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Sample records for del semen tras

  1. Blood in the semen

    MedlinePlus

    ... following tests: Prostate exam PSA blood test Semen analysis Semen culture Ultrasound of the prostate, pelvis or scrotum Urinalysis Urine culture Alternative Names Semen - bloody; Blood in ejaculation Images Blood in semen References Gerber GS, Brendler CB. ...

  2. Cryopreservation of crane semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Harris, James

    1991-01-01

    The method for the cryopreservation of crane semen at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is described in detail. Cryopreservation is useful for the long-term storage of crane semen and for specialized propagation needs. A 50% fertility rate from most sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, inseminated with frozen-thawed semen can be expected. Additional research should improve the fertility rate and determine how applicable the technique is to other crane species.

  3. Semen Analysis Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sperm Count; Seminal Fluid Analysis Formal name: Semen Analysis Related tests: Antisperm Antibody Test; FSH ; LH ; Testosterone ; Prolactin ; Urinalysis All content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and ...

  4. Blood in Semen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Campbell-Walsh Urology. 10th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Saunders Elsevier; 2012. http://wwwclinicalkey.com. Accessed June 29, 2015. Aug. 04, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/blood-in-semen/ ...

  5. Aluminum content of human semen: implications for semen quality.

    PubMed

    Klein, J P; Mold, M; Mery, L; Cottier, M; Exley, C

    2014-12-01

    A deterioration of human semen quality has been observed over recent decades. A possible explanation could be an increased exposure to environmental pollutants, including aluminum. Our aim was to measure the aluminum concentration in the semen of 62 patients and to carry out a preliminary evaluation on its impact on specific semen parameters. For each patient, semen analyses were performed according to WHO guidelines. A graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry method was used to determine semen aluminum concentration. A cytological analysis using an aluminum-specific fluor, lumogallion, was also performed. The mean aluminum concentration in human semen was 339 μg/L. Patients with oligozoospermia had a statistically higher aluminum concentration than others. No significant difference was observed for other semen parameters. Cytological analysis showed the presence of aluminum in spermatozoa. This study provided unequivocal evidence of high concentrations of aluminum in human semen and suggested possible implications for spermatogenesis and sperm count. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The equine frozen semen industry.

    PubMed

    Loomis, P R

    2001-12-03

    Recent acceptance of frozen semen as a method to produce registered foals by two of the worlds largest breed associations, the American Quarter Horse and American Paint Horse, has stimulated new interest in frozen semen technology. This review will: (a) attempt to identify the major impediments to the development of the frozen semen industry, (b) suggest alternative methods for marketing and application of frozen semen, and (c) present the results of a recent study in our laboratory. The objective of which was to compare pregnancy rates of insemination with cooled and frozen semen. Major impediments to the development of the frozen semen industry include 1. Lower fertility with frozen semen as compared to cooled semen for many stallions. 2. Increased costs associated with management of mares for AI with frozen semen using current insemination protocols. 3. Unfavorable marketing practices for frozen semen. Reports of fertility with cooled transported semen in commercial breeding programs indicate seasonal pregnancy rates ranging from 60 to 90%. We compiled data from three commercial transported cooled semen programs in which semen from 16 stallions was used for insemination of 850 mares throughout North America by local veterinarians. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, first cycle and seasonal pregnancy rates of 59.4 and 74.7% were obtained. During that same period, first cycle and seasonal pregnancy rates of 51.3 and 75.6% were obtained following insemination of 876 mares with frozen semen from 106 different stallions processed by our laboratory and distributed through our commercial distribution program. First cycle and seasonal pregnancy rates were higher for mares bred outside of North America than for mares bred within North America (53.5 and 81.9 versus 49.4 and 65.6%, respectively). Seasonal pregnancy rates were higher presumably because of the better mare management employed for mares bred with exported semen and the fact that some of the domestic

  7. An alternate light source to detect semen.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David G; Santucci, Karen A

    2002-10-01

    The Wood's lamp (WL) has been used in sexual assault evaluations. Recent data have shown that semen does not fluoresce with a WL and that physicians are unable to differentiate semen from other common medicaments using a WL. To determine whether physicians could differentiate semen from other products using an alternate light source (ALS), and to investigate whether a brief training period with the ALS would enhance physicians' ability to differentiate between semen and other commonly used products. An ALS, Bluemaxx BM500, was found to cause semen to fluoresce. Physicians were first asked to use this ALS to identify semen and then to distinguish between a semen sample and other products. Physicians then received a training class on the use of the ALS and were then asked to differentiate semen from other products. All physicians identified the semen as fluorescing and 25% successfully differentiated the semen from the other products using the ALS. Products most commonly mistaken for semen were a hand cream, Castille soap, and bacitracin. After the training session, 83% of the physicians successfully differentiated the semen from other products. The ALS, while not specific for semen identification, was 100% sensitive for it. Physicians instructed in the use of an alternate light source (BM 500) are able to identify semen as fluorescing and can differentiate semen (after a training session) from other commonly used products.

  8. Inactivation of bovine herpesvirus 1 in semen using a hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender.

    PubMed

    Silva, N; Solana, A; Castro, J M

    2000-02-01

    Hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender was used for the inactivation of bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1) in experimentally infected bovine semen. As much as 5 x 10(4) TCID50/ml of virus was inactivated in semen as assayed by tissue culture. Moreover the hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender did not produce any adverse effect on the quality of the semen after being frozen/thawed in comparison with normal egg yolk semen extender (P > 0.05). The hyperimmune egg yolk semen extender is considered an important tool for containing the spread of BHV-1 from infected semen.

  9. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  10. Laser spectrochemical characterization of semen.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Harith, M A

    2012-09-15

    The overall objective of this paper is to use a fast, more sensitive and less costly spectrochemical analysis laser techniques for estimation of seasonal variation of elements present in seminal plasma as well as for semen sperm count. For these two tasks we used Laser Induced-Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as an elemental analysis technique and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) as a molecular analysis technique for sperm count estimation. The samples investigated via both techniques were buffalo semen from the artificial insemination center at the faculty of agriculture. The obtained LIBS data helped to assess indirectly the semen quality, sperm motility and spermatozoa count, relevant to the studied elements in different seasons. In addition it has been demonstrated that LIF can be adopted directly in centers of artificial insemination as a simple and fast method for the essential step of semen counting instead of the lengthy and inaccurate conventional techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  12. Microfluidic Chips for Semen Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Segerink, L.I.; Sprenkels, A.J.; Oosterhuis, G.J.E.; Vermes, I.; van den Berg, A.

    2012-01-01

    The gold standard of semen analysis is still an manual method, which is time-consuming, labour intensive and needs thorough quality control. Microfluidics can also offer advantages for this application. Therefore a first step in the development of a microfluidic chip has been made, which enables the man the semen analysis at home. In this article recent efforts to determine the concentration and motility using a microfluidic chip are summarized. PMID:27683417

  13. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  14. Cryopreservation of American kestrel semen with dimethylsulfoxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Morrell, C.A.; Franson, J. Christian; Pattee, Oliver H.

    1993-01-01

    Semen samples from 15 male American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) were frozen in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The semen was thawed 1-14 mo later and used to inseminate six females during three breeding seasons. Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 4% DMSO produced only infertile eggs (N = 14). Kestrels inseminated with thawed semen containing 6%, 8%, or 10% DMSO produced fertile eggs (N = 14) and live chicks (N = 6). Progressive motility of spermatozoa in thawed semen containing 10% DMSO was less (44 ? 6%) than in thawed semen containing 6% (62 ? 10%) or 8% (61 ? 1%) DMSO.

  15. Recent advances in cooled-semen technology.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Christine

    2008-09-01

    The majority of horse registries approve the use of artificial insemination, and horse breeding has widely taken benefit from the use of cooled-stored semen. New insights into cooled-semen technology open possibilities to reduce problems such as impaired semen quality after cooled-storage in individual stallions. The stallion itself has major impacts on quality and fertility of cooled-stored semen. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids improves semen quality in a variety of species, but only few studies on this topic exist in the horse. Proper semen collection and handling is the main key to the maintenance of semen quality during cooled-storage. Semen collection should be achieved by minimal sexual stimulation with a single mount; this results in high sperm concentration, low content of seminal plasma and minimal contamination with bacteria. Milk-based semen extenders are most popular for semen processing and storage. The development of more defined extenders containing only the beneficial milk ingredients has made extender quality more constant and reliable. Semen is often centrifuged to decrease the seminal plasma content. Centrifugation results in a recovery rate of only 75% of spermatozoa in the semen pellet. Recovery rates after centrifugation may be improved with use of a "cushion technique" allowing higher centrifugation force and duration. However, this is not routinely used in cooled-semen technology. After slow-cooling, semen-storage and shipping is best performed at 5 degrees C, maintaining semen motility, membrane integrity and DNA integrity for up to 40 h after collection. Shipping containers created from Styrofoam boxes provide maintenance of semen quality at low cost.

  16. Discolored Semen: What Does It Mean?

    MedlinePlus

    Discolored semen: What does it mean? Should I be concerned about discolored semen? Answers from Todd B. Nippoldt, M.D. Semen is normally ... Web advertising help support our mission. Mayo Clinic does not endorse any of the third party products ...

  17. Advances in cooled semen technology.

    PubMed

    Batellier, F; Vidament, M; Fauquant, J; Duchamp, G; Arnaud, G; Yvon, J M; Magistrini, M

    2001-12-03

    In the horse industry, milk or milk-based extenders are used routinely for dilution and storage of semen cooled to 4-8 degrees C. Although artificial insemination (AI) with chilled and transported semen has been in use for several years, pregnancy rates are still low and variable related to variable semen quality of stallions. Over the years, a variety of extenders have been proposed for cooling, storage and transport of stallion semen. Fractionation of milk by microfiltration, ultrafiltration, diafiltration and freeze-drying techniques has allowed preparation of purified milk fractions in order to test them on stallion sperm survival. Finally, a high protective fraction, native phosphocaseinate (NPPC), was identified. A new extender, INRA96, based on modified Hanks' salts, supplemented with NPPC was then developed for use with cooled/stored semen. Four experiments were conducted to compare INRA96 and milk-based extenders under various conditions of storage. The diluted semen was maintained under aerobic conditions when stored at 15 degrees C, and anaerobic conditions when stored at 4 degrees C. In experiment 1, split ejaculates from 13 stallions were diluted either in INRA96 extender then stored at 15 degrees C or diluted in Kenney or INRA82 extenders and then stored at 4 degrees C for 24h, until insemination. In experiment 2, semen from two stallions was extended in INRA96 then inseminated immediately or stored at 15 degrees C for 3 days until insemination. In experiment 3, semen from three stallions was diluted in INRA96 then stored at 15 or 4 degrees C for 24h until insemination, finally, in experiment 4, split ejaculates from four stallions were diluted in INRA96 or E-Z Mixin extenders then stored at 4 degrees C for 24h until insemination. Experiment 1 demonstrated that at 15 degrees C, INRA96 extender significantly improved pregnancy rate per cycle compared to Kenney or INRA82 extenders at 4 degrees C after 24h of storage (57%, n=178 versus 40%, n=171

  18. Seasonal and genera-specific variations in semen availability and semen characteristics in large parrots.

    PubMed

    Bublat, A; Fischer, D; Bruslund, S; Schneider, H; Meinecke-Tillmann, S; Wehrend, A; Lierz, M

    2017-03-15

    In large parrots electro-stimulation is suitable for collecting semen, and therefore, to facilitate semen examination and artificial insemination. Previous studies have detected differences in the semen collection success rate and semen parameters between psittacine genera. It remained unclear whether these differences were genera-related, seasonal variations or depend on the males' relationship status. To answer these questions, semen collection and spermatological analysis were performed for four psittacine groups (macaws, amazons, eclectus parrots and cockatoos) over 13 months. In one breeding facility, semen collection was attempted in 82 males using electro-stimulation twice monthly. A complete spermatological evaluation was performed on 435 semen samples. Volume, color, consistency, contamination and pH of semen, as well as motility, progressive motility, sperm concentration, total sperm count, viability, and morphology of spermatozoa were evaluated. Seasonality affected the collection success rate in macaws and amazons. Thereby, in amazons a distinct peak was observed several days before and around oviposition, whereas eclectus parrots and cockatoos produced semen all year round. The average sperm concentration was highest in eclectus parrots (2.7 × 10(6) sperm/μl) and lowest in macaws (35.6 × 10(3) sperm/μl). The differences in the semen collection success rate and semen parameters seem to coincide with the bird's breeding biology. The collected data allows a prognostic estimation when semen collection seems favorable, and may be taken as orientation values for semen analysis in these species.

  19. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  20. Evaluation of semen from nondomestic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bakst, M.R.; Cecil, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of poultry Al technology are applicable to nondomestic birds. However, modifications in the methods of semen collection, evaluation, and insemination are often necessary to accomodate either the bird's size, sperm numbers, or. female anatomy. This section provides a brief overview of procedures used to evaluate semen from nondomestic birds. Unless specified, materials, reagents, etc., are identical to those used in evaluating poultry semen (see appropriate chapters).

  1. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  2. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  3. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  4. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  5. [Identification of semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae using continuous wavelet transform with FTIR].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chang-jiang; Li, Dan-ting; Liang, Jiu-zhen; Cheng, Cun-gui

    2007-01-01

    Infrared spectra of semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae were obtained directly, quickly and accurately by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with OMNI sampler. Continuous wavelet transform was used to extrude local region of infrared spectra of semen celosiae and its confusable varieties. The difference of infrared spectra between semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae was extruded greatly. Accurate identification rate was improved greatly. Morlet wavelet, which can detect singular values of signal effectively, was selected as the mother wavelet. One-dimensional continuous wavelet transform was implemented for the infrared spectra of semen celosiae and its confusable varieties. The difference between semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae was observed at all scales in the wavelet domain. An optimal scale, at which the difference between semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae was the most obvious, was selected to identify semen celosiae and semen celosiae cristatae. The results show that it is effective to apply continuous wavelet transform on the basis of FTIR to identify the traditional Chinese medicinal materials, which are the same genus but different species.

  6. Effect of stress on semen quality in semen donors.

    PubMed

    Poland, M L; Giblin, P T; Ager, J W; Moghissi, K S

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-three donors with good semen quality were studied monthly for sperm count and motility over 9 to 22 months. Medical students (n = 31) in freshman and sophomore years subjected to the stress of twice-yearly examinations were compared with nonstudents (n = 22) not exposed to common stressful periods. Sperm count and quality (count X motility) for the student group were significantly elevated during examination months versus nonexamination months. Controls demonstrated no differences over these months. Differences between individuals, donor selection factors, and the effects of variable degrees of stress on sperm transport may have contributed to this finding.

  7. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Robert J.; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent

    2016-01-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions. PMID:26811984

  8. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  9. Freezability genetics in rabbit semen.

    PubMed

    Lavara, R; Mocé, E; Baselga, M; Vicente, J S

    2017-10-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of semen freezability and to estimate the genetic correlation between frozen-thawed sperm traits and the growth rate in a paternal rabbit line. Estimated heritabilities showed that frozen-thawed semen traits are heritable (ranged between 0.08 and 0.15). In the case of Live-FT (percentage of viable sperm after freezing), the estimated heritability is the highest one, and suggests the possibility of effective selection. After the study of genetic correlations it seems that daily weight gain (DG) was negatively correlated with sperm freezability, but no further conclusions could be drawn due to the high HPD95%. More data should be included in order to obtain better accuracy for the estimates of these genetic correlations. If the results obtained at present study were confirmed, it would imply that selection for DG could alter sperm cell membranes or seminal plasma composition, both components related to sperm cryoresistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Semen characteristics in pubertal boys. I. Semen quality after first ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Janczewski, Z; Bablok, L

    1985-01-01

    Semen specimens from 134 pubertal boys were examined, and some 274 assays were made. An analysis of the biological quality of semen in relation to the period of time after first ejaculation brings high values of statistical dependence of the volume of semen, its liquefaction, spermatozoal concentration, percentage of morphologically normal forms of spermatozoa, and normal spermatozoal motility on the period of time after first ejaculation. Normal figures for semen volume, semen liquefaction, spermatozoal concentration, and morphology are observed 12-14 months after first ejaculation. The percentage of normally motile spermatozoa becomes standard 21-23 months after first ejaculation. There were changes in semen characteristics from azoospermia through cryptozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and asthenozoospermia to normospermia. Azoospermia dominates until the fifth month after the first ejaculation, oligozoospermia from the sixth to the eleventh month, asthenozoospermia from the twelfth to the twentieth month, and normospermia from the twenty-first month.

  11. [Identification of semen Cuscutae by HPCE].

    PubMed

    Hu, P; Luo, G A; Wang, R J; Guo, H Z; Li, J S

    1997-07-01

    A method for identification of semen Cuscutae, a traditional Chinese herb, was developed. The proteins in semen Cuscutae were extracted under acid or basic conditions and separated by high performance capillary electrophoresis. The electrophoretograms of acidic or basic extractants from Cuscuta chinensis Lam., Cuscuta australis R. Br. and Cuscuta japonica Choisy showed significant differences, which can be used to identify the three different semen Cuscutae. The results of the identification for 13 pharmacognosical samples agreed well with those of scanning electronic microscopy and tissue microanalysis.

  12. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas.

  13. Semen analysis and prediction of natural conception.

    PubMed

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Bossuyt, Patrick M M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Hompes, Peter G A; van der Veen, Fulco

    2014-07-01

    Do two semen analyses predict natural conception better than a single semen analysis and will adding the results of repeated semen analyses to a prediction model for natural pregnancy improve predictions? A second semen analysis does not add helpful information for predicting natural conception compared with using the results of a single semen analysis and addition of the second analysis to a prediction model for natural conception did not improve predictions. A major problem with semen analyses is the large variability of results within an individual. High-quality evidence is lacking on how many semen analyses need to be performed during the fertility workup to achieve an accurate prediction of conception. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 897 consecutive couples presenting with subfertility in two university hospitals in the period 2002-2004 in the Netherlands. The laboratories scored sperm parameters according to the 1999 WHO criteria. Sperm concentration was counted and motility was assessed in a Makler counting chamber at a magnification of ×200. All assessments were performed by trained laboratory technicians. Follow-up started at the completion of the infertility workup and ended after 12 months. Primary end-point was natural conception resulting in an ongoing pregnancy. We constructed models for three strategies for the prediction of natural conception, using univariable and multivariable Cox hazard regression analyses. We evaluated the performance of the three strategies by comparing goodness-of-fit, discrimination and calibration. First, we analysed the semen parameters only. Secondly, we analysed the semen parameters in addition to the multivariable Hunault prediction model. Of the 897 couples, 132 (15%) achieved a pregnancy by natural conception. Using the results of a single semen analysis only, the calculated probabilities of natural conception within 12 months across the study population ranged from 0.12 to 0.38, with a median of 0.16 (IQR

  14. Semen hyperviscosity: causes, consequences, and cures.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, Stefan Stephanus; Gokul, Sheila; Agarwal, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of semen hyperviscosity (SHV) is estimated to be between 12-29% and can lead to male factor infertility both in vivo and in vitro. Semen is composed of fluids secreted by the male accessory glands, which contain proteins essential to the coagulation and liquefaction of semen. Hypofunction of the prostate or seminal vesicles causes abnormal viscosity of seminal fluid. Infection and high levels of seminal leukocytes may also result in the development of SHV. Oxidative stress and biochemical and genetic factors can furthermore contribute to this condition. Hyperviscosity can impair normal sperm movement in the female reproductive tract, and can lead to decreased sperm count. SHV is treated with a hypodermic needle, mucolytic enzymes, antibiotics and anti-inflammatory agents in certain cases. Further research is needed to better understand the contributors to SHV and the treatments that can be used for infertile males with hyperviscous semen.

  15. Alternatives to Antibiotics in Semen Extenders: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Jane M.; Wallgren, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are added to semen extenders to be used for artificial insemination (AI) in livestock breeding to control bacterial contamination in semen arising during collection and processing. The antibiotics to be added and their concentrations for semen for international trade are specified by government directives. Since the animal production industry uses large quantities of semen for artificial insemination, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used in semen extenders. Possible alternatives to antibiotics are discussed, including physical removal of the bacteria during semen processing, as well as the development of novel antimicrobials. Colloid centrifugation, particularly Single Layer Centrifugation, when carried out with a strict aseptic technique, offers a feasible method for reducing bacterial contamination in semen and is a practical method for semen processing laboratories to adopt. However, none of these alternatives to antibiotics should replace strict attention to hygiene during semen collection and handling. PMID:25517429

  16. [Morphological semen changes in Chlamydia trachomatis infection].

    PubMed

    Maciejewski, Z; Dziecielski, H; Swierczyński, W; Semmler, G

    1989-06-01

    Semen was examined in 150 men patients of the Andrology Clinic for demonstration of Chlamydia trachomatis and for analysis of the effect of this infection on semen quality depression. A correlation was noted between the degree of infection (large number of organisms per field of vision) and such changes as cryptozoospermia, azoospermia, asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia. Of interest was a high proportion of infection (56%) with Ch. trachomatis in this group.

  17. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  18. Exposure to Environmental Ozone Alters Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, Rebecca Z.; Kraft, Peter; Fowler, Ian M.; Mamet, Rizvan; Kim, Elizabeth; Berhane, Kiros T.

    2006-01-01

    Idiopathic male infertility may be due to exposure to environmental toxicants that alter spermatogenesis or sperm function. We studied the relationship between air pollutant levels and semen quality over a 2-year period in Los Angeles, California, by analyzing repeated semen samples collected by sperm donors. Semen analysis data derived from 5,134 semen samples from a sperm donor bank were correlated with air pollutant levels (ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter < 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter) measured 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before semen collection dates in Los Angeles between January 1996 and December 1998. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model average sperm concentration and total motile sperm count for the donation from each subject. Changes were analyzed in relationship to biologically relevant time points during spermatogenesis, 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before the day of semen collection. We estimated temperature and seasonality effects after adjusting for a base model, which included donor’s date of birth and age at donation. Forty-eight donors from Los Angeles were included as subjects. Donors were included if they collected repeated semen samples over a 12-month period between January 1996 and December 1998. There was a significant negative correlation between ozone levels at 0–9, 10–14, and 70–90 days before donation and average sperm concentration, which was maintained after correction for donor’s birth date, age at donation, temperature, and seasonality (p < 0.01). No other pollutant measures were significantly associated with sperm quality outcomes. Exposure to ambient ozone levels adversely affects semen quality. PMID:16507458

  19. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons.

  20. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses with a Malaysian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers…

  1. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses with a Malaysian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers…

  2. Green laser irradiation effects on buffalo semen.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Z; Dessouki, S H M; Abdel-Salam, S A M; Ibrahim, M A M; Harith, M A

    2011-04-01

    The overall objective of this paper is to develop a more sensitive and less costly technique of laser irradiation of spermatozoa at certain wavelengths and exposure times suitable for improvement of buffalo semen quality. A 532 nm continuous wave (CW) DPSS laser light has been used to irradiate buffalo semen for different time intervals. Three semen pools from three different bulls (Bubalus bubalis) were used in the experiment, each pool was divided into six groups : control (not irradiated), and the other five were exposed to laser light for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 minutes with fluencies of 0.076, 0.15, 0.23, 0.31, and 0.38 Joule/cm² respectively at an output power 1mW. The results show that the semen quality parameters increase under the effect of laser irradiation. Maximum improvement in the semen quality has been reached after 4 minutes of exposure. Such results indicate the possibility of adopting laser irradiation as an easy and straightforward technique for in situ improvement of the semen quality to optimize the artificial insemination conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Update on sexed semen technology in cattle.

    PubMed

    Seidel, G E

    2014-05-01

    The technology in current use for sexing sperm represents remarkable feats of engineering. These flow cytometer/cell sorters can make over 30 000 consecutive evaluations of individual sperm each second for each nozzle and sort the sperm into three containers: X-sperm, Y-sperm and unsexable plus dead sperm. Even at these speeds it is not economical to package sperm at standard numbers per inseminate. However, with excellent management, pregnancy rates in cattle with 2 million sexed sperm per insemination dose are about 80% of those with conventional semen at normal sperm doses. This lowered fertility, in part due to damage to sperm during sorting, plus the extra cost of sexed semen limits the applications that are economically feasible. Even so, on the order of 2 million doses of bovine semen are sexed annually in the United States. The main application is for dairy heifers to have heifer calves, either for herd expansion or for sale as replacements, often for eventual export. Breeders of purebred cattle often use sexed semen for specific matings; thawing and then sexing frozen semen and immediately using the few resulting sexed sperm for in vitro fertilization is done with increasing frequency. Beef cattle producers are starting to use sexed semen to produce crossbred female replacements. Proprietary improvements in sperm sexing procedures, implemented in 2013, are claimed to improve fertility between 4 and 6 percentage points, or about 10%.

  4. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... section 306 of the Act of June 17, 1930, that foot-and-mouth disease or rinderpest has been determined to... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or swine...

  5. Semen searching when sperm is absent.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pilar; Santiago, Begoña; Alcalá, Belén; Atienza, Inmaculada

    2015-03-01

    Sexual assault cases have varying factors that may mask semen findings when analysing evidence at the forensic laboratory. Semenogelin (Sg) is a potential marker for the identification of semen even at azoospermy or when few sperm cells are found. The current study examined Sg in normospermic and azoospermic donors as an internal evaluation of sensitivity, specificity and interference. The impact of a historical review of 53 judicial sexual assault cases over a five-year period was also analysed. The use of varying tests was of importance to prioritize certain samples within cases. Semen findings by Sg were then compared to prostate-specific antigen (PSA), phosphatase enzyme (AP) and Y-chromosome presence, the latter being used in an attempt to link semen fluid identification with obtaining a male DNA profile. Test findings were the highest ever registered for Sg (1:400,000), PSA (1:800,000), AP (1:25,000) and sperm cytology (SC) (1:50,000). Our results demonstrated the usefulness of using the Sg marker to avoid a false semen-negative result (6% cases), particularly in cases where sperm was absent or scarce (11% spermatozoa positive cases). Results were expressed in categories according to the set: Sg-PSA-AP. Thus, categories I (full positive, 46%), VI (full negative, 27%) and III (Sg/PSA positive; 11%) were the most frequent and Y-chromosome was obtained in 59%, 12% and 12% ratios, respectively. In conclusion, Sg was recommended for the workflow procedure of semen investigation when sperm absence is expected either from azoospermic/oligospermic or normospermic semen, especially before/after ejaculation.

  6. Demonstration of DSI-semen--A novel DNA methylation-based forensic semen identification assay.

    PubMed

    Wasserstrom, Adam; Frumkin, Dan; Davidson, Ariane; Shpitzen, Moshe; Herman, Yael; Gafny, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Determining whether the source tissue of biological material is semen is important in confirming sexual assaults, which account for a considerable percentage of crime cases. The gold standard for confirming the presence of semen is microscopic identification of sperm cells, however, this method is labor intensive and operator-dependent. Protein-based immunologic assays, such as PSA, are highly sensitive and relatively fast, but suffer from low specificity in some situations. In addition, proteins are less stable than DNA under most environmental insults. Recently, forensic tissue identification advanced with the development of several approaches based on mRNA and miRNA for identification of various body fluids. Herein is described DNA source identifier (DSI)-semen, a DNA-based assay that determines whether the source tissue of a sample is semen based on detection of semen-specific methylation patterns in five genomic loci. The assay is comprised of a simple single tube biochemical procedure, similar to DNA profiling, followed by automatic software analysis, yielding the identification (semen/non-semen) accompanied by a statistical confidence level. Three additional internal control loci are used to ascertain the reliability of the results. The assay, which aims to replace microscopic examination, can easily be integrated by forensic laboratories and is automatable. The kit was tested on 135 samples of semen, saliva, venous blood, menstrual blood, urine, and vaginal swabs and the identification of semen vs. non-semen was correct in all cases. In order to test the assay's applicability in "real-life" situations, 33 actual casework samples from the forensic biological lab of the Israeli police were analyzed, and the results were compared with microscopic examination performed by Israeli police personnel. There was complete concordance between both analyses except for one sample, in which the assay identified semen whereas no sperm was seen in the microscope. This

  7. Semen collection using phantom in dromedary camel.

    PubMed

    Ziapour, S; Niasari-Naslaji, A; Mirtavousi, M; Keshavarz, M; Kalantari, A; Adel, H

    2014-12-10

    Semen collection is relatively long, unsafe, and tedious procedure in dromedary camel. The innovation of safe, hygienic, and simple approach to collect semen could make great progress in development of AI program in this species. This study investigated two methods of semen collection using phantom and artificial vagina in dromedary camel. Semen was collected using phantom (n = 4 bulls; 26 collections) and artificial vagina (n = 6 bulls; 11 collections) and diluted with INRA96 at the ratio of 1:10. The duration of semen collection, semen parameters, and morphometric features of sperm were evaluated. For specimen collected through phantom and AV, the respected duration of semen collection (411.2 ± 48.19 vs 326 ± 37.05 sec), volume (6.6 ± 0.87 vs 6 ± 1.57 ml), osmolarity (328 ± 1.6 vs 319.4 ± 3.21 mOsm/kg H2O), pH (7.7 ± 0.06 vs 7.9 ± 0.16) of semen, concentration (161.4 ± 44.05 × 10(6)/mL vs 160.2 ± 58.42 × 10(6)/mL), total motility (84.1 ± 1.89 vs 78.3 ± 3.97%), progressive forward motility (45.5 ± 3.69 vs 44.3 ± 6.41%), live percentage (72.2 ± 3.11 vs 76 ± 2.53%), and plasma membrane integrity (61.5 ± 2.49 vs 58.9 ± 4.19%) of sperm were similar (P > 0.05). The number of specimens contaminated with visible particles was greater using AV (72.7%) compared to phantom (0%; P < 0.05). Total length, head, middle-piece, and tail length of sperm were 45.9 ± 0.1, 5.6 ± 0.01, 7 ± 0.02, and 34.2 ± 0.16 μm, respectively. The frequency of abnormal sperm was 13.28% among which coiled tail, detached head, and proximal protoplasmic droplets had greater incidence. In conclusion, phantom could be considered as a suitable approach to collect semen due to simplicity, safety, and lack of specimen contamination in dromedary camel.

  8. Utilization of cryopreserved semen in tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Brake, A

    1994-01-01

    Treatment with cytotoxic drugs or with radiation in order to manage a tumor or another life-threatening disease involves a potential hazard to male fertility. In these cases cryopreservation of semen is recommended. However, the number of patients requesting the subsequent insemination of their partner is rather low. It would be of interest if patients with a high probability for desiring use of the cryodeposit for insemination could be identified. During the years 1985-1992 we performed cryopreservation in 29 patients attending our department. One year following cryopreservation the utilization of the cryodeposit was analyzed: 29 patients were not interested in further maintenance, 2 patients died, 3 patients requested use for insemination, 31 patients decided to maintain the semen further in a commercial cryobank, 17 patients had a complete restitution of spermatogenesis within the observation period. In 7 patients the interval is yet below 1 year. The different modes of utilizing the cryodeposit were analyzed in relation to the semen quality, age, status, kind of disease and primary treatment. None of these factors possibly influencing the utilization showed differences between the groups. We conclude that it is impossible to predict the probability of the use of a cryodeposit of semen based on the examined patient characteristics at the time of preservation. We plan to further on offer semen preservation to all patients requiring it in a situation of threatened fertility, bearing in mind that the relative costs of the cryopreservation are low.

  9. Characterization and usage of sexed semen from US field data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives were to characterize sexed semen available and its usage from US field data. This included investigating active Holstein proven bulls with sexed semen available, as well as percentages and frequencies of sexed semen matings for heifers and cows. Herds were also characterized for the...

  10. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa), Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years). In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04) and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02) better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk. PMID:19014632

  11. Urethral anatomy and semen flow during ejaculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Diane

    2016-11-01

    Ejaculation is critical for reproductive success in many animals, but little is known about its hydrodynamics. In mammals, ejaculation pushes semen along the length of the penis through the urethra. Although the urethra also carries urine during micturition, the flow dynamics of micturition and ejaculation differ: semen is more viscous than urine, and the pressure that drives its flow is derived primarily from the rhythmic contractions of muscles at the base of the penis, which produce pulsatile rather than steady flow. In contrast, Johnston et al. (2014) describe a steady flow of semen through the crocodilian urethral groove during ejaculation. Anatomical differences of tissues associated with mammalian and crocodilian urethral structures may underlie these differences in flow behavior.

  12. Effect of captopril on semen quality.

    PubMed

    Banihani, S A

    2017-05-01

    Various studies (direct and indirect) have presented the effect of captopril, a universally used antihypertensive medication, on semen quality; yet, this effect is still collectively unreviewed. This review systematically discusses and summarises the effect of captopril on semen quality. We searched all published articles in the MEDLINE electronic database since June 1985 until January 2016 using the keywords "captopril" and "sperm," and certain supporting articles were reviewed and considered, if relevant. In conclusion, up to the present time, captopril does not appear to induce a striking change in semen quality, and hence on male infertility, while it may affect the rate of spermatozoa-egg fusion as it inhibits the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme that is released during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. Further research, mainly clinical, is still desired to prove these effects. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. The transport of chemicals in semen.

    PubMed

    Klemmt, Leah; Scialli, Anthony R

    2005-04-01

    Three mechanisms have been proposed for exposure of the conceptus to chemicals in semen: access of chemicals to the maternal circulation after absorption from the vagina, direct chemical exposure of the conceptus following transport from the vagina to the uterine cavity, and delivery to the egg and subsequent conceptus of chemical bound to the sperm cell. We review published data for each of these three mechanisms. Human seminal fluid chemical concentrations are typically similar to or lower than blood concentrations, although some antimicrobial agents achieve higher concentrations in semen than in blood. Vaginal absorption of medications has been shown to occur, although the vehicles in which these medications are delivered to the vagina may maintain contact with the vaginal epithelium to a greater extent than does semen. Assuming total absorption of a seminal dose of a chemical with a high semen:blood concentration ratio, distribution within the recipient woman would result in a blood concentration at least three orders of magnitude lower than that in the man. Direct delivery of seminal chemicals into the uterine cavity of humans has not been shown to occur, although it may occur in species such as the rat in which seminal fluid has access to the uterine cavity. Chemicals in or on human sperm cells have been demonstrated with respect to tetracycline and cocaine in vitro and aluminum, lead, and cadmium in vivo. The in vitro cocaine study offers sufficiently quantitative data with which to predict that oocyte concentrations would be five orders of magnitude lower than blood concentrations associated with cocaine abuse, assuming a maximally cocaine-bound sperm were capable of fertilizing. Thus, even using liberal assumptions about transmission of chemicals in semen or sperm, predicted exposure levels of a pregnant woman or of the conceptus are three or more orders of magnitude lower than blood concentrations in the man whose semen is the putative vehicle for

  14. Ejaculatory process and related semen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Moscoso, R; Alarcon, V; Ordoñez, C

    2002-01-01

    South American camelids are dribble ejaculators, and urethral contractions occur throughout copulation, which may last 25 min. The urethral contractions and their association with semen characteristics during copulation were determined in llamas and alpacas. A transrectal probe was held in the rectum of the male while copulating an artificial vagina, which was accessed underneath the dummy through a hole. The semen-collecting tube was changed every 5 min. Semen characteristics, color, volume, consistency, motility, concentration, and percentage of live sperm were determined at 5-min intervals. Urethral contractions were evenly distributed during copulation: 40 in alpacas and 63 in llamas (p < .05), with a general range of 11 to 132. Semen color was milky in 63%, and translucent in 36.5% for alpacas; and creamy (9.9%), milky (47%), and translucent (42%) for llamas. The mean volume of ejaculate was 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, and 3.0 mL for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 min, respectively. Semen consistency was variable: viscous (65%) and semiviscous (34%) in alpacas; and viscous (57%) and semiviscous (42%) in llamas. Spermatic motility varied between 60 and 80% for the llama, and 40 and 80% for the alpaca. Spermatic concentration varied between 60 and 188 x 10(3)/mm3 in llamas, and 30 and 170 x 10(3)/mm3 in alpacas. Percentage of live sperm varied the least: 81 to 90% in llamas and 65 to 90% in alpacas. The ejaculate of llamas and alpacas is not fractionated, urethral contractions are evenly distributed, during copulation, and semen characteristics are present throughout the copulatory period.

  15. Comparison of Two Different Methods Used for Semen Evaluation: Analysis of Semen Samples from 1,055 Men.

    PubMed

    Dinçer, Murat; Kucukdurmaz, Faruk; Salabas, Emre; Ortac, Mazhar; Aktan, Gulsan; Kadioglu, Ates

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is a difference between gravimetrically and volumetrically measured semen samples and to assess the impact of semen volume, density, and sperm count on the discrepancy between gravimetric and volumetric methods. This study was designed in an andrology laboratory setting and performed on semen samples of 1,055 men receiving infertility treatment. Semen volume was calculated by gravimetric and volumetric methods. The total sperm count, semen density and sperm viability were also examined according to recent version of World Health Organization manual. The median values for gravimetric and volumetric measurements were 3.44 g and 2.96 ml respectively. The numeric difference in semen volume between 2 methods was 0.48. The mean density of samples was 1.01 ± 0.46 g/ml (range 0.90-2.0 g/ml). The numeric difference between 2 methods gets higher as semen volume increases (p < 0.001). Gravimetric and volumetric semen volume measurements were strongly correlated for all samples and for each subgroup of semen volume, semen density and sperm count, with minimum correlation coefficient of 0.895 (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the gravimetric measurement provides higher results than volumetric one and numeric differences between 2 methods increase as semen volume increases. However, further studies are needed to offer the use of gravimetrical method, which was thought to minimize laboratory errors, particularly for a high amount of semen samples. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Strategies for Processing Semen from Subfertile Stallions for Cooled Transport.

    PubMed

    Varner, Dickson D

    2016-12-01

    Subfertility can be a confusing term because some semen of good quality can have reduced fertility following cooled transport if the semen is processed in an improper manner. General procedures aimed at processing stallion semen for cooled transport are well described. An array of factors could exist in reduced fertility of cool-transported semen. This article focuses on centrifugation techniques that can be used to maximize sperm quality of stallions whose semen is intended for cooled transport. Clinical cases are also provided for practical application of techniques.

  17. Semen characteristics in HIV-1 positive men and the effect of semen washing.

    PubMed

    Lasheeb, A S; King, J; Ball, J K; Curran, R; Barratt, C L; Afnan, M; Pillay, D

    1997-08-01

    We have undertaken an analysis of semen from HIV infected men with regard to sperm counts and motility, non-spermatozoal cells, and viral nucleic acid. Regression analysis showed that sperm concentration and motility were positively associated with blood CD4 cell count. By contrast, non-spermatozoal cell concentration (round cells) was inversely related to CD4 count. Extracellular HIV RNA was detected in the majority of semen samples and proviral DNA in a minority. Percoll gradient washing of 12 semen samples yielded six samples containing adequate sperm concentration for analysis. This washing procedure reduced prewash extracellular RNA to below detectable limits in all cases; proviral DNA present in two of the six prewash samples was also reduced to below detectable limits after washing. We conclude that semen washing before artificial insemination may reduce the risk of HIV transmission from an infected man to an uninfected woman. However, further evidence from prospective analyses of such an approach is required.

  18. Semen characteristics in HIV-1 positive men and the effect of semen washing.

    PubMed Central

    Lasheeb, A S; King, J; Ball, J K; Curran, R; Barratt, C L; Afnan, M; Pillay, D

    1997-01-01

    We have undertaken an analysis of semen from HIV infected men with regard to sperm counts and motility, non-spermatozoal cells, and viral nucleic acid. Regression analysis showed that sperm concentration and motility were positively associated with blood CD4 cell count. By contrast, non-spermatozoal cell concentration (round cells) was inversely related to CD4 count. Extracellular HIV RNA was detected in the majority of semen samples and proviral DNA in a minority. Percoll gradient washing of 12 semen samples yielded six samples containing adequate sperm concentration for analysis. This washing procedure reduced prewash extracellular RNA to below detectable limits in all cases; proviral DNA present in two of the six prewash samples was also reduced to below detectable limits after washing. We conclude that semen washing before artificial insemination may reduce the risk of HIV transmission from an infected man to an uninfected woman. However, further evidence from prospective analyses of such an approach is required. PMID:9389956

  19. Effects of storage temperature and semen extender on stored canine semen.

    PubMed

    Hori, Tatsuya; Yoshikuni, Ryuta; Kobayashi, Masanori; Kawakami, Eiichi

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine an optimum temperature and extender for short-term transport of canine ejaculated semen. There was no significant difference in the qualities of semen diluted with two kinds of extender, egg yolk Tris-citrate fructose (EYT-FC) or glucose (EYT-GC) extender, between the 2, 8 or 12 and the 4°C control groups during storage for up to 48 hr, while the 16-24°C groups showed decreased sperm motility during storage for 48 hr. However, the 2°C group showed slightly lower sperm motility and slightly higher sperm abnormality than the 4°C group. Therefore, we concluded that semen qualities can be maintained for up to 48 hr when canine semen samples are extended with EYT-FC or EYT-GC and stored at a temperature in the range of 4-12°C.

  20. Donor insemination: the gifting and selling of semen.

    PubMed

    Daniels, K R; Lewis, G M

    1996-06-01

    The authors examine the implications for individuals and society of how semen is provided for use in donor insemination treatment. In particular, they focus on whether 'donors' make a gift of their semen or are paid. The role of health professionals in shaping the nature and meaning of semen provision is also explored. The currently predominant practice of buying semen is compared with other reproductive and biomedical exchanges: oocyte and embryo donation, surrogacy, and blood, organ and fetal tissue donation. The authors suggest that the commercialisation of semen determines and reflects the type of men frequently recruited to provide semen. This in turn influences the meaning that donors themselves, recipients, offspring, health professionals and society at large attribute to the provision of semen.

  1. Effects of seasons on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Ismaeel, M A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of season on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Semen collection was performed with artificial vagina every week, from September 2009 to October 2010. Volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm and sperm abnormalities were evaluated. Moreover, determination of viable bacterial count of the rams was also recorded weekly. Higher (p < 0.05) semen volume in the hot summer and spring months was observed of August (1.55 ± 0.08 ml) and March (1.27 ± 0.15 ml). Sperm concentration was highest (p < 0.05) in the breeding season (late summer to early autumn) of September (4.21 ± 0.86 × 10(9) sperm/ml). Sperm individual motility and percent of live sperm observed in August (summer) and May (end of spring) when the environmental temperature started to increase were recorded highest values and differed significantly (p < 0.05) from December and January (winter). The highest value of the mean sperm acrosomal defects (13.33 ± 0.63%) was recorded in December. The highest value of the mean viable bacterial count (138.3 ± 21.6) was recorded in July (summer). A significant decrease (p < 0.01) in the mean viable bacterial count was observed from the middle of winter towards the end of spring. The lowest bacterial count was noted in January (60.5 ± 2.98). It could be concluded from the results of the present study that there is an effect of season on ram semen quality, and summer high temperature in northern Iraq has no effect on Awassi ram semen. There is a significant effect of season on bacterial count on Awassi ram semen.

  2. [Quality standard study on Entadae Semen].

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui-ping; Wang, Meng-yue; Li, Xiao-bo

    2015-05-01

    To establish the quality standard of Entadae Semen, and provide scientific basis for its quality control. TLC and HPLC were used for qualitative identification and quantitative analysis of phaseoloidin and entadamide A-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in Entadae Semen. The test of water content, ash and ethanol-soluble extractives of Entadae Semen was carried out according to the methods recorded in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition). The TLC was well separated with clear spots. The linear range of phaseoloidin was between 0.014 to 2.747 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 6, n = 9) with an average recovery rate of 101.06% (RSD 0.90%, n = 6); the linear range of entadamide A-O-β-D-glucopyranoside was between 0.002 to 0.452 g x L(-1) (r = 0.999 7, n = 9) withan average recovery rate of 101.52% (RSD 1.09%, n = 6). The content of phaseoloidin in sample is between 5.12% to 9.24%, entadamide A-O-β-D-glucopyranoside is between 0.55% to 2.17%, alcohol-soluble extracts is between 30.9% to 45.2%, water is between 6.6% to 8.6%, and total ash is between 2.4% to 2.9%. The established standard is acceptable for quality control of Entadae Semen.

  3. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Niraj Shukla, Manju; Kumar Patel, Devendra; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Mathur, Neeraj; Kumar Gupta, Yogendra; Saxena, Daya Krishna

    2008-08-15

    Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated.

  4. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  5. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  6. Practical semen analysis: from A to Z.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Charlene

    2010-01-01

    Accurate semen analysis is critical for decisions about patient care, as well as for studies addressing overall changes in semen quality, contraceptive efficacy and effects of toxicant exposure. The standardization of semen analysis is very difficult for many reasons, including the use of subjective techniques with no standards for comparison, poor technician training, problems with proficiency testing and a reluctance to change techniques. The World Health Organization (WHO) Semen handbook (2010) offers a vastly improved set of standardized procedures, all at a level of detail that will preclude most misinterpretations. However, there is a limit to what can be learned from words and pictures alone. A WHO-produced DVD that offers complete demonstrations of each technique along with quality assurance standards for motility, morphology and concentration assessments would enhance the effectiveness of the manual. However, neither the manual nor a DVD will help unless there is general acknowledgement of the critical need to standardize techniques and rigorously pursue quality control to ensure that laboratories actually perform techniques 'according to WHO' instead of merely reporting that they have done so. Unless improvements are made, patient results will continue to be compromised and comparison between studies and laboratories will have limited merit.

  7. Do perfluoroalkyl compounds impair human semen quality?

    PubMed

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Bossi, Rossana; Leffers, Henrik; Jensen, Allan Astrup; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Jørgensen, Niels

    2009-06-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in wildlife and humans and are suspected to act as endocrine disruptors. There are no previous reports of PFAA levels in adult men from Denmark or of a possible association between semen quality and PFAA exposure. We investigated possible associations between PFAAs and testicular function. We hypothesized that higher PFAA levels would be associated with lower semen quality and lower testosterone levels. We analyzed serum samples for levels of 10 different PFAAs and reproductive hormones and assessed semen quality in 105 Danish men from the general population (median age, 19 years). Considerable levels of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were found in all young men (medians of 24.5, 4.9, and 6.6 ng/mL, respectively). Men with high combined levels of PFOS and PFOA had a median of 6.2 million normal spermatozoa in their ejaculate in contrast to 15.5 million among men with low PFOS-PFOA (p = 0.030). In addition, we found nonsignificant trends with regard to lower sperm concentration, lower total sperm counts, and altered pituitary-gonadal hormones among men with high PFOS-PFOA levels. High PFAA levels were associated with fewer normal sperm. Thus, high levels of PFAAs may contribute to the otherwise unexplained low semen quality often seen in young men. However, our findings need to be corroborated in larger studies.

  8. A comparison of ABAcard(®) p30 and RSID™-Semen test kits for forensic semen identification.

    PubMed

    Boward, Emily S; Wilson, Stacey L

    2013-11-01

    The screening and confirmatory tests available to a forensic laboratory allow evidence to be examined for the presence of bodily fluids. With the majority of evidence being submitted involving sexual assaults, it is important to have confirmatory tests for the identification of semen that are straightforward, quick, and reliable. The purpose of this study was to compare two commonly used semen identification kits utilized by forensic laboratories: ABAcard(®) p30 and Rapid Stain Identification of Human Semen (RSID™-Semen). These kits were assessed with aged semen stains, fresh and frozen post-vasectomy semen, post-coital samples collected on different substrates, post-vasectomy semen mixed with blood, saliva, and urine, a series of swabs collected at increasing time intervals after sexual intercourse, and multiple non-semen samples. The test kits were compared on the basis of sensitivity, specificity, and the cost and time effectiveness of each protocol. Overall, both semen identification tests performed well in the studies. Both kits proved specificity for identifying semen, however the ABAcard(®) p30 test surpassed the RSID™-Semen test in sensitivity, cost per test, and simplified test protocol.

  9. Cryopreservation of canine semen - new challenges.

    PubMed

    Farstad, W

    2009-07-01

    Egg yolk (EY) protects cell membranes against cold shock, and it prevents or restores the loss of phospholipids from the membrane. EY has been widely used in semen extenders. It has been added to Tris-Glucose buffer and has been widely used for cooling and cryopreservation of canine semen. EY is not a defined entity, but a complex biological compound containing proteins, vitamins, phospholipids, glucose and antioxidants which are all potentially useful for cell membrane integrity. Unfortunately, it also is a biologically hazardous compound. Hence, whole EY needs to be replaced by other chemically defined components for semen processing in dogs. Freezing poor semen does not improve its quality, so attention must be focused on how to cope with dogs whose semen does not freeze well, and on designing individual freezing extenders for semen from such males. Furthermore, differences have been found among canid species in the ability of their spermatozoa to withstand freezing. There are differences in sperm membrane fatty acid composition among species, which may explain part of these differences. If the presence of long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids contributes to increased membrane fluidity, this relationship may be biphasic, i.e. either too much membrane fluidity, or too little, could compromise successful sperm cryopreservation. An increase in fluidity of the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane has been shown in frozen thawed dog spermatozoa. The protective effect of exogenous lipids may lie in close association with the membrane rather than in modification or rearrangement of the membrane. This also points at lipids as an important, if not entirely new group of substances, which may substitute standard EY-based diluents in preserving sperm survival during freezing. EY-derived phospholipids or lecithin could be used to replace whole EY. Vegetable lecithin is currently investigated to avoid using substances of animal origin. EY also contains antioxidants which

  10. AB073. Semen liquefaction molecular pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zengjun; Liu, Bianjiang; Su, Shifeng; Tang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human semen is the jelly-like substance mainly containing semenogelin 1 (Sg1) and fibronectin (Fn) with the characteristics of coagulation and liquefaction in a short time. In our previous study, we have identified that Eppin could interact with Sg. Eppin75-133 C-terminal fragment bind the Sg164-283 fragment containing the only cysteine in human Sg I (Cys-239). Besides that, during semen liquefaction, physiologically prostate specific antigen (PSA) hydrolyzes some region of Sg1 which inhibits sperm motility. Therefore, complex interaction among Eppin, Sg and PSA plays a major role in regulating semen liquefaction process. The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular pathways during semen liquefaction. Methods Molecular cloning was used to recombination in vitro 6-His-Eppin protein with N- and C-terminal fragments. Protein in seminal vesicle fluid was transferred to immobilon-P polyvinylidene difuoride membrane by western blot analysis, followed by incubation with 6-His-Eppin protein, eppin283-423 C-terminal fragment and eppin73-288 N-terminal fragment at 4 °C overnight respectively in order to find the protein which can be bind to 6-HisEppin protein. 2-D electrophoresis was used to identification of Eppin binding partners. After that, anti-His was used to visualise using enhanced chemiluminescence and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the sequence of protein. Results We found that the protein specifically binding to Eppin through Far-western immunoblot analysis demonstrated only the N-terminal of recombinant epididymal protease inhibitor (N-rEppin) and rEppin can binds to reduce seminal plasma protein, while MS identified that Fn can specifically bind to Eppin. Our study was the first evidence that some protein existed in seminal vesicle fluid does bind to Eppin, regulating the semen coagulation and liquefaction. Conclusions Two molecular pathways occurred in semen liquefaction. Eppin C- and N-terminal fragment interacted with Sg and Fn. Eppin

  11. Cryopreservation of Sambar deer semen in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Vongpralub, Thevin; Chinchiyanond, Wittaya; Hongkuntod, Pornchai; Sanchaisuriya, Pitcharat; Liangpaiboon, Sanan; Thongprayoon, Areeya; Somphol, Noppadon

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the different freezing and thawing techniques for post-thaw survival of spermatozoa in Sambar deer. So, this study determined the effect of seminal plasma, egg yolk and glycerol extenders and their concentrations, plus cooling, freezing, and thawing protocols on the post-thaw quality of their semen. Semen samples were collected by electro-ejaculation from four Thai Sambar deer stags (Cervus unicolor equinus). As evaluated by post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity removal of seminal plasma was beneficial; Tris-egg yolk was the most efficient extender; a 20% egg yolk concentration was better than the 0%, 10%, or 30%; and a 3% glycerol concentration was better than 5%, 7%, or 9%. Using the optimum dilution techniques, semen was loaded in 0.5 ml plastic straws. Cooling times from ambient temperature to 5°C in 3 hr resulted in higher post-thaw progressive motility and acrosome integrity than 1, 2, or 4 hr. Suspending the straws 4 cm above the surface for 15 min before plunging into liquid nitrogen was better than suspending at 2 or 6 cm. For thawing frozen semen, an intermediate thawing (50°C, 8 sec) protocol was more effective than the slower (37°C, 10 sec) or faster (70°C, 5 sec) thawing rates. Timed insemination following estrus synchronization of 10 hinds resulted in six confirmed pregnancies at 60 days. Five hinds delivered live fawns. This study provides an effective approach for semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI), which should be valuable to scientists for genetics and reproductive management of Sambar deer in developing countries.

  12. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  13. Control de los escombros tras un desastre natural

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PONER EN LA ACERA LOS ESCOMBROS QUE DEJA UN HURACÁN EN LAS ÁREAS PARTICIPANTES. Si sigue estas pautas específicas (PDF) se acelerará el proceso de recolección. Confirme con las autoridades del gobierno local lo que le corresponda a usted.

  14. Recognition of FT-IR Data Cuscutae Semen, Japanese Dodder, and Sinapis Semen Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and RBF Networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Weng, Xuexiang; Xu, Lishan; Cheng, Cungui; Yu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal attenuation total reflection Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FT-IR) studies on cuscutae semen and its confusable varieties Japanese dodder and sinapis semen combined with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks have been conducted in order to classify them. DWT is used to decompose the FT-IRs of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen. Two main scales are selected as the feature extracting space in the DWT domain. According to the distribution of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen's FT-IRs, three feature regions are determined at detail 3, and two feature regions are determined at detail 4 by selecting two scales in the DWT domain. Thus five feature parameters form the feature vector. The feature vector is input to the RBF neural networks to train so as to accurately classify the cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen. 120 sets of FT-IR data are used to train and test the proposed method, where 60 sets of data are used to train samples, and another 60 sets of FT-IR data are used to test samples. Experimental results show that the accurate recognition rate of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen is average of 100.00%, 98.33%, and 100.00%, respectively, following the proposed method.

  15. Recognition of FT-IR Data Cuscutae Semen, Japanese Dodder, and Sinapis Semen Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and RBF Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Weng, Xuexiang; Xu, Lishan; Cheng, Cungui; Yu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal attenuation total reflection Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FT-IR) studies on cuscutae semen and its confusable varieties Japanese dodder and sinapis semen combined with discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) and radial basis function (RBF) neural networks have been conducted in order to classify them. DWT is used to decompose the FT-IRs of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen. Two main scales are selected as the feature extracting space in the DWT domain. According to the distribution of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen's FT-IRs, three feature regions are determined at detail 3, and two feature regions are determined at detail 4 by selecting two scales in the DWT domain. Thus five feature parameters form the feature vector. The feature vector is input to the RBF neural networks to train so as to accurately classify the cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen. 120 sets of FT-IR data are used to train and test the proposed method, where 60 sets of data are used to train samples, and another 60 sets of FT-IR data are used to test samples. Experimental results show that the accurate recognition rate of cuscutae semen, Japanese dodder, and sinapis semen is average of 100.00%, 98.33%, and 100.00%, respectively, following the proposed method. PMID:24282653

  16. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses with a Malaysian sample.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers in 14 randomly selected schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. Analyses were conducted in a 3-stage process using both confirmatory (stages 1 and 3) and exploratory factor analyses (stage 2) to test, modify, and confirm the underlying factor structure of the TRAS in a non-Western teacher sample. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 3-factor model previously reported in the original TRAS study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an 8-item, 4-factor structure. Further confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated appropriateness of the 4-factor structure. Reliability estimates for the four factors-commitment, value, concern, and confidence-were moderate. The modified short form TRAS (Malay version) has potential to be used as a simple tool for relatively quick assessment of teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward reporting may exist and the transferability of newly developed instruments to other populations should be evaluated.

  17. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sheep or goat semen intended for importation from any part of the world shall, in addition to the... clinical signs of scrapie at the time of semen collection nor developed scrapie between the time of semen...

  18. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sheep or goat semen intended for importation from any part of the world shall, in addition to the... clinical signs of scrapie at the time of semen collection nor developed scrapie between the time of semen...

  19. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen... clinical signs of scrapie at the time of semen collection nor developed scrapie between the time of...

  20. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal Semen... clinical signs of scrapie at the time of semen collection nor developed scrapie between the time of...

  1. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen.

    PubMed

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the type of semen. The conception rate was 55% for conventional and 44% for sexed semen, and the average gestation length was 274.6 and 274.9 days, respectively. The mean calf birth weight was 37.47 kg for non-sexed and 36.75 kg for sexed semen. The stillbirth rate was 6.19% for conventional and 7.54% for sexed semen, while the twinning rate was 3.78% for conventional and 1.13% for sexed semen. The calves produced with non-sexed and sexed semen differed significantly in viability (P < 0.001), the latter having a lower calf vigour score. The use of conventional semen did not affect the ratio of female and male calves (52.7:47.3%; P > 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P < 0.01). The results obtained in this investigation are in agreement with the majority of studies which compared the fertility traits, sex ratio and calf characteristics depending on the application of artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen.

  2. Sperm ubiquitination in epididymal feline semen.

    PubMed

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Varesi, Sara; Nonnis, Simona; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Ubiquitin is a 8.5-kDa peptide that tags other proteins for proteasomal degradation. It has been proposed that ubiquitination might be responsible for the elimination of defective spermatozoa during transit through the epididymis in humans and cattle, but its exact biological function in seminal plasma has not yet been clarified. In the domestic cat (Felis catus), the percentage of immature, unviable, and abnormal spermatozoa decreases during the epididymal transit, indicating the existence of a mechanism that removes defective spermatozoa. Magnetic cell separation techniques, based on the use of magnetic beads coated with anti-ubiquitin antibodies, may allow the selective capture of ubiquitinated spermatozoa from semen, thus contributing to the identification of a potential correlation between semen quality and ubiquitination process. Moreover, the selective identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins in different epididymal regions could give a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in feline sperm maturation. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to verify the possibility of separating ubiquitinated spermatozoa with magnetic ubiquitin beads and identify the morphological and acrosomal differences between whole sample and unbound gametes, (2) to characterize all the ubiquitinated proteins in spermatozoa retrieved in the three epididymal regions by a proteomic approach. The data indicated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in cat epididymal semen. However, a correlation between abnormal and ubiquitinated spermatozoa has not been found, and ubiquitin cannot be considered as a biomarker of quality of epididymal feline spermatozoa. To the author's knowledge, this is the first identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins of cat spermatozoa collected from different epididymal regions. The proteomic pattern allows a further characterization of cat epididymal semen and represents a contribute to a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in

  3. Zooplankton Feeding on the Nuisance Flagellate Gonyostomum semen

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Karin S. L.; Vrede, Tobias; Lebret, Karen; Johnson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    The large bloom-forming flagellate Gonyostomum semen has been hypothesized to be inedible to naturally occurring zooplankton due to its large cell size and ejection of long slimy threads (trichocysts) induced by physical stimulation. In a grazing experiment using radiolabelled algae and zooplankton collected from lakes with recurring blooms of G. semen and lakes that rarely experience blooms, we found that Eudiaptomus gracilis and Holopedium gibberum fed on G. semen at high rates, whereas Daphnia cristata and Ceriodaphnia spp. did not. Grazing rates of E. gracilis were similar between bloom-lakes and lakes with low biomass of G. semen, indicating that the ability to feed on G. semen was not a result of local adaptation. The high grazing rates of two of the taxa in our experiment imply that some of the nutrients and energy taken up by G. semen can be transferred directly to higher trophic levels, although the predominance of small cladocerans during blooms may limit the importance of G. semen as a food resource. Based on grazing rates and previous observations on abundances of E. gracilis and H. gibberum, we conclude that there is a potential for grazer control of G. semen and discuss why blooms of G. semen still occur. PMID:23667489

  4. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todorov, Todor; Ejnik, John W.; Guandalini, Gustavo S.; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry W.; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Centeno, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2 g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4–7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97–100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n = 10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans’ semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments.

  5. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Ejnik, John W; Guandalini, Gustavo; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Centeno, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4-7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97-100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n=10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans' semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (p<0.0001). Boron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups.

  7. [Analysis and identification of Semen Glycines Nigrae and Semen Pharbitidis by infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Du, Juan; Peng, Xi-Yuan; Ma, Fang; Chen, Jian-Bo; Zhou, Qun; Jin, Zhe-Xiong; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-09-01

    Semen Glycines Nigrae and Semen Pharbitidis containing a large amount of fats and proteins are commonly used in Chinese herbal medicine. Tri-step infrared spectroscopy was applied to fast analyze and identify the two samples. In the conventional infrared spectroscopy, the samples both have obvious characteristic absorption peaks at 1,745 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching mode of C==O in esters. Furthermore, the two kinds of herbs have the peaks at 1,656 and 1,547 cm(-1) assigned to the amide I and II bands of protein. Obviously, the infrared spectra of herbs demonstrate that protein and fat is the major component in two kinds of herbs, and the relative intensity of the peaks assigned to fat and protein indicate their relative content is different. And the result is consistent with the reported. In the second derivative spectra, Semen Pharbitidis has a peak at 1,712 cm(-1) assigned to the organic acid, however, Semen Glycines Nigrae has not this absorption peak. In addition, in the second derivative spectra, appeared more differences between the two samples in shape and intensity of the peaks. In two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra, the two samples were visually distinguished due to their significant differences in auto-peak position and intensity. In the region of 1,500-1,700 cm(-1), Semen Glycines Nigrae has two autopeaks and Semen Pharbitidis has three autopeaks. In the region of 2,800-3,000 cm(-1), the samples both have two autopeaks, but the position of the strongest autopeak is different. It was demonstrated that the Tri-step infrared spectroscopy were successfully applied to fast analyze and identify the two kinds of samples containing the same major component, and made sure the foundation for future researches.

  8. Assessment of motion and kinematic characteristics of frozen-thawed Sirohi goat semen using computer-assisted semen analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mukul; Yadav, Sarvajeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the motion and kinematics characteristic of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in Sirohi goat using computer-assisted semen analysis. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out in Sirohi buck. Semen collection was made biweekly from each buck with the help of artificial vagina. A total of 12 ejaculates were collected from two bucks (six ejaculates from each buck). Freshly collected semen was pooled and later evaluated. The pooled semen sample was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and later subjected to a process of cryopreservation. The motion and kinematic characteristics of spermatozoa were studied during freez-thawing process. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) higher value of live percent, hypo-osmotic swelling test, and acrosomal integrity were recorded in neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. The proportion of spermatozoa showing slow progression were the highest in the neat and diluted semen followed by rapid and non-progressively motile, while a reverse pattern was observed in the frozen thaw semen where the proportion of non-progressively motile spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher followed by slow and rapid progression. Conclusion: This study showed that the best results for motion, vitality, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome status were obtained in the neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. Further, the process of cryopreservation results in a shift of motility from slow to non-progressive in the post-thaw semen with a significant decrease in the path velocities when compared to neat and diluted semen. Hence, it can be concluded that freezing-thawing process reduces the motility and kinematic characters spermatozoa and may be an important factor affecting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa resulting in poor conception rate after insemination in goats. PMID:27051209

  9. Semen analysis: a new manual and its application to the understanding of semen and its pathology

    PubMed Central

    Jequier, Anne M.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the latest edition of the World Health Organization's manual on semen analysis, a comprehensive instructional guide. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Seminal fluid preparation techniques for procedures such as in vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination are also outlined in the manual. In addition, it details many useful techniques for the assessment of seminal fluid. It will be a very useful manual for any laboratory that carries out analyses of seminal fluid. PMID:20111075

  10. Semen analysis: a new manual and its application to the understanding of semen and its pathology.

    PubMed

    Jequier, Anne M

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the latest edition of the World Health Organization's manual on semen analysis, a comprehensive instructional guide. The methodology used in the assessment of the usual variables in semen analysis is described, as are many of the less common, but very valuable, sperm function tests. Seminal fluid preparation techniques for procedures such as in vitro fertilization and intrauterine insemination are also outlined in the manual. In addition, it details many useful techniques for the assessment of seminal fluid. It will be a very useful manual for any laboratory that carries out analyses of seminal fluid.

  11. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Thitaram, C; Suthanmapinanth, P; Kornkaewrat, K; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2014-06-30

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend <0.05). These associations remained suggestive or significant after adjustment for multiple testing. There were no significant associations between semen phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and honeybee semen. (a) Honeybees from any country may be imported into the U.S. by the Department of Agriculture for...

  14. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and honeybee semen. (a) Honeybees from any country may be imported into the U.S. by the Department of Agriculture for...

  15. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and honeybee semen. (a) Honeybees from any country may be imported into the U.S. by the Department of Agriculture for...

  16. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  17. Wood's lamp utility in the identification of semen.

    PubMed

    Santucci, K A; Nelson, D G; McQuillen, K K; Duffy, S J; Linakis, J G

    1999-12-01

    The accurate detection of semen is critical to forensic, medical, and legal personnel. The Wood's lamp (WL) emits ultraviolet light (UVL) and has been identified as useful in rape evaluations because it is purported to cause semen to fluoresce. This study was intended to determine if semen can be distinguished from other products by WL analysis. Investigators reviewed the previous training and frequency of use of the WL by emergency medicine and pediatric emergency medicine physicians at 2 medical centers. The participants were asked to use a WL to distinguish between a semen sample (<6 hours old) and 13 commonly used products. Next, 29 semen samples were collected and evaluated under high-power microscopy and under UVL. A total of 41 physicians participated in the study (68% male). The number of years practicing in an emergency setting spanned from.3 to 25 years with a mean of 7. 1 years. A total of 51% of participants trained in emergency medicine, 23% in pediatrics and pediatric emergency medicine. A total of 22% reported formal training in the collection of forensic evidence. A total of 62% of the physicians believed they have identified semen in the past; one third felt they could differentiate semen from other products under UVL. None of the 41 physicians were able to differentiate semen from other products using a WL. Moreover, the semen samples used for the study did not fluoresce under WL analysis. None of the 29 semen samples fluoresced whether wet or dry. The medicaments most commonly mistaken for semen were A&D ointment (Cardinal Health, Inc, Dublin, OH), Surgilube (Division of Atlanta, Inc, Melville, NY), Barrier cream (Carrington Laboratories, Inc, Irving, TX), and bacitracin (Division of Atlanta, Inc, Melville, NY). Participating physicians were unable to distinguish between semen and other common products, using the WL. Although the WL has been purported to be a useful tool as a screening device for the detection of seminal stains, the investigators

  18. Structural analysis of TRAS1, a novel family of telomeric repeat-associated retrotransposons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, S; Ishikawa, H; Fujiwara, H

    1995-01-01

    We characterized TRAS1, a retrotransposable element which was inserted into the telomeric repetitive sequence (CCTAA)n of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. The complete sequence of TRAS1, a stretch of 7.8 kb with a poly(A) tract at the 3' end, was determined. No long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the termini of the element. TRAS1 contains gag- and pol-like open reading frames (ORFs) which are similar to those of non-LTR retrotransposons. The two ORFs overlap but are one nucleotide out of frame (+1 frameshift). Most of the approximately 250 copies of TRAS1 elements in the genome were highly conserved in the structure. Chromosomal in situ hybridization showed that TRAS1 elements are clustered at the telomeres of Bombyx chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis using the amino acid sequence of the reverse transcriptase domain within the pol-like ORF revealed that TRAS1 falls into one lineage with R1, which is a family of non-LTR retrotransposons inserted into the same site within the 28S ribosomal DNA unit in most insects. TRAS1 may have been derived from R1 and changed the target specificity so that TRAS1 inserts into the telomeric repetitive sequence (CCTAA)n. Southern hybridization and Bal 31 exonuclease analyses showed that TRAS1 elements are clustered proximal to the terminal long tract of (CCTAA)n. TRAS1 is a novel family of non-LTR retrotransposons which are inserted into the telomeric repetitive sequences as target sites. PMID:7623845

  19. Association of oxidative status and semen characteristics with seminal plasma proteins of buffalo semen.

    PubMed

    Sharma, L; Pandey, V; Nigam, R; Saxena, A; Swain, D K; Yadav, B

    2016-01-01

    To study the influence of season on oxidative status of buffalo semen and their association with semen characteristics and seminal plasma proteins, ejaculates were collected twice a week in winter, summer and rainy seasons from six adult Bhadawari buffalo bulls. The neat semen was analyzed for semen characteristics immediately after collection and oxidative status viz. lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and total protein (TP) were estimated in seminal plasma. The protein profiling was carried out by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The significant effect of season was observed on TP, SOD activity and % protein fractions of seminal plasma proteins of buffalo bulls. The TP values showed positive correlation with ejaculate volume (EV), sperm concentration (SC), and % live-dead (LD) and negative correlation with progressive motility (PM), and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). The SOD activity showed positive correlation with PM, LD, HOST and % acrosoamal integrity (AI). Besides that, results showed correlation of TP with 6.5, 38 and 66 kDa proteins, LPO with 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa proteins, CAT with 70 kDa and 86 kDa proteins, and SOD with 6.5, 24.5, 44.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins. In conclusion, this study indicated that TP and SOD activity of seminal plasma of buffalo bulls were influenced by season and were found to be associated with some of the semen characteristics and expression of seminal plasma proteins.

  20. Association of oxidative status and semen characteristics with seminal plasma proteins of buffalo semen

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, L.; Pandey, V.; Nigam, R.; Saxena, A.; Swain, D. K.; Yadav, B.

    2016-01-01

    To study the influence of season on oxidative status of buffalo semen and their association with semen characteristics and seminal plasma proteins, ejaculates were collected twice a week in winter, summer and rainy seasons from six adult Bhadawari buffalo bulls. The neat semen was analyzed for semen characteristics immediately after collection and oxidative status viz. lipid peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and total protein (TP) were estimated in seminal plasma. The protein profiling was carried out by one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The significant effect of season was observed on TP, SOD activity and % protein fractions of seminal plasma proteins of buffalo bulls. The TP values showed positive correlation with ejaculate volume (EV), sperm concentration (SC), and % live-dead (LD) and negative correlation with progressive motility (PM), and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). The SOD activity showed positive correlation with PM, LD, HOST and % acrosoamal integrity (AI). Besides that, results showed correlation of TP with 6.5, 38 and 66 kDa proteins, LPO with 70, 72, 84 and 86 kDa proteins, CAT with 70 kDa and 86 kDa proteins, and SOD with 6.5, 24.5, 44.5, 70 and 72 kDa proteins. In conclusion, this study indicated that TP and SOD activity of seminal plasma of buffalo bulls were influenced by season and were found to be associated with some of the semen characteristics and expression of seminal plasma proteins. PMID:28224004

  1. A successful new approach to honeybee semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-10-01

    Honeybee biodiversity is under massive threat, and improved methods for gamete cryopreservation could be a precious tool for both the in situ- and ex situ-conservation of subspecies and ecotypes. Recent cryoprotocols for drone semen have improved the viability and fertility of frozen-thawed semen by using increased diluent:semen-ratios, but there is still much room for progress. As semen cryopreserved after dilution often appeared hyperactive, we speculated that the disruption of sperm-sperm interactions during dilution and cryopreservation could reduce the fertile lifespan of the cells. We therefore developed protocols to reduce admixture, or abolish it altogether by dialyzing semen against a hypertonic solution of cryoprotectant. Additionally, we tested methods to reduce the cryoprotectant concentration after thawing. Insemination of queens with semen cryopreserved after dialysis yielded 49%, 59% and 79% female (= stemming from fertilized eggs) pupae in three separate experiments, and the numbers of sperm found in the spermathecae of the queens were significantly higher than those previously reported. Post-thaw dilution and reconcentration of semen for cryoprotectant removal reduced fertility, but sizeable proportions of female brood were still produced. Workers stemming from cryopreserved semen did not differ from bees stemming from untreated semen with regard to indicators of fluctuating asymmetry, but were slightly heavier. Cryopreservation after dialysis tended to increase the proportion of cells with DNA-nicks, as measured by the TUNEL-assay, but this increase appears small when compared to the baseline variations of this indicator. Overall, we conclude that cryoprotectant-addition through dialysis can improve the quality of cryopreserved drone semen. Testing of offspring for vitality and genetic integrity should continue.

  2. Perfluorochemicals and Human Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Kim, Sungduk; Sweeney, Anne M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lynch, Courtney D.; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, although limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. Objectives: We examined the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Methods: Using population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 couples discontinuing contraception from two U.S. geographic regions from 2005 through 2009. Baseline interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted, followed by blood collection for the quantification of seven serum PFCs (perfluorosulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and perfluorosulfonamides) using tandem mass spectrometry. Men collected a baseline semen sample and another approximately 1 month later. Semen samples were shipped with freezer packs, and analyses were performed on the day after collection. We used linear regression to estimate the difference in each semen parameter associated with a one unit increase in the natural log–transformed PFC concentration after adjusting for confounders and modeling repeated semen samples. Sensitivity analyses included optimal Box-Cox transformation of semen quality end points. Results: Six PFCs [2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)] were associated with 17 semen quality end points before Box-Cox transformation. PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area and perimeter, a lower percentage of DNA stainability, and a higher percentage of bicephalic and immature sperm. PFDeA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were associated with a lower percentage of sperm with coiled tails. Conclusions: Select PFCs were associated with certain semen end points, with the most significant associations observed for PFOSA but with results in varying directions. Citation

  3. Risk of Salmonella transmission via cryopreserved semen in turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Reale, A; Sorrentino, E; Coppola, R; Di Iorio, M; Rosato, M P

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the possibility to carry pathogen bacteria in turkey flocks via cryopreserved semen, research was carried out 1) to investigate the microbial contamination of fresh and frozen thawed turkey semen and 2) to evaluate the effect of the freezing-thawing process on the survival of 3 serovars of Salmonella spp. experimentally inoculated in turkey semen. Five pools of semen diluted 4-fold were cooled, added with 8% of dimethylacetamide as a cryoprotectant, and aliquots of 80 muL were directly plunged into liquid nitrogen to form frozen pellets. Mesophilic viable counts, total and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. were investigated on fresh and thawed samples. Further, 5 pools of diluted semen were each divided into 3 subsamples, inoculated with 7.8 +/- 0.2 log cfu.mL(-1) of Salmonella Liverpool, Salmonella Montevideo, and Salmonella Braenderup, respectively, and cryopreserved before to assess the postthaw viability of Salmonella spp. strains. Fresh semen was highly contaminated by all of the saprophytic bacteria investigated and the cryopreservation process reduced the amount of mesophilic viable count and total coliforms (P < 0.05) and fecal coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and enterococci (P < 0.01) by about 1 log cfu.mL(-1). Conversely, neither Campylobacter spp. nor Salmonella spp. were found as endogenous bacteria in semen. In the inoculated semen, both Salmonella Liverpool, Salmonella Montevideo, and Salmonella Braenderup colonies were recovered postthaw, showing a significant reduction of 2.03 +/- 0.28, 3.08 +/- 0.22, and 2.72 +/- 0.23 log cfu.mL(-1), respectively, compared with the fresh semen (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the cryopreservation process allowed us to obtain a low reduction of microbial count both in endogenous saprophytic bacteria and artificially inoculated Salmonella spp. strains; therefore, the possibility of Samonella spp. transmission to flocks through the use of infected

  4. A new poultry semen extender. 4. Effect of antibacterials in control of bacterial contamination in chicken semen.

    PubMed

    Sexton, T J; Jacobs, L A; McDaniel, G R

    1980-02-01

    Forty antibacterials were qualitatively and quantitatively tested for controlling aerobic bacterial contamination without affecting viability of semen. Semen samples were collected aseptically, diluted 1:4 with the Beltsville poultry semen extender containing one of 40 antibiotics and held for 0, 24, 48, and 72 hr at 5 C. Semen samples were monitored at each storage interval for bacterial counts, sperm motility, sperm counts, and fertilizing capacity. Gentamicin (2.5 microgram/ml), kanamycin (31.2 microgram/ml), neomycin (62.5 microgram/ml), and tobramycin (2.5 microgram/ml) were the only antibacterials tested which controlled microbial growth without affecting sperm viability for up to 24 hr storage at 5 C. Tobramycin maintained fertility equal to that of the non-antibiotic control up to 24 hr storage. Neomycin maintained higher levels of fertility in semen stored for 48 and 72 hr than in semen of controls to all other treatments for the same storage periods and to undiluted, unstored semen. The conclusion from these studies is that the control of aerobic microbial growth in chicken semen has little influence on the maintenance of sperm viability during low temperature storage.

  5. Two new hepaprotective saponins from Semen celosiae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Liang; Wang, Ying; Guo, Mei-Li; Li, Yu-Xian

    2010-07-01

    Two new oleanolic acid saponins, namely celosin C (1) and celosin D (2), were isolated from the ethanol extract of Semen celosiae. Their structures were identified as celosin C (1) and celosin D (2) by spectroscopic and chemical analyses. The hepatoprotective activity of 1 and 2 with oral dose 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg, respectively, were investigated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results indicate that they have significant hepatoprotective effects (p<0.01). Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  7. Application of liquid semen technology improves conception rate of sex-sorted semen in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Xu, Z Z

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to compare reproductive performance of liquid sex-sorted (SS) semen with that of conventional (CON) semen in lactating dairy cows. Between 2011 and 2013, commercial dairy herds (n = 101, 203, and 253 for 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively) with predominantly Holstein-Friesian cows were enrolled in a contract mating program to produce surplus heifers for export using liquid SS semen. During the spring mating period, each herd was allocated with liquid SS semen at 50% of its daily requirement and the remaining daily requirement was allocated with CON liquid semen. Sperm for producing SS semen was sorted by Sexing Technologies NZ Ltd. (Hamilton, New Zealand) and then packaged using the liquid semen technology of LIC (Hamilton, New Zealand) at a dose of 1 × 10(6) sperm. Artificial insemination (AI) with liquid SS semen was carried out between 43 and 46 h after collection. Conventional semen straws contained 1.25 × 10(6), 1.75 × 10(6), or 2 × 10(6) sperm for semen to be used on d 1, 2, or 3 after collection, respectively. Only CON inseminations on the same days as when SS semen was used were included in the comparison. Herd managers biased usage of SS semen toward cows with a longer postpartum interval before the mating start date (64.0 vs. 62.8 d), cows of higher genetic merit (NZ$107.0 vs. NZ$98.4), younger cows (5.1 vs. 5.2 yr), and cows in which they had more confidence of being genuinely in estrus as measured by a lower percentage of short returns between 1 and 17 d (5.3 vs. 7.5%). After adjusting for these factors, the estimated difference in nonreturn rate between AI with SS and CON semen over the 3 seasons was -3.8 percentage points (SS = 70.2% vs. CON = 74.0%; SS/CON = 94.9%). The estimated maximum difference in calving rate per AI between SS and CON semen was -3.1 percentage points for 2011 (SS = 51.2% vs. CON = 54.3%; SS/CON = 94.3%) and -3.0 percentage points for 2012 (SS = 49.7% vs. CON = 52.6%; SS/CON = 94.5%). Calving data for 2013

  8. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-17

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  9. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Kim, Sungduk; Chen, Zhen; Gore-Langton, Robert E.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Buck Louis, Germaine M.

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that persistent environmental chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls may adversely affect human fecundity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples discontinuing contraception for purposes of becoming pregnant. Men provided a blood specimen and two fresh semen samples collected approximately a month apart that underwent next day analysis for 35 semen quality endpoints. Serum samples were analyzed for 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (congeners #18, 28, 44, 49, 52, 66, 74, 87, 99, 101, 114, 118, 128, 138, 146, 149, 151, 153, 156, 157, 167, 170, 172, 177, 178, 180, 183, 187, 189, 194, 195, 196, 201, 206, 209); 1 polybrominated biphenyl (#153); 9 organochlorine pesticides; and 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (congeners #17, 28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183) using high resolution mass spectrometry. To estimate the effect of chemicals on semen quality, we regressed each semen marker on each chemical while adjusting for research site, age, body mass index, serum lipids, and cotinine levels. Males with chemical concentrations in the fourth quartile, as compared to the first quartile, showed significant associations for several individual chemicals in each chemical class and type of semen quality parameter indicating negative and positive associations with semen quality. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in particular were associated with several measures of increased abnormal morphology. These exploratory results highlight the role of environmental influences on male fecundity, and are of particular interest given the ubiquitous exposures to these compounds. PMID:25441930

  10. Semen characteristics of asymptomatic males affected by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Gopalkrishnan, K; Hinduja, I N; Kumar, T C

    1990-06-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted anaerobic parasite which causes vaginitis and cervicitis. The present study was carried out to determine the incidence of Trichomonas infection in semen samples of asymptomatic men and also to understand the changes of semen characteristics in the infected individuals before treatment and after treatment with metronidazole (Flagyl, 400 mg x 3x a day for 10 days). The semen obtained from 1131 men was examined for different characteristics and Trichomonas were detected in wet smear preparations in 50 cases (4.42%). The characteristics of semen in them was compared with 52 normal semen samples. Statistical analysis showed that the seminal fluid viscosity and percentage particulate debris was increased significantly in the infected group (P less than 0.001). There was no significant change in the pH of semen. Spermatozoan motility and morphologically normal forms were decreased significantly (P less than 0.001), spermatozoan viability was altered, and there was a significant change in membrane integrity (P less than 0.001) as indicated by the hypoosmotic swelling test. The significant improvement in semen characteristics were seen in 25 cases after a single course of treatment. Therefore, it is possible that in some cases, the infertility seen in asymptomatic individuals may be due to infection by Trichomonas.

  11. Detection and quantification of thrombomodulin in human semen.

    PubMed

    Lwaleed, Bashir A; Greenfield, Robert S; Cooper, Alan J

    2008-03-01

    The presence of fibrin degradation products, thrombin-like enzyme, prothrombin fragments, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, plasmin and other active components of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in seminal plasma has been reported. In the present study we investigate the presence of thrombomodulin in human semen. Using an Imubind thrombomodulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (American Diagnostica Inc., Stamford, Connecticut, USA), seminal thrombomodulin levels were measured in 47 semen specimens obtained from subfertile individuals, normally fertile individuals, semen donors as well as vasectomized individuals, and in a further group defined by normality in several parameters derived from the World Health Organization fertility criteria. Conventional semen parameters were analysed in all semen samples. Thrombomodulin is quantifiable in human semen at a concentration lower than that normally found in citrated blood plasma samples. Slightly higher levels were seen for fertile stratifications compared with infertile individuals but without significant difference, given the numbers accrued. A vasectomized group showed the lowest value. In conclusion, our results establish the presence of thrombomodulin in human semen and suggest its production both upstream and downstream from the level of a vasectomy lesion.

  12. Perfluorochemicals and human semen quality: the LIFE study.

    PubMed

    Louis, Germaine M Buck; Chen, Zhen; Schisterman, Enrique F; Kim, Sungduk; Sweeney, Anne M; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Lynch, Courtney D; Gore-Langton, Robert E; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The relation between persistent environmental chemicals and semen quality is evolving, although limited data exist for men recruited from general populations. We examined the relation between perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) and semen quality among 501 male partners of couples planning pregnancy. Using population-based sampling strategies, we recruited 501 couples discontinuing contraception from two U.S. geographic regions from 2005 through 2009. Baseline interviews and anthropometric assessments were conducted, followed by blood collection for the quantification of seven serum PFCs (perfluorosulfonates, perfluorocarboxylates, and perfluorosulfonamides) using tandem mass spectrometry. Men collected a baseline semen sample and another approximately 1 month later. Semen samples were shipped with freezer packs, and analyses were performed on the day after collection. We used linear regression to estimate the difference in each semen parameter associated with a one unit increase in the natural log-transformed PFC concentration after adjusting for confounders and modeling repeated semen samples. Sensitivity analyses included optimal Box-Cox transformation of semen quality end points. Six PFCs [2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)] were associated with 17 semen quality end points before Box-Cox transformation. PFOSA was associated with smaller sperm head area and perimeter, a lower percentage of DNA stainability, and a higher percentage of bicephalic and immature sperm. PFDeA, PFNA, PFOA, and PFOS were associated with a lower percentage of sperm with coiled tails. Select PFCs were associated with certain semen end points, with the most significant associations observed for PFOSA but with results in varying directions.

  13. Interaction of Fibronectin With Semen Amyloids Synergistically Enhances HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roan, Nadia R.; Chu, Simon; Liu, Haichuan; Neidleman, Jason; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Greene, Warner C.

    2014-01-01

    Semen harbors amyloids that enhance human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We set out to identify factors that bind these amyloids and to determine whether these factors modulate amyloid-mediated HIV-enhancing activity. Using biochemical and mass spectrometric approaches, we identified fibronectin as a consistent interaction partner. Although monomeric fibronectin did not enhance HIV infection, it synergistically increased the infectivity enhancement activity of the amyloids. Depletion of fibronectin decreased the enhancing activity of semen, suggesting that interfering with the binding interface between fibronectin and the amyloids could be an approach to developing a novel class of microbicides targeting the viral-enhancing activity of semen. PMID:24719472

  14. Butylated hydroxytoluene inclusion in semen extender improves the post-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ijaz, A; Hussain, A; Aleem, M; Yousaf, M S; Rehman, H

    2009-05-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the potential impact of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Ejaculated bull semen was extended in a Tris-citrate egg yolk extender containing various concentrations of BHT (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mM). Semen was frozen at -196 degrees C using 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa per 0.5 mL straws. Five straws from each treatment were thawed to assess the semen quality in terms of sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Post-thawed sperm motility was determined using a phase-contrast microscope. Viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity were evaluated by the supravital staining, hypo-osmotic swelling test and normal acrosomal reaction, respectively. The highest (P<0.05) motility, acrosomal integrity and hypo-osmotic swelling response of spermatozoa was achieved by addition of 1.0 and 2.0mM BHT to semen extender. However, highest (P<0.05) viability of spermatozoa was achieved by inclusion of 2.0mM BHT. The higher concentration of BHT (3.0mM) reduced the motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response of the spermatozoa compared to other concentration used. In conclusion, BHT when added in the semen extender can improve the semen quality of buffalo bulls.

  15. Effects of sperm concentration at semen collection and storage period of frozen semen on dairy cow conception.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Gröhn, Y T; Kommisrud, E; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2007-01-01

    The present study was based on data obtained from artificial inseminations (AIs) performed with cryopreserved semen from elite bulls used in the Norwegian breeding program. Semen was diluted to standardize the number of spermatozoa to 18 million per AI dose. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the net sperm concentration at semen collection and the storage period in liquid nitrogen have any effect on probability of conception in dairy cattle. We demonstrated that the natural range of sperm concentration at semen collection within some of the bulls was associated with the probability of conception. However, no primary trend among bulls was found on the effect of sperm concentration at semen collection. This appears to be due to differences among bulls in their response to the dilution ratio of seminal plasma to extender. The effect of storage time was investigated in semen that had been stored between 1000 days and 2400 days in AI straws in liquid nitrogen at the AI center. Our findings showed that use of semen with the longest storage period, i.e. 1951-2400 days, resulted in a more than one percentage point lower probability of conception than semen with a shorter storage period. In conclusion, the net sperm concentration at semen collection, which affects the dilution ratio of seminal plasma to extender, should be considered individually among bulls to achieve optimal reproductive performance. Furthermore, this study gives support to the idea that a measurable degree of damage to the spermatozoa could occur during the preservation time in liquid nitrogen.

  16. Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2014-01-01

    Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

  17. The semen of fertile men. II. Semen characteristics of 100 fertile men.

    PubMed

    Sobrero, A J; Rehan, N E

    1975-11-01

    From a population of men applying for voluntary sterilization, 100 consecutive cases were selected according to the following criteria: (1) each man had fathered at least two children; (2) at the time of the request for a vasectomy the man's wife was pregnant; and (3) a complete prevasectomy semen analysis, including sperm morphology, was available. The usual parameters of human semen evaluation are reported: the mean volume of the ejaculates was 3.3 ml +/- 0.84 SD (range, 0.5 to 11 ml); the mean sperm density was 81 million/ml +/- 57 SD (range, 4 to 318); while the geometric mean, which according to the sample distribution is more representative, was 68. The mean percentage of motile sperm was 63% +/- 16 SD (range, 10 to 95%); the grade of forward progression was 3 +/- 0.55 SD (range, 2 to 4); and for sperm morphology the mean number of sperm with oval heads was 75% +/- 6 SD (range, 21 to 90%). Statistical comparison of these findings with those of our previous study of the semen of 1300 fertile men revealed complete agreement; minor statistical differences, on single parameters, with three similar studies are indicated. A positive relationship between the different variables, sperm density and sperm motility (in percentage of motile sperm and degree of forward motion), as well as between the two variables of sperm motility and sperm morphology to the other variables was confirmed.

  18. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)−1). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.32, −0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  19. History of commercializing sexed semen for cattle.

    PubMed

    Garner, D L; Seidel, G E

    2008-04-15

    Although the basic principles controlling the sex of mammalian offspring have been known for a relatively long time, recent application of certain modern cellular methodologies has led to development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. After a very long history of unsuccessful attempts to differentiate between mammalian sperm that produce males from those that produce females, a breakthrough came in 1981 when it was demonstrated that precise DNA content could be measured. Although these initial measurements of DNA content killed the sperm in the process, they led to the ultimate development of a sperm sorting system that was capable, not only of differentiating between live X- and Y-sperm, but of sorting them into relatively pure X- and Y-sperm populations without obvious cellular damage. Initial efforts to predetermine the sex of mammalian offspring in 1989 required surgical insemination, but later enhancements provided sex-sorted sperm in quantities suitable for use with IVF. Subsequent advances in flow sorting provided minimal numbers of sperm sufficient for use in AI. It was not until the flow cytometric sorting system was improved greatly and successful cryopreservation of sex-sorted bull sperm was developed that efficacious approaches to commercialization of sexed semen could be implemented worldwide in cattle. A number of companies now offer sex-sorted bovine sperm. Innovative approaches by a diverse group of scientists along with advances in computer science, biophysics, cell biology, instrumentation, and applied reproductive physiology provided the basis for commercializing sexed semen in cattle.

  20. Risk factors for bacterial contamination during boar semen collection.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Ana Maria G; Argenti, Laura E; Faccin, Jamil E; Linck, Lídia; Santi, Mônica; Bernardi, Mari Lourdes; Cardoso, Marisa R I; Wentz, Ivo; Bortolozzo, Fernando P

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of multiple factors on bacterial contamination in 213 ejaculates from four boar studs. Semen contamination by aerobic mesophiles increased in ejaculates where the preputial fluid flowed into the collection container, collection glove was dirty, preputial hair was long (>1.0 cm), the collection lasted >7 min and boars were older than 18 months. An increase in coliforms occurred when preputial fluid dripped into the collection container, collections lasted >7 min or when penis escaped during collection. Semen contamination increased when two or more factors related to hygiene (poor hygiene of the boar, dirty preputial ostium, large preputial diverticulum, long preputial hair, dirty gloves, preputial liquid trickling from the hand of the technician into the semen container and penis escaping) were present. A vigilant protocol of collection must be followed to minimize bacterial contamination, especially avoiding dripping of preputial liquid into the semen container.

  1. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes “semen” as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome. PMID:25568479

  2. Evidence of excretion of Schmallenberg virus in bull semen

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a novel orthobunyavirus, discovered in Germany in late 2011. It mainly infects cattle, sheep and goats and could lead to congenital infection, causing abortion and fetal abnormalities. SBV is transmitted by biting midges from the Culicoides genus and there is no evidence that natural infection occurs directly between ruminants. Here, we could detect SBV RNA in infected bull semen using qRT-PCR (three bulls out of seven tested positive; 29 positive semen batches out of 136). We also found that highly positive semen batches from SBV infected bulls can provoke an acute infection in IFNAR-/- mice, suggesting the potential presence of infectious virus in the semen of SBV infected bulls. PMID:24708245

  3. [Semen parameters in fertile men from two South American populations].

    PubMed

    Berdugo, Jesus; Andrade-Rocha, Fernando; Cardona-Maya, Walter

    2009-10-01

    This retrospective study compared semen parameters from fertile men of two South American cities (Medellín-Colombia and Petrópolis-Brazil) to investigate their differences in some semen parameters. We evaluated semen volume using a graduated tube, total progressive motility (a + b) using light microscopy (40X) and sperm concentration using a Neubauer Counting Chamber. We observed that fertile men from Medellín presented a significantly lower volume (p<0.0001), whereas individuals from Petrópolis presented a significantly lower percentage of total progressive motility (p<0.0001). On the other hand, no difference was found in sperm concentration (p>0.05). In conclusion, this study showed differences in semen parameters between fertile men of these South American populations. We think that these differences could be attributed to the geographical variations, like those observed in other countries. However, new studies are required to investigate this phenomenon and their causes.

  4. Cryogenic preservation of semen from the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen containing 6% or 7% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) resulting in 32 fertile eggs and 17 goslings; with 7% DMSO, 19 of 31 eggs were fertile. Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE), adjusted to 270 ? 30 mOs and 7.5 ? 0.4 pH, was used to dilute semen samples and the DMSO before cryopreservation. About half of the live spermatozoa in the fresh semen (92.9 ? 2.5% live cells, laboratory studies; 87.3 ? 7.3%, insemination trials) survived the freeze-thaw process (46.7 ? 7.8%, laboratory; 33.3 ? 17.8%, insemination trials). Samples of frozen-thawed semen contained a greater percentage of bent spermatozoa (27.1 ? 8.4% of live cells) than fresh semen (14.4 ? 3.0% of live cells). Fecal- and urate-contaminated semen (a common problem when collecting goose semen) reduced the sperm motility score from 3.2 ? 0.6 to 2.7? 0.7 and number of live spermatozoa in frozen-thawed semen from 49 ? 9% to 24 ?18%. Other variables examined that had less of an effect on semen quality included semen extenders, semen holding temperature, dilution and equilibration, relationship between hour of semen collection and level of semen contamination, and the relationship between season and sperm concentration.

  5. Vasectomy reversal semen analysis: new reference ranges predict pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ahmad; Tadros, Nicholas N; Polackwich, A Scott; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2017-04-01

    To study the semen analysis values required to cause a pregnancy after vasectomy reversal (VR). Vasectomy reversal is increasingly performed on men who wish to regain fertility after elective sterilization. Despite a thorough understanding of predictors of vasal patency after surgery, little is known about the patients' semen parameters and pregnancy potential. Retrospective case-control study. Tertiary-care hospital. A total of 139 patients who underwent VR at the Cleveland Clinic from 2010 to 2014. Vasectomy reversal. Pregnancy, semen parameters. Data regarding patient and spouse ages, obstructive interval, intraoperative findings, procedure performed, postoperative semen results, and spontaneous pregnancy outcome were collected. Pearson and t tests were used to analyze categoric and numeric data, respectively. Average semen reference values were developed. The mean obstructive interval was 9.5 ± 1.2 years. Spontaneous pregnancy was achieved by 49.6% of patients (69/139) and was directly related to better intraoperative vasal fluid quality and postoperative sperm concentration, motility, and strict morphology. The reference ranges of postoperative semen parameters of patients with spontaneous pregnancy were substantially lower than normal values published by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2010. Spontaneous pregnancy was reported in 15%, 21.3%, and 14.8% of patients with a sperm concentration of <5 million/mL, a sperm motility of <10%, and a normal morphology of <1%, respectively. Normal ranges of semen parameters as established by the 2010 WHO standards may not adequately predict post-vasectomy reversal fertility. Significantly lower post-reversal semen parameters may be considered to be sufficient in previously fertile patients after reversal compared with the normal population. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bakst, M.R.; Wishart, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.

  7. [Quality of semen Hydnocarpi anthelminiticae introduced to various places].

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Xu, H; Chen, J; Chen, Y

    1996-02-01

    The result shows that the Semen Hydnocarpi Anthelminticae introduced in Guangdong, Hainan and Yunnan Provinces is similar to the control medicinal materials in fatty oil content, index of refraction, effective component content and trace element content. But the saponification value of the introduced products is higher. The quality of the Semen Hydnocarpi Anthelminticae introduced to the above places is up to the level of the control medicinal materials.

  8. Cryopreservation of lar gibbon semen collected by manual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Masaki; Morita, Natsumi; Tajima, Shunichiro; Almunia, Julio; Maeda, Masami; Kamiguchi, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We confirmed ejaculation as a result of manual stimulation in a lar gibbon, and attempted to cryopreserve the semen using TES-Tris-egg yolk-based (TTE) extender. After measuring the amount of semen (g), we first diluted the semen with TTE extender, and calculated sperm concentration (sperm/ml), total sperm count (sperm), and progressive sperm motility (%). Then, we cooled diluted semen slowly to 4 °C over 2 h, and added an equal volume of secondary extender containing glycerol over 30 min. Finally, we flash-froze the semen solution by plunging into liquid nitrogen. In addition, we freeze-thawed the solution to determine the recovery rate of the motile sperm. Collection of semen was successful on four of the five occasions. The median (min-max) quantity of ejaculate was 0.19 g (0.09-0.26 g), the median sperm concentration was 1.38 × 10(9) sperm/ml (1.20-1.53 × 10(9) sperm/ml), and the median total sperm count was 0.26 × 10(9) sperm (0.11-0.40 × 10(9) sperm). Moreover, the median sperm motility immediately after ejaculation was 65 % (60-75 %), the median sperm motility after freeze-thawing was 30 % (25-35 %), and the median recovery rate was 42.3 % (40.0-58.3 %). We were able to (1) collect semen from a lar gibbon by manual stimulation, (2) reveal andrological findings regarding semen characteristics, and (3) preserve the genetic resource using TTE cryopreservation.

  9. Semen Quality and Time-to-Pregnancy, the LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Schisterman, Enrique F.; Sweeney, Anne; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kim, Sungduk; Maisog, José M.; Gore-Langton, Robert; Eisenberg, Michael L.; Chen, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess semen parameters and couple fecundity as measured by time-to-pregnancy (TTP). Design Observational prospective cohort with longitudinal measurement of TTP. Setting 16 Michigan/Texas counties Participants 501 couples discontinuing contraception were followed for one year while trying to conceive; 473 (94%) men provided one semen sample and 80% provided two samples. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Using prospectively measured TTP, fecundability odds ratios (FORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for 36 individual semen quality parameters accounting for repeated semen samples, time off contraception, abstinence, enrollment site, and couples’ ages, body mass indices (BMI), and serum cotinine concentrations. Results In adjusted models, semen quality parameters were associated with significantly shorter TTP as measured by FORs >1: percent motility, strict and traditional morphology, sperm head width, elongation factor, and acrosome area. Significantly longer TTPs or FORs <1 were observed for morphologic categories amorphous and round sperm heads neck/midpiece abnormalities. No semen quality parameters achieved significance when simultaneously modeling all other significant semen parameters and covariates, except for percent coiled tail when adjusting for sperm concentration (FOR=0.99; 95% CI 0.99, 1.00). Male age was consistently associated with reduced couple fecundity (FOR=0.96; 95% CI 0.93–0.99) reflecting a longer TTP across all combined models. Female but not male BMI also conferred a longer TTP (FOR=0.98; 95% CI 0.96–0.99). Conclusions Several semen measures were significantly associated with TTP when modeled individually, but not jointly and in the context of relevant couple based covariates. PMID:24239161

  10. Enumeration of semen leucocytes by fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique

    PubMed Central

    Conte, R A; Luke, S; Verma, R S

    1995-01-01

    Aim—To determine whether the fluorescent in situ hybridisation technique (FISH) using a total human DNA genomic probe can be used to enumerate semen leucocytes. Methods—Semen samples from five donors were subjected to a mild KC1 solution. These samples were then biotin labelled under FISH conditions using a total human DNA genomic probe and the leucocyte counts were determined. To check the accuracy of the technique a monoclonal antibody against the common leucocyte antigen CD45 [KC56(T-200)] served as a control. An isotypic control for [KC56(T-200)], the immunoglobulin [MsIgG1], served as a secondary control. Results—Semen leucocytes stained by the FISH technique were easily detected because of their distinct bright yellow colour, while the sperm cells were red. The leucocyte count ranged from 0·5 to 4·9 × 106 per ml of semen. KC56(T-200) and its isotypic control MsIgG1, which served as control for the FISH technique, accurately identified 94% and 97% of the semen leucocytes of a control donor, respectively. Conclusions—The FISH technique using a total human DNA probe can accurately and effectively enumerate the overall leucocyte population in semen. Images PMID:16696031

  11. Cassiae semen: A review of its phytochemistry and pharmacology (Review).

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaoxv; Fu, Jing; Yin, Xingbin; Yang, Chunjing; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Wenping; Du, Xueying; Wang, Qingling; Ni, Jian

    2017-09-01

    Cassiae semen (Leguminosae), a well‑known traditional Chinese medicine, has been used for a number of centuries in areas of Southeast Asia, including Korea, Japan and China. The present review aims to provide updated and comprehensive information, on the botany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cassiae semen. The available information on Cassiae semen was collected using several different resources, including classic books on Chinese herbal medicine and a number of scientific databases, including the China Academic Journals full‑text database, PubMed, SciFinder, the Web of Science and Science Direct. To date >70 chemical compounds have been isolated from Cassiae semen, and the major components have been determined to be anthraquinones, naphthopyrones and volatile oil. The crude extracts and pure compounds of Cassiae semen have been used as effective agents in preclinical and clinical practice due to their beneficial activities, including antihyperlipidemic, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, antioxidant and hypotensive activities. With the body of reported data, it has been suggested that Cassiae semen has convincing medicinal potential. However, the pharmacological mechanisms of the main bioactive compounds and the association between structure and activity require further investigation.

  12. Antioxidant intake is associated with semen quality in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Eskenazi, B; Kidd, S A; Marks, A R; Sloter, E; Block, G; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-01

    We seek to determine whether dietary and supplement intake of specific micronutrients (zinc and folate) and antioxidants (vitamins C, E and beta-carotene) is associated with semen quality. Ninety-seven healthy, non-smoking men provided semen and were interviewed. Average daily nutrient intake from food and supplements was derived from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Intake levels were summarized as low, moderate and high. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, progressive motility and total progressively motile sperm count (TPMS) were measured. After controlling for covariates, a high intake of antioxidants was associated with better semen quality but, in almost all cases, there was no clear dose relationship in that moderate intake groups had the poorest semen quality. For example, positive associations were observed between vitamin C intake and sperm number as reflected in the higher mean count (P=0.04), concentration (P=0.05) and TPMS (P = 0.09); between vitamin E intake and progressive motility (P = 0.04) and TPMS (P = 0.05); and between beta-carotene intake and sperm concentration (P = 0.06) and progressive motility (P = 0.06). Folate and zinc intake were not associated with improved semen quality. In a convenience sample of healthy non-smoking men from a non-clinical setting, higher antioxidant intake was associated with higher sperm numbers and motility.

  13. Semen characteristics, extension, and cryopreservation of Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis)

    PubMed Central

    Fitri, Wan-Nor; Wahid, Haron; Rosnina, Yusoff; Jesse, Faez Firdaus Abdullah; Aimi-Sarah, Zainal Abidin; Mohd-Azmi, Mohd Lila; Azlan, Che’ Amat; Azrolharith, Muhammad Rashid; Peter, Innocent Damudu; Ali Baiee, Falah Hasan

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this research is to report parameters for breeding soundness evaluation, semen extension, and cryopreservation in Rusa timorensis. Materials and Methods: Seven healthy stags were chosen for semen collection using an electroejaculator. The collections were performed twice in a breeding season between February and June 2016. Samples were collected between 2 and 3 weeks interval, collected twice for each animal. Semen was evaluated, extended, and cryopreserved using four different extenders; Andromed®, BioXcell®, Triladyl®, and a modified Tris-egg yolk combined with Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Results: R. timorensis semen characteristics according to volume (ml), color, sperm concentration (106/ml), general motility (%), progressive motility (%), and % morphology of normal spermatozoa are 0.86±0.18 ml, thin milky to milky, 1194.2±346.1 106/ml, 82.9±2.8%, 76.1±4.8%, and 83.9±4.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Semen characteristics of R. timorensis collected by electroejaculation is good allowing for cryopreservation and future artificial insemination work. The most suitable extender for Rusa deer semen is Andromed®. PMID:28831222

  14. Effect of scrotal insulation on clusterin-positive cells in ram semen and their relationship to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, N M; Romano, J E; Troedsson, M H; Crabo, B G

    2001-01-01

    Scrotal contents of 2 rams were insulated for 96 hours and the fraction (as a percentage) of clusterin-positive cells (CPCs) and its relationship to semen quality was investigated. Semen collection was started 18 days before insulation and was terminated on day 78 and day 63 after insulation in animals 1 and 2, respectively. Sperm clusterin was localized by immunostaining with anti-bovine clusterin antibody (anti-bCAb) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated immunoglobulin G. Scrotal insulation led to deterioration of semen quality and increased the percentage of CPCs in both rams. Two types of sperm reactivity were observed: an extensive, intensive staining pattern (ESP); and a localized, less-intensive staining pattern (LSP). The percentage of ESP-CPCs began to increase from day 6 and reached 88.8% and 100% on day 15 after insulation in animals 1 and 2, respectively. The increase in CPCs coincided with the presence of a high percentage of teratoid forms (88.3%) in semen from animal 1, and detached heads (81.4%) in semen from animal 2. After normal semen production was restored on day 60 in animal 1, the percentages of ESP-CPCs and LSP-CPCs returned to preinsulation rates, whereas only the ESP-CPCs returned to normal in animal 2. A negative relationship was observed between ESP-CPCs and total sperm/ejaculate (r = -.62), motility (r = -.78), viability (r = -.68), and filtration rate (r = -.71) in semen from animal 1. Conversely, a positive relationship was seen between ESP-CPCs and total abnormal spermatozoa (r = .82). Similar results were obtained in semen from animal 2. CPCs were nearly completely absent in glass wool-Sephadex (GWS)-filtered semen, suggesting a role for clusterin in the process of trapping abnormal spermatozoa in the GWS filters. We conclude that aberrant spermatogenesis induced by scrotal insulation increases the percentage of CPCs in ram semen. We suggest that the percentage of CPCs in ram semen could be a useful marker in poor

  15. Identifying factors affecting age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use in Sahiwal bulls

    PubMed Central

    Naha, B. C.; Chakravarty, A. K.; Mir, M. A.; Jamuna, V.; Singh, A. P.; Maher, D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of non-genetic factors on reproduction traits viz. age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of breeding bulls in Sahiwal bulls by fitting least-squares analysis. Materials and Methods: The information on reproduction traits of 43 Sahiwal breeding bulls belonging to 8 sets of Sahiwal breeding program at Indian Council of Agricultural Research-National Dairy Research Institute (ICAR-NDRI), Karnal (Haryana), India during 27 years (1987-2013) were analyzed using fixed linear model. The information was collected from AI records, reproduction sheets, and bull AI register maintained at different sections of Institute viz. record room of Dairy Cattle Breeding Division (DCB), Cattle Yard, Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-NDRI, Karnal. Results: The average age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use of Sahiwal breeding bulls was estimated as 3.17±0.01 years and 5.35±0.01 years, with the coefficient of variation 18.93% and 20%, respectively. The overall least-squares mean for age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use was estimated as 3.14±0.09 years and 5.25±0.02 years, respectively, in Sahiwal breeding bulls. Period of freezing/use had significant effects on reproductive traits (p<0.01). Season had no significant effect on any of the traits considered in this study. Conclusion: It can be concluded that management inputs such as nutrition, breeding, and optimum environment should be taken care of to optimize age at first semen freezing and age at first semen use for better utilization of superior germplasm. PMID:27047178

  16. Propiedades biomecánicas de la membrana limitante interna tras recibir tratamiento intravítreo con ocriplasmina.

    PubMed

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Schumann, Ricarda G; Spindler, Volker; Wolf, Armin; Scheler, Renate; Mayer, Wolfgang J; Henrich, Paul B; Haritoglou, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la rigidez de la membrana limitante interna (MLI) humana y evaluar los posibles cambios de las propiedades mecánicas tras administrar una inyección intravítrea de ocriplasmina para tratar la tracción vitreomacular. Métodos: Este estudio se compone de una serie de casos intervencionales y comparativos de 12 muestras de MLI extraídas mediante cirugía y obtenidas de forma consecutiva de 9 ojos de 9 pacientes después de someterse sin éxito a vitreólisis farmacológica con ocriplasmina. Durante el mismo periodo de tiempo, 16 muestras de otros 13 ojos sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina se obtuvieron mediante vitrectomía y sirvieron como controles. Todos los pacientes presentaron agujeros maculares o tracción vitreomacular y se sometieron a vitrectomía con disección de la MLI tanto con tinción con azul brillante (AB) como sin ella. Todas las muestras se analizaron con un microscopio de fuerza atómica con imágenes de las regiones de 25 × 25 μm. En todas las muestras, se analizaron tanto la parte de la retina como la del vítreo de la MLI. Resultados: La microscopia de fuerza atómica no reveló diferencias significativas en cuanto a elasticidad de las muestras de MLI extraídas de ojos con o sin tratamiento con ocriplasmina. Las áreas onduladas de la parte de la retina presentaron una mayor rigidez que la parte del vítreo de la MLI. La cartografía topográfica tanto de la parte del vítreo como de la retina de la MLI no mostró ninguna alteración aparente de la morfología en ojos tratados con ocriplasmina en comparación con los ojos no tratados. La tinción con azul brillante conllevó un aumento de la rigidez tisular. Conclusiones: Las inyecciones intravítreas de ocriplasmina no varían las propiedades biomecánicas de la MLI humana. No existen pruebas de un posible efecto enzimático que interfiera con la rigidez de esta membrana basal. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection.

    PubMed

    Łukaszewicz, Ewa Teresa; Kowalczyk, Artur Mikołaj; Rzońca, Zenon

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.), one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 10(6) mL(-1) with dummy female and 614.5 x 10(6) mL(-1) for massage method) was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P ≥ 0.05). Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species.

  18. Semen specific gamma-glutamyltransferase carries ABH antigens: a sandwich ELISA for simultaneous semen detection and its ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Abe, S; Gunji, H; Kunii, S; Kuraya, M; Fujita, T; Hiraiwa, K

    1999-05-01

    Semen type of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GTP) is different from the membrane bound type of the enzyme in both biochemical and immunological properties, and consists of two subunits (150 and 95 kDa). We found that anti-ABH antibodies recognize a 150-kDa subunit of seminal gamma-GTP by Western blot and immunoprecipitation analyses. Using SG2, one of anti-semen specific gamma-GTP monoclonal antibodies which we had produced, and anti-ABH antibodies, we established a sandwich ELISA for identifying human seminal gamma-GTP and its ABO type simultaneously. This sandwich ELISA allows ABO typing of highly diluted semen. The dilutions for ABO typing were 10(5) times for A or O, and 10(4) times for B. Furthermore, ABO typing of semen was successfully performed by this ELISA, even in the mixed presence of vaginal fluid, saliva and blood. Thus, seminal gamma-GTP carries ABH antigens and the sandwich ELISA with SG2 and anti-ABH antibodies enables ABO typing of semen. The sandwich ELISA is extremely useful for ABO typing originated from semen in the mixture of biological fluids.

  19. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Łukaszewicz, Ewa Teresa; Kowalczyk, Artur Mikołaj; Rzońca, Zenon

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.), one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 106 mL-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 106 mL-1 for massage method) was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P≥0.05). Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species. PMID:26397704

  20. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  1. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential.

    PubMed

    Pratt, S L; Stowe, H M; Whitlock, B K; Strickland, L; Miller, M; Calcatera, S M; Dimmick, M D; Aiken, G E; Schrick, F N; Long, N M; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

    2015-02-01

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. = Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a novel endophyte cultivar lacking ergot alkaloids (E-) were evaluated. Angus bulls were allotted to treatment (Day 0) and grazed E+ or E- for 155 days. Treatment-by-day interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for serum PRL concentrations with E+treated bulls exhibiting reduced PRL values compared with E- control bulls, but no differences were observed for serum testosterone concentrations (P > 0.05). Further, bulls on the E+ treatment exhibited decreased total gain, average daily gain, and body weight by Day 140 (P < 0.05) compared with the E- bulls. Rump muscle depth was lower because the treatment in bulls grazing E+ compared with E- (P < 0.05) and intramuscular fat in the E- bulls compared with the E+ group was higher by Day 155 (P < 0.05). Analysis of ejaculates showed significant treatment × day effects for sperm concentration with lower values observed for bulls on the E+ treatment (P < 0.05). The percent normal morphology was reduced in ejaculates from E+ bulls compared with E- bulls (P < 0.05), and the difference was due to an increase in abnormal sperm present in the E+ ejaculates from Day 84 to 140 (P < 0.05). In addition, spermatozoa motility and progressive motility were decreased on thawing in semen samples from E+ bulls compared with E- bulls (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors affecting economics of using sexed semen in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McCullock, Katelyn; Hoag, Dana L K; Parsons, Jay; Lacy, Michael; Seidel, George E; Wailes, William

    2013-10-01

    The use of sexed semen in the dairy industry has grown rapidly. However, high costs and low fertility have limited the use of this potentially valuable tool. This study used simulation to evaluate 160,000 combinations of key variables in 3 spheres of influence related to profit feasibility: (1) market (e.g., milk and calf prices), (2) dairy farm management (e.g., conception rates), and (3) technology (e.g., accuracy of sexing). These influential variables were used to determine the most favorable circumstances in which managers or technicians can effect change. Three distinct scenarios were created to model 3 initiatives that a producer might take with sexed semen: (1) using sexed semen on heifers, (2) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and (3) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and breeding all other cows with beef semen. Due to the large number of management, market, and technology combinations, a response surface and interpretive graphs were created to map the scope of influence for the key variables. Technology variables such as the added cost of sexed semen had relatively little effect on profitability, defined as net present value gain per cow, whereas management variables such as conception rate had a significant effect. Milk price had relatively little effect within each scenario, but was important across scenarios. Profitability was very sensitive to the price of dairy heifer calves, relative to beef and dairy bull calves. Scenarios 1 and 2 added about $50 to $75 per cow in net present value, which ranged from $0 to $200 and from $100 to $300, respectively. Scenario 3 usually was not profitable, primarily because fewer excess dairy replacement heifers were available for sale. Dairy heifer price proved to be the most influential variable, regardless of scenario.

  3. Lifestyle and semen quality: role of modifiable risk factors.

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Radwan, Michał; Sobala, Wojciech; Ligocka, Danuta; Radwan, Paweł; Bochenek, Michał; Hanke, Wojciech

    2014-02-01

    The relationship between exposure to lifestyle factors and adverse effects on human reproductive health is debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have increased public and regulatory attention. The aim of the study was to examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and main semen parameters, sperm morphology, and sperm chromatin structure. The study population consisted of 344 men who were attending an infertility clinic for diagnostic purposes with normal semen concentration of 20-300 M/ml or with slight oligozoospermia (semen total concentration of 15-20 M/ml) [WHO 1999]. Participants were interviewed and provided semen samples. The interview included questions about demographics, socio-economic status, medical history, lifestyle factors (consumption of alcohol, tobacco, coffee intake, cell phone and sauna usage), and physical activity. The results of the study suggest that lifestyle factors may affect semen quality. A negative association was found between increased body mass index (BMI) and semen volume (p = 0.03). Leisure time activity was positively associated with sperm concentration (p = 0.04) and coffee drinking with the percentage of motile sperm cells, and the percentage of sperm head and neck abnormalities (p = 0.01, p = 0.05, and p = 0.03, respectively). Drinking red wine 1-3 times per week was negatively related to sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.01). Additionally, using a cell phone more than 10 years decreased the percentage of motile sperm cells (p = 0.02). Men who wore boxer shorts had a lower percentage of sperm neck abnormalities (p = 0.002) and percentage of sperm with DNA damage (p = 0.02). These findings may have important implications for semen quality and lifestyle.

  4. Semen and reproductive profiles of genetically identical cloned bulls.

    PubMed

    Tecirlioglu, R Tayfur; Cooney, Melissa A; Korfiatis, Natasha A; Hodgson, Renee; Williamson, Mark; Downie, Shara; Galloway, David B; French, Andrew J

    2006-06-01

    In this comparative study, reproductive parameters and semen characteristics of cloned bulls (n = 3) derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were compared to their original cell donor Holstein-Friesian (n = 2) bulls from the same enterprise to assess the differences in reproductive potential between a donor bull and its clones. The parameters evaluated included motility of fresh, frozen-thawed and Percoll-treated frozen-thawed spermatozoa, as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) ability, embryo quality, birth and survival of calves following IVF and embryo transfer with frozen-thawed semen. With fresh semen, spermatozoa from one cloned bull had lower motility than its donor. Cloned bulls had higher velocity parameters in fresh semen, but those effects were not obvious in frozen-thawed or frozen-thawed semen selected with a Percoll gradient. Semen collected from cloned bulls had significantly higher IVF rates compared to donors; however, embryo development per cleaved embryo or quality of blastocysts did not differ between donors and cloned bulls. Pregnancy and live offspring rates from one donor and its cloned bull did not differ between fresh (40%, 16/40 versus 46%, 17/37) and vitrified/thawed (13%, 2/16 versus 25%, 4/16) embryo transfer following IVF. A total of 26 calves were obtained from genotypically identical donor and cloned bulls with no signs of phenotypical abnormalities. These preliminary results suggested that the physiology of surviving postpubertal cloned bulls and quality of collected semen had equivalent reproductive potential to their original cell donor, with no evidence of any deleterious effects in their progeny.

  5. [Estimate of the variability in the evaluation of semen analysis].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Montes, Alfredo Martín; Rivera-Gallegos, Alfredo; Rodríguez-Villasana, Enrique; Juárez-Bengoa, Armando; Díaz-Pérez, Maria de los Angeles; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino

    2013-11-01

    Masculine Infertility diagnosis continues depending in a great number of cases of the analysis of the semen. However, appropriate interpretation of the seminal analysis implies to consider two factors, the dependability of the laboratory and the medical knowledge about the meaning of the seminal alterations. Compare the results of the semen analysis among clinical laboratories. It was used the semen samples of the patients that need a semen analysis for their study. The sample was collected in the biological fluids assessment laboratory (A) and was evaluated the sperm count, morphology and motility. They were distributed to the other laboratories, andrology laboratory (B) and Assisted Reproduction laboratory (C). It was calculated the coefficients of variation intra-observer and inter-observer and descriptive statistics. It was analyzed 28 semen samples by one technician in laboratory A, one in laboratory B and four in the laboratory C, using the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for reporting sperm count, motility and morphology. There is an inter-laboratory variability of the parameters studied in the sperm morphology with statistical difference (p < 0.001). The observed mean coefficients of variation intraobserver (CVs) were 3.6% for sperm count, 20.3%for motility and 9.4% for sperm morphology. The mean CVs inter- laboratory results were as follows: 25.7% for sperm concentration, 52.2% for sperm motility and 82.6% for sperm morphology. There is an inter-laboratory variability for the analysis of the semen samples between the 3 laboratories studied for the semen parameters studied.

  6. Toxicity of cryoprotectants to honey bee semen and queens.

    PubMed

    Wegener, J; Bienefeld, K

    2012-02-01

    Given the threats to the intraspecific biodiversity of Apis mellifera and the pressure on bee breeding to come up with disease-tolerant lines, techniques to cryopreserve drone semen are of great interest. Freeze-thawed drone semen of high viability and/or motility has repeatedly been obtained, but fertility of such semen, when it was measured, was always low. The cryoprotective agent (CPA) most frequently used with drone semen is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although this substance has been suspected of causing genetic damage in sperm. No form of sperm washing is currently performed. Using a membrane permeability assay, we measured the short-term toxicity of four possible replacements for DMSO, 1,3-propane diol, 2,3-butane diol, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl formamide. We also tested whether the practice of inseminating queens with CPA-containing semen affects sperm numbers in the storage organs of queens, or sperm fertility. Finally, we tested whether CPA-toxicity in vivo can be reduced by using mixtures of two CPAs, DMSO, and ethylene glycol. Our results show that, although short-term toxicity of all CPAs tested was low, the presence of single CPAs in insemination mixtures at concentrations required for slow freezing greatly reduced the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca. Contrary to earlier reports, this was also true for DMSO. Ethylene glycol was additionally shown to reduce the viability of spermatozoa reaching the storage organ. Mixtures of DMSO and EthGly performed better than either substance used singly at the same concentration. We conclude that the toxicity of CPAs, including DMSO, on honey bee semen and/or queens has been underestimated in the past. This could partly explain the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo quality of cryopreserved drone semen, described by others. Combinations of several CPAs and techniques to partly remove CPAs after thawing could help to solve this problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A comparison of semen diluents on the in vitro and in vivo fertility of liquid bull semen.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Edel M; Murphy, Craig; O'Meara, Ciara; Dunne, Gemma; Eivers, Bernard; Lonergan, Patrick; Fair, Sean

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of semen diluent on calving rate (CR) following artificial insemination with liquid bull semen stored for up to 3 d postcollection. In experiment 1, the effect of storing liquid semen maintained at a constant ambient temperature in 1 of 7 different diluents [Caprogen (homemade), OptiXcell, BioXcell, BullXcell, INRA96, NutriXcell, or AndroMed (all commercially available)] on total and progressive motility was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 2, the field fertility of liquid semen diluted in Caprogen, BioXcell, or INRA96 and inseminated on d 1, 2, or 3 postcollection was assessed in comparison to frozen-thawed semen (total of n = 19,126 inseminations). In experiment 3, the effect of storage temperature fluctuations (4 and 18°C) on total and progressive motility following dilution in Caprogen, BioXcell, and INRA96 was assessed on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 postcollection. In experiment 1, semen stored in Caprogen, BioXcell, and INRA96 resulted in the highest total and progressive motility on d 1, 2, and 3 of storage compared with OptiXcell, BullXcell, NutriXcell, and AndroMed. In experiment 2, an effect of diluent on CR was found as semen diluted in BioXcell had a lower CR on d 1, 2, and 3 of storage (46.3, 35.4, and 34.0%, respectively) in comparison with Caprogen (55.8, 52.0, and 51.9%, respectively), INRA96 (55.0, 55.1, and 52.2%, respectively), and frozen-thawed semen (59.7%). Effects were found of parity, cow fertility sub-index, as well as the number of days in milk on CR. In experiment 3, when the storage temperature of diluted semen fluctuated between 4 and 18°C, to mimic what occurs in the field (nighttime vs. daytime), BioXcell had the lowest total and progressive motility in comparison to Caprogen and INRA96. In conclusion, diluent significantly affected sperm motility when stored for up to 3 d. Semen diluted in INRA96 resulted in a similar CR to semen diluted in Caprogen and to frozen

  8. EVALUATION OF CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE AND DNA INTEGRITY IN SPERM: AN INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SEMEN COLLECTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home collection of ejaculated semen would facilitate participation rates and geographic diversity in reproductive epidemiology studies. Our study addressed concerns that home collection and overnight mail return might induce chromosome/DNA damage. We collected semen from 10 hea...

  9. EVALUATION OF CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE AND DNA INTEGRITY IN SPERM: AN INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SEMEN COLLECTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home collection of ejaculated semen would facilitate participation rates and geographic diversity in reproductive epidemiology studies. Our study addressed concerns that home collection and overnight mail return might induce chromosome/DNA damage. We collected semen from 10 hea...

  10. Relationship between semen parameters and spontaneous pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Sreebala; Townend, John; Campbell, Doris; Murdoch, Linda; Mathers, Eileen; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2010-07-01

    To explore the association between semen parameters and spontaneous pregnancy. Case-control study. Aberdeen Fertility Centre, Aberdeen, Scotland. A total of 1,426 untreated couples attending a subfertility clinic with no evidence of azoospermia, anovulation, or tubal disease were observed for 180 weeks. "Cases" were couples who achieved conception spontaneously within the follow-up period; controls were those who did not. None. Sperm density, sperm motility, and sperm morphology. In women who achieved spontaneous conception (n = 488) the mean (SD) age was 30.6 (4.8) years and median (interquartile range) parity was 1 (0-1), compared with 32.0 (5.4) years and 1 (0-1) in those who did not (n = 938). The median (interquartile range) duration of infertility was 24 (17-36) and 18 (14-24) months in nonpregnant and pregnant couples, respectively. After adjusting for male and female age, parity, year of first visit, and duration of infertility, sperm motility and normal morphology were significantly associated with spontaneous pregnancy, whereas sperm density was not. For motility, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.545 (95% confidence interval 0.514-0.577). For morphology, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.565 (95% confidence interval 0.534-0.597). In subfertile couples, sperm motility and morphology have limited predictive value for spontaneous conception. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  12. Cryopreservation of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen in Bioxcell extender.

    PubMed

    Akhter, S; Ansari, M S; Rakha, B A; Andrabi, S M H; Iqbal, S; Ullah, N

    2010-10-01

    This study was designed to compare commercially available extender Bioxcell with tris-citric egg yolk extender for post thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo semen. For comparison of post thaw semen quality: semen was collected from five adult Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls of similar age group with artificial vagina (at 42 degrees C) for three weeks (replicates). Qualifying ejaculates having motility >60% from each buffalo bull were divided in two aliquots and diluted (at 37 degrees C having 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml) in tris-citric egg yolk or Bioxcell extender. Diluted semen was cooled to 4 degrees C in 2 hours, equilibrated for 4 hours and filled in 0.5 ml straws. Semen straws were kept over liquid nitrogen vapors (5 cm) for 10 minutes. Straws were then plunged and stored in liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). After 24 hours of storage, semen straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 30 seconds to assess sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, normal apical ridge, and abnormalities (head, mid piece, and tail). For comparison of in vivo fertility: semen from two buffalo bulls of known fertility was cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell as described earlier, and used for inseminations under field conditions. Post-thaw percentage of sperm motility (45.3 +/- 1.1, 45.0 +/- 1.4), viability (66.2 +/- 1.1, 64.4 +/- 1.3) plasma membrane integrity (60.4 +/- 1.2, 59.2 +/- 1.4) and normal apical ridge (82.9 +/- 0.5, 80.7 +/- 0.5) did not differ (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. Similarly, sperm abnormalities of head (1.20 +/- 0.1, 1.20 +/- 0.1), mid piece (0.67 +/- 0.1, 0.87 +/- 0.1) and tail (11.7 +/- 0.2, 11.6 +/- 0.3) remained similar (P > 0.05) in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell extender, respectively. In vivo fertility rates of buffalo semen cryopreserved in tris-citric egg yolk and Bioxcell also remained similar (44% vs. 47%). It is concluded that commercially available Bioxcell may be

  13. The utility of nanowater for ram semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Grygier, Joanna; Patkowski, Krzysztof; Oszczęda, Zdzisław; Jelkin, Igor; Kosiek, Anna; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Szymanowska, Anna; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Zieba, Dorota A; Bartlewski, Pawel M

    2015-05-01

    Nanowater (NW; water declusterized in the low-temperature plasma reactor) has specific physicochemical properties that could increase semen viability after freezing and hence fertility after artificial insemination (AI) procedures. The main goal of this study was to evaluate ram semen quality after freezing in the media containing NW. Ejaculates from 10 rams were divided into two equal parts, diluted in a commercially available semen extender (Triladyl®; MiniTüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany) prepared with deionized water (DW) or NW, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility and morphology using the sperm class analyzer system and light microscopy. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed to determine the size of extracellular water crystals in frozen semen samples. Survival time at room temperature, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations post-thawing as well as conception/lambing rates after laparoscopic intrauterine AI of 120 ewes were also determined. There were no significant differences between DW and NW groups in sperm progressive motility (26.4 ± 12.2 and 30.8 ± 12.4%) or survival time (266.6 ± 61.3 and 270.9 ± 76.7 min) after thawing and no differences in the percentages of spermatozoa with various morphological defects before or after freezing. There were, however, differences (P < 0.05) in AspAT (DW: 187.1 ± 160.4 vs. NW: 152.7 ± 118.3 U/l) and ALP concentrations (DW: 2198.3 ± 1810.5 vs. NW: 1612.1 ± 1144.8 U/l) in semen samples post-thawing. Extracellular water crystals were larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates frozen in NW-containing media. Ultrasonographic examinations on day 40 post-AI revealed higher (P < 0.05) conception rates in ewes inseminated with NW (78.3%) compared with DW semen (58.3%), and the percentages of ewes that carried lambs to term were 73.3% and 45.0% in NW and DW groups, respectively (P < 0.01). In summary, the use of a semen

  14. The utility of nanowater for ram semen cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Patkowski, Krzysztof; Oszczęda, Zdzisław; Jelkin, Igor; Kosiek, Anna; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Szymanowska, Anna; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Zieba, Dorota A; Bartlewski, Pawel M

    2015-01-01

    Nanowater (NW; water declusterized in the low-temperature plasma reactor) has specific physicochemical properties that could increase semen viability after freezing and hence fertility after artificial insemination (AI) procedures. The main goal of this study was to evaluate ram semen quality after freezing in the media containing NW. Ejaculates from 10 rams were divided into two equal parts, diluted in a commercially available semen extender (Triladyl®; MiniTüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany) prepared with deionized water (DW) or NW, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility and morphology using the sperm class analyzer system and light microscopy. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed to determine the size of extracellular water crystals in frozen semen samples. Survival time at room temperature, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations post-thawing as well as conception/lambing rates after laparoscopic intrauterine AI of 120 ewes were also determined. There were no significant differences between DW and NW groups in sperm progressive motility (26.4 ± 12.2 and 30.8 ± 12.4%) or survival time (266.6 ± 61.3 and 270.9 ± 76.7 min) after thawing and no differences in the percentages of spermatozoa with various morphological defects before or after freezing. There were, however, differences (P < 0.05) in AspAT (DW: 187.1 ± 160.4 vs. NW: 152.7 ± 118.3 U/l) and ALP concentrations (DW: 2198.3 ± 1810.5 vs. NW: 1612.1 ± 1144.8 U/l) in semen samples post-thawing. Extracellular water crystals were larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates frozen in NW-containing media. Ultrasonographic examinations on day 40 post-AI revealed higher (P < 0.05) conception rates in ewes inseminated with NW (78.3%) compared with DW semen (58.3%), and the percentages of ewes that carried lambs to term were 73.3% and 45.0% in NW and DW groups, respectively (P

  15. Semen characteristics in pubertal boys. IV. Semen quality and hormone profile.

    PubMed

    Janczewski, Z; Bablok, L

    1985-01-01

    The biological quality of semen was contrasted with levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone in plasma. The level of FSH rises significantly from azoospermia/cryptozoospermia (3.87 +/- 1.1 mU/ml) to asthenozoospermia (5.73 +/- 2.11 mU/ml). In normospermia, however (4.63 +/- 1.88 mU/ml), the level of FSH decreases in a statistically significant manner and remains at the standard level. Comparing the level of LH to the quality of semen, it rises in a statistically significant manner from azoospermia/cryptozoospermia (6.46 +/- 1.35 mU/ml) to oligozoospermia (9.03 +/- 3.35 mU/ml). The level decreases in a statistically significant manner in normospermia (7.15 +/- 1.69 mU/ml). The level of testosterone shows a progressive linear growth from azoospermia/cryptozoospermia (6.03 +/- 2.09 micrograms/ml) to normospermia (6.55 +/- 2.12 micrograms/ml). The growth is statistically insignificant.

  16. Quality and fertility of cooled-shipped stallion semen at the time of insemination.

    PubMed

    Heckenbichler, Sabine; Deichsel, Katharina; Peters, Pamela; Aurich, Christine

    2011-03-15

    Stallion semen processing is far from standardized and differs substantially between AI centers. Suboptimal pregnancy rates in equine AI may primarily result from breeding with low quality semen not adequately processed for shipment. It was the aim of the study to evaluate quality and fertility of cooled-shipped equine semen provided for breeding of client mares by commercial semen collection centers in Europe. Cooled shipped semen (n = 201 doses) from 67 stallions and 36 different EU-approved semen collection centers was evaluated. At arrival, semen temperature was 9.8 ± 0.2 °C, mean sperm concentration of AI doses was 68 ± 3 x 10(6)/ml), mean total sperm count was 1.0 ± 0.1 x 10(9), total motility averaged 83 ± 1% and morphological defects 45 ± 2%. A total of 86 mares were inseminated, overall per season-pregnancy rate in these mares was 67%. Sperm concentration significantly influenced semen motility and morphology at arrival of the shipped semen. Significant effects of month of the year on volume, sperm concentration and total sperm count of the insemination dose were found. The collection center significantly influenced all semen parameters evaluated. Semen doses used to inseminate mares that became pregnant had significantly higher total and progressive motility of spermatozoa and a significantly lower percentage of morphological semen defects than insemination doses used for mares failing to get pregnant. Results demonstrate that insemination with semen of better quality provides a higher chance to achieve pregnancy. Besides the use of stallions with good semen quality, appropriate semen processing is an important factor for satisfying results in artificial insemination with cooled-shipped horse semen.

  17. Semen amyloids participate in spermatozoa selection and clearance

    PubMed Central

    Roan, Nadia R; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Kohgadai, Nargis; Usmani, Shariq M; Hamil, Katherine G; Neidleman, Jason; Montano, Mauricio; Ständker, Ludger; Röcker, Annika; Cavrois, Marielle; Rosen, Jared; Marson, Kara; Smith, James F; Pilcher, Christopher D; Gagsteiger, Friedrich; Sakk, Olena; O’Rand, Michael; Lishko, Polina V; Kirchhoff, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Unlike other human biological fluids, semen contains multiple types of amyloid fibrils in the absence of disease. These fibrils enhance HIV infection by promoting viral fusion to cellular targets, but their natural function remained unknown. The similarities shared between HIV fusion to host cell and sperm fusion to oocyte led us to examine whether these fibrils promote fertilization. Surprisingly, the fibrils inhibited fertilization by immobilizing sperm. Interestingly, however, this immobilization facilitated uptake and clearance of sperm by macrophages, which are known to infiltrate the female reproductive tract (FRT) following semen exposure. In the presence of semen fibrils, damaged and apoptotic sperm were more rapidly phagocytosed than healthy ones, suggesting that deposition of semen fibrils in the lower FRT facilitates clearance of poor-quality sperm. Our findings suggest that amyloid fibrils in semen may play a role in reproduction by participating in sperm selection and facilitating the rapid removal of sperm antigens. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24888.001 PMID:28653619

  18. Lipid Concentrations and Semen Quality: The LIFE Study

    PubMed Central

    Schisterman, Enrique F.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Chen, Zhen; Browne, Richard W.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Kim, Sungduk; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2014-01-01

    The decline in sperm count rates over the last 50 years appears to parallel the rising prevalence of obesity. As lipids levels are strongly associated with obesity, high lipids levels or hyperlipidemia may thus play an important role in the decline in fertility in addition to other environmental or lifestyle factors. The objective of this population based cohort study was to evaluate the association between men’s serum lipid concentrations and semen quality parameters among 501 male partners of couples desiring pregnancy and discontinuing contraception. Each participant provided prospectively up to two semen samples (94% of men provided one or more semen samples, and 77% of men provided a second sample approximately one month later). Linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the associations between baseline lipid concentrations and semen quality parameters, adjusted for age, body mass index, and race. We found that higher levels of serum total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipids were associated with a significantly lower percentage of sperm with intact acrosome and smaller sperm head area and perimeter. Our results suggest that lipid concentrations may affect semen parameters, specifically sperm head morphology, highlighting the importance of cholesterol and lipid homeostasis for male fecundity. PMID:24596332

  19. HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B.; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D.; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus. PMID:20808902

  20. HIV-1 Populations in Semen Arise through Multiple Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey A; Ping, Li-Hua; Dibben, Oliver; Jabara, Cassandra B; Arney, Leslie; Kincer, Laura; Tang, Yuyang; Hobbs, Marcia; Hoffman, Irving; Kazembe, Peter; Jones, Corbin D; Borrow, Persephone; Fiscus, Susan; Cohen, Myron S; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2010-08-19

    HIV-1 is present in anatomical compartments and bodily fluids. Most transmissions occur through sexual acts, making virus in semen the proximal source in male donors. We find three distinct relationships in comparing viral RNA populations between blood and semen in men with chronic HIV-1 infection, and we propose that the viral populations in semen arise by multiple mechanisms including: direct import of virus, oligoclonal amplification within the seminal tract, or compartmentalization. In addition, we find significant enrichment of six out of nineteen cytokines and chemokines in semen of both HIV-infected and uninfected men, and another seven further enriched in infected individuals. The enrichment of cytokines involved in innate immunity in the seminal tract, complemented with chemokines in infected men, creates an environment conducive to T cell activation and viral replication. These studies define different relationships between virus in blood and semen that can significantly alter the composition of the viral population at the source that is most proximal to the transmitted virus.

  1. Spermophagy in semen in the red wolf, Canis rufus.

    PubMed

    Koehler, J K; Platz, C C; Waddell, W; Jones, M H; Smith, R; Behrns, S

    1994-04-01

    The red wolf (Canis rufus) is an endangered species with 194 individuals remaining in the wild and in various captive facilities. Breeding efforts at the Graham, WA site (Point Defiance Zoo and Aquarium) have involved artificial insemination with fresh or frozen semen in an effort to increase population and maximize the genetic potential of the stock. Electron microscopic observations were made in semen specimens obtained by electro-ejaculation from mature males prior to their use in an effort to determine semen parameters that might be useful in guiding breeding procedures. Sperm samples were either fixed immediately or treated with capacitating media and fixed after 4 to 7 hr of incubation. Many of the specimens examined were pyospermic (white cell in semen) and showed evidence of spermophagy, primarily by neutrophils. Of the six animals surveyed, only one showed little evidence of spermophagy, and three had extensive pyospermia and spermophagy but this finding was not correlated with fertility. Samples fixed immediately as well as those incubated for several hours showed evidence of spermophagy, indicating that the phagocytosis was not the result of culture. Gene pool restriction and/or captive stress may be contributing factors of reduced semen quality.

  2. Concordance among sperm deoxyribonucleic acid integrity assays and semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Peter J; Cogan, Chava; Mehta, Akanksha; Bolyakov, Alex; Paduch, Darius A; Goldstein, Marc

    2015-07-01

    To assess the concordance of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) results, epifluorescence TUNEL assay results, and standard semen parameters. Prospective, observational study. Tertiary referral andrology clinic. A total of 212 men evaluated for subfertility by a single physician. Clinical history, physical examination, semen analysis, SCSA, and TUNEL assay. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r) between SCSA DNA fragmentation index (DFI), percentage TUNEL-positive sperm, and semen analysis parameters. There was a positive correlation between SCSA DFI and TUNEL (r = 0.31), but the strength of this correlation was weaker than has previously been reported. The discordance rate between SCSA and TUNEL in classifying patients as normal or abnormal was 86 of 212 (40.6%). The SCSA DFI was moderately negatively correlated with sperm concentration and motility. The TUNEL results were unrelated to standard semen parameters. The SCSA DFI and percentage TUNEL-positive sperm are moderately correlated measures of sperm DNA integrity but yield different results in a large percentage of patients. The DFI is well-correlated with semen analysis parameters, whereas TUNEL is not. These data indicate that the SCSA and TUNEL assay measure different aspects of sperm DNA integrity and should not be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Semen and the diagnosis of infertility in Aristotle.

    PubMed

    Trompoukis, C; Kalaitzis, C; Giannakopoulos, S; Sofikitis, N; Touloupidis, S

    2007-02-01

    Aristotle (384-322bc) was one of the leading intellectual figures of all time. In his work he systematised a massive amount of knowledge on a diverse range of subjects, including medicine. This article discusses the observations and hypotheses of this great philosopher on semen and infertility, as they are presented in his work Generation of Animals. This is combined with an evaluation of his positions in relation to those of the Hippocratic Corpus on the same subject. An extensive review of Aristotle's work Generation of Animals was performed with particular focus on his perspectives about semen and infertility. Publications referring to this work were also reviewed. According to Aristotle, semen is that which contains the principles that come from both parents when they unite. He believed that semen was formed by the secretion of nutriments by the body, developing his theories of sterility on this basic principle. A lack of fertility is attributed to genetic or acquired causes. He proposed methods for diagnosing sterility, primarily the 'water test' for men and the 'pessary' method for women. Even if his observations contain clear mistakes, such as attributing only secondary functions to male testicles and the identification of menses as women's 'seed', Aristotle's views also contain keen observations and exceptional thinking, both on the characteristics of semen and the causes of sterility (infertility).

  4. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in semen samples of birds of prey.

    PubMed

    Lierz, M; Hafez, H M

    2008-10-01

    Mycoplasmas are well-known pathogens in a variety of animals. In poultry it is known that some species can be transmitted by semen and infect the uterus of females. As the prevalence of mycoplasmas in birds of prey is very high and artificial insemination is a commonly used technique for reproduction, the possibility of transmission Mycoplasma spp. by contaminated semen in birds of prey was investigated. Isolation of mycoplasmas was possible in five out of 32 (15.6%) semen samples of different bird of prey species. Two additional semen samples were positive for mycoplasma DNA using a Mycoplasma-genus-specific polymerase chain reaction. The isolation of mycoplasmas from a testicular sample indicates the testis as the possible source of contamination. Sequencing of large parts (>90%) of the 16S rRNA gene of the isolated mycoplasmas suggests that all isolates belong to the same species. Alignment of the sequenced products with the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma species in GenBank demonstrated a similarity of 97% to Mycoplasma verecundum, but serological testing by immunobinding assay failed to identify it as such. It is recommended that the semen of donor birds of prey is examined for mycoplasmas before its use in artificial insemination.

  5. Association of Vitamin E with Rapid Thawing on Goat Semen

    PubMed Central

    Penitente-Filho, Jurandy Mauro; Oliveira, Fabrício Albani; Jimenez, Carolina Rodriguez; Dias, Júlio César Oliveira; Oliveira, Gisele Dias; Silveira, Renata Gomes; Silveira, Camila Oliveira; Torres, Ciro Alexandre Alves

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E associated with rapid thawing on cryopreserved goat semen. Two bucks were used and eight ejaculates per animal were collected using artificial vagina. Semen was diluted with the following treatments: BIOXCELL (control), BIOXCELL + Equex (sodium lauryl sulphate) and BIOXCELL + vitamin E 100 μM. Semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and cooled at 5°C for 1 hour. Freezing was performed in liquid nitrogen vapor (−155°C) during 15 minutes. Then, the straws were immersed in liquid nitrogen (−196°C). Straws were thawed at 38°C/60 seconds or at 60°C/7 seconds with immediate sperm analysis. Hypoosmotic swelling test was performed adding a 20 μL aliquot of thawed semen to 1 mL of hypoosmotic solution (100 mOsm·Kg−1) followed by incubation during 60 minutes in water bath (38°C). Vitamin E did not affect any studied parameters (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, defrosting rate of 60°C/7 seconds improved sperm membrane functional integrity (P < 0.05). Current knowledge about goat semen cryopreservation is not sufficient to ensure high post-thawing recovery rates; thus, this study brings important data about using antioxidants and different thawing rates on cryopreservation process. PMID:24955428

  6. The effects of semen collection on fertility in captive, naturally fertile, sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We tested to see if semen collection interferes with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile, Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had previously produced fertile eggs. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection had minimal effect on semen quality and semen quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm viability, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation. Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we did not observe differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no statistically significant differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. However, 4 eggs were broken by adults during the disturbance associated with capturing birds for semen collection. We found that females with mates from which we consistently gathered better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than females with sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60). We interpret these results to mean that males that were successfully breeding with their mates had little left at the time of our collection.

  7. Rooster Semen Cryopreservation: Effect of Pedigree Line and Male Age on Post-Thaw Sperm Function

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fertility rates of cryopreserved poultry semen are highly variable and not reliable for use in preservation of commercial genetic stocks. Our objective was to evaluate the cryosurvival of semen from 8 pedigreed layer lines at the onset and end of production. Semen from 160 roosters (20/line) was...

  8. Seasonal variations in semen characteristics, semen cryopreservation, estrus synchronization, and successful artificial insemination in the spotted deer (Axis axis).

    PubMed

    Umapathy, Govindhaswamy; Sontakke, Sadanand D; Reddy, Anuradha; Shivaji, S

    2007-05-01

    Ten adult male spotted deer were monitored over a 2-year interval to determine seasonal variations in testicular size, semen characteristics and serum testosterone concentrations, and to determine if there was an association between season and type of antler. Mean (+/-S.E.M.) testicular volume (118.8+/-4.6 cm(3)), serum testosterone concentration (1.2+/-0.1 ng/mL), semen volume (4.1+/-0.6 mL), sperm concentration (338.3+/-24.9 x 10(6) mL(-1)), percentage of morphologically normal sperm (79.1+/-2.8%), and percentage of motile sperm (66.5+/-1.5%) were higher (P<0.05) in hard antler deer (peaked from March to May) than in deer with velvet antlers or in deer in which the antler has been shed. Thus, March-May was considered the physiologic breeding season for these deer; at this time, all stags had hard antlers. Furthermore, a Tris-citrate-based semen extender containing 4% glycerol and 20% egg-yolk was adequate for cryopreservation of semen. Estrus was induced with an implant containing norgestomet, timed transcervical AI was done with fresh semen, and 3 of 10 females were pregnant at 60 days, with fawns born 120 (premature), 240 and 243 days after AI. These results were considered a model for the use of assisted reproductive techniques to conserve other critically endangered deer species of India.

  9. [Semen analysis: spermiogram according to WHO 2010 criteria].

    PubMed

    Gottardo, F; Kliesch, S

    2011-01-01

    Semen analysis plays a key role in the diagnostics of male infertility. Semen analysis has to be performed according to World Health Organisation (WHO) criteria. The updated version of the WHO manual was completed at the end of 2009 and published in 2010. Standard procedures in semen analysis include evaluation of sperm concentration, motility, morphology and vitality. In this new version particular attention has been paid to internal and external quality control, helping to identify and correct incidental and systematic errors both in routine analysis as well as in the field of research. The new manual describes all laboratory solutions, procedures and calculation formulas, and focuses on the definition of cryptozoospermia or azoospermia. A chapter concerning cryopreservation of spermatozoa has been newly integrated. The following overview presents the most important aspects of the updated WHO manual.

  10. Effect of isotypes of antisperm antibodies on semen quality.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Kortebani, G; Mazzolli, A B

    1992-06-01

    A direct immunobead test (IBT) was performed on 233 men who attended an immunological centre. Thirty-four (14.6%) of these men were found to be positive (greater than 20% binding) for antisperm antibodies (ASA). IgA, IgG and IgM were the most common sperm-associated immunoglobulins. In 50% of men with ASA asthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia, leukocytospermia or hypofunction of the seminal vesicles was observed. Semen parameters were altered most frequently when IgM was present in association with IgA and/or IgG. This suggests that there is an active inflammatory process in the reproductive tract, as evidenced by leukocytospermia, and this could be responsible for the abnormal semen parameters. ASA generation could be a consequence of this process rather than being the cause of the abnormal semen quality. If ASA do affect fertility, this could take place in the female reproductive tract.

  11. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice.

  12. Conservation of feline semen. Part I: cooling and freezing protocols.

    PubMed

    Luvoni, G C; Kalchschmidt, E; Leoni, S; Ruggiero, C

    2003-08-01

    There has been increased interest recently in the conservation of wild felids and preservation of valuable cat breeds. Assisted reproduction, by means of artificial insemination (AI), is an important tool for developing breeding programs for conservation. Optimal use of AI requires accurate data on semen conservation protocols and its long-term storage/survival. In this paper, semen cooling and freezing processes are described, with special emphasis on the results obtained in experiments performed in the domestic cat. Conception rates after AI in wild and domestic cats are also reported.

  13. Fluorescence detection of cationic amyloid fibrils in human semen.

    PubMed

    Easterhoff, David; DiMaio, John T M; Liyanage, Wathsala; Lo, Chi-Wen; Bae, Woori; Doran, Todd M; Smrcka, Alan; Nilsson, Bradley L; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2013-09-15

    Cationic amyloid fibrils, including the Semen Enhancer of Virus Infection (SEVI), have recently been described in human semen. Simple methods for quantitating these fibrils are needed to improve our understanding of their biological function. We performed high-throughput screening to identify molecules that bind SEVI, and identified a small molecule (8E2), that fluoresced brightly in the presence of SEVI and other cationic fibrils. 8E2 bound SEVI with almost 40-fold greater affinity than thioflavin-T, and could efficiently detect high molecular weight fibrils in human seminal fluid. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Fluorescence detection of cationic amyloid fibrils in human semen

    PubMed Central

    Easterhoff, David; DiMaio, John T. M.; Liyanage, Wathsala Nillushi; Lo, Chi-Wen; Bae, Woori; Doran, Todd M.; Smrcka, Alan; Nilsson, Bradley L.; Dewhurst, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Cationic amyloid fibrils, including the Semen Enhancer of Virus Infection (SEVI), have recently been described in human semen. Simple methods for quantitating these fibrils are needed to improve our understanding of their biological function. We performed high-throughput screening to identify molecules that bind SEVI, and identified a small molecule (8E2), that fluoresced brightly in the presence of SEVI and other cationic fibrils. 8E2 bound SEVI with almost 40-fold greater affinity than thioflavin-T, and could efficiently detect high molecular weight fibrils in human seminal fluid. PMID:23910594

  15. Are serum zinc and copper levels related to semen quality?

    PubMed

    Yuyan, Li; Junqing, Wu; Wei, Yuan; Weijin, Zhou; Ersheng, Gao

    2008-04-01

    Low serum zinc levels are harmful to semen quality in Chinese men. In this study, eligible men aged 20-59 years old-excluding those who had ever had urinary or genital disease, tuberculosis, or occupational heavy metal contact-were examined for semen quality and serum zinc and copper concentrations. Progressive motility showed differences among the five copper groups, but multiple logistic analyses did not show that higher or lower serum copper levels had a significant effect on sperm quality. When serum zinc concentration was low, the risk of asthenozoospermia was higher. The ratio of Cu/Zn was higher in the progressive motility abnormal group than in the normal group.

  16. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen...

  17. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen imported from the APHIS...

  18. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen...

  19. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL... Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen imported from the APHIS...

  20. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine semen...

  1. Individual identification from semen by the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprint technique.

    PubMed

    Honma, M; Yoshii, T; Ishiyama, I; Mitani, K; Kominami, R; Muramatsu, M

    1989-01-01

    For individual identification from semen, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fingerprint technique was used. In a blind trial, we succeeded in determining the semen donors among several volunteers comparing the DNA fingerprints of the blood and semen samples, respectively. Thereafter, we examined semen in a condom left beside a naked female dead body. The DNA fingerprint of the semen was recognized to be identical to that of the blood from a suspected man arrested later. This is the first report that the DNA fingerprint technique was practically used in a criminal investigation in Japan.

  2. A trial of semen collection by transrectal electroejaculation method from Amur leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus)

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Hideo; YOSHIZAWA, Madoka; SASAKI, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Fujio; NARUSHIMA, Etsuo; OGAWA, Yuka; ORIMA, Hiromitsu; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; TOYONAGA, Mari; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi; HORI, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We collected semen from a male Amur leopard cat using the transrectal electroejaculation method and investigated the semen qualities for about four years. In addition, the influence of the season on the spermatogenic function of the Amur leopard cat was investigated with regard to the semen qualities, testicular volume and serum testosterone level. As a result, we could collect semen with good sperm qualities that would be useable for artificial insemination. Some seasonality was noted in the testicular volume and serum testosterone level. We clarified that the semen qualities were favorable before and during the female breeding season compared with those after the breeding season. PMID:26935841

  3. Seminal Plasma Heparin Binding Proteins Improve Semen Quality by Reducing Oxidative Stress during Cryopreservation of Cattle Bull Semen.

    PubMed

    Patel, Maulikkumar; Gandotra, Vinod K; Cheema, Ranjna S; Bansal, Amrit K; Kumar, Ajeet

    2016-09-01

    Heparin binding proteins (HBPs) are produced by accessory glands. These are secreted into the seminal fluid, bind to the spermatozoa at the time of ejaculation, favour capacitation, acrosome reaction, and alter the immune system response toward the sperm. The present study was conducted with an objective to assess the effect of purified seminal plasma-HBPs (SP-HBPs) on cross bred cattle bull sperm attributes during two phases of cryopreservation: Pre freezing and freezing-thawing. SP-HBPs were purified from pooled seminal plasma by heparin affinity chromatography. Three doses of SP-HBPs i.e. 10, 20, 40 μg/mL semen were standardized to find out the optimum dose and 20 μg/mL was found to be an optimum dose. Semen as such and treated with SP-HBPs was diluted with sodium citrate-egg yolk diluter and cryopreserved as per the standard protocol. Sperm parameters i.e. motility, viability, Hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), acrosome damage, in vitro capacitation and lipid peroxidation were evaluated in SP-HBP treated and untreated (control) semen at both phases of cryopreservation. A considerable variation in percent sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity (HOST), acrosome damage, acrosome reaction and lipid peroxidation was observed at both phases among the bulls irrespective of the treatment. Incubation of neat semen with 20 μg/mL SP-HBP before processing for cryopreservation enhanced the average motility, viability, membrane integrity by 7.2%, 1.5%, 7.9%, and 5.6%, 6.6%, 7.4% in pre-frozen and frozen-thawed semen in comparison to control. There was also an average increase of 4.1%/3.9% in in vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction in SP-HBPs-treated frozen-thawed semen as compared to control. However, binding of SP-HBPs to the sperm declined acrosome damage and lipid peroxidation by 1.3%/4.1% and 22.1/32.7 μM/10(9) spermatozoa in SP-HBP treated pre-frozen/frozen-thawed semen as compared to control, respectively. Significant (p<0.05) effects were observed only

  4. Colloid centrifugation of fresh stallion semen before cryopreservation decreased microorganism load of frozen-thawed semen without affecting seminal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, T; Lopes, G; Pinto, M; Silva, E; Miranda, C; Correia, M J; Damásio, L; Thompson, G; Rocha, A

    2015-01-15

    Freezability of equine semen may be influenced by microorganism population of semen. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of single-layer density gradient centrifugation (SLC) of fresh semen before cryopreservation on semen's microbial load (ML) and sperm cells kinetics after freezing-thawing. For that, one ejaculate was collected from 20 healthy stallions and split into control (C) samples (cryopreserved without previous SLC) and SLC samples (subjected to SLC). Semen cryopreservation was performed according to the same protocol in both groups. Microbial load of each microorganism species and total microbial load (TML) expressed in colony-forming units (CFU/mL) as well as frozen-thawed sperm kinetics were assessed in both groups. Additional analysis of the TML was performed, subdividing the frozen-thawed samples in "suitable" (total motility ≥ 30%) and "unsuitable" (total motility < 30%) semen for freezing programs, and comparing the C and SLC groups within these subpopulations. After thawing, SLC samples had less (P < 0.05) TML (88.65 × 10(2) ± 83.8 × 10(2) CFU/mL) than C samples (155.69 × 10(2) ± 48.85 × 10(2) CFU/mL), mainly due to a reduction of Enterococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. A relationship between post-thaw motility and SLC effect on ML was noted, as only in samples with more than 30% total motility was ML reduced (P < 0.05) by SLC (from 51.33 × 10(2) ± 33.26 × 10(2) CFU/mL to 26.68 × 10(2) ± 12.39 × 10(2) CFU/mL in "suitable" frozen-thawed semen vs. 240.90 × 10(2) ± 498.20 × 10(2) to 139.30 × 10(2) ± 290.30 × 10(2) CFU/mL in "unsuitable" frozen-thawed semen). The effect of SLC on kinetics of frozen-thawed sperm cells was negligible.

  5. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation.

  6. Lack of impact of semen quality on fertilization in assisted conception.

    PubMed

    Kini, S; Morrell, D; Thong, K J; Kopakaki, A; Hillier, S; Irvine, D S

    2010-02-01

    Defective semen quality is one of the commonest causes of infertility. The diagnosis of male fertility depends upon a descriptive evaluation of human semen, however a normal semen analysis does not necessarily indicate satisfactory fertility potential. (i) to examine the semen quality of patients undergoing treatment by assisted conception, (ii) to explore relationships between semen quality and treatment outcomes, and (iii) to look at inter-laboratory variation in the assessment of semen quality. Semen quality in patients undergoing assisted conception treatment between 2001 and 2004 was reviewed. Data on female age, egg numbers and fertilization outcomes was obtained by case note review. The thresholds used to direct patients towards IVF or ICSI treatment were comparable with the normal values promulgated by WHO, with the exception of morphology. Semen quality was not predictive of fertilization rates. When the results of independent measurements of the same sample were compared, there was diagnostic disagreement in between 10%-29% of samples. The conventional criteria of semen quality are used to determine treatment strategy for couples undergoing assisted conception but are not reflected in fertilization rates, emphasising the limited utility of the conventional criteria of semen quality in the assessment of sperm function. There remains significant inter-laboratory variation in the results of semen analysis.

  7. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  8. Short communication: Progressive motility of frozen-thawed canine semen is highest five minutes after thawing.

    PubMed

    Karger, S; Geiser, B; Grau, M; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S P

    2017-04-01

    Progressive motility is usually estimated by visual inspection using a light contrast microscope at X 100 immediately after semen collection or immediately after thawing frozen semen. Standard operating procedures have never been established for this test. The objective of this experiment was to examine time-dependent changes of motility after thawing cryopreserved canine semen. Semen of 35 dogs was collected, and volume, concentration, progressive motility, morphology, membrane integrity and HOS test were evaluated. For cryopreservation, CaniPRO(®) Freeze A&B was used. Semen was thawed and diluted using CaniPRO(®) culture medium. After thawing, semen was evaluated as before. In addition, every sample was evaluated for progressively motile sperm cells 0, 5, 20 and 60 min after thawing. Progressive semen motility was significantly highest five minutes after thawing.

  9. [Identification of semen in bloodstains with the use of alternative light source and biochemical screening tests].

    PubMed

    Gorzkiewicz, Marta; Woźniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz; Łuczak, Sylwia; Linkowska, Katarzyna; Daca, Patrycja

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was the verification of the presence of semen in stains constituting mixtures of semen and blood employing alternative light source (ALS) and commercially available biochemical screening tests based on the activity of acid phosphatase (AP) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The tests demonstrated that discrimination between particular components of a blood-semen mixture was impossible either with the naked eye, as well as with the use of ALS. White fluorescence was observed only in stains consisting of pure semen and semen-blood mixtures at a ratio of 100:1. The assay for PSA was positive in the case of all the examined semen dilutions and semen-blood mixtures, whereas the sensitivity of the AP-based test assay was lower by one order of magnitude.

  10. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  11. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  12. Peptides Released by Physiological Cleavage of Semen Coagulum Proteins Form Amyloids that Enhance HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Roan, Nadia R.; Müller, Janis A.; Liu, Haichuan; Chu, Simon; Arnold, Franziska; Stürzel, Christina; Walther, Paul; Dong, Ming; Witkowska, H. Ewa; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan; Greene, Warner C.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Semen serves as a vehicle for HIV and promotes sexual transmission of the virus, which accounts for the majority of new HIV cases. The major component of semen is the coagulum, a viscous structure composed predominantly of spermatozoa and semenogelin proteins. Due to the activity of the semen protease PSA, the coagulum is liquefied and semenogelins are cleaved into smaller fragments. Here, we report that a subset of these semenogelin fragments form amyloid fibrils that greatly enhance HIV infection. Like SEVI, another amyloid fibril previously identified in semen, the semenogelin fibrils exhibit a cationic surface and enhance HIV virion attachment and entry. Whereas semen samples from healthy individuals greatly enhance HIV infection, semenogelin-deficient semen samples from patients with ejaculatory duct obstruction are completely deficient in enhancing activity. Semen thus harbors distinct amyloidogenic peptides derived from different precursor proteins that commonly enhance HIV infection and likely contribute to HIV transmission. PMID:22177559

  13. Do Ureaplasma urealyticum infections in the genital tract affect semen quality?

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Liang, Cui-Ling; Wu, Jun-Qing; Xu, Chen; Qin, Shi-Xiao; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2006-09-01

    To investigate the relationship between Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) infection and semen quality. From 2001 to 2003, 346 eligible patients aged 20-45 years were invited from two hospitals in Shanghai, China, to participate in an investigation which included questionnaires about general and reproductive health, an external genital tract examination, UU culture and semen analysis. Multiple linear regression models were used to examine whether UU had a significant effect on semen quality after adjustment for confounding factors. Findings suggested that UU infection was associated with higher semen viscosity and lower semen pH value. Sperm concentration was lower in UU positive subjects than that in UU negative subjects (54.04 X 10(6)/mL vs.70.58 X 10(6)/mL). However, UU did not significantly affect other semen quality indexes. UU infection of the male genital tract could negatively influence semen quality.

  14. Anonymous semen donor recruitment without reimbursement in Canada.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, Alfonso P; Bradley, Leanne; Said, Tamer

    2008-01-01

    A previous review of 22 studies from eight countries, conducted between 1980 and 2003, concluded that semen donors who are older, married or are fathers are less likely to be financially motivated. Despite the Assisted Human Reproduction Act coming into force in 2004, no data originating from Canada have been published on this topic. The objective of this study was to validate these findings in the Canadian population within the context of an anonymous semen donor programme in Canada. A survey of 301 donor applicants was conducted to collect demographic data including age, marital status, paternity status and occupation, in addition to information assessing donor eligibility and willingness to donate without reimbursement. Eligible candidates were screened to determine their acceptance or exclusion from the semen donor programme. The results showed that the relationships found between donor applicant demographics and their willingness to participate without reimbursement do not appear to be consistent with earlier published studies in various countries. Further screening resulted in a recruitment rate of less than 1%. Additional studies will be required to investigate the feasibility of altruistic semen donation programmes in Canada, and to determine the potential impact of these findings on Canadians who rely on donor gamete services to build their families.

  15. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  16. Magnesium in human semen: possible role in premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Omu, A E; Al-Bader, A A; Dashti, H; Oriowo, M A

    2001-01-01

    Although magnesium is involved in many biological process and it is found higher levels in semen than serum, its role in human semen has not been elucidated. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between premature ejaculation and the levels of seminal magnesium. The levels of magnesium, zinc, copper, and selenium were evaluated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in serum and seminal plasma in 3 groups of men: (a) normal sperm parameters (15) (b) oligoasthenozoospermia (15), and genuine premature ejaculation (9). There were normal serum and semen levels of all the elements in the three groups, but significantly lower seminal plasma magnesium levels in men with premature ejaculation. The hormonal profile, body mass index (BMI) had no association with premature ejaculation. Decreased levels of magnesium gives rise to vasoconstriction from increased thromboxane level, increased endothelial intracellular Ca2+, and decreased nitric oxide. This may lead to premature emission and ejaculation processes. Magnesium is probably involved in semen transport. More research into the role of magnesium in the male physiology of reproductive tract, especially its association with premature ejaculation, is advocated.

  17. Beneficial effects of semen purification with magnetic nanoparticles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Current techniques for sperm quality evaluation are mostly informative. They become useful when ejaculates of high index males not meeting quality standard are still discarded. Here we developed a molecular-based magnetic conjugates allowing selective elimination of damaged spermatozoa from semen ej...

  18. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  19. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  20. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  1. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  2. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF...

  3. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  4. Effect of Dursban 44 on semen output of Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Everett, R W

    1982-09-01

    Dursban 44, an insecticide for lice control, was applied to 185 Holstein bulls 9 to 52 mo of age. These sires were in various stages of progeny testing at an artificial insemination center. Application of this product killed 7 bulls, and the remaining bulls exhibited varying severity of illness with 6 classified as very sick. This study evaluated the effect of this illness on semen production. Semen output on 40,950 ejaculates from 583 Holstein bulls collected from July 1, 1975, through March 31, 1981, was analyzed to establish normal semen production and to estimate the effect of illness caused by Dursban 44 treatment. Ejaculate number, days between collections by previous number of ejaculates, calendar months, years, and ages of bulls affected the semen output characteristics, original volume, sperm concentration, percent motile sperm, total sperm per ejaculate, percent prefreeze discards, percent postthaw sperm motility, and percent postthaw discards. Ejaculate volume, motility, total percent prefreeze discards, and percent postthaw discards were influenced negatively on the 6 very sick bulls. Percent postthaw discards were higher on all bulls treated with Dursban 44 for up to 6 mo post-treatment.

  5. Preservation of Domesticated Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Drone Semen.

    PubMed

    Paillard, M; Rousseau, A; Giovenazzo, P; Bailey, J L

    2017-08-01

    Preservation of honey bee (Apis mellifera L., Hymenoptera: Apidae) sperm, coupled with instrumental insemination, is an effective strategy to protect the species and their genetic diversity. Our overall objective is to develop a method of drone semen preservation; therefore, two experiments were conducted. Hypothesis 1 was that cryopreservation (-196 °C) of drone semen is more effective for long-term storage than at 16 °C. Our results show that after 1 yr of storage, frozen sperm viability was higher than at 16 °C, showing that cryopreservation is necessary to conserve semen. However, the cryoprotectant used for drone sperm freezing, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), can harm the queen and reduce fertility after instrumental insemination. Hypothesis 2 was that centrifugation of cryopreserved semen to reduce DMSO prior to insemination optimize sperm quality. Our results indicate that centrifuging cryopreserved sperm to remove cryoprotectant does not affect queen survival, spermathecal sperm count, or sperm viability. Although these data do not indicate that centrifugation of frozen-thawed sperm improves queen health and fertility after instrumental insemination, we demonstrate that cryopreservation is achievable, and it is better for long-term sperm storage than above-freezing temperatures for duration of close to a year. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  7. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  8. Palmitoleate enhances quality of rooster semen during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Rad, Hamed Mirzaei; Eslami, Mohsen; Ghanie, Abolfazl

    2016-02-01

    The practice of artificial insemination is widely utilized in poultry; and this requires a broad use of semen storage techniques to prevent the reduction of fertilizing ability of stored semen. The antioxidant activity of palmitoleic acid with in vitro experiments has been shown. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palmitoleic acid on the quality of rooster semen stored at 4C. Semen was collected from ten roosters twice a week. Ejaculates with greater than 80% forward spermatozoa motility were pooled and after dilution semen was enriched with 0 (control), 0.125 (P 0.125), 0.25 (P 0.25), 0.5 (P 0.5) and 1 (P 1) millimolar palmitoleate. Forward spermatozoa progressive motility and viability, as well as amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant activity (AOA) were evaluated in seminal plasma and spermatozoa at 0, 24 and 48h of storage. Motility was 78.5±2.21, 77.5±1.04, and 69.5±2.32% at 24h and 58.66±1.35, 49.33±1.36 and 43.00±2.08% at 48h in P 0.125, P 0.25 and control, respectively (P<0.02). There were no significant differences in amount of MDA in the seminal plasma among groups, while the amounts of MDA in spermatozoa were less in the P 0.125, P 0.25 and P 0.5 groups compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.002). Total amounts of AOA in seminal plasma were greater in palmitoleate treatment groups than the control at 24 and 48h (P<0.01). Moreover, palmitoleate treatment groups had greater values of total AOA in spermatozoa compared to the control group at 24 and 48h of storage (P<0.05). In conclusion, enrichment of rooster semen with small doses of palmitoleate has beneficial effects on the semen quality during cold storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  10. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and…

  11. Application and commercialization of flow cytometrically sex-sorted semen.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Johnson, L A

    2008-07-01

    The current technology to sort X and Y chromosome bearing sperm population requires individual identification and selection of spermatozoa in a modified high-speed flow cytometer. For farm animal species, the technology is capable of producing sexed sperm at greater than 90% purity. However, only in the bovine, the technology has reached a developmental level that allows its commercial application. Meanwhile, the demand for female calves has grown rapidly, which encourages the demand for sex-sorted semen from high genetic value bulls. The success of the technology will depend mainly on the fertilizing capacity of the sorted spermatozoa, as this is the most affecting and economically relevant factor. To date, fertility is still variable and is quite dependent on post-sort processing. New processing techniques are under investigation and will likely be able to improve the fertility rates after AI with sex-sorted semen. It is of great importance to select the right bulls and to test the sorted samples on a routine basis. In addition to the demand for sex-sorted semen by the cattle industry, there is also a significant demand expressed by pig farmers. However, it is still unknown if the use of sex-sorted semen through commercial pig AI will be economically feasible. For the pig, the combination of in vitro fertilization with sexed semen and non-surgical embryo transfer is an alternative that merits further scientific attention. Recent developments in ovine AI and ET will make it very likely that commercial sheep industry will adopt the sexing technology in their breeding concepts.

  12. Evaluation of seasonal variations of semen freezability in Leccese ram.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A G; Martemucci, G

    2003-11-20

    The experiment was carried out in Southern Italy (41 degrees N latitude) to examine the effects of seasonal variations of semen freezability in Leccese ram. Semen from five rams, collected every 2 weeks for a whole year, was frozen in straws, using a system based on Tris-fructose egg yolk as extender to constitute semen doses of 100x10(6) spermatozoa. Post-thaw survival and acrosomal status of cells were assessed by dual staining by Hoechst 33258 and FITC-PSA. Three different forms of fluorescence distribution were displayed indicating sperm without acrosome (unstained cells), sperm with damaged acrosome (cells with incomplete fluorescence over the head), sperm with widespread fluorescence (cells completely fluorescent). Motility and kinetic rating at thawing and after 1 and 3h incubation (37 degrees C) were also assessed. Semen frozen in summer and autumn, corresponding to the breeding season, showed the highest (P<0.01) post-thaw survival of spermatozoa (41.7%) and the lowest (P<0.01) incidence of spermatozoa with damaged acrosome. The positive influence of the summer-autumn period was expressed also on motility and kinetic rating of spermatozoa at thawing. The integrity of the acrosomal membrane was positively correlated (P<0.01) with sperm viability before processing (r=0.32) and after thawing (r=0.51). In conclusion, the results show that season exerts a significant influence on semen freezability in Leccese ram, with the best performance occurring the summer and autumn period, corresponding to the reproductive season in temperate zones.

  13. Ways to improve the biosecurity of bovine semen.

    PubMed

    de Ruigh, L; Bosch, J C; Brus, M C; Landman, B; Merton, J S

    2006-08-01

    Semen production and trade is a worldwide industry. A framework, based on international standards is awaiting international and national regulation. In the perspective of biosecurity of the final product, critical notes can be made according to the semen production regulation and product safety. Process description brings the obligatory health standards for the production bulls, collection and processing of semen, identification, registration, worldwide distribution and insemination into discussion. Test frequency, test quality and demands, way of sampling and test consistency can influence product safety. New scientific knowledge can influence the value of the regulation. Whether a country is free of notifiable disease should influence decisions regarding necessary tests for the production bulls. The biosecurity of the semen production process is influenced by several factors. The effectiveness of the antibiotics used is questionable. The extenders for cryopreservation added to the semen can affect product safety. The way materials and storage containers have to be disinfected must be clear. In modern industry, tracking and tracing is an important issue. Worldwide differences in ways of identification of straws do not benefit a proper identification and registration throughout the process. Regulation could help improve the transparency of production and trade. Before anything concerning biohazard is implemented in regulation, each rule should be thoroughly based on scientific research where possible and furthermore it must be possible to enforce the regulation. The effort it takes to enforce the regulation should be in balance with the benefit it provides. An approach to alter regulation quickly is advisable. To produce a safe product that is accepted for international trade is of vital interest for the survival of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle.

  14. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Lukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (P<0.01) than in rooster spermatozoa. Each of the investigated antioxidant enzymes had greater (P<0.01) activity in goose than chicken sperm. Catalase activity was detected in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from both studied species for the first time. In seminal plasma, the activity of GPx was two times greater (P<0.01) in the White Koluda(®) than in chickens, whereas SOD activity was less (P<0.01) than in chickens. This is the first study describing the presence of CAT in avian semen and the occurrence of indicator of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in geese. Data from the present study clearly show the species-specific differences in the activity of antioxidant defense and LPO. The greater amount of lipid peroxidation and greater activity of antioxidant enzymes in goose semen might suggest that spermatozoa were under greater oxidative stress and the enzymes were not utilized for the protection of functionally and structurally impaired cells. In turn, in fresh chicken semen a lesser activity of antioxidant enzymes accompanied with a lesser lipid peroxidation amount and good semen quality could indicate that fowl spermatozoa were under oxidative stress, but the enzymes were employed to protect and maintain sperm quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced fertility diagnosis in stallion semen using transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Sandra; Bostedt, Hartwig; Failing, Klaus; Bergmann, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Routine semen analysis of stallions is based on light microscopy (LM). However, there are still a number of animals that are subfertile or even infertile not being identified with conventional semen analysis. The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for advanced fertility diagnosis in stallion. We examined ejaculates of 46 stallions with known fertility. Animals were divided into three different groups: group 1, fertile stallions (pregnant mares> or =70%, n=29); group 2, subfertile stallions (pregnant mares 10-69%, n=14); group 3, infertile stallions (pregnant mares<10%, n=3). Ejaculates were collected in spring 2002. Conventional semen analysis (volume, sperm concentration, motility, live:dead ratio and percentage of morphologically normal sperm) was immediately performed after semen collection. Ultrastructural analysis included the evaluation of 200 acrosomes, heads, midpieces and cross-sections of tails as well as 100 longitudinal sections of tails from every ejaculate. Using LM, we found a significant increase of morphological deviations from 24.5% (x ) in group 1 to 34.5% in group 2 and 73.5% in group 3. Using TEM, we found a significant increase of detached acrosomes from 6.1% in group 1 to 7.6% in group 2 and 21.4% in group 3. Deviations in tubule pattern were also increased (but not significant) from 2.7% in fertile and 2.8% in subfertile to 11.4% in infertile stallions as well as multiple tails from 1.9% in fertile to 2.0% in subfertile and 8.9% in infertile. Our data indicate that TEM is suitable for advanced fertility diagnostic in stallions, giving a connection between fertility and morphology. It suggests that the most likely reason for sub- and infertility in stallion in case of increased LM pathomorphology of semen are acrosomal alterations, especially detached acrosomes.

  16. Screening for sexually transmitted infection pathogens in semen samples

    PubMed Central

    Peeling, RW; Embree, J

    2005-01-01

    The transmission of sexually transmitted infection (STI) pathogens from an infected donor to the recipient of a semen donation in assisted conception may result not only in acute infection but also in long-term reproductive complications or adverse outcomes of pregnancy, including infection of the offspring. Screening for bacterial STI pathogens, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is strongly recommended because these pathogens can cause serious reproductive complications in the recipients of semen donations and infection in their offspring. Screening for these pathogens should be performed using the most sensitive methods, such as nucleic acid amplified tests. False-negative results due to inhibitory substances in the semen sample should be monitored using amplification controls. Where specimen transport is not a problem and culture facilities are available, N gonorrhoeae can also be detected by culture. Laboratories performing screening should subscribe to proficiency programs and have strict quality controls. Although Trichomonas vaginalis, group B streptococcus and genital mycoplasmas have been associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy, the frequent finding of these organisms in healthy individuals brings into question the validity of mandatory inclusion of these organisms in the screening panel. Although viral STI pathogens and Treponema pallidum - the causative agent of syphilis - may be detected in semen, their presence may be more sensitively detected through antibody testing of the donor. Screening donors for HIV, hepatitis B and syphilis by serology is uniformly recommended in all of the guidelines, but the value of screening either donors or semen samples for cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex viruses and human papilloma viruses is less clear. PMID:18159531

  17. TEMPORARY STORAGE OF BOVINE SEMEN CRYOPRESERVED IN LIQUID NITROGEN ON DRY ICE AND REFREEZING OF FROZEN-THAWED SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Abdussamad, A M; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to investigate whether viability of bovine semen stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) will be adversely affected by temporary exposure to dry ice (-79°C). It was convincingly shown that post thaw-motility was not affected, regardless whether semen was thawed immediately or after being returned to liquid nitrogen. Shipping or temporary storage on dry ice, thus, is a viable option. In Experiment 2, refreezing of frozen-thawed semen was attempted. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was reduced by a factor of ten to between 6.0 % and 7.4 %, regardless whether thawing occurred directly after removal from liquid nitrogen or after an interim period on dry ice. When semen was refrozen on dry ice before being returned to liquid nitrogen, motility rates were significantly improved (13.0 % to 17.0 %, P<0.05). In both experiments sperm cells that remained motile displayed vigorous forward movement and normal morphological appearance.

  18. Long term storage of bee semen – A six month assessment of cryopreserved semen quality using motility as an index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bee (Apis mellifera Linn.) spermatozoa is known for its ability to remain viable for at the least two years within the spermatheca as attested to by the queens’ continued laying of fertile eggs without remating over two to three (Woyke 1960; Winston 1987). However, the semen collected from the dron...

  19. What is normal semen quality? On the use and abuse of reference limits for the interpretation of semen analysis results.

    PubMed

    Björndahl, Lars

    2011-09-01

    Semen analysis is the corner stone in the basic evaluation of the man in the subfertile couple. The recent WHO manual identifies and recommends robust, controllable methods. However, the distribution of results from recent fathers and men in the general population introduces significant problems. This review discusses the pitfalls with reference limits and the proper use of such limits for the interpretation of semen analysis results. It is critical to understand the statistical basis upon which the assumptions of reference ranges and cut-off limits are built and the importance of standardising methods and practical laboratory training. These are indispensable for qualitative laboratory work as well as for future prospective studies aimed at providing prognostic information for spontaneous pregnancies and successful Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) treatment. Proper understanding of biological and physiological variability is also essential for the correct interpretation of semen analysis results. Understanding all the factors influencing semen analyses is of great importance for the development of the entire field of reproductive medicine.

  20. Semen says: assessing the accuracy of adolescents' self-reported sexual abstinence using a semen Y-chromosome biomarker.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2017-03-01

    Researchers often assess condom use only among participants who report recent sexual behaviour, excluding participants who report no recent vaginal sex or who did not answer questions about their sexual behaviour, but self-reported sexual behaviour may be inaccurate. This study uses a semen Y-chromosome biomarker to assess semen exposure among participants who reported sexual abstinence or did not report their sexual behaviour. This prospective cohort study uses data from 715 sexually active African-American female adolescents in Atlanta, surveyed at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Participants completed a 40 min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with PCR from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted Y-chromosome test results from self-reported sexual behaviour using within-subject panel regression. Among the participants who reported abstinence from vaginal sex in the past 14 days, 9.4% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Among item non-respondents, 6.3% tested positive for semen Y-chromosome. Women who reported abstinence and engaged in item non-response regarding their sexual behaviour had respectively 62% and 78% lower odds of testing positive for Y-chromosome (OR 0.38 (0.21 to 0.67), OR 0.22 (0.12 to 0.40)), controlling for smoking, survey wave and non-coital sexual behaviours reported during abstinence. Adolescents who report sexual abstinence under-report semen exposure. Research should validate self-reported sexual behaviour with biomarkers. Adolescents who engage in item non-response regarding vaginal sex test positive for semen Y-chromosome at similar rates, which supports the practice of grouping non-respondents with adolescents reporting abstinence in statistical analysis. NCT00633906. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    PubMed Central

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV) inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF) cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU). Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001). Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001) in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52), cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55), and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0) after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3), bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001) up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59), pass box (from 12.13±2

  2. Effect of the rooster semen enrichment with oleic acid on the quality of semen during chilled storage.

    PubMed

    Eslami, M; Ghaniei, A; Mirzaei Rad, H

    2016-06-01

    Liquid storage of avian spermatozoa is currently being employed in programs utilizing the artificial insemination to optimize the management of genetically superior males. It is mandatory to use efficient semen storage techniques in order to prevent the reduction of the fertilizing ability of stored semen. The present study was designated to evaluate the effect of oleic acid on rooster semen quality stored at 4°C for 48 h. Semen was collected from 10 roosters twice a week. Good quality ejaculates were pooled and after dilution, the semen was enriched with 0 (control), 0.125 (O 0.125), 0.25 (O 0.25), 0.5 (O 0.5), and 1 (O1) millimolar oleate. Forward progressive motility and viability of spermatozoa were evaluated at 0, 24, and 48 h. Moreover, malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant activity (AOA) levels were measured in seminal plasma and spermatozoa at the mentioned time points. Motility was 80.33 ± 1.45, 80.00 ± 2.08, and 66.00 ± 2.30% at 24 h and 56.33 ± 1.45, 57.33 ± 2.18, and 41.33 ± 2.02% at 48 h in O 0.125, O 0.25, and control, respectively (P < 0.001). Total AOA concentrations of seminal plasma were significantly higher in oleate treated groups than the control at 24 and 48 h (P < 0.03). Moreover, concentrations of AOA in spermatozoa revealed that oleate treated group showed higher AOA values compared to the control group at 24 and 48 h (P < 0.001). MDA concentrations of seminal plasma and spermatozoa were lower in oleate treated groups in comparison with control group at 24 and 48 h (P < 0.05). In conclusion, rooster semen enrichment with low doses of oleate would exert beneficial effects on the quality of semen during cooled storage. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station.

    PubMed

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S B; Sahasrabudhe, S A; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R K

    2015-05-01

    The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV) inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF) cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU). Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001). Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001) in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52), cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55), and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0) after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft(3)), bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001) up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59), pass box (from 12.13±2.53 to 3.78±0.79), and nil bacterial

  4. Cooled semen for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Borges-Silva, Juliana C; Silva, Márcio R; Marinho, Daniel B; Nogueira, Eriklis; Sampaio, Deiler C; Oliveira, Luiz Orcírio F; Abreu, Urbano G P; Mourão, Gerson B; Sartori, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the use of cooled semen in a fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) program compared with frozen-thawed semen to improve pregnancy rates in beef cattle. Ejaculates of three bulls were collected and divided into two treatments: (1) frozen-thawed semen and (2) cooled semen. Egg-yolk extender without glycerol was used for the cooled semen treatment. Straws (25×10(6) spermatozoa) were submitted to cooling for preservation at 5°C for 24h, after which FTAI was performed. Nelore cows (n=838) submitted to FTAI were randomly inseminated using frozen-thawed semen or cooled semen. There was a 20% increase in the pregnancy per AI (P AI(-1)) using cooled semen compared with frozen-thawed semen (59.9±4.7 vs 49.4±5.0%; P<0.005). There was no difference in P AI(-1) among the bulls (P=0.40). The frozen-thawed semen had fewer functional spermatozoa than did the cooled semen when evaluated by sperm motility (61.7 vs 81.0%), slow thermoresistance test (41.7 vs 66.7%) and hypoosmotic swelling test (38.3 vs 53.7%; P<0.05). The percentage of sperm abnormalities did not differ between the freeze-thawing and cooling processes (18.6 vs 22.1%; P>0.05). Because there was less damage to spermatozoa and improvement in P AI(-1), the use of cooled semen instead of frozen-thawed semen is an interesting approach to increase reproductive efficiency in cattle submitted to a FTAI protocol.

  5. Effect of magnetized extender on sperm membrane integrity and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hee; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a magnetized extender on sperm membrane damage and development of oocytes in vitro fertilized with liquid storage boar semen. Before semen dilution, extender was flowed through a neodymium magnet (0, 2000, 4000 and 6000G) for 5min and collected semen was preserved for 168h at 18°C. In results, plasma membrane integrity with live sperm was significantly higher in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000G than sperm treated with extenders magnetized at 0G during semen preservation for 120-168h (p<0.05). In addition, acrosomal membrane damage was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 4000 and 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G during semen preservation for 168h (p<0.05). And mitochondrial membrane damage with all sperm was significantly lower in semen treated with extenders magnetized at 2000G than other groups during semen preservation for 168h. The ability of semen to achieve successful in vitro fertilization was also not significantly different among the groups during preservation. However, when the semen was preserved for 168h, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher at 6000G compared to 0 and 2000G (p<0.05). In conclusion, these results suggest that highly magnetized semen extender could protect the sperm membrane from damage, and improve the ability of rates of in vitro blastocyst development and magnetized semen diluter is beneficial for long liquid preservation of boar semen.

  6. Milk, caseinate and lactoferrin addition to equine semen cooling extenders.

    PubMed

    Martins, H S; Souza, M R; Penna, C F A M; da Silva, G C; Côrtes, S F; Stahlberg, R; Lagares, M A

    2016-11-01

    Cooled semen has been used routinely to prolong sperm viability until artificial insemination time. However, spermatozoa are subjected to oxidative stress. The aim of the present work was to investigate the protective and antioxidant effect of the milk proteins lactoferrin (Lf) and caseinate added to equine semen cooling extenders. Semen from six stallions was cooled at 5 °C after resuspension with C1) milk- and glucose-based, C2) 0.6% caseinate, C3) C2 + Lf 200 μg ml(-1) , C4) C2 + Lf 500 μg ml(-1) and C5) C2 + Lf 1000 μg ml(-1) extenders, and kept at 5 °C for 24 h. Sperm motility characteristics and intact membrane rates were not different among the treatments (P > 0.05). As a result of the cooling process, the nitrite concentration increased significantly in the cooled semen (69.6 ± 78.9 μm per ×10(6) spermatozoa) compared with the fresh semen (8.6 ± 1.9 μm per ×10(6) spermatozoa). In contrast, the H2 O2 concentrations were lower in the 0.6% caseinate extender (265.9 ± 221.3 μm per ×10(6) spermatozoa) than in the milk extender (430.9 ± 199.8 μm per ×10(6) spermatozoa, P < 0.05), showing an antioxidative effect of the caseinate compared with the milk. However, in all groups, hydrogen peroxide concentrations were similar to the undiluted fresh semen (332.8 ± 151.3 μm per ×10(6) spermatozoa). Caseinate showed to be as efficient as milk to protect equine-cooled spermatozoon.

  7. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for

  8. Effect of antioxidant supplementation in semen extenders on semen quality and reactive oxygen species of chilled canine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Michael, A J; Alexopoulos, C; Pontiki, E A; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D J; Saratsis, P; Ververidis, H N; Boscos, C M

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate quality of chilled dog semen processed with extenders containing various antioxidants. Single ejaculates from five dogs were always pooled and evaluated for concentration, sperm motility, progressive motility (RSF-movement), viability, acrosomal integrity and by the hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS)-test. Also, superoxide (O(2)(-)) production, hydroxyl radicals (OH) and total reactive oxygen species (tROS) were determined. Pooled semen was divided in seven aliquots (for control and test conditions), which were diluted to a final concentration of 67x10(6)spermatozoa/ml with TRIS-glucose-egg yolk extender with or without the following supplements: control (without antioxidants), vitamin C (0.5mM), N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC; 0.5mM), taurine (0.2mM), catalase (100u/ml), vitamin E (0.1mM) and 5-(4-dimethylamino-phenyl)-2-phenyl-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (B16; 0.1mM). The semen aliquots were chilled and preserved at 4 degrees C. Portions of chilled semen were removed at 24 and 72h, and semen quality was evaluated after rewarming. At 24h the mean (+/-S.E.M.) sperm motility was higher (p<0.001) when vitamin E, taurine and B16 were added in the extender, whereas more spermatozoa with RSF-movement were observed (p<0.001) in the vitamin E, catalase, B16 and taurine groups. Sperm viability was higher (p=0.040) in B16 and vitamin E groups and the percentage of swollen spermatozoa was higher (p=0.002) only in the B16 group. Acrosomal integrity and OH were not significantly influenced by any of the antioxidants tested. Superoxide production was significantly lower when vitamin C, B16 and vitamin E were added in semen extenders compared with the control (p=0.017). All antioxidant groups, except vitamin C and NAC, contained less tROS compared to the control group, but only the B16 group value differed significantly (p=0.05). At 72h sperm motility was higher (p<0.001) when vitamin E, catalase, B16, taurine and NAC were added in the extender. More

  9. A study on the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in semen on bovine fertility.

    PubMed Central

    Eaglesome, M D; Garcia, M M; Bielanski, A B

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were done to demonstrate whether the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bovine semen could affect fertilization and/or early embryonic development. In the first experiment, superovulated heifers were inseminated with semen naturally contaminated with P. aeruginosa (ADRI 102) or clean semen and seven day-old embryos were collected nonsurgically. The endometrium of treated heifers appeared more sensitive to the flush procedures. In experiment 2, heifers were inseminated at synchronized estrus with semen experimentally contaminated with P. aeruginosa (ADRI 102) and processed in the same way as commercial semen with antibiotics (gentamicin, lincomycin, spectinomycin and tylosin) or processed without antibiotics added. Embryos were recovered at slaughter seven days later. In general, there was no significant reduction in fertility or development of embryos in vitro as a result of relatively high numbers of P. aeruginosa in bovine semen. PMID:7704848

  10. Self-reported mobile phone use and semen parameters among men from a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan C; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Meeker, John D; Williams, Paige L; Mezei, Gabor; Ford, Jennifer B; Hauser, Russ

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern that use of mobile phones, a source of low-level radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, may be associated with poor semen quality, but the epidemiologic evidence is limited and conflicting. The relationship between mobile phone use patterns and markers of semen quality was explored in a longitudinal cohort study of 153 men that attended an academic fertility clinic in Boston, Massachusetts. Information on mobile phone use duration, headset or earpiece use, and the body location in which the mobile phone was carried was ascertained via nurse-administered questionnaire. Semen samples (n=350) were collected and analyzed onsite. To account for multiple semen samples per man, linear mixed models with random intercepts were used to investigate the association between mobile phone use and semen parameters. Overall, there was no evidence for a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and their associations with human semen quality measurements.

    PubMed

    Raymer, James H; Michael, Larry C; Studabaker, William B; Olsen, Geary W; Sloan, Carol S; Wilcosky, Timothy; Walmer, David K

    2012-07-01

    A total of 256 men were studied to evaluate whether serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) impacted semen quality or reproductive hormones. Blood and semen were collected and analyzed for perfluorochemicals and reproductive and thyroid hormones. Semen quality was assessed using standard clinical methods. Linear and logistic modeling was performed with semen profile measurements as outcomes and PFOS and PFOA in semen and plasma as explanatory variables. Adjusting for age, abstinence, and tobacco use, there was no indication that PFOA or PFOS was significantly associated with volume, sperm concentration, percent motility, swim-up motility and concentration, and directional motility (a function of motility and modal progression). Follicle-stimulating hormone was not associated with either PFOA or PFOS. Luteinizing hormone was positively correlated with plasma PFOA and PFOS, but not semen PFOS. Important methodological concerns included the lack of multiple hormonal measurements necessary to address circadian rhythms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Concentrations of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) and Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and Their Associations with Human Semen Quality Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Raymer, James H.; Michael, Larry C.; Studabaker, William B.; Olsen, Geary W.; Sloan, Carol S.; Wilcosky, Timothy; Walmer, David K.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 256 men were studied to evaluate whether serum concentrations of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) impacted semen quality or reproductive hormones. Blood and semen were collected and analyzed for perfluorochemicals and reproductive and thyroid hormones. Semen quality was assessed using standard clinical methods. Linear and logistic modeling was performed with semen profile measurements as outcomes and PFOS and PFOA in semen and plasma as explanatory variables. Adjusting for age, abstinence, and tobacco use, there was no indication that PFOA or PFOS was significantly associated with volume, sperm concentration, percent motility, swim-up motility and concentration, and directional motility (a function of motility and modal progression.) Follicle stimulating hormone was not associated with either PFOA or PFOS. Luteinizing hormone was positively correlated with plasma PFOA and PFOS, but not semen PFOS. Important methodological concerns included the lack of multiple hormonal measurements necessary to address circadian rhythms. PMID:21736937

  13. Self-reported mobile phone use and semen parameters among men from a fertility clinic

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Ryan C.; Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Meeker, John D.; Williams, Paige L.; Mezei, Gabor; Ford, Jennifer B.; Hauser, Russ

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing concern that use of mobile phones, a source of low-level radio-frequency electromagnetic fields, may be associated with poor semen quality, but the epidemiologic evidence is limited and conflicting. The relationship between mobile phone use patterns and markers of semen quality was explored in a longitudinal cohort study of 153 men that attended an academic fertility clinic in Boston, Massachusetts. Information on mobile phone use duration, headset or earpiece use, and the body location in which the mobile phone was carried was ascertained via nurse-administered questionnaire. Semen samples (n=350) were collected and analyzed onsite. To account for multiple semen samples per man, linear mixed models with random intercepts were used to investigate the association between mobile phone use and semen parameters. Overall, there was no evidence for a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. PMID:27838386

  14. Effect of different antioxidant additives in semen diluent on cryopreservability (-196°C) of buffalo semen.

    PubMed

    Patel, Hardik A; Siddiquee, G M; Chaudhari, Dinesh V; Suthar, Vishal S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different antioxidant additives in standard tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender on the cryopreservability of buffalo semen. Semen collection using artificial vagina, twice weekly for 5 weeks from three pedigreed health breeding bulls of Mehsani breed, aged between 6 and 8 years. Immediately after initial evaluation all 30 qualifying ejaculates (10/bull) were split into three aliquots and diluted at 34°C keeping the concentration of 100 million spermatozoa/ml with standard TFYG extender as control and TFYG having two antioxidant additives - Cysteine HCl at 1 mg/ml and ascorbic acid at 0.2 mg/ml to study their comparative performance. Semen filled in French Mini straws using IS-4 system and gradually cooled to 4°C and equilibrated for 4 h in cold handing cabinet. After completion of equilibration, straws were cryopreserved in LN2 by Programmable Bio-freezer. Semen was examined at post-dilution, post-equilibration, and post-thaw stages for sperm quality parameters, and at each stage plasma was separated for enzymatic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP). The mean percentage of sperms in TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage in terms of progressive motility (52.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52), livability (78.70±0.21, 82.33±0.23, 81.73±0.22), and abnormality (5.43±0.21, 5.03±0.17, 5.23±0.18) varied significantly (p<0.05) between control TFYG and TFYG having antioxidant additives. The mean U/L activities of AST (78.70±0.47, 72.80±0.48, 73.30±0.54), LDH (172.70±0.41, 155.78±0.42, 156.33±0.41), and AKP (103.61±0.34, 90.20±0.34, 91.03±0.34) in semen diluted with TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage, respectively, which showed significantly (p<0.05) higher leakage of enzymes in control TFYG than TFYG incorporated with additives. Incorporation

  15. Sequence-Specific Recognition and Cleavage of Telomeric Repeat (TTAGG)n by Endonuclease of Non-Long Terminal Repeat Retrotransposon TRAS1

    PubMed Central

    Anzai, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Haruhiko

    2001-01-01

    The telomere of the silkworm Bombyx mori consists of (TTAGG/CCTAA)n repeats and harbors a large number of telomeric repeat-specific non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons, such as TRAS1 and SART1. To understand how these retrotransposons recognize and integrate into the telomeric repeat in a sequence-specific manner, we expressed the apurinic-apryrimidinic endonuclease-like endonuclease domain of TRAS1 (TRAS1 EN), which is supposed to digest the target DNA, and characterized its enzymatic properties. Purified TRAS1 EN could generate specific nicks on both strands of the telomeric repeat sequence between T and A of the (TTAGG)n strand (bottom strand) and between C and T of the (CCTAA)n strand (top strand). These sites are consistent with insertion sites expected from the genomic structure of boundary regions of TRAS1. Time course studies of nicking activities on both strands revealed that the cleavages on the bottom strand preceded those on the top strand, supporting the target-primed reverse transcription model. TRAS1 EN could cleave the telomeric repeats specifically even if it was flanked by longer tracts of nontelomeric sequence, indicating that the target site specificity of the TRAS1 element was mainly determined by its EN domain. Based on mutation analyses, TRAS1 EN recognizes less than 10 bp around the initial cleavage site (upstream 7 bp and downstream 3 bp), and the GTTAG sequence especially is essential for the cleavage reaction on the bottom strand (5′. . . TTAGGTT ↓ AGG . . . 3′). TRAS1 EN, the first identified endonuclease digesting telomeric repeats, may be used as a genetic tool to shorten the telomere in insects and some other organisms. PMID:11113185

  16. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal semen samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Yongzeng; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Growth in the percentage of male infertility has caused extensive concerns. The fast and reliable method is urgently required for diagnosis of semen samples. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize and differentiate the normal and abnormal semen samples based on the differences of their specific Raman spectra which originated from biochemical components. Our preliminary results demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis methods has the potential of being used to detect and differentiate semen samples.

  17. Bull breeding soundness, semen evaluation and cattle productivity.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, P J; McPherson, F J

    2016-06-01

    The bull breeding soundness evaluation (BBSE) has evolved as a cost-effective veterinary procedure which provides benefits such as risk-reduction and improvements in strategic bull usage, herd fertility and economics. Semen evaluation is an important component of the BBSE when performed appropriately; a consideration that is increasingly addressed by third party andrology laboratories. The combination of competent physical/reproductive exams (including scrotal circumference measurements) and semen evaluations can contribute greatly to the fertility and economics of individual herds as well as adding to understanding of those factors which affect cattle fertility. Despite such advantages, there remain challenges in achieving full acceptance of BBSEs, particularly by the dairy industry and in developing countries.

  18. Symmetry-breaking phase-transitions in highly concentrated semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouraboué, Franck; Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Cazin, Sébastien; Yu, Hui; Degond, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    New experimental evidence of self-motion of a confined active suspension is presented. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped micro-fluidic chip leads to a spontaneous rotation motion of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. Furthermore, for highly active and concentrated semen, richer dynamics can occur such as self-sustained or damped rotation oscillations. Experimental results obtained with systematic dilution provide a clear evidence of a phase transition toward collective motion associated with local alignment of spermatozoa akin to the Vicsek model. A macroscopic theory based on previously derived Self-Organized Hydrodynamics (SOH) models is adapted to this context and provides predictions consistent with the observed stationary motion.

  19. Symmetry-breaking phase transitions in highly concentrated semen

    PubMed Central

    Creppy, Adama; Plouraboué, Franck; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Cazin, Sébastien; Yu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    New experimental evidence of self-motion of a confined active suspension is presented. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped microfluidic chip leads to a spontaneous vortex state of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. Furthermore, for highly active and concentrated semen, richer dynamics can occur such as self-sustained or damped rotation oscillations. Experimental results obtained with systematic dilution provide a clear evidence of a phase transition towards collective motion associated with local alignment of spermatozoa akin to the Vicsek model. A macroscopic theory based on previously derived self-organized hydrodynamics models is adapted to this context and provides predictions consistent with the observed stationary motion. PMID:27733694

  20. Immunological responses to semen in the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Schuberth, H J; Taylor, U; Zerbe, H; Waberski, D; Hunter, R; Rath, D

    2008-11-01

    When spermatozoa, seminal plasma and semen extender reach the uterus and interact with local leukocytes and endometrial cells, several immune mechanisms are initiated which have immediate, mid-term and long-term effects on ovulation, sperm cell selection, fertilization and pregnancy success by assuring the acceptance of fetal tissues. This report gives an overview on relevant key immune mechanisms following roughly the time axis after insemination. Detailed knowledge regarding these mechanisms will aid maximizing reproductive efficiency in livestock production. In the future, the many species involved will require a more comparative approach, since evidence is growing that endometrial physiology and the response to varying amounts and compositions of seminal plasma, various semen extenders, and variable numbers of spermatozoa also provoke different immune responses.

  1. Human semen prostaglandins do not affect sperm motility and migration.

    PubMed

    Procaccini, J C; Gimeno, M F; Kesserü, E; Asch, R H

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2, PGF2 alpha and testosterone (T) concentrations were determined in the seminal plasma of 57 fertility-clinic patients. Results (mean less than SE) were: PGE2, 3.44 +/- 0.38 mu/ml; PGF2 alpha, 138 +/- 0.33 micrograms/ml; T, 429.54 +/- 14.01 pg/ml. The material was divided into 4 groups: normospermic, oligozoospermic, asthenozoospermic and azoospermic. No statistically significant differences were found among the values of the different groups, except for PGE2, which was found to be increased in the asthenozoospermic group. Sperm migration patterns were assessed in each semen sample, using the Kremer capillary tube test and human cervical mucus. Considering each semen sample individually, no correlations whatever were found among sperm count, motility and migration parameters and the respective concentrations of both PGs and T, nor was there a correlation among PGE2, PGF2 alpha, and T values of the same sample.

  2. Preservation of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen at refrigeration temperature.

    PubMed

    Karunakaran, M; Dhali, A; Mech, A; Khate, K; Rajkhowa, C; Mishra, D P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of preserving mithun (Bos frontalis) spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature using tris-egg yolk diluent. Semen samples were collected from four adult mithun bulls through rectal massage method. Good quality semen samples (n=30) were preserved at 4 degrees C using tris-egg yolk diluent for 72 h. Progressive motility, live spermatozoa count and morphological abnormalities were evaluated every 12 h until 72 h of preservation. The colour, consistency and mass activity of fresh semen samples were found to be creamy white, medium and 3+ to 4+ (5+ scale), respectively. The average (mean+/-S.E.) volume (ml), pH and spermatozoa concentration (10(6) ml(-1)) of fresh semen samples were found to be 0.6+/-0.01, 6.8+/-0.03 and 425+/-48, respectively. Progressive motility and live spermatozoa count were found to be less than 30% (P<0.01) after 48 h of storage. Head (P<0.05), midpiece (P<0.05), tail (P<0.01) and total (P<0.01) abnormalities were found to be increased significantly over the time of storage. It was observed that progressive motility and live spermatozoa count remained above 30% and 40%, respectively, until 36 h of storage. Simultaneously the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa was found to be significantly low until 36 h of storage. The results indicate that it is possible to preserve mithun spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature in tris-egg yolk diluent, which can be further used for artificial insemination within 36 h of storage.

  3. Prostaglandin concentrations in the semen of fertile men.

    PubMed

    Templeton, A A; Cooper, I; Kelly, R W

    1978-01-01

    The PG concentrations in the semen of 23 fertile men were 73 microgram PGE/ml, 267 microgram 19-OH PGE/ml, 2.1 microgram PGF/ml and 18.3 microgram 19-OH PGF/ml. The wide ranges of concentrations found for the PGEs (2-272 microgram/ml) and for the 19-OH PGEs (53-1094 microgram/ml) throw some doubt on the previously established correlation between infertility and low prostaglandin concentrations.

  4. Removal of bacteria from stallion semen by colloid centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Klein, C; Lundeheim, N; Erol, E; Troedsson, M H T

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria (environmental contaminants and occasionally potential pathogens) are found in most stallion ejaculates and may negatively affect sperm quality during storage. Since the use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance, an alternative means of microbial control is desirable. The removal of bacteria from stallion semen using Single Layer Centrifugation through Androcoll-E was investigated. Known doses of cultured bacteria were added to freshly collected ejaculates (15mL aliquots) before processing by Single Layer Centrifugation. The resulting sperm pellets and controls (not processed by Single Layer Centrifugation) were cultured and the bacteria identified. In experiment 1, doses of E. coli from 2×10(2) to 2×10(7) colony forming units were added to aliquots of semen. In experiment 2, Taylorella equigenitalis or a mix of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (approximately 7×10(6), 5×10(6), and 6×10(6)cfu, respectively) were added to 15mL aliquots of semen. In experiment 1, more than 90% of the bacteria were removed where loading doses were >×10(4)cfu/mL. In experiment 2, varying proportions of different bacteria were removed, ranging from 68% for naturally occurring Corynebacterium spp. to >97% for added cultured E. coli. Thus, Single Layer Centrifugation can separate spermatozoa from many, but not all bacteria in stallion ejaculates and could be a useful alternative to adding antibiotics to semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. However, further research is needed to determine the effect of small numbers of bacteria on sperm quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effects of l-carnitine on astheno- and normozoospermic human semen samples during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Feng; Cao, Haifeng; Li, Chuyan; Du, Congqi; Yao, Lingnv; Mao, Huan; Lin, Wenqin

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of l-carnitine (LC), as an antioxidant, in preventing spermatozoa damage during the freezing-thawing process in both astheno- and normozoospermic human semen samples. Seventy semen samples (37 asthenozoospermic and 33 normozoospermic) were involved in this study. Cryopreservation medium supplemented with 1.0 g/l LC was mixed with semen at a ratio of 1:1 (v/v). Controls were cryopreserved with freezing medium only. Assessment of motility, viability (VIA), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and DNA fragmentation index (DFI) were performed on aliquots of fresh semen, frozen-thawed control and frozen-thawed LC treated samples. Supplementation of the cryopreservation medium with LC induced a significant improvement in post-thaw sperm parameters in both the asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic semen samples, compared with those of the control, regarding sperm fast forward motility, forward motility, total motility and VIA. LC showed better protective effects towards asthenozoospermia for DFI (F = 115.85, P < 0.01) and VIA (F = 67.14, P < 0.01) than did normozoospermic semen samples. We conclude that supplementation with LC prior to the cryopreservation process reduced spermatozoa cryodamage in both asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic semen samples. LC had better protective effects for asthenozoospermic human semen samples. Future research should focus on the molecular mechanism for and the different protective effects of LC between asthenozoospermic and normozoospermic semen samples during cryopreservation.

  6. Superoxide Dismutase: A Predicting Factor for Boar Semen Characteristics for Short-Term Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Nemec Svete, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r = −0.686; P < 0.05) and viability (r = −0.513; P < 0.05) after storage; TBARS correlated only with motility (r = −0.480; P < 0.05). Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability > 85%, motility > 70%, progressive motility > 25%, and normal morphology > 50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P < 0.05) following storage. SOD levels of less than 1.05 U/mL predicted with 87.5% accuracy that fresh semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage. PMID:24729963

  7. Semen parameters from 2002 to 2013 in Korea young population: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Yoo Seok; Cho, In-Chang; Min, Seung Ki

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the differences of semen parameters in Korean young population for three periods from 2002 to 2013. A total of 516 semen samples were collected from Korean men presenting for infertility, varicoceles or other infectious problems for three periods from 2002 to 2012: January 2002-December 2003, January 2007-December 2008, and January 2012-December 2013. A standard World Health Organization procedure for semen analysis was performed for assessment of semen concentration, volume, motility, morphology, and pH. A total of 160, 162, 194 men constituted the study populations in 2002 to 2003, in 2007 to 2008, and in 2012 to 2013, respectively. The overall sperm parameter results suggested a statistically significant difference between 2002 to 2003 and 2012 to 2013 except pH. However, considering the data from 2007 to 2008, there were no trends in changes in overall semen parameters. Negative correlations were observed in all semen parameters with increasing age in all patients, except for pH. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology had higher negative correlation coefficients with age, from 2002 to 2013, serially. There were no significant changes in the semen parameters of Korean men from 2002 to 2013. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology showed higher negative correlation coefficients with age from 2002 to 2013, serially.

  8. Semen parameters from 2002 to 2013 in Korea young population: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soon Ki; Kim, Yoo Seok; Cho, In-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the differences of semen parameters in Korean young population for three periods from 2002 to 2013. Materials and Methods A total of 516 semen samples were collected from Korean men presenting for infertility, varicoceles or other infectious problems for three periods from 2002 to 2012: January 2002-December 2003, January 2007-December 2008, and January 2012-December 2013. A standard World Health Organization procedure for semen analysis was performed for assessment of semen concentration, volume, motility, morphology, and pH. Results A total of 160, 162, 194 men constituted the study populations in 2002 to 2003, in 2007 to 2008, and in 2012 to 2013, respectively. The overall sperm parameter results suggested a statistically significant difference between 2002 to 2003 and 2012 to 2013 except pH. However, considering the data from 2007 to 2008, there were no trends in changes in overall semen parameters. Negative correlations were observed in all semen parameters with increasing age in all patients, except for pH. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology had higher negative correlation coefficients with age, from 2002 to 2013, serially. Conclusions There were no significant changes in the semen parameters of Korean men from 2002 to 2013. In addition, semen volume, motility, and morphology showed higher negative correlation coefficients with age from 2002 to 2013, serially. PMID:26682024

  9. Role of Semen on Vaginal HIV-1 Transmission and Maraviroc Protection

    PubMed Central

    Council, Olivia D.; Swanson, Michael D.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann

    2015-01-01

    We used bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to establish the effect of semen on vaginal HIV infection and on the efficacy of topically applied maraviroc. Our results demonstrate that vaginal transmission of cell-free HIV occurs efficiently in the presence of semen and that topically applied maraviroc efficiently prevents HIV transmission in the presence of semen. We also show that semen has no significant effect on the transmission of transmitted/founder viruses or cell-associated viruses. PMID:26392489

  10. Semen analysis standardization: is there any problem in Polish laboratories?

    PubMed Central

    Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Filipiak, Eliza; Bergier, Leszek; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of compliance of Polish laboratories with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, with regard to semen analysis methodology. A survey requesting information about methods of semen analysis was distributed to employees of 55 laboratories. Respondents who had participated in external seminological workshops (31%) were termed certified respondents (CR), the remaining (69%)—non-certified respondents (NCR). Only one laboratory (6%) in the CR group and none in the NCR were compliant with WHO guidelines for methods and equipment used to evaluate seminal volume, sperm motility, concentration, vitality and morphology. Most problems were of volume measurement (weighing method was reported by 17% of CR and 10% of NCR) and staining method for sperm morphology (Papanicolau or Diff–Quik were found in 33% of CR and 23% of NCR). A three- or four-point grading of sperm motility was used by the majority of respondents; however, 17% of CR and 37% of NCR did not use a laboratory counter to tally spermatozoa. Although a haemocytometer method was used by 80% of laboratories in each group, the improved Neubauer chamber was used only by 42% of CR and 19% of NCR. In each group, 24% of laboratories did not perform a vitality test. Procedural errors and the interchangeable utilization of two or even three methods to analyse a given parameter was observed in both groups. The results indicate a need for standardisation of the methods and continuous, unified training in semen analysis in Polish laboratories. PMID:23817502

  11. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  12. Antioxidant supplements and semen parameters: An evidence based review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Sedigheh; Bashiri, Reihane; Ghadiri-Anari, Akram; Nadjarzadeh, Azadeh

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on male infertility. There is limited evidence about the influence of nutrition on quality of semen. Approximately, 30-80% of infertility cases are caused by oxidative stress and decreased level of seminal total antioxidant capacity. This study was aimed to review the effects of oral antioxidant supplements on improving major semen parameters such as sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA damage, and fertility rate. Data were extracted from PubMed and Google scholar database by using the terms “antioxidant”, “multivitamin”, “carnitine”, “CoQ10”, “vitamin C”, “vitamin E”, “zinc”, “folic acid”, “N-acetyl cysteine” and “selenium” combined with “male infertility”, “semen”, and “sperm” to generate a set of relevant citations. Supplements such as CoQ10 and alpha-tocopherol significantly improve sperm count. Also, carnitine has positive effects on sperm motility and morphology. Simultaneous administration of vitamin E and vitamin C reduces the sperm DNA damage. However, in some studies, one or more factors have not changed substantially. In most of the studies, antioxidant supplementation improved the number, motility, morphology and sometimes DNA integrity of sperm. The present study showed that antioxidant supplements, especially a combination of antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and CoQ10 intake can effectively improve semen parameters in infertile men. PMID:28066832

  13. Prospective surveillance of semen quality in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Perkins, C.; Lewis, E.L.; Katz, D.F.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    We performed a prospective surveillance of semen quality among workers in the plant where 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane was first recognized as an occupational cause of impaired semen quality and of infertility. All male employees of the Agricultural Chemical Division were required to participate. Ninety-seven workers (92% participation) provided 258 semen samples over the 4 years of the program. Most samples were analyzed at the plant with a mini-laboratory designed for the study. Motility and shape measures were made objectively. Sixty-six subjects (68%) were non-azoospermic. Generalized multiple regression showed no significant predictors for any response, with the exception of the motility measures, which were reduced with longer times between ejaculation and assay. Between- and within-person standard deviations and correlations were calculated. Comparison of this population with fertile artificial insemination donors (16 men, 498 ejaculates) revealed generally higher ejaculate-to-ejaculate standard deviations in the worker samples. This is probably due to less well controlled conditions of sperm collection in the workplace setting. For cross-sectional studies, one ejaculate per worker is recommended as sufficient; for estimating an individual worker's mean, even three ejaculates may not provide enough precision.

  14. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  15. Evidence for decreasing quality of semen during past 50 years.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsen, E.; Giwercman, A.; Keiding, N.; Skakkebaek, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether semen quality has changed during the past 50 years. DESIGN--Review of publications on semen quality in men without a history of infertility selected by means of Cumulated Index Medicus and Current List (1930-1965) and MEDLINE Silver Platter database (1966-August 1991). SUBJECTS--14,947 men included in a total of 61 papers published between 1938 and 1991. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Mean sperm density and mean seminal volume. RESULTS--Linear regression of data weighted by number of men in each study showed a significant decrease in mean sperm count from 113 x 10(6)/ml in 1940 to 66 x 10(6)/ml in 1990 (p < 0.0001) and in seminal volume from 3.40 ml to 2.75 ml (p = 0.027), indicating an even more pronounced decrease in sperm production than expressed by the decline in sperm density. CONCLUSIONS--There has been a genuine decline in semen quality over the past 50 years. As male fertility is to some extent correlated with sperm count the results may reflect an overall reduction in male fertility. The biological significance of these changes is emphasised by a concomitant increase in the incidence of genitourinary abnormalities such as testicular cancer and possibly also cryptorchidism and hypospadias, suggesting a growing impact of factors with serious effects on male gonadal function. PMID:1393072

  16. Personality of semen donors and their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Taus, L; Gerzová, J

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined, using three generally accepted methods, the personality structure of 80 semen donors (Cattell's 16-factor questionnaire, 16PF, Eysenck's personality questionnaire, EOD, and Leary's method of interpersonal diagnosis of personality). The donors were selected by means of the Questionnaire of semen donors. The group is subdivided into four sub-groups by the grade of education, i.e. university graduates, men with secondary and elementary education and university students. All are 20-40 years old. The authors describe the assembled results in different sub-groups and in the group as a whole and compare them mutually and with the standardized norm. With regard to the specificity of individual methods and their application the findings are summarized. The donors are balanced personalities, slightly extrovert, emotionally well developed with a realistic outlook. They have positive, sensitive relations with their environment an behaviour towards other people, they are considerate, careful and disciplined. They respect social norms as regards preservation of originality of personality. They have a slight tendency of sheltering behaviour, they wish to be somewhat more aggressive. No pathological phenomena were observed in the donors. Their intelligence is above average. They make a favourable impression with regard to the demand of mental health and transmission of genetic information. The authors evaluate favourably the Questionnaire for semen donors as the method for selection of donors.

  17. Effects of work and life stress on semen quality.

    PubMed

    Janevic, Teresa; Kahn, Linda G; Landsbergis, Paul; Cirillo, Piera M; Cohn, Barbara A; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate associations between work-related stress, stressful life events, and perceived stress and semen quality. Cross-sectional analysis. Northern California. 193 men from the Child Health and Development Studies evaluated between 2005-2008. None. Measures of stress including job strain, perceived stress, and stressful life events; outcome measures of sperm concentration, percentage of motile sperm, and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. We found an inverse association between perceived stress score and sperm concentration (estimated coefficient b=-0.09×10(3)/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.18, -0.01), motility (b=-0.39; 95% CI=-0.79, 0.01), and morphology (b=-0.14; 95% CI, -0.25, -0.04) in covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses. Men who experienced two or more stressful life events in the past year compared with no stressful events had a lower percentage of motile sperm (b=-8.22; 95% CI, -14.31, -2.13) and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm (b=-1.66; 95% CI, -3.35, 0.03) but a similar sperm concentration. Job strain was not associated with semen parameters. In this first study to examine all three domains of stress, perceived stress and stressful life events but not work-related stress were associated with semen quality. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV-1 imposes rigidity on blood and semen cytokine networks.

    PubMed

    Lisco, Andrea; Introini, Andrea; Munawwar, Arshi; Vanpouille, Christophe; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Blank, Paul; Singh, Sarman; Margolis, Leonid

    2012-12-01

    Although it is established that the levels of individual cytokines are altered by HIV-1 infection, the changes in cytokine interrelations that organize them into networks have been poorly studied. Here, we evaluated these networks in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals in fluid compartments that are critical for HIV-1 pathogenesis and transmission, namely blood and semen. In samples collected from therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected individuals, we measured HIV-1-load, CD4 cell count, and levels of 21 cytokines using a multiplex bead assay. Cytokine networks in blood and semen were different for HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected individuals. In both compartments of HIV-1-infected individuals, the cytokine networks were more interlocked than in controls: HIV-1 infection resulted in the establishment of new correlations and in the strengthening of pre-existing correlations between different cytokines. In blood and semen of HIV-infected patients, there were, respectively, 68 and 72 statistically significant correlations between cytokines, while in uninfected individuals, there were 18 and 21 such correlations. HIV-1 infection reorganizes the cytokine networks, establishing new strong correlations between various cytokines and thus imposes a high rigidity on the cytokine network. This rigidity may reflect the impairment of the ability of the immune system to respond to microbial challenges. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. HIV-1 imposes rigidity on blood and semen cytokine networks

    PubMed Central

    LISCO, Andrea; INTROINI, Andrea; MUNAWWAR, Arshi; VANPOUILLE, Christope; GRIVEL, Jean-Charles; BLANK, Paul; SINGH, Sarman

    2012-01-01

    Problem Although it is established that the levels of individual cytokines are altered by HIV-1 infection, the changes in cytokine interrelations that organize them into networks have been poorly studied. Here, we evaluated these networks in HIV-infected and -uninfected individuals in fluid compartments that are critical for HIV-1 pathogenesis and transmission, namely blood and semen. Method of Study In samples collected from therapy-naïve HIV-1-infected and HIV-1-uninfected individuals, we measured HIV-1-load, CD4-cell-count, and levels of 21 cytokines using a multiplex bead-assay. Results Cytokine networks in blood and semen were different for HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals. In both compartments of HIV-1-infected individuals, the cytokine networks were more interlocked than in controls: HIV -1 infection results in the establishment of new correlations and the strengthening of pre-existing correlations between different cytokines. In blood and semen of HIV-infected patients there were, respectively, 68 and 72 statistically significant correlations between cytokines, while in uninfected individuals there were 18 and 21 such correlations. Conclusions HIV-1 infection reorganizes the cytokine networks, establishing new strong correlations between various cytokines and thus imposing a high rigidity on the cytokine network. This rigidity may reflect the impairment of the ability of the immune system to respond to microbial challenges. PMID:23006048

  20. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  1. Semen analysis standardization: is there any problem in Polish laboratories?

    PubMed

    Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Filipiak, Eliza; Bergier, Leszek; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of compliance of Polish laboratories with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, with regard to semen analysis methodology. A survey requesting information about methods of semen analysis was distributed to employees of 55 laboratories. Respondents who had participated in external seminological workshops (31%) were termed certified respondents (CR), the remaining (69%)-non-certified respondents (NCR). Only one laboratory (6%) in the CR group and none in the NCR were compliant with WHO guidelines for methods and equipment used to evaluate seminal volume, sperm motility, concentration, vitality and morphology. Most problems were of volume measurement (weighing method was reported by 17% of CR and 10% of NCR) and staining method for sperm morphology (Papanicolau or Diff-Quik were found in 33% of CR and 23% of NCR). A three- or four-point grading of sperm motility was used by the majority of respondents; however, 17% of CR and 37% of NCR did not use a laboratory counter to tally spermatozoa. Although a haemocytometer method was used by 80% of laboratories in each group, the improved Neubauer chamber was used only by 42% of CR and 19% of NCR. In each group, 24% of laboratories did not perform a vitality test. Procedural errors and the interchangeable utilization of two or even three methods to analyse a given parameter was observed in both groups. The results indicate a need for standardisation of the methods and continuous, unified training in semen analysis in Polish laboratories.

  2. [Requests for utilization of a semen bank among oncological patients. Semen cryopreservation prior to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery].

    PubMed

    González Casbas, José Manuel; Calderay Domínguez, Milagros

    2004-11-01

    Oncological therapies, either surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, may cause irreversible subfertiliy/infertility. Both chemotherapy and radiotherapy have cytotoxic effects on gametogenesis and there are not preventive alternatives currently available. The objective of this article is to review current criteria for semen cryopreservation and its usefulness as a method for preservation of fertility in patients with cancer. We reviewed a large group of recent original articles and systematic reviews on the issue with a common feature: evaluation of fertility status after oncological therapy. Every male patient in fertile age who could wish future fatherhood should be offered the option to storage cryopreserved semen samples before starting oncological therapies, with the exception of patients with azoospermia at the time of diagnosis.

  3. Supplementing oregano essential oil to boar diet with strengthened fish oil: Effects on semen antioxidant status and semen quality parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q; Duan, R J; Zhou, Y F; Wei, H K; Peng, J; Li, J L

    2017-02-22

    Previous research has shown benefits of dietary fish oil supplementation on semen quality of boars. However, little is known about how antioxidant protects lipid peroxidation on spermatozoa from n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) addition. This study evaluated the effect of oregano essential oil (OEO) supplementation on semen antioxidant status and semen quality in boars fed a diet enriched with fish oil. Thirty-four mature boars of proven fertility, received daily 2.5 kg basal diet top-dressed with 45 g soybean oil and 15 g fish oil to meet the n-3 PUFA requirement of spermatozoa, randomly allocated to one of four groups supplemented with 100 mg α-tocopheryl acetate kg(-1) (control), or 250 or 500 or 750 mg OEO kg(-1) for 16 weeks. Semen was collected at weeks 0, 8, 12 and 16 for measurements of sperm production, motion characteristics, sperm α-tocopherol content, antioxidant enzyme activities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, 8-OHdG), lipoperoxidation (malondialdehyde, MDA) and seminal total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Sperm production and motion characteristics were similar (p > .05) among groups throughout the experimental week 16, but increased (p < .01) with experimental week. Although higher α-tocopherol content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were in OEO group spermatozoa, feeding diet with 500 mg/kg OEO resulted in elevation in seminal TAC, decrease in sperm ROS, MDA and 8-OHdG than control group (p < .05). Overall, these results support the view that oregano essential oil has a positive effect on antioxidant capacity in boar when used fish oil.

  4. Semen analysis in chronic bacterial prostatitis: diagnostic and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Magri, Vittorio; Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Montanari, Emanuele; Marras, Emanuela; Orlandi, Viviana; Restelli, Antonella; Torresani, Erminio; Naber, Kurt G; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2009-01-01

    The significance and diagnostic value of semen analysis in chronic bacterial prostatitis has been extensively debated and remains controversial. To investigate the diagnostic relevance of semen culture in the bacteriological workup of prostatitis patients, we retrospectively analyzed a clinical database of 696 symptomatic patients. All patients were routinely subjected to a four-glass test, followed by semen culture and analysis. This allowed to dissect from the database three different diagnostic scenarios, and to compare the 'two-glass' pre-/post- massage test and the standard 'four-glass' test with a 'five-glass' test (four-glass plus post-VB3 semen culture). The 'five-glass' test showed 3.6- or 6.5-fold increases in relative sensitivity and lesser reductions (−13.2% or −14.7%) in relative specificity for traditional uropathogens (TUs) compared with the four-glass or two-glass test, respectively. The area under the ROC curve and Jouden's index were increased, whereas positive and negative likelihood ratios were lower than comparators, indicating that the 'five-glass' assay may be superior in confirming the negative outcome of both standard tests. The five-, four-, and two-glass tests detected TUs (Enterobacteriaceae, Enterococci, etc.) in 120, 33, and 20 patients and unusual pathogens (Streptococci, other Gram-positive species, Mycoplasmata, and others) in 130, 56, and 45 patients, respectively. When patients were subjected to pharmacological treatment, including a combination of a fluoroquinolone and a macrolide, no differences in eradication rates were observed between groups diagnosed with different tests, irrespective of pathogen category. Eradication was associated with long-term sign/symptom remission; no significant intergroup differences in sign/symptom scores were observed throughout a 24-month off-therapy follow-up period. In conclusion, our data support the usefulness of semen analysis in the diagnostic workup of prostatitis patients when this

  5. Influence of chamber type integrated with computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system on the results of boar semen evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gączarzewicz, D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different types of chambers used in computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) on boar sperm concentration and motility parameters. CASA measurements were performed on 45 ejaculates by comparing three commonly used chambers: Leja chamber (LJ), Makler chamber (MK) and microscopic slide-coverslip (SL). Concentration results obtained with CASA were verified by manual counting on a Bürker hemocytometer (BH). No significant differences were found between the concentrations determined with BH vs. LJ and SL, whereas higher (p<0.01) values of this parameter were obtained with MK. Compared to MK and SL, significantly higher values were recorded in LJ for velocity (VCL and VAP) as well as amplitude of the lateral head displacement (ALH) and beat cross frequency (BCF), which was associated with significantly higher percentages of motile, progressively motile and rapidly progressive motile spermatozoa. Higher values for the linearity (LIN) and straightness (STR) of sperm movement were obtained for the analysis performed in MK and SL. In both these chambers, the results of all the linearity and kinetic parameters of sperm were similar (p>0.05). The results obtained show that CASA assessment of boar semen should account for the effect of counting chamber on the results of sperm motility and concentration, which confirms the need for further study on standardizing the automatic analysis of boar semen.

  6. Cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) semen.

    PubMed

    Rakha, B A; Ansari, M S; Akhter, S; Hussain, I; Blesbois, E

    2016-11-01

    The population of red jungle fowl is declining and needs special attention for its conservation with suitable approaches. For ex situ in vitro conservation of Indian red jungle fowl, establishment of semen cryobank is an appropriate option, for which an extender with adequate retrieval capacity for functional spermatozoa is required. Therefore, studies were designed to evaluate a wide range of extenders for cryopreservation of Indian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus murghi) sperm to achieve maximal post-thawed semen quality and fertility. For this purpose, semen from eight mature cocks were collected, initially evaluated (percent sperm motility, volume and concentration), pooled, assessed for motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and acrosome integrity, and divided into six aliquots for dilution (1:5; 37°C) in Beltsville poultry, red fowl extender, Lake, EK, Tselutin poultry and chicken semen extenders. Diluted semen was cooled from 37°C to 4°C @ -0.275°C/min. Glycerol (20%) was added to chilled semen, equilibrated for 10min, filled in 0.5mL French straws, kept over LN2 vapours for 10min and plunged into LN2 and stored at -196°C. Percentages of motility, plasma membrane integrity, viability and acrosome integrity were higher (P<0.05) in red fowl extender at 0, 2 and 4h of incubation post-thaw. After cryopreservation and post-thawing at 37°C the highest (P<0.05) recovery rates and absolute livability index was also recorded in red fowl extender that was thus used for further artificial insemination of cooled-diluted (Liquid) and cryopreserved sperm. The no. of fertilized eggs (Liquid, 20.6±0.4; Cryopreserved, 12.6±0.5), percent fertility (86.7±2.2; 57.2±3.9), no. of hatched chicks (18.2±0.8; 10.0±0.3), percent hatch (76.5±2.7; 45.3±2.2) and hatchability of fertilized eggs (88.3±3.4; 79.6±3.4) were higher with sperm respectively freshly cooled-diluted or cryopreserved in red fowl extender. However, the rates obtained with frozen-thawed sperm

  7. Persistence of DNA from laundered semen stains: Implications for child sex trafficking cases.

    PubMed

    Brayley-Morris, Helen; Sorrell, Amber; Revoir, Andrew P; Meakin, Georgina E; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Morgan, Ruth M

    2015-11-01

    In sexual assault cases, particularly those involving internal child sex trafficking (ICST), victims often hide their semen-stained clothing. This can result in a lag time of several months before the items are laundered and subsequently seized during a criminal investigation. Although it has been demonstrated previously that DNA can be recovered from clothing washed immediately after semen deposition, laundered items of clothing are not routinely examined in ICST cases, due to the assumption that the time delay and washing would result in no detectable DNA. The aim of this study was to examine whether viable DNA profiles could be recovered from laundered semen stains where there has been a significant lag time between semen deposition from one or more individuals and one or more washes of the stained clothing. Items of UK school uniform (T-shirts, trousers, tights) were stained with fresh semen (either from a single donor or a 1:1 mixture from two donors) and stored in a wardrobe for eight months. Stained and unstained items (socks) were then washed at 30 °C or 60 °C and with non-biological or biological detergent. DNA samples extracted from the semen-stained sites and from the unstained socks were quantified and profiled. High quantities of DNA, (6-18 μg) matching the DNA profiles of the semen donors, were recovered from all semen-stained clothing that had been laundered once, irrespective of wash conditions. This quantity,and profile quality,did not decline significantly with multiple washes. The two donor semen samples yielded ∼ 10-fold more DNA from the T-shirts than from the trousers. This disparity resulted in the T-shirts yielding a ∼ 1:1 mixture of DNA from the two donors, whereas the trousers yielded a major DNA profile matching only that of the second donor. The quantities of DNA recovered from the unstained socks were an order of magnitude lower, with most of the DNA being attributable to the donor of the semen on the stained clothing within the

  8. Pregnancy rates following AI with sexed semen in Mediterranean Italian buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L

    2011-08-01

    The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy

  9. A polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Brucella canis in semen of naturally infected dogs.

    PubMed

    Keid, L B; Soares, R M; Vasconcellos, S A; Chiebao, D P; Megid, J; Salgado, V R; Richtzenhain, L J

    2007-04-15

    The objective was to evaluate a PCR assay for the detection of Brucella canis in canine semen, comparing its performance with that of bacterial isolation, serological tests and PCR assay of blood. Fifty-two male dogs were examined clinically to detect reproductive abnormalities and their serum was tested by the rapid slide agglutination test, with and without 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME-RSAT and RSAT, respectively). In addition, microbiological culture and PCR assays were performed on blood and semen samples. The findings of the semen PCR were compared (Kappa coefficient and McNemar test) to those of blood PCR, culture of blood and semen, RSAT, and 2ME-RSAT. Nucleic acid extracts from semen collected from dogs not infected with B. canis were spiked with decreasing amounts of B. canis RM6/66 DNA and the resulting samples subjected to PCR. In addition, semen samples of non-infected dogs were spiked with decreasing amounts of B. canis CFU and the resulting suspensions were used for DNA extraction and amplification. Of the 52 dogs that were examined, the following tests were positive: RSAT, 16 (30.7%); 2ME-RSAT, 5 (9.6%); blood culture, 14 (26.9%); semen culture, 11 (21.1%); blood PCR, 18 (34.6%); semen PCR, 18 (34.6%). The PCR assay detected as few as 3.8 fg of B. canis DNA experimentally diluted in 444.9 ng of canine DNA (extracted from semen samples of non-infected dogs). In addition, the PCR assay amplified B. canis genetic sequences from semen samples containing as little as 1.0 x 10(0) cfu/mL. We concluded that PCR assay of semen was a good candidate as a confirmatory test for the diagnosis of brucellosis in dogs; its diagnostic performance was similar to blood culture or blood PCR. Furthermore, the PCR assay of semen was more sensitive than the 2ME-RSAT or semen culture. Examination of semen by PCR should be included for diagnosis of brucellosis prior to natural mating or AI; in that regard, some dogs that were negative on serological and microbiological examinations

  10. Effect of glycerol on the viability and fertility of cooled bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Papa, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the viability and fertility of bovine semen diluted in Botu-Bov (BB) commercial extender with and without the cryoprotectant glycerol then cooled at 5 degree C for 24 hours in the Botu-Flex passive cooling system and of semen diluted in BB with glycerol then frozen. One ejaculate of 30 Nelore Bos Taurus indicus bulls between 24 and 30 months of age was used for in vitro analysis. Sperm kinetics and cell viability were analyzed using computer-assisted sperm analysis and flow cytometry, respectively. Three Nelore bulls approximately 30 month old were used for in vivo test using fixed-time artificial insemination for the fertility analysis. The ejaculates were divided into three experimental groups: semen in BB extender with 7% glycerol cooled at 5 °C for 24 hours (cooled semen with cryoprotectant), semen in BB without glycerol cooled at 5 °C for 24 hours (cooled semen without cryoprotectant), and semen diluted in BB with 7% glycerol then subsequently frozen rather than cooled (frozen semen). For the fertility analysis, 762 Nelore cows (B taurus indicus) were randomly inseminated using fixed-time artificial insemination. For the groups corresponding to cooled semen with cryoprotectant, cooled semen without cryoprotectant, and frozen semen, 278, 268, and 216 cows were inseminated, respectively, and the resulting conception rates were 51% a, 44%ab and 41%b (P < 0.05), respectively. In conclusion, the fertility rates improved, when samples were cooled with glycerol at 5 °C for 24 hours compared with the frozen samples.

  11. Effect of species, breed, and age on bacterial load in bovine and bubaline semen

    PubMed Central

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of species, breed and age on bacterial load in fresh and frozen semen of Cattle and Buffalo bull. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 56 cow and 10 buffalo bulls stationed at Central Semen Station Anjora, Durg (Chhattisgarh). Impact of breeds on bacterial load in semen was assessed using six breeds of cattle viz. Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF) cross. Cow bulls were categorized into four different groups based on their age (<4 years, 4-5 years, 5-6 years and > 6 years) to study variation among age groups. Bacterial load was measured in fresh and frozen semen samples from these bulls using the standard plate count (SPC) method and count was expressed as colony forming unit (CFU) per ml of semen. Results: Higher bacterial load was reported in fresh (2.36 × 104 ± 1943 CFU/ml) and frozen (1.00 × 10 ± 90 CFU/ml) semen of cow bulls as compared to buffalo bulls (1.95 × 104 ± 2882 and 7.75 × 102 ± 160 CFU/ml in fresh and frozen semen, respectively). Jersey bull showed significantly higher bacterial count (p < 0.05) both in fresh (4.07 × 104 ± 13927 CFU/ml) and frozen (1.92 × 103 ± 178 CFU/ml) semen followed by HF cross, Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi and Tharparkar bull. Bulls aged < 4 years and more than 6 years yielded increased bacterial load in their semen. Although a minor variation was reported between species and among age groups, no significant differences were measured. Conclusion: Bacterial load in semen did not differ significantly between species and age groups; however significant variation was reported among different breeds. Bulls of Jersey breed showed significantly higher bacterial load in semen as compared to the crossbred and indigenous bull. PMID:27047115

  12. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of buffalo bulls seminal plasma proteins and their relation with semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Asadpour, R; Alavi-Shoushtari, S M; Rezaii, S Asri; Ansari, M H Kh

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein profiles of seminal plasma in buffalo bulls and to examine their correlation with semen characteristics. Semen of 10 buffalo bulls were collected by a bovine artificial vagina. Semen characteristics (motility, morphology, viability and concentration) were recorded. A part of the semen sample (1 ml) was diluted by tris-egg yolk-glycerol extender, packed in French straws and was frozen in liquid nitrogen. The straws were later thawed and semen characteristics were compared with those of the fresh semen. Seminal plasma was harvested by centrifugation; treated with cold ethanol and then, underwent SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Twenty five protein bands were identified on the gel, of which those of <35.5 kDa were prominent (72% of the bands). Of these protein fractions, 24.5 kDa was significantly correlated with sperm progressive motility in fresh and viability in frozen-thawed semen while 45 kDa bands were correlated with abnormal morphology in frozen-thawed semen; 55 kDa protein fractions were correlated with sperm viability of fresh semen. Progressive motility, viability and abnormal sperm morphology of frozen-thawed semen were highly correlated with these parameters in the fresh semen. In conclusion, seminal plasma protein fractions in buffalo bulls are similar to those reported in other animal species and have some correlations with semen characteristics before and after freezing.

  13. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  14. Comparison of Holstein service-sire fertility for heifer and cow breedings with conventional and sexed semen.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sire conception rate (SCR), a service-sire fertility evaluation implemented in August 2008, is based on up to 7 conventional-semen breedings for parities 1 through 5 (Ccow). The same procedure was used to derive SCR for other types of breedings: sexed semen for cows (Scow) and conventional semen and...

  15. Detection of Ureaplasma spp. in semen samples from sheep in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Batista; de Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; da Rocha Mota, André; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; de Moraes, Érica Paes Barreto Xavier; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; do Mota, Rinaldo Apareci

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to verify the presence of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas DNA in sheep semen samples from the State of Pernambuco. The PCR assay was conducted of according with standard protocols with generic primers. Mollicutes DNA was detected in 26.0% and Ureaplasma spp. in 12.0% of semen samples. PMID:24516459

  16. Sexed-semen usage for Holstein AI in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The dairy industry has used sexed-semen to reduce the birth of undesirable bull calves for over a decade. While the efficacy of sexed-semen has been determined experimentally, we sought to tabulate statistics on the generalized use of the technology in the US dairy herd and determine its effectivene...

  17. [Infrared spectrum analysis of admixture decoction of herba ephedrae with semen armeniacae amarum].

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Shuo; Chen, Rong; Guo, Shao-zhong; Lin, Ju-qiang; Feng, Shang-yuan; Li, Yong-zeng; Huang, Zu-fang; Cai, Yu-hui

    2008-12-01

    The infrared spectra of decoction of herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum and the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum were tested. The change in the the mixed decoction was discussed to study the relationship between herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum after decoction. The results showed that some absorption peaks of herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum were retained in the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum, such as 1402 and 1076 cm(-1), but some absorption peaks that never appear in the two ingredient spectra increased such as 1394 and 682 cm(-1). New absorption peaks were generated in the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum, such as 688 and 1187 cm(-1). It can be showed that there were differences in the chemistry environment of the various chemical groups in the three decoctions introduced above, with the variation in absorption peak position, and the biochemical structure of the material changed, possibly with some new chemical compositions created. Medical ingredients in the mixed decoction of herba ephedra + semen armeniacae amarum were not simply the addition of herba ephedra and semen armeniacae amarum based on studies of infrared spectrum of decoction, and the new notion of prescription spectroscopy was proposed.

  18. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Emerson; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Soka, Moses; Choi, Mary J.; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Ladele, Victor; Kpaka, Jonathan; Jawara, Mary; Mugisha, Margaret; Subah, Onyekachi; Faikai, Mylene; Bailey, Jeff A.; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart; Williams, Desmond

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD. PMID:28287374

  19. Effect of ram semen extenders and supplements on computer assisted sperm analysis parameters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study evaluated the effects of ram semen extender and extender supplementation on computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) parameters positively correlated with progressive motility. Semen collected from 5 rams was distributed across treatment combinations consisting of either TRIS citrate (T) or ...

  20. Raman spectroscopic signature of semen and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-12-15

    A great potential of Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci. Int. 2008). However, that analysis was carried out on only one sample of each body fluid and did not take into account any variations that might occur between different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a sample as well as among multiple donors for human semen. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human semen samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. The major chemical components that contributed to the Raman spectrum of semen were determined and used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of semen was also addressed. Advanced statistical analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry semen is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry semen in a quantitative way. The combination of the three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for semen. This proof-of-concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen during forensic analysis.

  1. A Review of the Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Raphani Semen

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Tung-Ting; Yuen, Ailsa Chui-Ying; Ng, Yam-Fung; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2013-01-01

    The dried ripe seed of Raphanus sativus L., commonly known as radish seed (or Raphani Semen), is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat constipation, chronic tracheitis, and hypertension. The major active compounds in Raphani Semen are alkaloids, glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, and flavonoids. Fatty acids are its main nutritional contents. Raphani Semen has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and cough. So far, there is no report about the adverse/toxic effects of this herb on humans. However, Raphani Semen processed by roasting was reported to exhibit some adverse effects on mice. Additionally, erucic acid, the main fatty acid in Raphani Semen, was shown to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, Raphani Semen has a potential risk of causing toxicity and drug interaction. In summary, Raphani Semen is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects. More studies on Raphani Semen could help better understand its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide clear scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, to identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases, and to understand its possible harmful effects. PMID:23935670

  2. Description of semen characteristics from six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) collected by electroejaculation.

    PubMed

    Serafim, M K B; Lira, R A; Costa, L L M; Gadelha, I C N; Freitas, C I A; Silva, A R

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of the semen from six-banded armadillos (Euphractus sexcinctus) collected by electroejaculation. Six mature males were physically restrained and electroejaculated twice for the collection of semen. Semen collected was immediately evaluated for appearance, volume, pH, sperm motility, vigor, morphology, percentage of live sperm and functional membrane integrity by light microscopy. Semen was obtained from all (100%) twelve attempts conducted for electroejaculation. Armadillos' semen had a white-translucent appearance, and great viscosity. Mean values obtained in analysis of the semen were: 353+/-86 microl for volume, 9 for pH, 45+/-14 x 10(6)sperm/ml for concentration, 61+/-7% motile sperm with 2+/-0.2 for vigor, 55+/-7% live sperm, 86+/-2% morphologic normal sperm, and 46+/-6% functional membrane integrity. In conclusion, semen from six-banded armadillos can be efficiently obtained by electroejaculation. The characteristics of semen collected by electroejaculation in six-banded armadillos provide background information that may be useful for assisted breeding programs in the members of the Xenarthra family. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of sexed semen on conception rate for Holsteins in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effect of sexed-semen breedings on conception rate was investigated using US Holstein field data from January 2006 through October 2008. Sexed-semen breeding status was determined by a National Association of Animal Breeders’ 500-series marketing code or by individual breeding information in a cow o...

  4. Influence of pre-cryopreservation pH and temperature on boar semen quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The influence of shipping temperature and pH on semen quality parameters could determine the effectiveness of current National Animal Germplasm Program protocols. The purpose of this project is to determine associations between pH, shipping temperature, and boar semen quality: cell size, cell inte...

  5. A PROTOCOL FOR THE SHORT-TERM STORAGE OF ATLANTIC STURGEON SEMEN

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-term, liquid-phase storage trials were conducted in 2009 on Atlantic sturgeon semen obtained from captive males, held at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Fish Technology Center and wild males, collected ripe on the spawning grounds from the Hudson River. Semen samples collected, c...

  6. Ebola Virus RNA in Semen from an HIV-Positive Survivor of Ebola.

    PubMed

    Purpura, Lawrence J; Rogers, Emerson; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Soka, Moses; Choi, Mary J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Ladele, Victor; Kpaka, Jonathan; Jawara, Mary; Mugisha, Margaret; Subah, Onyekachi; Faikai, Mylene; Bailey, Jeff A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Nichol, Stuart; Williams, Desmond

    2017-04-01

    Ebola virus is known to persist in semen of male survivors of Ebola virus disease (EVD). However, maximum duration of, or risk factors for, virus persistence are unknown. We report an EVD survivor with preexisting HIV infection, whose semen was positive for Ebola virus RNA 565 days after recovery from EVD.

  7. [Evaluation of the quality of the human spermatozoon: comparison between spermatic DNA integrity and semen variables].

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ibis; Colmenares, Melisa; Berrueta-Carrillo, Leidith; Gomez-Perez, Roald; Montes, Henry; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Osuna, Jesús Alfonso

    2010-03-01

    Semen analysis does not have an absolute predictive value on fertility, however it is a reflection of male fertility potential, which is related to its spermatozoa quality and other semen variables. Great variability in human semen parameters has been demonstrated within a single individual, an observation that could explain why a male with low semen quality can successfully fertilize an egg. Although conventional semen analysis, such as sperm concentration, motility and morphology, provide important information about the clinical status of male fertility, new procedures to predict the sperm functional capability have been developed in the last decade, such as analysis of nuclear DNA integrity, which have improved considerably the clinical diagnosis of male infertility, and increased the knowledge about spermatozoa function. DNA fragmentation consist in interruptions, both in single and double DNA strains, that frequently occur in sperm samples from infertile patients. We have conducted a clinical study in semen samples from patients who have attended the Andrology laboratory of the University of Los Andes, between March 2007 and March 2009. The aim of this study was to compare sperm DNA integrity, analyzed by flow cytometry, with traditional semen parameters. Our results show remarkable correlations between conventional human semen variables and sperm chromatin integrity, contributing to asses an integral evaluation of sperm quality allowing the analysis of its fertilizing potential in clinical studies.

  8. Distinct Cytokine Patterns in Semen Influence Local HIV Shedding and HIV Target Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Abraham J.; Masson, Lindi; Ronacher, Katharina; Walzl, Gerhard; Coetzee, David; Lewis, David A.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Passmore, Jo-Ann S.; Burgers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Semen is the main vector for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from men to women. We investigated the influence of cytokines in semen on local HIV burden and activated T cells. Methods. Blood and semen were collected from 42 HIV-negative and 38 HIV-positive men. Concentrations of 20 cytokines were measured by Luminex, and frequencies of activated T cells were measured by flow cytometry. Results. Semen contained higher concentrations of proinflammatory (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin [IL]-8, IL-6, Fractalkine, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and adaptive cytokines (IL-7 and IL-15) and higher frequencies of activated T cells compared to blood. Plasma IL-2, eotaxin, MIP-1β, and IL-15 and semen eotaxin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) concentrations were associated with T-cell activation. Cytokines in semen were highly coregulated in HIV-negative men; however, this network was disrupted during HIV infection. Several cytokines in semen correlated with HIV shedding (G-CSF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], interferon-gamma [IFN-γ], IL-10). Conclusion. Higher levels of inflammation and T-cell activation were observed in semen compared with blood. Seminal G-CSF, which influences neutrophil survival, T-cell function, and dendritic cell activation, was associated with T-cell activation and HIV shedding and may be an important target for reducing HIV shedding or risk. PMID:24273175

  9. Evaluation of Lama glama semen viscosity with a cone-plate rotational viscometer.

    PubMed

    Casaretto, C; Martínez Sarrasague, M; Giuliano, S; Rubin de Celis, E; Gambarotta, M; Carretero, I; Miragaya, M

    2012-05-01

    Llama semen is highly viscous. This characteristic is usually evaluated subjectively by measuring the thread formed when carefully pippeting a sample of semen. The aims of this study were (i) to objectively determine and analyse llama semen viscosity, (ii) to compare semen viscosity between ejaculates of the same male as well as between different males, (iii) to study the correlation between viscosity and other semen characteristics and (iv) to evaluate the effect of collagenase on semen viscosity. Semen viscosity was evaluated using a cone-plate Brookfield rotational viscometer. A non Newtonian, pseudoplastic behaviour was observed in the 45 semen samples evaluated. Rheological parameters were determined obtaining the following results (mean ± SD): apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1): 46.71 ± 26.8 cpoise and at 115 s(-1): 12.61 ± 4.1 cpoise; structural viscosity (K) (dyne s cm(-2)): 2.18 ± 1.4 and coefficient of consistency (n): 0.45 ± 0.1. Statistical differences were found between different ejaculates of the same male for structural viscosity and apparent viscosity at 11.5 s(-1) (P < 0.01). Correlation was found only between coefficient of consistency (n) and sperm concentration (P < 0.01). Significant differences for coefficient of consistency (n) and viscosity at 115 s(-1) were found between samples incubated with and without collagenase (P < 0.05).

  10. Semen characteristics of the captive Indian white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis).

    PubMed

    Umapathy, Govindhaswamy; Sontakke, Sadanand; Reddy, Anuradha; Ahmed, Shakeel; Shivaji, S

    2005-11-01

    The present paper describes, to our knowledge for the first time, the successful collection and evaluation of semen from the Indian white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis), a critically endangered bird. Over a period of 2 yr, semen was collected using the manual massage method and evaluated for semen volume, semen pH, sperm concentration, percentage normal/abnormal spermatozoa, and percentage motile spermatozoa. It appears that the concentration of spermatozoa and percentage motile spermatozoa in the Indian white-backed vultures are low compared to those in other birds. Tyrode medium supplemented with albumin, lactate, and pyruvate (TALP) proved to be the best semen extender compared to two others (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender and Lake diluent). Furthermore, TALP with 20% egg yolk and supplemented with 8% dimethyl sulfoxide maintained 50% of the initial percentage of motile spermatozoa following cryopreservation and thawing. A computer-aided semen analysis indicated that the spermatozoa of the Indian white-backed vulture are extremely active and swim in linear trajectories for up to 5 h following dilution in TALP. The trajectories were linear with time, but we noticed a decrease in the velocity parameters (average path velocity, curvilinear velocity, and progressive velocity). Thus, the present study provides baseline data on semen characteristics of the highly endangered Indian white-backed vulture, and these data could be of immense importance to reproductive and conservation biologists attempting to breed these animals in captivity, which to date has not been achieved.

  11. Effect of holding of semen and washing of seminal plasma on quality and fertility of Hampshire boar semen preserved at liquid state.

    PubMed

    Chutia, T; Biswas, R K; Tamuli, M K; Deka, B C; Sinha, S; Goswami, J; Banik, S; Kayastha, R B

    2014-03-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal the effect on keeping quality of boar semen on holding or not holding at an elevated temperature than that used for preservation when combined with washing or not washing of seminal plasma. Twenty ejaculates, four from each of five Hampshire boars were used to hold for 0 and 4h in GEPS extender at 22°C and subsequently washed (1500×g for 10min) of seminal plasma or left unwashed and preserved at 15°C for 72h after extending with the same extender. The seminal parameters in terms of sperm motility, live spermatozoa, and live spermatozoa with intact acrosome (LIA) were evaluated at 0h-(immediately after extension) and thereafter at 24h intervals. The mean percentage of sperm motility was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher in semen held for 4h than 0h irrespective of washing and significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. Irrespective of preservation period the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than 0h of holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. The mean percentage of LIA was significantly (P<0.01) higher with 4h than with 0h holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P<0.01) higher in unwashed than in washed semen at both 0h and 4h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P<0.01) higher for 4h held as compared to unheld semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P<0.01) lower in washed than unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation

  12. Application of a quantitative 1H-NMR method for the determination of amygdalin in Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Rie; Nitta, Akane; Nagatsu, Akito

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure the amygdalin content of Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus, in each of which amygdalin constitutes a major component. The purity of amygdalin was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the amygdalin H-2 signal at δ 6.50 ppm in pyridine-d 5 to that of the hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The HMD concentration was corrected by the International System of Units (SI) traceability with certified reference material (CRM)-grade bisphenol A. qHNMR revealed the amygdalin contents to be 2.72 and 3.13% in 2 lots of Persicae semen, 3.62 and 5.19% in 2 lots of Armeniacae semen, and 0.23% in Mume fructus. Thus, we demonstrated the utility of this method for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs.

  13. Applications and cost benefits of sexed semen in pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T; Hutchinson, I A; Cromie, A R; Shalloo, L

    2014-05-01

    Sexed semen technology is now commercially available in many countries around the world, and is primarily used in dairy cattle breeding. Sperm are sorted by flow cytometry on the basis of a 4% difference in DNA content between sperm containing X and Y chromosomes. Despite reliably producing a 90% gender bias, the fertility of the sexed semen product is compromised compared with conventional semen. The negative implications of the reduced fertility of sexed semen are amplified in seasonal systems of dairy production, as the importance of fertility is greater in these systems compared with year-round calving systems. A review of the literature indicates that conception rates (CR) to 1st service with frozen-thawed sexed semen are ~75% to 80% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen. Preliminary results from a large-scale field trial carried out in Ireland in 2013 suggest that significant improvements in the performance of sexed semen have been made, with CR of 87% of those achieved with conventional semen. The improved fertility of a sexed semen product that delivers a 90% gender bias has considerable implications for the future of breeding management in pasture-based dairy production systems. Sexed semen may facilitate faster, more profitable dairy herd expansion by increasing the number of dairy heifer replacements born. Biosecurity can be improved by maintaining a closed herd during the period of herd expansion. In a non-expansion scenario, sexed semen may be used to increase the value of beef output from the dairy herd. The replacement heifer requirements for a herd could be met by using sexed semen in the 1st 3 weeks of the breeding season, with the remaining animals bred to beef sires, increasing the sale value over that of a dairy bull calf. Alternatively, very short gestation sires could be used to shorten the calving interval. Market prices have a considerable effect on the economics of sexed semen use, and widespread use of sexed semen should

  14. Effect of high environmental temperature on semen parameters among fertile men.

    PubMed

    Momen, M Nabil; Ananian, Fredrick B; Fahmy, Ibrahim M; Mostafa, Taymour

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of high environmental occupational temperature on semen parameters of fertile men. Prospective. Steel-casting plant. Ninety fertile workers exposed to a high temperature compared with 40 fertile workers working under ordinary conditions as control subjects. Measurement of scrotal temperature by invagination thermometry, air temperature, relative humidity by aspirated psychrometer, radiant heat by globe thermometer, air velocity by light vane anemometer, and semen analysis. Scrotal temperature and semen analysis. Nonsignificant difference was found between the two groups regarding their scrotal temperature. Also, nonsignificant differences were demonstrated regarding semen analysis parameters being in the normozoospermic range. Under high environmental temperature, semen parameters were within normozoospermic levels owing to body acclimatization mechanisms. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Barry; Thorburn, Fiona; Petridou, Christina; Bailey, Daniel; Hewson, Roger; Simpson, Andrew J H; Brooks, Timothy J G; Aarons, Emma J

    2017-04-01

    Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged.

  16. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: a comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrous dioxide (NO2) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P < 0.001) and sperm kinetic parameters. In conclusion, exposure to higher concentrations of PM10, SO2, and NO2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Barry; Thorburn, Fiona; Petridou, Christina; Bailey, Daniel; Hewson, Roger; Simpson, Andrew J.H.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged. PMID:27997333

  18. Detection of Brucella canis and Leptospira interrogans in canine semen by multiplex nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk; Lee, Dong Soo; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Watarai, Masahisa

    2006-06-01

    Brucella canis and Leptospira interrogans are pathogenic bacteria that cause brucellosis and leptospirosis in dogs around the world. Both diseases can be diagnosed serologically, but the direct detection of these organisms in canine semen is needed when it is used for artificial reproduction. We have been attempting the artificial reproduction of guide dogs for greater breeding efficiency and for this purpose have developed a multiplex nested PCR technique for the detection of B. canis and L. interrogans in the semen and cryoprotective agent (CPA). Our results demonstrated the high sensitivity and simplicity of this technique in the detection of these organisms in canine semen and that will be useful in routine diagnosis. Since they have been found to stay alive in canine semen and CPA up to 48 hr, canine semen for breeding purposes should be checked for contamination by the PCR assay.

  19. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in pure Jersey as compare to crossbred Jersey bulls. Live sperm percentage and acrosome integrity was significantly (p<0.01) higher in pure Jersey bulls as compared to crossbred Jersey bulls. However, no statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA

  20. The cryoprotective effect of iodixanol in buffalo semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Swami, Dheer Singh; Kumar, Pradeep; Malik, R K; Saini, Monika; Kumar, Dharmendra; Jan, M H

    2017-04-01

    This is the first report to examine the effect of iodixanol (OptiPrep(TM)) on cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa. A total of thirty ejaculates (five ejaculates from each bull) from six buffalo bulls were used for this experiment. Each ejaculate was divided into four aliquots and diluted in freezing extender supplemented with different concentrations of OptiPrep(TM) (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5%) and then cryopreserved. The semen quality variables were evaluated before and after freezing of the semen. There were no effects of OptiPrep(TM) (P>0.05) on sperm kinetics, motility, abnormality and membrane integrity of fresh extended spermatozoa. However, after freeze-thaw, sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and distance travelled in cervical mucus of 2.5% OptiPrep(TM) treated samples showed significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to other treated and control samples. No significant differences (P>0.05) were seen in sperm abnormality and acrosomal integrity of treated and control frozen-thawed samples. The total antioxidant capacity of 2.5 and 5% OptiPrep(TM) treated frozen-thawed sperm were found to be higher (P<0.05) as compared to other groups; whereas the MDA level in OptiPrep(TM) treated sperm was significantly lower than the control (P<0.05). In incubation test, 2.5% OptiPrep(TM) proved to be better in preservation of sperm motility as compared to other treated and control samples. In conclusion, the present study has shown that iodixanol has the ability protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress and resulting overall improvement in the post-thaw semen quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of work and life stress on semen quality

    PubMed Central

    Janevic, Teresa; Kahn, Linda G.; Landsbergis, Paul; Cirillo, Piera M.; Cohn, Barbara A.; Liu, Xinhua; Factor-Litvak, Pam

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations between work-related stress, stressful life events, and perceived stress and semen quality. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Northern California. Patient(s) 193 men from the Child Health and Development Studies evaluated between 2005–2008. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Measures of stress including job strain, perceived stress, and stressful life events; outcome measures of sperm concentration, percentage of motile sperm, and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. Result(s) We found an inverse association between perceived stress score and sperm concentration (estimated coefficient b = –0.09 × 103/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = –0.18, –0.01), motility (b = –0.39; 95% CI = –0.79, 0.01), and morphology (b = –0.14; 95% CI, –0.25, –0.04) in covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses. Men who experienced two or more stressful life events in the past year compared with no stressful events had a lower percentage of motile sperm (b= –8.22; 95% CI, –14.31, –2.13) and a lower percentage of morphologically normal sperm (b = –1.66; 95% CI, –3.35, 0.03) but a similar sperm concentration. Job strain was not associated with semen parameters. Conclusion(s) In this first study to examine all three domains of stress, perceived stress and stressful life events but not work-related stress were associated with semen quality. PMID:24856463

  2. Freezing African Elephant Semen as a New Population Management Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Bartels, Paul; Potier, Romain; Baker, Barbara; Streich, W. Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7%) in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all). Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD) 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. Conclusions/Significance With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat. PMID:23483917

  3. Freezing African elephant semen as a new population management tool.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Bartels, Paul; Potier, Romain; Baker, Barbara; Streich, W Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2013-01-01

    The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7%) in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all). Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD) 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat.

  4. Influence of boar breeds or hybrid genetic composition on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables.

    PubMed

    Žaja, Ivona Žura; Samardžija, Marko; Vince, Silvijo; Majić-Balić, Ivanka; Vilić, Marinko; Đuričić, Dražen; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme concentrations of seminal plasma are important for spermatozoa metabolism and function in boars. The need has arisen for introducing a biochemical evaluation of semen, along with the usual standard semen analyses. There are no data on the influence of boar breeds on the seminal plasma biochemical variables investigated in this study. Therefore, the objective was to determine the influence of breed and hybrid genetic composition of boars on semen quality and seminal plasma biochemical variables. Semen samples of 27 boars (Swedish Landrace, German Landrace, Large White, Pietrain and Pig Improvement Company hybrid-PIC-hybrid), aged between 1.5 and 3 years, were collected. After evaluation of semen quality, the seminal plasma was separated from the spermatozoa by centrifugation of semen. The seminal plasma was subjected to spectrophotometric analysis to determine alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and to atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis to measure the concentration of calcium and magnesium. Conventional semen quality variables differed depending on breed and PIC-hybrid genetic composition, though these differences were typically insignificant. In the seminal plasma, significant differences were determined in enzyme activity (ALP, GGT, CK and LDH) and in calcium concentration among boars of different breeds. There are, therefore, differences in semen quality and significant differences in the seminal plasma biochemical variables among boars of different breeds and PIC-hybrid genetic composition. The data and differences in semen variables detected in the present study provide knowledge for enhancing evaluation and monitoring of boar reproductive potential, semen quality and explain the potential causes of boar infertility.

  5. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1–Seropositive Kenyan Men

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240

  6. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls

    PubMed Central

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL-1 leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL-1 leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL-1. Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL-1 leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes. PMID:25593679

  7. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL(-1) leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL(-1) leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL(-1) leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL(-1). Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL(-1) leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes.

  8. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  9. LEONARDO DA VINCI AND THE ORIGIN OF SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-12-20

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  10. A new hepoprotective saponin from Semen Celosia cristatae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Liang; Gao, Gang-Long; Xia, Yin-Fang; Feng, Jing; Qiao, Zeng-Yong

    2011-06-01

    A new triterpenoid saponin, named semenoside A (1), was isolated from Semen Celosia cristatae. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of 1D, 2D NMR, HR-FAB-MS and ESI-MS techniques, and physicochemical properties. The hepatoprotective activity of semenoside A with an oral dose of 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0mg/kg, respectively, were investigated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. The results indicated that it had significant hepatoprotective effects (p < 0.01). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy. PMID:27494016

  12. Dioxins in the semen of men with infertility.

    PubMed

    Galimova, E F; Amirova, Z K; Galimov, Sh N

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess ejaculate contamination by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans in male infertility. The database of 168 infertile and 49 fertile men was included in the study. Dioxin content was determined using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). In the ejaculate of infertile men, the content of dioxins and furans was 2.2-2.3 times higher than in fertile donors. The maximum level of the most toxic dioxin congener was detected in pathospermia. Contamination of semen of infertile men by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans supports the hypothesis about the relationship between environmental factors and reproductive health.

  13. Effect of different antioxidant additives in semen diluent on cryopreservability (−196°C) of buffalo semen

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hardik A.; Siddiquee, G. M.; Chaudhari, Dinesh V.; Suthar, Vishal S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different antioxidant additives in standard tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender on the cryopreservability of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen collection using artificial vagina, twice weekly for 5 weeks from three pedigreed health breeding bulls of Mehsani breed, aged between 6 and 8 years. Immediately after initial evaluation all 30 qualifying ejaculates (10/bull) were split into three aliquots and diluted at 34°C keeping the concentration of 100 million spermatozoa/ml with standard TFYG extender as control and TFYG having two antioxidant additives - Cysteine HCl at 1 mg/ml and ascorbic acid at 0.2 mg/ml to study their comparative performance. Semen filled in French Mini straws using IS-4 system and gradually cooled to 4°C and equilibrated for 4 h in cold handing cabinet. After completion of equilibration, straws were cryopreserved in LN2 by Programmable Bio-freezer. Semen was examined at post-dilution, post-equilibration, and post-thaw stages for sperm quality parameters, and at each stage plasma was separated for enzymatic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP). Results: The mean percentage of sperms in TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage in terms of progressive motility (52.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52), livability (78.70±0.21, 82.33±0.23, 81.73±0.22), and abnormality (5.43±0.21, 5.03±0.17, 5.23±0.18) varied significantly (p<0.05) between control TFYG and TFYG having antioxidant additives. The mean U/L activities of AST (78.70±0.47, 72.80±0.48, 73.30±0.54), LDH (172.70±0.41, 155.78±0.42, 156.33±0.41), and AKP (103.61±0.34, 90.20±0.34, 91.03±0.34) in semen diluted with TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage, respectively, which showed significantly (p<0.05) higher leakage of enzymes in control TFYG than TFYG

  14. [Analysis of volatile constituents of Astragali Complanati semen by HS-SPME combined with GC-MS].

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng-nan; Lu, Jin-qing; Cai, Jun-long; Li, Qiang; Liang, Huan

    2013-12-01

    To analyze the compositions of volatile constituents in Astragali Complanati Semen. The volatile constituents were extracted with headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME), and identified by GC-MS. 51 compounds were separated from Astragali Complanati Semen and 25 of them were identified, which made up 78.85% of the total amount. The main components obtained from Astragali Complanati Semen were L-Bornyl acetate (14.1%), Camphor (5.98%) and L(-)-Borneol (4.27%). The compounds in Astragali Complanati Semen are firstly confirmed,which provides scientific evidence for the development of Astragali Complanati Semen.

  15. Effects of chronic boron exposure on semen profile.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Mehmet; Yenigün, Mehmet; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Ataman, Osman Yavuz; Keskin, Sıddık; Müezzinoğlu, Talha; Lekili, Murat

    2011-11-01

    The possible changes in semen quality were studied in men living in a boron mining area. The subjects in the boron group had exposure to boron at an average level of 6.5 mg/day, as determined by urinary analysis. The results obtained by the boron group were compared to those obtained for the control group whose subjects were living in the same geographical area but away from the boron region; average exposure level was 1.4 mg/day for this group. The semen samples were analyzed according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. Boron levels were established in the water samples obtained from various locations in the study region. In the boron mining fields where the subjects in the boron group live, water samples contained boron in the range of 1.4-6.5 mg/L, while the values were <0.01 mg/L for the water samples obtained from the region where the subjects of the control group reside. No negative effects were found in the sperm samples obtained from the subjects of the boron group.

  16. Collection and preservation of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) semen.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, J; Hildebrandt, T B; Bouts, T; Göritz, F; Hermes, R

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge about the reproduction of the endangered pygmy hippopotamus is almost non-existent. This study takes the first step toward changing this by devising a protocol for the collection, evaluation, and short-term preservation of semen of this endangered species. Semen was collected successfully from seven bulls by electroejaculation, using a specially designed rectal probe. Mean +/- SEM values of native sperm parameters from combined best fractions were: motility-80.0 +/- 4.1%, concentration-2421 +/- 1530 x 10(6) cells/mL, total collected cell number-759 +/- 261 x 10(6) cells, intact acrosome-87.8 +/- 1.2%, intact morphology-52.7 +/- 4.3%, and, for some, hypoosmotic swelling test-79.3 +/- 4.4% and seminal plasma osmolarity-297.5 +/- 3.3 mOsm. Seven different extenders were tested for sperm storage under chilling conditions: Berliner Cryomedium (BC), Biladyl, modification of Kenney modified Tyrode's medium (KMT), MES medium, Androhep((R)), boar M III() extender and Human Sperm Refrigeration Medium. While differences between males were apparent, the BC was consistently superior to all other extenders in sperm motility and facilitated storage for 7 d with up to 30% motility and some motility even after 3 weeks. With this knowledge in hand, the obvious two directions for future research are to conduct artificial insemination and to develop a technique for sperm cryopreservation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Semen Characteristics of Purebred and Crossbred Male Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah; El-Bayomi, Khairy; Abdelhamid, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the semen quality traits of purebred male rabbits and their crosses under subtropical Egyptian conditions. A full 3 x 3 diallel crossing was performed for producing the first generation progeny of New Zealand White (N), Flander (F) and Rex (R) breeds. The highest ejaculate volume (p< 0.05) and percentage of live sperms (p<0.01) with the lowest percentage of sperm cell morphological abnormalities (p<0.05) had been recorded in the NF bucks. Moreover, they possessed positive estimates of direct heterosis for ejaculate volume, mass motility (Mm), individual motility (Im) and sperm cell concentration (SCC). On the contrary, pH had negative estimates of direct heterosis in all crosses and their reciprocal. Semen pH was negatively correlated with SCC (r = -0.18), Mm (r = -0.13) and Im (r = -0.23). In conclusion, the superiority of crossbreeding was particularly obvious in the New Zealand White x Flander males, which cumulated heterosis and favorable maternal effects of the Flander dams. PMID:26020961

  18. Role of semen in HIV-1 transmission: inhibitor or facilitator?

    PubMed

    Doncel, Gustavo F; Joseph, Theresa; Thurman, Andrea R

    2011-03-01

    Sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accounts for 60-90% of new infections, especially in developing countries. During male-to-female transmission, the virus is typically deposited in the vagina as cell-free and cell-associated virions carried by semen. But semen is more than just a carrier for HIV-1. Evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies supports both inhibitory and enhancing effects. Intrinsic antiviral activity mediated by cationic antimicrobial peptides, cytotoxicity, and blockage of HIV-dendritic cell interactions are seminal plasma properties that inhibit HIV-1 infection. On the contrary, neutralization of vaginal acidic pH, enhanced virus-target cell attachment by seminal amyloid fibrils, opsonization by complement fragments, and electrostatic interactions are factors that facilitate HIV-1 infection. The end result, i.e., inhibition or enhancement of HIV mucosal infection, in vivo, likely depends on the summation of all these biological effects. More research is needed, especially in animal models, to dissect the role of these factors and establish their relevance in HIV-1 transmission. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Gutschi, T; Mohamad Al-Ali, B; Shamloul, R; Pummer, K; Trummer, H

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present retrospective study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on semen parameters. We examined 2110 men attending our infertility clinic from 1993 to October 2007. Semen analysis was performed in all patients. Serum free testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) were collected from all patients. The information on cell phone use of the patients was recorded and the subjects were divided into two groups according to their cell phone use: group A: cell phone use (n = 991); group B: no use (n = 1119). Significant difference was observed in sperm morphology between the two groups. In the patients of group A, 68.0% of the spermatozoa featured a pathological morphology compared to only 58.1% in the subjects of group B. Patients with cell phone usage showed significantly higher T and lower LH levels than those who did not use cell phone. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding FSH and PRL values. Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men. Further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male fertility.

  20. Alkaline phosphatase in stallion semen: characterization and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Turner, R M O; McDonnell, S M

    2003-06-01

    Significant amounts of alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity have been found in semen plasma from numerous species. In species in which the majority of semen plasma AP (SPAP) activity originates from the epididymis and testicle, SPAP activity can be used clinically as a marker to differentiate testicular origin azoospermia or oligospermia from ejaculatory failure. Information on SPAP activity in stallions to date has been limited. In this study, a standard clinical chemistry analyzer was used to determine AP activity in pre-ejaculatory fluid and ejaculates from groups of normal stallions. Additionally, accessory glands, epididymides, testicles and other components of the urogenital tract of normal stallions were assayed to determine which tissues contain SPAP activity. The results indicated that levels of AP activity are low in pre-ejaculatory fluid, but significantly higher in ejaculatory fluid from normal stallions. Spermatozoa were not a significant source of SPAP activity. High levels of SPAP activity were found in the testes and epididymides. These findings suggest that SPAP activity is a candidate for a sperm-independent marker for ejaculation in the stallion. Finally, AP activity was determined in ejaculatory fluid from a stallion with bilaterally blocked ampullae, both before and after relief of the blockage. While the blockage was present, AP activity in ejaculatory fluid was low. However, following relief of the blockage, AP activity in ejaculatory fluid rose dramatically, thus suggesting that AP activity will be useful as an inexpensive, simple clinical assay for differentiating ejaculatory failure or excurrent duct blockages from testicular origin azoospermia and oligospermia.

  1. Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Z.; Harith, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of the past and present literature pertinent to laser effects on sperm motility parameters, improvement of oocyte maturation and characterization of semen in livestock. The aim was, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the animal reproduction scientific community in attempting some laser techniques that have not yet been fully exploited in the field of artificial insemination. With respect to the conventional methods, laser is a more sensitive and less costly technology that can be used for improving artificial insemination and embryo production system. Since 1980s, laser treatment came on the biological samples scene; its applications have continuously been developed thereafter. Exploitation of laser light by various researchers for improving the reproductive efficiency of sperm cells and the maturation rate in different livestock is demonstrated herein. Laser irradiation, in principal, can increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and consequently increases the energy provided to the cell. Since sperm motility and oocyte maturation depend on the energy consumption, an increase in the energy supply to the cells will be of great importance. In addition, the authors also discuss the use of laser spectrochemical analytical techniques, such as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF), in characterization of semen samples. PMID:26257928

  2. Semen characteristics of purebred and crossbred male rabbits.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah; El-Bayomi, Khairy; Abdelhamid, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the semen quality traits of purebred male rabbits and their crosses under subtropical Egyptian conditions. A full 3 x 3 diallel crossing was performed for producing the first generation progeny of New Zealand White (N), Flander (F) and Rex (R) breeds. The highest ejaculate volume (p< 0.05) and percentage of live sperms (p<0.01) with the lowest percentage of sperm cell morphological abnormalities (p<0.05) had been recorded in the NF bucks. Moreover, they possessed positive estimates of direct heterosis for ejaculate volume, mass motility (Mm), individual motility (Im) and sperm cell concentration (SCC). On the contrary, pH had negative estimates of direct heterosis in all crosses and their reciprocal. Semen pH was negatively correlated with SCC (r = -0.18), Mm (r = -0.13) and Im (r = -0.23). In conclusion, the superiority of crossbreeding was particularly obvious in the New Zealand White x Flander males, which cumulated heterosis and favorable maternal effects of the Flander dams.

  3. [Sperm DNA fragmentation: association with semen parameters in young men].

    PubMed

    Osadchuk, L V; Tataru, D A; Kuznetsova, N N; Kleshev, M A; Markova, E V; Svetlakov, A V

    2016-12-01

    Abnormal sperm DNA integrity is an important risk factor for male infertility. The aim of this work was to examine sperm DNA fragmentation in a cohort of young male volunteers (n=111; age 21.0+/-0.2 years) from the general population and establish the association between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and sperm functional parameters. Sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was determined by SCSA (sperm chromatin structure assay) using flow cytometry. Standard semen parameters (concentration, motility, and morphology) were evaluated according to the WHO guidelines (2010). and conclusions. In the study cohort, 79.0%, 12.4% and 8.6% of men had normal (DFI<15%), borderline (15 less or equal DFI<27%) and high (DFI more or equal 27%) levels of fragmentation, respectively. Men with impaired spermatogenesis had greater IDF values (14.53+/-1.43%) than men with normal semen parameters (8.88+/-0.77%, p<0.05). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between IFD and ejaculate concentration (r=-0.21, p<0.05), fractions of mobile (r=-0.41, p<0.05) and morphologically normal sperm (r=- 0.34, p<0.05). Testing sperm DNA fragmentation using SCSA technique can be employed in epidemiological studies of male fertility.

  4. Semen culture and the assessment of genitourinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Michael; Henkel, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The male factor contributes approximately 50% to infertility-related cases in couples with an estimated 12%–35% of these cases attributable to male genital tract infections. Depending on the nature of the infection, testicular sperm production, sperm transport, and sperm function can be compromised. Yet, infections are potentially treatable causes of infertility. Male genital tract infections are increasingly difficult to detect. Moreover, they often remain asymptomatic (“silent”) with the result that they are then passed on to the relevant sexual partner leading to fertilization and pregnancy failure as well as illness of the offspring. With the worldwide increasing problem of antibiotic resistance of pathogens, proper diagnosis and therapy of the patient is important. This testing, however, should include not only aerobic microbes but also anaerobic as these can be found in almost all ejaculates with about 71% being potentially pathogenic. Therefore, in cases of any indication of a male genital tract infection, a semen culture should be carried out, particularly in patients with questionable semen quality. Globally, an estimate of 340 million new infections with sexually transmitted pathogens is recorded annually. Among these, the most prevalent pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma hominis. Escherichia coli are considered the most common nonsexually transmitted urogenital tract microbes. These pathogens cause epididymitis, epididymo-orchitis, or prostatitis and contribute to increased seminal leukocyte concentrations. PMID:28717267

  5. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    PubMed

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (P<0.05) when alpacas were fed diets containing commercial sheep and horse concentrates. In contrast, sperm concentration and motility decreased significantly (P<0.05) from Period 1 to Period 4. Dietary changes had no effect on viscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands

  6. Determination of Sperm Sex Ratio in Bovine Semen Using Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Khamlor, Trisadee; Pongpiachan, Petai; Sangsritavong, Siwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa

    2014-10-01

    Gender selection is important in livestock industries; for example, female calves are required in the dairy industry. Sex-sorted semen is commonly used for the production of calves of the desired gender. However, assessment of the sex ratio of the sorted semen is tedious and expensive. In this study, a rapid, cost effective and reliable method for determining the sex ratio was developed using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. In this assay, the X and Y chromosome-specific markers, i.e., bovine proteolipid protein (PLP) gene and sex-determining region Y (SRY) were simultaneously quantified in a single tube. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was shown to have high amplification efficiencies (97% to 99%) comparable to the separated-tube simplex real-time PCR assay. The results obtained from both assays were not significantly different (p>0.05). The multiplex assay was validated using reference DNA of known X ratio (10%, 50%, and 90%) as templates. The measured %X in semen samples were the same within 95% confidence intervals as the expected values, i.e., >90% in X-sorted semen, <10% in Y-sorted semen and close to 50% in the unsorted semen. The multiplex real-time PCR assay as shown in this study can thus be used to assess purity of sex-sorted semen.

  7. Does exposure to computers affect the routine parameters of semen quality?

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-Lian; Zhou, Wei-Jin; Wu, Jun-Qing; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2005-09-01

    To assess whether exposure to computers harms the semen quality of healthy young men. A total of 178 subjects were recruited from two maternity and children healthcare centers in Shanghai, 91 with a history of exposure to computers (i.e., exposure for 20 h or more per week in the last 2 years) and 87 persons to act as control (no or little exposure to computers). Data on the history of exposure to computers and other characteristics were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire interview. Semen samples were collected by masturbation in the place where the semen samples were analyzed. No differences in the distribution of the semen parameters (semen volume, sperm density, percentage of progressive sperm, sperm viability and percentage of normal form sperm) were found between the exposed group and the control group. Exposure to computers was not found to be a risk factor for inferior semen quality after adjusting for potential confounders, including abstinence days, testicle size, occupation, history of exposure to toxic substances. The present study did not find that healthy men exposed to computers had inferior semen quality.

  8. Effect of contaminated preprocessed semen on fertilization rate and embryo quality in assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Krissi, H; Orvieto, R; Ashkenazi, J; Gilboa, Y; Shalev, J; Moscovitch, I; Bar-Hava, I

    2004-02-01

    We aimed to identify the sources and prevalence of semen contamination from mastrubation and determine the effect of bacterospermia on fertilization rate and embryo quality in standard in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This was a prospective controlled study, in an IVF unit of a university teaching hospital, of 93 consecutive couples undergoing IVF-embryo transfer cycles. We evaluated handwashing; semen collection and processing; and assisted reproductive technology using semen provided by masturbation. The main outcome measures were presence and type of micro-organisms in the semen samples and embryo culture medium; the effect of hand washing on rate of contamination; and the effect of semen contamination on fertilization rate and embryo quality. The first consecutive 52 men of the 93 couples were not instructed to wash their hands before masturbation, and the remainder were so instructed. Forty-nine semen cultures (94.2%) in the first group were contaminated compared to only 16 (39%) in the second (p < 0.016); 27 of the 65 positive cultures (41.5%) were contaminated by more than one organism. The most common contaminators were bacteria usually found on the skin. All but four embryo medium cultures were negative. There was no significant difference in fertilization rate and embryo quality by culture findings in either the IVF or the ICSI procedures. We found that a high percentage of manually obtained semen for standard IVF or ICSI procedures was contaminated, but this had no effect on fertilization rate and embryo quality.

  9. Comparison of three different extenders on Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) semen freezability.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, M F; Martin, I; Sancler-Silva, Y F R; Zoca, S; Freitas-Dell'Aqua, C P; Papa, F O; Ramos, A A; Nunes, J F; Salgueiro, C C M; Oba, E

    2017-05-10

    The use of frozen semen for artificial insemination is the main approach utilised for the genetic improvement of most domesticated species. The advantages include lower transportation costs, continuous availability of semen, fewer occurrences of sexually transmitted diseases and the incorporation of desirable genes in a relatively short amount of time. Nevertheless, the use of frozen semen in buffalo herds remains limited due to the loss of sperm quality when buffalo semen is frozen. So, the goal of this study was to evaluate the pre- and post-cryopreservation quality of buffalo semen diluted in three distinct freezing media: Tris-egg yolk, Botu-bov® (BB) and ACP-111®. Thirty-two ejaculates from four bulls were analysed in terms of kinetics, morphology and sperm viability by epifluorescence microscope. Thawed samples were also evaluated for capacitation-like damage, DNA fragmentation and plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity using flow cytometry. The Tris-egg yolk and BB® extenders yielded better results than the ACP-111® extender for kinetics parameter (total motility, progressive motility and percentage of rapid cells). However, semen samples were similar for parameters evaluated by flow cytometry. Taken together, the data indicate that in comparison with Tris-egg yolk and BB extender, ACP-111® can also be used as an extender for buffalo semen cryopreservation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Season-induced variation in lipid composition is associated with semen quality in Holstein bulls.

    PubMed

    Argov-Argaman, N; Mahgrefthe, K; Zeron, Y; Roth, Z

    2013-05-01

    Season-induced variation in fatty acid and cholesterol composition in bovine semen has been associated with semen quality. Given the specific roles of the various semen compartments (seminal fluids, sperm head, and sperm tail) in fertilization, we hypothesized that environmental-stress-induced alterations in the lipid composition of a specific compartment might impair semen quality and sperm function. Semen samples were collected from five mature Holstein-Friesian bulls during the summer (August to September) and winter (December to January). Semen was evaluated by computerized sperm-quality analyzer, calibrated for bulls' semen, and centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa from the seminal fluids. The spermatozoal fraction was sonicated to separate the sperm head and tail compartments. Cold lipid extraction was performed with chloroform:methanol (2:1, vol/vol). Lipids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Seasonal variation was found in both physiological and structural parameters. The proportion of spermatozoa defined as morphologically normal was higher in the winter, with higher motility, progressive motility, and velocity relative to summer samples. Lipid composition within fractions varied between seasons with prominent impairment in the tail compartment, characterized by high saturated fatty acid, low polyunsaturated fatty acid, and low cholesterol concentrations during the summer. Given the association between alterations in lipid composition and reduced sperm motility and velocity during the summer, it is suggested that lipid composition might serve to predict sperm quality.

  11. Dark-coloured semen in nonobstructive azoospermia: a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Halder, A; Jain, M; Chaudhary, I; Kumar, G; Das, T; Gupta, Y K

    2014-04-01

    Dark-coloured semen is rarely observed in men with nonobstructive azoospermia in absence of genital tract bleeding. Dark-coloured semen is also observed rarely in men with spinal cord injury with or without genital tract bleeding. However, this condition has not been reported in the literature in absence of genital tract bleeding or spinal cord injury. Here, we report men with nonobstructive azoospermia with dark-coloured semen and without genital tract bleeding or spinal cord injury. The study included four subjects with dark-coloured semen. All the samples first investigated for the presence of red blood cells as well as haemoglobin. All the cases were examined in details with seminal, hormonal and genetic parameters. In addition, an elemental electron microscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry evaluation for heavy metals was performed. The semen parameters showed normal volume, pH, leucocyte count and azoospermia or oligoazoospermia. Dark-coloured semen specimens contained neither red blood cells nor haeme pigment. Electron microscopy showed presence of platinum in all the cases, whereas inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry revealed increased levels of lead, manganese and nickel in serum as compared to controls. The results indicate dark-coloured semen may be linked with heavy metals found in seminal cells.

  12. The effect of the new 2010 World Health Organization criteria for semen analyses on male infertility.

    PubMed

    Murray, Katie S; James, Andrew; McGeady, James B; Reed, Michael L; Kuang, Wayne W; Nangia, Ajay K

    2012-12-01

    To quantify the effect of the new 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) semen analysis reference values on reclassifying previous semen analysis parameters and definition of patients with male factor infertility. A multi-institutional retrospective chart review. University and private male infertility clinics. Men referred for infertility evaluation. Comparison of semen analysis values based on 2010 versus 1999 reference criteria. Quantification of the change based on individual sperm parameters and as a whole. A total of 184 men had at least two semen analyses; 13 (7%), 17 (9.2%), 34 (18.4%), and 29 (15.7%) patients changed classification to being at or above the reference values by the 2010 criteria for semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, respectively. A total of 501 men had one semen analysis on file; 40 (7.9%), 31 (6.2%), 50 (9.9%), and 74 (19.3%) would change classification for volume, concentration, motility, and morphology, respectively. Overall, 103 patients (15.1%) who had one or more parameter below the reference value on the original analysis were converted to having all parameters at or above the 2010 reference values. The 2010 reference values result in some infertile men being reclassified as fertile if status is based on semen analysis alone. This may lead to fewer men being referred for proper infertility evaluation or treatment. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparisons of antibiotic combinations to control Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bovine semen.

    PubMed Central

    Eaglesome, M D; Garcia, M M

    1995-01-01

    Raw semen experimentally contaminated with 10(6) Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells per milliliter was processed for use in artificial insemination (AI) using three different antibiotic combinations: a) gentamicin, lincomycin, spectinomycin and tylosin (GLST) directly added to contaminated raw semen followed by dilution with whole milk or egg yolk Tris containing GLST; b) penicillin, streptomycin, lincomycin, spectinomycin and minocycline (PSLSM) in whole milk used to dilute the contaminated raw semen followed by further dilution with glycerolated milk containing PSLSM; and c) penicillin, streptomycin, lincomycin and spectinomycin (PSLS) used with egg yolk Tris diluent in the same way as PSLSM and milk. Diluted semen was incubated at 35 degrees C for 5 or 40 min before cooling commenced. To assess the efficacy of the antibiotics in controlling P. aeruginosa, diluted semen samples were cultured for the organism before and after freezing. The GLST antibiotics added to raw semen and milk reduced the counts of P. aeruginosa before or after freezing. When egg yolk Tris was used, GLST inhibited the organism as indicated by its low growth in culture before freezing and absence of growth from samples after freezing. With PSLSM and PSLS treatments, the organism was recovered in milk and egg yolk Tris processed semen both before and after freezing. However, incubation at 35 degrees C for 40 min prior to cooling, compared to incubation of 5 min, appeared to reduce the bacterial counts after freezing. PMID:7704847

  14. Bacteriospermia and Its Impact on Basic Semen Parameters among Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Balan; Jayachandran, Abiramy Lakshmy; Sathiyanarayanan, Sarasa; Tanjore Singaravelu, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Veeraraghavan; Elangovan, Vanithadevi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Semen analysis is considered as the surrogate marker for male fecundity while assessing infertile men. There are several reasons for altered semen quality and bacteriospermia could be one among them. Thereby the aim of our work is to study the semen culture and its impact on semen parameters among infertile men. Materials and Methods. Semen samples were collected from men attending infertility clinic. Semen parameters were analysed based on WHO guidelines. Also, samples were subjected to culture using standard bacteriological techniques. Results. A total of 85 samples were collected. A number of 47 (55.30%) had normal sperm count, 37 (43.50%) had oligozoospermia, and one (1.17%) had azoospermia. Teratozoospermia was the most common abnormality observed (81.17%) followed by asthenozoospermia (28.23%). The prevalence of bacteriospermia was 35.3%. Enterococcus faecalis (30%) was the most common organism isolated followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), and E. coli (10%). Other less frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.66%), Proteus sp. (6.66%), and Citrobacter sp. (3.33%). Conclusion. The presence of asymptomatic bacteriospermia did not correlate with abnormal semen parameters. PMID:26880908

  15. Influence of ascorbic acid and glutathione antioxidants on frozen-thawed canine semen.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, J C; Gonçalves, J S A; Rodrigues, J A; Lúcio, C F; Silva, L C G; Assumpção, M E O A; Vannucchi, C I

    2009-07-01

    Poor sperm viability post-thaw has resulted in constant research into methods of cryopreservation of canine semen. One factor that may be involved in poor viability is sperm oxidative stress caused by excessive formation of reactive oxygen species. The present study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and glutathione (Glu) added to an extender for the freeze-thawing of dog sperm. Semen from five mature dogs was collected and frozen in two studies. Prior to and after freezing, sperm motility, morphology and membrane status were examined. In addition, sperm motility was examined up to 120 min after thawing to evaluate thermo-resistance. In study I, semen was collected twice from each dog. On both occasions, semen was divided into three aliquots: control, Glu 1 mM and Glu 5 mM. In study II, semen was collected twice and divided into three aliquots; control, AA 50 microM and AA 250 microM. Initial sperm motility was significantly higher in sperm diluted with AA 50 microM; sperm longevity, however, measured by a thermal-resistance test (TRT), was higher for Glu treatments. Higher concentration of Glu produced significant improvement in TRT and membrane status, whereas higher concentration of AA had a negative impact in sperm longevity. Antioxidant supplementation to semen freezing extenders improved semen quality post-thaw. Moreover, Glu had the most beneficial effect when supplemented at 5 mM.

  16. Interpretation of semen analysis using WHO 1999 and WHO 2010 reference values: Abnormal becoming normal.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, S; Aldossari, K; Al-Zahrani, J; Gabr, A H; Henkel, R; Ahmad, G

    2017-08-03

    Reference values of WHO 1999 manual were used for the interpretation of semen analysis until 2010 when new reference values were introduced which have lower cut-off compared to WHO 1999. Therefore, several men who previously were diagnosed abnormal based on their semen analysis have now become normal using new reference values. This study was conducted on semen analyses of 661 men from Middle East region and Pakistan. All semen analyses were reviewed using WHO 1999 and WHO 2010 criteria. Results showed that based on new criteria, 19% of the population changed classification from abnormal to normal when all normal semen parameters were considered. When at least one or more abnormal semen parameters were considered, of the total 661, 44% (288) of the population changed its classification from abnormal to normal with shift from WHO 1999 to 2010 criteria. These findings show that using new cut-off values, many more men are considered normal, but using old criteria (WHO 1999), the same men would be classified as abnormal. This warrants further discussion over the investigations and management plans for patients whose semen analyses fall below WHO 1999 but above WHO 2010 cut-offs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effect of dialysis on quality characteristics of turkey semen during liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Meluzzi, A

    2003-08-01

    Low molecular weight substances such as zinc and peroxides are present in seminal plasma and are responsible for deleterious effects in stored semen. On the contrary, molecules larger than 50 kDa are beneficial to in-vitro storage of spermatozoa. Since the effects of different seminal plasma fractions in turkey semen are not completely known, the purpose of the study was to determine the effects of turkey semen dialysis with a 12-14 kDa cut-off on viability, hypo-osmotic membrane integrity, or sperm motility of turkey spermatozoa stored up to 48 h at 5 degrees C. Twelve pools of semen, each pool originating from four toms, were used. Each pool was divided into two aliquots, one of which was dialyzed while the other represented the control. Each semen aliquot was evaluated for sperm viability, membrane integrity and motility after 6, 24 and 48 h of in-vitro storage. Cold storage of turkey semen for 48 h significantly worsened (P<0.01) sperm viability, hypo-osmotic membrane integrity, and sperm motility index of both control and dialyzed samples. After 24 and 48 h sperm viability, membrane integrity and sperm motility index were better (P<0.01) in dialyzed semen compared to the control.

  18. Viral RNA load in semen from bluetongue serotype 8-infected rams: relationship with sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Jérôme; Raes, Marianne; Vanbinst, Tine; De Clercq, Kris; Saegerman, Claude; Kirschvink, Nathalie

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated if viral RNA was detectable in the semen of rams clinically infected with bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) by RT-qPCR, and to what extent the amount detected may be predictive of sperm quality. Semen samples were collected on six occasions from 93 BTV-8 infected rams involved in two longitudinal (n=12 and 27, respectively) and one cross-sectional (n=54) field study. Semen quality was assessed in terms of mass motility, concentration of spermatozoa, percentage of living and dead spermatozoa as well as cytological features. An overall semen quality score (SQS) was established. Depending upon the studied population, BTV RNA was detected in 75-100% of semen samples at initial testing 25-57 days post-observation (DPO) of clinical signs, and was detectable up to 116 DPO in a proportion of rams undergoing repeated sampling. Semen quality variables were significantly altered following natural BTV-8 infection and correlated with the amount of BTV RNA present. The SQS did not return to normal when virus was no longer detectable, suggesting that clearance of BTV precedes full recovery of sperm quality. In conclusion, viral RNA may be transiently recovered from the semen of BTV-8 affected rams and may serve as an indicator in predicting ram breeding potential following natural infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Semen inflammatory markers and Chlamydia trachomatis infection in male partners of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Dehghan Marvast, L; Aflatoonian, A; Talebi, A R; Ghasemzadeh, J; Pacey, A A

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have given conflicting results about the effect of generally infection and Chlamydia trachomatis on seminal ILs and semen parameters. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between semen quality and the level of seminal interleukins (ILs) in infertile couples with C. trachomatis. Blood, first void urine (FVU) and semen were obtained from 250 infertile men who had failed to conceive after 12 months of trying. Serological analysis for specific IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies to C. trachomatis in serum, the presence of C. trachomatis in FVU and semen sample and semen analysis were carried out. The main results are as follows: (i) elevated IL-6 and IL-8 are observed in C. trachomatis-positive men, but this is not significant and it varies by diagnostic method; and (ii) IL-6 and IL-8 levels were correlated with each other and the concentration of leucocytes, but IL-8 was correlated with semen volume and patient's age. This study showed that men with such an infection in FVU samples (PCR positive) had only lower semen volume compared with men without infection.

  20. Semen evaluation following preparation for in vitro fertilization of human oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tarlatzis, B C; Laufer, N; Murillo, O; Makler, A; Naftolin, F; DeCherney, A H

    1986-01-01

    Semen preparation is an important step of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and can affect the success of this procedure. Prior to oocyte insemination, spermatozoa are washed to remove seminal plasma which is believed to contain decapacitation factors. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of preparation on semen quality and subsequent successful IVF. Oocytes were recovered from 12 hMG/hCG-stimulated women by laparoscopy, and 6 h later semen specimens were obtained from the male partners. After liquefaction, 1 ml of semen was centrifuged twice in Ham's F10 medium supplemented with 10% of homologous serum, and the final suspension was used to inseminate the preovulatory eggs. In the initial and washed-sperm suspensions, motility was evaluated by the MEP method, and the occurrence of acrosome reaction and sperm viability were evaluated by the triple-stain technique. Fertilization was documented by the formation of two pronuclei. Washing caused a significant decrease in the percentage of motile sperm from 68% to 59% but significantly increased mean sperm velocity from 26 to 29 micron/sec (p less than 0.01). The mean fertilization rate was 65%, and no correlation was found with any of the parameters of semen quality before or after washing. Semen preparation for IVF is associated with a decrease in the percentage of motile sperm that does not seem to affect the fertilizing ability of normal spermatozoa but may be of importance in patients with abnormal semen.

  1. The Use of Biomarkers of Semen Exposure in Sexual and Reproductive Health Studies

    PubMed Central

    Snead, Margaret Christine; Black, Carolyn M.; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers of semen exposure have been used in studies investigating the safety and efficacy of barrier methods of contraception. They have been used as objective indicators of semen exposure when studying sexual behaviors and in human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection research interventions where participants are advised to avoid unprotected sex. Semen biomarkers have also been used to assess or validate self-reported sexual behaviors or condom use in reproductive health settings. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Y chromosome DNA (Yc-DNA) have each been evaluated in the past as semen biomarkers and are the most widely used in the field. While both are considered reliable for evaluating exposure to semen, each has unique characteristics. In this report, we summarize the literature and provide some considerations for reproductive health researchers who are interested in using PSA or Yc-DNA as semen biomarkers. We also synthesize our previous published work on the optimal conditions of collecting and storing specimens and assay performance in the presence of other vaginal products that may influence various assays. Semen biomarkers are innovative and promising tools to further study and better understand women’s reproductive and sexual health and behavior. More research is needed to better understand the strengths, limitations, and optimal performance conditions of specific assays in vivo. PMID:25268551

  2. Semen evaluation in four autochthonous wild raptor species using computer-aided sperm analyzer.

    PubMed

    Dogliero, Andrea; Rota, Ada; Lofiego, Renato; Mauthe von Degerfeld, Mitzy; Quaranta, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    At least 10 percent of the approximately 300 species of the order Falconiformes are listed as being globally threatened. The present work describes the seminal characteristics of three diurnal and one nocturnal raptor species. Semen was collected from clinically healthy Accipiter nisus (n = 1), Falco subbuteo (n = 6), and Falco tinnunculus (n = 5) adult males that were housed at the 'Centro Animali Non Convenzionali' of the Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Turin. The semen was collected after a period of recovery and before their release as well as from seven Bubo bubo males bred in captivity as part of a raptor conservation project. All the potential semen donors were trained in semen collection during the breeding season via a ritualized procedure. Ejaculation was achieved using a massaging technique. Each sample was evaluated for volume, degree of contamination, and spermatozoa concentration. The semen motility and kinetic parameters were assessed on diluted semen (modified tyroides albumin lactate pyruvate, pH 7.5, temperature 37.5 °C) using a computer-aided sperm analyzer. Semen collection was successful in all the diurnal species and in five B bubo individuals. The sperm motility and sperm kinetic parameters were very variable both among and within species. In contrast with previous studies that involved raptors bred in captivity and imprinted on humans, we worked with wild birds and attempted to overcome the problem of poor semen quality, which is strongly influenced by stress, by adopting a ritualized procedure that has never been reported for semen collection purposes.

  3. Influence of Helicobacter pylori infection on levels of ghrelin and obestatin in human semen.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Elena; Collodel, Giulia; Campagna, Maria Stella; Franci, Maria Beatrice; Iacoponi, Francesca; Mazzi, Lucia; Figura, Natale

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection might have negative effects on the semen parameters of infertile men. We explored the possibility that this infection can influence systemic and seminal levels of ghrelin and obestatin, hormones mainly produced by the stomach. Ghrelin and obestatin exert many activities, including the regulation of reproductive biology, and are present in many organs and fluids, including human semen. In 78 men, we determined HP infection and cytotoxin-associated gene A protein (CagA) status by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting, semen quality following World Health Organization guidelines, and ghrelin and obestatin levels in the blood stream (47 subjects) and semen by radioimmunoassay. Twenty-seven men (34.6%) were infected (HP+) and 11 out of 27 infected men (40.7%) were seropositive for CagA (CagA+). Sperm motility was significantly reduced in HP+/CagA+ men compared with HP+/CagA- men (P < .01). Ghrelin semen levels were decreased in HP+ men compared with uninfected individuals (P < .05), whereas they were increased in HP+/CagA+ men compared with HP+/CagA- subjects (P < .01). Ghrelin semen concentrations in HP+/CagA- men were lower than those measured in uninfected subjects (P < .001). Semen obestatin concentration was increased, in a nonsignificant manner, in HP+/CagA+ men. The obestatin levels were approximately 4 times higher than those of ghrelin in semen and approximately half the levels of ghrelin in serum specimens of all the analyzed groups. No significant differences were found in systemic levels of ghrelin and obestatin in HP+ to uninfected individuals. HP infection may influence the ghrelin seminal concentrations, probably as a response to a negative effect of infection on the semen quality.

  4. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    PubMed Central

    Meena, G. S.; Raina, V. S.; Gupta, A. K.; Mohanty, T. K.; Bhakat, M.; Abdullah, M.; Bishist, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%), KMnO4 (0.02%) and savlon (2.0%) to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h) and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C) semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM), non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST), total plate count (TPC) and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation. PMID:27065650

  5. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls.

    PubMed

    Meena, G S; Raina, V S; Gupta, A K; Mohanty, T K; Bhakat, M; Abdullah, M; Bishist, R

    2015-06-01

    To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls. A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%), KMnO4 (0.02%) and savlon (2.0%) to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h) and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at -196°C) semen. The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM), non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST), total plate count (TPC) and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull's semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation.

  6. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries--even from negative studs--poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented.

  7. Detection of Zika virus RNA in semen of asymptomatic blood donors.

    PubMed

    Musso, D; Richard, V; Teissier, A; Stone, M; Lanteri, M C; Latoni, G; Alsina, J; Reik, R; Busch, M P

    2017-07-13

    Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission through semen donation has never been reported but the risk is supported by the detection of ZIKV in semen and the demonstration of ZIKV sexual transmission. The potential impact of ZIKV on assisted reproductive procedures should be evaluated. We tested longitudinally collected semen samples provided by asymptomatic blood donors who tested positive for ZIKV RNA in plasma during ZIKV outbreaks in Puerto Rico and Florida in 2016. Five of the 14 (35.7%) asymptomatic blood donors provided semen samples that tested positive for ZIKV RNA, with ZIKV RNA loads ranging from 8.03 × 10(3) to 2.55 × 10(6) copies/mL. Plasma collected at the same time as the semen tested negative for ZIKV RNA for most ZIKV RNA-positive semen collections; all corresponding plasma samples tested positive or equivocal for anti-ZIKV IgG antibodies and all except one tested positive for ZIKV IgM antibodies. The rate of detection of ZIKV RNA in semen in asymptomatic donors is not significantly different from the rate previously reported for symptomatic patients. Our results that show a high percentage of detection of ZIKV RNA in the semen of asymptomatic men confirm that ZIKV is a new threat for reproductive medicine and should have important implications for assisted reproductive technology. We recommend that semen donations from men at risk for ZIKV infection should be tested for ZIKV RNA, regardless of symptoms of ZIKV infection. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal changes in semen quality and freezability in the Warmblood stallion.

    PubMed

    Janett, F; Thun, R; Niederer, K; Burger, D; Hässig, M

    2003-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate seasonal changes in stallion semen quality and to determine the best time for semen cryopreservation. Experiments were performed using 10 Warmblood stallions from the National Stud Farm in Avenches (Switzerland). Ejaculates were collected and frozen every other week during 1 year from January to December 1999. Volume, concentration, and motility, and the number of morphologically normal sperm and sperm with major defects (abnormal heads, acrosome defects, nuclear vacuoles, proximal droplets, abnormal midpieces) were evaluated. For all frozen-thawed semen samples motility as well as viability (SYBR-14/PI) was tested, and the hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS) was performed. To analyze seasonal differences 4 periods of 3 months each were defined: autumn (September, October, November), winter (December, January, February), spring (March, April, May) and summer (June, July, August). During the 1 year experiment all semen quality parameters showed a clear seasonal pattern. The volume, total sperm count and motility in fresh semen were significantly higher (P<0.05) in summer than in winter, while sperm concentration was significantly lower in summer compared to the other seasons. Regarding morphology, normal sperm was significantly lower (P<0.05) in summer than at any other time of the year and higher values (P<0.05) were found for major defects in summer than in spring and autumn. In frozen-thawed semen motility was significantly (P<0.05) improved in autumn when compared to spring and summer. Viability was lowest in summer and differed significantly (P<0.05) from other seasons. The HOS test revealed significantly more (P<0.05) membrane damaged spermatozoa in winter than in spring, summer and autumn. Our results demonstrate that in our climatic conditions clear seasonal differences occur in semen quality of fresh and frozen-thawed semen and that cryopreservation of stallion semen should preferably be performed in autumn.

  9. Novel technical strategies to optimize cryopreservation of goat semen using cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Vianney M; Leclerc, Pierre; Bailey, Janice L

    2017-02-01

    Artificial insemination is well-established in dairy cattle, with sires housed in commercial studs for processing. In some species, however, sires located on-farm are used for artificial insemination by shipping their semen to an off-site laboratory for processing within 24 h of collection. To expedite semen transport from the farm to laboratory, protocols must be uncomplicated. For goat semen, an obstacle is the seminal plasma, which must be removed because it contains proteins that impede sperm quality. Our objective is to develop a simple strategy to transiently store goat semen for 24 h prior to freezing. Cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) has been demonstrated to improve sperm tolerance to cryopreservation. Therefore, we hypothesized that CLC improves goat sperm resistance to seminal plasma damage, over 24 h prior to cryopreservation. We first evaluated the ability of CLC to protect goat sperm against seminal plasma damage by treating fresh semen with or without seminal plasma prior to cryopreservation. Second, fresh goat semen with seminal plasma was extended in skim milk-based extender ± CLC and held for 24 h at 5 °C prior to freezing. Our results indicate that CLC treatment improves goat sperm resistance to seminal plasma-mediated injury and protects sperm quality over 24 h prior to freezing (P < 0.05). Although the in vivo fertility of semen must first be assessed, it is possible that protocols for goat semen cryopreservation can be simplified by including CLC and eliminating seminal plasma removal. Processing and distribution of goat semen for AI would thereby be facilitated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of organic selenium on turkey semen quality during liquid storage.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, S G; Atanasov, V K; Surai, P F; Denev, S A

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dietary organic selenium on the turkey semen during storage. Twenty males (BUT, Big 6, 40 weeks of age) were divided into control (n=10) and experimental group (n=10). The turkeys in the both groups were fed with a commercial diet containing 0.1 ppm Se in the form of sodium selenite. The experimental birds were additionally supplied with 0.3 ppm organic Se in the form Sel-Plex (Alltech, Inc.). After 30 days of feeding, the semen samples were collected twice a week for the 3 weeks of the study and diluted 1+1(v/v) with TUR-2 diluent, and stored in a water bath (+10 to 15 degrees C) for 6 h. The percentage of motile spermatozoa, the sperm viability (live/dead spermatozoa), total lipids, phospholipids and total cholesterol were assessed in fresh and stored semen. The fertilizing ability of semen was assessed by artificial insemination of 30 hens per group with dose containing 200x10(6) spermatozoa weekly. After 6 h of semen storage, the motility of spermatozoa decreased significantly in the control group (by 8.7 relative percent, P<0.05) and only by four relative percent (P>0.05) in experimental group reflecting a protective effect of dietary Se supplementation. The proportion of live spermatozoa was higher in fresh semen and significantly lower in stored semen. The positive effect of Se supplementation was observed on the lipid composition of stored semen: the concentration of the total lipids and phospholipids in the seminal plasma from control group significantly increased, while in the experimental group remained constant. Better semen integrity in the experimental group was associated with an improved fertilizing ability of spermatozoa: the fertility rate of stored spermatozoa in the control group was 88%, while in the experimental group was 90.5%.

  11. The reference values for semen parameters of 1213 fertile men in Guangdong Province in China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yun-Ge; Tang, Li-Xin; Wang, Qi-Ling; Song, Ge; Jiang, Yan-Jia; Deng, Shun-Mei; Jiang, Fang; Qin, Wei-Bing

    2015-01-01

    Semen samples were collected from 1213 fertile men whose partners had a time-to-pregnancy (TTP) ≤12 months in Guangdong Province in Southern China, and semen parameters including semen volume, sperm concentration, total counts, motility, and morphology were evaluated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 guideline. All semen parameters analyzed were normal in ~62.2% of the total samples, whereas ~37.8% showed at least one of the semen parameters below normal threshold values. The fifth centiles (with 95% confidence intervals) were 1.3 (1.2–1.5) ml for semen volume, 20 × 106 (18×106–20×106) ml−1 for sperm concentration, 40 × 106 (38×106–44×106) per ejaculate for total sperm counts, 48% (47%–53%) for vitality, 39% (36%–43%) for total motility, 25% (23%–27%) for sperm progressive motility, 5.0% (4%–5%) for normal morphology. The pH values ranged from 7.2 to 8.0 with the mean ± standard deviation at 7.32 ± 0.17. No effects of age and body mass index were found on semen parameters. Occupation, smoking and alcohol abuse, varicocele appeared to decrease semen quality. Sperm concentration, but not sperm morphology, is positively correlated with TTP, whereas vitality is negatively correlated with TTP. Our study provides the latest reference values for the semen parameters of Chinese fertile men in Guangdong Province, which are close to those described in the new WHO guidelines (5th Edition). PMID:25432502

  12. Cryopreserving turkey semen in straws and nitrogen vapour using DMSO or DMA: effects of cryoprotectant concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on post-thaw semen quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Miranda, M; Zaniboni, L; Manchisi, A; Cerolini, S

    2016-04-01

    1. This study was designed to identify a suitable protocol for freezing turkey semen in straws exposed to nitrogen vapour by examining the effects of dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPA), CPA concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on in vitro post-thaw semen quality. 2. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of Tselutin diluent containing DMA or DMSO to give final concentrations of 8% or 18% DMA and 4% or 10% DMSO. The semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen (LN2) surface (1, 5 and 10 cm) for 10 min. Semen samples were thawed at 4°C for 5 min or at 50°C for 10 s. After thawing, sperm motility, viability and osmotic tolerance were determined. 3. Cryosurvival of turkey sperm was affected by DMSO concentration. Freezing rate affected the motility of sperm cryopreserved using both CPAs, while thawing rates showed an effect on the motility of sperm cryopreserved using DMA and on the viability of sperm cryopreserved using DMSO. Significant interactions between freezing rate × thawing rate on sperm viability in the DMA protocol were found. 4. The most effective freezing protocol was the use of 18% DMA or 10% DMSO with freezing 10 cm above the LN2 surface and a thawing temperature of 50°C. An efficient protocol for turkey semen would improve prospects for sperm cryobanks and the commercial use of frozen turkey semen.

  13. Semen coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation and cryopreservation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) semen in coconut water solution (CWS) and TES-TRIS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karol G; Miranda, Stefania A; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test the effect of coconut water solution and TES-TRIS on the seminal coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation in fresh diluted semen, and on the cryopreservation of semen from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Semen was collected from six males by electro-ejaculation, diluted in TES-TRIS or coconut water solution (CWS), and incubated at 35°C until the coagulated fraction of the semen was completely liquefied. In the experiment I, after liquefaction, samples were diluted in TES-TRIS or CWS, plus 6 and 10mM/mL of caffeine. Sperm motility and vigor were evaluated during 5h. For experiment II, after liquefaction, semen samples were extended in TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol in the final solution) or CWS (2.5% glycerol in the final solution), cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week. The seminal coagulum was liquefied in (mean±SDM) 4.5±1.7 and 2.8±1.1h in TES-TRIS and CWS, respectively. Sperm were motile in TES-TRIS and CWS for 5.0±1.4 and 1.0±0.5h, respectively. The mean motility in this period was 38±22% (TES-TRIS) and 22.0±16.0 (CWS). Motility increased after caffeine addition only in samples diluted in CWS containing 6mM (22.5±16.0) or 10mM (28.0±19.0) caffeine. Post-thaw live sperm percentage was 26.2% in TES-TRIS and 13.2% in CWS. For cryopreservation of semen from C. apella TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol) was more appropriate than CWS (2.5% glycerol). CWS+caffeine potentially increase sperm motility and may be useful in artificial insemination of fresh diluted semen.

  14. Mechanisms of the harmful effects of bacterial semen infection on ejaculated human spermatozoa: potential inflammatory markers in semen.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Monika; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the male reproductive tract by microorganisms, and its subsequent consequences for sperm fertilizing potential, has been intensely discussed. The role of the bacteria that are responsible for the colonization and contamination of the male urogenital tract, rather than its infection, in diminished sperm parameters raises the most controversy. There are numerous premises suggesting that bacterial semen infection is associated with male infertility. However, the molecular mechanism by which the fertility is affected is complex and multifactorial, and still presents a puzzle. Some authors have suggested that direct interactions between bacteria and human spermatozoa facilitate sperm immobilization, affect sperm morphology, and thus weaken the ability of sperm to fertilize. On the other hand, the massive infiltration of activated leukocytes into the inflammatory site may be associated with impairment of sperm fertilizing potential, due to oxidative, apoptotic, and immune processes. This review presents current research trends and aims to summarize the present knowledge of semen inflammation and causative bacterial agents in the male urogenital tract, with its consequence on seminological parameters, and male fertility status.

  15. Use of immobilized cryopreserved bovine semen in a blind artificial insemination trial.

    PubMed

    Standerholen, Fride Berg; Waterhouse, Karin Elisabeth; Larsgard, Anne Guro; Garmo, Randi Therese; Myromslien, Frøydis Deinboll; Sunde, Jan; Ropstad, Erik; Klinkenberg, Geir; Kommisrud, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    To make timing of artificial insemination (AI) relative to ovulation less critical, methods for prolonging shelf life of spermatozoa in vivo after AI have been attempted to be developed. Encapsulation of sperm cells is a documented technology, and recently, a technology in which sperm cells are embedded in alginate gel has been introduced and commercialized. In this study, standard processed semen with the Biladyl extender (control) was compared with semen processed by sperm immobilization technology developed by SpermVital AS in a blind field trial. Moreover, in vitro acrosome and plasma membrane integrity was assessed and compared with AI fertility data for possible correlation. Semen from 16 Norwegian Red young bulls with unknown fertility was collected and processed after splitting the semen in two aliquots. These aliquots were processed with the standard Biladyl extender or the SpermVital extender to a final number of 12 × 10(6) and 25 × 10(6) spermatozoa/dose, respectively. In total, 2000 semen doses were produced from each bull, divided equally by treatment. Artificial insemination doses were set up to design a blinded AI regime; 5 + 5 straws from each extender within ejaculates in ten-straw goblets were distributed to AI technicians and veterinarians all over Norway. Outcomes of the inseminations were measured as 56-day nonreturn rate (NRR). Postthaw sperm quality was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide and Alexa 488-conjugated peanut agglutinin to assess the proportion of plasma membrane and acrosome-intact sperm cells, respectively. In total, data from 14,125 first inseminations performed over a 12-month period, 7081 with Biladyl and 7044 with SpermVital semen, were used in the statistical analyses. There was no significant difference in 56-day NRR for the two semen categories, overall NRR being 72.5% and 72.7% for Biladyl and SpermVital, respectively. The flow cytometric results revealed a significant higher level of acrosome-intact live

  16. Infertility and venereal disease in cattle inseminated with semen containing bovine herpesvirus type 5.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, P D; Poynting, A J; Gu, X; Davis, R J

    2009-07-25

    A group of 20 cows and heifers experienced poor conception rates and probable ovarian dysfunction after being artificially inseminated. When first examined, some showed signs of vulvovaginitis, with pustular, ulcerative lesions consistent with a herpesvirus infection. They had had no contact with bulls during the current breeding season. Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) was isolated from samples of frozen semen from the batch that had been used for the artificial insemination programme. BHV-5 was also isolated from the semen of a second apparently healthy bull during routine screening of its semen.

  17. The effect of cryopreservation on goat semen characteristics related to sperm freezability.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A; Hidalgo, M

    2010-08-01

    Seminal quality parameters were used to evaluate the effect of freeze-thawing procedure on goat sperm characteristics, and to relate possible changes in sperm parameters to cryopreservation success. Semen samples (n=110) were frozen with TRIS and milk-based extenders and thawed. Sperm quality parameters (motility, morphology and acrosome) were compared between fresh and frozen-thawed samples. Sperm freezability was judged by classifying the semen samples as "suitable" or "not suitable" according to the sperm quality parameters assessed before and after thawing. Fertility data was obtained after cervical insemination with frozen semen doses. The ejaculates were grouped into two categories according to their fertility results. In experiment 1, significant differences were found between semen extenders (P<0.001), bucks (P<0.05) and ejaculates within the same male (P<0.05) in terms of sperm quality. There was no seasonal effect (P>0.05) on the majority of the sperm parameters assessed after thawing. Moreover, significant differences (P<0.001) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of the freeze-thawing procedure on sperm quality parameters was also different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. The number of sperm quality parameters that had changed after cryopreservation was lower in "suitable" semen samples before and after thawing. In experiment 2, no differences (P>0.05) in semen parameters assessed in fresh semen and frozen-thawed samples were found between groups. The effect of freezing and thawing on sperm quality parameters were different (P<0.05) between extenders within the same group. Only mean beat cross frequency (BCF) values were significantly higher (P<0.05) in TRIS diluted samples that led to successful pregnancies after artificial insemination. In conclusion, CASA-derived motility parameters, together with traditional semen assessment methods, give valuable information on

  18. Determination of flavonoids in Semen Cuscutae by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Li, Yan; Yan, Yuning; Liu, Huwei; Ji, Xiuhong

    2002-05-15

    Flavonoids contents in 40 samples of Semen Cuscutae collected from areas all around China were investigated. Five principal flavonoids, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-galactoside, hyperoside, quercetin and kaempferol were analyzed simultaneously by using a reversed phase liquid chromatograph system with 0.025 M phosphoric acid-methanol as mobile phase. The recovery of the method was 97.0-102.9%, and all the flavonoids showed good linearity (r > or = 0.9990) in a relatively wide concentration range. The results indicated that contents of flavonoids in S. Cuscutae varied significantly from species to species, locality to locality, and parasiting host to host. Cuscuta australis contained a much higher content of kaempferol than C. chinensis, and few flavonoids were detected in C. japonica. The quality of S. Cuscutae can be evaluated according to the contents of flavonoids.

  19. [External quality assessment of semen analysis in Poland].

    PubMed

    Jedrzejczak, Piotr; Talarczyk, Joanna; Taszarek-Hauke, Grazyna; Berger, Anna; Hauke, Jan; Pawelczyk, Leszek

    2012-11-01

    Semen analysis is an important part of male infertility diagnosis and should be performed according to international recommendations. The reliability of the results depends mainly on the qualifications of the laboratory analysts. External Quality Assessment Programmes (EQAP) are performed in laboratories worldwide in order to standardize the results. The aim of this study was to perform the first in Poland comparison of the results of sperm analysis from different laboratories. Forty two Polish laboratories were invited to participate in the EQAP and eight laboratories agreed to take part in the analysis. They were sent uniform semen samples, prepared in accordance with the WHO standards: one sample for the assessment of concentration, two for motility (on DVD) and two for the morphology of the sperm (Papanicolau staining). The reference group was comprised of three employees of the Andrologic Laboratory of Poznań University of Medical Sciences, who regularly take part in EQAP organized by ESHRE. The reference group analyzed the samples from the participating laboratories. Statistic features such as mean, median, standard deviation, minimal and maximal value, first and third quartile were assessed for every examined parameter Z-score index was used to compare the differences between assessed laboratories and the reference laboratory. The acceptable Z-score range was +/-1. Average concentration in the reference group was 43 mln/ml, while in the assessed laboratories (L) it was between 31 (L4) and 72.5 mln/ml (L1). Z-score for concentration analysis in three laboratories exceeded +/- 1 (2.51 for L1, 1.42 for L2 and -1.02 for L4). In the analysis of the first sample for progressive motility the reference group received 59%, while the values of participating laboratories varied from 42,5% (L1) to 80% (L4). Most of the centers achieved Z-score within the normal range, except for L1 and L4 (-1.48 and 1.88 respectively). The reference value for the second sample for

  20. Spermatozoon ultrastructure and semen parameters of Brycon vermelha (Characiformes, Characidae).

    PubMed

    Faustino, F; Silva, R C; Hilbig, C C; Makino, L C; Senhorini, J A; Ninhaus-Silveira, A; Nakaghi, L S O

    2015-06-01

    This study analyzed semen parameters and the ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Brycon vermelha. The semen was white and viscous, with a mean volume of 5.0±2.6 mL/kg body weight and mean spermatozoon concentration of 4.3±0.8×10(10) spermatozoa/mL. The estimated motility rate was 90%, with 50% of spermatozoa motile at 35.0±0.1 s and 100% immotile by 46.5±0.1 s. The spermatozoon of B. vermelha had a distinct head, midpiece, and flagellum. The ovoid head measured 1.9±0.2 μm by 1.3±0.1 μm, with its volume almost completely occupied by the nucleus, and was enveloped by an irregular nuclear membrane, with no acrosome vesicle. The nuclear fossa held the centriole complex and the initial segment of flagellum. The midpiece was symmetrical and measured 1.3±0.3μm. Mitochondria were scarce and restricted to the anterior region, while vesicles were absent. The posterior region of the midpiece was characterized by the absence of mitochondria and the presence of the cytoplasmic sheath. The flagellum, enclosed by the flagellar membrane, measured 29.6±3.4 μm, and possessed an axial filament containing a 9+2 microtubule pattern. The spermatozoa of B. vermelha appeared similar in structure to those of fish that breed through external fertilization, thus classifying them as uniflagellate anacrosomal aquasperm, or Type 1 aquasperm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of selenium supplementation on semen characteristics of Brazil's ram.

    PubMed

    Piagentini, M; Silva, D C; Dell'Aqua, Cpf; Moya-Araujo, C F; Codognoto, V M; Ramos, A A; Oba, E

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different concentrations of oral supplementation with selenium (Se) upon ram sperm parameters. Thirty rams managed in stall under intensive system were used and divided into five groups (six animals per group) as follows: control group (G1) mineral mixture supplementation without Se, group 2 (G2) mineral mixture supplemented with 5 mg/kg Se, group 3 (G3) supplemented with 10 mg/kg Se, group 4 (G4) supplemented with 15 mg/kg Se and group 5 (G5) supplemented with 20 mg/kg Se. For each group, there was an adjustment period of 14 days. The experimental period was 350 days. Every 56 days, the animals were weighed and semen samples were collected by electroejaculation. Semen analysis included volume, mass moviment, total motility, vigour, concentration and morphology. For plasmatic and acrosomal membrane integrity evaluation and mitochondrial membrane potential were used a combination of fluorescent probes. Differences between means values obtained by analysis of variance were verified by Tukey test with 5% probability. There was no statistical difference between treatment groups in relation to volume, mass moviment, total motility, vigour, concentration, plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity (p > .05). Sperm morphology was different between treatment groups, the G1 (0 mg of selenium) had the highest percentage of major defects (11.11 ± 1.11(a) ; p < .05). It was concluded that selenium decrease the percentage of sperm defects and did not directly influence on ram sperm volume, mass moviment, total motility, vigour, concentration and membrane integrity.

  2. Semen collection and characterization in rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome).

    PubMed

    Waldoch, Jennifer; Root, Tammy; Ramer, Jan; Proudfoot, Jeffry

    2007-03-01

    Low egg fertility and hatchability is a common problem in captive populations of rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). These conditions make sustaining a captive population challenging. A method for collecting and evaluating semen from rockhopper penguins was developed to assist in the evaluation of low egg fertility found in one captive population. Six adult male rockhopper penguins were conditioned to allow semen collection once a week from the start of breeding season until ejaculates no longer contained sperm. A total of 59 ejaculates was collected between 17 September and 31 December 2004. Forty-five of these samples were evaluated for volume, pH, sperm concentration, and sperm quality (motility, viability, and morphology). There was a large variation between individuals and between collections for each individual. The mean motility was 34.5% (+/- 22%). Mean volume of ejaculate was 0.23 ml (+/- .31 ml). Mean concentration was 16.9 x 10(6) sperm/ml (+/- 48.7 x 10(6) sperm/ml). Mean number of sperm per collection was 1.7 x 10(6) (+/- 4.2 x 10(6)). Mean percentage of living sperm was 82.9% (+/- 18.1%). Mean percentage of sperm with normal morphology was 82.1% (+/- 18.8%). Mean pH was 6.47 (+/- 0.49). During this season, only one of these males paired with a female. The pair produced one fertile egg, but the embryo died early in incubation. Male rockhopper penguins had low sperm concentration and low motility indicating that low male fertility may be contributing to the poor egg fertility rate. This work represents the first step in an ongoing study to improve captive breeding of rockhopper penguins.

  3. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species.

  4. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species. PMID:23797622

  5. Semen characteristics and diabetes mellitus: significance of insulin in male infertility.

    PubMed

    García-Díez, L C; Corrales Hernandez, J J; Hernandez-Diaz, J; Pedraz, M J; Miralles, J M

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of semen quality and serum hormonal profiles (FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone) of patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Semen parameters and levels of prolactin and testosterone were significantly altered in the diabetic state. The concentration of insulin in serum and seminal plasma and the serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in 80 men classified in the following groups: fertile subjects, infertile normoglycemic subjects, subjects with carbohydrate intolerance, and excretory and secretory azoospermic subjects. In all groups, seminal insulin concentrations were higher than those obtained in serum. The hormone appears to freely cross the blood-testis barrier, there to be concentrated in the semen. The levels of insulin in serum and seminal plasma did not correlate with semen parameters and are not suitable markers of seminal quality. For unknown reasons, the concentrations of insulin in seminal plasma were lower in the subjects suffering from carbohydrate intolerance.

  6. Semen preservation in male adolescents and young adults with cancer: one institution's experience.

    PubMed

    Bashore, Lisa

    2007-06-01

    Semen preservation is a feasible procedure for male adolescents and young adults who may become infertile as a result of cancer therapy. Treatment for several pediatric malignancies puts adolescents and young adults at a significant risk for fertility dysfunction. Eligible male adolescents and young adults (N = 32) treated from January 2004 to June 2005 at Cook Children's Medical Center were offered semen preservation at the time of diagnosis or presentation to the center for treatment. Fifteen (47%) young men were successful in semen preservation. Two (6%) adolescents did not participate because of parental refusal. Seven (22%) were too ill, and eight (25%) failed to produce an adequate sample. Several patients were not successful because of time constraints, lack of counseling, and parental anxiety. Efforts for success in semen preservation should include private discussions between nurses and adolescents. In addition, information on infertility needs to be given to families early in the diagnostic phase to provide them with an opportunity to ask questions.

  7. Effect of potash alum (aluminium potassium sulphate) on human semen and sperm.

    PubMed

    Singh, H P; Singh, C K; Singh, R R

    1998-04-01

    25 normal and healthy human volunteers were engaged in this investigation. The different concentration of potash alum solution have different effects on sperm, motility/death and fructose level of the semen. Higher concentration have higher effects.

  8. Critical appraisal of conventional semen analysis in the context of varicocele.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Thinus

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is present in approximately 15% of men, and, although it is the most commonly diagnosed cause of male infertility, nearly two-thirds of men with varicoceles remain fertile. It was decided to make use of the current evidence obtained from the previous meta-analyses between 2004 and 2015 as well as available articles covering this field, preferably randomized controlled articles dealing with the topic of semen analysis before and after repair. Two important meta-analyses were discussed as well as other articles dealing with the topic of semen analysis before and after varicocelectomy. The evidence suggests that all semen parameters improve after varicocele repair. Based on the available evidence, it is clear that there is a benefit in treating men with a palpable varicocele. One can expect that all semen parameters will improve within 3 months after repair.

  9. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the week before provision of an ejaculate on semen quality and few on serum hormones, of over 8300 men in Europe and the USA. While these observations are interesting, the reasons for regional and ethnic differences in semen quality of fathers are unclear. Although, there was no attempt to confirm the participant-provided level of alcohol consumption, an increase in serum testosterone in the men at the higher end of alcohol intake is compatible with an alcohol effect on liver metabolism, although whether alcohol intake was the cause of higher testosterone, or men with higher androgen levels consume more alcohol, is not known.

  10. Effect of an inactivated bluetongue serotype 8 vaccine on semen quality in rams.

    PubMed

    Leemans, Jérôme; Raes, Marianne; Saegerman, Claude; Sustronck, Bart; Makoschey, Birgit; Kirschvink, Nathalie

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of an inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine altered semen quality in rams. Twenty sexually mature rams were assigned to three experimental groups: two groups of four animals were vaccinated and a third group of four animals was unvaccinated. The first group included rams with a history of natural BTV-8 infection in 2007 and the second and third groups included BTV-8 naïve rams. Semen was collected prior to vaccination and for 4 months post-vaccination. There were no significant differences in semen quality traits, including motility and concentration of spermatozoa, and percentages of living, normal dead and abnormal dead spermatozoa, between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, or over time (P>0.05). The BTV-8 vaccine tested in this study did not appear to have any adverse effect on semen quality in rams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct visualization of HIV-enhancing endogenous amyloid fibrils in human semen

    PubMed Central

    Usmani, Shariq M.; Zirafi, Onofrio; Müller, Janis; Sandi-Monroy, Nathallie; Yadav, Jay K.; Meier, Christoph; Weil, Tanja; Roan, Nadia R.; Greene, Warner C.; Walther, Paul; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Hammarström, Per; Wetzel, Ronald; Pilcher, Christopher D.; Gagsteiger, Friedrich; Fändrich, Marcus; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen proteins prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) and semenogelins form amyloid fibrils in vitro. These fibrils boost HIV infection and may play a key role in the spread of the AIDS pandemic. However, the presence of amyloid fibrils in semen remained to be demonstrated. Here, we use state of the art confocal and electron microscopy techniques for direct imaging of amyloid fibrils in human ejaculates. We detect amyloid aggregates in all semen samples and find that they partially consist of PAP fragments, interact with HIV particles and increase viral infectivity. Our results establish semen as a body fluid that naturally contains amyloid fibrils that are exploited by HIV to promote its sexual transmission. PMID:24691351

  12. An Overview of a 2004 Ron Brown Cruise to Study Saharan Dust: The NCAS Science Plan for CTAPS: Caracterizacion Tras-Atlantico del Polvo del Sahara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, V.

    2003-12-01

    Global transport of dust has been acknowledged as a significant factor in atmospheric radiative balance, atmospheric oxidizing capacity, the deposition of limiting nutrients into the upper ocean, transport of fungi and microorganisms, and in the indirect aerosol effect via cloud modification. In early spring 2004, a group of scientists from NOAA, Howard University, the University of Puerto Rico - Mayagez, and several international partners will take part in a research cruise aboard the Ron Brown to study the impacts and microphysical evolution of Saharan dust during its trans-Atlantic transport on the local atmosphere and marine boundary layer. The fundamental purpose of this research cruise is to provide a set of critical measurements to characterize the impacts of Saharan dust aerosol transport across the Atlantic Ocean. The preliminary science plan and goals of the cruise will be presented and discussed as well as some background measurements taken over the past two years in the Caribbean and Canary Islands.

  13. Effect of organic and inorganic forms of selenium in diets on turkey semen quality.

    PubMed

    Slowińska, M; Jankowski, J; Dietrich, G J; Karol, H; Liszewska, E; Glogowski, J; Kozłowski, K; Sartowska, K; Ciereszko, A

    2011-01-01

    The effects of Se supplementation and its organic or inorganic form on semen quantitative parameters (ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, and total number of sperm) and biochemical parameters of seminal plasma (protein concentration, acid phosphatase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and total antioxidant capacity) were investigated over a 25-wk reproductive season. Additionally, DNA fragmentation and motility characteristics of turkey spermatozoa were measured. The parameters of turkey semen in relation to yellow semen syndrome were also determined. Twenty-four males (Big 6) were divided into 3 experimental groups differing in form of Se supplementation (no Se supplementation, 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se from sodium selenite and 0.3 mg/kg of organic Se from Sel-Plex, Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY). Dietary Se supplementation enhanced the sperm concentration and total number of sperm and did not influence the antioxidative properties of turkey seminal plasma and most biochemical parameters. Only seminal plasma acid phosphatase activity was increased in turkeys fed inorganic Se. The main sperm DNA fragmentation parameters were not affected by dietary Se. The highest percentage of motile spermatozoa (85%) was recorded for the semen of turkeys fed organic Se. Values of the biochemical parameters (acid phosphatase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity) of seminal plasma increased during the reproductive season. Yellow semen was characterized by increased biochemical parameters and decreased spermatozoa motility characteristics. However, the percentage of motile spermatozoa did not differ between white and yellow semen. Organic Se seemed to be the preferred form of diet supplementation in comparison with inorganic Se. Biochemical parameters of semen and spermatozoa motility parameters appear to be useful for evaluating the effect of age on semen quality. Monitoring the DNA fragmentation of spermatozoa at the end of the reproductive season could be

  14. Semen quality of young adult ICSI offspring: the first results.

    PubMed

    Belva, F; Bonduelle, M; Roelants, M; Michielsen, D; Van Steirteghem, A; Verheyen, G; Tournaye, H

    2016-12-01

    What is the semen quality of young adult men who were conceived 18-22 years ago by ICSI for male infertility? In this cohort of 54 young adult ICSI men, median sperm concentration, total sperm count and total motile sperm count were significantly lower than in spontaneously conceived peers. The oldest ICSI offspring cohort worldwide has recently reached adulthood. Hence, their reproductive health can now be investigated. Since these children were conceived by ICSI because of severe male-factor infertility, there is reasonable concern that male offspring have inherited the deficient spermatogenesis from their fathers. Previously normal pubertal development and adequate Sertoli and Leydig cell function have been described in pubertal ICSI boys; however, no information on their sperm quality is currently available. This study was conducted at UZ Brussel between March 2013 and April 2016 and is part of a large follow-up project focussing on reproductive and metabolic health of young adults, between 18 and 22 years and conceived after ICSI with ejaculated sperm. Results of both a physical examination and semen analysis were compared between young ICSI men being part of a longitudinally followed cohort and spontaneously conceived controls who were recruited cross-sectionally. Results of a single semen sample in 54 young adult ICSI men and 57 spontaneously conceived men are reported. All young adults were individually assessed, and the results of their physical examination were completed by questionnaires. Data were analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression, adjusted for covariates. In addition, semen parameters of the ICSI fathers dating back from their ICSI treatment application were analysed for correlations. Young ICSI adults had a lower median sperm concentration (17.7 million/ml), lower median total sperm count (31.9 million) and lower median total motile sperm count (12.7 million) in comparison to spontaneously conceived peers (37.0 million/ml; 86

  15. Semen quality in adult male survivors 5 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, X M; Chen, S M; Yue, H X; Lin, L; Wu, Y B; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on semen quality of adult male survivors is unclear. We investigated the semen quality included 673 male survivors from the worse-affected counties in the earthquake between Aug 2008 and July 2013. Semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility and morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences between years, and a logistic regression was used to analyse the impacts caused by earthquake on the changes of semen quality. We found the medians (5th and 95th) were 2.5 ml (0.6-5.5) for semen volume, 59.0 × 10(6)  ml(-1) [(13.0-133.0)] × 10(6)  ml(-1) for semen concentration, 46% (13-64%) for sperm progressive motility and 3.0% (0-17.5%) for normal morphology for adult male survivors. Semen concentration, the percentage of sperm progressive motility, total motility and sperm normal morphology were all decreased in the first 3 years, and the differences among years 1, 2 and 3 were significant except the percentage of sperm progressive motility (P < 0.05). The casualties and heavy housing damage caused by earthquake had a negative effect on semen quality. The main findings will provide further diagnosis and therapy basis of male fertility by data, for affected populations in the earthquake. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Cotinine concentrations in semen, urine, and blood of smokers and nonsmokers.

    PubMed Central

    Vine, M F; Hulka, B S; Margolin, B H; Truong, Y K; Hu, P C; Schramm, M M; Griffith, J D; McCann, M; Everson, R B

    1993-01-01

    Cotinine levels in the semen, urine, and blood of 88 male smokers and nonsmokers, aged 18 to 35, were analyzed via radioimmunoassay. Detectable cotinine levels were found in all three body fluids, and cotinine levels in all three fluids were highly correlated. Cotinine levels in semen and blood were of similar magnitude; cotinine levels in urine were an order of magnitude or more higher. In all three fluids, cotinine levels increased with an increase in cigarette smoke exposure. PMID:8363014

  17. In vivo adverse effects of alpha-tocopherol on the semen quality of male bucks.

    PubMed

    Majid, A; Qureshi, M S; Khan, R U

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has detrimental effects on semen quality during spermatogenesis and semen processing for artificial insemination. This work was conducted to study the effect of different levels of vitamin E on the semen traits, oxidative status and trace minerals in Beetal bucks. Thirty-six bucks of similar body weight and age (1 year) were randomly divided into four groups. One group was kept as control with no supplementation (group 1), and the others were supplemented with 200 (group 2), 400 (group 3) and 800 IU (group 4) vitamin E/animal/day for 2 months. At the end of the experiment, semen samples were collected and evaluated. Seminal plasma was separated to study the concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe). Group 3 showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) semen volume and per cent motility and lower dead sperm percentage compared to control group. Superoxide dismutase, GPx, Zn, Cu and Mn were higher in the same group. The level of AST decreased in group 3 without any change on the concentration of ALT. It is suggested that vitamin E at the rate of 400 IU/buck/day supported higher semen volume, per cent motility, per cent live spermatozoa, antioxidants (SOD, GPx) and trace mineral levels (Zn, Cu, Mn) in the seminal plasma. The increased supplementation from 0 to 400 showed a general increasing trend in improving semen quality. However, the dose of 800 IU/kg had no useful effect in further improving the semen quality.

  18. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality.

  19. Comparison of two dilution rates on canine semen quality after cryopreservation in a coconut water extender.

    PubMed

    de Cássia Soares Cardoso, Rita; Silva, Alexandre Rodrigues; da Silva, Lúcia Daniel Machado

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of sperm dilution (one part semen:one part extender or at 200 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL) using a coconut water extender on the post-thaw sperm quality. Twelve ejaculates were collected from six dogs. Semen was divided into two aliquots, one for dilution one part semen:one part extender (group 1) and another for a concentration of 200 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL (group 2). Semen was initially extended at 37 degrees C at a proportion of one part semen:half part extender (1:1/2) for group 1 (A-fraction). For group 2, the volume for a concentration of 200 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL was calculated and a half of this volume was used for the initial dilution (A-fraction, 37 degrees C). Coconut water extender containing 20% egg yolk was used for this initial dilution in both groups. After dilution, the semen was cooled for 40 min in a thermal box (15 degrees C) and for 30 min in a refrigerator. The other half of the extender (B-fraction) containing egg yolk and glycerol (12%) was added to semen in both groups. Subsequently, the final concentration of glycerol in the extender was 6%. Ejaculates were frozen in 0.25 mL straws 5 cm above the surface of liquid nitrogen and stored at -196 degrees C. After 1 week, straws were thawed at 37 degrees C for 1 min and the microscopic criteria were evaluated. The dilution method had no influence on sperm motility, vigor and normal spermatozoa (71.4 compared with 67.7%). There was no effect of dog, ejaculate within male on post-thaw semen quality. Moreover, there was not a male x treatment interaction. Both treatments were efficient in preserving sperm quality.

  20. Comparison of three containers used for the transport of cooled stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Katila, T; Combes, G B; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L

    1997-11-01

    Three containers commonly used to transport cooled equine semen (Equitainer, ExpectaFoal and a Swedish-designed semen-transport container, previously called the Salsbro Box and now called Equine Express) were compared, using four ejaculates from each of three stallions. Each ejaculate was diluted to a spermatozoal concentration of 25 x 10(6)/ml with a nonfat dry milk-glucose extender containing amikacin sulfate (1 mg/ml) and potassium penicillin G (1000 units/ml). Extended semen was divided into three 40-ml aliquots for placement in each of the three semen-transport containers. The extended semen was stored in the containers for 24 h prior to analysis. Stored semen was warmed for 15 min at 37 degrees C, then video records of sperm motility were obtained for evaluation using a Hamilton-Thorne motility analyzer equipped with a stage warmer set at 37 degrees C. The temperature of 40-ml aliquots of semen extender stored in each container was also measured for 60 h using a copper-constantan thermocouple placed in the center of the stored samples. Intervals from onset of storage until sample temperature exceeded 10 degrees C during the warming phase were 27.5, 33.5 and 53 h, for the Expecta-Foal, Equine Express and Equitainer, respectively. Semen extender stored in the Equitainer compared most favorably to ideal cooling rates and storage temperatures published previously. Following a 24-h storage period, the mean percentages of motile, progressively motile, and rapidly motile spermatozoa, as well as the mean spermatozoal curvilinear velocity were similar (P > 0.05) among the three containers.

  1. Germination and colonization success of Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyceae) cysts after dispersal to new habitats

    PubMed Central

    Sassenhagen, Ingrid; Sefbom, Josefin; Godhe, Anna; Rengefors, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of new habitats through dispersal of phytoplankton cysts might be limited, if resident populations outcompete invaders during germination. We reciprocally transferred Gonyostomum semen (Raphidophyceae) cysts from three lakes into native and foreign waters originating from the respective habitats. Germination rate and germling growth were impacted by water origin, but there was no preference for native water. Gonyostomum semen's ability to germinate in different conditions might explain its expansion in northern Europe. PMID:26412910

  2. In vivo semen-associated pH neutralization of cervicovaginal secretions.

    PubMed Central

    Tevi-Bénissan, C; Bélec, L; Lévy, M; Schneider-Fauveau, V; Si Mohamed, A; Hallouin, M C; Matta, M; Grésenguet, G

    1997-01-01

    Physiological cervicovaginal acidity can partly inactivate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Basic semen components should be able to partially neutralize in vivo cervicovaginal pH. The goals of the study were to evaluate the relationship between cervicovaginal pH and presence of semen components in sexually active African women and to assess whether vaginal douching with water performed just after sexual intercourse could significantly reduce semen components and restore physiological cervicovaginal pH. Cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) from 56 heterosexual African women (19 to 45 years old), living in Bangui, Central African Republic, were evaluated for pH, semen components (prostatic acid phosphatase [PAP] and prostatic specific antigen [PSA]), cellularity, and hemoglobin at inclusion and after vaginal douching with 100 ml of water by using a bock. Before douching, semen components were found in 46 of 56 CVS (82%). The mean vaginal pH was 5.2 (range, 3.6 to 7.7), and concentrations of both PAP and PSA correlated positively and strongly with cervicovaginal pH (P < 0.001). After douching, semen components were found in 35 of 56 CVS (62%) (P = 0.03). Cervicovaginal PAP and PSA levels were significantly decreased (respectively, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.01; PAP, -72%; PSA, -87%), as was the total cell count (-60%; P < 0.0001). Furthermore, in CVS previously positive for both PAP and PSA, the mean vaginal pH was significantly decreased (6.5 versus 5.3, P < 0.01); no genital bleeding was observed. Frequent persistence of semen in CVS from heterosexually active African women leads to a shift from acidity to neutrality that could favor male to female HIV transmission. Vaginal douching provides significant elimination of semen after sexual intercourse; it should be considered for study as a supplementary means for the prevention of heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:9144379

  3. Evaluation of semen quality in 1808 university students, from Wuhan, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Meng; Meng, Tian-Qing; Hu, Si-Heng; Guan, Huang-Tao; Wei, Qin-Yu; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the semen quality of university students in Wuhan, the largest city in the world in terms of the number of university students. All student sperm donors recorded in the Hubei Province Human Sperm Bank from 1 March 2010 to 31 December 2013 were screened. At last, a total of 3616 semen samples from 1808 university student sperm donors were eligible and retrospectively analyzed. Each donor's semen parameters were averaged over two samples and compared with the World Health Organization criteria, and a generalized linear regression model was used to examine several determinants of semen quality. We found that the mean and median values were 3.0 ml and 2.8 ml for semen volume, 50.2 × 106 ml−1 and 50.0 × 106 ml−1 for sperm concentration, 148.1 × 106 and 142.1 × 106 for total sperm count, and 58.6% and 60.0% for total sperm motility. About 85.0% of donors had parameters that were all normal. Season and duration of abstinence were critical factors affecting semen quality. We also found a decrease in sperm concentration during the 4 years observation; however, this may not be a strong evidence to confirm the declining trend of semen quality. In conclusion, semen quality of university students in Wuhan was not optimal and should be paid high attention, long-term observation and further study should be carried out to confirm the present situation. PMID:25337834

  4. The Association Between Testis Cancer and Semen Abnormalities Before Orchiectomy: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Burner, Elizabeth; Parikh, Pooja M.; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Hays, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common solid organ malignancy in young men. It is a largely curable disease, so the extent to which it affects quality of life—including male fertility—is important. Abnormal semen analysis is highly predictive of male infertility. We conducted a systematic review of published studies that reported pre-orchiectomy semen parameters (as a surrogate for fertility) in TGCT patients to evaluate the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications reporting semen parameters before orchiectomy in adult patients diagnosed with TGCT. Further, we assessed the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities that may lead to infertility. Results: We applied MeSH search terms to four online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, Web of Science, and Ovid), resulting in 701 potentially relevant citations. After conducting a three-stage screening process, six articles were included in the systematic review. For each study, the participants' data and the study's quality and risk of bias were assessed and described. All studies showed semen abnormalities—including count, motility, and morphology—in men with TGCT prior to orchiectomy. Conclusions: TGCT is associated with semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. This review shows an increase in abnormal semen parameters among men with TGCT even outside the treatment effects of orchiectomy, radiation, or chemotherapy. To improve long-term quality of life, these findings should be considered when counseling patients on future fertility and sperm banking during discussions about treatment and prognosis for TGCT. PMID:25538860

  5. The Association Between Testis Cancer and Semen Abnormalities Before Orchiectomy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Djaladat, Hooman; Burner, Elizabeth; Parikh, Pooja M; Beroukhim Kay, Dorsa; Hays, Krystal

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) are the most common solid organ malignancy in young men. It is a largely curable disease, so the extent to which it affects quality of life-including male fertility-is important. Abnormal semen analysis is highly predictive of male infertility. We conducted a systematic review of published studies that reported pre-orchiectomy semen parameters (as a surrogate for fertility) in TGCT patients to evaluate the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed publications reporting semen parameters before orchiectomy in adult patients diagnosed with TGCT. Further, we assessed the association between TGCT and semen abnormalities that may lead to infertility. Results: We applied MeSH search terms to four online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, Web of Science, and Ovid), resulting in 701 potentially relevant citations. After conducting a three-stage screening process, six articles were included in the systematic review. For each study, the participants' data and the study's quality and risk of bias were assessed and described. All studies showed semen abnormalities-including count, motility, and morphology-in men with TGCT prior to orchiectomy. Conclusions: TGCT is associated with semen abnormalities before orchiectomy. This review shows an increase in abnormal semen parameters among men with TGCT even outside the treatment effects of orchiectomy, radiation, or chemotherapy. To improve long-term quality of life, these findings should be considered when counseling patients on future fertility and sperm banking during discussions about treatment and prognosis for TGCT.

  6. Assessment of butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine combination as anesthesia for semen collection and evaluation of semen quality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, S M; Rodenkirch, R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this current study was to evaluate the level of anesthesia produced by a combination of butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (BAM) for semen collection by electroejaculation on captive white-tailed bucks (Odocoileus virginianus). Ten male white-tailed deer, weighing 68.2-115.9kg, ranging in age from one to four years were randomly selected from housing pens and anesthetized with the BAM drug combination at a dose volume of 2.0mL each. Semen was collected from each animal using a standard cervid electroejaculation protocol while under BAM anesthesia. Physiological data was recorded following induction of anesthesia and during semen collection. Collected ejaculates were prepared for analysis using a standard extender protocol for cryopreservation. Eleven sperm viability parameters were quantified for each sample using a Computerized Assisted Sperm Analysis system, including total seminal volume; sperm concentration and total sperm number. kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa were also assessed. Results demonstrated that BAM provided an effective plane of anesthesia for successful collection of viable sperm. Measured physiological variables of heart rate, respiration and body temperature all remained within safe, normal limits. Data recorded on semen characteristics from all collected ejaculates correlated well with key traits determined to be important for successful fertilization through measurement of total semen volume; sperm concentration; total sperm number; and kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa. There were no serious adverse events. This field study indicates that BAM anesthesia is suitable for semen collection in white-tailed deer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Human papillomavirus proteins are found in peripheral blood and semen Cd20+ and Cd56+ cells during Hpv-16 semen infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) currently represents an important risk factor for cancer development and infertility in humans. Whilst binding of HPV to spermatozoa has been associated with male infertility, an investigation about the presence of HPV-DNA in non-spermatozoal semen cells is lacking. Previous findings documented the presence of HPV in peripheral blood leukocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of HPV markers in semen and blood leukocytes during HPV-16 infection. Methods A total of 32 subjects, 16 patients affected by HPV-16 semen infection and 16 controls, were evaluated in our andrological centre and enrolled in the study. Semen non-spermatozoal cells from all subjects were isolated and evaluated for the expression of HPV-16 markers (DNA and L1, E6 proteins) and further characterized for their molecular phenotype. Analogue determination was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results The presence of HPV-DNA by FISH analysis in a round cell population from semen, confirmed to be CD45+ leukocytes, was observed. These HPV-DNA containing-cells also displayed HPV-16-E6 and HPV-16-L1 viral proteins and, upon further investigation, were found to be CD20+ and CD56+, likely phenotypes of B cells and natural killer cells (NK) respectively. In 25% of the patient group, a very small population of peripheral blood mononuclear cells was found to be positive for HPV-DNA via FISH. These cells displayed the CD20+ and CD56+ phenotype alike. None of the control subjects displayed HPV-DNA in either semen or peripheral blood. Conclusion Considering the role of CD20+ and CD56+ cell populations in the antiviral immune response, the detection of HPV markers on leukocytes may reflect the presence of virus particles within the endosomal compartment. However, the presence of HPV markers in circulating mononuclear cells raise concerns about the risk of developing cancers to distal organs. PMID:24341689

  8. Presence of aerobic micro-organisms and their influence on basic semen parameters in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, E; Marchlewska, K; Oszukowska, E; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, R; Swierczynska-Cieplucha, A; Kula, K; Slowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2015-09-01

    Urogenital tract infections in males are one of the significant etiological factors in infertility. In this prospective study, 72 patients with abnormal semen parameters or any other symptoms of urogenital tract infection were examined. Semen analysis according to the WHO 2010 manual was performed together with microbial assessment: aerobic bacteria culture, Chlamydia antigen test, Candida culture, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma-specific culture. In total, 69.4% of semen samples were positive for at least one micro-organism. Ureaplasma sp. was the most common micro-organism found in 33% of semen samples of infertile patients with suspected male genital tract infection. The 2nd most common micro-organisms were Enterococcus faecalis (12.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (7%) and Candida sp. (5.6%). Generally, bacteria were sensitive to at least one of the antibiotics tested. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the presence of aerobic micro-organisms in semen and basic semen parameters: volume, pH, concentration, total count, motility, vitality and morphology.

  9. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  10. Effect of organic and inorganic selenium supplementation on semen quality and blood enzymes in buffalo bulls.

    PubMed

    El-Sharawy, Mohamed; Eid, Entsar; Darwish, Samy; Abdel-Razek, Ibrahim; Islam, Md Rashedul; Kubota, Kaiyu; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; El-Shamaa, Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic and inorganic selenium (Se) supplementation on semen quality and blood serum profiles of buffalo bulls. Nine mature buffalo bulls were divided into three groups: control (non-supplemented); organic Se (10 mg Sel-Plex®/head twice weekly) and inorganic Se (10 mg sodium selenite/head twice weekly). Semen was collected twice a week for 3 months during Se supplementation. Semen properties were evaluated from fresh ejaculate. Moreover, fructose concentration, aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST and ALT) activities, total protein and total cholesterol were assayed in seminal plasma. Additionally AST, ALT, testosterone and Se levels were determined in the blood serum. Results showed that Se supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) influences the semen parameters during 3 months of treatment. Organic Se significantly (P < 0.05) increased the percentage of viable sperms compared to inorganic Se and the control group. Fructose concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the seminal plasma of organic Se-treated bulls. Serum testosterone and Se concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the Se supplemented groups than the control group. In conclusion, Se supplementation improved the parameters of buffalo bull semen and more precisely, organic Se was more effective for the improvement of semen quality and some blood components than inorganic Se. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Endocrinological, biophysical, and biochemical parameters of semen collected via masturbation versus sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Sofikitis, N V; Miyagawa, I

    1993-01-01

    In clinical programs of assisted reproduction involving infertile males, it is essential to obtain semen of maximum quality. To evaluate ways of achieving this objective, and to assess the fertilizing capacity of the sperm, six semen samples were collected from each of 38 infertile men via masturbation. Six more samples were then collected from each man at sexual intercourse using a semen collection device (SCD). We confirmed that the volume of seminal plasma, total sperm count, sperm motility, and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa were significantly higher in samples collected at intercourse than masturbation, as reported previously. In addition, the markers of the secretory function of the prostate and the outcome of sperm function tests (hypoosmotic swelling test, acrosin assay, and sperm penetration assay) were significantly higher for the samples collected at intercourse. There were no significant differences in markers of the secretory function of the seminal vesicles and epididymis between the samples. The improved spermatozoal parameters in the samples collected at intercourse may reflect a higher prostatic secretory function at that time. There were no significant differences in the serum concentrations of gonadotropins, or in the serum or seminal plasma concentrations of testosterone, before or after masturbation or sexual intercourse. Therefore, the differences in prostatic secretory function and semen parameters may not be attributed to differences in hormonal levels. Semen collection during intercourse using an SCD appears to be the method of choice for selecting semen samples for artificial insemination.

  12. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    PubMed

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  13. The impact of body mass index on semen parameters in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Alshahrani, S; Ahmed, A-F; Gabr, A H; Abalhassan, M; Ahmad, G

    2016-12-01

    This hospital-based, prospective study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and various semen parameters in infertile men. A total of 439 men presented for infertility evaluation were assessed by basic infertility evaluation measures including semen analysis and BMI calculation. The main outcome measure was the relationship between BMI groups [BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) (normal weight), 25-29.9 kg/m(2) (overweight) and ≥30 kg/m(2) (obese)] and different semen parameters [volume, concentration, motility and morphology]. The mean BMI was 29.67 ± 5.89. Most of patients (82.91%) were overweight or obese. The 3 BMI groups were comparable in semen parameters (P > 0.05). BMI had a negative correlation with various semen parameters. However, this correlation was significant only with sperm concentration (P = 0.035). We concluded that sperm concentration was the only semen parameter which showed significant reduction with higher BMI in infertile men.

  14. Reducing Inter-Laboratory Differences between Semen Analyses Using Z Score and Regression Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Leushuis, Esther; Wetzels, Alex; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; van Trooyen, Netty; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Horst, Frans A.L.; Hompes, Peter G.A. Hompes; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2016-01-01

    Background Standardization of the semen analysis may improve reproducibility. We assessed variability between laboratories in semen analyses and evaluated whether a transformation using Z scores and regression statistics was able to reduce this variability. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study. We calculated between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CVB) for sperm concentration and for morphology. Subsequently, we standardized the semen analysis results by calculating laboratory specific Z scores, and by using regression. We used analysis of variance for four semen parameters to assess systematic differences between laboratories before and after the transformations, both in the circulation samples and in the samples obtained in the prospective cohort study in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Results The mean CVBwas 7% for sperm concentration (range 3 to 13%) and 32% for sperm morphology (range 18 to 51%). The differences between the laboratories were statistically significant for all semen parameters (all P<0.001). Standardization using Z scores did not reduce the differences in semen analysis results between the laboratories (all P<0.001). Conclusion There exists large between-laboratory variability for sperm morphology and small, but statistically significant, between-laboratory variation for sperm concentration. Standardization using Z scores does not eliminate between-laboratory variability. PMID:26985342

  15. Fertility and uterine hemodynamic in cows after artificial insemination with semen assessed by fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bruna Marcele; Arruda, Rubens Paes; Thomé, Helder Esteves; Maturana Filho, Milton; Oliveira, Guilherme; Guimarães, Carina; Nichi, Marcílio; Silva, Luciano Andrade; Celeghini, Eneiva Carla Carvalho

    2014-09-15

    Fluorescent probes (propidium iodide, Hoechst 33342, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Pisum sativum agglutinin, and 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide) were used to simultaneously evaluate the integrity of plasma and acrosomal membranes as well as mitochondrial membrane function in cryopreserved bovine semen and to verify its influence on fertility and postinsemination uterine vascularization. One hundred eighty-two Nellore cows were distributed for artificial insemination (AI) using semen batches separated according to the cell percentage presenting intact plasma membrane, intact acrosome, and high mitochondrial function (IPIAH): group G (44.5% IPIAH, n = 68), group M (23.0% IPIAH, n = 56), and group R (8.5% IPIAH, n = 58). The uterine hemodynamic was evaluated by Doppler sonogram in three periods: 30 hours before AI, 4 and 24 hours after AI were considered the resistance index and the uterine vascularization score. The pregnancy rate of group G (64.7%) was greater (P > 0.05) compared with group R (36.2%), but both did not differ from group M (50.0%). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of semen quality on uterine vascularization. Greater vascularization was noticed 4 hours after AI than 30 hours before and 24 hours after AI. Semen evaluation using fluorescent probes contributes to predicting fertilizing potential of semen. The use of semen with less percentage of IPIAH sperm does not alter uterine hemodynamic in cows.

  16. What affects fertility of sexed bull semen more, low sperm dosage or the sorting process?

    PubMed

    Frijters, A C J; Mullaart, E; Roelofs, R M G; van Hoorne, R P; Moreno, J F; Moreno, O; Merton, J S

    2009-01-01

    Until now it has been unclear to what extent the reduced fertility with sexed semen in the dairy industry is caused by too few sperm per AI dose, or by the effect of flow cytometric sorting, which is the established procedure for sexing semen. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of low sperm numbers per dose with and without sorting on non-return rates after 56 days (NRR 56); in addition, we evaluated the effects of bulls, in order to further optimize use of sexed semen. Based on results of using sexed semen from seven Holstein bulls, an overall numerical decline of 13.6% in NRR 56 was observed (P<0.05). About two-thirds of this decline (8.6%) was due to the low dose (P<0.05), and a third (5.0%) due to the process of sorting (P<0.05). The effect of low dosage and sorting differed among bulls. We observed a sex ratio of 91.6% females for sexed semen from the first 131 calves born. Currently the best way to increase fertility of sexed semen is by closely monitoring fertility so that the highest fertility bulls are used, and by improving farm animal management. However, to make substantial progress, more in depth studies are needed on the sexing technology, especially on aspects such as sorting procedures and sperm dosage.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep with experimentally contaminated frozen semen.

    PubMed

    Consalter, Angélica; Silva, Andressa F; Frazão-Teixeira, Edwards; Matos, Luis F; de Oliveira, Francisco C R; Leite, Juliana S; Silva, Franciele B F; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite considered one of the major causes of reproductive problems in sheep. Furthermore, the presence of the agent in ram semen urges the possibility of sexual transmission in this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate if ram's frozen semen spiked with T. gondii tachyzoites would be able to cause infection in sheep by laparoscopic artificial insemination (AI). Nine ewes tested seronegative to anti-T. gondii antibodies by the modified agglutination test (MAT) were superovulated and inseminated to collect embryos. Animals were divided into two groups: G1 (n = 5), ewes inseminated with semen containing 4 × 10(7) tachyzoites; and G2 (n = 4), ewes inseminated with tachyzoite-free semen (control group). To confirm infection, ewe's blood samples were collected on days -14, -7, 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 49 and 57 after AI for analysis by MAT and PCR. Tissue samples of these ewes were also collected for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven days after AI, all ewes of group G1 had specific antibodies to T. gondii, while those of G2 were negative. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in the blood of one ewe and parasites were observed in tissues of all five animals inseminated with contaminated semen, indicating that semen freezing protocol does not affect T. gondii transmission by artificial insemination in sheep.

  18. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relation of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Patients Healthy young men with untested fertility (n=215). Intervention A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Main outcomes measure Semen quality parameters. Results Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥9.5h/wk) to men in the bottom quartile (≤3h/wk) were 4.3% (−30.2, 38.9) for total sperm count, 7.2% (−30.6, 45.1) for sperm concentration, −2.42% (−6.53, 1.69) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (−12.0, 37.2) for sperm morphology. Conclusion In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. PMID:25064411

  19. Physical activity is not related to semen quality in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Chavarro, Jorge E; Mendiola, Jaime; Gaskins, Audrey J; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M

    2014-10-01

    To study the relationship of physical activity with semen quality among healthy young men from Spain. Cross-sectional study. University and college campuses of Murcia Region, Spain. Healthy young men with untested fertility (n = 215). A physical examination, blood and semen samples, and completion of a questionnaire. Semen quality parameters. Physical activity was not related to semen quality parameters. The adjusted percentage differences (95% confidence interval) in semen parameters comparing men in the top quartile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (≥9.5 h/wk) with men in the bottom quartile (≤3 h/wk) were 4.3% (-30.2%, 38.9%) for total sperm count, 7.2% (-30.6%, 45.1%) for sperm concentration, -2.42% (-6.53%, 1.69%) for sperm motility, and 12.6% (-12.0%, 37.2%) for sperm morphology. In contrast to previous research among athletes, these data suggest that physical activity is not deleterious to testicular function, as captured by semen quality parameters in this population of healthy young men in Spain. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of prolonged freezing of semen on exosome recovery and biologic activity

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Jennifer L.; Madison, Marisa N.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Galvin, Shannon; Gupta, Phalguni; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Dash, Chandravanu; Okeoma, Chioma M.

    2017-01-01

    Exosomes are important vehicles of intercellular communication that shape host responses to physiologic, tumorigenic, and pathogenic conditions. The composition and function of exosomes are dynamic and depends on the state and condition of the cellular source. In prior work, we found that semen exosomes (SE) from healthy donors who do not use illicit drugs potently inhibit HIV-1. Following semen donation, specimens are either used immediately or frozen for use at a later time. It has been shown that short-term freezing of semen has no effect on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. However, the effect of illicit drugs and prolonged freezing on SE bioactivity is unknown. Here, we show preservation of SE physical properties, (morphology, concentration, intensity/size) irrespective of illicit drug use or duration of semen freezing. Interestingly, illicit drugs and prolonged freezing decreased the levels of SE-bound CD63/CD9 and acetylcholinesterase activity respectively. Furthermore, we show differential effects of illicit drug use and prolonged freezing on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. Our results highlight the importance of the source of SE and condition of semen storage on SE content and function. In-depth evaluation of donor drug-use and duration of semen storage on SE cargo and bioactivity will advance our understanding of SE composition and function. PMID:28338013

  1. Effect of prolonged freezing of semen on exosome recovery and biologic activity.

    PubMed

    Welch, Jennifer L; Madison, Marisa N; Margolick, Joseph B; Galvin, Shannon; Gupta, Phalguni; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Dash, Chandravanu; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2017-03-24

    Exosomes are important vehicles of intercellular communication that shape host responses to physiologic, tumorigenic, and pathogenic conditions. The composition and function of exosomes are dynamic and depends on the state and condition of the cellular source. In prior work, we found that semen exosomes (SE) from healthy donors who do not use illicit drugs potently inhibit HIV-1. Following semen donation, specimens are either used immediately or frozen for use at a later time. It has been shown that short-term freezing of semen has no effect on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. However, the effect of illicit drugs and prolonged freezing on SE bioactivity is unknown. Here, we show preservation of SE physical properties, (morphology, concentration, intensity/size) irrespective of illicit drug use or duration of semen freezing. Interestingly, illicit drugs and prolonged freezing decreased the levels of SE-bound CD63/CD9 and acetylcholinesterase activity respectively. Furthermore, we show differential effects of illicit drug use and prolonged freezing on SE-mediated HIV-1 inhibition. Our results highlight the importance of the source of SE and condition of semen storage on SE content and function. In-depth evaluation of donor drug-use and duration of semen storage on SE cargo and bioactivity will advance our understanding of SE composition and function.

  2. Semen quality of young men from the general population in Baltic countries.

    PubMed

    Erenpreiss, Juris; Punab, Margus; Zilaitiene, Birute; Hlevicka, Solveiga; Zayakin, Pawel; Matulevicius, Valentinas; Tomas Preiksa, Romualdas; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-06-01

    What are the parameters of semen quality in Baltic men? Combined parameters of sperm concentration, motility and morphology revealed that 11-15% of men had low semen quality, 37-50% intermediate and 38-52% high semen quality. Previous studies have revealed regional differences in semen parameters, and semen quality of Baltic men has been suggested to be better than that of other European men. This was a cross-sectional study of 1165 men aged 16-29 years from Estonia (N = 573), Latvia (N = 278) and Lithuania (N = 314) conducted in 2003-2004. Men from the general population, median age 19.8 years, provided one semen sample each, had blood samples taken, had testis size determined, and provided information on lifestyle. Based on combined data of sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology the cohort was classified into three categories: low, intermediate or high semen quality. Comparisons between groups (including subgroups of Estonian men of Russian versus Estonian ethnicity) were tested, adjusting for ejaculation abstinence and age. The median sperm concentration of the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian populations of Baltic men was 63 mill/ml. Low semen quality was detected in 11-15% of the men, intermediate in 37-50% and high in 38-52%. No crucial differences between national subgroups were detected, except that a higher percentage (9.6%) of the subgroup of Russian Estonians reported having had cryptorchidism compared to the other men (2.5-3.6%, P < 0.001). Smoking had an adverse impact on both sperm concentration and total sperm counts (P < 0.001). The semen quality data were collected >10 years ago. Thus, a recent change in semen quality cannot be excluded. Owing to the study design, it is assumed, but unproven, that the men were representative of the general populations. Some men were very young (16 years), however, this was also the case for other European studies of similar populations. Assessment of sperm motility is associated with inter

  3. Natural and artificial spawning strategies with fresh and cryopreserved semen in Rhamdia quelen: Reproductive parameters and genetic variability of offspring.

    PubMed

    Goes, Marcio Douglas; Reis Goes, Elenice Souza Dos; Ribeiro, Ricardo Pereira; Lopera-Barrero, Nelson Maurício; Castro, Pedro Luiz de; Bignotto, Thaís Souto; Bombardelli, Robie Allan

    2017-01-15

    This study evaluated the reproductive parameters and genetic variability of offspring of Rhamdia quelen from mating by natural spawning and by controlled fertilization with fresh and cryopreserved semen. After hormonal manipulation, three R quelen pairs were used for natural spawning in high-flow tanks, three pairs were used for mating with fresh semen, and another three pairs were used with cryopreserved semen. Matings were performed in triplicate. For matings with fresh and cryopreserved semen, semen from each male was used to individually fertilize oocytes from each female. Pools of semen and oocytes were made, and aliquots of these gametes were taken for fertilization. No differences (P > 0.05) were detected for absolute or relative fecundity, fertilization rate, or egg hatching rate. The use of fresh semen led to a higher (P < 0.01) percentage of normal larvae. The use of fresh semen in pooled mating resulted in a greater effective number of alleles and a higher expected heterozygosity. Offspring from natural spawning presented higher observed heterozygosity and a lower inbreeding coefficient. The highest inbreeding coefficient was found in offspring from individual matings using fresh semen. Regarding paternal contributions, a single male dominated in matings with fresh semen, whereas two males dominated in natural spawning and matings using cryopreserved semen. The use of gamete pools for mating and natural spawning resulted in higher genetic variability of offspring, and mating using cryopreserved semen found no effects on genetic variability of offspring but did reduce the percentage of normal larvae. Other reproductive parameters were not influenced by spawning strategies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Diagnosis of Partial Retrograde Ejaculation in Non-Azoospermic Infertile Men with Low Semen Volume

    PubMed Central

    Mieusset, Roger; Walschaerts, Marie; Isus, François; Almont, Thierry; Daudin, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    In non-azoospermic patients with low semen volume (LSV), looking for partial retrograde ejaculation (PRE) by searching sperm in the postejaculatory urine (PEU) is required. The use of a retro-ejaculatory index (R-ratio) was suggested to define PRE, but none of the studies indicated a specific threshold above which PRE must be considered. Our objective was to propose a threshold value for the R-ratio as indicative of PRE in patients with LSV selected to be devoid of any known causes or risk factors for retrograde ejaculation or LSV. Among our data base (2000–2009) including 632 patients with PEU, 245 male patients from infertile couples who had had a first semen analysis with LSV (< 2mL) and a second semen analysis associated with PEU, were selected on the previous criteria. A prospective control group was randomly constituted (2007–2008) of 162 first consulting male patients from infertile couples, with a normal semen volume (≥ 2mL) on a first semen analysis and who accepted to collect PEU with their usual second semen analysis, selected on the previous criteria. To define an R-ratio threshold indicative of PRE, we used a ROC curve analysis and a regression tree based on a classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm. Of the 245 LSV patients, 146 still presented low semen volume (< 2 mL) on the second semen analysis. From the use of the CART algorithm, two low (1.5% and 2.8%) and two high R-values (7.1% and 8.3%) were defined, according to the lower reference limit for semen volume of 2.0 mL (WHO 1999) or 1.5 mL (WHO 2010) respectively. As only one or no patient with normal semen volume was observed above the two high R-values, we suggest an R-value higher than the range of [7.1–8.3]% as indicative of PRE until confirmation by a prospective multicenter study. PMID:28060836

  5. Uncertainty associated with assessing semen volume: are volumetric and gravimetric methods that different?

    PubMed

    Woodward, Bryan; Gossen, Nicole; Meadows, Jessica; Tomlinson, Mathew

    2016-12-01

    The World Health Organization laboratory manual for the examination of human semen suggests that an indirect measurement of semen volume by weighing (gravimetric method) is more accurate than a direct measure using a serological pipette. A series of experiments were performed to determine the level of discrepancy between the two methods using pipettes and a balance which had been calibrated to a traceable standard. The median weights of 1.0ml and 5.0ml of semen were 1.03 g (range 1.02-1.05 g) and 5.11 g (range 4.95-5.16 g), respectively, suggesting a density for semen between 1.03g and 1.04 g/ml. When the containers were re-weighed after the removal of 5.0 ml semen using a serological pipette, the mean residual loss was 0.12 ml (120 μl) or 0.12 g (median 100 μl, range 70-300 μl). Direct comparison of the volumetric and gravimetric methods in a total of 40 samples showed a mean difference of 0.25ml (median 0.32 ± 0.67ml) representing an error of 8.5%. Residual semen left in the container by weight was on average 0.11 g (median 0.10 g, range 0.05-0.19 g). Assuming a density of 1 g/ml then the average error between volumetric and gravimetric methods was approximately 8% (p < 0.001). If, however, the WHO value for density is assumed (1.04 g/ml) then the difference is reduced to 4.2%. At least 2.4-3.5% of this difference is also explained by the residual semen remaining in the container. This study suggests that by assuming the density of semen as 1 g/ml, there is significant uncertainty associated with the average gravimetric measurement of semen volume. Laboratories may therefore prefer to provide in-house quality assurance data in order to be satisfied that 'estimating' semen volume is 'fit for purpose' as opposed to assuming a lower uncertainty associated with the WHO recommended method.

  6. Semen parameters in fertile US men: the Study for Future Families.

    PubMed

    Redmon, J B; Thomas, W; Ma, W; Drobnis, E Z; Sparks, A; Wang, C; Brazil, C; Overstreet, J W; Liu, F; Swan, S H

    2013-11-01

    Establishing reference norms for semen parameters in fertile men is important for accurate assessment, counselling and treatment of men with male factor infertility. Identifying temporal or geographic variability in semen quality also requires accurate measurement of semen parameters in well-characterized, defined populations of men. The Study for Future Families (SFF) recruited men who were partners of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Los Angeles CA, Minneapolis MN, Columbia MO, New York City NY and Iowa City IA. Semen samples were collected on site from 763 men (73% White, 15% Hispanic/Latino, 7% Black and 5% Asian or other ethnic group) using strict quality control and well-defined protocols. Semen volume (by weight), sperm concentration (hemacytometer) and sperm motility were measured at each centre. Sperm morphology (both WHO, 1999 strict and WHO, 1987) was determined at a central laboratory. Mean abstinence was 3.2 days. Mean (median; 5th-95th percentile) values were: semen volume, 3.9 (3.7; 1.5-6.8) mL; sperm concentration, 60 (67; 12-192) × 10(6) /mL; total sperm count 209 (240; 32-763) × 10(6) ; % motile, 51 (52; 28-67) %; and total motile sperm count, 104 (128; 14-395) × 10(6) respectively. Values for sperm morphology were 11 (10; 3-20) % and 57 (59; 38-72) % normal forms for WHO (1999) (strict) and WHO (1987) criteria respectively. Black men had significantly lower semen volume, sperm concentration and total motile sperm counts than White and Hispanic/Latino men. Semen parameters were marginally higher in men who achieved pregnancy more quickly but differences were small and not statistically significant. The SFF provides robust estimates of semen parameters in fertile men living in five different geographic locations in the US. Fertile men display wide variation in all of the semen parameters traditionally used to assess fertility potential. © 2013 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  7. Diagnosis of Partial Retrograde Ejaculation in Non-Azoospermic Infertile Men with Low Semen Volume.

    PubMed

    Mieusset, Roger; Walschaerts, Marie; Isus, François; Almont, Thierry; Daudin, Myriam; Hamdi, Safouane M

    2017-01-01

    In non-azoospermic patients with low semen volume (LSV), looking for partial retrograde ejaculation (PRE) by searching sperm in the postejaculatory urine (PEU) is required. The use of a retro-ejaculatory index (R-ratio) was suggested to define PRE, but none of the studies indicated a specific threshold above which PRE must be considered. Our objective was to propose a threshold value for the R-ratio as indicative of PRE in patients with LSV selected to be devoid of any known causes or risk factors for retrograde ejaculation or LSV. Among our data base (2000-2009) including 632 patients with PEU, 245 male patients from infertile couples who had had a first semen analysis with LSV (< 2mL) and a second semen analysis associated with PEU, were selected on the previous criteria. A prospective control group was randomly constituted (2007-2008) of 162 first consulting male patients from infertile couples, with a normal semen volume (≥ 2mL) on a first semen analysis and who accepted to collect PEU with their usual second semen analysis, selected on the previous criteria. To define an R-ratio threshold indicative of PRE, we used a ROC curve analysis and a regression tree based on a classification and regression tree (CART) algorithm. Of the 245 LSV patients, 146 still presented low semen volume (< 2 mL) on the second semen analysis. From the use of the CART algorithm, two low (1.5% and 2.8%) and two high R-values (7.1% and 8.3%) were defined, according to the lower reference limit for semen volume of 2.0 mL (WHO 1999) or 1.5 mL (WHO 2010) respectively. As only one or no patient with normal semen volume was observed above the two high R-values, we suggest an R-value higher than the range of [7.1-8.3]% as indicative of PRE until confirmation by a prospective multicenter study.

  8. Seasonal effects of semen collection and artificial insemination on dairy cow conception.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Kommisrud, E; Ropstad, E; Sehested, E

    2005-11-01

    The effects of four seasons of semen collection and of artificial insemination on conception in dairy cows were studied. The solstices and equinoxes (December, March, June and September) defined the beginning and/or end of each season. Semen was collected from 973 progeny-test bulls over 8 years at the two Norwegian AI stations at 60.8 degrees N and 63.4 degrees N where artificial light was used to provide a minimum photoperiod of 10 h/day. The effect of using semen of elite bulls during progeny testing and after selection as elite sires also was investigated. Norwegian Red (NRF) cows were inseminated over a 7-year period using progeny test semen and over the last 4 years of the same period using the semen of the elite sires. The probability of conception to only first inseminations for cows up to, and including, the fifth lactation was assessed by 56-day non-return rate (56d NRR) and calving rate. Two data sets were analysed which excluded cows culled within 270 days of AI or included such cows as non-calving. The reasons for culling were categorised as those for fertility problems or all other reasons. Semen was used for AI irrespective of the season in which it had been collected. Season of semen collection did not affect 56d NRR but calving rate was significantly higher (by 0.5-0.8%, approximately; P < 0.01) for semen collected in the December-March period, when photoperiod was increasing, than at other times of the year. The season in which AI was performed showed a peak of 56d NRR in spring for heifers (P < 0.01) and in summer for parous animals (P < 0.01). For calving rate, however, no seasonal peak was found in heifers, whereas pluriparous cows had much higher calving rates in summer and autumn/early winter than late winter and spring (P < 0.01). Semen of elite sires resulted in higher calving rates by 0.5 (NS) to 1.9% (P < 0.01) when used after selection than when used during progeny testing. The difference between the calving rate achieved when the semen

  9. Semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection is donor-dependent and correlates with the levels of SEVI

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV-1 is usually transmitted in the presence of semen. We have shown that semen boosts HIV-1 infection and contains fragments of prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) forming amyloid aggregates termed SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection) that promote virion attachment to target cells. Despite its importance for the global spread of HIV-1, however, the effect of semen on virus infection is controversial. Results Here, we established methods allowing the meaningful analysis of semen by minimizing its cytotoxic effects and partly recapitulating the conditions encountered during sexual HIV-1 transmission. We show that semen rapidly and effectively enhances the infectivity of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV. This enhancement occurs independently of the viral genotype and coreceptor tropism as well as the virus producer and target cell type. Semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection was also observed under acidic pH conditions and in the presence of vaginal fluid. We further show that the potency of semen in boosting HIV-1 infection is donor dependent and correlates with the levels of SEVI. Conclusions Our results show that semen strongly enhances the infectivity of HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses and that SEVI contributes to this effect. Thus, SEVI may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV-1 and addition of SEVI inhibitors to microbicides may improve their efficacy. PMID:20573198

  10. Isolation, culture and characterisation of somatic cells derived from semen and milk of endangered sheep and eland antelope.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Gómez, M C; Damiani, P; Wirtu, G; Dresser, B L; Bondioli, K R; Lyons, L A; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2007-01-01

    Semen and milk are potential sources of somatic cells for genome banks. In the present study, we cultured and characterised cells from: (1) cooled sheep milk; (2) fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed semen from Gulf Coast native (GCN) sheep (Ovis aries); and (3) fresh eland (Taurotragus oryx) semen. Cells attached to the culture surface from fresh (29%), cooled (43%) and slow-frozen (1 degrees C/min; 14%) ram semen, whereas no attachment occurred in the fast-frozen (10 degrees C/min) group. Proliferation occurred in fresh (50%) and cooled (100%) groups, but no cells proliferated after passage 1 (P1). Eland semen yielded cell lines (100%) that were cryopreserved at P1. In samples from GCN and cross-bred milk, cell attachment (83% and 95%, respectively) and proliferation (60% and 37%, respectively) were observed. Immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin indicated an epithelial origin of semen-derived cells, whereas milk yielded either fibroblasts, epithelial or a mixture of cell types. Deoxyribonucleic acid microsatellite analysis using cattle-derived markers confirmed that eland cells were from the semen donor. Eland epithelial cells were transferred into eland oocytes and 12 (71%), six (35%) and two (12%) embryos cleaved and developed to morulae or blastocyst stages, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed a technique for obtaining somatic cells from semen. We have also demonstrated that semen-derived cells can serve as karyoplast donors for nuclear transfer.

  11. Effect of semen preparation on IVF of prepubertal goat oocytes.

    PubMed

    Palomo, M J; Izquierdo, D; Mogas, T; Paramio, M T

    1999-04-01

    The aim of these experiments was to study the effects of different methods of washing and selection of spermatozoa on the IVF of IVM oocytes from prepubertal goats. Fresh ejaculates from 3 males of proven fertility were processed according to the following treatments: 1) centrifugation in TALP, 2) centrifugation in sucrose-based Ficoll medium, 3) centrifugation in Percoll gradients at 40 and 80%, 4) by swim-up and 5) by dilution of spermatozoa (1:40) in (1:1) TALP. In all 5 treatments spermatozoa were incubated for 45 min with 100 microg/mL of heparin and then added to Fert-TALP. Oocytes were matured for 27 h in TCM-199 supplemented with 20% estrous goat serum (EGS), FSH, LH and estradiol-17beta. Spermatozoa (4x10(6) cells/mL) were coincubated with oocytes in 100 microL of Fert-TALP with hypotaurine for 24 h, after which the oocytes were transferred to a granulosa cells monolayer in TCM-199 plus 10% of EGS for 24 h (48 h post insemination). At 17 h post insemination a sample of sperm-exposed oocytes was taken and stained in lacmoid to observe sperm penetration and the formation of pronuclei. At 48 h post insemination the cleavage rate of oocytes was evaluated. Motility, viability and acrosome status of the spermatozoa were evaluated immediately after the mixing of the ejaculates, after washing and selection treatments, and after incubation with heparin and at 17 h post insemination. The different ejaculate treatments did not affect the penetration and cleavage rates of oocytes. At 48 h post insemination the cleavage rate was 46.9, 36.6 and 29.0% for dilution, Ficoll and swim-up preparations, respectively. Only the swim-up protocol improved sperm motility and viability compared with that of the initial semen sample and with the other sample treatments. At 17 h post insemination the semen parameters were the same for all sperm sample treatments.

  12. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Nynca, Joanna; Kuźmiński, Henryk; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Hliwa, Piotr; Dobosz, Stefan; Liszewska, Ewa; Karol, Halina; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    This works studies the biochemical (protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase activity) and physiological characteristics (sperm motility characteristics) of semen of sex-reversed female rainbow trout (n=42) obtained with the application of 11β-hydroksyandrostendione for sex reversal. All data were arbitrarily divided into three classes depending on the percentage of sperm motility: I XX<25%; II XX 25-50% and III XX>50%. The average percentage of sperm motility was 18±7% n=12 (group I XX); 42±6% n=15 (group II XX) and 65±12% n=15 for group III XX, respectively) to link the values of semen parameters to the maturation stage of semen. Semen from 12 normal males of the same age was used as a reference group. Sperm concentration as well as protein concentration, osmolality, antitrypsin activity, and lactate dehydrogenase activity in seminal plasma of sex-reversed females were higher compared with the values obtained for normal male rainbow trout. The values of these parameters declined with the increasing percentage of sperm motility toward values established for normal males. The fertilization success of semen (3×10(6) spermatozoa/egg) of sex-reversed females was very high (above 90%) for both the percentage of eyed embryos and hatched larvae and was related to sperm motility classes. Correlations between the quality parameters of sex-reversed females semen corresponded to those established previously for the semen of normal male rainbow trout. Antitrypsin activity, lactate dehydrogenase, protein concentration, and osmolality were found to be characteristic of seminal plasma of sex-reversed females. The maturity of sex-reversed female spermatozoa seems to be associated with the decline in the values of those parameters toward the values characteristic for seminal plasma of normal males.

  13. Effects of pesticide use on semen quality among farmers in rural areas of Sabah, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Feroz; Ali, Osman; D'Souza, Urban J A; Naing, Daw Khin Saw

    2010-01-01

    To determine the relationship between semen quality and exposure to pesticide residues. A cross-sectional study was conducted among male farmers from 3 different communities in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 152 farmers participated in this study of whom 62 farmers had been exposed to either paraquat or malathion or both to varying extents. Questionnaires were designed to record a history of pesticides exposure and other potential risk factors among farmers. All semen samples were collected, processed and analyzed by qualified personnel based on WHO guidelines. Volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility, morphology and WBC count were examined and recorded. The association between pesticide exposure and semen parameters was highly significant. The mean values of volume, pH, sperm concentration, motility, and WBC count were significantly less in the exposed group than in compared with the non-exposed group, with p<0.005. Those who were exposed to pesticides had greater risk of having abnormal semen parameters than those in with the non exposed group, with p values of less than 0.05. The comparison between semen qualities such as lower sperm count, motility and higher percentage of sperm abnormality of those exposed to different types of pesticides (paraquat and malathion) showed no significant differences. The results showed a significant decline in semen quality with a decline in sperm count, motility and higher percent of teratospermia among subjects with pesticide exposure, and those who were exposed to pesticides had significantly 3 to 9 times greater risk of having abnormal semen parameters.

  14. Naturally and stimulated levels of reactive oxygen species in cooled stallion semen destined for artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Johannisson, A; Lundgren, A; Humblot, P; Morrell, J M

    2014-10-01

    The decrease in foaling rates after artificial insemination with cooled semen warrants the search for new predictors of fertility. The objectives were to investigate levels of naturally occurring reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cooled, stored stallion semen doses for artificial insemination (AI), and their relationship with parameters of semen quality and with pregnancy rate. Semen was collected from warmblood stallions (n=15) and used to prepare commercial semen doses for AI. Sperm quality was evaluated after cooled transport to the laboratory overnight. The results were correlated with observed foaling and pregnancy rates. Hydroethidine and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate were used as indicators for the ROS superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. Sperm morphology, motility, plasma membrane integrity and chromatin integrity were also evaluated. These variables were correlated with each other and with pregnancy rates. We found a high inter-individual variation in the ROS levels between stallions. The proportion of live, hydrogen peroxide-negative spermatozoa was correlated with progressive motility, whereas live hydrogen peroxide-negative spermatozoa and chromatin damage were negatively correlated, indicating that low levels of hydrogen peroxide were correlated with good chromatin integrity. The percentage of dead hydrogen peroxide-positive sperm was negatively related to the foaling rate. The negative relationships were stronger when combining results from both assays for ROS. These results for stored semen samples indicate that high individual variation exists for superoxide and hydrogen peroxide measurements, and that ROS status can influence sperm quality. Thus, ROS may be some of the factors influencing fertility. Moreover, combinations of ROS variables improved the correlation with fertility, indicating the usefulness of including these variables in a future model for prediction of the fertility of a semen sample.

  15. Evaluation of sperm DNA damage in bulls by TUNEL assay as a parameter of semen quality.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kumiko; Uchiyama, Kyoko; Kinukawa, Masashi; Tagami, Takahiro; Kaneda, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA damage affects the conception rate resulting from human assisted reproduction technology. The objective of this study was to adapt the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay to provide a quality parameter for bull semen based on the detection of sperm DNA damage. Fresh semen was collected from two Japanese Black bulls (A, B) several times over the course of a year, and the percentage of TUNEL-positive spermatozoa (sperm TUNEL index) was determined. Individual differences in semen were detected using the sperm TUNEL index in these bulls (P < 0.01). The sperm TUNEL index of cryopreserved semen obtained from test-mated Japanese Black (n = 30, including two bulls with a conception rate lower than 10%) and Holstein (n = 34) bulls were analyzed. The average sperm TUNEL index and conception rate resulting from artificial insemination (AI) were 4.7% and 55.7% for Japanese Black, and 4.9% and 39.5% for Holstein, respectively. A weak negative correlation between sperm TUNEL index and conception rate was observed in Holstein bulls (P < 0.05). Semen samples from six bulls with more than 10% sperm TUNEL index were studied, and these samples showed low sperm viability. However, semen resulting in a very low conception rate did not have a high sperm TUNEL index. Although it would be difficult to predict a low conception rate resulting from AI using the sperm TUNEL index alone, the index can be used as an additional parameter to provide a more comprehensive description of semen quality.

  16. High resolution melt curve analysis based on methylation status for human semen identification.

    PubMed

    Fachet, Caitlyn; Quarino, Lawrence; Karnas, K Joy

    2017-03-01

    A high resolution melt curve assay to differentiate semen from blood, saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid based on methylation status at the Dapper Isoform 1 (DACT1) gene was developed. Stains made from blood, saliva, urine, semen, and vaginal fluid were obtained from volunteers and DNA was isolated using either organic extraction (saliva, urine, and vaginal fluid) or Chelex(®) 100 extraction (blood and semen). Extracts were then subjected to bisulfite modification in order to convert unmethylated cytosines to uracil, consequently creating sequences whose amplicons have melt curves that vary depending on their initial methylation status. When primers designed to amplify the promoter region of the DACT1 gene were used, DNA from semen samples was distinguishable from other fluids by a having a statistically significant lower melting temperature. The assay was found to be sperm-significant since semen from a vasectomized man produced a melting temperature similar to the non-semen body fluids. Blood and semen stains stored up to 5 months and tested at various intervals showed little variation in melt temperature indicating the methylation status was stable during the course of the study. The assay is a more viable method for forensic science practice than most molecular-based methods for body fluid stain identification since it is time efficient and utilizes instrumentation common to forensic biology laboratories. In addition, the assay is advantageous over traditional presumptive chemical methods for body fluid identification since results are confirmatory and the assay offers the possibility of multiplexing which may test for multiple body fluids simultaneously.

  17. Encapsulation of sex sorted boar semen: sperm membrane status and oocyte penetration parameters.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, Marcella; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Bucci, Diego; Vallorani, Claudia; Perteghella, Sara; Lucconi, Giulia; Communod, Ricardo; Vigo, Daniele; Galeati, Giovanna; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2013-03-01

    Although sorted semen is experimentally used for artificial, intrauterine, and intratubal insemination and in vitro fertilization, its commercial application in swine species is still far from a reality. This is because of the low sort rate and the large number of sperm required for routine artificial insemination in the pig, compared with other production animals, and the greater susceptibility of porcine spermatozoa to stress induced by the different sex sorting steps and the postsorting handling protocols. The encapsulation technology could overcome this limitation in vivo, protecting and allowing the slow release of low-dose sorted semen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the encapsulation process on viability, acrosome integrity, and on the in vitro fertilizing potential of sorted boar semen. Our results indicate that the encapsulation technique does not damage boar sorted semen; in fact, during a 72-hour storage, no differences were observed between liquid-stored sorted semen and encapsulated sorted semen in terms of plasma membrane (39.98 ± 14.38% vs. 44.32 ± 11.72%, respectively) and acrosome integrity (74.32 ± 12.17% vs. 66.07 ± 10.83%, respectively). Encapsulated sorted spermatozoa presented a lower penetration potential than nonencapsulated ones (47.02% vs. 24.57%, respectively, P < 0.0001), and a significant reduction of polyspermic fertilization (60.76% vs. 36.43%, respectively, polyspermic ova/total ova; P < 0.0001). However, no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in terms of total efficiency of fertilization expressed as normospermic oocytes/total oocytes (18.45% vs. 15.43% for sorted diluted and sorted encapsulated semen, respectively). The encapsulation could be an alternative method of storing of pig sex sorted spermatozoa and is potentially a promising technique in order to optimize the use of low dose of sexed spermatozoa in vivo.

  18. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2011-01-01

    Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35°C, 22°C, or 4°C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35°C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22°C and 4°C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22°Cor4°C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22°C or 4°C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants.

  19. Quality and reactive oxygen species of extended canine semen after vitamin C supplementation.

    PubMed

    Michael, A J; Alexopoulos, C; Pontiki, E A; Hadjipavlou-Litina, D J; Saratsis, Ph; Ververidis, H N; Boscos, C M

    2008-09-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of extended dog semen processed with diluents containing various concentrations of vitamin C. Ejaculates from five dogs were collected, pooled and evaluated for concentration, sperm motility, rapid steady forward movement (RSF-movement), viability, acrosomal integrity and by the hypo-osmotic swelling test. Also, superoxide (O(2)(-)*) production, hydroxyl radicals (OH*) and total reactive oxygen species (tROS) were determined. The pool was divided in five aliquots, which were diluted to a final concentration of 66 x 10(6) spermatozoa/ml with a Tris-glucose-egg yolk extender containing one of the following concentrations of vitamin C (0, 0.1, 0.5, 1 or 2.5 mM). The semen aliquots were chilled and preserved at 4 degrees C. Portions of chilled semen were removed at 24 and 72 h, and semen quality was evaluated after rewarming. This process was repeated 10 times in pooled semen of the same origin and data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance. At both times, none of the semen quality parameters were positively influenced (p>0.05) by vitamin C supplementation. At 24 h, none of the reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-)*, OH*, tROS) were significantly altered. At 72 h, significant reductions of O(2)(-)* production were observed by the concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 2.5 mM compared with the 0 mM concentration (p=0.049). Also, at 72 h, the 2.5 mM concentration showed significantly lower OH* values in comparison with the control group (p=0.048). In conclusion, addition of vitamin C to semen extenders does not benefit the quality of canine extended spermatozoa.

  20. Temperature management during semen processing: Impact on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Henning, H; Rüdiger, K; Wallner, U; Waberski, D

    2013-12-01

    Freshly collected boar spermatozoa are sensitive to a fast reduction in temperature because of lipid phase transition and phase separation processes. Temperature management during semen processing may determine the quality of stored samples. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of isothermic and hypothermic semen processing protocols on boar sperm quality under laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory study, ejaculates (n = 12) were first diluted (1:1) with Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) at 32 °C, then processed either with isothermic (32 °C) or hypothermic (21 °C) BTS, stored at 17 °C, and assessed on days 1, 3, and 6. Temperature curves showed that 150 minutes after the first dilution, semen doses of both groups reached the same temperature. Two-step hypothermic processing resulted in lower sperm motility on days 1 and 6 (P < 0.05). Concomitantly, hypothermally processed samples contained less membrane intact sperm on days 3 and 6 (P < 0.05). Using AndroStar Plus extender instead of BTS reduced the negative effect of hypothermic processing. In the field study, 15 semen samples from each of 23 European artificial insemination studs were evaluated as part of an external quality control program. Semen quality based on motility, membrane integrity, mitochondrial activity, and a thermoresistance test was higher for stations using one-step isothermic dilutions (n = 7) compared with artificial insemination centers using two-step hypothermic protocols (n = 16). Both studies show that chilling injury associated with hypothermic dilution results in lower quality of stored boar semen compared with isothermic dilution and that the type of semen extender affects the outcomes.

  1. Freezability and semen parameters in candidates of sperm bank donors: 1992-2010.

    PubMed

    Yogev, Leah; Paz, Gedalia; Kleiman, Sandra E; Shabtai, Esther; Gamzu, Ronni; Botchan, Amnon; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Hauser, Ron

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable concern worldwide about possible semen quality deterioration over the last 2 decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate freezability and semen quality of healthy young males during the years 1992-2010. A total of 1211 young (20-32 years old) candidates for sperm bank donation were recruited into the study with no exclusion criteria. They were instructed to observe 2 to 3 days of abstinence from sexual activity, and most of them supplied 2 specimens each. Average values of the various semen parameters, including freezing survival, were calculated for each participant. The change in different semen parameters over years, according to yearly and monthly average temperatures, was evaluated by SAS PROC SURVEYREG analysis. During that period, there were significant increases in motility and vitality percentages, as well as in the percentage of thawed sperm motility. The parameters of volume, concentration, normal morphology, total count, and total motile count showed a significant decrease with years (P < .01). The significant increase in average yearly temperature (P < .004) had limited, nonsignificant association with any of the semen variables. However, average monthly temperature contributed significantly to the trend of semen quality parameters (ie, specimen volume, concentration, percentage of normal morphology, and thawed motility). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the occurrence of an improvement in percent thawed motility over the years, and its significance lies in enabling a higher proportion of sperm bank candidates to be suitable for donation. It is suggested that the global warming phenomenon might have only partial contribution to semen variable changes over the years.

  2. The effect of mark enhancement techniques on the subsequent detection of semen/spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rory; Deacon, Paul; Phillips, Darren J; Farrugia, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Fingermarks, footwear marks, blood and semen are amongst the most commonly encountered types of evidence at crime scenes. Previous work has extensively investigated fingermark and blood enhancement techniques and a sequence developed to maximise evidence recovery; however, there is limited research as to the effect of these techniques on the subsequent detection of body fluids such as semen. In this study, seven fingermark and blood enhancement techniques (e.g. powder suspension, cyanoacrylate fuming and acid violet 17) were employed followed by the subsequent detection of semen/spermatozoa. Other variables included in the study were the use of two substrates (white ceramic tiles and grey laminate flooring), a depletion series and ageing periods of 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. The effect these techniques had on the subsequent detection of semen was assessed by visual and fluorescence examination followed by presumptive and confirmatory testing for semen and spermatozoa. The results found that protein stains (acid violet 17 and acid yellow 7) caused a loss in presumptive test reactivity; however, sperm heads were still observed using microscopic examination after extraction and staining. The use of black magnetic powder, Bluestar(®) Forensic Magnum luminol, Lumicyano™ 4% and cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 staining did not hinder subsequent presumptive and confirmatory tests for semen and sperm heads. Powder suspension caused a loss in both presumptive test reactivity and sperm heads from the substrate. In general, the enhancement techniques resulted in the improved visualisation of the semen stains under white and violet/blue light. The results from this study aim to provide a strategy to maximise evidence recovery and improve efficiency in an integrated forensic approach.

  3. Total Antioxidant Capacity and Lipid Peroxidation in Semen of Patient with Hyperviscosity

    PubMed Central

    Layali, Issa; Tahmasbpour, Eisa; Joulaei, Manijeh; Jorsaraei, Seyed Gholam Ali; Farzanegi, Parvin

    2015-01-01

    Semen hyperviscosity (SHV) is one of the factors involved in deficiency in sperm function. This research aimed to evaluate seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in infertile patients with hyperviscous and non-hyperviscous semen samples to understand whether hyperviscous semen is associated with oxidative damage in infertile subjects. In this cross sectional study, 59 semen samples were provided by fertile (n=12) individuals as control, infertile patients with normal viscosity (n=25) and infertile patients with hyperviscosity (n=22). After semen parameters examination, semen viscosity was studied by glass pipettes. Seminal plasma TAC and MDA levels were measured by ferric reducing of antioxidant power (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reaction (TBAR) methods, respectively. A probability less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant throughout the article. The mean of sperm parameters including: counts, motility and normal morphology in patients with hyperviscosity were significantly lower than those in non-hyperviscosity patients (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). The mean of seminal plasma TAC value in seminal plasma of non-hyperviscosity patients (1710.31 ± 458.67 µmol/l) was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of hyperviscosity group (1230.25 ± 352 µmol/l). A trend toward a higher mean of seminal plasma MDA value was estimated for hyperviscous group compared with non-hyperviscous (1.01 ± 0.41 nmol/ml vs. 0.94 ± 0.28 nmol/l); however, it was nonsignificant. Hyperviscous semen impairs seminal plasma TAC which is eventually associated with sperm membrane lipid peroxidation. PMID:25685746

  4. Characterizing semen parameters and their association with reactive oxygen species in infertile men

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A routine semen analysis is a first step in the laboratory evaluation of the infertile male. In addition, other tests such as measurement of reactive oxygen species can provide additional information regarding the etiology of male infertility. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of semen parameters with reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two groups: healthy donors of unproven and proven fertility and infertile men. In addition, we sought to establish an ROS cutoff value in seminal plasma at which a patient may be predicted to be infertile. Methods Seminal ejaculates from 318 infertile patients and 56 donors, including those with proven fertility were examined for semen parameters and ROS levels. Correlations were determined between traditional semen parameters and levels of ROS among the study participants. ROS levels were measured using chemiluminescence assay. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained to calculate a cutoff value for these tests. Results Proven Donors (n = 28) and Proven Donors within the past 2 years (n = 16) showed significantly better semen parameters than All Patients group (n = 318). Significantly lower ROS levels were seen in the two Proven Donor groups compared with All Patients. The cutoff value of ROS in Proven Donors was determined to be 91.9 RLU/s with a specificity of 68.8% and a sensitivity of 93.8%. Conclusions Infertile men, irrespective of their clinical diagnoses, have reduced semen parameters and elevated ROS levels compared to proven fertile men who have established a pregnancy recently or in the past. Reactive oxygen species are negatively correlated with traditional semen parameters such as concentration, motility and morphology. Measuring ROS levels in the seminal ejaculates provides clinically-relevant information to clinicians. PMID:24885775

  5. High Quality RNA in Semen and Sperm: Isolation, Analysis and Potential Application in Clinical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Andrew P.; Kishore, Archana; Zorrilla, Michelle; Jaffe, Thomas M.; Sanfilippo, Joseph S.; Volk, Etta; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; Yatsenko, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Male infertility is a complex health condition. To our knowledge there are no molecular biomarkers of male infertility. Sperm RNA is a potential biomarker for detecting sperm abnormalities and viability at infertility clinics. However, RNA use is hindered by its inconsistent quantity, quality, multiple cell types in semen and condensed sperm structure. Materials and Methods We tested the usefulness of high quality RNA isolated from mature sperm and whole semen by our protocol, which reduces RNA degradation by maintaining semen and protocol components at 37C and decreasing processing time. We isolated RNA from 83 whole semen samples, 18 samples of motile sperm prepared by the swim-up protocol and 18 of sperm prepared by the standard Percoll gradient method. Results Electrophoretic and spectral analysis of RNA revealed high quality 18S and 28S rRNAs in 71 of 83 whole semen samples (86%) and 15 of 18 mature sperm swim-up samples (83%). However, high quality RNA was isolated from only 7 of 18 Percoll gradient sperm samples (39%). Interestingly quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 4 somatic and 10 germ cell markers showed that whole semen and swim-up samples had similar RNA profiles. RNA sequencing revealed that most encoded proteins were involved in mature sperm function, regulation of DNA replication, transcription, translation, cell cycle and embryo development. Conclusions We believe that semen and sperm specific RNAs are highly informative biomarkers for germ cell stages and somatic cell contribution. Therefore, these RNAs could be valuable diagnostic indicators of sperm survival, fertilization and early embryogenesis, and could serve as a predictor of the in vitro fertilization prognosis. PMID:25088949

  6. Use of computer-assisted semen analysis for evaluation of Rosy-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) semen collected in different periods of the year.

    PubMed

    Dogliero, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The seminal characteristics of the Rosy-faced lovebird (Agapornis roseicollis) were analyzed, both in and out of season, using a computer-aided sperm analyzer. Avian semen collection and artificial insemination techniques have great potential for captive breeding programs, and computer-aided sperm analyzer allows an objective and quantitative assessment of sperm motility and kinetics. Although Agapornis roseicollis is a largely diffuse species, its seminal parameters have never been fully investigated. Using the massage technique, 38 ejaculates were collected in the breeding season, and 6 ejaculates were collected outside of the breeding season. Semen color, volume, degree of contamination, spermatozoa concentration, total and progressive motility, and kinetics parameters were recorded. Seasonal significant differences were found in the ejaculate volume (1.6 ± 0.6 and 1.1 ± 0.2 mL in and out season, respectively, P < 0.01) and spermatozoa concentration (7194.0 ± 6735.1 x 10(6) and 327.5 ± 314.0 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL, P < 0.01); among the motility parameters, only beat cross frequency, indicating the frequency of flagellar beats, was significantly higher out of the reproductive season (29.8 ± 2.6 vs. 24.5 ± 3.8 Hz, P < 0.01). There was very large individual variation in semen characteristics that could qualify a male as a potentially good or bad semen donor for future assisted reproduction in captivity.

  7. Effect of seminal plasma removal before cryopreservation of bovine semen obtained by electroejaculation on semen quality and in vitro fertility.

    PubMed

    Campanholi, Suzane Peres; Monteiro, Fabio Morato; Ribeiro Dias, Erika Aline; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Dell'Aqua Junior, José Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Dell'Aqua, Camila de Paula Freitas; Vantini, Roberta; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2017-02-01

    Cryopreservation of bull semen is a common biotechnology procedure in cattle breeding. However, when the ejaculate is obtained by electroejaculation, wide variation is observed in the sperm/seminal plasma (SP) ratio that can affect the freezability of semen in this species. The removal of SP may improve the quality of frozen bull semen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SP removal from the ejaculate on the cryopreservation of semen from 38 Nellore bulls collected by electroejaculation. After collection, the ejaculate was divided into three aliquots: (1) control (N) diluted to a concentration of 60 × 10(6) spermatozoa/mL and frozen with SP; (2) centrifugation (C) at ×600g for 10 minutes and the pellet resuspended and frozen at the same concentration as N; and (3) filtration (F) through SpermFilter and sperm recovered and frozen at the same concentration as N. After thawing, sperm kinetics, plasma and acrosome membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and in vitro fertility were evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS 9.2 package, and differences were considered significant when P < 0.05. Higher average path velocity and straight-line velocity were observed in the groups submitted to SP removal compared to the control group (P < 0.01). In contrast, filtered samples exhibited higher beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity compared to the other groups. Plasma membrane integrity was reduced when SP was removed, but lower oxidative stress was observed in groups C and F (34.91 ± 2.95% and 31.63 ± 2.95%, respectively) compared to group N (57.39 ± 2.95%). However, the percentage of hatched blastocysts was similar in the N and F groups (21.22 ± 1.05% and 24.00 ± 1.05%, respectively) and higher compared to group C (18.83 ± 1.05%). In conclusion, removal of SP by centrifugation for bull semen freezing reduced the rate of in vitro-produced embryos, whereas filtration of

  8. Effect of widespread and limited use of sexed semen on genetic progress and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Khalajzadeh, S; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Mehrbani Yeganeh, H

    2012-09-01

    Stochastic simulation was used for studying the impacts of sexed semen on genetic progress and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Three strategies were compared: WSS (use unsexed semen in cows and heifers), SSH (use sexed semen in heifers and unsexed semen in cows) and SSCH (use sexed semen in both cows and heifers). Conception rate (CR) of unsexed semen was considered to be 35% and 65% in cows and heifers, respectively. CR of sexed semen was considered to be 15 (20% in cows and 50% in heifers), 10, 5 and 0 percentage points lower than unsexed semen. Thus, four subschemes were compared under SSCH (SSCH15, SSCH10, SSCH5, SSCH0) and SSH (SSH15, SSH10, SSH5, SSH0). Moreover, the effect was studied in four distinct paths of selection: active sires (AS), young bulls (YB), bull dams (BD) and milking cows (CW). The average genetic superiority of CW was 12% and 9.5% in SSCH15 and SSH15 strategies relative to a base scheme, respectively. The average genetic superiority of CW was 19% and 10.5% in SSCH0 and SSH0, respectively. Regression analysis showed that genetic superiority of CW increased significantly, that is, 0.5% and 0.1% per every 1% increase in CR in SSCH and SSH, respectively. The result showed that there is a significant difference between genetic superiority of cows in SSCH and SSH schemes. Widespread and limited use of sexed semen in commercial dairy herds resulted in a large genetic advantage in CW. The genetic advantage of gender control was minimal in the selection paths of AS, YB and BD. Open days and services per conception reached to 153 v. 125 days and 5 v. 2.86 under SSCH15 compared with WSS. The age at first calving increased from 774 to 790 days in SSH15 and SSCH15 strategies. Mean of parities decreased to 2.26 v. 2.42 by using sexed semen. The widespread use of sexed semen increased the age average of cows in all parities. Sexed semen increased selection intensity in the CW path, and this contributed to the genetic merit of future cows. On the

  9. Effective freezing rate for semen cryopreservation in endangered Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) inhabiting the Biferno river (South Italy).

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Di Iorio, Michele; Manchisi, Angelo; Esposito, Stefano; Gibertoni, Pier Paolo

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to determine: (i) the in vitro effects of different freezing rates on post-thaw semen quality of Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) from the Biferno river; and (ii) the in vivo fertilization and hatching percentage of freezing rate giving rise to the best post-thaw semen quality. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:3 (v:v) in a freezing extender composed of 300 mM glucose, 10% egg yolk and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The extended semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen surface (1, 5 or 10 cm) for 10 min to give three different freezing rates. Semen samples were thawed at 30°C for 10 s. The variables assessed after thawing were sperm motility, duration of motility and viability. Our results clearly indicate a significant effect of freezing rate on post-thaw semen quality. Semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface showed the best quality after freezing/thawing. Based on these in vitro data, 2 groups of 200 eggs were fertilized with fresh semen or semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface. Fertilization and hatching rates recorded for eggs fertilized with frozen semen were significantly lower (25.4% and 22.5%, respectively) than the ones obtained using fresh semen (87.8% and 75.5%, respectively). An effective freezing protocol will allow for the creation of a sperm cryobank to recover the original population of Mediterranean brown trout in the Biferno river.

  10. Electroejaculation and semen buffer evaluation in the microbat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Fasel, Nicolas Jean; Helfenstein, Fabrice; Buff, Samuel; Richner, Heinz

    2015-03-15

    Scientific interests and conservation needs currently stress the necessity to better understanding bat reproductive biology. In this study, we present the first, safe, inexpensive, and reliable method to obtain sperm from a microbat species (Carollia perspicillata) by electroejaculation. This method revealed to be highly efficient (100% success rate). We obtained ejaculates composed of two characteristically different fractions. We compared three buffers and recommend using an Earle's balanced salt solution as a semen extender. Earle's balanced salt solution provided significant repeatable measure of swimming ability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.74, P < 0.01) and proportion of motile sperms (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.08, P = 0.01) and allowed sperm to maintain optimal swimming capacity over time. None of the buffers could dissolve all the coagulated sperm. Although the trypsin buffer freed a larger fraction of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, it impaired swimming ability without improving motility, viability, and stamina. We thus argue that the sperm population analyzed with Earle's balanced salt solution is a representative of the ejaculate. Finally, we found that the mean sperm velocity of C perspicillata (78.8 μm/s) is lower than that predicted by regressing sperm velocity on relative testes mass, a proxy of sperm competition. The question as to whether C perspicillata is an outsider for sperm velocity, or whether bats evolved yet another unique mechanism to cope with sperm competition deserves more investigations.

  11. Semen quality in captive Houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata undulata.

    PubMed

    Wishart, G J; Lindsay, C; Staines, H J; McCormick, P

    2002-01-01

    Semen quality in captive-bred Houbara bustards, Chlamydotis undulata undulata, was assessed during three consecutive breeding seasons. In any one season, sperm quality, in terms of the proportion of eosin-permeable spermatozoa and of spermatozoa with abnormally large nuclei, varied among individual males, but not among their ejaculates. Neither the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei, nor those permeable to eosin were related to the total sperm output of males. The fertilizing ability of males was related to their mean seasonal proportion of eosin-permeable spermatozoa, but not the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei. The ranking of males on the basis of the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei in their ejaculates was significantly positively correlated between seasons, although ranking on the basis of sperm eosin-permeability was not. The cause or consequence of producing spermatozoa with large nuclei (and excess DNA) remains to be elucidated, but appears to be a trait that is characteristic of houbara bustard males that is maintained between breeding seasons.

  12. Chronic epididymitis: impact on semen parameters and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Haidl, G; Allam, J P; Schuppe, H-C

    2008-04-01

    Chronic inflammatory conditions of the genital tract are frequently encountered in male fertility problems. The diagnosis, however, is hampered by a mostly asymptomatic course of the disease as well as inappropriate definitions and unspecific diagnostic criteria. With regard to their impact on male reproductive function, epididymitis seems to be more relevant than inflammation/infection of the prostate and/or seminal vesicles. Chronic epididymitis may result in reduced sperm count and motility. Impaired sperm motility because of epididymal dysfunction is frequently associated with an atypical staining behaviour of sperm tails. In many cases of chronic epididymitis, the number of leukocytes in the ejaculate is below the threshold of 10(6) per ml; therefore, consideration of additional markers of inflammation such as granulocyte elastase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. interleukin-6 or 8) or reactive oxygen species is helpful for establishing the diagnosis. Besides changes in the conventional sperm parameters, alterations in DNA integrity have been observed. Positive effects of antiphlogistic/antibiotic treatment on semen quality have been reported; however, controlled prospective studies are still lacking.

  13. Free and conjugated estrogens and androgens in stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Moslemi, Safa; Sourdaine, Pascal; Desjardins, Isabelle; Plainfosse, Bruno; Seralini, Gilles-Eric

    2002-02-01

    The steroid content of semen from a total of 11 mature fertile stallions was studied during two breeding seasons and one winter. The levels of free and conjugated substrates (testosterone and androstenedione), and products (estradiol and estrone), of aromatase were measured by radioimmunoassay with a validated method. The results were seasonally and monthly highly variable with characteristic peaks. The concentrations of free and conjugated estrogens were always higher in the gel-free ejaculate than in the gel except in one subfertile stallion used as comparison. Furthermore, the steroid production and the maximal resulting aromatase activity, estimated by the estrogens/androgens ratio, peaked in April-May and June. The breeding season (spring and summer) presents a clear estrogenic profile with estrogens/androgens ratios higher in contrast to the nonbreeding period (autumn and winter). The involvement of estrogens in the regulation of reproduction and equine spermatogenesis is discussed, and estrogens production and thus equine aromatase is proposed as a strong marker of testicular endocrine function.

  14. Altered expression of KLC3 may affect semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kargar- Dastjerdy, Pegah; Tavalaee, Marziyeh; Salehi, Mansoor; Falahati, Mojtaba; Izadi, Tayebeh; Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: KLC3 protein as a member of the kinesin light-chain protein family plays an important role in spermatogenesis, during formation of mitochondrial sheath in the mid piece of the sperm tail. Objective: This study for the first time aims to compare the expression of the KLC3 gene between fertile and infertile individuals. Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from 19 fertile individuals who were selected from embryo-donor volunteers and 57 infertile individuals who had abnormal sperm parameters according to world health organization criteria. Sperm parameters using computer assisted sperm analysis and the quantitative KLC3-gene expression using the real-time PCR method were measured. Results: Our results revealed a significant correlations between sperm concentration with relative expression of KLC3 only in infertile groups (r=0.45, p=0.00). A significant correlation was not found between KLC3 expression and sperm motility; however, the relative expression of KLC3 was significantly higher in asthenozoospermic compared to non-asthenozoospermic individuals. Conclusion: Low expression of KLC3 may result in improper function of midpiece, which has important function in sperm motility. The results of this study show that aberrant expression of KLC3 might be associated with phenomena like oligozoospermia and asthenozoospermia. This article is extracted from student’s thesis. PMID:27141544

  15. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level.

  16. Sperm motility patterns in Andalusian donkey (Equus asinus) semen: effects of body weight, age, and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Dorado, J; Acha, D; Gálvez, M J; Ortiz, I; Carrasco, J J; Díaz, B; Gómez-Arrones, V; Calero-Carretero, R; Hidalgo, M

    2013-04-15

    The aims of this study were to (1) identify sperm subpopulations with specific motion characteristics in fresh Andalusian donkey ejaculates; (2) evaluate the effects of individual donkey and ejaculates within the same donkey on the distribution of the subpopulations found; and (3) explore the relationship between the age and the body weight of donkey donors, the sperm quality parameters, and the sperm subpopulations structure. Sixty ejaculates from 12 Andalusian donkeys (five ejaculates per donkey), ranging in age from 4 to 15 years, were collected. Immediately after collection, sperm characteristics (volume, sperm concentration, objective sperm motility, and sperm morphology) were assessed. Donkeys were evaluated for body weight. Significant (P < 0.05) correlations were established between the body weight of the donkeys and the pH (r = -0.52), sperm motility (percentage of motile spermatozoa: r = -0.31; percentage of progressive motile spermatozoa: r = -0.34), and total sperm abnormalities (r = 0.38). The correlations of the age with the measures of semen quality were low and not significant (P > 0.05). A multivariate clustering procedure separated 65,342 motile spermatozoa into four subpopulations: subpopulation 1, consisting of slow and nonprogressive spermatozoa (15.4%), subpopulation 2, consisting of moderately slow but progressive spermatozoa (35.9%), subpopulation 3, consisting of highly active but nonprogressive spermatozoa (18.5%), and subpopulation 4, consisting of highly active and progressive spermatozoa (30.2%). The distribution of these subpopulations varied significantly (P < 0.05) according to several parameters such as the individual donkey, the ejaculate of the same donkey, the total motility, and the overall sperm concentration. Our results show the existence of four well-defined motile sperm subpopulations in Andalusian donkey ejaculates, and suggest a high heterogeneity in the ejaculate structure in donkey. The relationship between the

  17. Effect of seminal plasma vesicular structures in canine frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2015-12-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) in the ejaculate have been identified in various species and are considered to affect membrane fluidity due to their characteristic molecular composition. Addition of MV to human frozen semen has been shown to improve post-thaw motility. Similarly, a beneficial effect has been suggested for frozen equine semen. As post-thaw canine semen quality varies widely between dogs, the aim of our study was to test for the effect of addition of canine MV on post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen samples from 10 male dogs were purified from MV and prepared for freezing. In experiment 1, three groups were compared: sperm frozen (1) with MV (S1); (2) without MV, but MV added immediately after thawing (S2); and (3) without MV (C). Semen analysis included computer-assisted sperm analysis of motility parameters immediately after thawing (t0), after 10 (t10) and 30 minutes (t30), % living sperm, % membrane intact, % morphologically normal sperm (all t0 and t30). Computer-assisted sperm analysis motility distance and velocity parameters (all P < 0.05) and % living sperm (P < 0.001) were significantly affected by treatment with a temporary increase of distance and velocity parameters at t0 to t10, but a significant decrease of the aforementioned parameters at t30 in samples with MV. In experiment 2, different MV protein concentrations added after thawing were compared: 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg/mL. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis was performed at t0, t10, and t30. No differences between MV concentrations were identified, only a significant interaction between effect of treatment and time for progressive motility (P < 0.01). Our study identified a short-term beneficial effect of canine MV on post-thaw distance and velocity parameters, whereas at t30 progressive motility, motility parameters and % living sperm were reduced in samples with MV compared to C. The results point to species-specific differences regarding the MV effect on frozen

  18. Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on ganders' response to semen collection and ejaculate characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jerysz, Anna; Lukaszewicz, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    Compared to other domestic bird species, geese exhibit the lowest reproductive efficiency (poor semen quality, low egg production, and poor fertility and hatchability rates). From an economic perspective, it is a necessity of improve these reproductive traits. Studies have demonstrated that the essential trace element-selenium-plays key roles in testicular development and the maintenance of spermatogenesis. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of feed supplementation with organic selenium and vitamin E on ganders' response to manual semen collection and semen quality. Sixteen 3-year-old White Koluda ganders were randomly divided into two groups. The control group was provided commercial feed while the experimental group was provided with the same commercial feed supplemented with selenium (0.3 mg/kg) and vitamin E (100 mg/kg). The response of individual ganders from both groups to manual semen collection and the quality of the semen collected were evaluated. The supplements increased (P ≤ 0.05) the frequency and decreased the time interval of a complete ejaculatory response of the ganders to manual semen collections (82.7 % supplement vs. 73.5 % control). Males from the supplemented group had significantly higher (P ≤ 0.01; P ≤ 0.05) ejaculate volumes, sperm concentrations, and percentages of viable sperm and lower percentages of immature sperm (spermatids). Lipids peroxidation, expressed in terms of the malondialdehyde concentration, was lower (P ≤ 0.01) in semen of the supplemented group (0.172 nmol/50 × 10(6)) as compared to the controls (0.320 nmol/50 × 10(6)). Moreover, the duration of the reproductive period of the ganders in the experimental group was 1 week longer. The results show that supplemental dietary selenium and vitamin E improved both the ganders' response to manual semen collection and semen quality. We conclude that such feed supplementation could lead to greater economic benefits

  19. Artificial insemination field data on the use of sexed and conventional semen in nulliparous Holstein heifers.

    PubMed

    Healy, A A; House, J K; Thomson, P C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated conception rates and other reproductive outcomes achieved with artificial insemination (AI) of nulliparous Holstein heifers using sexed and conventional semen in a commercial Australian dairy herd in central western New South Wales from January 2004 to April 2009. Retrospective data from on-farm records of 9,870 inseminations of 4,456 heifers were analyzed using several mixed models to assess the effect of temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, insemination sire, artificial insemination technician, service number, and heifer weight and age at breeding on reproductive traits (conception rates, sex ratios, gestation length, and abortion and stillbirth rates). Semen was used from 15 sexed sires and 41 unsexed sires. Sexed semen was primarily used at first and second service. Empirical conception rates of 31.6 and 39.6% were achieved for sexed and unsexed semen respectively, whereas model-based predictions were lower, at 21.3 and 32.1%. Conception rates were significantly affected by insemination sire, sex-sorting, heifer age at breeding, temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, service number, and AI technician. Sexed semen yielded 86% heifers, compared with 48% for conventional semen. Significant predictors of calf sex included semen sexing, gestation length, and insemination sire. Twinning rate was high, at 3.6% for both semen types, and gestation length and heifer weight at breeding were significant predictors of twinning. Abortion rates for sexed and unsexed conceptions were similar at 6.1 and 6.5%, respectively, and were affected by heifer age at breeding. Stillbirth rate was affected by calf sex, twinning, gestation length, and AI technician; semen sorting, age at breeding, and temperature and humidity were marginally significant predictors. No abnormalities were observed in the development of offspring, except for a marginally higher stillbirth rate for sexed calves, a finding that needs further investigation. Many

  20. Successful preservation of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) semen in liquid and frozen states.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Rzońca, Zenon

    2012-03-15

    Experiments on semen collection and preservation were undertaken by Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences and Forestry Wisła, Poland to assist in the protection of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) and to create an ex situ in vitro cryobank. Semen was collected from 11 captive-bred males, using dorsoabdominal massage. Ejaculates once obtained were diluted 3-fold at room temperature with EK diluent and then a number of them were stored at 4 °C for 18, 24, and 48 hours, while the remaining ejaculates were equilibrated with 6% dimethylacetamide and frozen by pipetting, drop-by-drop directly onto a liquid nitrogen surface. Frozen pellets were thawed at 60 °C in a water bath after 4 to 28 mo of storage. In total, 103 individually collected ejaculates (54 stored as liquid and 49 frozen in liquid nitrogen) were of appropriate value for further processing. The volume of ejaculates varied from 30 to 240 μL; spermatozoa concentration from 70 × 10(6) mL(-1) to 1950 × 10(6) mL(-1). The total amount of live spermatozoa in the fresh semen varied from 85.3% to 99.0%, of which from 41.1% to 85.3% were morphologically normal. Among morphologically abnormal forms, bulb-head (5.6% to 36.0%) and midpiece deformations (1.3% to 16.6%) were the most frequent. Dilution and semen storage up to 24 h at 4 °C did not affect the semen quality, as far as motility and sperm morphology are concerned. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in total live (94.9 vs. 91.7%) and live normal cells (66.4 vs. 56.7%) was observed after 48 h. About 30% to 40% of spermatozoa remained motile. Cryopreservation significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the total number of live and live normal spermatozoa however, in relation to the fresh semen, their average content was 44.1% and 37.4%, respectively. Significant (P < 0.05) individual differences were observed in the quality of the fresh, liquid stored and the frozen-thawed semen assessed in terms of spermatozoa motility and morphology. After a

  1. Simple and Effective Methods of Freezing Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) Semen

    PubMed Central

    Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    A continuous decline in the number and range of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) in many European countries can be observed, mostly due to habitat destruction by human activity, unecological forestry management, and increased density of natural predators. Ex situ in vitro gene banks provide a unique opportunity to preserve the genetic material for future generations. Simple and effective cryopreservation methods for capercaillie semen are discussed. Semen was collected from seven males kept in the Capercaillie Breeding Centre at Forestry Wisła in Poland. Within five minutes after collection, ejaculates were diluted with EK diluent, then divided into two parts, and subjected to two freezing procedures: in pellets and in straws. In fresh semen, ejaculate clearness, viscosity, color and volume, as well as sperm concentration, motility and morphology, were evaluated, while in frozen-thawed semen only motility and morphology of sperm were determined. Fertilizing ability of thawed semen was examined for samples frozen in straws. Significant (P<0.05) differences between individual males were found in relation to the majority of fresh semen traits: ejaculate volume averaged 102.1 µL (varying from 49.0 to 205.0); average sperm concentration was 632.5 x106 mL-1 (178.8–1257.1); percentage of live normal cells varied from 39.2 to 70.3% (58.7% on an average); percentage of motile cells ranged from 76.0 to 85.7%) and motility parameters were male dependent, as well. Both cryopreservation methods had a negative effect on morphology and motility of frozen-thawed semen; however, the straw method yielded 60.7% and the pellet method 42.5% of live cells in total in thawed semen (P<0.05), while the number of live normal (intact) cells was similar (22.4 and 22.2%, respectively). Egg fertility varied between 77.8 and 91.7% (average 84.4%). Both freezing procedures seem to be effective in obtaining acceptable viability and high fertilizing potency of thawed sperm and can be used to

  2. Cryopreservation of bull semen shipped overnight and its effect on post-thaw sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes.

    PubMed

    Anzar, M; Kroetsch, T; Boswall, L

    2011-06-01

    In the Canadian Animal Genetic Resource Program, bull semen is donated in frozen or fresh (diluted) states. This study was designed to assess the cryopreservation of diluted bull semen shipped at 4°C overnight, and to determine the post-thaw quality of shipped semen using different straw volumes and freezing rates. Semen was collected from four breeding bulls (three ejaculates per bull). Semen was diluted in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-glycerol (TEYG) extender, cooled to 4°C and frozen as per routine (control semen). After cooling to 4°C, a part of semen was removed and shipped overnight to the research laboratory via express courier (shipped semen). Semen was packaged in 0.25 or 0.5 ml straws and frozen in a programmable freezer using three freezing rates, i.e., -10, -25 or -40°C/min. Control semen was also shipped to the research laboratory. Post-thaw sperm motility characteristics were assessed using CASA, and post-thaw sperm plasma membrane, mitochondrial membrane potential and normal acrosomes were assessed using flow cytometry. Post-thaw sperm quality was greater in shipped semen as compared to control (P<0.001). The shipped semen packaged in 0.25 ml straws had better post-thaw sperm quality than in 0.5 ml straws (P<0.001). Freezing rate had no effect on post-thaw sperm quality. In conclusion, bull semen can be shipped overnight for subsequent cryopreservation and gene banking. Overnight shipping of semen was found advantageous for bull semen cryopreservation. Semen packaging in 0.25 ml straws yielded better post-thaw quality than 0.5 ml straws.

  3. Low lead environmental exposure alters semen quality and sperm chromatin condensation in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ochoa, Isabel; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; López-Carrillo, Lizbeth; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Morán-Martínez, Javier; Cebrián, Mariano E; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated environmental-lead (Pb) effects on semen quality and sperm chromatin, considering Pb in seminal fluid (PbSF), spermatozoa (PbSpz), and blood (PbB) as exposure biomarkers in urban men (9.3 microg/dL PbB). Several individuals (44%) showed decreases in sperm quality; sperm concentration, motility, morphology and viability associated negatively with PbSpz, whereas semen volume associated negatively with PbSF. Multiple linear regression estimated PbSF and PbSpz thresholds for alterations in semen quality. Forty-eight percent of samples showed high values of nuclear chromatin condensation (NCD) positively associated with PbSF and zinc in spermatozoa (ZnSpz). ZnSpz values were higher than in fertile men. These results suggest that Pb may affect sperm chromatin by altering sperm Zn availability. PbB was not associated with semen quality or NCD, suggesting that Pb in semen compartments assesses better the amount of Pb in the reproductive tract; therefore, these are better biomarkers to evaluate toxicity at low Pb-exposure levels.

  4. Genetic parameters and breeding values for semen characteristics in Hanoverian stallions.

    PubMed

    Labitzke, D; Sieme, H; Martinsson, G; Distl, O

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to show whether semen traits of 30 Hanoverian stallions regularly used in AI may be useful for breeding purposes. Semen characteristics were studied using 15 149 ejaculates from 30 Hanoverian stallions of the State Stud Celle of Lower Saxony. Semen samples were collected between 2005 and 2009. Traits analysed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total and motile sperm number and progressive motility. A linear multivariate animal model was employed to estimate heritabilities and permanent environmental variances for stallions. The same model was used to predict breeding values for all traits simultaneously. Heritabilities were high for gel-free volume (h(2) = 0.43) and moderate for total number of sperm (h(2) = 0.29) and progressive motility (h(2) = 0.20). Gel-free volume, sperm concentration and total number of sperm were genetically negatively correlated with progressive motility. The effect of the permanent environment for stallions accounted for 9-55% of the trait variance. The total variance among stallions explained 37-69% of the trait variance. The average reliabilities of the breeding values were 0.43-0.76 for the 30 Hanoverian stallions. In conclusion, the study could demonstrate large effects of stallions, routinely employed in a breeding programme, on semen characteristics analysed here. We could demonstrate that estimated breeding values (EBV) with sufficient high reliabilities can be predicted using data from these stallions and these EBV are useful in horse breeding programmes to achieve genetic improvement in semen quality.

  5. Effect of uremia on semen quality and reproductive function in humans.

    PubMed

    Xu, Longgen; Xu, Huiming; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Junrong; Ma, Meili; Shi, Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of uremia on semen quality and reproductive function in humans. For this purpose, 53 end-stage uremic patients were randomly selected. The semen samples were produced by masturbation. Fertility index (FI) was calculated according to the following formula: sperm density (×10(6)/ml) × sperm motility (%) × normal sperm morphology rate (% per 10,000). The semen samples of uremic patients were compared with those of fertile and infertile males. The results show that three patients failed to produce semen. There were no sperm found in four semen samples. The sperm motility, survival rate, sperm density, and normal sperm morphology rate of the remaining 46 patients were found to be significantly lower than those of controls. The uremic patients had the FI of 0.68(2.08) which was obviously lower than that of fertile 7.7(13.51) and infertile 4.13(5.77) males. It was, therefore, concluded that uremia caused a significant decline in sperm quality and reproductive function which resulted in consequential infertility in humans.

  6. The use of maca (Lepidium meyenii) to improve semen quality: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Hye Won; You, Sooseong; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of maca (Lepidium meyenii) in improving semen quality. We searched 11 databases from their inception to March 2016 and included all clinical trials on the improvement of semen quality parameters in infertile and healthy men, regardless of the study design or the type of maca. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by the first two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the same two authors. Five studies - 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 2 uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) - met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT found favorable effects of maca on sperm mobility in infertile men. The two other RCTs showed positive effects of maca on several semen quality parameters in healthy men. The two UOSs also suggested favorable effects of maca on semen quality. The results of our systematic review provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving semen quality. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the risk of bias of the included studies prevent the drawing firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

  7. Mechanical processing of hyperviscous semen specimens can negatively affect sperm DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Kussler, Ana Paula S; Pimentel, Anita M; Alcoba, Diego D; Liu, Isabella P; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Capp, Edison; Corleta, Helena V E

    2014-04-01

    The present study compared the DNA fragmentation in human sperm samples with reduced, physiological, and increased viscosity in order to evaluate whether the process used to reduce viscosity (expulsion of semen through a needle and syringe) alters significantly sperm DNA fragmentation. The seminal parameters of semen samples from 123 patients were evaluated and classified according to their viscosity. Samples with increased viscosity were submitted to a process of expulsion of semen through a 10-mL syringe and an 18-gauge (18G) needle to reduce the seminal viscosity. The DNA fragmentation of all samples was analysed using TUNEL assay (Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick-end labelling assay); in samples with increased viscosity, the fragmentation was assessed before and after the process of expulsion with syringe and needle. There was no difference in DNA fragmentation between groups with different viscosity (P = 0.857). A significantly increase in sperm DNA fragmentation after expulsion of hyperviscous semen through the syringe was observed (P = 0.035). There was no difference in DNA fragmentation rate between samples with reduced, increased and physiological viscosities; however, the physical process of expulsion of semen through a syringe and needle increased sperm DNA fragmentation.

  8. Embryo production and possible species preservation by nuclear transfer of somatic cells isolated from bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Westhusin, Mark; Long, Charles; Johnson, Gregory; Burghardt, Robert; Kraemer, Duane

    2010-12-01

    Somatic cells in semen are a potential source of nuclei for nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical animals; this is especially important when an animal has died and the only viable genetic material available is frozen semen. Usefulness of somatic cells obtained from fresh (cultured) and frozen (isolated, not cultured) bovine semen for nuclear transfer was evaluated. Twelve ejaculates were collected from nine bulls representing three breeds: Charolais, Brahman, and crossbred Rodeo bull. All samples were processed immediately and cell growth was obtained from seven of the twelve ejaculates (58.3%). Cells from three bulls (with the best growth rates) were evaluated by optical microscopy and used in cloning experiments. In culture, these cells exhibited classic epithelial morphology and expressed cytokeratin and vimentin, indicating they were of epithelial origin. When cells from the three bulls were used as donor cells, 15.9% (18/113), 34.5% (29/84), and 14.4% (13/90) of the fused embryos developed into blastocysts, respectively. Of the blastocyst stage embryos, 38.9% (7/18), 72.4% (21/29), and 61.5% (8/13) hatched, respectively. Somatic cells isolated (not cultured) from frozen bovine semen were also used in the cloning experiments. Although cleavage occurred, no compact morulae or blastocysts were obtained. In conclusion, epithelial cell growth was obtained from fresh bovine ejaculates with relatively high efficiency. Somatic cells from semen can be used as nucleus donors to produce cloned blastocyst-stage embryos.

  9. Successful ram semen cryopreservation with lyophilized egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Alcay, Selim; Berk Toker, M; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu; Tekin Onder, N; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Nur, Zekariya; Kemal Soylu, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lyophilized egg yolk extender on ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates with a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in lyophilized egg yolk or fresh egg yolk extenders using two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25 mL straws. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) at three time points: after dilution with extender A, equilibration and post-thaw. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and thawing) had negative effects on motility (P<0.001), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.001), acrosome integrity (P<0.001) and DNA integrity (P<0.001). In the study, there were no significant differences between lyophilized and fresh egg yolk extenders when comparing motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity between groups. In conclusion, lyophilized egg yolk extender provided similar cryoprotective effects with fresh egg yolk extender to cryopreserve ram semen.

  10. Iodine is associated to semen quality in men who undergo consultations for infertility.

    PubMed

    Partal-Lorente, Ana B; Maldonado-Ezequiel, Vicente; Martinez-Navarro, Luis; Herrera-Contreras, Isidoro; Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; García-Fuentes, Eduardo; Santiago-Fernandez, Piedad

    2017-07-26

    The role that adequate iodine intake could have on the male reproductive function is not entirely known. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relation between male infertility and urinary and semen iodine levels in 96 couples who underwent consultation for infertility. The median of semen iodine was higher in men who consumed iodized salt than in those who consumed non-iodized salt (p=0.019). Men with a higher semen iodine level had more morphological alterations in spermatozoa (p=0.032). Men with a higher urinary iodine level had a lower motile sperm count according to the "direct swim-up" technique (p=0.044). Men >3years without successfully achieving pregnancy had a higher urinary iodine level than those with ≤ 3years (p=0.035). In conclusion, iodine may play a role in the quality of semen: an increase in semen iodine levels is associated with different variables related to male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  12. [Establishment and application of the approach to detecting two biovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum in human semen].

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei-ge; Shi, Jian-li; Xu, Chen

    2005-03-01

    To establish the approach to detecting two biovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) in human semen and to investigate the relationship between the two biovars of Uu infection and the quality of human semen. Based on the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, three pairs of primers were designed, the species specific primer and two biovars primers (Parvo primer and T960 primer). The two biovars of Uu were detected in the semen from 949 men by semen culture and PCR assay. Meanwhile, semen routine analyses were performed. In the 949 subjects, 199 were Uu positive both in Uu liquid culture and PCR assay (199/949, 21.1%), of which 136 (136/199, 68.3%) were Parvo biovar, 54 (54/199, 27.1%) T960 biovar, and 9 (9/199, 4.5%) both Parvo and T960 biovars. Compared with the Parvo and the negative groups, human sperm viability was significantly decreased (P < 0.05 ) in the Uu T960 infection group. The difference of sperm motility and density had no statistic significance. A significant correlation has been found between Uu T960 biovar infection and human sperm viability

  13. Relationship of spermatozoal DNA fragmentation with semen quality in varicocele-positive men.

    PubMed

    Moazzam, A; Sharma, R; Agarwal, A

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the semen quality and levels of spermatozoal nuclear DNA fragmentation in subfertile subjects clinically diagnosed with varicocele, subfertile subjects without varicocele and healthy fertile controls. Semen samples were obtained from 302 subjects. Of them, 115 were healthy fertile controls having normal semen characteristics, 121 subfertile men diagnosed with varicocele, both, clinically and on ultrasonography, while 66 subjects were subfertile with no varicocele. Spermatozoal concentration, percentage motility, morphology and DNA fragmentation were measured. In the study population, deterioration in semen quality-decreased spermatozoal concentration, percentage motility and normal morphology was seen in subfertile subjects, especially with varicocele. Highest spermatozoal DNA fragmentation was observed in varicocele-positive subjects as compared with varicocele-negative subjects and healthy fertile controls. Significant negative correlation was seen between spermatozoal DNA fragmentation and concentration (r = -0.310), motility (r = -0.328) normal morphology, WHO method (r = -0.221) and Tygerberg strict criteria (r = -0.180) in the varicocele-positive subfertile subjects. In conclusion, this study suggests existence of a negative relationship between spermatozoal DNA fragmentation and semen quality in varicocele-positive subfertile subjects. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation and its association with semen quality in Greek men.

    PubMed

    Evgeni, E; Lymberopoulos, G; Touloupidis, S; Asimakopoulos, B

    2015-12-01

    Due to the limitations of conventional semen analysis in predicting a man's fertility potential, sperm DNA fragmentation was recently introduced as a novel marker of sperm quality. This prospective study was undertaken to investigate the associations between conventional seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation in Greek men. A total of 669 subject data were evaluated in two groups, normozoospermic (n = 184) and non-normozoospermic (n = 485), according to the WHO 2010 (WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen, 5th edn. World Health Organization), reference limits. For all the subjects, semen volume, sperm concentration, total count, rapid and total progressive motility and morphology were recorded following the WHO 2010 methods and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the sperm chromatin dispersion assay. An inverse correlation was established between DNA fragmentation and all conventional seminal parameters except semen volume in men with seminal profiles below the reference limits, with statistical significance for rapid and total progressive motility. Normozoospermic men exhibited lower levels of DNA fragmentation than their non-normozoospermic counterparts, even though the values were not always below 30%. DNA fragmentation testing and traditional semen analysis should therefore be considered as complementary diagnostic tools in a comprehensive evaluation of male infertility. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Detection of Y Chromosome DNA as Evidence of Semen in Cervicovaginal Secretions of Sexually Active Women

    PubMed Central

    Chomont, Nicolas; Grésenguet, Gérard; Lévy, Michel; Hocini, Hakim; Becquart, Pierre; Matta, Mathieu; Tranchot-Diallo, Juliette; Andreoletti, Laurent; Carreno, Marie-Paule; Kazatchkine, Michel D.; Bélec, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    The detection of traces of semen in cervicovaginal secretions (CVS) from sexually active women practicing unprotected sex is a prerequisite for the accurate study of cervicovaginal immunity. Two semen markers, the prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) and the Y chromosome, were detected in parallel in CVS obtained by a standardized vaginal washing of consecutive women attending the principal medical center for sexually transmitted diseases of Bangui, Central African Republic. PSA was detected by immunoenzymatic capture assay in the cell-free fraction of CVS, and the Y chromosome was detected by a single PCR assay of DNA extracted by silica from the cell fraction (Y PCR). Fifty (19%) cell-free fractions of the 264 β-globin-positive CVS samples were positive for PSA, and 100 (38%) cell fractions of the CVS samples were positive for the Y chromosome. All the 50 (19%) PSA-containing CVS samples were also positive for the Y chromosome. Fifty (19%) CVS samples were positive only for the Y chromosome, with no detectable PSA. The remaining 164 (62%) CVS samples were both PSA and Y chromosome negative. These findings demonstrate that CVS from sexually active women may contain cell-associated semen residues unrecognized by conventional immunoenzymatic assays used to detect semen components. The detection of cell-associated male DNA with a highly sensitive and specific procedure such as Y PCR constitutes a method of choice to detect semen traces in female genital secretions. PMID:11527810

  16. Impaired semen quality of AI bulls fed with moldy hay: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alm, K; Dahlbom, M; Säynäjärvi, M; Andersson, M A; Salkinoja-Salonen, M S; Andersson, M C

    2002-11-01

    The daily quality control of semen at a Finnish artificial insemination (AI) bull station is based on subjective motility and sperm morphology of young bulls entering the semen collection program. Semen quality dropped suddenly in autumn 1998. During 5 consecutive months, the number of rejected ejaculates and discarded frozen semen batches due to poor motility increased, and the number of all forms of abnormal spermatozoa increased. However, for the accepted ejaculates, a 60 day nonretum rate was normal. The summer of 1998 in Finland was rainy, and the hay used in the AI station was visibly moldy. Immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) detected Fusarium mycotoxins HT-2 and T-2, but no zearalenone in the hay. Occurrence of mycotoxins such as T-2 and HT-2 in the moldy hay coincided with, and may have been responsible for the impaired semen quality in AI bulls. This case report will draw the attention to the possible hazards when feeding moldy hay.

  17. Cryopreservation of turkey semen: effect of breeding line and freezing method on post-thaw sperm quality, fertilization, and hatching

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cryopreservation methods for poultry semen are not reliable for germplasm preservation, especially for turkeys, where fertility rates from frozen/thawed semen are particularly low. The objective was to evaluate cryopreservation methods for effectiveness in promoting cryosurvival and post-thaw funct...

  18. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  19. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  20. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  1. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  2. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  3. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Medina, Fabiana Soares; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  4. Intravaginal artificial insemination in bitches using frozen/thawed semen after dilution in powdered coconut water (ACP-106c).

    PubMed

    Uchoa, D C; Silva, T F P; Mota Filho, A C; Silva, L D M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate powdered coconut water extender (ACP-106c; ACP Serviços Tecnológicos Ltda, ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil) as a diluent for freezing dog semen and the fertility after vaginal insemination of semen frozen therein. Ten ejaculates were collected from five dogs, evaluated fresh, diluted in ACP-106c, 10% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, cooled and frozen. In the first phase of the study, straws with frozen semen were thawed and immediately subjected to the same analysis as the fresh semen and, in addition, to Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA). In phase 2, 10 bitches that had been subjected to natural breeding during a preceding oestrous cycle were vaginally inseminated with thawed semen that had been re-diluted in ACP-106c. After thawing, a mean of 77% sperm motility was obtained through subjective analysis and 77.3% through CASA. Following artificial insemination, a 60% pregnancy rate was observed, resulting in a 50% parturition rate and a mean litter size of 3.4 (SEM 0.6), with 47.1% males and 52.9% females. ACP-106c can be successfully used for freezing canine semen, and vaginal deposition of such semen yields similar pregnancy rates to those reported in other studies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Visual Detection of Brucella spp. in Spiked Bovine Semen Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Bikash R; Chaudhuri, Pallab; Chaturvedi, V K; Saini, Mohini; Mishra, B P; Gupta, Praveen K

    2016-06-01

    Several pathogens including Brucella spp. are shed in semen of infected bulls and can be transmitted to cows through contaminated semen during artificial insemination. The present study reports omp2a and bcsp31 gene based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of Brucella genomic DNA in semen from infected bulls. The positive results could be interpreted visually by change in colour of reaction mixture containing hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB) dye from violet to sky blue. LAMP assays based on omp2a and bcsp31 could detect as little as 10 and 100 fg of B. abortus S19 genomic DNA, respectively. Sensitivity of omp2a and bcsp31 LAMP assays for direct detection of organisms in bovine semen was 2.28 × 10(1) CFU and 2.28 × 10(2) CFU of B. abortus S19 in spiked bovine semen, respectively. The omp2a LAMP assay was found equally sensitive to TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR in identifying Brucella in spiked semen. The diagnostic applicability of the omp2a LAMP assay was evaluated with seventy-nine bovine semen samples and results were re-evaluated through TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and conventional PCR. Taken together, the omp2a LAMP assay is easy to perform, rapid and sensitive in diagnosis of Brucella spp. in bovine semen.

  6. Assessment of extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation in chilled semen of stallions during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Obara, J; Wąchocka, A; Piech, T; Bartoszek, P; Kostro, K; Tatara, M R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess apoptosis and DNA defragmentation in equine semen diluted and chilled to +4°C. Semen was collected from nine fertile stallions, including four Arabian thoroughbreds and five coldbloods. Examinations were carried out immediately after semen collection (0) and at five storage times (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h). The basic semen evaluation was performed in terms of volume, sperm concentration, viable sperm percentage, progressive motility and morphology. Using flow cytometry, DNA defragmentation and cell membrane integrity of spermatozoa were determined. The results of basic tests did not demonstrate significant differences amongst stallions, except for progressive sperm motility, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the semen of Arabian stallions. In the semen of the same stallions, a significant decrease in the percentage of alive spermatozoa was observed at 72, 96 and 120 h of storage, whereas a significant increase in the number of spermatozoa with DNA defragmentation was found after 24 h storage. In the semen of coldblood stallions, significantly reduced live spermatozoa percentage was observed at 96 and 120 h, while increased DNA defragmentation was observed at 48 h. These findings demonstrated that the semen of Arabian stallions chilled to +4°C retained original characteristics until 24 h of storage, whereas in coldbloods, these were preserved up to 48 h of storage.

  7. Quality assessment of wild Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) semen under conditions of short-term storage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-term storage trials were conducted with Atlantic sturgeon semen collected from a total of nine wild males during the 2008 and 2009 spawning seasons on the Hudson River. Semen samples were kept refrigerated (4 plus or minus 1 degree C) and stored in different gaseous atmospheres and storage ext...

  8. Cryopreservation of canine semen after cold storage in a Neopor box: effect of extender, centrifugation and storage time.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, M; Portero, J M; Demyda-Peyrás, S; Ortiz, I; Dorado, J

    2014-07-05

    The aim of this work was to assess the combined effect of sperm centrifugation, semen extender and storage time before freezing on post-thaw sperm quality and freezability on chilled stored canine semen in a Neopor box. Sperm parameters evaluated were total and progressive sperm motility by Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and sperm viability and acrosome integrity using a triple fluorescent stain. Sperm quality and freezability indexes were also studied. First, the effect of centrifugation and two commercial extenders from Minitübe (Biladyl A and CaniPRO Freeze A) was evaluated in chilled semen after 24 and 45 hours of cold storage. No significant differences were observed between treatments in almost all the sperm parameters assessed. Secondly, chilled semen was frozen after 24 and 45 hours of cold storage in a Neopor box. The best results were obtained when semen was centrifuged, chilled with CaniPRO Freeze A and then frozen after 24 hours of cold storage, showing no differences in both post-thaw sperm quality and freezability in comparison with semen immediately frozen after collection. In conclusion, dog semen centrifuged after collection and extended with CaniPRO Freeze can be frozen after 24 hours of cold storage in a Neopor box, obtaining similar results to semen immediately frozen after collection.

  9. Selenium status and GSH-Px activity in semen and blood of boars at different ages used for artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Lasota, B; Błaszczyk, B; Seremak, B; Udała, J

    2004-10-01

    This study was performed to determine the relationship between selenium (Se) content and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in blood and semen, and semen quality of boars at different age used in an artificial insemination (AI) station. Routine macroscopic and microscopic analyses of semen quality were accompanied by measurement of Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen. The Se concentration in blood plasma, seminal fluid and spermatozoa was measured by fluorometric method, the GSH-Px activity by a method based on NADPH-coupled reaction. A total of 155 ejaculates and 58 blood samples were investigated. The results of this study showed that there was no direct relationship between the Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood plasma and semen, and semen quality of sexual matured boars. The mechanisms controlling Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen seem to be independent. The age of boars as a differentiating factor for Se content and GSH-Px activity in blood and semen is possible. It is concluded that a determination of Se status and/or GSH-Px activity in organism before Se supplementation is indicated.

  10. Environmental pollution due to cadmium: measure of semen quality as a marker of exposure and correlation with reproductive potential.

    PubMed

    De Franciscis, P; Ianniello, R; Labriola, D; Ambrosio, D; Vagnetti, P; Mainini, G; Trotta, C; Mele, D; Campitiello, M R; Caprio, F

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory reports exist in the literature regarding an association of cadmium with parameters of semen quality. The aim of the study was to assess cadmium levels in both blood and seminal plasma and to analyze the relationships between cadmium concentrations and lifestyle and semen parameters. Fifty healthy male volunteers were recruited to provide semen and blood samples. Each patient completed an extensive questionnaire regarding his occupation, residence, social status, diet, water source, smoking habits, and medical and surgical history. Semen analysis was carried out according to WHO guidelines. Detection of cadmium in both semen and blood samples was carried out by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Mean concentrations of cadmium were 8.18 ± 1.6 ng/ml in blood samples and 2.56 ± 0.9 ng/ml in semen samples. Cadmium blood levels were significantly higher in men from industrialized areas and in current smokers, but were not correlated with semen levels. A significant positive correlation was found between cadmium blood levels, number of immotile spermatozoa, and teratozoospermia index (TZI). Significant inverse relationships between cadmium blood concentration and type-a and type a + b motility were found. The present data show a significant correlation between blood cadmium concentrations, cigarette smoking, occupational exposure, and parameters of semen quality. Such a reduction in spermiogenetic function could be an early marker of a toxic effect by cadmium pollution.

  11. Effect of semen collection method on sperm motility of gray wolves (Canis lupus) and domestic dogs (C. l. familiaris).

    PubMed

    Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Wang, Chong; Vansandt, Lindsey; Bauman, Karen; Callahan, Margaret; Jens, Jackie K; Ellinwood, N Matthew

    2011-09-15

    Genetic management of Mexican gray wolves includes semen banking, but due to the small number of animals in the population and handling restrictions, improvements in semen collection and cryopreservation rely on results from studies of domestic dogs. Semen collection from wolves requires anesthesia and electroejaculation, which introduce potentially important variables into species comparisons, as dog semen is typically collected manually from conscious animals. To investigate possible effects of collection method on semen quality, we compared semen collection by the traditional manual method and by electroejaculation (EE) in a group of dogs (n = 5) to collection by EE only in wolves (n = 7). Samples were divided into two aliquots: neat or diluted in Tris/egg yolk extender, with motility evaluated at intervals up to 24 h. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in sperm motility in either neat or extended samples at 24 h from EE dogs and wolves, although motility of the wolf neat samples declined more rapidly (P < 0.05). However, there were differences (P < 0.01) between EE and manually collected dog semen in motility at 24 h, in both the neat and extended samples. Therefore, general motility patterns of dog and wolf semen collected by EE were similar, especially when diluted with a Tris/egg yolk extender, but sperm collected from dogs by EE did not maintain motility as long as manually collected samples, perhaps related to the longer exposure of EE samples to more prostate fluid.

  12. Sensitive Simultaneous Detection of Seven Sexually Transmitted Agents in Semen by Multiplex-PCR and of HPV by Single PCR

    PubMed Central

    de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) −1 and −2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks. PMID:24921247

  13. Differences in ability of jennies and mares to conceive with cooled and frozen semen containing glycerol or not.

    PubMed

    Vidament, Marianne; Vincent, Pierrick; Martin, François-Xavier; Magistrini, Michele; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2009-05-01

    A suitable method for the cryopreservation of donkey semen would be very valuable for the ex situ management of genetic diversity in this species. This report uses a variety of observation and trials to evaluate the effect of cryoprotectants in per-cycle pregnancy rates (PC) in equids females (jennies (donkey) and mares (horse)). This was explored by (1) comparing the results of insemination of jennies and mares with cooled or frozen donkey semen, (2) examining the possible toxic effect of the cryoprotectant (CPA) glycerol in these two species and (3) studying alternative solutions. Donkey and horse semen was either used immediately, or cooled according to some steps of the pre-freezing procedure or frozen and thawed. The pre-freezing procedure included semen dilution, centrifugation, resuspension in milk or in INRA82+2% egg yolk+various % CPA (expressed as final concentrations in extended semen (v/v)) and then cooling to 4 degrees C. PC was similar in mares and jennies inseminated with donkey semen cooled to 4 degrees C in milk. However, the PC was significantly higher in mares than in jennies when donkey semen was frozen with 2.2% glycerol (36%, n=50 cycles vs. 11%, n=38 cycles; P<0.01). Increasing the concentrations of glycerol (0, 2.2, 3.5, 4.8%) before cooling stallion semen resulted in a progressive decrease in mare PC (87, 53, 53, 13% (n=15 cycles for each concentration); P<0.0001). The addition of 2.2% glycerol before cooling donkey semen decreased the PC measured in jennies to 0. The replacement of glycerol by 2% dimethylformamide increased the fertility obtained in jennies with cooled donkey semen (PC: 67%, n=12 cycles) but did not increase the fertility obtained with frozen-thawed donkey semen (PC: 11%, n=28 cycles with dimethylformamide vs. 0%, n=16 cycles with glycerol). In conclusion, this study clearly shows that the ability of jennies to conceive after AI with donkey frozen semen is lower than that of mares. Glycerol affects the fertility of donkey

  14. Oxidative and glycolytic metabolism of semen components by washed guinea pig spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, G; Peterson, R N; Freund, M

    1975-02-01

    The concentration of several potentially metabolizable substances in guinea pig semen and the ability of these substances to support ATP synthesis and the motility of guinea pig sperm have been determined. Both glucose and fructose were present in high concentration in semen and were equipotent at the concentration tested in maintaining high levels of ATP and a high rate of motility. Lactic and pyruvic acids also supported a high rate of sperm motility but maintained lower levels of ATP. These constituents of guinea pig semen, as well as the metabolites alpha-glycerophosphate, succinic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid, are oxidized at unusually high rates. The active oxidative metabolism of guinea pig sperm is compared with that of human sperm which is primarily glycolytic.

  15. Race Differentiation Based on Raman Spectroscopy of Semen Traces for Forensic Purposes.

    PubMed

    Muro, Claire K; Lednev, Igor K

    2017-04-03

    Several novel methods to determine externally visible characteristics of body fluid donors have been developed in recent years. These tests can help forensic investigators make predictions about the appearance of a suspect or victim, such as their sex, race, hair color, or age. While their potential benefit is undeniable, these methods destroy the physical evidence in the process. Raman spectroscopy has recently been used as a nondestructive technique to test for many of these characteristics. Here, we present the results from a study to determine the race of semen donors. Using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis, we were able to build a statistical model that accurately identified the race of all 18 semen donors in the calibration data set, as well as seven additional external validation donors. These results demonstrate Raman spectroscopy's potential to differentiate Caucasian and Black semen donors using chemometrics.

  16. Inter relationship between some routine semen evaluation parameters in Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, M.; Singh, M.; Kapoor, S.; Jasial, S.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted with an objective of establishing a relationship between various routine semen evaluation parameters. Work was conducted at Sperm Station Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, on the semen from five Jersey X local hill cattle crossbred breeding bulls. A total of 40 ejaculates (8 from each bull), were analysed at five different stages of processing namely post dilution, post equilibration, post thaw and after 1 and 2 hours incubation post thaw at 37°C for progressive motility, live dead count, reaction to hypo-osmotic solution, acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. The results of the study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01) correlation between the various semen evaluation parameters except for the gross morphological abnormalities where there was a significant (P<0.05) negative correlation between the acrosomal integrity and gross morphological abnormalities. PMID:26623288

  17. Artificial insemination of red deer (Cervus elaphus) with frozen-thawed wapiti semen.

    PubMed

    Haigh, J C; Bowen, G

    1991-09-01

    Semen collected from wapiti (Cervus elaphus) in Canada in 1983 was frozen in two extenders. In 1988, the semen was used to inseminate 200 red deer hinds on 2 farms in New Zealand. Oestrus was synchronized in the hinds with progesterone-impregnated intravaginal devices (CIDR); 200 iu pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin was given to each hind on Day 11. The CIDRs were removed on Day 12 at 20/h, as the numbers of the hinds were recorded. On Day 14, 54-56 h after CIDR removal, the hinds were brought into the yards in the same batches and laparoscopically inseminated. Semen from three sires was used. The overall conception rate was 51%. Gestation length ranged from 239 to 247 days. One hind was lost at calving, 3 calves had to be hand raised and there were 2 neonatal calf deaths.

  18. [Shengjing tablets for semen non-liquefaction: a clinical study of 100 cases].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Feng; Guo, Liang-Hui; An, Li-Hong; Pan, Zhou-Hui; Sun, Lin; Ma, Kui

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy and action mechanism of Shengjing Tablets in the treatment liquefaction. We randomly assigned 150 patients with semen non-liquefaction to receive Shengjing Tablets group, n = 100) and vitamin E capsules (control group, n = 50) for 2 courses of 45 days each, followed by observation liquefaction time and other semen parameters. After the first course, 68 of the patients in the treatment group 20 res