; Hunter, W S; Morin, J D

    1992-02-01

    A 6-month-old female infant with biopsy-proved Hirschsprung's disease had associated sector heterochromia of the irides. The association between sector heterochromia and Hirschsprung's disease has been previously reported and both conditions have been ascribed to neural crest defects. Histologic characteristics of the ocular involvement have not previously been reported, to our knowledge. Histopathologic examination of the globes revealed decreased iris stroma, decreased pigmentation in the anterior stroma, and reduced numbers of pigment-producing cells in the affected areas. Both the ocular and gastrointestinal findings reflect abnormalities in tissues of neural crest origin.

  1. Non-linear analysis of moderately thick sector plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Y.; Sharda, H. B.; Sharma, Ashish

    2005-10-01

    Non-linear static analysis of moderately thick sector plates under uniformly distributed loading is presented. Using the first-order shear deformation theory and Von Karman type non-linearity, the governing equations of equilibrium are developed and expressed in terms of displacement components. The Chebyshev polynomial is used for spatial discretization of the differential equations. An iterative incremental approach based on Newton-Raphson method is used for the solution. Convergence study is carried out. Effects of annularity, thickness ratio, sector angle and boundary conditions are investigated. Results are compared with those available from the literature.

  2. Methodology for Modeling Building Energy Performance across the Commercial Sector

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D.; Ryan, J.

    2008-03-01

    This report uses EnergyPlus simulations of each building in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to document and demonstrate bottom-up methods of modeling the entire U.S. commercial buildings sector (EIA 2006). The ability to use a whole-building simulation tool to model the entire sector is of interest because the energy models enable us to answer subsequent 'what-if' questions that involve technologies and practices related to energy. This report documents how the whole-building models were generated from the building characteristics in 2003 CBECS and compares the simulation results to the survey data for energy use.

  3. Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    OAK-A258 Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan. This report for calendar years 1993 through September 1998 describes efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract. The development of a pyrochemical process, called TRUMP-S, for partitioning actinides from PUREX waste, is described in this report. This effort is funded by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), KHI, the United States Department of Energy, and Boeing.

  4. Energy productivity in the industrial sector: an econometric analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Energy productivity and energy intensity within the industrial sector of the economy are examined. Results suggest that relative prices and other economic factors can explain much of the variation in both energy productivity and energy intensity for manufacturing and mining and for the industrial sector as a whole. Cyclical factors, seasonal factors and trend variables are also useful in explaining variation in these data, both for annual and monthly time series. Of the variables examined, it appears that the relative price of energy is a highly significant factor in accounting for the difference between actual industrial energy intensity and that which might have been expected had pre-1973 trends continued.

  5. Sector field mass spectrometers in ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubowski, Norbert; Moens, Luc; Vanhaecke, Frank

    1998-11-01

    A new generation of sector field mass spectrometers, with improved analytical figures of merit at even lower prices, is commercially available, giving a strong impetus to the development of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) sector field instrument applications in the analytical community. It is the aim of this paper to give an overview of these instruments, to introduce some basic concepts, to discuss their peculiarities and performance, and to present some selected examples of analytical applications to demonstrate the `state of the art'.

  6. Privatizing responsibility: public sector reform under neoliberal government.

    PubMed

    Ilcan, Suzan

    2009-08-01

    In light of public sector reforms in Canada and elsewhere, this paper focuses on the shift of emphasis from social to private responsibilities and raises new questions about the forces of private enterprise and market-based partnerships. Under neoliberal governmental agendas, privatizing responsibility links to three main developments: the reconsideration of the relations of public and private; the mobilization of responsible citizenship; and the formation of a cultural mentality of rule that works alongside these developments. The research for this article is based on extensive analysis of policy documents and public sector reform initiatives, as well as interviews with Canadian federal public service employees.

  7. Creating Good Employment Opportunities for the Rural Sector

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for sector-specific productivity growth, human capital, credit markets, and infrastructure to contribute to the development of stable, well-paid employment in rural areas of low-income countries. Particular emphasis is placed on the way that different sectors of the rural economy interact with each other and with local and regional product markets. A simple theoretical framework and descriptive analysis of panel data from India suggests that more emphasis should be placed on increasing the production of goods that incorporate local agricultural products as inputs. PMID:25883938

  8. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with ...

  9. School Sector, School Poverty, and the Catholic School Advantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinan, Maureen T.; Kubitschek, Warren N.

    2010-01-01

    Equality of educational opportunity is threatened by long-standing gaps in student achievement by race, gender, and student poverty, as well as by school sector and school poverty. The true magnitude of these gaps cannot be understood, however, unless these factors are considered simultaneously. While accounting for the effects of demographic…

  10. Hearing the signal of dark sectors with gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeckel, Joerg; Khoze, Valentin V.; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by advanced LIGO (aLIGO)'s recent discovery of gravitational waves, we discuss signatures of new physics that could be seen at ground- and space-based interferometers. We show that a first-order phase transition in a dark sector would lead to a detectable gravitational wave signal at future experiments, if the phase transition has occurred at temperatures few orders of magnitude higher than the electroweak scale. The source of gravitational waves in this case is associated with the dynamics of expanding and colliding bubbles in the early universe. At the same time we point out that topological defects, such as dark sector domain walls, may generate a detectable signal already at aLIGO. Both bubble and domain-wall scenarios are sourced by semiclassical configurations of a dark new physics sector. In the first case, the gravitational wave signal originates from bubble wall collisions and subsequent turbulence in hot plasma in the early universe, while the second case corresponds to domain walls passing through the interferometer at present and is not related to gravitational waves. We find that aLIGO at its current sensitivity can detect smoking-gun signatures from domain-wall interactions, while future proposed experiments including the fifth phase of aLIGO at design sensitivity can probe dark sector phase transitions.

  11. Where Is the Xerox Corporation of the LIS Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilchrist, Alan; Brockman, John

    1996-01-01

    Discusses barriers to the implementation of quality management in the library and information science sector in Europe. Topics include Total Quality Management and other business experiences, an information quality infrastructure, supplier/customer relations, customer satisfaction, and a European Quality Model. (LRW)

  12. Measuring Systemic and Climate Diversity in Ontario's University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piché, Pierre Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a methodology for measuring institutional diversity and applies it to Ontario's university sector. This study first used hierarchical cluster analysis, which suggested there has been very little change in diversity between 1994 and 2010 as universities were clustered in three groups for both years. However, by adapting…

  13. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  14. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #5: HEALTH SECTOR ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health Sector Assessment is one of the three levels of the assessment process that is intended to answer four questions: (1) What is the current status of the nation's health, and what are current stresses on our health? (2) How might climate change affect the country's healt...

  15. Rehabilitation Counseling in the Private Sector: Implications for Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    1979-01-01

    There are specific skill areas which are not addressed in present masters degree programs which could be addressed in terms of developing an effective specialty area in rehabilitation counseling in the private sector. These areas include knowledge of workers compensation, basic concepts in insurance, and understanding of law. (CT)

  16. Institutionalization of Information Security: Case of the Indonesian Banking Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, Muhamad Faisal Fariduddin Attar

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the institutionalization of information security in the banking sector. This study is important to pursue since it explicates the internalization of information security governance and practices and how such internalization develops an organizational resistance towards security breach. The study argues that information…

  17. Supported Employment in the Public Sector: Procedural Issues in Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Larry; Drum, Charles

    1989-01-01

    A survey of 10 states indicated the presence of hiring procedures that discourage or limit public-sector supported employment for persons having severe disabilities. Survey results, and recommendations for state system change to promote supported employment, are presented in 4 areas: civil service examination requirements, job classification…

  18. Private Sector Views of Vocational Education: A Statewide Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.; Monthey, Wanda

    A study examined the views of private sector employers in Oregon on vocational education. During the study, researchers mailed questionnaires to a stratified random sample of 1,500 employers throughout Oregon. In addition, they surveyed another 140 employers who were identified as hiring the largest numbers of vocational education completers in…

  19. 50 CFR 679.62 - Inshore sector cooperative allocation program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessel cooperative that applies for and receives an AFA inshore cooperative fishing permit under § 679.4... an official AFA inshore cooperative catch history for every inshore-sector endorsed AFA catcher... the vessel's official AFA inshore cooperative catch history for each subarea. A vessel's best 2...

  20. Sector strength and efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedor, Paweł

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we analyse the importance of sectors and market efficiency on developed and emerging financial markets. To perform this we analyse New York Stock Exchange between 2004 and 2013 and Warsaw Stock Exchange between 2000 and 2013. To find out the importance of sectors we construct minimal spanning trees for annual time series consisting of daily log returns and calculate centrality measures for all stocks, which we then aggregate by sectors. Such analysis is of interest to analysts for whom the knowledge of the influence of particular groups of stocks to the market behaviour is crucial. We also analyse the predictability of price changes on those two markets formally, using the information-theoretic concept of entropy rate, to find out the differences in market efficiency between a developed and an emerging market, and between sectors themselves. We postulate that such analysis is important to the study of financial markets as it can contribute to the profitability of investments, particularly in the case of algorithmic trading.

  1. An overview of changing agendas in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Standing, Hilary

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses health sector reforms and what they have meant for sexual and reproductive health advocacy in low-income countries. Beginning in the late 1980s, it outlines the main macro-economic shifts and policy trends which affect countries dependent on external aid and the main health sector reforms taking place. It then considers the implications of successive macro-economic and reform agendas for reproductive and sexual health advocacy. International debate today is focused on the conditions necessary for socio-economic development and the role of governments in these, and how to improve the performance of health sector bureaucracies and delivery systems. A critical challenge is how to re-negotiate the policy and financial space for sexual and reproductive health services within national health systems and at international level. Advocacy for sexual and reproductive health has to tread the line between a vision of reproductive health for all and action on priority conditions, which means articulating an informed view on needs and priorities. In pressing for greater funding for reproductive health, advocates need to find an appropriate balance between concern with health systems strengthening and service delivery and programmes, and create alliances with progressive health sector reformers.

  2. The Social Construction of Skills: A Hospitality Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Tom

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the nature of skills in service work with specific reference to international tourism and its hospitality subsector. It explores the role of experiential factors (cultural, emotional and aesthetic) in equipping those entering work in the sector. The specific context of work in less developed countries and within migrant labour…

  3. Insurance Sector Dynamics: Towards Transformation into Learning Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkur, Gopalakrishna; Varambally, K. V. M.; Rodrigues, Lewlyn L. R.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to study the influence of five critical factors on service quality in the insurance sector. Having studied the influence of these critical factors, an attempt has been made to obtain a generic solution to enhance the quality of service by proposing a holistic framework of learning organization. As…

  4. Reforming Mexico’s Energy Sector to Enhance Stability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-27

    requirement to reform Mexico’s energy sector. Subsequent analysis demonstrates government ownership of Petroleos Mexico ( Pemex ) is the fundamental... Pemex , stability 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Chairman... Pemex and Stability 8 Conclusions and Recommendations 13 Policy Implications 16 Bibliography

  5. Six Questions about The World Bank's 2020 Education Sector Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    Based on interviews with World Bank staff in April 2011, this article answers six questions about the World Bank's Education Sector Strategy 2020 (ESS 2020): (1) What is the ESS 2020? (2) What is it not? (3) How was the development process of the ESS 2020 different from that of past Strategies? (4) How are the policy recommendations of the ESS…

  6. Stability of the sectored morphology of polymer crystallites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alageshan, Jaya Kumar; Hatwalne, Yashodhan; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2016-09-01

    When an entangled interpenetrating collection of long flexible polymer chains dispersed in a suitable solvent is cooled to low enough temperatures, thin lamellar crystals form. Remarkably, these lamellae are sectored, with several growth sectors that have differing melting temperatures and growth kinetics, eluding so far an understanding of their origins. We present a theoretical model to explain this six-decade-old challenge by addressing the elasticity of fold surfaces of finite-sized lamella in the presence of disclination-type topological defects arising from anisotropic line tension. Entrapment of a disclination defect in a lamella results in sectors separated by walls, which are soliton solutions of a two-dimensional elliptic sine-Gordon equation. For flat square morphologies, exact results show that sectored squares are more stable than plain squares if the dimensionless anisotropic line tension parameter α =γa n/√{h4Kϕ } (γa n = anisotropic line tension, h4 = fold energy parameter, Kϕ = elastic constant for two-dimensional orientational deformation) is above a critical value, which depends on the size of the square.

  7. Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector is the second entry in the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "School Survey Series." This report synthesizes information on Ohio's private schools collected by the U.S. Department of Education and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Two appendices provide supplementary tables and…

  8. Recent Progress in Search for Dark Sector Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deliyergiyev, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    Many difficulties are encountered when attempting to pinpoint a common origin for several observed astrophysical anomalies, and when assessing their tension with existing exclusion limits. These include systematic uncertainties affecting the operation of the detectors, our knowledge of their response, astrophysical uncertainties, and the broad range of particle couplings that can mediate interaction with a detector target. Particularly interesting astrophysical evidence has motivated a search for dark-photon, and focused our attention on a Hidden Valleys model with a GeV-scale dark sector that produces exciting signatures. Results from recent underground experiments are also considered. There is a `light' hidden sector (dark sector), present in many models of new physics beyond the Standard Model, which contains a colorful spectrum of new particles. Recently, it has been shown that this spectrum can give rise to unique signatures at colliders when the mass scale in the hidden sector is well below a TeV; as in Hidden Valleys, Stueckelberg extensions, and Unparticle models. These physics models produce unique signatures of collimated leptons at high energies. By studying these ephemeral particles we hope to trace the history of the Universe. Our present theories lead us to believe that there is something new just around the corner, which should be accessible at the energies made available by modern colliders.

  9. Industrial Sector Energy Efficiency Modeling (ISEEM) Framework Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Karali, Nihan; Xu, Tengfang; Sathaye, Jayant

    2012-12-12

    The goal of this study is to develop a new bottom-up industry sector energy-modeling framework with an agenda of addressing least cost regional and global carbon reduction strategies, improving the capabilities and limitations of the existing models that allows trading across regions and countries as an alternative.

  10. Industrial Rehabilitation in the Public Sector: The Ohio Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsheski, Jerry; Growick, Bruce

    In 1979, Ohio passed a law creating a Rehabilitation Division within its Industrial Commission and authorizing the building of two comprehensive rehabilitation centers to serve disabled workers. Ohio provides industrial rehabilitation services almost entirely through the public sector. This paper describes industrial rehabilitation policies and…

  11. 76 FR 26603 - Reorganization of Sector North Carolina; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Macon, NC, with a Marine Safety Unit (MSU) in Wilmington, NC, responsible for the Cape Fear River Marine... the Cape Fear River Marine Inspection and COTP Zones. The Coast Guard has now reorganized Sector North... Fear River Marine Inspection and COTP Zones. This reorganization is intended to improve...

  12. Information Studies for the Business Sector in Spanish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canavate, Antonio Munoz; Hipola, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The management of information in the business world constitutes a single consolidated area within undergraduate and graduate study programs in Librarianship and Information Science. This article describes information studies for the business sector within Spain, including the university programs known as Diplomatura in Librarianship and…

  13. Information Technology Training: Practices of Leading Private Sector Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined private-sector workforce training practices for information technology (IT) and non-IT professionals. Data were collected from the following sources: a literature review; discussions with academic and professional authorities; interviews with executives and managers at leading companies regarding their…

  14. School Effectiveness within the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    gh School and Beyond data are examined using an approach to multilevel data analysis that shows the diversity in school effectiveness within the public and private sectors and provides estimates of private schooling effects for different types of students in schools serving different demographic populations. (PN)

  15. Steering the South African Higher Education Sector towards Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntshoe, Isaac; De Villiers, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which funding is used to steer the public higher education sector towards meeting the social, political and economic imperatives of post-1994 South Africa. It argues that the design of the funding framework influenced the direction of higher education after 1994, and that funding mechanisms explicitly or…

  16. Competition and Cooperation in South Africa's Biotechnology Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerck, Gilton

    2005-01-01

    This article asserts that the normative, institutional and policy framework of an economy moulds the structure and performance of its innovation system. Three case studies of industry?higher education partnerships in South Africa's biotechnology sector challenge both the notion of a simple convergence within and between national innovation systems…

  17. 50 CFR 270.14 - Update of sector participant data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Update of sector participant data. 270.14 Section 270.14 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC SEAFOOD MARKETING...

  18. 50 CFR 270.6 - Sector participants eligible to vote.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sector participants eligible to vote. 270.6 Section 270.6 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISH AND SEAFOOD PROMOTION SPECIES-SPECIFIC...

  19. White dwarfs constraints on dark sector models with light particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2014-06-24

    The white dwarf luminosity function is well understood in terms of standard model physics and leaves little room for exotic cooling mechanisms related to the possible existence of new weakly interacting light particles. This puts significant constraints on the parameter space of models that contain a massive dark photon and light dark sector particles.

  20. 77 FR 43498 - Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1614 RIN Number 3046-AA73 Federal Sector Equal Employment Opportunity AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Equal Employment Opportunity...

  1. The Social Cohesion Role of the Public Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, N. Clark

    2005-01-01

    Social cohesion, the "glue" that keeps a society together, is influenced by the various sectors or "pillars" of that society-educational institutions, social and religious institutions, business institutions, and government. In this article, the effect of the three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial) on social cohesion is…

  2. Corruption in Education Sector Development: A Suggestion for Anticipatory Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Shinichiro

    2001-01-01

    Proposes an anticipatory strategy that will help protect education sector development from corruption. The strategy, which may exist as a "hidden agenda" within a project, focuses on diagnosing rather than redressing a system thought to be corrupt, adopting prevention rather than punishment, informal rather than formal approaches, and…

  3. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  4. Liberalization in the Danish waste sector: an institutional perspective.

    PubMed

    Kørnøv, Lone; Hill, Amanda Louise; Busck, Ole; Løkke, Søren

    2016-12-01

    The push for creating a more competitive and liberalized system for traditional public services, including waste management, has been on the European agenda since the late 1980s. In 2008, changes were made in EU waste legislation allowing source-separated industrial/commercial waste that is suitable for incineration to be traded within the European market. This change has had broad implications for the Danish waste sector, which is characterized by institutionalized municipal control with all streams of waste and municipal ownership of the major treatment facilities allowing the municipal sector to integrate combustible waste in local heat and power generation. This article, applying an institutional approach, maps the institutions and actors of the Danish waste sector and analyses how the regulatory as well as normative pressure to liberalize has been met and partly neutralized in the institutional and political context. The new Danish regulation of 2010 has thus accommodated the specific requirement for liberalization, but in fact only represents a very small step towards a market-based waste management system. On the one hand, by only liberalizing industrial/commercial waste, the Danish Government chose to retain the main features of the established waste system favouring municipal control and hence the institutionalized principles of decentralized enforcement of environmental legislation as well as welfare state considerations. On the other hand, this has led to a technological and financial deadlock, particularly when it comes to reaching the recycling targets of EU, which calls for further adjustments of the Danish waste sector.

  5. Incentives and Their Dynamics in Public Sector Performance Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Marschke, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    We use the principal-agent model as a focal theoretical frame for synthesizing what we know, both theoretically and empirically, about the design and dynamics of the implementation of performance management systems in the public sector. In this context, we review the growing body of evidence about how performance measurement and incentive systems…

  6. Public Sector Transformation, Racial Inequality and Downward Occupational Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, George; Roscigno, Vincent J.; Huffman, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    New "governance" reforms entailing shifts toward privatization have permeated the public sector over the last decade, possibly affecting workplace-based attainments. We examine the consequences of this reform for African American men, who during the civil rights era reached relative parity with whites. We analyze race-based inequities on one…

  7. Understanding Student Satisfaction and Loyalty in the UAE HE Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Cedwyn; Ross, Kieran; Meraj, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to verify and estimate the impact of the antecedents of Programme satisfaction and to explore its link with student loyalty in the higher education (HE) sector in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach: A Programme Experience Questionnaire (PEQ) was developed, based on the National Student…

  8. A proposed framework of big data readiness in public sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz

    2016-08-01

    Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.

  9. Impacts of Increased Diesel Penetration in the Transportation Sector, The

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Requested by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. Analyzes the impacts on petroleum prices, demand, and refinery operations of a projected increase in demand for diesel fuel stemming from greater penetration of diesel-fueled engines in the light-duty vehicle fleet of the U.S. transportation sector.

  10. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  11. Third Sector Involvement in Public Education: The Israeli Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkovich, Izhak; Foldes, Vincent Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to address the involvement of third sector organizations in state public education in Israel, with emphasis on the decision-making processes affecting the geographic distribution of service provision. Design/methodology/approach: A collective case study approach was used to investigate non-governmental…

  12. Public sector administration of ecological economics systems using mediated modeling.

    PubMed

    van den Belt, Marjan; Kenyan, Jennifer R; Krueger, Elizabeth; Maynard, Alison; Roy, Matthew Galen; Raphael, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In today's climate of government outsourcing and multiple stakeholder involvement in public sector management and service delivery, it is more important than ever to rethink and redesign the structure of how policy decisions are made, implemented, monitored, and adapted to new realities. The traditional command-and-control approach is now less effective because an increasing amount of responsibility to deliver public goods and services falls on networks of nongovernment agencies. Even though public administrators are seeking new decision-making models in an increasingly more complex environment, the public sector currently only sparsely utilizes Mediated Modeling (MM). There is growing evidence, however, that by employing MM and similar tools, public interest networks can be better equipped to deal with their long-term viability while maintaining the short-term needs of their clients. However, it may require a shift in organizational culture within and between organizations to achieve the desired results. This paper explores the successes and barriers to implementing MM and similar tools in the public sector and offers insights into utilizing them through a review of case studies and interdisciplinary literature. We aim to raise a broader interest in MM and similar tools among public sector administrators at various administrative levels. We focus primarily, but not exclusively, on those cases operating at the interface of ecology and socio-economic systems.

  13. Teaching Chinese Students: Understanding Their Public Sector Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Cynthia; Coleman, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Teaching Chinese students in an American university can be both challenging and rewarding. Cultural and language differences can lead to some superficial confusion and interpretational problems. However, the vast differences in the ways Chinese students view the role of the public sector, as compared to the US, can mean that the instructors and…

  14. Political and Academic Linkages in Public Sector Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, LaVerne Williamson

    2006-01-01

    Decision making in the public sector encompasses many topics of interest to the academic researcher--environmental issues, health and human services, budget planning, and so on. Expertise in data collection and analysis is critical to the policy-making process and can be provided by academic researchers. But the "real world" policymaker…

  15. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    design, deploy, and test biological or other contamination warning systems at drinking water systems (see discussion of the Water Sector Initiative ( WSI ...on page 7). The FY2011 budget states that five full-scale pilots have been established and that future funding for WSI will be used for evaluation

  16. Private Sector Involvement in Urban School Reform. Emerging Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document presents findings on the impact of privatization to date at a meeting at the Ford Foundation co hosted by the William Penn Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Ford. Increasingly, the private sector (both for-profit and non-profit) is providing resources and alternative delivery models for urban public schools. Beyond…

  17. Constructions of Professional Identity in a Dynamic Higher Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kenton

    2014-01-01

    The expansion and specialisation of "non-academic" higher education roles, in response to increased regulation, monitoring and measurement of the sector, can be attributed to a rise in neoliberal manageralism and globalisation. Such changes have challenged the professional status of the academy, potentially…

  18. The Practice of Evaluation in Public Sector Contexts: A Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Jill Anne

    2013-01-01

    In the original paper, it was argued that while there is an array of methods and methodologies available, their use is delimited by the culture of accountability that prevails in public sector institutions, a fact that is particularly problematic given the complexity and diversity of evaluation contexts today. This short rejoinder, to responses…

  19. Retrieval Bargaining: A Guide for Public Sector Labor Negotiations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Richard G.

    Retrieval bargaining is the process of removing, through collective bargaining, benefits won by employees in previous negotiations. This document treats the retrieval bargaining process, explaining first the factors that could make such cutback management techniques necessary in the public sector, including federal funding reductions, inflationary…

  20. 78 FR 39533 - Power Sector Carbon Pollution Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... country, we can continue our progress in reducing power plant pollution, thereby improving public health... reduce power plant carbon pollution, building on actions already underway in States and the power sector, I hereby direct the following: Section 1. Flexible Carbon Pollution Standards for Power Plants....

  1. Compensation Rules for Climate Policy in the Electricity Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Most previous cap and trade programs have distributed emission allowances for free to incumbent producers. However, in the electricity sector the value of CO[subscript 2] allowances may be far in excess of costs to industry and giving them away to firms diverts allowance value from other purposes. Using a detailed simulation model, this paper…

  2. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  3. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  4. A New Approach to Grievance Handling in the Federal Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draznin, Julius N.

    1974-01-01

    A labor/management class, thought to be unique in the area of public sector labor relations and personnel work-study programs, its goal being to have each side come to know the other's position more clearly and with more understanding, is described. (Author/AJ)

  5. Is BTZ a separate superselection sector of CTMG?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deser, S.; Franklin, J.

    2010-10-01

    We exhibit exact solutions of (positive) matter coupled to original “wrong G-sign” cosmological TMG. They all evolve to conical singularity, rather than to black hole - here negative mass - BTZ. This provides evidence that the latter constitute a separate “superselection” sector, one that unlike in GR, is not reachable by physical sources.

  6. State Sector Strategies: The New Workforce Development in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakes, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Neoliberal governments consider global business competitiveness to be thwarted by costly bureaucratic regulation and programme duplication. In an effort to downsize the costs of operating a state, the governors now streamline job training functions via a coordinated workforce and economic development effort known as sector strategies, with…

  7. [Cross-sectoral quality assurance in ambulatory care].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Martin; Loos, Stefan; Otten, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming rigid sectoral segmentation in healthcare has also become a health policy target in quality assurance. With the Act to Enhance Competition in Statutory Health Insurance (GKV-WSG) coming into effect, quality assurance measures are to be designed in a cross-sectoral fashion for in- and outpatient sectors equally. An independent institution is currently mandated to develop specific quality indicators for eleven indications. For three of these operating tests have already been commissioned by the Federal Joint Committee. This article depicts the major results of a feasibility study, including a compliance cost estimate, for the aforementioned indications of cross-sectoral quality assurance (cQA). In conclusion, a number of both practical and conceptual basic challenges are still to be resolved prior to the full implementation of cQA, such as a sufficient specification to activate documentation requirements and an inspection system capable of separating actual quality problems from documentary deficits. So far, a comprehensive cost-utility analysis of cQA has not been provided, in particular with comparison to existing QA systems. In order to optimise cost and utility of cQA an evidence-based approach is required for both the extension of cQA areas and for QA provisions.

  8. Chiral symmetry aspects in the open charm sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, T.; Hilger, T.; Kämpfer, B.

    2016-01-01

    QCD sum rules serve as tools to investigate changing hadronic properties in a hot and/or dense nuclear medium. The role of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration effects in a medium can be addressed also in the heavy-light meson sector. Thus, we consider Weinberg sum rules which refer to chiral partner mesons composed of a light and a heavy quark.

  9. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  10. Corporate Governance: Can Universities Learn from the Private Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance has several objectives: growth, transparency, leadership, social responsibility and trust, as well as the protection of shareholders and company assets. It also plays a key role in determining a company's control environment. In this article, the author takes a closer look at corporate governance in the private sector,…

  11. Ionospheric Superstorms: Polarization Terminator Effects in the Atlantic Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    A combination of the stormtime penetration electric fields, the effect of the reduced magnetic field strength in the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly, and the geographic distortion of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector contribute to the characteristics of the low-latitude polarization electric fields at the sunset terminator. This combination of effects leads to a strong localized enhancement of TEC at low-mid latitudes in the American sector during ionospheric superstorms. At dusk, the low-latitude polarization electric field effects begin on magnetic field lines when the E region at either end goes into darkness. We define the polarization terminator (PT) to be the locus of points at a given altitude for which the E-region shadow height at either end of the magnetic field line equals 100 km. Electric fields associated with the charge build-up in the conductivity-gradient region due to the effects of winds or penetration electric fields are directed perpendicular to the PT and increase in magnitude as the PT is approached from the dayside. The particular configuration of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector creates a preferred longitude/Universal Time sector (western atlantic/ 21 UT) for the build-up of enhanced TEC on field lines inside the dusk plasmapause. The electric fields associated with the PT sweep up the plasmas of the equatorial anomaly crests and redistribute it into the mid-latitude SAPS channels, forming the high total content storm enhanced density (SED) plumes observed during strong storms in the American sector. This effect is most pronounced for northern hemisphere summer conditions, as experienced during the July 15/16, 2000 superstorm.

  12. Ionospheric Superstorms: Polarization Terminator Effects in the Atlantic Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, John

    A combination of the stormtime penetration electric fields, the effect of the reduced magnetic field strength in the South Atlantic magnetic anomaly, and the geographic distortion of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector contribute to the characteristics of the low-latitude polarization electric fields at the sunset terminator. This combination of effects leads to a strong localized enhancement of TEC at low-mid latitudes in the American sector during ionospheric superstorms. At dusk, the low-latitude polarization electric field effects begin on magnetic field lines when the E region at either end goes into darkness. We define the polarization terminator (PT) to be the locus of points at a given altitude for which the E-region shadow height at either end of the magnetic field line equals 100 km. Electric fields associated with the charge build-up in the conductivity-gradient region due to the effects of winds or penetration electric fields are directed perpendicular to the PT and increase in magnitude as the PT is approached from the dayside. The particular configuration of the magnetic field in the Atlantic sector creates a preferred longitude/Universal Time sector (western Atlantic/ 21 UT) for the build-up of enhanced TEC on field lines inside the dusk plasmapause. The electric fields associated with the PT sweep up the plasmas of the equatorial anomaly crests and redistribute it into the mid-latitude SAPS channels, forming the high total content storm enhanced density (SED) plumes observed during strong storms in the American sector. This effect is most pronounced for northern hemisphere summer conditions, as experienced during the July 15/16, 2000 superstorm.

  13. Women Using Physics: Alternate Career Paths, The Private Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    For those who have spent their careers inside the safe walls of academia, the word is a little scary. Can I compete? Will I fit in? What do I need to know? Am I prepared? Will I succeed? While many would say: Yes! You are ready to excel! This isn’t actually the case. The private sector comes with many unanticipated shocks to many of us, especially women. This isn’t a group project. This session will discuss entering a quickly growing and competitive technical field and what one can do to prepare for continued success. Preparing and Entering the Private Sector * Women with technical skills are a desired part of the private workforcein general women posses stronger people skills, are more reliable and often more well rounded than their male counterparts. Key factors we will discuss to landing that first job: · Expand your knowledge base with current applications of technology · Preparing a solid employment pitch to highlight strengths: Overcoming stereotypes · Don’t show them your bad side: Why some student projects may hurt you · The private sector attitude toward performance and entry level expectations Excelling in the Private Sector * Now that we have landed a job * for better or worse we are now all about making money and exerting control. What to keep in mind while working in the private sector: · The formative first years: focus on your weaknesses and practice, practice, practice · Men & Women in the workplace: what women subconsciously do to hurt their careers · Politics: Working in a team environment · Polish & Detail & Reliabilit

  14. Voluntary GHG reduction of industrial sectors in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang-Tung; Hu, Allen H

    2012-08-01

    The present paper describes the voluntary greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction agreements of six different industrial sectors in Taiwan, as well as the fluorinated gases (F-gas) reduction agreement of the semiconductor and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) industries. The operating mechanisms, GHG reduction methods, capital investment, and investment effectiveness are also discussed. A total of 182 plants participated in the voluntary energy saving and GHG reduction in six industrial sectors (iron and steel, petrochemical, cement, paper, synthetic fiber, and textile printing and dyeing), with 5.35 Mt reduction from 2004 to 2008, or 33% higher than the target goal (4.02 Mt). The reduction accounts for 1.6% annual emission or 7.8% during the 5-yr span. The petrochemical industry accounts for 49% of the reduction, followed by the cement sector (21%) and the iron and steel industry (13%). The total investment amounted to approximately USD 716 million, in which, the majority of the investment went to the modification of the manufacturing process (89%). The benefit was valued at around USD 472 million with an average payback period of 1.5 yr. Moreover, related energy saving was achieved through different approaches, e.g., via electricity (iron and steel), steam and oil consumption (petrochemical) and coal usage (cement). The cost for unit CO(2) reduction varies per industry, with the steel and iron industrial sector having the highest cost (USD 346 t(-1) CO(2)) compared with the average cost of the six industrial sectors (USD 134 t(-1) CO(2)). For the semiconductor and Thin-Film Transistor LCD industries, F-gas emissions were reduced from approximately 4.1 to about 1.7 Mt CO(2)-eq, and from 2.2 to about 1.1 Mt CO(2)-eq, respectively. Incentive mechanisms for participation in GHG reduction are also further discussed.

  15. Venezuela 2000 restructures its electric power sector to ensure competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, C.E.

    1999-11-01

    Today, it is well known that the countries that are best equipped to develop their production are not those with the most natural resources but those who have the best trained people, most technical resources and that base their development on competitiveness. The State model is, definitely, not one that offers the greatest advantages, and Venezuela is an example of this. Even when, thanks to the economic boom the country enjoyed in the 70s and 80s, it was able to cost the investments required to develop its infrastructure and to prepare a first class human contingent, over the long term, competition was discouraged and waste encouraged. The result was that, even when Venezuela had vast economic resources compared to its relatively small population, it was not able to become the exception to the rule and succeed in applying this model--now considered obsolete in many countries--indefinitely. Another model based on private ownership has begun to take its place, one that has made it possible to cost the increasingly large investments required, involves opening up these sectors to private capital, and uses the phenomenon of globalization--a major driving force behind competition and one that has wrought considerable change in all corners of the increasingly smaller planet. This paper describes the steps that different sectors in the country have been taking to implement this new model in the electric power sector, such as developing draft legislation for regulating the Sector, very shortly to culminate in the passing of an electric power law by Congress; opening up the Sector to private investors (privatization); dividing the electric power industry into four business units (generation, transmission, distribution and marketing); the electric power market; and other innovations currently being implemented.

  16. "The One Less Travelled": Adult Learners Moving from the Academic Sector to the Vocational Sector in Singapore and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Roger; Ramos, Catherine R.

    2012-01-01

    The notion of learner pathways has assumed considerable policy interest in many countries as they seek ways of enhancing seamlessness within their educational systems. In contemporary society, where job boundaries are blurring, there is need to consider many types and directions of pathways between educational sectors throughout lifetimes. Focus…

  17. Tropical plumes due to potential vorticity intrusions over Indian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhya, M.; Sridharan, S.; Indira Devi, M.

    2016-05-01

    Four cases of potential vorticity (PV) intrusion events over Indian sector (March 2009, April 2010, April 2010 and March 2014) which lead to the generation of tropical plumes (TP) are presented. The PV intrusions are identified from the threshold value of ERA (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) Reanalysis)-interim PV at 350 K isentropic level greater than 1.4 potential vorticity unit (PVU) (1 PVU = 10- 6 Km2kg- 1 s- 1) at 13.5°N. These PV intrusions trigger convection to the east, which is identified from the low (< 270 K) infrared brightness temperature. It is noted that the spatial extent of convection is large in these cases and is similar to the TP structures commonly present over eastern Pacific and Atlantic sectors during northern winter. The Meteosat IR imagery also confirms the occurrence of tropical plumes over Indian sector. The TPs play a major role in the transport of moisture from lower latitudes to higher latitudes. The ERA-interim specific humidity averaged for 200-300 hPa shows large scale moisture transport from lower to higher latitudes tracking the plume structure. Apart from these, interannual and seasonal variations of the occurrence of TP in connection with the PV intrusion events over Indian sector for the years 2000-2014 are presented. It is found that the number of occurrence of TP is more during February-April and all the PV intrusions do not lead to the TP structures. The life time of majority of TP over Indian sector is found to be 1-2 days and all the TP are not precipitative. Unlike reported earlier, the PV intrusions having broad trough are also leading to TP over Indian sector, whereas the PV intrusions having narrow trough (less than 3° longitude band) do not lead to TP. Besides, the occurrence of TP does not relate to even the depth of penetration of PV trough. It is demonstrated that the occurrence of TP is due to the poleward advection associated with the PV intrusion.

  18. Phosphorus leakage from fisheries sector - A case study in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Prathumchai, Nuchnapa; Polprasert, Chongchin; Englande, Andrew J

    2016-12-01

    Although phosphorus (P) is an essential element needed for all lives, excess P can be harmful to the environment. The objective of this study aims to determine P flows in the fisheries sector of Thailand consisting of both sea and freshwater activities of captures and cultures. Currently, the annual fisheries catch averages 3.44 ± 0.50 Mt. Most comes from marine capture 1.95 ± 0.46 Mt, followed by coastal aquaculture 0.78 ± 0.09 Mt, freshwater aquaculture 0.49 ± 0.05 Mt, and inland capture 0.22 ± 0.01 Mt. Of this total, about 11% is contained in fresh products directly sold in local markets for consumption, while 89% is sent to processing factories prior to being sold in local markets and exported. The quantities of P entering the fisheries sector come from captures, import of fisheries products and feed produced from agriculture. This P input to the fisheries sector is found to average 28,506 t P.y(-1) based on the past ten-year records. Of this total, P input from captures accounts for 76%; while, 11% represents aquatic feeds from agriculture and animal manures. About 13% is obtained from the imports of fishery products. Coastal and freshwater aquacultures are found to be P consumers because their feeds are almost all produced from agricultural crops grown inland. Moreover, these activities cause most of P losses, approximately 10,188 t P·y(-1), which account for 89% of the total P loss from the fisheries sector. Overall, P in the fisheries sector is found to mobilize through three channels: (a) 44% is consumed within the country; (b) about 16% is exported; and, (c) 40% is lost from the ecosystem. Based on the results of this work it is recommended that future research be directed on ways to minimize P loss and maximize P recycle in Thailand's fisheries sector as to enhance its food security and curtail water pollution.

  19. System Dynamics Modelling of the Power Sector in Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deenapanray, Prakash N. K.; Bassi, Andrea M.

    2015-12-01

    A system dynamics model has been developed for the power sector of Mauritius, which captures a range of complex interactions between the economic, social and environmental aspects of the national economy, with deeper emphasis on the role of energy in these interactions. The model has been validated by replicating the historical trends of key development indicators, and its results were compared to the projections of the national utility company. The validation process shows that the model provides a faithful representation of the actual electricity sector of Mauritius, and can be easily adapted to the use of different assumptions. This paper describes the main characteristics of the model and its results as compared to electricity demand projections carried out by the Central Electricity Board to 2022. The results suggest that further analysis could be done to test alternative low carbon investment scenarios.

  20. Sakurai Prize: Extended Higgs Sectors--phenomenology and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunion, John

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a spin-0 state at 125 GeV with properties close to those predicted for the single Higgs boson of the Standard Model does not preclude the existence of additional Higgs bosons. In this talk, models with extended Higgs sectors are reviewed, including two-Higgs-doublet models with and without an extra singlet Higgs field and supersymmetric models. Special emphasis is given to the limit in which the couplings and properties of one of the Higgs bosons of the extended Higgs sector are very close to those predicted for the single Standard Model Higgs boson while the other Higgs bosons are relatively light, perhaps even having masses close to or below the SM-like 125 GeV state. Constraints on this type of scenario given existing data are summarized and prospects for observing these non-SM-like Higgs bosons are discussed. Supported by the Department of Energy.

  1. Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 2. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Andrew J.; Vachaspati, Tanmay E-mail: tvachasp@asu.edu

    2014-12-01

    Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and astrophysical observables that could be associated with the presence of dark strings in our universe with an emphasis on low-scale models, perhaps TeV . Specifically, we consider constraints from nucleosynthesis and CMB spectral distortions, and we calculate the predicted fluxes of diffuse gamma ray cascade photons and cosmic rays. For strings as light as TeV, we find that the predicted level of these signatures is well below the sensitivity of the current experiments, and therefore low scale cosmic strings in hidden sectors remain unconstrained. Heavier strings with a mass scale in the range 10{sup 13} GeV to 10{sup 15} GeV are at tension with nucleosynthesis constraints.

  2. Holographic vortices in the presence of dark matter sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I.

    2015-12-01

    The dark matter seem to be an inevitable ingredient of the total matter configuration in the Universe and the knowledge how the dark matter affects the properties of superconductors is of vital importance for the experiments aimed at its direct detection. The homogeneous magnetic field acting perpendicularly to the surface of (2+1) dimensional s-wave holographic superconductor in the theory with dark matter sector has been modeled by the additional U(1)-gauge field representing dark matter and coupled to the Maxwell one. As expected the free energy for the vortex configuration turns out to be negative. Importantly its value is lower in the presence of dark matter sector. This feature can explain why in the Early Universe first the web of dark matter appeared and next on these gratings the ordinary matter forming cluster of galaxies has formed.

  3. Co-operative bidding of SMEs in health care sector.

    PubMed

    Mezgár, István; Kovács, György; Bonfatti, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Tendering become an important process for customers in the health care sector to select products and services from the market for the lowest price, with the highest quality and with the shortest delivery time. The number of SMEs (Small and Medium-sized Enterprises) delivering products or services for the health care sector is increasing, but they have usually limited capital and expertise to participate in tenders. The paper introduces a possible solution for this problem, when SMEs form special groups, so called Smart Bidding Organisations (SBO), to prepare a bid for the tender jointly. The SBO appears for the customer (tender issuer) as a single enterprise and the bidding procedure will be faster and less expensive in this way.

  4. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  5. Susceptibility of SCADA systems and the energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goike, Lindsay

    The research in this paper focused on analyzing SCADA systems in the energy sector for susceptibility to cyber attacks, in furtherance of providing suggestions to mitigate current and future cyber attacks. The research will be addressing the questions: how are SCADA systems susceptible to cyber attacks, and what are the suggested ways to mitigate both current and future cyber attacks. The five main categories of security vulnerabilities facing current SCADA systems were found to be: connectivity to the Internet, failure to plan, interdependency of sectors, numerous different types of threats, and outdated software. Some of the recommendations mentioned to mitigate current and future risks were: virtual private networks, risk assessments, increased physical security, updating of software, and firewalls.

  6. Local State and Sector Theory in Local Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, Izumi; Okamura, Kazuya; Saigo, Hayato

    2016-06-01

    We define a new concept of local states in the framework of algebraic quantum field theory (AQFT). Local states are a natural generalization of states and give a clear vision of localization in the context of QFT. In terms of them, we can find a condition from which follows automatically the famous DHR selection criterion in DHR-DR theory. As a result, we can understand the condition as consequences of physically natural state preparations in vacuum backgrounds. Furthermore, a theory of orthogonal decomposition of completely positive (CP) maps is developed. It unifies a theory of orthogonal decomposition of states and order structure theory of CP maps. Using it, localized version of sectors is formulated, which gives sector theory for local states with respect to general reference representations.

  7. Cosmic strings in hidden sectors: 2. Cosmological and astrophysical signatures

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Andrew J.; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2014-12-18

    Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and astrophysical observables that could be associated with the presence of dark strings in our universe with an emphasis on low-scale models, perhaps TeV. Specifically, we consider constraints from nucleosynthesis and CMB spectral distortions, and we calculate the predicted fluxes of diffuse gamma ray cascade photons and cosmic rays. For strings as light as TeV, we find that the predicted level of these signatures is well below the sensitivity of the current experiments, and therefore low scale cosmic strings in hidden sectors remain unconstrained. Heavier strings with a mass scale in the range 10{sup 13} GeV to 10{sup 15} GeV are at tension with nucleosynthesis constraints.

  8. Accountability through regulation in Ontario's Medical Laboratory Sector.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Brenda; Bourne, Lavern; Deber, Raisa B

    2014-09-01

    Although the use of performance indicators for the analytical (and highly measurable) phase of the medical laboratory process has had a long and successful history, it is now recognized that the value of a laboratory test is embedded in a system of care. This case study, using both documents and interview data, examines the approaches to accountability in the Ontario Medical Laboratory Sector, noting both the challenges and benefits. This sector relies heavily on the regulation instrument, including a requirement that all medical laboratories licensed by the provincial government must follow the guidelines set out by the Quality Management Program - Laboratory Services. We found the greatest challenges exist in the pre-analytical phase (where a large portion of total laboratory errors occur), particularly the interface between the laboratory and other providers.

  9. Accountability through Regulation in Ontario's Medical Laboratory Sector

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Brenda; Bourne, Lavern; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    Although the use of performance indicators for the analytical (and highly measurable) phase of the medical laboratory process has had a long and successful history, it is now recognized that the value of a laboratory test is embedded in a system of care. This case study, using both documents and interview data, examines the approaches to accountability in the Ontario Medical Laboratory Sector, noting both the challenges and benefits. This sector relies heavily on the regulation instrument, including a requirement that all medical laboratories licensed by the provincial government must follow the guidelines set out by the Quality Management Program – Laboratory Services. We found the greatest challenges exist in the pre-analytical phase (where a large portion of total laboratory errors occur), particularly the interface between the laboratory and other providers. PMID:25305390

  10. Impact of climate on energy sector in economic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, H.E.; LeDuc, S.K.

    1981-12-01

    Assessments of economic conditions by region or sector attempt to include relevant climatic variability through residual adjustment techniques. There is no direct consideration of climatic fluctuations. Three recent severe winters combined with the increasing price of energy have intensified the need to quantify the interaction of climate with the energy sector of the economy. This paper presents examples of the uses of climatic data by utilities, public service commissions and the NOAA Center for Environmental Assessment Services to determine econoclimatic energy relationships at the local, state, regional and national levels. A technique based on the linear relationships between heating degree days and natural gas consumption for space heating is used to quantify the interaction of climate and prices on gas consumption. This provides regional estimates of the response of gas consumption to degree days and price.

  11. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    DOE PAGES

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-09-26

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet fieldmore » $$\\sigma$$ which has a very large VEV $$f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $$\\zeta_i$$, where $$\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $$\\sigma$$ in the $$\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$$ limit. The singlet field $$\\sigma$$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.« less

  12. Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.

    2014-09-26

    The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.

  13. Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

    ‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

  14. Electromagnetic design of superconducting dipoles based on sector coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, L.; Todesco, Ezio

    2007-11-01

    We study the coil layouts of superconducting dipoles for particle accelerators based on the sector geometry. We show that a simple model based on a sector coil with a wedge allows us to derive an equation giving the short sample field as a function of the aperture, coil width, cable properties, and superconducting material. The equation agrees well with the actual results of several dipole coils that have been built in the past 30 years. The improvements due to the grading technique and the iron yoke are also studied. The proposed equation can be used as a benchmark to judge the efficiency of the coil design, and to carry out a global optimization of an accelerator layout.

  15. Promoting Occupational Safety and Health for Cambodian Entertainment Sector Workers.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Lee-Nah; Howard, Richard; Torriente, Anna Maria; Por, Chuong

    2016-08-01

    Cambodia has developed booming textile, garment, tourism, and entertainment service industries since the mid-1990s. The 2007 global financial crisis pushed many garment workers, who lost their jobs, into the entertainment sector. Entertainment workers are typically engaged informally by their employers and are subjected to long working hours, sexual harassment, and violence. Many who sell beverages are forced into excessive alcohol consumption as part of their work. Many are also expected by their employers and clients to provide sexual services. To address unsafe and unhealthy working conditions for these workers, an innovative occupational safety and health regulation was adopted in 2014. This first-of-its-kind occupational safety and health regulation was developed jointly by the Cambodian Ministry of Labour and Vocational Training and employers' and workers' organizations in the entertainment sector. The implementation of this regulation can also be a viable contribution of occupational safety and health to HIV interventions for these workers.

  16. Estudio del CH interestelar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olano, C.; Lemarchand, G.; Sanz, A. J.; Bava, J. A.

    El objetivo principal de este proyecto consiste en el estudio de la distribución y abundancia del CH en nubes interestelares a través de la observación de las líneas hiperfinas del CH en 3,3 GHz. El CH es una molécula de amplia distribución en el espacio interestelar y una de las pocas especies que han sido observadas tanto con técnicas de radio como ópticas. Desde el punto de vista tecnológico se ha desarrollado un cabezal de receptor que permitirá la realización de observaciones polarimétricas en la frecuencia de 3,3 GHz, con una temperatura del sistema de 60 K y un ancho de banda de 140 MHz, y que será instalado en el foco primario de la antena parabólica del IAR. El cabezal del receptor es capaz de detectar señales polarizadas, separando las componentes de polarización circular derecha e izquierda. Para tal fin el cabezal consta de dos ramas receptoras que amplificarán la señal y la trasladarán a una frecuencia más baja (frecuencia intermedia), permitiendo de esa forma un mejor transporte de la señal a la sala de control para su posterior procesamiento. El receptor además de tener características polarimétricas, podrá ser usado en el continuo y en la línea, utilizando las ventajas observacionales y de procesamiento de señal que actualmente posee el IAR.

  17. Energy-economy interactions revisited within a comprehensive sectoral model

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, D. A.; Laitner, J. A.

    2000-07-24

    This paper describes a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with considerable sector and technology detail, the ``All Modular Industry Growth Assessment'' Model (AMIGA). It is argued that a detailed model is important to capture and understand the several rolls that energy plays within the economy. Fundamental consumer and industrial demands are for the services from energy; hence, energy demand is a derived demand based on the need for heating, cooling mechanical, electrical, and transportation services. Technologies that provide energy-services more efficiently (on a life cycle basis), when adopted, result in increased future output of the economy and higher paths of household consumption. The AMIGA model can examine the effects on energy use and economic output of increases in energy prices (e.g., a carbon charge) and other incentive-based policies or energy-efficiency programs. Energy sectors and sub-sector activities included in the model involve energy extraction conversion and transportation. There are business opportunities to produce energy-efficient goods (i.e., appliances, control systems, buildings, automobiles, clean electricity). These activities are represented in the model by characterizing their likely production processes (e.g., lighter weight motor vehicles). Also, multiple industrial processes can produce the same output but with different technologies and inputs. Secondary recovery, i.e., recycling processes, are examples of these multiple processes. Combined heat and power (CHP) is also represented for energy-intensive industries. Other modules represent residential and commercial building technologies to supply energy services. All sectors of the economy command real resources (capital services and labor).

  18. Emerging Climate-data Needs in the Air Transport Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the nature of climate information needed within the air-transport sector. Air transport is not a single economic sector with uniform needs for climate data: airport, airline, and air-navigation services are the principal sub-sectors, each with their own particular climate-related decision contexts. For example, airports function as fixed infrastructure that is primarily affected by probabilities of extreme events that could hamper runway/taxiway operations, interfere with worker availability, or impede travel to and from the airport by passengers. Airlines, in contrast, are more concerned with changes in atmospheric conditions (upper-air turbulence, convective weather events, etc.) that might require consideration in long-term decisions related to flight-planning processes and aircraft equipage. Air-navigation service providers have needs that are primarily concerned with assurance of safe spatial separation of aircraft via sensor data and communications links. In addition to present-day commercial air transport, we discuss what climate data may be needed for new types of air transport that may emerge in the next couple of decades. These include, for example, small aircraft provided on-demand to non-pilot travelers, high-altitude supersonic business and commercial jets, and very large numbers of un-manned aircraft. Finally, we give examples relating to key technical challenges in providing decision-relevant climate data to the air-transport sector. These include: (1) identifying what types of climate data are most relevant the different decisions facing the several segments of this industry; (2) determining decision-appropriate time horizons for forecasts of this data; and (3) coupling the uncertainties inherent in these forecasts to the decision process.

  19. OPE of Green functions in the odd sector of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadavý, T.; Kampf, K.; Novotný, J.

    2017-03-01

    A review of familiar results of the three-point Green functions of currents in the odd-intrinsic parity sector of QCD is presented. Such Green functions include very well-known examples of VVP, VAS or AAP correlators. We also present new results for VVA and AAA Green functions that have not yet been studied extensively in the literature before, more importantly with a phenomenological study and a discussion of the highenergy behaviour and its relation to the QCD condensates.

  20. Cross-sector working: speech and language therapists in education.

    PubMed

    McCartney, Elspeth

    2002-01-01

    Current policies and practices concerning speech and language therapy provision in schools are reviewed and issues which remain to be addressed are considered A general move to cross-sector approaches has resulted in a move to indirect therapy through assistants, and the effectiveness of this requires to be established. Funding streams for therapy differ across the UK, and despite extensive research and policy development remain somewhat unclear and vulnerable. The implications for policies on 'joined up thinking" are considered.

  1. Phase change materials in energy sector - applications and material requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuta, Marta; Wójcik, Tadeusz M.

    2015-05-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have been applying in many areas. One of them is energy field. PCMs are interesting for the energy sector because their use enables thermal stabilization and storage of large amount of heat. It is major issue for safety of electronic devices, thermal control of buildings and vehicles, solar power and many others energy domains. This paper contains preliminary results of research on solid-solid phase change materials designed for thermal stabilisation of electronic devices.

  2. Multi Sector Planning Tools for Trajectory-Based Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mainini, Matthew; Brasil, Connie

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a suite of multi sector planning tools for trajectory-based operations that were developed and evaluated in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The toolset included tools for traffic load and complexity assessment as well as trajectory planning and coordination. The situation assessment tools included an integrated suite of interactive traffic displays, load tables, load graphs, and dynamic aircraft filters. The planning toolset allowed for single and multi aircraft trajectory planning and data communication-based coordination of trajectories between operators. Also newly introduced was a real-time computation of sector complexity into the toolset that operators could use in lieu of aircraft count to better estimate and manage sector workload, especially in situations with convective weather. The tools were used during a joint NASA/FAA multi sector planner simulation in the AOL in 2009 that had multiple objectives with the assessment of the effectiveness of the tools being one of them. Current air traffic control operators who were experienced as area supervisors and traffic management coordinators used the tools throughout the simulation and provided their usefulness and usability ratings in post simulation questionnaires. This paper presents these subjective assessments as well as the actual usage data that was collected during the simulation. The toolset was rated very useful and usable overall. Many elements received high scores by the operators and were used frequently and successfully. Other functions were not used at all, but various requests for new functions and capabilities were received that could be added to the toolset.

  3. Applications of aerospace technology in the public sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anuskiewicz, T.; Johnston, J.; Zimmerman, R. R.

    1971-01-01

    Current activities of the program to accelerate specific applications of space related technology in major public sector problem areas are summarized for the period 1 June 1971 through 30 November 1971. An overview of NASA technology, technology applications, and supporting activities are presented. Specific technology applications in biomedicine are reported including cancer detection, treatment and research; cardiovascular diseases, diagnosis, and treatment; medical instrumentation; kidney function disorders, treatment, and research; and rehabilitation medicine.

  4. Opportunities in the Building Sector: Managing Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Arthur H.; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2008-09-01

    We review the data documenting the value of energy efficiency measures enacted in California, largely in the buildings and appliance sectors. We compare energy savings in the state to those achieved in the US as a whole. We also compare the cost and energy savings possible with efficiency standards enacted in China with the cost and quantity of energy expected from the construction of the Three Gorges Dam there.

  5. Roadmap to Secure Control Systems in the Chemical Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    analysis of all risk factors, including physical, cyber, and human. The interaction of both internal and external process and business systems must also be...interconnectivity, but restricts its scope by addressing the cyber issues of ICS.b Interactions with physical, business, and safety systems and their security...and the fully explored ramifications as a loss of control incident propagates through multi-industry and multi-sector interactions . CONTROL SYSTEMS

  6. Lessons from Burundi’s Security Sector Reform Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    political elite remains divided. The ruling party has yet to fully embrace democratic norms and continues to use the police for political ends.1 More- over...as: • an integrated approach to security encompassing defense, public security, intelligence, and gover - nance with links to the justice sector • a...must make sure the Dutch politi- cal agenda does not drive programming decisions (other than setting limits on the use of funding). The program

  7. CO2 Biogenic vs Anthropogenic Sectoral Contribution for INFLUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Hu, H.; Whetstone, J. R.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Turnbull, J. C.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Brewer, A.; Hardesty, M.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Patarasuk, R.; Gurney, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) aims to use a top-down inversion methodology to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions over an urban domain with high spatial and temporal resolution. This project is an experimental test bed which is intended to establish reliable methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used for Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of pollution sources. Analyzing the contribution of different source types or sectors is a fundamental step in order to achieve an accuracy level desired for such MRV applications. This is especially challenging when attempting to determine anthropogenic emissions during the growing season since biological GHG fluxes reach a maximum at this time. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) version 3.5.1 was used along with a modified version of the Green House Gases chemistry module for simulating the CO2 mole fraction transport during September and October 2013. Sectoral anthropogenic CO2 emissions were obtained from Hestia 2012 and from Vulcan 2002 beyond the spatial coverage of Hestia. Biogenic CO2 emissions were simulated by using an augmented version of the "Vegetation Photosynthesis and Respiration Model" (VPRM) included in WRF-CHEM. An implementation of the unconstrained nonlinear global optimization method of Nelder and Mead was employed to find the optimum values for the VPRM parameters for each vegetation category by using data from Ameriflux eddy covariance flux towers. Here we present a preliminary assessment of the relative contribution of biological vs sectoral anthropogenic CO2 fluxes on the INFLUX measurements network. The simulations are compared to tower and aircraft measurements that include trace gases with the capacity to distinguish observationally anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 sources and sinks. In addition, an evaluation of the sensitivity of the sectoral attribution to meteorological

  8. Evaluating research for disruptive innovation in the space sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summerer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Many governmental space activities need to be planned with a time horizon that extends beyond the comfort zone of reliable technology development assessments and predictions. In an environment of accelerating technological change, a methodological approach to addressing non-core technology trends and potentially disruptive, game-changing developments not yet linked to the space sector is increasingly important to complement efforts in core technology R&D planning. Various models and organisational setups aimed at fulfilling this purpose are in existence. These include, with varying levels of relevance to space, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Institute for Advanced Concepts (NIAC, operational form 1998 to 2007 and recently re-established), the Defence Advanced Research Projects Agency of the US Department of Defence, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Medialab, the early versions of Starlab, the Lockheed Skunk Works and the European Space Agency's Advanced Concepts Team. Some of these organisations have been reviewed and assessed individually, though systematic comparison of their methods, approaches and results have not been published. This may be due in part to the relatively sparse scientific literature on organisational parameters for enabling disruptive innovation as well as to the lack of commonly agreed indicators for the evaluation of their performance. Furthermore, innovation support systems in the space sector are organised differently than in traditional, open competitive markets, which serve as the basis for most scholarly literature on the organisation of innovation. The present paper is intended to advance and stimulate discussion on the organisation of disruptive innovation mechanisms specifically for the space sector. It uses the examples of the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts and the ESA Advanced Concepts Team, analyses their respective approaches and compares their results, leading to the proposal of

  9. Lessons for the DoD from the Nonprofit Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    of Strategies in the Public Sector.” In J.M. and R.C. Einsweiller (eds) Strategic Planning. Planners Press. Salamon , Lester M. (2002)The State...and not pursing a political or religious agenda) ( Salamon , 2002). It would be an overstatement to say that all nonprofits value all four core...company which could result in larger donations to the nonprofit ( Salamon , 2002). Such arrangements can compromise the objectivity and neutrality of a

  10. Stratification in a Dual Economy: A Sectoral Model of Earnings Determination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, E.M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Examined in this paper is the importance of industrial sectors for the process of earnings determination. Findings indicate that there are significant differences in labor force composition and economic status between core and periphery industrial sectors. (Author/EB)

  11. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  12. Analysis of labour risks in the Spanish industrial aerospace sector.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Juan; Rubio, Emilio; Garcia, Ana; Garcia-Foncillas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Labour risk prevention is an activity integrated within Safety and Hygiene at Work in Spain. In 2003, the Electronic Declaration for Accidents at Work, Delt@ (DELTA) was introduced. The industrial aerospace sector is subject to various risks. Our objective is to analyse the Spanish Industrial Aerospace Sector (SIAS) using the ACSOM methodology to assess its labour risks and to prioritise preventive actions. The SIAS and the Services Subsector (SS) were created and the relevant accident rate data were obtained. The ACSOM method was applied through double contrast (deviation and translocation) of the SIAS or SS risk polygon with the considered pattern, accidents from all sectors (ACSOM G) or the SIAS. A list of risks was obtained, ordered by action phases. In the SIAS vs. ACSOM G analysis, radiation risks were the worst, followed by overstrains. Accidents caused by living beings were also significant in the SS vs. SIAE, which will be able to be used to improve Risk Prevention. Radiation is the most significant risk in the SIAS and the SS. Preventive actions will be primary and secondary. ACSOM has shown itself to be a valid tool for the analysis of labour risks.

  13. Evaluation of Private Sector Roles in Space Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Blair, Brad R.; Diaz, Javier; Oderman, Mark; Duke, Michael B.; Vaucher, Marc; Manvi, Ramachandra; Easter, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated engineering and financial modeling approach has been developed and used to evaluate the potential for private sector investment in space resource development, and to assess possible roles of the public sector in fostering private interest. This paper presents the modeling approach and its results for a transportation service using propellant extracted from lunar regolith. The analysis starts with careful case study definition, including an analysis of the customer base and market requirements, which are the basis for design of a modular, scalable space architecture. The derived non-recurring, recurring and operations costs become inputs for a `standard' financial model, as used in any commercial business plan. This model generates pro forma financial statements, calculates the amount of capitalization required, and generates return on equity calculations using two valuation metrics of direct interest to private investors: market enterprise value and multiples of key financial measures. Use of this model on an architecture to sell transportation services in Earth orbit based on lunar propellants shows how to rapidly test various assumptions and identify interesting architectural options, key areas for investment in exploration and technology, or innovative business approaches that could produce an economically viable industry. The same approach can be used to evaluate any other possible private ventures in space, and conclude on the respective roles of NASA and the private sector in space resource development and solar system exploration.

  14. End use energy consumption data base: transportation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J.N.; Rose, A.B.; Greene, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    The transportation fuel and energy use estimates developed a Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the End Use Energy Consumption Data Base are documented. The total data base contains estimates of energy use in the United States broken down into many categories within all sectors of the economy: agriculture, mining, construction, manufacturing, commerce, the household, electric utilities, and transportation. The transportation data provided by ORNL generally cover each of the 10 years from 1967 through 1976 (occasionally 1977 and 1978), with omissions in some models. The estimtes are broken down by mode of transport, fuel, region and State, sector of the economy providing transportation, and by the use to which it is put, and, in the case of automobile and bus travel, by the income of the traveler. Fuel types include natural gas, motor and aviation gasoline, residual and diesel oil, liuqefied propane, liquefied butane, and naphtha- and kerosene-type jet engine fuels. Electricity use is also estimated. The mode, fuel, sector, and use categories themselves subsume one, two, or three levels of subcategories, resulting in a very detailed categorization and definitive accounting.

  15. Sectoral scope and colocalisation of Spanish manufacturing industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanova, Marta R.; Orts, Vicente; Albert, José M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use distance-based methods, specifically a slight variation of Ripley's K function and a bivariate generalisation of this function, to explore the detailed location pattern of the Spanish manufacturing industry, the scope of localisation and the tendency towards colocalisation between horizontally and vertically linked industries. To do so, we use micro-geographic data, considering a narrowly defined industry classification. Our results show heterogeneous location patterns, but with a significant tendency towards localisation. The sectoral scope is very sensitive to the degree of homogeneity of the activities in each sector. The more homogeneous the activities in a specific sector are, the more similarities we find in the spatial location patterns among its industries. Finally, although the patterns of colocalisation detected are sensitive to the counterfactuals used, between 20 and 48% of the pairs of industries with strong input-output linkages considered in this study show a significant tendency to colocalisation, and among them 74% are vertically linked industries.

  16. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  17. Health sector employment growth calls for improvements in labor productivity.

    PubMed

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Festl, Eva; Bishop-Tarver, Leslie

    2016-08-01

    While rising costs of healthcare have put increased fiscal pressure on public finance, job growth in the health sector has had a stabilizing force on overall employment levels - not least in times of economic crises. In 2014 EU-15 countries employed 21 million people in the health and social care sector. Between 2000 and 2014 the share of employed persons in this sector rose from 9.5% to 12.5% of the total labor force in EU-15 countries. Over time labor input growth has shifted towards residential care activities and social work while labor in human health activities including hospitals and ambulatory care still comprises the major share. About half of the human health labor force works in hospital. Variation of health and social care employment is large even in countries with generally comparable institutional structures. While standard measures of productivity in health and social care are not yet comparable across countries, we argue that labor productivity of a growing health work force needs more attention. The long-term stability of the health system will require care delivery models that better utilize a growing health work force in concert with smart investments in digital infrastructure to support this transition. In light of this, more research is needed to explain variations in health and social care labor endowments, to identify effective policy measures of labor productivity enhancement including enhanced efforts to develop comparable productivity indicators in these areas.

  18. Strategy for development of the Polish electricity sector

    SciTech Connect

    Dybowski, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper represents the strategy for development of the Polish Electricity Sector dealing with specific problems which are common for all of East Central Europe. In 1990 Poland adopted a restructuring program for the entire energy sector. Very ambitious plans were changed several times but still the main direction of change was preserved. The most difficult period of transformation is featured by several contradictions which have to be balanced. Electricity prices should increase in order to cover the modernization and development program but the society is not able to take this burden in such a short time. Furthermore the new environment protection standards force the growth of capital investment program which sooner or later has to be transferred through the electricity prices. New economic mechanisms have to be introduced to the electricity sector to replace the old ones noneffective, centrally planned. This process has to follow slow management changes. Also, introduction of new electricity market is limited by those constraints. However, this process of change would not be possible without parallel governmental initiation like preparation of new energy law and regulatory frames.

  19. Analysis of fuel shares in the industrial sector

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, J.M.; Belzer, D.B.

    1986-06-01

    These studies describe how fuel shares have changed over time; determine what factors are important in promoting fuel share changes; and project fuel shares to the year 1995 in the industrial sector. A general characterization of changes in fuel shares of four fuel types - coal, natural gas, oil and electricity - for the industrial sector is as follows. Coal as a major fuel source declined rapidly from 1958 to the early 1970s, with oil and natural gas substituting for coal. Coal's share of total fuels stabilized after the oil price shock of 1972-1973, and increased after the 1979 price shock. In the period since 1973, most industries and the industrial sector as a whole appear to freely substitute natural gas for oil, and vice versa. Throughout the period 1958-1981, the share of electricity as a fuel increased. These observations are derived from analyzing the fuel share patterns of more than 20 industries over the 24-year period 1958 to 1981.

  20. Sector spin coating for fast preparation of polymer libraries.

    PubMed

    de Gans, Berend-Jan; Wijnans, Sanne; Woutes, Daan; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2005-01-01

    The feasibility of sector spin coating (or combinatorial spin-coating) is demonstrated (i.e., spin coating of various samples onto one single substrate using a metal template to divide the substrate into sectors). Film thickness increases in an angular direction against the sense of rotation. In the radial direction, the film thickness is constant within 2%. A library of 8 poly(methyl methacrylate)/polystyrene-blends with varying composition was spin coated and subsequently analyzed using automated atomic force microscopy: 24 measurements could be performed within 72 min. The contact angles of a library of 16 polyoxazoline diblock copolymers were measured using one substrate with 16 spin-coated sectors. Forty-eight measurements could be performed within 50 min. On the basis of the surface energies calculated using the Owens-Wendt-Rath-Kaeble method, the library can be divided into three groups of polymers: those containing a dispersive nonyloxazoline block, those containing a polar phenyloxazoline block, and those containing neither.

  1. Dark sectors of the Universe: A Euclid survey approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutusaus, Isaac; Lamine, Brahim; Blanchard, Alain; Dupays, Arnaud; Rousset, Yvan; Zolnierowski, Yves

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we study the consequences of relaxing the hypothesis of the pressureless nature of the dark matter component when determining constraints on dark energy. To this aim we consider simple generalized dark matter models with constant equation of state parameter. We find that present-day low-redshift probes (type-Ia supernovae and baryonic acoustic oscillations) lead to a complete degeneracy between the dark energy and the dark matter sectors. However, adding the cosmic microwave background (CMB) high-redshift probe restores constraints similar to those on the standard Λ CDM model. We then examine the anticipated constraints from the future Euclid survey on the same class of models, using a Fisher forecast estimation. We show that the Euclid survey allows us to break the degeneracy between the dark sectors, although the constraints on dark energy are much weaker than with standard dark matter. The use of CMB in combination allows us to restore the high precision on the dark energy sector constraints.

  2. Greenhouse gas mitigation potentials in the livestock sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, Mario; Henderson, Benjamin; Havlík, Petr; Thornton, Philip K.; Conant, Richard T.; Smith, Pete; Wirsenius, Stefan; Hristov, Alexander N.; Gerber, Pierre; Gill, Margaret; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Valin, Hugo; Garnett, Tara; Stehfest, Elke

    2016-05-01

    The livestock sector supports about 1.3 billion producers and retailers, and contributes 40-50% of agricultural GDP. We estimated that between 1995 and 2005, the livestock sector was responsible for greenhouse gas emissions of 5.6-7.5 GtCO2e yr-1. Livestock accounts for up to half of the technical mitigation potential of the agriculture, forestry and land-use sectors, through management options that sustainably intensify livestock production, promote carbon sequestration in rangelands and reduce emissions from manures, and through reductions in the demand for livestock products. The economic potential of these management alternatives is less than 10% of what is technically possible because of adoption constraints, costs and numerous trade-offs. The mitigation potential of reductions in livestock product consumption is large, but their economic potential is unknown at present. More research and investment are needed to increase the affordability and adoption of mitigation practices, to moderate consumption of livestock products where appropriate, and to avoid negative impacts on livelihoods, economic activities and the environment.

  3. Energy and water sector policy strategies for drought mitigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Kelic, Andjelka; Vugrin, Eric D.; Loose, Verne W.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2009-03-01

    Tensions between the energy and water sectors occur when demand for electric power is high and water supply levels are low. There are several regions of the country, such as the western and southwestern states, where the confluence of energy and water is always strained due to population growth. However, for much of the country, this tension occurs at particular times of year (e.g., summer) or when a region is suffering from drought conditions. This report discusses prior work on the interdependencies between energy and water. It identifies the types of power plants that are most likely to be susceptible to water shortages, the regions of the country where this is most likely to occur, and policy options that can be applied in both the energy and water sectors to address the issue. The policy options are designed to be applied in the near term, applicable to all areas of the country, and to ease the tension between the energy and water sectors by addressing peak power demand or decreased water supply.

  4. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  5. Biotechnology developments in the livestock sector in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Onteru, Suneel; Ampaire, Agatha; Rothschild, Max

    2010-01-01

    Global meat and milk consumption is exponentially increasing due to population growth, urbanization and changes in lifestyle in the developing world. This is an excellent opportunity for developing countries to improve the livestock sector by using technological advances. Biotechnology is one of the avenues for improved production in the "Livestock revolution". Biotechnology developments applied to livestock health, nutrition, breeding and reproduction are improving with a reasonable pace in developing countries. Simple bio-techniques such as artificial insemination have been well implemented in many parts of the developing world. However, advanced technologies including transgenic plant vaccines, marker assisted selection, solid state fermentation for the production of fibrolytic enzymes, transgenic fodders, embryo transfer and animal cloning are confined largely to research organizations. Some developing countries such as Taiwan, China and Brazil have considered the commercialization of biotechnology in the livestock sector. Organized livestock production systems, proper record management, capacity building, objective oriented research to improve farmer's income, collaborations with the developed world, knowledge of the sociology of an area and research on new methods to educate farmers and policy makers need to be improved for the creation and implementation of biotechnology advances in the livestock sector in the developing world.

  6. U.S. Heat Demand by Sector for Potential Application of Direct Use Geothermal

    SciTech Connect

    Katherine Young

    2016-06-23

    This dataset includes heat demand for potential application of direct use geothermal broken down into 4 sectors: agricultural, commercial, manufacturing and residential. The data for each sector are organized by county, were disaggregated specifically to assess the market demand for geothermal direct use, and were derived using methodologies customized for each sector based on the availability of data and other sector-specific factors. This dataset also includes a paper containing a full explanation of the methodologies used.

  7. Electrodynamic parameters in the nighttime sector during auroral substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, R.; Hoffman, R. A.; Anderson, P. C.; Craven, J. D.; Sugiura, M.; Frank, L. A.; Maynard, N. C.

    1994-01-01

    The characteristics of the large-scale electrodynamic parameters, field-aligned currents (FACs), electric fields, and electron precipitation, which are associated with auroral substorm events in the nighttime sector, have been obtained through a unique analysis which places the ionospheric measurements of these parameters into the context of a generic substorm determined from global auroral images. A generic bulge-type auroral emission region has been deduced from auroral images taken by the Dynamics Explorer 1 (DE 1) satellite during a number of isolated substorms, and the form has been divided into six sectors, based on the peculiar emission characteristics in each sector: west of bulge, surge horn, surge, middle surge, eastern bulge, and east of bulge. By comparing the location of passes of the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) satellite to the simultaneously obtained auroral images, each pass is placed onto the generic aurora. The organization of DE 2 data in this way has systematically clarified peculiar characteristics in the electrodynamic parameters. An upward net current mainly appears in the surge, with little net current in the surge horn and the west of bulge. The downward net current is distributed over wide longitudinal regions from the eastern bulge to the east of bulge. Near the poleward boundary of the expanding auroral bulge, a pair of oppositely directed FAC sheets is observed, with the downward FAC on the poleward side. This downward FAC and most of the upward FAC in the surge and the middle surge are assoc iated with narrow, intense antisunwqard convection, corresponding to an equatorward directed spikelike electric field. This pair of currents decreases in amplitude and latitudinal width toward dusk in the surge and the west of bulge, and the region 1 and 2 FACs become embedded in the sunward convection region. The upward FAC region associated with the spikelike field on the poleward edge of the bulge coincides well with intense electron

  8. Discerning The Details Of The Cosmic Dark Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Rachel

    Central objectives: This proposal focuses on the exciting prospect of the existence of new dark sector degrees of freedom and the impact of these on observations of, and inter-relationships between, baryons, dark matter and dark energy. The suggestion of new long-range forces, manifesting themselves as apparent changes to how gravity and visible matter are related, along with possible screening mechanisms in dense regions, opens up the possibility of testing this new physics in vastly different regimes. The proposed research includes the development and investigation of dark sector physics theories and their implications for observations from solar system to cosmic scales. It will be part of an ongoing, highly productive, collaboration between the PI and Co-Is at Cornell and U. Penn and their students. Methods/techniques: The PI and CoIs have a proven track record of establishing theoretically consistent field theoretic descriptions of the dark sector and interaction screening mechanisms. They have established experience in developing novel astrophysical tests for dark sector theories and developing computational forecasting and analysis tools to establish if, and how well, a theory is testable with current and upcoming NASA surveys. Significance to NASA solicitation/interests: The research to be proposed directly supports the NASA ROSES Science Goal for Astrophysics: to “discover how the universe works, explore how the universe began and evolved.” Specifically it addresses the science question “how do matter, energy, space and time behave under the extraordinarily diverse conditions of the cosmos?”and science objective, to “understand the origin and destiny of the universe, and the nature of black holes, dark energy, dark matter, and gravity” The proposed research will be of significant relevance for current and planned NASA cosmological missions, Euclid and WFIRST, as well as current, and to be released, Planck CMB temperature and polarization data

  9. Finding pathways to national-scale land-sector sustainability.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Bryan, Brett A

    2017-04-12

    The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and 169 targets under Agenda 2030 of the United Nations map a coherent global sustainability ambition at a level of detail general enough to garner consensus amongst nations. However, achieving the global agenda will depend heavily on successful national-scale implementation, which requires the development of effective science-driven targets tailored to specific national contexts and supported by strong national governance. Here we assess the feasibility of achieving multiple SDG targets at the national scale for the Australian land-sector. We scaled targets to three levels of ambition and two timeframes, then quantitatively explored the option space for target achievement under 648 plausible future environmental, socio-economic, technological and policy pathways using the Land-Use Trade-Offs (LUTO) integrated land systems model. We show that target achievement is very sensitive to global efforts to abate emissions, domestic land-use policy, productivity growth rate, and land-use change adoption behaviour and capacity constraints. Weaker target-setting ambition resulted in higher achievement but poorer sustainability outcomes. Accelerating land-use dynamics after 2030 changed the targets achieved by 2050, warranting a longer-term view and greater flexibility in sustainability implementation. Simultaneous achievement of multiple targets is rare owing to the complexity of sustainability target implementation and the pervasive trade-offs in resource-constrained land systems. Given that hard choices are needed, the land-sector must first address the essential food/fibre production, biodiversity and land degradation components of sustainability via specific policy pathways. It may also contribute to emissions abatement, water and energy targets by capitalizing on co-benefits. However, achieving targets relevant to the land-sector will also require substantial contributions from other sectors such as clean energy, food systems

  10. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, B.D.; Eckels, J.D.; Kimmons, J.F.; Martin, W.H.; Myers, D.W.; Keville, R.F.

    1992-10-06

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk. 13 figs.

  11. Portable mass spectrometer with one or more mechanically adjustable electrostatic sectors and a mechanically adjustable magnetic sector all mounted in a vacuum chamber

    DOEpatents

    Andresen, Brian D.; Eckels, Joel D.; Kimmons, James F.; Martin, Walter H.; Myers, David W.; Keville, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A portable mass spectrometer is described having one or more electrostatic focusing sectors and a magnetic focusing sector, all of which are positioned inside a vacuum chamber, and all of which may be adjusted via adjustment means accessible from outside the vacuum chamber. Mounting of the magnetic sector entirely within the vacuum chamber permits smaller magnets to be used, thus permitting reductions in both weight and bulk.

  12. 31 CFR 500.584 - Energy sector projects in North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy sector projects in North Korea... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.584 Energy sector projects in North Korea... energy sector projects in North Korea in connection with that country's transition to light-water...

  13. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  14. How Old Is Old? Employing Elderly Teachers in the Private Sector Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…

  15. Performance Contracting as a Performance Management Tool in the Public Sector in Kenya: Lessons of learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Kempe Ronald, Sr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an assessment and analysis of public sector performance contracting as a performance management tool in Kenya. It aims to demonstrate that performance contracting remains a viable and important tool for improving public sector performance as a key element of the on-going public sector transformation…

  16. 76 FR 40808 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Within the Sector Boston Captain... establishing temporary safety zones within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for various... within the Sector Boston Captain of the Port (COTP) Zone for various fireworks displays. Discussion...

  17. 50 CFR 648.63 - General category Sectors and harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with all applicable law. A Sector may establish additional criteria for determining its membership... law. Any interested group that meets the eligibility criteria may submit a proposal for a Sector. To... Sector must comply with all scallop management measures of this part and other applicable law,...

  18. Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Information Technology and Telecommunications Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Information Technology and Telecommunications Sector Eileen Kowalski...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Information Technology and Telecommunications Sector 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Insider Threat Study: Illicit Cyber Activity in the Information Technology and Telecommunications Sector Page 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS SECTION 1

  19. Competence Development in the Public Sector: Development, or Dismantling of Professionalism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjort, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    For more than a decade, competence development has been a key concept of modern management in both the private and the public sector, but to some extent its meaning and practice have been different in the two sectors. In the public sector in particular, competence development has been closely related to a number of other buzzwords characterizing…

  20. Access to Higher Education in Egypt: Examining Trends by University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckner, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Access to higher education in Egypt is expanding in both the public and private sectors. Using a nationally representative sample from the Survey of Young People in Egypt, this article is able to disaggregate patterns of access by both demographic group and university sector. Findings suggest that access in the public sector is governed strongly…

  1. 50 CFR 648.63 - General category Sectors and harvesting cooperatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Once a vessel operator and/or vessel owner signs a binding contract to have his/her vessel participate... and submit a binding plan for management of that Sector's allocation of total allowable catch. Vessels... established in the operations plan and agreed to through the Sector contract. Sector contracts should...

  2. 76 FR 5825 - U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... COMMISSION U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update AGENCY: United States... Agreement: Passenger Vehicle Sector Update. DATES: February 14, 2011: Deadline for filing written statements... provisions relating to the passenger vehicle sector. In its request letter, the Committee requested that...

  3. 77 FR 6133 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies AGENCY... interested in serving on the Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee (AMSC) to submit their application for membership, to the Captain of the Port, Sector Upper Mississippi River....

  4. 78 FR 14437 - Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, Public Law 108-458 (December 17, 2004). Then, on... 3209-AA09 Government Employees Serving in Official Capacity in Nonprofit Organizations; Sector Unit... of sector mutual funds to clarify that it applies to interests in the holdings of sector...

  5. Enrolments, Funding and Student Staff Ratios by Sector. Policy Note. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This briefing examines government and private funding across educational sectors. Key findings include: (1) Differences in funding for public and private education across the sectors: (a) do not reflect policy coherence; and (b) entrench inequities; (2) All sectors receive funding from both public and private sources, though the shares vary.…

  6. 77 FR 26129 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2012 Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...This final rule partially approves, and implements, 19 Northeast (NE) multispecies (groundfish) sector operations plans and contracts for fishing year (FY) 2012, and allocates quotas of NE multispecies to the sectors. This final rule does not approve certain exemptions and measures proposed in the operations plans, as explained below. Approval of sector operations plans is necessary to......

  7. 75 FR 47211 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ..., Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Puget Sound, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule... Sector Puget Sound as part of the Coast Guard reorganization. DATES: This final rule is effective August... disestablished and Sector Puget Sound has been established in its place. This rule revises 33 CFR Parts 3 and...

  8. Problematising "Education" and "Training" in the Scottish Sport and Fitness, Play and Outdoor Sectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, M.; Frew, M.; McGillivray, D.; McIntosh, A.; McPherson, G.

    2004-01-01

    Sets out the issues peculiar to the Scottish workforce in sport and fitness, play and the outdoor sectors. Provides an exploration of the development of vocational education in the form of sector skills training for these sectors in opposition to that formal education provided at further and higher education level. Draws on empirical research…

  9. The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanova, Luydmila; Khachaturov, Vladimir; Zlotov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea is the largest closed reservoir in the world, which washes the western part of Kazakhstan. The area of water territory is 371,000 sq km; the sea level is lower than the level of the ocean on 28.5 m (1971). Maximum depth is 1,025m (in the southern part); the Kazakhstan part is not deep, and the depth of the North Caspian sea is about 15-20 m. The Caspian Sea is divided according to physical and geographical conditions to 3 parts - North Caspian, Middle Caspian and South Caspian Sea. Fauna is represented by 1809 species, 415 of which belong to the vertebrates, 101 species of fish, it also has the majority of the world's sturgeon, freshwater fish - roach, carp, pike, saltwater fish - carp, mullet, sprats, Kutum, bream, salmon, perch, pike, mammal - caspian seal. The plant world is represented by 728 species, of which algae are dominated - blue-green, diatoms, red, brown, Stoneworts and others, from flowering - eelgrass and seagrass. Development of sea oil-and-gas deposits of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian sea entails increase of anthropogenous pressure on the environment. According to preliminary estimates, the volume of recoverable hydrocarbon resources in the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea is about 8.0 billion tons per year. The impact of terrestrial and marine infrastructure, oil and gas facilities on natural systems is reflected in discharges and emissions into the environment of gaseous, solid and liquid pollutants, consumption of natural resources for industrial, farm and household needs, and violation of coastal landscapes. Dangerous influence on the environment is burning natural oil gas on torches. In this regard, there is a need for a system of state monitoring. In a basis of environmental monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea has been put an ecosystem approach, creation of an automated system on the basis of GIS technologies and modeling of forecasts of

  10. Nevado del Huila, Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nevado del Huila Volcano in Colombia is actually a volcanic chain running north to south, capped by a glacier. With peaks ranging in height from 2,600 to 5,780 meters (8,530 to 18,960 feet), Nevado del Huila is a stratovolcano composed of alternating layers of hardened lava, solidified ash, and volcanic rocks. Its first recorded eruption occurred in the mid-sixteenth century. The long-dormant volcano erupted again in mid-April 2007. A few months before the eruption, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Nevado del Huila, on February 23, 2007. In this image, the bright white area just east of the central summit is ice. Immediately west of the summit are bare rocks, appearing as blue-gray. West of those rocks, white reappears, but this patch of white results from clouds hovering in the nearby valley. In the east, the colors turn to brown (indicating bare rock) and bright green (indicating vegetation). ASTER photographed Nevado del Huila near the end of a long phase of quietude. On April 17, 2007, local authorities recorded seismic activity associated with rock fracturing on the volcano's central summit, according to the ReliefWeb Website. Activity intensified the following day with an eruption and mudflows, forcing thousands of nearby residents to evacuate. As the Associated Press reported, the eruption caused avalanches and floods that wiped away both houses and bridges. It marked the volcano's first recorded eruption since the Spanish colonized the area five centuries earlier. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Lightest Visible-Sector Supersymmetric Particle is Likely to be Unstable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Bobby S.; Ellis, Sebastian A. R.; Kane, Gordon L.; Nelson, Brent D.; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2016-10-01

    We argue, based on typical properties of known solutions of string or M theory, that the lightest supersymmetric particle of the visible sector is likely to be unstable. In other words, dark matter is probably not a particle with standard model quantum numbers, such as a weakly interacting massive particle. The argument is simple and based on the typical occurrence of (a) hidden sectors, (b) interactions between the standard model (visible) sector and these hidden sectors, and (c) the lack of an argument against massive neutral hidden sector particles being lighter than the lightest visible supersymmetric particle. These conclusions do not rely on arguments such as R -parity violation.

  12. Second-order focusing parallel electron energy magnetic sector analyzer designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents parallel magnetic sector analyzer designs that are predicted to have second-order or better focusing properties. Simulation results indicate that by reducing the gap between excitation plates in a compact parallel energy magnetic sector box design, second-order focusing regions in the detected energy spectrum can be obtained. A method for combining a first-order focusing magnetic box sector unit with a larger magnet sector unit is also presented in which, the field strength varies relatively slowly. Simulations predict that using a combination of such magnetic sector units, focusing properties better than second order can be achieved for most of the detected energy range.

  13. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  14. Towards greener environment: Energy efficient pathways for the transportation sector in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indati, M. S.; Ghate, A. T.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    Transportation sector is the second most energy consuming sector after industrial sector, accounting for 40% of total energy consumption in Malaysia. The transportation sector is one of the most energy intensive sectors in the country and relies primarily on petroleum products, which in total account for nearly 98% of the total consumption in the sector. Since it is heavily reliant on petroleum based fuels, the sector contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the greenhouse gas emission is paramount as Malaysia at Conference of the Parties (COP15) pledged to reduce its carbon intensity by 40% by 2020 from 2005 level subject to availability of technology and finance. Transport sector will be among the first sectors that need to be addressed to achieve this goal, as two-thirds of the emissions come from fuel combustion in transport sector. This paper will analyse the factors influencing the transport sector's growth and energy consumption trends and discuss the key issues and challenges for greener environment and sustainable transportation in Malaysia. The paper will also discuss the policy and strategic options aimed towards energy efficient pathways in Malaysia.

  15. Major models and data sources for residential and commercial sector energy conservation analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Major models and data sources are reviewed that can be used for energy-conservation analysis in the residential and commercial sectors to provide an introduction to the information that can or is available to DOE in order to further its efforts in analyzing and quantifying their policy and program requirements. Models and data sources examined in the residential sector are: ORNL Residential Energy Model; BECOM; NEPOOL; MATH/CHRDS; NIECS; Energy Consumption Data Base: Household Sector; Patterns of Energy Use by Electrical Appliances Data Base; Annual Housing Survey; 1970 Census of Housing; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; RECS; Solar Market Development Model; and ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book. Models and data sources examined in the commercial sector are: ORNL Commercial Sector Model of Energy Demand; BECOM; NEPOOL; Energy Consumption Data Base: Commercial Sector; F.W. Dodge Data Base; NFIB Energy Report for Small Businesses; ADL Commercial Sector Energy Use Data Base; AIA Research Corporation Data Base; Nonresidential Buildings Surveys of Energy Consumption; General Electric Co: Commercial Sector Data Base; The BOMA Commercial Sector Data Base; The Tishman-Syska and Hennessy Data Base; The NEMA Commercial Sector Data Base; ORNL Buildings Energy Use Data Book; and Solar Market Development Model. Purpose; basis for model structure; policy variables and parameters; level of regional, sectoral, and fuels detail; outputs; input requirements; sources of data; computer accessibility and requirements; and a bibliography are provided for each model and data source.

  16. A methodology for computing uncertainty bounds of multivariable systems based on sector stability theory concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waszak, Martin R.

    1992-01-01

    The application of a sector-based stability theory approach to the formulation of useful uncertainty descriptions for linear, time-invariant, multivariable systems is explored. A review of basic sector properties and sector-based approach are presented first. The sector-based approach is then applied to several general forms of parameter uncertainty to investigate its advantages and limitations. The results indicate that the sector uncertainty bound can be used effectively to evaluate the impact of parameter uncertainties on the frequency response of the design model. Inherent conservatism is a potential limitation of the sector-based approach, especially for highly dependent uncertain parameters. In addition, the representation of the system dynamics can affect the amount of conservatism reflected in the sector bound. Careful application of the model can help to reduce this conservatism, however, and the solution approach has some degrees of freedom that may be further exploited to reduce the conservatism.

  17. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  18. Development of Performance Dashboards in Healthcare Sector: Key Practical Issues

    PubMed Central

    Ghazisaeidi, Marjan; Safdari, Reza; Torabi, Mashallah; Mirzaee, Mahboobeh; Farzi, Jebraeil; Goodini, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Static nature of performance reporting systems in health care sector has resulted in inconsistent, incomparable, time consuming, and static performance reports that are not able to transparently reflect a round picture of performance and effectively support healthcare managers’ decision makings. So, the healthcare sector needs interactive performance management tools such as performance dashboards to measure, monitor, and manage performance more effectively. The aim of this article was to identify key issues that need to be addressed for developing high-quality performance dashboards in healthcare sector. Methods: A literature review was established to search electronic research databases, e-journals collections, and printed journals, books, dissertations, and theses for relevant articles. The search strategy interchangeably used the terms of “dashboard”, “performance measurement system”, and “executive information system” with the term of “design” combined with operator “AND”. Search results (n=250) were adjusted for duplications, screened based on their abstract relevancy and full-text availability (n=147) and then assessed for eligibility (n=40). Eligible articles were included if they had explicitly focused on dashboards, performance measurement systems or executive information systems design. Finally, 28 relevant articles included in the study. Results: Creating high-quality performance dashboards requires addressing both performance measurement and executive information systems design issues. Covering these two fields, identified contents were categorized to four main domains: KPIs development, Data Sources and data generation, Integration of dashboards to source systems, and Information presentation issues. Conclusion: This study implies the main steps to develop dashboards for the purpose of performance management. Performance dashboards developed on performance measurement and executive information systems principles and

  19. Dynamical Dark Matter from strongly-coupled dark sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Huang, Fei; Su, Shufang; Thomas, Brooks

    2017-02-01

    Dynamical Dark Matter (DDM) is an alternative framework for dark-matter physics in which the dark sector comprises a vast ensemble of particle species whose Standard-Model decay widths are balanced against their cosmological abundances. Previous studies of this framework have focused on a particular class of DDM ensembles—motivated primarily by Kaluza-Klein towers in theories with extra dimensions—in which the density of dark states scales roughly as a polynomial of the mass. In this paper, by contrast, we study the properties of a different class of DDM ensembles in which the density of dark states grows exponentially with mass. Ensembles with this Hagedorn-like property arise naturally as the "hadronic" resonances associated with the confining phase of a strongly-coupled dark sector; they also arise naturally as the gauge-neutral bulk states of Type I string theories. We study the dynamical properties of such ensembles, and demonstrate that an appropriate DDM-like balancing between decay widths and abundances can emerge naturally—even with an exponentially rising density of states. We also study the effective equations of state for such ensembles, and investigate some of the model-independent observational constraints on such ensembles that follow directly from these equations of state. In general, we find that such constraints tend to introduce correlations between various properties of these DDM ensembles such as their associated mass scales, lifetimes, and abundance distributions. For example, we find that these constraints allow DDM ensembles with energy scales ranging from the GeV scale all the way to the Planck scale, but that the total present-day cosmological abundance of the dark sector must be spread across an increasing number of different states in the ensemble as these energy scales are dialed from the Planck scale down to the GeV scale. Numerous other correlations and constraints are also discussed.

  20. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs

  1. A statistical study of evening sector arcs and electrojets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Syrjäsuo, M. T.; Amm, O.; Viljanen, A.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    We present results of a statistical study of evening sector auroral arcs associated with electrojets. The study (including ˜ 1000 all-sky camera (ASC) frames) is based on data of the MIRACLE instrument network. An automatic search engine is used to define the arc periods from ASC data and the recordings of the IMAGE magnetometer network are used to estimate the strength and location of the equivalent electrojet currents. The maximum current densities and intensities of the equivalent electrojets vary in the ranges 200-600 A/km and 200-400 kA, respectively. In 85 % of cases with single arcs the current system is of a convection reversal type (an eastward electrojet equatorward of a westward electrojet). Usually the arc is within 1° distance from the latitude of maximum eastward current density which is ≤4° south from the transition region between the westward and eastward electrojets. Most of such events were observed in the dusk sector, not in the premidnight-sector, which is generally considered as the typical Harang discontinuity (HD) region of convection reversal type currents. Furthermore, the poleward boundary of the westward current is very often poleward of the northernmost IMAGE station (CGM lat. ˜76), which may mean that the westward currents are not real horizontal currents but equivalent currents due to field aligned R1 currents. This implies that a stable arc often resides a few degrees equatorward to the evening shell potential minimum. We discuss the implications of these findings from the viewpoint of previous HD-studies.

  2. Dual practice in the health sector: review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ferrinho, Paulo; Van Lerberghe, Wim; Fronteira, Inês; Hipólito, Fátima; Biscaia, André

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on income generation practices among civil servants in the health sector, with a particular emphasis on dual practice. It first approaches the subject of public–private overlap. Thereafter it focuses on coping strategies in general and then on dual practice in particular. To compensate for unrealistically low salaries, health workers rely on individual coping strategies. Many clinicians combine salaried, public-sector clinical work with a fee-for-service private clientele. This dual practice is often a means by which health workers try to meet their survival needs, reflecting the inability of health ministries to ensure adequate salaries and working conditions. Dual practice may be considered present in most countries, if not all. Nevertheless, there is surprisingly little hard evidence about the extent to which health workers resort to dual practice, about the balance of economic and other motives for doing so, or about the consequences for the proper use of the scarce public resources dedicated to health. In this paper dual practice is approached from six different perspectives: (1) conceptual, regarding what is meant by dual practice; (2) descriptive, trying to develop a typology of dual practices; (3) quantitative, trying to determine its prevalence; (4) impact on personal income, the health care system and health status; (5) qualitative, looking at the reasons why practitioners so frequently remain in public practice while also working in the private sector and at contextual, personal life, institutional and professional factors that make it easier or more difficult to have dual practices; and (6) possible interventions to deal with dual practice. PMID:15509305

  3. Nanotechnology and its applications in the food sector.

    PubMed

    Sozer, Nesli; Kokini, Jozef L

    2009-02-01

    Nanoscience and nanotechnology are new frontiers of this century. Their applications to the agriculture and food sector are relatively recent compared with their use in drug delivery and pharmaceuticals. Smart delivery of nutrients, bioseparation of proteins, rapid sampling of biological and chemical contaminants and nanoencapsulation of nutraceuticals are some of the emerging topics of nanotechnology for food and agriculture. Advances in technologies, such as DNA microarrays, microelectromechanical systems and microfluidics, will enable the realization of the potential of nanotechnology for food applications. In this review, we intended to summarize the applications of nanotechnology relevant to food and nutraceuticals together with identifying the outstanding challenges.

  4. Appliance electricity consumption in the residential sector: An economic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, B.S.

    1995-03-01

    In this article a theoretical framework within which the demand for electricity in the residential sector is studied. The cross-sectional household survey data is analyzed to estimate the consumption of electricity for different end uses by relating the household electricity consumption with the stock of electrical appliances. Using these estimates, appliances elasticities are obtained. It is shown how these elasticities can be used to relate future electricity usage to changes in the stock of appliances for Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka state in southern India.

  5. Determinants of eco-efficiency in the Chinese industrial sector.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    This study measures productive inefficiency within the context of multi-environmental pollution (eco-efficiency) in the Chinese industrial sector. The weighted Russell directional distance model is applied to measure eco-efficiency using production technology. The objective is to clarify how external factors affect eco-efficiency. The major findings are that both foreign direct investment and investment for pollution abatement improve eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutant substances. A levy system for wastewater discharge improves eco-efficiency as measured by wastewater pollutant substances. However, an air pollutant levy does not significantly affect eco-efficiency as measured by air pollutants.

  6. Iris mattress suture: a technique for sectoral iris defect repair.

    PubMed

    Tsao, Sean W; Holz, Huck A

    2015-03-01

    Achieving a cosmetic and functional outcome from iris defect repair is a surgical challenge. We describe an adaptation of techniques to address a case of 2.5 clock hours of sectoral iris tissue defect. Our method combines Siepser's modified closed-chamber sliding knot technique with the placement of a double-armed iris mattress suture to approximate iris tissue to the scleral wall and thereby create a pseudo-iris root. This technique reduces glare and achieves a cosmetic outcome for the patient.

  7. Technology Co-evolution Analysis in the Energy Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjoo; Yoon, Byungun

    This paper suggests the method that can describe the co-evolutionary patterns in the energy sectors. Technologies that have facilitated the growth of other technologies should get the priority in the R&D investment, if other conditions are almost the same. In the suggested method, LVC equations were applied to the patents relating to energy technologies. Then a network showing the interactions between technologies in their evolution process is visualised. Research findings will provide numerous implications for policy-making and strategic planning for energy technology development.

  8. The Scalar Meson Sector and the σ, κ Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, Wolfgang

    2004-08-01

    In the light scalar meson sector (M ≲ 1.8 GeV) one expects at least one qq¯ nonet and a glueball, possibly also multi-quark states. We discuss the present phenomenological evidence for σ and κ particles; if real, they could be members of the lightest (quark or multi-quark) nonet together possibly with a0(980) and f0(980). Alternatively, the lightest nonet could include f0(980) but not σ and κ. Future decisive experimental studies, concerning tests of symmetry relations, especially in B-decays, are outlined.

  9. A new PROFIBUS interface for vacuum sector gate valve controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigny, G.; Ferreira, R.; Gomes, P.; Gyori, L.; Roda, M.

    2017-02-01

    The vacuum control systems of the accelerators complex at CERN are based on PLCs, which communicate with controllers either with direct inputs or outputs, or via PROFIBUS. In order to improve the efficiency of the sector valve controller communication, a low cost PROFIBUS interface card has been designed. This paper presents the developed hardware and firmware, together with the corresponding assessment tests. It flags the improvements of this new interface, in comparison with the former system. Furthermore, this paper can be helpful for any custom design that needs a PROFIBUS interface.

  10. Regulation of foreign direct investment in the Canadian mineral sector

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes and assesses the historical development and operational experience of Canada's Foreign Investment Review Agency (FIRA), especially as it relates to the non-petroleum mineral sector. It provides a rationale for the actions of the Government of Canada in developing FIRA and of foreign investors and their home governments in adversely reacting to Canadian foreign direct investment (FDI) policies. It concludes that the present system encourages FIRA to aggressively pursue Canadian equity objectives on not only the activities listed in the original proposal which are subject to review, but also on future corporate activity. Such actions generate unnecessary hostility. 68 footnotes and references, 3 tables.

  11. First Report on Seismogenic Magnetic Disturbances over Brazilian Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausner, V.; Almeida, T.; de Meneses, F. C.; Kherani, E. A.; Pillat, V. G.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Fagundes, P. R.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we present a first report on magnetic disturbances over the Brazilian sector that occurred on September 16-17, 2015. These disturbances are associated with the Illapel earthquake. Using seven magnetometers installed across Brazil, and distributed within 4500 km from the epicenter, the presence of magnetic disturbances is noted 15 min after the time of earthquake. The seismometers registered the arrival of the first seismic waves 10 min prior to the observed signatures on magnetic disturbances, suggesting that such waves are possibly from seismogenic origin, which involves the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  12. Implications of Lepton Nonuniversality in the Beauty Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, A.; Mohanta, R.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-11-01

    The phenomenon of CP violation in the standard model (SM) framework and the decay dynamics have been established from the data obtained from the B factories and so far we have not seen anything new. Nevertheless, there have been instances of deviations in many measured observables in the flavor sector, as far as the data and predictions are concerned. Here we will mention some deviations obtained in measurements related to lepton universality, as seen from the data, and try to understand their implications. To accommodate the observed data we will consider a leptoquark model, which seems to be one interesting model beyond the SM.

  13. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  14. First Report on Seismogenic Magnetic Disturbances over Brazilian Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausner, V.; Almeida, T.; de Meneses, F. C.; Kherani, E. A.; Pillat, V. G.; Muella, M. T. A. H.; Fagundes, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we present a first report on magnetic disturbances over the Brazilian sector that occurred on September 16-17, 2015. These disturbances are associated with the Illapel earthquake. Using seven magnetometers installed across Brazil, and distributed within 4500 km from the epicenter, the presence of magnetic disturbances is noted 15 min after the time of earthquake. The seismometers registered the arrival of the first seismic waves 10 min prior to the observed signatures on magnetic disturbances, suggesting that such waves are possibly from seismogenic origin, which involves the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  15. Kuwaiti oil sector shows more signs of recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-06

    This paper reports that Kuwait's oil sector continues to show signs of recovery from the Persian Gulf war. On Mar. 23 Kuwait Petroleum Co. (KPC) loaded the country's first shipment of liquefied petroleum gas for export since the Iraqi invasion in August 1990. In addition, the first shipment of Kuwaiti crude recovered from giant oil lakes formed by hundreds of wild wells sabotaged in the war was to arrive by tanker in Naples, Italy, late last month. The tanker is carrying 210,000 bbl of crude. However, the project to clean up the lakes and recover more oil, undertaken by Bechtel Corp. with Kuwait Oil Co. (KOC), has reached a stand still.

  16. Closing the Gap: How Sectoral Workforce Development Programs Benefit the Working Poor. SEDLP Research Report. The Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zandniapour, Lily; Conway, Maureen

    The benefits of sectoral workforce development programs to the working poor were examined in a 3-year longitudinal study of participants in six sectoral employment training programs across the United States. The programs, which were all designed to serve low-income clients, provided training in a diverse set of industries, including the following:…

  17. Jane Addams Resource Corporation: A Case Study of a Sectoral Employment Development Approach. Sectoral Employment Development Learning Project Case Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasmeier, Amy K.; Nelson, Candace; Thompson, Jeffery W.

    This case study on the Jane Addams Resource Corporation (JARC) is the third of six sectoral studies to provide an in-depth look at individual sectoral employment development programs and their interaction within distinct economic and industry environments. It explores a community-based organization that developed specialized metalworking and…

  18. Leptonic flavor violation in the Higgs sector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Brent; Kao, Chung; Hou, Wei-Shu; Kohda, Masaya; Soni, Amarjit

    2017-01-01

    We present the discovery potential of pp ->ϕ0 -> τμ + X at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), with ϕ0 =h0 ,H0 ,A0 . We choose a general Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) with non-negligible flavor changing couplings in the hadronic sector, in which ϕ0 couples to tc . Current data favors the alignment limit of a 2HDM where sin(β - α) 1 , which can enhance leptonic couplings to the light Higgs boson and might provide an observable flavor changing cross-section in that sector. We study the ϕ0 -> τμ channel for a range of cos(β - α) and ρτμ values that can be consistent with the CMS excess in Run-1 and account for dominant physics background with realistic acceptance cuts at √{ s} = 13 TeV and 14 TeV. U.S. Department of Energy and OU Supercomputing Center for Education and Research.

  19. Towards sustainability in the extensive and intensive livestock sectors.

    PubMed

    Niamir-Fuller, M

    2016-11-01

    An increase in both human population and economic growth has been accompanied by rising per capita demand for animal products. The livestock industry is under pressure to meet this demand, but its current patterns of production are not environmentally sustainable, causing negative health impacts on humans and raising welfare concerns for animals. With little regulation of the intensive livestock sector in most countries, animal products are available at cheaper prices on consumer markets, undercutting more sustainable production systems, such as those used by pastoralists and organic farmers. Other beneficial aspects of sustainable intensification and sustainable pastoralism should also be taken into account. However, it is unclear whether moving towards sustainable animal husbandry (both intensive and extensive) will meet the projected demand from nine billion people in 2030, unless attention is also paid to fairer and more responsible consumption. This paper proposes a conceptual framework to transform the livestock sector, using principles of sustainable consumption and production, environmental stewardship, inclusive prosperity, and healthy lifestyles. It also highlights several areas where additional research and modelling are required.

  20. Applications and implications of nanotechnologies for the food sector.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Qasim; Scotter, Michael; Blackburn, James; Ross, Bryony; Boxall, Alistair; Castle, Laurence; Aitken, Robert; Watkins, Richard

    2008-03-01

    A review of current and projected nanotechnology-derived food ingredients, food additives and food contact materials is presented in relation to potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including new tastes, textures and sensations, less use of fat, enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved packaging, traceability and security of food products. The review has shown that nanotechnology-derived food and health food products are set to grow worldwide and, moreover, a variety of food ingredients, additives, carriers for nutrients/supplements and food contact materials is already available in some countries. The current level of applications in the European food sector is at an elementary stage; however, it is widely expected that more and more products will be available in the EU over the coming years. The toxicological nature of hazard, likelihood of exposure and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food/food packaging are largely unknown and this review highlights major gaps in knowledge that require further research. A number of uncertainties and gaps in relevant regulatory frameworks have also been identified and ways of addressing them proposed.

  1. Understanding human resource management practices in Botswana's public health sector.

    PubMed

    Seitio-Kgokgwe, Onalenna Stannie; Gauld, Robin; Hill, Philip C; Barnett, Pauline

    2016-11-21

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the management of the public sector health workforce in Botswana. Using institutional frameworks it aims to document and analyse human resource management (HRM) practices, and make recommendations to improve employee and health system outcomes. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws from a large study that used a mixed methods approach to assess performance of Botswana's Ministry of Health (MOH). It uses data collected through document analysis and in-depth interviews of 54 key informants comprising policy makers, senior staff of the MOH and its stakeholder organizations. Findings Public health sector HRM in Botswana has experienced inadequate planning, poor deployment and underutilization of staff. Lack of comprehensive retention strategies and poor working conditions contributed to the failure to attract and retain skilled personnel. Relationships with both formal and informal environments affected HRM performance. Research limitations/implications While document review was a major source of data for this paper, the weaknesses in the human resource information system limited availability of data. Practical implications This paper presents an argument for the need for consideration of formal and informal environments in developing effective HRM strategies. Originality/value This research provides a rare system-wide approach to health HRM in a Sub-Saharan African country. It contributes to the literature and evidence needed to guide HRM policy decisions and practices.

  2. Advisory Algorithm for Scheduling Open Sectors, Operating Positions, and Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloem, Michael; Drew, Michael; Lai, Chok Fung; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Air traffic controller supervisors configure available sector, operating position, and work-station resources to safely and efficiently control air traffic in a region of airspace. In this paper, an algorithm for assisting supervisors with this task is described and demonstrated on two sample problem instances. The algorithm produces configuration schedule advisories that minimize a cost. The cost is a weighted sum of two competing costs: one penalizing mismatches between configurations and predicted air traffic demand and another penalizing the effort associated with changing configurations. The problem considered by the algorithm is a shortest path problem that is solved with a dynamic programming value iteration algorithm. The cost function contains numerous parameters. Default values for most of these are suggested based on descriptions of air traffic control procedures and subject-matter expert feedback. The parameter determining the relative importance of the two competing costs is tuned by comparing historical configurations with corresponding algorithm advisories. Two sample problem instances for which appropriate configuration advisories are obvious were designed to illustrate characteristics of the algorithm. Results demonstrate how the algorithm suggests advisories that appropriately utilize changes in airspace configurations and changes in the number of operating positions allocated to each open sector. The results also demonstrate how the advisories suggest appropriate times for configuration changes.

  3. Energy data sourcebook for the US residential sector

    SciTech Connect

    Wenzel, T.P.; Koomey, J.G.; Sanchez, M.

    1997-09-01

    Analysts assessing policies and programs to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector require disparate input data from a variety of sources. This sourcebook, which updates a previous report, compiles these input data into a single location. The data provided include information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment efficiency; historical and current appliance and equipment market shares; appliances and equipment efficiency and sales trends; appliance and equipment efficiency standards; cost vs. efficiency data for appliances and equipment; product lifetime estimates; thermal shell characteristics of buildings; heating and cooling loads; shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings; baseline housing stocks; forecasts of housing starts; and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. This report is the essential sourcebook for policy analysts interested in residential sector energy use. The report can be downloaded from the Web at http://enduse.lbl. gov/Projects/RED.html. Future updates to the report, errata, and related links, will also be posted at this address.

  4. (Findings of the Costa Rica power sector efficiency study)

    SciTech Connect

    Waddle, D.B.

    1990-10-08

    To present findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to the Instituto Costarricense de Electridad, and to the Ministry of Energy, Natural Resources and Mining. To discuss the progress and plans for the Central American Rural Electrification Project with US Agency for International Development (USAID)/Regional Office Central American Program (ROCAP). I traveled to San Jose, Costa Rica to present the findings of the Costa Rica Power Sector Efficiency Study to our counterparts in the utility and the Ministry of Energy. Discussions were held with line level managers at Instituto Costarricensede Electricidad (ICE) and Ministry of Energy Mines and Natural Resources (MIRENEM), as well as a plan of action set for the final stage of the project. Discussions were held for a one day period with both the bilateral Agency for International Development (AID) and the regional AID mission regarding the need for a similar study in Guatemala and matters directly pertaining to the Central American Rural Electrification Study (CARES) project.

  5. The Space Sector and Civilization of Intangible Assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Daniel

    The value of a company is no longer solely measured according to the value of its assets (stock of raw materials, products being manufactured or finished products, machines and tools, real estate, etc.). Intangible assets are also becoming increasingly important, especially in Western economies which have massively transferred the production of goods to the so-called emerging countries offering lower labor costs. Numerous companies subcontracting their production focus on the study and design of new products and their marketing. As a result, the intangible assets (patents, brands, distribution networks, etc.) represent a growing proportion of the value of companies. Nevertheless, it is not impossible, as we saw several decades ago with Japan, for example, that the "emerging" countries which largely depend on contract production and copies, move more or less quickly to economies including the entire chain from design to production of original products. We will analyze here the importance of intangible assets in the space sector, especially as regards orbital systems (satellites and associated ground facilities). While the space sector remains dominated by states through the orders they generate and the regulations they impose on the space industry, the commercial market continues to develop and, with it, the importance of marketing actions and more generally the development of distinctive brands.

  6. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  7. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  8. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-12-31

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  9. On Sector Magnets or Transverse Electromagnetic Fields in Cylindrical Coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Zolkin, Timofey

    2016-03-10

    The Laplace's equations for the scalar and vector potentials describing electric or magnetic fields in cylindrical coordinates with translational invariance along azimuthal coordinate are considered. The series of special functions which, when expanded in power series in radial and vertical coordinates, in lowest order replicate the harmonic homogeneous polynomials of two variables are found. These functions are based on radial harmonics found by Edwin~M.~McMillan in his more-than-40-years "forgotten" article, which will be discussed. In addition to McMillan's harmonics, second family of adjoint radial harmonics is introduced, in order to provide symmetric description between electric and magnetic fields and to describe fields and potentials in terms of same special functions. Formulas to relate any transverse fields specified by the coefficients in the power series expansion in radial or vertical planes in cylindrical coordinates with the set of new functions are provided. This result is no doubt important for potential theory while also critical for theoretical studies, design and proper modeling of sector dipoles, combined function dipoles and any general sector element for accelerator physics. All results are presented in connection with these problems.

  10. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  11. ImSET: Impact of Sector Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, Joseph M.; Scott, Michael J.; Schultz, Robert W.

    2005-07-19

    This version of the Impact of Sector Energy Technologies (ImSET) model represents the ''next generation'' of the previously developed Visual Basic model (ImBUILD 2.0) that was developed in 2003 to estimate the macroeconomic impacts of energy-efficient technology in buildings. More specifically, a special-purpose version of the 1997 benchmark national Input-Output (I-O) model was designed specifically to estimate the national employment and income effects of the deployment of Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) -developed energy-saving technologies. In comparison with the previous versions of the model, this version allows for more complete and automated analysis of the essential features of energy efficiency investments in buildings, industry, transportation, and the electric power sectors. This version also incorporates improvements in the treatment of operations and maintenance costs, and improves the treatment of financing of investment options. ImSET is also easier to use than extant macroeconomic simulation models and incorporates information developed by each of the EERE offices as part of the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act.

  12. Trends in nanotechnology patents applied to the health sector.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Adelaide Maria de Souza; Alencar, Maria Simone de Menezes; da Silva, Cicera Henrique; Nunes, Jeziel; Mendes, Flavia Maria Lins

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a method for identifying trends in patent applications for nanotechnology applied to the health sector around the world, based on the International Patent Classification. This classification divides the sector into: dental care, drugs, diagnostic kits, and medical apparatus & medical care. The Derwent database was mined for patent documents using nanotechnology terms associated with the IPC subclasses from the health subsectors. The number of patents was found to be rising, led by the United States, particularly universities and R centers. In the dental care subsector, nanotechnology was found to be used in composite material for manufacturing dental appliances. In drugs, the focus is on the use of nanoparticulate compositions comprising agents that are useful for a variety of diseases. In diagnostic kits, nanostructures have been patented that are capable of detecting target analytes. Meanwhile, in medical apparatus & medical care, patent applications have been made for nanocapsules and/or nanocomposite materials inserted in devices and guide catheters. A study was also made of patents in Brazil, where the same assignees and the same country (United States) as in the survey of global patents were found to be the leading patent applicants / holders.

  13. [The dynamic of the informal urban sector in Mexico: the role of intersectoral mobility].

    PubMed

    Roubaud, F

    1992-01-01

    This examination of labor mobility between the formal and informal sectors in Mexico provides a critique of existing models of intersectoral articulation, analyzes the flows between the formal and informal sectors of a group of small entrepreneurs in the informal sector, and assesses the consequences of existing mobility strategies for the economic performance of the informal sector. Works of economists interested in dual models of economies in developing countries do not deal directly with questions of intersectoral mobility, but they implicitly suggest a labor force with 2 closed compartments. But empirical studies in Latin America have demonstrated a strong rotation of workers between the 2 sectors. The functional theory proposed by H. Lopez is one of the most developed among a group that assert that movement between the modern and informal sectors is massive. The Lopez theory suggests that very young workers gain experience in small enterprises in the informal sector, become wage earners in the modern sector sometime in their 20s, and retire after 30 or 40 years to new employment in the informal sector. Very few studies on mobility between sectors have been done in Mexico. But a simulation model demonstrates that when age-related variations in total labor force participation are factored in, the life cycle model of intersectoral mobility is not valid, despite apparent support when the sectoral composition of the labor force is examined cross-sectionally and the results interpreted longitudinally. The National Survey of the Informal Economy was conducted among 2748 units employing fewer than 6 persons in Mexico City, Guadalajara, Monterrey, Puebla, Leon, Juarez, and Tijuana. The objective was not to study intersectoral mobility, and questions were asked only on the 2 most recent jobs rather than the entire work history. Only the "micro-entrepreneurs" themselves were interviewed, with the 33% of the work force comprising hired workers and unpaid family labor

  14. Public Sector Employment Inequality in the United States and the Great Recession.

    PubMed

    Laird, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    Historically in the United States, the public sector has served as an equalizing institution through the expansion of job opportunities for minority workers. This study examines whether the public sector continues to serve as an equalizing institution in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I investigate changes in public sector employment between 2003 and 2013. My results point to a post-recession double disadvantage for black public sector workers: they are concentrated in a shrinking sector of the economy, and they are more likely than white and Hispanic public sector workers to experience job loss. These two trends are a historical break for the public sector labor market. I find that race and ethnicity gaps in public sector employment cannot be explained by differences in education, occupation, or any of the other measurable factors that are typically associated with employment. Among unemployed workers who most recently worked for the public sector, black women are the least likely to transition into private sector employment.

  15. Public sector reform and demand for human resources for health (HRH)

    PubMed Central

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This article considers some of the effects of health sector reform on human resources for health (HRH) in developing countries and countries in transition by examining the effect of fiscal reform and the introduction of decentralisation and market mechanisms to the health sector. Fiscal reform results in pressure to measure the staff outputs of the health sector. Financial decentralisation often leads to hospitals becoming "corporatised" institutions, operating with business principles but remaining in the public sector. The introduction of market mechanisms often involves the formation of an internal market within the health sector and market testing of different functions with the private sector. This has immediate implications for the employment of health workers in the public sector, because the public sector may reduce its workforce if services are purchased from other sectors or may introduce more short-term and temporary employment contracts. Decentralisation of budgets and administrative functions can affect the health sector, often in negative ways, by reducing resources available and confusing lines of accountability for health workers. Governance and regulation of health care, when delivered by both public and private providers, require new systems of regulation. The increase in private sector provision has led health workers to move to the private sector. For those remaining in the public sector, there are often worsening working conditions, a lack of employment security and dismantling of collective bargaining agreements. Human resource development is gradually being recognised as crucial to future reforms and the formulation of health policy. New information systems at local and regional level will be needed to collect data on human resources. New employment arrangements, strengthening organisational culture, training and continuing education will also be needed. PMID:15560841

  16. Diffraction of a Gaussian beam by a four-sector binary grating with a shift between adjacent sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicijevic, Lj.; Topuzoski, S.; Stoyanov, L.; Dreischuh, A.

    2017-04-01

    In this article as a diffractive optical element we consider a composed four-sector binary grating under Gaussian laser beam illumination. The angular sectors are bounded by the directions y = x and y = - x , and consist of parts of a binary rectilinear grating; thereby, two neighboring parts are shifted by a half spatial rectilinear grating period. The diffracted wave field amplitude is calculated, showing that the straight-through, zeroth-diffraction-order beam is an amplitude-reduced Gaussian beam, and the higher-diffraction-order beams, deviated with respect to the propagation axis, are non-vortex beams described by modified Bessel functions. The transverse intensity profiles of the higher-diffraction-order beams, numerically and experimentally obtained, have form of a four-leaf clover; they are similar to the Laguerre-Gaussian LG(0,2) beam (with radial mode number n = 0 and azimuthal mode number l = 2) described by circular cosine function, in a paraxial, far-field approximation.

  17. Innovation and performance: The case of the upstream petroleum sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persaud, A. C. Jai

    This thesis investigates innovation in the upstream crude oil and natural gas sector, a strategic part of the Canadian economy and a vital industry for North American energy trade and security. Significant interest exists in understanding innovation in this sector from a private and public policy perspective. Interest in the sector has intensified recently due to concerns about world oil supply, Canada's oil sands development, and the potential that Canada may become an "energy superpower." The study examines the factors that drive companies involved in exploration, development, and production in the upstream petroleum sector to innovate and the impact of their innovation activities through major technologies on their performance. The thesis focuses on process innovation, which involves the adoption of new or significantly improved production processes, and is distinct from product innovation, which is based on the development and commercialization of a product with improved product characteristics to deliver new services to the consumer. The thesis provides a comprehensive review of the literature and develops an investigative model framework to examine the drivers of innovation and the impact of innovation on performance in the upstream petroleum sector. The research employs a survey questionnaire that was developed to obtain data and information, which was missing in the literature or not publicly available to test key relationships of innovation and performance indicators. In addition to the survey questionnaire, a number of knowledgeable experts in the industry were also interviewed. A total of 68 respondents completed the survey questionnaire, accounting for 40 percent of the firms in the industry. This percentage goes up to over 50 percent when account is taken of extremely small firms who could not fill out the survey. Further, the 68 respondents account for most of the industry revenues, production, and employment. The respondents include most of the key

  18. Opportunities and barriers for a crop-based energy sector in Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klupfel, Ellen Joanne

    This study investigates the existing opportunities and barriers for expanding the crop-based energy sector in Ontario. The investigation takes place at a time when growing concerns about sustainability---environmental, social, and economic---are encouraging the exploration of alternatives to energy systems based on fossil fuels, and concerns around the future viability of rural communities are making agriculturally-based and rural-based energy production systems attractive to many. To explore opportunities and barriers for the crop-based energy sector, this thesis addresses the question: What is the political-economic context within which the crop-based energy sector operates in Ontario? Taking an institutional approach, the study involved 26 interviews with individuals whose organizations influence Ontario's crop-based energy sector (that includes the biofuels ethanol and biodiesel), developed a model outlining relationships between the crop-based energy sector and other sectors of the economy, as well as the state, and implemented a survey of Ontario Members of Provincial Parliament's perspectives on biofuels. This research examines the balance of power of knowledge, production, security, finance, and technology for Ontario's crop-based energy sector. The overall balance of power currently rests with the petroleum sector. Through force field analysis, the study also identifies the key opportunities and barriers for the growth and development of the biofuels sector. These opportunities include climate change and rural development agendas, and the barriers include the petroleum sector, cost of production, and some sectors of the state. A few overarching conclusions emerge from this research: (1) Change in Ontario's crop-based energy sector is driven foremost by political and economic forces; (2) Climate change is the most significant driving force for the development and expansion of Ontario's crop-based energy sector; (3) Production cost and resistance from the

  19. Supporting analysis and assessments quality metrics: Utility market sector

    SciTech Connect

    Ohi, J.

    1996-10-01

    In FY96, NREL was asked to coordinate all analysis tasks so that in FY97 these tasks will be part of an integrated analysis agenda that will begin to define a 5-15 year R&D roadmap and portfolio for the DOE Hydrogen Program. The purpose of the Supporting Analysis and Assessments task at NREL is to provide this coordination and conduct specific analysis tasks. One of these tasks is to prepare the Quality Metrics (QM) for the Program as part of the overall QM effort at DOE/EERE. The Hydrogen Program one of 39 program planning units conducting QM, a process begun in FY94 to assess benefits/costs of DOE/EERE programs. The purpose of QM is to inform decisionmaking during budget formulation process by describing the expected outcomes of programs during the budget request process. QM is expected to establish first step toward merit-based budget formulation and allow DOE/EERE to get {open_quotes}most bang for its (R&D) buck.{close_quotes} In FY96. NREL coordinated a QM team that prepared a preliminary QM for the utility market sector. In the electricity supply sector, the QM analysis shows hydrogen fuel cells capturing 5% (or 22 GW) of the total market of 390 GW of new capacity additions through 2020. Hydrogen consumption in the utility sector increases from 0.009 Quads in 2005 to 0.4 Quads in 2020. Hydrogen fuel cells are projected to displace over 0.6 Quads of primary energy in 2020. In future work, NREL will assess the market for decentralized, on-site generation, develop cost credits for distributed generation benefits (such as deferral of transmission and distribution investments, uninterruptible power service), cost credits for by-products such as heat and potable water, cost credits for environmental benefits (reduction of criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions), compete different fuel cell technologies against each other for market share, and begin to address economic benefits, especially employment.

  20. Introduction to the Buildings Sector Module of SEDS

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, Nicholas; Bonnet, Florence; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris

    2010-12-31

    SEDS is a stochastic engineering-economics model that forecasts economy-wide energy consumption in the U.S. to 2050. It is the product of multi-laboratory collaboration among the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and Lumina Decision Systems. Among national energy models, SEDS is unique, as it is the only model written to explicitly incorporate uncertainty in its inputs and outputs. The primary purpose of SEDS is to estimate the impact of various US Department of Energy (DOE)R&D and policy programs on the performance and subsequent adoption rates of technologies relating to every energy consuming sector of the economy (shown below). It has previously been used to assist DOE in complying with the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA). The focus of LBNL research has been exclusively on develop the buildings model (SBEAM), which is capable of running as a stand-alone forecasting model, or as a part of SEDS as a whole. The full version of SEDS, containing all sectors and interaction is also called the 'integrated' version and is managed by NREL. Forecasts from SEDS are often compared to those coming from National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The intention of this document is to present new users and developers with a general description of the purpose, functionality and structure of the buildings module within the Stochastic Energy Deployment System (SEDS). The Buildings module, which is capable of running as a standalone model, is also called the Stochastic Buildings Energy and Adoption Model (SBEAM). This document will focus exclusively on SBEAM and its interaction with other major sector modules present within SEDS. The methodologies and major assumptions employed in SBEAM will also be discussed. The organization of this report will parallel the organization of the model itself, being divided into major submodules

  1. Building a Comprehensive Mill-Level Database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) Model of the U.S. Pulp and Paper Sector

    PubMed Central

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector. PMID:25806516

  2. Building a comprehensive mill-level database for the Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model of the U.S. pulp and paper sector.

    PubMed

    Modak, Nabanita; Spence, Kelley; Sood, Saloni; Rosati, Jacky Ann

    2015-01-01

    Air emissions from the U.S. pulp and paper sector have been federally regulated since 1978; however, regulations are periodically reviewed and revised to improve efficiency and effectiveness of existing emission standards. The Industrial Sectors Integrated Solutions (ISIS) model for the pulp and paper sector is currently under development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and can be utilized to facilitate multi-pollutant, sector-based analyses that are performed in conjunction with regulatory development. The model utilizes a multi-sector, multi-product dynamic linear modeling framework that evaluates the economic impact of emission reduction strategies for multiple air pollutants. The ISIS model considers facility-level economic, environmental, and technical parameters, as well as sector-level market data, to estimate the impacts of environmental regulations on the pulp and paper industry. Specifically, the model can be used to estimate U.S. and global market impacts of new or more stringent air regulations, such as impacts on product price, exports and imports, market demands, capital investment, and mill closures. One major challenge to developing a representative model is the need for an extensive amount of data. This article discusses the collection and processing of data for use in the model, as well as the methods used for building the ISIS pulp and paper database that facilitates the required analyses to support the air quality management of the pulp and paper sector.

  3. Investigacion del sistema ABS/PC a partir de material reciclado procedente del sector electrico y electronico. Caracterizacion y optimizacion de mezclas industriales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balart Gimeno, Rafael

    In the last years, polymer blends have acquired great relevance due to the excellent performances that can be reached. Particularly, ABS/PC blends show a growing interest since they exhibit good thermal and mechanical performance. All these features make them useful for technical applications: electronics, automotive, house ware and office,...PC contributes to a good thermal and mechanical stability, while ABS contributes, fundamentally, to the improvement of processability and cost reduction. Considering the importance of these blends, it has been developed the possibility to recycle ABS and PC by blending systems, following the residue generation ratio (around 4:1 for ABS:PC). In this research, we have worked with polycarbonate coming from city lighting and a most common degree of ABS. Due to the nature and origin of recycled materials, it is important to know and to quantify the previous level of degradation of individual materials as well as the thermal behaviour of the blends to establish the possible interaction of the components. We have used calorimetric and spectrophotometric techniques to identify previous degradation and the presence of impurities in the recycled as well as the characterization of the blends. Thermogravimetric analysis has been used for kinetic study of degradation processes and thermal stability of ABS/PC system. We have also studied mechanical properties of ABS/PC system due to the partial miscibility of the system which involves a reduction on mechanical performance, particularly plastic properties such as impact strength while resistant properties show no important decrease. The small decrease on impact strength can be attributed to the degradation processes of butadiene present in the ABS and interphase interaction between partial miscible phases. The addition of PC improves thermal stability of the blend since the thermal resistance of the PC is higher than that of ABS. Mechanical properties stand with good equilibrium and the processability of blends is quite good. All this features contributes to a high viability of the blending process of ABS/PC from recycled materials.

  4. Multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics: spurious states for the tensor sector two Hamiltonian.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Chun; Kouri, Donald J

    2013-04-25

    We show that there exist spurious states for the sector two tensor Hamiltonian in multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics. For one-dimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics on an infinite domain, the sector one and two Hamiltonians have identical spectra with the exception of the ground state of the sector one. For tensorial multidimensional supersymmetric quantum mechanics, there exist normalizable spurious states for the sector two Hamiltonian with energy equal to the ground state energy of the sector one. These spurious states are annihilated by the adjoint charge operator, and hence, they do not correspond to physical states for the original Hamiltonian. The Hermitian property of the sector two Hamiltonian implies the orthogonality between spurious and physical states. In addition, we develop a method for construction of a specific form of the spurious states for any quantum system and also generate several spurious states for a two-dimensional anharmonic oscillator system and for the hydrogen atom.

  5. Assessing Inter-Sectoral Climate Change Risks: The Role of ISIMIP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Arnell, Nigel W.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Raes, Frank; Rapley, Chris; Smith, Mark Stafford; Cramer, Wolfgang; Frieler, Katja; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Schewe, Jacob; van Vuuren, Detlef; Warszawski, Lila

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) are to provide a framework for the intercomparison of global and regional-scale risk models within and across multiple sectors and to enable coordinated multi-sectoral assessments of different risks and their aggregated effects. The overarching goal is to use the knowledge gained to support adaptation and mitigation decisions that require regional or global perspectives within the context of facilitating transformations to enable sustainable development, despite inevitable climate shifts and disruptions. ISIMIP uses community-agreed sets of scenarios with standardized climate variables and socioeconomic projections as inputs for projecting future risks and associated uncertainties, within and across sectors. The results are consistent multi-model assessments of sectoral risks and opportunities that enable studies that integrate across sectors, providing support for implementation of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  6. Social influence, agent heterogeneity and the emergence of the urban informal sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Díaz, César; Moreno-Monroy, Ana I.

    2012-02-01

    We develop an agent-based computational model in which the urban informal sector acts as a buffer where rural migrants can earn some income while queuing for higher paying modern-sector jobs. In the model, the informal sector emerges as a result of rural-urban migration decisions of heterogeneous agents subject to social influence in the form of neighboring effects of varying strengths. Besides using a multinomial logit choice model that allows for agent idiosyncrasy, explicit agent heterogeneity is introduced in the form of socio-demographic characteristics preferred by modern-sector employers. We find that different combinations of the strength of social influence and the socio-economic composition of the workforce lead to very different urbanization and urban informal sector shares. In particular, moderate levels of social influence and a large proportion of rural inhabitants with preferred socio-demographic characteristics are conducive to a higher urbanization rate and a larger informal sector.

  7. Assessing inter-sectoral climate change risks: the role of ISIMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Arnell, Nigel W.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Raes, Frank; Rapley, Chris; Stafford Smith, Mark; Cramer, Wolfgang; Frieler, Katja; Reyer, Christopher P. O.; Schewe, Jacob; van Vuuren, Detlef; Warszawski, Lila

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) are to provide a framework for the intercomparison of global and regional-scale risk models within and across multiple sectors and to enable coordinated multi-sectoral assessments of different risks and their aggregated effects. The overarching goal is to use the knowledge gained to support adaptation and mitigation decisions that require regional or global perspectives within the context of facilitating transformations to enable sustainable development, despite inevitable climate shifts and disruptions. ISIMIP uses community-agreed sets of scenarios with standardized climate variables and socio-economic projections as inputs for projecting future risks and associated uncertainties, within and across sectors. The results are consistent multi-model assessments of sectoral risks and opportunities that enable studies that integrate across sectors, providing support for implementation of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

  8. Macroergonomic study of food sector company distribution centres.

    PubMed

    García Acosta, Gabriel; Lange Morales, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study focussed on the work system design to be used by a Colombian food sector company for distributing products. It considered the concept of participative ergonomics, where people from the commercial, logistics, operation, occupational health areas worked in conjunction with the industrial designers, ergonomists who methodologically led the project. As a whole, the project was conceived as having five phases: outline, diagnosis, modelling the process, scalability, instrumentation. The results of the project translate into procedures for selecting, projecting a new distribution centre, the operational process model, a description of ergonomic systems that will enable specific work stations to be designed, the procedure for adapting existing warehouses. Strategically, this work helped optimise the company's processes and ensure that knowledge would be transferred within it. In turn, it became a primary prevention strategy in the field of health, aimed at reducing occupational risks, improving the quality of life at work.

  9. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  10. Privatization and management development in the healthcare sector of Georgia.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Costello, Michael; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare reforms in Georgia parallel some of the major changes made by other Central and Eastern European countries. This is especially true of efforts to privatize the health sector and secure capital investments from Western Europe. Privatization of Georgian healthcare requires an understanding of the Soviet-era healthcare system and ideological orientation. Many of the issues and problems of privatization in Georgia require new knowledge to enhance equity outcomes, improve financial performance, increase access to care and encourage healthcare competition. Training existing and future healthcare leaders in modern management theory and practice is paramount. A university based health-management education partnership model was developed and implemented between several universities in the United States and Europe, along with two Georgian universities, to address workforce demands, changing market conditions, management knowledge and leadership competencies. Health-management education concentrations were developed and implemented along with several short courses to meet market demand for trained leaders and managers.

  11. Consistent high-energy constraints in the anomalous QCD sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, Pablo; Sanz Cillero, Juan José

    2014-06-01

    The anomalous < VVP > Green function and related form-factors (π0 →γ*γ* and τ- →X-ντ vector form-factors, with X- = (KKπ)-, φ- γ, (φV)-) are analyzed in this letter in the large-NC limit. Within the single (vector and pseudoscalar) resonance approximation and the context of Resonance Chiral Theory, we show that all these observables overdetermine in a consistent way a unique set of compatible high-energy constraints for the resonance couplings. This result is in agreement with analogous relations found in the even intrinsic-parity sector of QCD like, e.g., FV2 = 3F2. The antisymmetric tensor formalism is considered for the spin-one resonance fields. Finally, we have also worked out and provide here the relation between the two bases of odd intrinsic-parity Lagrangian operators commonly employed in the literature.

  12. Energy conservation and the residential and commercial sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A detailed analysis of energy conservation actions relevant to the residential and commercial sector has led to the conclusion that the potential for savings is great. The task will not be easy, however, since many of the actions require significant life style changes that are difficult to accomplish. Furthermore, many of the conservation actions cited as instant solutions to the energy crisis are those with only mid to long term potential, such as solar energy or heat pumps. Three significant conservation approaches are viable: adjusting price structure, mandating actions, and educating consumers. The first two appear to be the most feasible. But they are not without a price. Higher utility bills adversely affect the poor and the elderly on fixed incomes. Likewise, strict mandatory measures can be quite distasteful. But the effect of alternatives, such as voluntary savings accomplished through education processes, is minimal in a nation without a true conservation ethic.

  13. Energy efficient engine sector combustor rig test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubiel, D. J.; Greene, W.; Sundt, C. V.; Tanrikut, S.; Zeisser, M. H.

    1981-01-01

    Under the NASA-sponsored Energy Efficient Engine program, Pratt & Whitney Aircraft has successfully completed a comprehensive combustor rig test using a 90-degree sector of an advanced two-stage combustor with a segmented liner. Initial testing utilized a combustor with a conventional louvered liner and demonstrated that the Energy Efficient Engine two-stage combustor configuration is a viable system for controlling exhaust emissions, with the capability to meet all aerothermal performance goals. Goals for both carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons were surpassed and the goal for oxides of nitrogen was closely approached. In another series of tests, an advanced segmented liner configuration with a unique counter-parallel FINWALL cooling system was evaluated at engine sea level takeoff pressure and temperature levels. These tests verified the structural integrity of this liner design. Overall, the results from the program have provided a high level of confidence to proceed with the scheduled Combustor Component Rig Test Program.

  14. Public-private partnerships in the Potuguese health sector.

    PubMed

    Simões, Jorge; Barros, Pedro Pita; Temido, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the PPP in the healthcare sector appeared only at the dawn of the new century, with the central feature of including clinical activities within its scope. Currently--except for one hospital--the Portuguese PPP experience can only be assessed in terms of conceptual model and tender processes. The analysis showed that, based on arguments associated with non-contractible investment and ex-post renegotiation opportunities, hospitals with higher technological complexity should exclude clinical activities from the PPP contract, and also that, despite the time-consuming process, the PPP can be considered a success in price competition dimension. The analysis also showed that, assessing the performance of the single PPP hospital in Portugal with two comparable units, there is no evidence that the best or worst results are correlated with the legal status and with the established management model.

  15. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  16. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gasemissions

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell, Ernst; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant; Levine, Mark

    2006-07-24

    In 2000, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published a new set of baseline greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions scenarios in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (Nakicenovic et al., 2000). The SRES team defined four narrative storylines (A1, A2, B1 and B2) describing the relationships between the forces driving GHG and aerosol emissions and their evolution during the 21st century. The SRES reports emissions for each of these storylines by type of GHG and by fuel type to 2100 globally and for four world regions (OECD countries as of 1990, countries undergoing economic reform, developing countries in Asia, rest of world). Specific assumptions about the quantification of scenario drivers, such as population and economic growth, technological change, resource availability, land-use changes, and local and regional environmental policies, are also provided. End-use sector-level results for buildings, industry, or transportation or information regarding adoption of particular technologies and policies are not provided in the SRES. The goal of this report is to provide more detailed information on the SRES scenarios at the end use level including historical time series data and a decomposition of energy consumption to understand the forecast implications in terms of end use efficiency to 2030. This report focuses on the A1 (A1B) and B2 marker scenarios since they represent distinctly contrasting futures. The A1 storyline describes a future of very rapid economic growth, low population growth, and the rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. Major underlying themes are convergence among regions, capacity building, and increased cultural and social interactions, with a substantial reduction in regional differences in per capita income. The B2 storyline describes a world with an emphasis on economic, social, and environmental sustainability, especially at the local and regional levels. It is a world with moderate population growth

  17. Lost conservation opportunities in the Pacific Northwest irrigation sector

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1987-06-01

    Initial efforts in the study were focused on identifying potential lost opportunities. Results of these efforts resulted in the following measures being identified as potential lost opportunities in the irrigation sector: pumping plant efficiency improvements on both existing and new sprinkler irrigated acres, low-pressure irrigation on new sprinkler acres, and mainline modification and fittings redesign on new sprinkler acres. All of these potential lost opportunities except fittings design were subject to more detailed analyses through a survey of irrigation equipment dealers, pump repairers and country extension agents. Fittings design was omitted from the survey. Results of the survey indicated that only high-efficiency electric motors and correct pump selection methods on existing and new sprinkler systems and low-pressure irrigation on new handmove/sideroll systems should be considered lost opportunities.

  18. Smarter–lighter–greener: research innovations for the automotive sector

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing nature of research underpinning the revolution in the automotive sector. Legislation controlling vehicle emissions has brought urgency to research, so we are now noticing a more rapid development of new technologies than at any time in the past century. The light-weighting of structures, the refinement of advanced propulsion systems, the advent of new smart materials, and greater in-vehicle intelligence and connectivity with transport infrastructure all require a fundamental rethink of established technologies used for many decades—defining a range of new multi-disciplinary research challenges. While meeting escalating emission penalties, cars must also fulfil the human desire for speed, reliability, beauty, refinement and elegance, qualities that mark out the truly great automobile. PMID:26345309

  19. Smarter-lighter-greener: research innovations for the automotive sector.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S K

    2015-07-08

    This paper reviews the changing nature of research underpinning the revolution in the automotive sector. Legislation controlling vehicle emissions has brought urgency to research, so we are now noticing a more rapid development of new technologies than at any time in the past century. The light-weighting of structures, the refinement of advanced propulsion systems, the advent of new smart materials, and greater in-vehicle intelligence and connectivity with transport infrastructure all require a fundamental rethink of established technologies used for many decades-defining a range of new multi-disciplinary research challenges. While meeting escalating emission penalties, cars must also fulfil the human desire for speed, reliability, beauty, refinement and elegance, qualities that mark out the truly great automobile.

  20. A Statistical Survey of the UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagarakis, George; Collin, Adam; Kiprakis, Aristides

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used appliances in the UK residential load sector, as well as a comprehensive technology and market survey conducted by the authors. The article focuses on the individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, which is particularly important for implementing load-use statistics in power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability density functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information that provides a useful database for the wider research community.