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Sample records for del semen tras

  1. Semen Analysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Other share options Semen analysis is a test on the fluid that is released when a man has an orgasm ©1996 - 2016 SART, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology . All Rights Reserved. ASRM/SART Nondiscrimination Policy ASRM/ ...

  2. TRAS principles blight arterial bypass and plasty.

    PubMed

    Kothari, M V; Mehta, L A; Kothari, V M

    1997-01-01

    A new concept--Tissue Requisitions (Principle I)/Relinquishes (Principle II) Arterial Supply--of TRAS principles is introduced to help appreciate the failures/successes of modern medicine's attempts at restoring arterial flow in luminally compromised coronary/carotid fields, an invasive branch rightly called vascular ReRheology, which comprises diagnosing/treating arterial blocks. The technical wizardry of arterial reconstruction (bypass) or lumen--restoration (plasty) has to reckon with the TRAS principles all the time. PMID:10740714

  3. Cryopreservation of crane semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Harris, James

    1991-01-01

    The method for the cryopreservation of crane semen at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center is described in detail. Cryopreservation is useful for the long-term storage of crane semen and for specialized propagation needs. A 50% fertility rate from most sandhill cranes, Grus canadensis, inseminated with frozen-thawed semen can be expected. Additional research should improve the fertility rate and determine how applicable the technique is to other crane species.

  4. Cryopreservation of gander semen.

    PubMed

    Tai, J J; Chen, J C; Wu, K C; Wang, S D; Tai, C

    2001-07-01

    1. The effect of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) on the cryopreservation of gander semen were investigated. An improved survival rate of spermatozoa after freeze-thawing was obtained when semen was frozen by a fast-freezing procedure on dry ice with 9% DMA as the cryoprotectant. 2. Gander semen, which was frozen during mid season, was tested for fertilising ability in different times of the season. The percentage of fertility during d 3 to d 9 after 2 consecutive inseminations was 68% to 95%, depending on the date of artificial insemination.

  5. Preservation of honey bee semen.

    PubMed

    TABER, S; BLUM, M S

    1960-06-10

    Fertilized eggs have been obtained from queen honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) inseminated with sperm that had been stored in vitro at above-freezing temperatures for up to 68 days. The effects of various experimental storage treatments on semen are described. Semen shipped by ordinary mail has been successfully used for artificial insemination. PMID:13836523

  6. Preservation of honey bee semen.

    PubMed

    TABER, S; BLUM, M S

    1960-06-10

    Fertilized eggs have been obtained from queen honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) inseminated with sperm that had been stored in vitro at above-freezing temperatures for up to 68 days. The effects of various experimental storage treatments on semen are described. Semen shipped by ordinary mail has been successfully used for artificial insemination.

  7. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethanes (THMs) are common byproducts of chlorinating drinking water. The effects of disinfection byproducts on semen quality have not yet been studied in humans, despite animal studies linking exposure to sperm abnormalities. We are currently analyzing the relationship of...

  8. Microfluidic Chips for Semen Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Segerink, L.I.; Sprenkels, A.J.; Oosterhuis, G.J.E.; Vermes, I.; van den Berg, A.

    2012-01-01

    The gold standard of semen analysis is still an manual method, which is time-consuming, labour intensive and needs thorough quality control. Microfluidics can also offer advantages for this application. Therefore a first step in the development of a microfluidic chip has been made, which enables the man the semen analysis at home. In this article recent efforts to determine the concentration and motility using a microfluidic chip are summarized.

  9. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.

    1983-01-01

    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  10. Recent advances in cooled-semen technology.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Christine

    2008-09-01

    The majority of horse registries approve the use of artificial insemination, and horse breeding has widely taken benefit from the use of cooled-stored semen. New insights into cooled-semen technology open possibilities to reduce problems such as impaired semen quality after cooled-storage in individual stallions. The stallion itself has major impacts on quality and fertility of cooled-stored semen. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids improves semen quality in a variety of species, but only few studies on this topic exist in the horse. Proper semen collection and handling is the main key to the maintenance of semen quality during cooled-storage. Semen collection should be achieved by minimal sexual stimulation with a single mount; this results in high sperm concentration, low content of seminal plasma and minimal contamination with bacteria. Milk-based semen extenders are most popular for semen processing and storage. The development of more defined extenders containing only the beneficial milk ingredients has made extender quality more constant and reliable. Semen is often centrifuged to decrease the seminal plasma content. Centrifugation results in a recovery rate of only 75% of spermatozoa in the semen pellet. Recovery rates after centrifugation may be improved with use of a "cushion technique" allowing higher centrifugation force and duration. However, this is not routinely used in cooled-semen technology. After slow-cooling, semen-storage and shipping is best performed at 5 degrees C, maintaining semen motility, membrane integrity and DNA integrity for up to 40 h after collection. Shipping containers created from Styrofoam boxes provide maintenance of semen quality at low cost.

  11. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  12. Semen Anxiety: Materiality, Agency and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Shand, Alex

    2007-12-01

    Semen is a potent cultural symbol of masculinity. The social life of semen is poorly understood because of the intensely personal nature of its being. But the Internet has opened up new avenues for people to explore sensitive issues without disclosing their identity. This paper examines a set of questions submitted anonymously for answering by a medical team over a three month period to a UK-based consumer health website. The questions are analysed for emergent themes and these are divided into three groups: those concerning the material quality of semen; semen relating to masturbation; and those that concern semen and potency. It argues that far from being a phenomenon isolated to non-western cultures, semen anxiety is present in the UK in the twenty-first century and is the expression of anxieties surrounding shifting gender roles and masculine identities.

  13. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  14. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... will be denied for semen from ruminants or swine from any region where it has been declared, under... rinderpest or foot-and-mouth disease exists. Importation of semen of ruminants or swine, originating in any...-mouth disease is determined to exist, is prohibited, except that semen from ruminants or...

  15. Evaluation of semen from nondomestic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bakst, M.R.; Cecil, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of poultry Al technology are applicable to nondomestic birds. However, modifications in the methods of semen collection, evaluation, and insemination are often necessary to accomodate either the bird's size, sperm numbers, or. female anatomy. This section provides a brief overview of procedures used to evaluate semen from nondomestic birds. Unless specified, materials, reagents, etc., are identical to those used in evaluating poultry semen (see appropriate chapters).

  16. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions. PMID:26811984

  17. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Robert J; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent; Munster, Vincent J

    2016-02-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions.

  18. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Robert J.; Judson, Seth; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Bushmaker, Trent

    2016-01-01

    On March 20, 2015, a case of Ebola virus disease was identified in Liberia that most likely was transmitted through sexual contact. We assessed the efficiency of detecting Ebola virus in semen samples by molecular diagnostics and the stability of Ebola virus in ex vivo semen under simulated tropical conditions. PMID:26811984

  19. Liquid storage of miniature boar semen.

    PubMed

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Uchida, Masaki; Niki, Rikio; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    The effects of liquid storage at 15 degrees C on the fertilizing ability of miniature pig semen were investigated. Characterization of ejaculated semen from 3 miniature boars was carried out. Semen volume and pH were similar among these boars. In one of the boars, sperm motility was slightly low, and sperm concentration and total number of sperm were significantly lower than in the others (P < 0.01). Seminal plasma of the semen was substituted with various extenders (Kiev, Androhep, BTS and Modena) by centrifugation and semen was stored for 7 days at 15 degrees C. Sperm motility was estimated daily at 37 degrees C. For complete substitution of seminal plasma, Modena was significantly more efficient than the other extenders (P < 0.001) in retaining sperm motility. Semen from each of the 3 miniature boars that had been stored for 5 to 7 days at 15 degrees C in Modena was used for artificial insemination of 15 miniature sows. The farrowing rates were 100, 100 and 60%, and litter sizes were 6.4 +/- 1.5, 5.8 +/- 0.8 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 for each boar semen, respectively. The boar that sired the smallest farrowing rate was the same one that showed lower seminal quality with respect to sperm motility, sperm concentration and total number of sperm. These results suggest that miniature boar semen can be stored for at least 5 days at 15 degrees C by the substitution of seminal plasma with Modena extender.

  20. [Advances in identification of semen stains].

    PubMed

    Fan, Guang-Yao; Zhao, Gui-Sen; Mo, Yao-Nan

    2010-08-01

    Stain identification has long been a task in forensic biology. The identification of semen stain, one of the most common human stains, can provide crucial information for crime scene reconstruction and forensic investigation. Traditional detection of semen stain depends largely on the microscopic identification of spermatozoa, enzyme activity-based methods or antigen-antibody reactions. These morphological, proteinological and zymological approaches, however, are apparently inadequate in identifying tiny, admixed, degraded or contaminated samples. With the development of transcriptomics and epigenetics, many semen-specific mRNA markers, such as protamine-1 (PRM1) and -2 (PRM2), have been applied to semen and semen stain identification. Messenger RNA profiling shows great promise in identifying tissues as demonstrated by the recognition of specific markers. Further more, studies on tis-sue-specific differential DNA methylation will provide a scrumptious way of identifying difficult samples. PMID:21090352

  1. Semen effects on insemination outcomes in sows.

    PubMed

    McPherson, F J; Nielsen, S G; Chenoweth, P J

    2014-12-10

    Sows (n=1205) were artificially inseminated with semen from single sires (n=166). Semen was previously analysed for sperm concentration, motility, velocity, morphology (using DIC microscopy) and membrane integrity, sperm clump score, temperature on arrival and pH. Percent normal sperm influenced both numbers of pigs born alive (P<0.01) and litter size (P<0.05) which, in turn, was also influenced by abnormal sperm head morphology (P<0.05) and retained distal cytoplasmic droplets (P<0.01). Percent stillbirths were influenced by sperm flagellar beat cross frequency (P<0.05) and semen arrival temperature (P<0.05). PMID:25455259

  2. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analyses with a Malaysian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667…

  3. Artificial insemination of cranes with frozen semen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.; Lewis, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    For the first time (1978) artificial insemination (AI) with frozen greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) semen resulted in fertile eggs and chicks. During the 2 year (1977-78) study, 6 of 27 eggs produced were fertile. Three chicks hatched. Semen samples used for insemination were frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen for two months or less. Recent improvements in the laboratory indicated that a more effective sample can be prepared and greater fertility rates should be expected.

  4. Applications of sexed semen in cattle production.

    PubMed

    Hohenboken, W D

    1999-12-01

    Sexed semen will contribute to increased profitability of dairy and beef cattle production in a variety of ways. It could be used to produce offspring of the desired sex from a particular mating to take advantage of differences in value of males and females for specific marketing purposes. Commercial dairy farmers, those who produce and market milk, could use sexed semen to produce replacement daughters from genetically superior cows and beef crossbred sons from the remainder of their cow population. To increase the rate of response to selection, seedstock dairy cattle breeders could produce bulls for progeny testing from a smaller number of elite dams by using sexed semen to ensure that all of them produced a son. Using sexed semen could then reduce the cost of progeny testing those bulls, because fewer matings would be necessary to produce any required number of daughters. Commercial beef cattle farmers, producing animals for eventual slaughter, could use sexed semen to capitalize on the higher value of male than female offspring for meat production. They could also use sexed semen to produce specialized, genetically superior replacement heifers from as small a proportion of the herd as possible. This would allow the remainder of the herd to produce male calves from bulls or breeds with superior genetic merit for growth, feed conversion efficiency, and carcass merit. Single-sex, bred-heifer systems, in which each female is sold for slaughter soon after weaning her replacement daughter, would be possible with the use of X-chromosome-sorted semen. Use of sexed semen would make terminal crossbreeding systems more efficient and sustainable in beef cattle. Fewer females would be required to produce specialized maternal crossbred daughters, and more could be devoted to producing highly efficient, terminal crossbred sons. PMID:10735086

  5. Isolation of bluetongue virus from bull semen.

    PubMed

    Howard, T H; Bowen, R A; Pickett, B W

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy of inoculation of Vero cell cultures or intravenous inoculation of chicken embryos in the isolation and titration of seminal bluetongue virus (BTV) was studied, as was the toxicity of bull semen for these 2 isolation systems. Frozen and thawed BTV-contaminated ejaculates collected during periods of viremia from 2 bulls experimentally infected with cell culture-adapted BTV serotype 17 were used in isolation, titration and fractionation studies. Blood collected from the 2 bulls concurrently with the semen was titrated in chicken embryos. Bull semen was toxic for both isolation systems. Toxicity was associated with both the spermatozoa and seminal plasma. Dilution of the semen at least 1:25, addition of peptone or tryptose broth to the diluent, limitation of adsorption time and postinoculation washing of cell culture monolayers all reduced the destructive effects of semen. Isolation of BTV was successful from 11 ejaculates and was titratable in 9 of these. Blind passage of surviving embryos or cell cultures at the endpoints of the titrations produced BTV isolations in 4 instances. The virus was never isolated from semen in the absence of concurrent viremia. Peak seminal BTV titers of 10(5.5) CEIVLD50/ml and 10(5.7) TCID50/ml were observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Update on sexed semen technology in cattle.

    PubMed

    Seidel, G E

    2014-05-01

    The technology in current use for sexing sperm represents remarkable feats of engineering. These flow cytometer/cell sorters can make over 30 000 consecutive evaluations of individual sperm each second for each nozzle and sort the sperm into three containers: X-sperm, Y-sperm and unsexable plus dead sperm. Even at these speeds it is not economical to package sperm at standard numbers per inseminate. However, with excellent management, pregnancy rates in cattle with 2 million sexed sperm per insemination dose are about 80% of those with conventional semen at normal sperm doses. This lowered fertility, in part due to damage to sperm during sorting, plus the extra cost of sexed semen limits the applications that are economically feasible. Even so, on the order of 2 million doses of bovine semen are sexed annually in the United States. The main application is for dairy heifers to have heifer calves, either for herd expansion or for sale as replacements, often for eventual export. Breeders of purebred cattle often use sexed semen for specific matings; thawing and then sexing frozen semen and immediately using the few resulting sexed sperm for in vitro fertilization is done with increasing frequency. Beef cattle producers are starting to use sexed semen to produce crossbred female replacements. Proprietary improvements in sperm sexing procedures, implemented in 2013, are claimed to improve fertility between 4 and 6 percentage points, or about 10%. PMID:24680061

  7. Advances in cooled semen technologies: seminal plasma and semen extender.

    PubMed

    Rigby, S L; Brinsko, S P; Cochran, M; Blanchard, T L; Love, C C; Varner, D D

    2001-12-01

    This study evaluated motility and fertility of uncentrifuged and centrifuged equine semen following dilution in a skim milk-glucose extender with or without supplemental Tyrode's medium. In addition, the effect of seminal plasma addition to each extender was evaluated. For Experiment 1, motility of 48h cooled, stored spermatozoa was evaluated following eight dilution treatments: uncentrifuged and diluted 1:4 (v/v) in skim milk-glucose extender (EZ Mixin CSTJ; CST-1:4) or in CST supplemented 65:35 (v/v) with modified Tyrode's medium (KMT-1:4); uncentrifuged and diluted to 25x10(6) spermatozoa/ml in CST (CST-1:9) or in KMT (KMT-1:9); centrifuged and diluted in CST with 0% seminal plasma (CST-0) or 20% seminal plasma (CST-20) or centrifuged and diluted in KMT containing 0% seminal plasma (KMT-0) or in KMT containing 20% seminal plasma (KMT-20). Sperm motility parameters evaluated included percentage of total motile sperm (% TMOT), percentage of progressively motile sperm (% PMOT), curvilinear velocity (VCL) and straight-line velocity (VSL). Mean % PMOT was lower (P<0.05) for spermatozoa extended in CST-1:4 compared to CST-1:9, whereas, all motility parameters were reduced (P<0.05) in KMT-1:4 compared to KMT-1:9. Spermatozoa extended in CST-1:4 had greater % TMOT, % PMOT and VSL (P<0.05) than in KMT-1:4. Spermatozoa extended in CST-1:9 had greater (P<0.05) % PMOT than in KMT-1:9, however, VCL was greater (P<0.05) in KMT-1:9. Mean VCL and VSL were lower (P<0.05) for spermatozoa extended in CST-0 compared with CST-20, whereas, spermatozoa extended in KMT-0 had greater (P<0.05) % TMOT, % PMOT and VSL compared to spermatozoa extended in KMT-20. Mean % TMOT and % PMOT were greater (P<0.05) in CST-20 compared to KMT-20, however, KMT-0 increased (P<0.05) velocity measures (VCL and VSL) compared to CST-0. In Experiment 2, fertility of centrifuged spermatozoa diluted in either CST-20 or KMT-0 was similar (P>0.05). We conclude that modified Tyrode's medium was not detrimental to

  8. 9 CFR 98.34 - Import permits for poultry semen and animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... certificates concerning specific diseases to which the animals are susceptible, as well as vaccinations or... section 306 of the Act of June 17, 1930, that foot-and-mouth disease or rinderpest has been determined to... poultry semen or animal semen may also be denied because of: Communicable disease conditions in the...

  9. Semen production by the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). 1. Methods for collection of semen.

    PubMed

    Malecki, I A; Martin, G B; Lindsay, D R

    1997-04-01

    Two methods for collecting semen from male emus using an artificial cloaca (AC) have been developed. In the first method, the male mounts the female teaser and the collector effects erection and subsequent ejaculation using the AC. The second method takes advantage of the development of sexual behaviour directed towards the semen collector and semen is collected when the male mounts the collector's back. Eight of 11 males were successfully trained with teasers and 5 of the 7 males trained without teasers ejaculated successfully. The ease of training varied between birds. The use of a teaser was very valuable, as the crouching behavior of the teaser elicited mating attempts in every male. The training and collection of semen was done by one person. Both methods can be used for routine collection of semen, as they take advantage of natural stimulation and the voluntary ejaculation reflex to which the birds adapted readily. PMID:9106890

  10. Demonstration of DSI-semen--A novel DNA methylation-based forensic semen identification assay.

    PubMed

    Wasserstrom, Adam; Frumkin, Dan; Davidson, Ariane; Shpitzen, Moshe; Herman, Yael; Gafny, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Determining whether the source tissue of biological material is semen is important in confirming sexual assaults, which account for a considerable percentage of crime cases. The gold standard for confirming the presence of semen is microscopic identification of sperm cells, however, this method is labor intensive and operator-dependent. Protein-based immunologic assays, such as PSA, are highly sensitive and relatively fast, but suffer from low specificity in some situations. In addition, proteins are less stable than DNA under most environmental insults. Recently, forensic tissue identification advanced with the development of several approaches based on mRNA and miRNA for identification of various body fluids. Herein is described DNA source identifier (DSI)-semen, a DNA-based assay that determines whether the source tissue of a sample is semen based on detection of semen-specific methylation patterns in five genomic loci. The assay is comprised of a simple single tube biochemical procedure, similar to DNA profiling, followed by automatic software analysis, yielding the identification (semen/non-semen) accompanied by a statistical confidence level. Three additional internal control loci are used to ascertain the reliability of the results. The assay, which aims to replace microscopic examination, can easily be integrated by forensic laboratories and is automatable. The kit was tested on 135 samples of semen, saliva, venous blood, menstrual blood, urine, and vaginal swabs and the identification of semen vs. non-semen was correct in all cases. In order to test the assay's applicability in "real-life" situations, 33 actual casework samples from the forensic biological lab of the Israeli police were analyzed, and the results were compared with microscopic examination performed by Israeli police personnel. There was complete concordance between both analyses except for one sample, in which the assay identified semen whereas no sperm was seen in the microscope. This

  11. Semen quality in Peruvian pesticide applicators: association between urinary organophosphate metabolites and semen parameters

    PubMed Central

    Yucra, Sandra; Gasco, Manuel; Rubio, Julio; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2008-01-01

    Background Organophosphates are broad class of chemicals widely used as pesticides throughout the world. We performed a cross-sectional study of associations between dialkylphosphate metabolites of organophosphates and semen quality among pesticide applicators in Majes (Arequipa), Peru. Methods Thirty-one men exposed to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and 31 non-exposed were recruited (age, 20–60 years). In exposed subjects, semen and a blood sample were obtained one day after the last pesticide application. Subjects were grouped according to levels of OP metabolites in urine. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, semen leucocytes and concentrations of fructose and zinc. Exposure to OP was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (dimethyl and diethyl phosphates and thiophosphates) by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. Results Diethyldithiophosphate (p = 0.04) and diethylthiophosphate (p = 0.02) better reflected occupational pesticide exposure than other OP metabolites. Semen analysis revealed a significant reduction of semen volume and an increase in semen pH in men with OP metabolites. Multiple regression analysis showed that both occupational exposure to pesticides and the time of exposure to pesticides were more closely related to alterations in semen quality parameters than the single measurement of OP metabolites in urine. Conclusion The study demonstrated that occupational exposure to OP pesticides was more closely related to alterations in semen quality than a single measurement of urine OP metabolites. Current measurement of OP metabolites in urine may not reflect the full risk. PMID:19014632

  12. The concentration of estradiol-17 beta in bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, R W; Randel, R D; Forrest, D W; Senger, P L

    1985-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of age, breed, epididymectomy and semen processing on the concentration of estradiol-17 beta (E2) in bovine semen. Semen was collected either by electroejaculation or with an artificial vagina. Neat semen samples were stored at -20 C until analysis. Processed, frozen semen and an egg yolk-citrate semen extender were obtained from a commercial semen processing firm and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196 C. The concentration of E2 in semen was determined by radioimmunoassay. Semen from mature (greater than 24 mo), fertile Brahman (n = 19), Brangus (n = 16), Charolais (n = 29), Holstein (n = 15) and Santa Gertrudis (n = 25) bulls was analyzed for E2 concentration, and no difference (P greater than .10) between breeds was found. There was no difference (P greater than .10) in seminal E2 concentration between mature, fertile bulls (n = 104) and epididymectomized bulls (n = 22). In semen collected from prepuberal (12 to 16 mo, n = 21), peripuberal (17 to 20 mo, n = 17) and mature (greater than 24 mo, n = 19), Brahman bulls, the mature bulls had a lower (P less than .01) semen E2 concentration than peripuberal and prepuberal bulls. There were no differences (P greater than .10) in seminal E2 concentration among peripuberal Angus (n = 8), Hereford (n = 8) and Brahman (n = 17) bulls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3988647

  13. Characterization of non-LTR retrotransposable TRAS elements in the aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae (Aphididae, Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Monti, Valentina; Serafini, Chiara; Manicardi, Gian Carlo; Mandrioli, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    A non-LTR TRAS retrotransposon (identified as TRASAp1) has been amplified in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and its presence has been assessed also in the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae. This TRAS element possesses 2 overlapping ORFs (a gag-ORF1 and a pol-ORF2 containing the reverse transcriptase and the endonuclease domains) that show a similarity ranging from 40% to 48% to proteins coded by other TRAS elements identified in insects (including the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the moth Bombyx mori). The study of the TRAS chromosomal insertion sites, performed by standard fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and fiber FISH, showed that TRAS elements were located in a subtelomeric position, just before the telomeric (TTAGG) n repeats. In both the aphid species, TRAS elements were present at all termini of autosomes, but the 2 X chromosome telomeres show a clear-cut structural difference. Indeed, cromomycin A3 staining, together with FISH using a TRAS probe, revealed that TRAS signals only occur at the telomere opposite to the NOR-bearing one. Lastly, the analysis of the distribution of TRAS retrotransposons in a M. persicae strain possessing spontaneous fragmentations of the X chromosomes assessed that TRAS elements were not involved in the healing of de novo telomeres. PMID:23530141

  14. Effects of seasons on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen.

    PubMed

    Azawi, O I; Ismaeel, M A

    2012-06-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of season on some semen parameters and bacterial contamination of Awassi ram semen. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. Semen collection was performed with artificial vagina every week, from September 2009 to October 2010. Volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm and sperm abnormalities were evaluated. Moreover, determination of viable bacterial count of the rams was also recorded weekly. Higher (p < 0.05) semen volume in the hot summer and spring months was observed of August (1.55 ± 0.08 ml) and March (1.27 ± 0.15 ml). Sperm concentration was highest (p < 0.05) in the breeding season (late summer to early autumn) of September (4.21 ± 0.86 × 10(9) sperm/ml). Sperm individual motility and percent of live sperm observed in August (summer) and May (end of spring) when the environmental temperature started to increase were recorded highest values and differed significantly (p < 0.05) from December and January (winter). The highest value of the mean sperm acrosomal defects (13.33 ± 0.63%) was recorded in December. The highest value of the mean viable bacterial count (138.3 ± 21.6) was recorded in July (summer). A significant decrease (p < 0.01) in the mean viable bacterial count was observed from the middle of winter towards the end of spring. The lowest bacterial count was noted in January (60.5 ± 2.98). It could be concluded from the results of the present study that there is an effect of season on ram semen quality, and summer high temperature in northern Iraq has no effect on Awassi ram semen. There is a significant effect of season on bacterial count on Awassi ram semen.

  15. New triterpene glycosides from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ding, Bo; Luo, Dan; Chen, Liu-Yuan; Hou, Yun-Long; Dai, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2013-10-01

    Four new dammarane-type triterpene glycosides, named jujubosides I-IV (1-4), were isolated from Ziziphi Spinosae Semen, along with seven known saponins (5-11). The structures of new compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. All compounds were evaluated for the effects on neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury induced by hydrogen peroxide in vitro. PMID:23912064

  16. Correlation of phthalate exposures with semen quality

    SciTech Connect

    Pant, Niraj Shukla, Manju; Kumar Patel, Devendra; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Mathur, Neeraj; Kumar Gupta, Yogendra; Saxena, Daya Krishna

    2008-08-15

    Phthalates are widely used man-made chemical released in the environment and human exposure is mainly through diet. As the phthalate plasticizers are not covalently bound to PVC, they can leach, migrate or evaporate into the environment and as a result have become ubiquitously contaminants. The present study investigates the correlation, if any, between the phthalate esters (DEP, DEHP, DBP, DMP, DOP) and sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, LPO, SCSA, and sperm quality. The study was conducted in the urban/rural population of Lucknow visiting Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, CSMMU, Lucknow. Semen analysis was performed according to the WHO guidelines while phthalate analysis by HPLC and LPO by spectrophotometer and the sperm mitochondrial status, ROS, SCSA using flow cytometry. The questionnaire data showed no significant difference in the demographic characteristics among the groups. In general, urban population was found to have statistically significant higher levels of phthalate esters than the rural. Further, infertile men showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher levels of pollutants in the semen than fertile men. A negative correlation between semen phthalate level viz DEHP and sperm quality and positive association with depolarized mitochondria, elevation in ROS production and LPO, DNA fragmentation was established. The findings are suggestive that phthalates might be one among the contributing factors associated with the deterioration in semen quality and these adverse effects might be ROS, LPO and mitochondrial dysfunction mediated.

  17. AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential impact of exposure to periods of high air pollution on male reproductive health was examined within the framework of an international project conducted in the Czech Republic. Semen quality was evaluated in young men (age 18) living in the Teplice District who are ex...

  18. A comparison of ABAcard(®) p30 and RSID™-Semen test kits for forensic semen identification.

    PubMed

    Boward, Emily S; Wilson, Stacey L

    2013-11-01

    The screening and confirmatory tests available to a forensic laboratory allow evidence to be examined for the presence of bodily fluids. With the majority of evidence being submitted involving sexual assaults, it is important to have confirmatory tests for the identification of semen that are straightforward, quick, and reliable. The purpose of this study was to compare two commonly used semen identification kits utilized by forensic laboratories: ABAcard(®) p30 and Rapid Stain Identification of Human Semen (RSID™-Semen). These kits were assessed with aged semen stains, fresh and frozen post-vasectomy semen, post-coital samples collected on different substrates, post-vasectomy semen mixed with blood, saliva, and urine, a series of swabs collected at increasing time intervals after sexual intercourse, and multiple non-semen samples. The test kits were compared on the basis of sensitivity, specificity, and the cost and time effectiveness of each protocol. Overall, both semen identification tests performed well in the studies. Both kits proved specificity for identifying semen, however the ABAcard(®) p30 test surpassed the RSID™-Semen test in sensitivity, cost per test, and simplified test protocol.

  19. Semen production by the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). 2. Effect of collection frequency on the production of semen and spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Malecki, I A; Martin, G B; Lindsay, D R

    1997-04-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that frequent collection of semen from emus would increase the total output of semen and spermatozoa over less frequent collection. Semen was collected from trained male emus using an artificial cloaca. In Experiment 1, semen was collected from males every 4th d (96-h interval), every 2nd d (48-h interval), and every day (24-h interval) for 16 d. In Experiment 2, semen was collected daily (24-h interval), twice daily (6-h interval), and three times per day (3-h interval) over 6 d. Twice-daily collections yielded twice as much volume and number of spermatozoa than daily collections. Collecting semen three times per day did not yield extra semen, as it adversely affected the libido of males. Twice-daily collections appears to yield the optimum output over the 6 d of this experiment, but longer periods of collection need to be studied. PMID:9106891

  20. Teacher Reporting Attitudes Scale (TRAS): confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses with a Malaysian sample.

    PubMed

    Choo, Wan Yuen; Walsh, Kerryann; Chinna, Karuthan; Tey, Nai Peng

    2013-01-01

    The Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale (TRAS) is a newly developed tool to assess teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. This article reports on an investigation of the factor structure and psychometric properties of the short form Malay version of the TRAS. A self-report cross-sectional survey was conducted with 667 teachers in 14 randomly selected schools in Selangor state, Malaysia. Analyses were conducted in a 3-stage process using both confirmatory (stages 1 and 3) and exploratory factor analyses (stage 2) to test, modify, and confirm the underlying factor structure of the TRAS in a non-Western teacher sample. Confirmatory factor analysis did not support a 3-factor model previously reported in the original TRAS study. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an 8-item, 4-factor structure. Further confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated appropriateness of the 4-factor structure. Reliability estimates for the four factors-commitment, value, concern, and confidence-were moderate. The modified short form TRAS (Malay version) has potential to be used as a simple tool for relatively quick assessment of teachers' attitudes toward reporting child abuse and neglect. Cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward reporting may exist and the transferability of newly developed instruments to other populations should be evaluated.

  1. Semen collection and fertility in naturally fertile sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Aviculturists often ask if semen collection will interfere with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had produced fertile eggs in previous years and were in out-of-doors pens scattered throughout different pen complexes, within auditory range but physically isolated. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection did not affect semen quality or quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm live, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation (P < 0.05). Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we observed no differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. Sires consistently producing better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60).

  2. The efficiency of cryopreserved semen versus fresh semen for in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Yavetz, H; Lessing, J B; Niv, Y; Amit, A; Barak, Y; Yovel, I; David, M P; Peyser, M R; Yogev, L; Homonnai, Z

    1991-06-01

    The efficiency of cryopreserved donor semen versus fresh donor semen in an in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer programme was evaluated. Thirty-nine in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer cycles were performed using fresh donor semen (group A) and 74 cycles were carried out using cryopreserved semen (group B). All patients underwent a uniform controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using high doses of human menopausal gonadotropins. Oocytes were retrieved transvaginally under ultrasound imaging. Semen (fresh or frozen-thawed) were prepared for insemination by a washing technique. Each ovum was inseminated with 500,000-600,000 motile spermatozoa. No significant difference was noted between the two groups regarding female age, duration of infertility, and number of ova retrieved per aspiration. Even though the fertilization rate in group B was significantly lower than in group A (55.5 +/- 3.8 vs 70.4 +/- 3.5, P = 0.008), pregnancy rates per embryo transfer were similar--39.3 and 38.5%, respectively.

  3. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen.

    PubMed

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the type of semen. The conception rate was 55% for conventional and 44% for sexed semen, and the average gestation length was 274.6 and 274.9 days, respectively. The mean calf birth weight was 37.47 kg for non-sexed and 36.75 kg for sexed semen. The stillbirth rate was 6.19% for conventional and 7.54% for sexed semen, while the twinning rate was 3.78% for conventional and 1.13% for sexed semen. The calves produced with non-sexed and sexed semen differed significantly in viability (P < 0.001), the latter having a lower calf vigour score. The use of conventional semen did not affect the ratio of female and male calves (52.7:47.3%; P > 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P < 0.01). The results obtained in this investigation are in agreement with the majority of studies which compared the fertility traits, sex ratio and calf characteristics depending on the application of artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen. PMID:27342094

  4. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in embryo and semen production systems.

    PubMed

    Givens, M Daniel; Waldrop, Julie G

    2004-03-01

    Although BVDV-free offspring have been produced from persistently infected bulls and heifers via advanced reproductive techniques, embryos and semen can potentially transmit the virus. Due to this potential for transmission, appropriate testing is necessary to ensure freedom of semen and embryos from BVDV. In the future, less constraining quality control measures may ensure freedom of embryos and semen from BVDV. These quality control measures require additional research to be validated. PMID:15062472

  5. Sperm ubiquitination in epididymal feline semen.

    PubMed

    Vernocchi, Valentina; Morselli, Maria Giorgia; Varesi, Sara; Nonnis, Simona; Maffioli, Elisa; Negri, Armando; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Luvoni, Gaia Cecilia

    2014-09-01

    Ubiquitin is a 8.5-kDa peptide that tags other proteins for proteasomal degradation. It has been proposed that ubiquitination might be responsible for the elimination of defective spermatozoa during transit through the epididymis in humans and cattle, but its exact biological function in seminal plasma has not yet been clarified. In the domestic cat (Felis catus), the percentage of immature, unviable, and abnormal spermatozoa decreases during the epididymal transit, indicating the existence of a mechanism that removes defective spermatozoa. Magnetic cell separation techniques, based on the use of magnetic beads coated with anti-ubiquitin antibodies, may allow the selective capture of ubiquitinated spermatozoa from semen, thus contributing to the identification of a potential correlation between semen quality and ubiquitination process. Moreover, the selective identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins in different epididymal regions could give a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in feline sperm maturation. The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to verify the possibility of separating ubiquitinated spermatozoa with magnetic ubiquitin beads and identify the morphological and acrosomal differences between whole sample and unbound gametes, (2) to characterize all the ubiquitinated proteins in spermatozoa retrieved in the three epididymal regions by a proteomic approach. The data indicated the presence of ubiquitinated proteins in cat epididymal semen. However, a correlation between abnormal and ubiquitinated spermatozoa has not been found, and ubiquitin cannot be considered as a biomarker of quality of epididymal feline spermatozoa. To the author's knowledge, this is the first identification of all the ubiquitinated proteins of cat spermatozoa collected from different epididymal regions. The proteomic pattern allows a further characterization of cat epididymal semen and represents a contribute to a better understanding of the ubiquitin role in

  6. Uranium quantification in semen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Todor I; Ejnik, John W; Guandalini, Gustavo; Xu, Hanna; Hoover, Dennis; Anderson, Larry; Squibb, Katherine; McDiarmid, Melissa A; Centeno, Jose A

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report uranium analysis for human semen samples. Uranium quantification was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No additives, such as chymotrypsin or bovine serum albumin, were used for semen liquefaction, as they showed significant uranium content. For method validation we spiked 2g aliquots of pooled control semen at three different levels of uranium: low at 5 pg/g, medium at 50 pg/g, and high at 1000 pg/g. The detection limit was determined to be 0.8 pg/g uranium in human semen. The data reproduced within 1.4-7% RSD and spike recoveries were 97-100%. The uranium level of the unspiked, pooled control semen was 2.9 pg/g of semen (n=10). In addition six semen samples from a cohort of Veterans exposed to depleted uranium (DU) in the 1991 Gulf War were analyzed with no knowledge of their exposure history. Uranium levels in the Veterans' semen samples ranged from undetectable (<0.8 pg/g) to 3350 pg/g. This wide concentration range for uranium in semen is consistent with known differences in current DU body burdens in these individuals, some of whom have retained embedded DU fragments.

  7. Chronic boron exposure and human semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Wendie A; Xun, Lin; Jia, Juan; Kennedy, Nola; Elashoff, David A; Ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    Boron found as borates in soil, food, and water has important industrial and medical applications. A panel reviewing NTP reproductive toxicants identified boric acid as high priority for occupational studies to determine safe versus adverse reproductive effects. To address this, we collected boron exposure/dose measures in workplace inhalable dust, dietary food/fluids, blood, semen, and urine from boron workers and two comparison worker groups (n=192) over three months and determined correlations between boron and semen parameters (total sperm count, sperm concentration, motility, morphology, DNA breakage, apoptosis and aneuploidy). Blood boron averaged 499.2 ppb for boron workers, 96.1 and 47.9 ppb for workers from high and low environmental boron areas (p<0.0001). Boron concentrated in seminal fluid. No significant correlations were found between blood or urine boron and adverse semen parameters. Exposures did not reach those causing adverse effects published in animal toxicology work but exceeded those previously published for boron occupational groups. PMID:19962437

  8. Assessment of motion and kinematic characteristics of frozen-thawed Sirohi goat semen using computer-assisted semen analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Mukul; Yadav, Sarvajeet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the motion and kinematics characteristic of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in Sirohi goat using computer-assisted semen analysis. Materials and Methods: A study was carried out in Sirohi buck. Semen collection was made biweekly from each buck with the help of artificial vagina. A total of 12 ejaculates were collected from two bucks (six ejaculates from each buck). Freshly collected semen was pooled and later evaluated. The pooled semen sample was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and later subjected to a process of cryopreservation. The motion and kinematic characteristics of spermatozoa were studied during freez-thawing process. Results: Significantly (p<0.01) higher value of live percent, hypo-osmotic swelling test, and acrosomal integrity were recorded in neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. The proportion of spermatozoa showing slow progression were the highest in the neat and diluted semen followed by rapid and non-progressively motile, while a reverse pattern was observed in the frozen thaw semen where the proportion of non-progressively motile spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher followed by slow and rapid progression. Conclusion: This study showed that the best results for motion, vitality, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome status were obtained in the neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. Further, the process of cryopreservation results in a shift of motility from slow to non-progressive in the post-thaw semen with a significant decrease in the path velocities when compared to neat and diluted semen. Hence, it can be concluded that freezing-thawing process reduces the motility and kinematic characters spermatozoa and may be an important factor affecting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa resulting in poor conception rate after insemination in goats. PMID:27051209

  9. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Thitaram, C; Suthanmapinanth, P; Kornkaewrat, K; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2014-06-30

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality.

  10. Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) with poor initial fresh semen quality.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Mahasawangkul, S; Thitaram, C; Suthanmapinanth, P; Kornkaewrat, K; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2014-06-30

    In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear. Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that semen quality can therefore be improved by more frequent ejaculation. To this end we investigated the effect of collecting semen five times on alternate days, after a long period of sexual rest, on semen quality in Asian elephants known to deliver poor semen during infrequent single collections. All eight bulls initially displayed a high incidence of detached sperm heads and low percentages of motile (close to 0%) spermatozoa. After semen collection on alternate days, the percentages of detached sperm heads, and head and mid-piece abnormalities, were reduced significantly (p<0.05). In particular, one bull showed markedly improved sperm motility (increased from 0% to 60%) and membrane integrity (increased from 5% to 75%). In addition, advancing age significantly (p<0.01) correlated with lower percentages of sperm with intact membranes and a higher frequency of detached sperm heads. In contrast to sperm accumulation problems in other species, a small ampullary diameter correlated significantly (p<0.05) with reduced semen quality. PMID:24832106

  11. Semen collection methods affect the bacterial composition of post-thawed semen of silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus).

    PubMed

    Boonthai, Traimat; Khaopong, Weerasith; Sangsong, Jumlong; Sooksawat, Treerat; Nimrat, Subuntith; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2016-03-01

    Biosafety issue associated with the risk of pathogenic contamination of cryopreserved semen is a common concern because of associated declines in sperm quality, storage period and disease transmission. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of methods of semen collection on sperm quality and bacterial composition of post-thawed semen of silver barb (Barbodes gonionotus). Semen collection methods consisted of four treatments: (1) hand-stripping of abdomen without rinsing of urogenital area with water, (2) hand-stripping of abdomen after rinsing of urogenital area with water, (3) catheterization without rinsing of urogenital area with water and (4) catheterization after rinsing of urogenital area with water. Semen diluted with calcium-free Hank's balanced salt solution containing 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was frozen at a freezing rate of -8°Cmin(-1) before plunging in liquid nitrogen. Post-thawed semen collected by catheterization after rinsing urogenital area had the lowest bacterial number, about 2-log reduction of total heterotrophic, Gram negative and pseudomonad bacteria, compared with the other three collection treatments. However, percentages of motile and viable sperm were not significantly (P>0.05) different among treatments. This method eliminated Flavobacterium aquatile, Bacillus megaterium, Kocuria varians, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Aeromonas media in cryopreserved semen. This is the first report demonstrating the effects of semen collection methods on bacteriological quality of frozen-thawed fish semen. PMID:26778122

  12. Semen phthalate metabolites, semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones: A cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; Yang, Pan; Wang, Peng; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; You, Ling; Huang, Yue-Hui; Wang, Cheng; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been found to have adverse effects on male reproductive function in animals. However, the findings from human studies are inconsistent. Here we examined the associations of phthalate exposure with semen quality and reproductive hormones in a Chinese population using phthalate metabolite concentrations measured in semen as biomarkers. Semen (n = 687) and blood samples (n = 342) were collected from the male partners of sub-fertile couples who presented to the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormone levels were determined. Semen concentrations of 8 phthalate metabolites were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Associations of the semen phthalate metabolites with semen quality parameters and serum reproductive hormones were assessed using confounder-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. Semen phthalate metabolites were significantly associated with decreases in semen volume [mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)], sperm curvilinear velocity [monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), MEHP, the percentage of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP)], and straight-line velocity (MBzP, MEHP, %MEHP), and also associated with an increased percentage of abnormal heads and tails (MBzP) (all p for trend <0.05). These associations remained suggestive or significant after adjustment for multiple testing. There were no significant associations between semen phthalate metabolites and serum reproductive hormones. Our findings suggest that environmental exposure to phthalates may impair human semen quality.

  13. Ebola May Be Present in Semen for Year or More

    MedlinePlus

    ... found in older men, researchers report. The deadly virus can be transmitted through semen. Preliminary findings from 429 male Ebola survivors taking part in a national screening program in the African nation of Liberia showed that 9 percent (38) had fragments of Ebola in their semen. Of those 38 ...

  14. Seasonal and cryopreservation impacts on semen quality in boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...

  15. [Variation trend of male fertility and semen parameters].

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi-Qun

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the variation trend of male fertility and semen parameters has aroused much academic controversy and become a focus of public attention. For the assessment of male fertility, female pregnancy is regarded as a gold standard, but semen parameters are commonly used as surrogate or indirect evidence in clinical practice and laboratory research. The reference range of se- men parameters being used in China is based on the WHO recommended data and lacks the specific reference value for healthy Chinese men. No definite conclusion has yet been derived from studies at home and abroad on the general variation trend of semen parameters worldwide, but many researchers agree on the decline of semen quality in some areas of the world. Long-term continuous prospective studies are needed for the evaluation and prediction of the general variation trend of semen quality. PMID:25597168

  16. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2014-10-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes "semen" as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome. PMID:25568479

  17. [Advances in researches on polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase in semen].

    PubMed

    Feng, Rui-xiang; Lu, Kun-gang; Zhang, Hong-ye; Lu, Jin-chun

    2011-11-01

    Reproductive tract infection is one of the important factors of male reproduction. Polymorphonuclear neutrophil elastase (PMNE) in semen, as a marker of male reproductive tract inflammation, especially recessive infection, potentially affects male fertility. The concentration of PMNE in semen is correlated significantly not only with semen white blood cell count and seminal plasma ROS level, but also with the levels of other inflammation related cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha. Furthermore, PMNE has a negative impact on sperm quality by decreasing sperm motility, increasing the percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm and interfering with DNA integrity. PMNE inhibitors in semen can form a compound with PMNE, and the imbalanced proportions of the two may promote the development of chronic inflammation, and consequently lead to male infertility. At present, PMNE in semen is detected mainly by enzyme immunoassay, but this method still needs to be standardized, and the diagnostic standards to be unified. PMID:22141276

  18. A successful new approach to honeybee semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-10-01

    Honeybee biodiversity is under massive threat, and improved methods for gamete cryopreservation could be a precious tool for both the in situ- and ex situ-conservation of subspecies and ecotypes. Recent cryoprotocols for drone semen have improved the viability and fertility of frozen-thawed semen by using increased diluent:semen-ratios, but there is still much room for progress. As semen cryopreserved after dilution often appeared hyperactive, we speculated that the disruption of sperm-sperm interactions during dilution and cryopreservation could reduce the fertile lifespan of the cells. We therefore developed protocols to reduce admixture, or abolish it altogether by dialyzing semen against a hypertonic solution of cryoprotectant. Additionally, we tested methods to reduce the cryoprotectant concentration after thawing. Insemination of queens with semen cryopreserved after dialysis yielded 49%, 59% and 79% female (= stemming from fertilized eggs) pupae in three separate experiments, and the numbers of sperm found in the spermathecae of the queens were significantly higher than those previously reported. Post-thaw dilution and reconcentration of semen for cryoprotectant removal reduced fertility, but sizeable proportions of female brood were still produced. Workers stemming from cryopreserved semen did not differ from bees stemming from untreated semen with regard to indicators of fluctuating asymmetry, but were slightly heavier. Cryopreservation after dialysis tended to increase the proportion of cells with DNA-nicks, as measured by the TUNEL-assay, but this increase appears small when compared to the baseline variations of this indicator. Overall, we conclude that cryoprotectant-addition through dialysis can improve the quality of cryopreserved drone semen. Testing of offspring for vitality and genetic integrity should continue.

  19. A successful new approach to honeybee semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-10-01

    Honeybee biodiversity is under massive threat, and improved methods for gamete cryopreservation could be a precious tool for both the in situ- and ex situ-conservation of subspecies and ecotypes. Recent cryoprotocols for drone semen have improved the viability and fertility of frozen-thawed semen by using increased diluent:semen-ratios, but there is still much room for progress. As semen cryopreserved after dilution often appeared hyperactive, we speculated that the disruption of sperm-sperm interactions during dilution and cryopreservation could reduce the fertile lifespan of the cells. We therefore developed protocols to reduce admixture, or abolish it altogether by dialyzing semen against a hypertonic solution of cryoprotectant. Additionally, we tested methods to reduce the cryoprotectant concentration after thawing. Insemination of queens with semen cryopreserved after dialysis yielded 49%, 59% and 79% female (= stemming from fertilized eggs) pupae in three separate experiments, and the numbers of sperm found in the spermathecae of the queens were significantly higher than those previously reported. Post-thaw dilution and reconcentration of semen for cryoprotectant removal reduced fertility, but sizeable proportions of female brood were still produced. Workers stemming from cryopreserved semen did not differ from bees stemming from untreated semen with regard to indicators of fluctuating asymmetry, but were slightly heavier. Cryopreservation after dialysis tended to increase the proportion of cells with DNA-nicks, as measured by the TUNEL-assay, but this increase appears small when compared to the baseline variations of this indicator. Overall, we conclude that cryoprotectant-addition through dialysis can improve the quality of cryopreserved drone semen. Testing of offspring for vitality and genetic integrity should continue. PMID:25088062

  20. Microarray analysis of microRNA expression patterns in the semen of infertile men with semen abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te; Cheng, Weiwei; Gao, Yongtao; Wang, Hui; Liu, Zhixue

    2012-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a crucial role in tissue development and the pathology of many diseases, however, the effects and roles of miRNAs in the development of semen abnormalities in infertile males have not yet been investigated. In this study, we analyzed and compared the miRNA expression profiles of abnormal semen from 86 infertile males with normal semen from 86 healthy males using an miRNA microarray. In total, 52 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the abnormal semen of infertile males and the normal semen of healthy males. The differential expression of selected miRNAs was validated by real time qRT-PCR and northern blotting: miR-574-5p, miR-297, miR-122, miR-1275, miR-373, miR-185 and miR-193b were upregulated (fold change>1.5, p<0.001) and miR-100, miR-512-3p, miR-16, miR-19b, miR-23b and miR-26a were downregulated (fold change<0.667, p<0.001) in the semen of infertile males with semen abnormalities. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into specific miRNAs that are associated with semen abnormalities in infertile males.

  1. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  2. Interpretation of semen analysis among infertile couples.

    PubMed Central

    Small, D R; Collins, J A; Wilson, E H; Wrixon, W

    1987-01-01

    Among the male partners of 1074 infertile couples the mean results of semen analysis were sperm count 78 X 10(6)/ml, seminal volume 4.0 ml, proportion of progressively motile sperm 54%, proportion of sperm with normal morphologic features 81.4% and total motile sperm count 152.3 X 10(6) per ejaculate. After excluding 65 couples who chose donor insemination and 300 with known female causes of infertility, the cumulative pregnancy rates in the remaining 709 couples were higher with increasing sperm density and motility and seminal volume, but the higher rates were significant only when these variables were combined into total motile sperm count per ejaculate. The cumulative pregnancy rates were 20% with a total motile sperm count of 9 X 10(6) or less, 37% with a count of 10 to 19 X 10(6) and 52% with a count of 20 X 10(6) or more (p = 0.001). Counts higher than 20 X 10(6) were not associated with a further improvement in pregnancy rates, but variability in the results was high, which suggests that the test should be repeated as necessary to determine the true range. Although standards for these and other seminal variables are ill defined, the total motile sperm count incorporates the most useful prognostic information from semen analysis, and the associated pregnancy rates can help guide clinical decisions. PMID:3567795

  3. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  4. Effect of environmental pollutants on human semen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, S.

    1988-01-01

    With the increased release of numerous chemical substances into the biosphere, careful assessment of health effects of polluted environment must be made for maintaining and enhancing the quality of human life on this earth. Significant number of malformed children are born each year. Sixty-five to 70% of all birth defects have an unknown etiology. More than one-third of early human conception and up to 15% of recognized pregnancies are terminated by spontaneous abortion. The extent of the effect of environmental pollution on human reproductive performance is for the most part unknown. Of the approximately five million chemicals in existence, humans could be expose to a sufficient quantity of an estimated 53,000 for toxicity to be of potential problem. Methods that do not require autopsy or surgery such as semen analysis would be attractive for assessing the effect of environmental toxicology on quality of human life. Therefore, the present study was conducted to observe the effects of heavily polluted environment of industrial area of Ludhiana and relatively clean, pollution free environment of Chandigarh on the human semen quality. It was believed that the function of the male reproductive system may often be the most sensitive to toxic effects.

  5. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-17

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1) (interquartile range, 0.41-2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)(-1)). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = -0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (-0.32, -0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = -0.35; 95% CI (-0.68, -0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = -1.64; 95% CI (-3.05, -0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Site of semen deposition in cattle: a review.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F

    2000-04-15

    The breeding of cattle using conventional artificial insemination methods involves the deposition of semen in the uterine body. However, it has been recently proposed by several authors that the site of semen deposition be changed to the uterine horns. This suggestion is based on 2 facts: the acceptance that the major preovulatory sperm reservoir may be the uterotubal junction rather than the cervical canal, and the lack of accuracy by inseminators in depositing semen. In over 50% of cases, inseminators were not sufficiently trained to deposit semen into the uterine body, so that intracervical insemination was often performed resulting in reduced fertility. The advantage of deep uterine insemination, whether bicornual or unicornual, is that it favors the deposition of semen nearer to the uterotubal junction and thus reduces the incidence of cervical deposition. This review updates the literature on the ideal site of semen deposition, including cervical, uterine body, cornual and intraperitoneal. Also analyzed are the effects of right vs. left side activity of the female reproductive tract on the optimum site of semen deposition as it affects fertilization. Finally, the question of whether the clinical training of inseminators should be reevaluated is discussed. PMID:10898210

  7. [Human semen lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in fertility studies (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gonzalez Buitrago, J M; García Díez, L C; de Castro, S

    1981-01-01

    The lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern has been obtained in the semen of 87 males undergoing fertility studies. The proportion of LDH-X, the isoenzyme specific to the spermatozoa, is reduced in proportion to the reduction of the sperm density and motility. LDH-X is the most abundant isoenzyme in the semen of normospermic subjects. As to the other isoenzymes, the most abundant ones are the LDH-2 and the LDH-3. The results obtained lead us to conclude that the measurement of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes may be useful in studies of fertility as an indicative parameter of the quality of the semen.

  8. Cytosine methylation of sperm DNA in horse semen after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Christine; Schreiner, Bettina; Ille, Natascha; Alvarenga, Marco; Scarlet, Dragos

    2016-09-15

    Semen processing may contribute to epigenetic changes in spermatozoa. We have therefore addressed changes in sperm DNA cytosine methylation induced by cryopreservation of stallion semen. The relative amount of 5-methylcytosine relative to the genomic cytosine content of sperm DNA was analyzed by ELISA. In experiment 1, raw semen (n = 6 stallions, one ejaculate each) was shock-frozen. Postthaw semen motility and membrane integrity were completely absent, whereas DNA methylation was similar in raw (0.4 ± 0.2%) and shock-frozen (0.3 ± 0.1%) semen (not significant). In experiment 2, three ejaculates per stallion (n = 6) were included. Semen quality and DNA methylation was assessed before addition of the freezing extender and after freezing-thawing with either Ghent (G) or BotuCrio (BC) extender. Semen motility, morphology, and membrane integrity were significantly reduced by cryopreservation but not influenced by the extender (e.g., total motility: G 69.5 ± 2.0, BC 68.4 ± 2.2%; P < 0.001 vs. centrifugation). Cryopreservation significantly (P < 0.01) increased the level of DNA methylation (before freezing 0.6 ± 0.1%, postthaw G 6.4 ± 3.7, BC 4.4 ± 1.5%; P < 0.01), but no differences between the freezing extenders were seen. The level of DNA methylation was not correlated to semen motility, morphology, or membrane integrity. The results demonstrate that semen processing for cryopreservation increases the DNA methylation level in stallion semen. We conclude that assessment of sperm DNA methylation allows for evaluation of an additional parameter characterizing semen quality. The lower fertility rates of mares after insemination with frozen-thawed semen may at least in part be explained by cytosine methylation of sperm-DNA induced by the cryopreservation procedure. PMID:27242182

  9. Butylated hydroxytoluene inclusion in semen extender improves the post-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ijaz, A; Hussain, A; Aleem, M; Yousaf, M S; Rehman, H

    2009-05-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the potential impact of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the frozen-thawed semen quality of Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls. Ejaculated bull semen was extended in a Tris-citrate egg yolk extender containing various concentrations of BHT (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0mM). Semen was frozen at -196 degrees C using 50 x 10(6) spermatozoa per 0.5 mL straws. Five straws from each treatment were thawed to assess the semen quality in terms of sperm motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity. Post-thawed sperm motility was determined using a phase-contrast microscope. Viability, plasma membrane integrity and acrosomal integrity were evaluated by the supravital staining, hypo-osmotic swelling test and normal acrosomal reaction, respectively. The highest (P<0.05) motility, acrosomal integrity and hypo-osmotic swelling response of spermatozoa was achieved by addition of 1.0 and 2.0mM BHT to semen extender. However, highest (P<0.05) viability of spermatozoa was achieved by inclusion of 2.0mM BHT. The higher concentration of BHT (3.0mM) reduced the motility, acrosomal integrity, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response of the spermatozoa compared to other concentration used. In conclusion, BHT when added in the semen extender can improve the semen quality of buffalo bulls.

  10. Effects of sperm concentration at semen collection and storage period of frozen semen on dairy cow conception.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Gröhn, Y T; Kommisrud, E; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2007-01-01

    The present study was based on data obtained from artificial inseminations (AIs) performed with cryopreserved semen from elite bulls used in the Norwegian breeding program. Semen was diluted to standardize the number of spermatozoa to 18 million per AI dose. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the net sperm concentration at semen collection and the storage period in liquid nitrogen have any effect on probability of conception in dairy cattle. We demonstrated that the natural range of sperm concentration at semen collection within some of the bulls was associated with the probability of conception. However, no primary trend among bulls was found on the effect of sperm concentration at semen collection. This appears to be due to differences among bulls in their response to the dilution ratio of seminal plasma to extender. The effect of storage time was investigated in semen that had been stored between 1000 days and 2400 days in AI straws in liquid nitrogen at the AI center. Our findings showed that use of semen with the longest storage period, i.e. 1951-2400 days, resulted in a more than one percentage point lower probability of conception than semen with a shorter storage period. In conclusion, the net sperm concentration at semen collection, which affects the dilution ratio of seminal plasma to extender, should be considered individually among bulls to achieve optimal reproductive performance. Furthermore, this study gives support to the idea that a measurable degree of damage to the spermatozoa could occur during the preservation time in liquid nitrogen.

  11. Bacterial Communities in Semen from Men of Infertile Couples: Metagenomic Sequencing Reveals Relationships of Seminal Microbiota to Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Shun-Long; Chiu, Chih-Min; Lin, Feng-Mao; Huang, Wei-Chih; Liang, Chao; Yang, Ting; Yang, Tzu-Ling; Liu, Chia-Yu; Wu, Wei-Yun; Chang, Yi-An; Chang, Tzu-Hao; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2014-01-01

    Some previous studies have identified bacteria in semen as being a potential factor in male infertility. However, only few types of bacteria were taken into consideration while using PCR-based or culturing methods. Here we present an analysis approach using next-generation sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis to investigate the associations between bacterial communities and semen quality. Ninety-six semen samples collected were examined for bacterial communities, measuring seven clinical criteria for semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, motility, Kruger's strict morphology, antisperm antibody (IgA), Atypical, and leukocytes). Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) was also performed. Results showed that the most abundant genera among all samples were Lactobacillus (19.9%), Pseudomonas (9.85%), Prevotella (8.51%) and Gardnerella (4.21%). The proportion of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella was significantly higher in the normal samples, while that of Prevotella was significantly higher in the low quality samples. Unsupervised clustering analysis demonstrated that the seminal bacterial communities were clustered into three main groups: Lactobacillus, Pseudomonas, and Prevotella predominant group. Remarkably, most normal samples (80.6%) were clustered in Lactobacillus predominant group. The analysis results showed seminal bacteria community types were highly associated with semen health. Lactobacillus might not only be a potential probiotic for semen quality maintenance, but also might be helpful in countering the negative influence of Prevotella and Pseudomonas. In this study, we investigated whole seminal bacterial communities and provided the most comprehensive analysis of the association between bacterial community and semen quality. The study significantly contributes to the current understanding of the etiology of male fertility. PMID:25340531

  12. Should single layer centrifugation of dog semen be done before or after the semen is cooled?

    PubMed

    Gálvez, M J; Ortiz, I; Hidalgo, M; Morrell, J M; Dorado, J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of sperm selection by single layer centrifugation (SLC) on canine sperm quality when SLC was performed before or after the cooling process, or when double SLC (before and after cooling) was performed. Twenty ejaculates from four dogs were divided into four aliquots as follows: unselected: no SLC was performed; SLC prior to cooling (SLC-PC): sperm selection was carried out before cooling; SLC after cooling (SLC-AC): sperm selection was performed after cooling; and double SLC: sperm selection was carried out before and after cooling. Sperm motility (by computer-assisted semen analysis), morphology (Diff-Quick staining), sperm membrane integrity (Vital-Test kit) and acrosome integrity (double fluorescent stain) were assessed in re-warmed semen samples. Four sperm subpopulations (sP) were detected using a pattern analysis technique (sP1: highly active, non-progressive; sP2: low velocity, highly progressive; sP3: less vigorous, poorly progressive; sP4: highly progressive motility). A higher proportion of sperm were classified as sP4 in SLC-AC samples. Most of the sperm parameters assessed showed higher values in the SLC-AC group. We conclude that SLC-AC is the best protocol to improve sperm quality in chilled canine semen in comparison to the other procedures tested.

  13. Semen analysis workshops: 17 years’ experience

    PubMed Central

    Franken, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    The study reports on the results recorded during a series of semenology workshops presented from 1997 to 2014. The results were obtained from training workshops that were conducted in 6 continents in 38 cities including 1124 individuals. All workshops consisted of 2 sessions namely a pre-and post-training session. Results recorded from the pre-training sessions were used as a baseline value of current knowledge. In most cases pooled fresh or cryopreserved semen samples were provided by the organizing institution. The mixed effect linear regression model showed a significant decrease in the mean scores from the pre-training scores, p < .001. Training of technicians as well as regular proficiency testing will ensure continuous communication with the referring laboratory. PMID:26977266

  14. Effect of pre-freeze semen quality, extender and cryoprotectant on the post-thaw quality of Asian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) semen.

    PubMed

    Imrat, P; Suthanmapinanth, P; Saikhun, K; Mahasawangkul, S; Sostaric, E; Sombutputorn, P; Jansittiwate, S; Thongtip, N; Pinyopummin, A; Colenbrander, B; Holt, W V; Stout, T A E

    2013-02-01

    Semen cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI) are potentially valuable methods for supporting the breeding management of endangered species like the Asian elephant. Cryopreservation of Asian elephant semen has however proven problematic with respect to maintenance of both adequate semen quality and fertility post-thaw. In this study, nine ejaculates from three adult bulls were used to compare the influence of extender (TEST versus INRA96®) and penetrating cryoprotectants (3% glycerol, 5% glycerol and 4% methylformamide) on post-thaw semen quality. We demonstrate that not only the freezing process, but also the quality of the semen before freezing, significantly influences the freezability of Asian elephant semen. Pre-freeze motility, viability, semen volume, semen pH, sperm concentration and the incidence of sperm mid-piece and tail abnormalities all significantly (p<0.05) affected post-thaw semen quality. While extender and cryoprotectant did not significantly affect any of the above semen quality parameters post-thaw, the skim-milk based extender (INRA96®) preserved DNA integrity better (p<0.05) than the egg yolk extender (TEST). Considerable between-ejaculate variation in all post-thaw semen quality parameters was also noted. It is concluded that strict criteria for semen quality is essential for the selection of Asian elephant bull ejaculates suitable for cryopreservation; stricter initial selection should improve the mean post-thaw quality.

  15. Indian story on semen loss and related Dhat syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Om; Kar, Sujit Kumar; Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    India is a country of many religions and ancient cultures. Indian culture is largely directed by the Vedic culture since time immemorial. Later Indian culture is influenced by Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Indian belief system carries the footprints of these cultures. Every culture describes human behaviors and an interpretation of each human behavior is largely influenced by the core cultural belief system. Sexuality is an important domain which is colored by different cultural colors. Like other cultures, Indian culture believes “semen” as the precious body fluid which needs to be preserved. Most Indian beliefs consider loss of semen as a threat to the individual. Ancient Indian literature present semen loss as a negative health related event. Dhat syndrome (related to semen loss) is a culture-bound syndrome seen in the natives of Indian subcontinent. This article gathers the Indian concepts related to semen loss. It also outlines belief systems behind problems of Dhat syndrome. PMID:25568479

  16. Scientists Map DNA of Zika Virus from Semen

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The first complete genetic "blueprint" -- genome -- of a sample of Zika virus derived from ... new study, published Oct. 13 in the journal Genome Announcements . "Isolating Zika virus from semen has been ...

  17. [Communication between clinicians and laboratorians in semen analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-jun; Cao, Xing-wu

    2015-05-01

    By direct communication between clinicians and laboratorians, obstacles between clinical work and laboratory diagnosis were unequivocally found at an academic conference. Many clinical physicians feel disappointed and frustrated at the laboratory diagnosis by semen analysis and frankly express their expectations, as to recognize the role and significance of laboratory diagnosis, understand the value of routine semen analysis, work out the puzzles in the analysis of sperm morphology, fulfil the requirements for the identification of cells in semen, and obtain responses from and initiate discussions among laboratorians about the relevant questions. Both laboratorians and clinicians are appealing for strengthened management and earlier establishment of national standards and operating specifications for laboratory diagnosis by semen analysis. PMID:26117933

  18. The presence of bacteria species in semen and sperm quality

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Elena; Capitani, Serena; Figura, Natale; Pammolli, Andrea; Federico, Maria Grazia; Giannerini, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To verify the prevalence of semen bacterial contamination and whether the contamination could decrease sperm quality. Methods Spermiogram, semen culture, and sperm transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were performed. TEM data were elaborated using a mathematical formula that calculates a fertility index (FI)—able to define patients as fertile or infertile—and the percentage of sperm apoptosis, immaturity and necrosis. We aligned the amino acid sequence of beta-tubulin with protein of the most frequent species isolated from semen. Results Patients were divided according to the contaminating species; in each group, we observed fertile individuals, in whom the semen quality was similar to that of controls and infertile men whose sperm quality was significantly decreased, in terms of motility, FI, apoptosis and necrosis. Partial homology between β-tubulin and bacterial proteins was observed. Conclusion Sperm bacterial contamination is quite frequent and could contribute to the deterioration of the sperm quality of infertile men. PMID:19089609

  19. Environmental Exposure to Triclosan and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenting; Zhang, Hao; Tong, Chuanliang; Xie, Chong; Fan, Guohua; Zhao, Shasha; Yu, Xiaogang; Tian, Ying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4′-trichloro-2′-hydroxy-diphenyl ether, TCS) is widely used in personal care, household, veterinary and industrial products. It was considered as a potential male reproductive toxicant in previous in vitro and in vivo studies. However, evidence from human studies is scarce. Our study aims to investigate the relationship between TCS exposure and semen quality. We measured urinary TCS concentrations in 471 men recruited from a male reproductive health clinic. TCS was detected in 96.7% of urine samples, with a median concentration of 0.97 ng (mg·creatinine)−1 (interquartile range, 0.41–2.95 ng (mg·creatinine)−1). A multiple linear regression analysis showed a negative association between natural logarithm (Ln) transformed TCS concentration (Ln-TCS) and Ln transformed number of forward moving sperms (adjusted coefficient β = −0.17; 95% confidence interval (CI) (−0.32, −0.02). Furthermore, among those with the lowest tertile of TCS level, Ln-TCS was negatively associated with the number of forward moving sperms (β = −0.35; 95% CI (−0.68, −0.03)), percentage of sperms with normal morphology (β = −1.64; 95% CI (−3.05, −0.23)), as well as number of normal morphological sperms, sperm concentration and count. Our findings suggest that the adverse effect of TCS on semen quality is modest at the environment-relevant dose in humans. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26901211

  20. History of commercializing sexed semen for cattle.

    PubMed

    Garner, D L; Seidel, G E

    2008-04-15

    Although the basic principles controlling the sex of mammalian offspring have been known for a relatively long time, recent application of certain modern cellular methodologies has led to development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. After a very long history of unsuccessful attempts to differentiate between mammalian sperm that produce males from those that produce females, a breakthrough came in 1981 when it was demonstrated that precise DNA content could be measured. Although these initial measurements of DNA content killed the sperm in the process, they led to the ultimate development of a sperm sorting system that was capable, not only of differentiating between live X- and Y-sperm, but of sorting them into relatively pure X- and Y-sperm populations without obvious cellular damage. Initial efforts to predetermine the sex of mammalian offspring in 1989 required surgical insemination, but later enhancements provided sex-sorted sperm in quantities suitable for use with IVF. Subsequent advances in flow sorting provided minimal numbers of sperm sufficient for use in AI. It was not until the flow cytometric sorting system was improved greatly and successful cryopreservation of sex-sorted bull sperm was developed that efficacious approaches to commercialization of sexed semen could be implemented worldwide in cattle. A number of companies now offer sex-sorted bovine sperm. Innovative approaches by a diverse group of scientists along with advances in computer science, biophysics, cell biology, instrumentation, and applied reproductive physiology provided the basis for commercializing sexed semen in cattle. PMID:18343491

  1. Cryogenic preservation of semen from the Aleutian Canada goose (Branta canadensis leucopareia)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Sexton, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia) were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen containing 6% or 7% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) resulting in 32 fertile eggs and 17 goslings; with 7% DMSO, 19 of 31 eggs were fertile. Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE), adjusted to 270 ? 30 mOs and 7.5 ? 0.4 pH, was used to dilute semen samples and the DMSO before cryopreservation. About half of the live spermatozoa in the fresh semen (92.9 ? 2.5% live cells, laboratory studies; 87.3 ? 7.3%, insemination trials) survived the freeze-thaw process (46.7 ? 7.8%, laboratory; 33.3 ? 17.8%, insemination trials). Samples of frozen-thawed semen contained a greater percentage of bent spermatozoa (27.1 ? 8.4% of live cells) than fresh semen (14.4 ? 3.0% of live cells). Fecal- and urate-contaminated semen (a common problem when collecting goose semen) reduced the sperm motility score from 3.2 ? 0.6 to 2.7? 0.7 and number of live spermatozoa in frozen-thawed semen from 49 ? 9% to 24 ?18%. Other variables examined that had less of an effect on semen quality included semen extenders, semen holding temperature, dilution and equilibration, relationship between hour of semen collection and level of semen contamination, and the relationship between season and sperm concentration.

  2. Artificial insemination and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bakst, M.R.; Wishart, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of Al and cryopreservation of semen from nondomestic birds began because of the increased emphasis on conservation of avian species threatened with extinction. Over the years, aviculturists have developed techniques for Al and cryopreservation of semen obtained from a variety of birds ranging from passerines to Andean condors. Generally, for each new species, we develop a practical semen collection technique and then evaluate the semen. A commercial semen extender (Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender) is modified and used to dilute the semen and provide support for the sperm during the freezing process (the pH and osmolality of the extender is adjusted to reflect the pH and osmolality of the semen being frozen). We find that the freezing schedule developed by Sexton (1977), which utilizes dimethylsulfoxide (DMS0) as cryoprotectant, works well for many species. We cool the sample sequentially in an ethanol bath, in liquid nitrogen vapor, and lastly in liquid nitrogen. Although we have experimented with a variety of freezing protocols, we prefer a 15-min equilibration period in DMSO at 5 C. We begin the freezing process by cooling at -1 C/min from 5 to -20 C in the ethanol bath. The samples are transferred into a vapor tank at a location just above liquid nitrogen and frozen at -50 C/min to -80 C. To complete the freezing process, the samples are plunged into the liquid nitrogen in the bottom of the vapor tank. The samples remain in liquid nitrogen until they are thawed just before insemination. If necessary, the freezing equipment can be transported in a van to remote locations.

  3. Cryopreservation of lar gibbon semen collected by manual stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takasu, Masaki; Morita, Natsumi; Tajima, Shunichiro; Almunia, Julio; Maeda, Masami; Kamiguchi, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    We confirmed ejaculation as a result of manual stimulation in a lar gibbon, and attempted to cryopreserve the semen using TES-Tris-egg yolk-based (TTE) extender. After measuring the amount of semen (g), we first diluted the semen with TTE extender, and calculated sperm concentration (sperm/ml), total sperm count (sperm), and progressive sperm motility (%). Then, we cooled diluted semen slowly to 4 °C over 2 h, and added an equal volume of secondary extender containing glycerol over 30 min. Finally, we flash-froze the semen solution by plunging into liquid nitrogen. In addition, we freeze-thawed the solution to determine the recovery rate of the motile sperm. Collection of semen was successful on four of the five occasions. The median (min-max) quantity of ejaculate was 0.19 g (0.09-0.26 g), the median sperm concentration was 1.38 × 10(9) sperm/ml (1.20-1.53 × 10(9) sperm/ml), and the median total sperm count was 0.26 × 10(9) sperm (0.11-0.40 × 10(9) sperm). Moreover, the median sperm motility immediately after ejaculation was 65 % (60-75 %), the median sperm motility after freeze-thawing was 30 % (25-35 %), and the median recovery rate was 42.3 % (40.0-58.3 %). We were able to (1) collect semen from a lar gibbon by manual stimulation, (2) reveal andrological findings regarding semen characteristics, and (3) preserve the genetic resource using TTE cryopreservation.

  4. New Approaches to Boar Semen Evaluation, Processing and Improvement.

    PubMed

    Sutovsky, P

    2015-07-01

    The improvement of boar reproductive performance may be the next frontier in reproductive management of swine herd in Unites States, facilitated by better understanding of boar sperm function and by the introduction of new advanced instrumentation in the andrology field. Objective single ejaculate evaluation and individual boar fertility prediction may be possible by introducing automated flow cytometric semen analysis with vital stains (e.g. acrosomal integrity and mito-potential), DNA fragmentation analysis and biomarkers (ubiquitin, PAWP, ALOX15, aggresome) associated with normal or defective sperm phenotypes. Measurement of sperm-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a helpful indicator of normal semen sample. Semen ROS levels could be managed by the addition of ROS-scavenging antioxidants. Alternative energy regeneration substrates and sperm stimulants such as inorganic pyrophosphate and caffeine could increase sperm lifespan in extended semen and within the female reproductive system. Such technology could be combined with timed sperm release in the female reproductive system after artificial insemination. Sperm phenotype analysis by the image-based flow cytometry will go hand in hand with the advancement of swine genomics, linking aberrant sperm phenotype to the fertility influencing gene polymorphisms. Finally, poor-quality ejaculates could be rescued and acceptable ejaculates improved by semen purification methods such as the nanoparticle-based semen purification and magnetic-activated sperm sorting. Altogether, these scientific and technological advances could benefit swine industry, provided that the challenges of new technology adoption, dissemination and cost reduction are met. PMID:26174914

  5. Thalidomide is distributed into human semen after oral dosing.

    PubMed

    Teo, S K; Harden, J L; Burke, A B; Noormohamed, F H; Youle, M; Johnson, M A; Peters, B S; Stirling, D I; Thomas, S D

    2001-10-01

    As part of a double-blind placebo-controlled study of the effect of thalidomide on body weight and the viral load of human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients, plasma and semen samples were analyzed for the presence of thalidomide. Patients were orally dosed with 100 mg of thalidomide/day for 8 weeks. Blood samples were obtained at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12, and semen was obtained at baseline and weeks 4 and 8. Samples were extracted with solid-phase cartridges and analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in the negative ion mode. Two of four patients taking thalidomide were able to provide semen samples. Both had detectable levels of thalidomide in their plasma (10-350 ng/ml) and semen (10-250 ng/g) at weeks 4 and 8. There was an apparent correlation between plasma and semen levels. Semen levels could be significantly greater for therapeutic doses of more than 100 mg/day. Since the threshold dose for birth defects and thalidomide exposure is not known, male patients are advised to use barrier contraception.

  6. Comparative Examination of Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) Behaviour Responses and Semen Quality to Two Methods of Semen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Łukaszewicz, Ewa Teresa; Kowalczyk, Artur Mikołaj; Rzońca, Zenon

    2015-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is very helpful in solving the reproductive and biodiversity problems observed in small, closed avian populations. The successful production of fertilized eggs using AI is dependent on the collection of good quality semen. Two methods of male sexual stimulation and semen collection from captive kept capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.), one of the most seriously endangered grouse species in Europe, are compared in this study. Ejaculates were obtained either with the use of a dummy female or by the dorso-abdominal massage method. Differences in the individual responses of the males to the two methods of semen collection as well as in their semen quality were noted. Only sperm concentration (432.4 x 106 mL-1 with dummy female and 614.5 x 106 mL-1 for massage method) was significantly affected by capercaillie stimulation method. Sperm motility and morphology were not affected (P≥0.05). Thus, for semen collection from captive kept capercaillie both methods can be used successfully. The dummy female can be an alternative to dorso-abdominal massage method, commonly used for semen collection from domesticated bird species. PMID:26397704

  7. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  8. Toxicity of cryoprotectants to honey bee semen and queens.

    PubMed

    Wegener, J; Bienefeld, K

    2012-02-01

    Given the threats to the intraspecific biodiversity of Apis mellifera and the pressure on bee breeding to come up with disease-tolerant lines, techniques to cryopreserve drone semen are of great interest. Freeze-thawed drone semen of high viability and/or motility has repeatedly been obtained, but fertility of such semen, when it was measured, was always low. The cryoprotective agent (CPA) most frequently used with drone semen is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although this substance has been suspected of causing genetic damage in sperm. No form of sperm washing is currently performed. Using a membrane permeability assay, we measured the short-term toxicity of four possible replacements for DMSO, 1,3-propane diol, 2,3-butane diol, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl formamide. We also tested whether the practice of inseminating queens with CPA-containing semen affects sperm numbers in the storage organs of queens, or sperm fertility. Finally, we tested whether CPA-toxicity in vivo can be reduced by using mixtures of two CPAs, DMSO, and ethylene glycol. Our results show that, although short-term toxicity of all CPAs tested was low, the presence of single CPAs in insemination mixtures at concentrations required for slow freezing greatly reduced the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca. Contrary to earlier reports, this was also true for DMSO. Ethylene glycol was additionally shown to reduce the viability of spermatozoa reaching the storage organ. Mixtures of DMSO and EthGly performed better than either substance used singly at the same concentration. We conclude that the toxicity of CPAs, including DMSO, on honey bee semen and/or queens has been underestimated in the past. This could partly explain the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo quality of cryopreserved drone semen, described by others. Combinations of several CPAs and techniques to partly remove CPAs after thawing could help to solve this problem. PMID:22115807

  9. Factors affecting economics of using sexed semen in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    McCullock, Katelyn; Hoag, Dana L K; Parsons, Jay; Lacy, Michael; Seidel, George E; Wailes, William

    2013-10-01

    The use of sexed semen in the dairy industry has grown rapidly. However, high costs and low fertility have limited the use of this potentially valuable tool. This study used simulation to evaluate 160,000 combinations of key variables in 3 spheres of influence related to profit feasibility: (1) market (e.g., milk and calf prices), (2) dairy farm management (e.g., conception rates), and (3) technology (e.g., accuracy of sexing). These influential variables were used to determine the most favorable circumstances in which managers or technicians can effect change. Three distinct scenarios were created to model 3 initiatives that a producer might take with sexed semen: (1) using sexed semen on heifers, (2) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and (3) using sexed semen on heifers and a fraction of the genetically superior cows, and breeding all other cows with beef semen. Due to the large number of management, market, and technology combinations, a response surface and interpretive graphs were created to map the scope of influence for the key variables. Technology variables such as the added cost of sexed semen had relatively little effect on profitability, defined as net present value gain per cow, whereas management variables such as conception rate had a significant effect. Milk price had relatively little effect within each scenario, but was important across scenarios. Profitability was very sensitive to the price of dairy heifer calves, relative to beef and dairy bull calves. Scenarios 1 and 2 added about $50 to $75 per cow in net present value, which ranged from $0 to $200 and from $100 to $300, respectively. Scenario 3 usually was not profitable, primarily because fewer excess dairy replacement heifers were available for sale. Dairy heifer price proved to be the most influential variable, regardless of scenario.

  10. Toxicity of cryoprotectants to honey bee semen and queens.

    PubMed

    Wegener, J; Bienefeld, K

    2012-02-01

    Given the threats to the intraspecific biodiversity of Apis mellifera and the pressure on bee breeding to come up with disease-tolerant lines, techniques to cryopreserve drone semen are of great interest. Freeze-thawed drone semen of high viability and/or motility has repeatedly been obtained, but fertility of such semen, when it was measured, was always low. The cryoprotective agent (CPA) most frequently used with drone semen is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), although this substance has been suspected of causing genetic damage in sperm. No form of sperm washing is currently performed. Using a membrane permeability assay, we measured the short-term toxicity of four possible replacements for DMSO, 1,3-propane diol, 2,3-butane diol, ethylene glycol, and dimethyl formamide. We also tested whether the practice of inseminating queens with CPA-containing semen affects sperm numbers in the storage organs of queens, or sperm fertility. Finally, we tested whether CPA-toxicity in vivo can be reduced by using mixtures of two CPAs, DMSO, and ethylene glycol. Our results show that, although short-term toxicity of all CPAs tested was low, the presence of single CPAs in insemination mixtures at concentrations required for slow freezing greatly reduced the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca. Contrary to earlier reports, this was also true for DMSO. Ethylene glycol was additionally shown to reduce the viability of spermatozoa reaching the storage organ. Mixtures of DMSO and EthGly performed better than either substance used singly at the same concentration. We conclude that the toxicity of CPAs, including DMSO, on honey bee semen and/or queens has been underestimated in the past. This could partly explain the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo quality of cryopreserved drone semen, described by others. Combinations of several CPAs and techniques to partly remove CPAs after thawing could help to solve this problem.

  11. EVALUATION OF CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE AND DNA INTEGRITY IN SPERM: AN INVESTIGATION OF REMOTE SEMEN COLLECTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Home collection of ejaculated semen would facilitate participation rates and geographic diversity in reproductive epidemiology studies. Our study addressed concerns that home collection and overnight mail return might induce chromosome/DNA damage. We collected semen from 10 hea...

  12. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  13. The utility of nanowater for ram semen cryopreservation

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Patkowski, Krzysztof; Oszczęda, Zdzisław; Jelkin, Igor; Kosiek, Anna; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Szymanowska, Anna; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Zieba, Dorota A; Bartlewski, Pawel M

    2015-01-01

    Nanowater (NW; water declusterized in the low-temperature plasma reactor) has specific physicochemical properties that could increase semen viability after freezing and hence fertility after artificial insemination (AI) procedures. The main goal of this study was to evaluate ram semen quality after freezing in the media containing NW. Ejaculates from 10 rams were divided into two equal parts, diluted in a commercially available semen extender (Triladyl®; MiniTüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany) prepared with deionized water (DW) or NW, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility and morphology using the sperm class analyzer system and light microscopy. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed to determine the size of extracellular water crystals in frozen semen samples. Survival time at room temperature, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations post-thawing as well as conception/lambing rates after laparoscopic intrauterine AI of 120 ewes were also determined. There were no significant differences between DW and NW groups in sperm progressive motility (26.4 ± 12.2 and 30.8 ± 12.4%) or survival time (266.6 ± 61.3 and 270.9 ± 76.7 min) after thawing and no differences in the percentages of spermatozoa with various morphological defects before or after freezing. There were, however, differences (P < 0.05) in AspAT (DW: 187.1 ± 160.4 vs. NW: 152.7 ± 118.3 U/l) and ALP concentrations (DW: 2198.3 ± 1810.5 vs. NW: 1612.1 ± 1144.8 U/l) in semen samples post-thawing. Extracellular water crystals were larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates frozen in NW-containing media. Ultrasonographic examinations on day 40 post-AI revealed higher (P < 0.05) conception rates in ewes inseminated with NW (78.3%) compared with DW semen (58.3%), and the percentages of ewes that carried lambs to term were 73.3% and 45.0% in NW and DW groups, respectively (P

  14. The utility of nanowater for ram semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz; Grygier, Joanna; Patkowski, Krzysztof; Oszczęda, Zdzisław; Jelkin, Igor; Kosiek, Anna; Gruszecki, Tomasz M; Szymanowska, Anna; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Zieba, Dorota A; Bartlewski, Pawel M

    2015-05-01

    Nanowater (NW; water declusterized in the low-temperature plasma reactor) has specific physicochemical properties that could increase semen viability after freezing and hence fertility after artificial insemination (AI) procedures. The main goal of this study was to evaluate ram semen quality after freezing in the media containing NW. Ejaculates from 10 rams were divided into two equal parts, diluted in a commercially available semen extender (Triladyl®; MiniTüb GmbH, Tiefenbach, Germany) prepared with deionized water (DW) or NW, and then frozen in liquid nitrogen. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility and morphology using the sperm class analyzer system and light microscopy. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed to determine the size of extracellular water crystals in frozen semen samples. Survival time at room temperature, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations post-thawing as well as conception/lambing rates after laparoscopic intrauterine AI of 120 ewes were also determined. There were no significant differences between DW and NW groups in sperm progressive motility (26.4 ± 12.2 and 30.8 ± 12.4%) or survival time (266.6 ± 61.3 and 270.9 ± 76.7 min) after thawing and no differences in the percentages of spermatozoa with various morphological defects before or after freezing. There were, however, differences (P < 0.05) in AspAT (DW: 187.1 ± 160.4 vs. NW: 152.7 ± 118.3 U/l) and ALP concentrations (DW: 2198.3 ± 1810.5 vs. NW: 1612.1 ± 1144.8 U/l) in semen samples post-thawing. Extracellular water crystals were larger (P < 0.05) in ejaculates frozen in NW-containing media. Ultrasonographic examinations on day 40 post-AI revealed higher (P < 0.05) conception rates in ewes inseminated with NW (78.3%) compared with DW semen (58.3%), and the percentages of ewes that carried lambs to term were 73.3% and 45.0% in NW and DW groups, respectively (P < 0.01). In summary, the use of a semen

  15. Correlation between lead and cadmium concentration and semen quality.

    PubMed

    Pant, N; Kumar, G; Upadhyay, A D; Gupta, Y K; Chaturvedi, P K

    2015-10-01

    There are contrary reports of association of lead and cadmium with the decline in semen quality. This study evaluates whether seminal lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) at environmental concentration are associated with altered semen quality. We conducted a study of healthy fertile and infertile men 20-43 years of age attending the Andrology Laboratory of Reproductive Biology Department for semen analysis. The semen analysis was carried out according to the WHO 2010 guidelines. Seminal lead and cadmium were estimated by ICP-AES. The lead and cadmium values were significantly higher in infertile subjects. A negative association between seminal lead or cadmium concentration and sperm concentration, sperm motility and per cent abnormal spermatozoa was found. This study shows that exposure to Pb (5.29-7.25 μg dl(-1) ) and cadmium (4.07-5.92 μg dl(-1) ) might affect semen profile in men. Age, diet, smoking and tobacco chewing habits may have an influence on the increase in exposure to Pb and Cd in the individual subjects.

  16. [In vitro assessment of semen for the prediction of fertility].

    PubMed

    Waberski, D; Petrounkina, A; Weitze, K F; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    1999-02-01

    The prediction of fertility is a primary goal in the field of reproductive medicine. The aim of the present paper is to describe the value of conventional and modern sperm analysis systems considering the process of fertilization. The classical assessment of motility and morphology enables the rough estimation of semen quality in order to select ejaculates for the use in artificial insemination. Recent methods for sperm diagnosis, such as fluorescent marking for the detection of sperm plasma membrane integrity, the hypoosmotic swelling test, and computer assisted semen analysis allow for the evaluation of a large number of spermatozoa and the assessment of sperm dynamics under in vitro-fertilization conditions. The oocyte penetration test investigates the ability of spermatozoa for capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction in vitro. The amount of specific seminal plasma proteins is related to fertility and thereby provides an additional semen evaluation method. For the use of a given semen test the specific in vitro condition has to be considered. In addition, the evaluated criteria relevant for the process of fertilization need to be defined. The combination of selected semen tests gives a higher accuracy for the prediction of fertilizing capacity compared with a single test. PMID:10077807

  17. Transmission of sexually transmitted diseases by donor semen.

    PubMed

    Shanis, B S; Check, J H; Baker, A F

    1989-01-01

    Therapeutic insemination by donor (TID) is being used with increasing frequency. Because many diseases, some of which are lethal, can be transmitted through semen, the American Fertility Society established guidelines for use of donor sperm. They limit TID to cases of male infertility or hereditary/genetic disorders. Donor selection requires good health and absence of genetic abnormalities; criteria for semen including normal sperm motility, concentration, and normal morphology, and blood screening for infectious agents. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing should be performed initially in donors for fresh semen inseminations. If positive, the assay is verified with a Western blot test; if negative, the donor should be screened at 6-month intervals. Frozen samples should not be used until the 180 day reevaluation of the donor. Many studies show higher pregnancy rates using fresh rather than frozen semen samples for insemination. New methods of cryopreservation minimize the deleterious effects of freezing. If these effects, namely decreased sperm motility and impaired penetration ability, are eliminated, pregnancy rates can be expected to rise. Frozen semen is preferable because it allows time for sexually transmitted diseases to manifest themselves and for specimens from those donors to be rejected prior to use. PMID:2619413

  18. Semen and the diagnosis of infertility in Aristotle.

    PubMed

    Trompoukis, C; Kalaitzis, C; Giannakopoulos, S; Sofikitis, N; Touloupidis, S

    2007-02-01

    Aristotle (384-322bc) was one of the leading intellectual figures of all time. In his work he systematised a massive amount of knowledge on a diverse range of subjects, including medicine. This article discusses the observations and hypotheses of this great philosopher on semen and infertility, as they are presented in his work Generation of Animals. This is combined with an evaluation of his positions in relation to those of the Hippocratic Corpus on the same subject. An extensive review of Aristotle's work Generation of Animals was performed with particular focus on his perspectives about semen and infertility. Publications referring to this work were also reviewed. According to Aristotle, semen is that which contains the principles that come from both parents when they unite. He believed that semen was formed by the secretion of nutriments by the body, developing his theories of sterility on this basic principle. A lack of fertility is attributed to genetic or acquired causes. He proposed methods for diagnosing sterility, primarily the 'water test' for men and the 'pessary' method for women. Even if his observations contain clear mistakes, such as attributing only secondary functions to male testicles and the identification of menses as women's 'seed', Aristotle's views also contain keen observations and exceptional thinking, both on the characteristics of semen and the causes of sterility (infertility).

  19. The effects of semen collection on fertility in captive, naturally fertile, sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, G.; Gee, G.F.; Nicolich, Jane M.; Taylor, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    We tested to see if semen collection interferes with fertility in naturally fertile pairs of cranes. We used 12 naturally fertile, Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) pairs for this study, 6 control and 6 experimental. All pairs had previously produced fertile eggs. Semen was collected on Tuesday mornings and Friday afternoons from 26 February 1993 to 4 June 1993. We used standard artificial insemination methods to collect and to evaluate the semen and spermatozoa. Semen collection had minimal effect on semen quality and semen quantity. Semen volume, sperm density, sperm motility, sperm morphology, sperm viability, sperm number per collection, and male response to semen collection exhibited significant daily variation. Although semen collection began 13 days before the first egg in the experimental group, we did not observe differences in the date of first egg laid or in fertility between experimental and control groups. Also, we observed no statistically significant differences in the interval between clutches or in the percentage of broken eggs between experimental and control groups. However, 4 eggs were broken by adults during the disturbance associated with capturing birds for semen collection. We found that females with mates from which we consistently gathered better semen samples produced fewer fertile eggs than females with sires producing poorer semen samples (r = 0.60). We interpret these results to mean that males that were successfully breeding with their mates had little left at the time of our collection.

  20. Association of Blood and Semen Lead and Zinc Level with Semen Parameter in the Male Partner of Infertile Couple.

    PubMed

    Fatima, P; Hossain, M M; Rahman, D; Rahman, M W; Mugni, C R; Sumon, G M; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N

    2015-07-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in Center for Assisted Reproduction, Dhaka, and in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to December 2012. The study population was 71 consecutive male partners of infertile couple suffering from at least one year of infertility. Lead and Zinc level was measured in blood and semen in the male partner of infertile couple and compared with semen parameters. Serum zinc at different values did not show any statistically significant change in semen volume, total count of sperm and total motility of sperm. At serum zinc level 80-< 90 μg/dl blood lead and semen lead level was lowest 20.6 ± 8.60 μg/dl and 48.17 ± 51.33 μg/dl respectively and showed highest total count of sperm (54.00 ± 46.67 million/ml) but was not statistically significant. Rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology was also highest at values 80-< 90 μg/dl and was 45.33 ± 26.62% and 36.67 ± 11.60% respectively and was statistically significant. At serum zinc level > 90 μg/dl semen lead level was significantly higher (120.73 ± 58.02 μg/dl) and showed statistically significant decrease in rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology. Total count of sperm was lowest at blood zinc level of 70-< 80 μg/dl. Sperm morphology also showed statistically significant improvement at Serum zinc values of 80-< 90 μg/dl. The results suggest that Serum zinc level of values 80-< 90 μg/dl is the optimum level to have the best impact on semen parameter as well it is the critical level at which the semen lead level is lowest. Serum zinc levels higher as well as lower than values 80-< 90 μg/dl was associated with increased semen lead values and with negative impact on semen parameters.

  1. Rotation of Boar Semen Doses During Storage Affects Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Rüdiger, K; Waberski, D

    2015-08-01

    It is common practice to rotate boar semen doses during storage for prevention of sperm sedimentation. In this study, the effect of rotation of boar semen doses during storage on sperm quality was investigated. Manual turning twice daily and automatic rotation five times per hour resulted in the following effects: alkalinization of the BTS-extender, loss of membrane integrity at day 3, and loss of motility and changes in sperm kinematics during a thermoresistance test at day 5. Using a pH-stabilized variant of BTS extender, sperm motility and velocity decreased in continuously rotated samples, whereas membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity remain unaffected. It is concluded that rotation of semen samples adversely affects sperm quality and, therefore, should no longer be recommended for AI practice. PMID:25974759

  2. Impact of a deep saturation dive on semen quality.

    PubMed

    Aitken, R J; Buckingham, D; Richardson, D; Gardiner, J C; Irvine, D S

    2000-04-01

    The demonstration dive 'Aurora' has provided an opportunity to study the impact of extreme hyperbaric conditions on male fertility. This operation involved a 33-day diving programme during which divers were exposed to a maximum pressure of 4.6 Mega Pascals (Mpa) for 7 days. At days - 4, + 27, + 34, + 82 and + 263 relative to the initiation of the dive, semen samples were analysed to determine the quality of spermatogenesis and the functional competence of the spermatozoa. A dramatic fall in semen quality was observed in association with the dive and by day + 82 the potential fertility of the men was seriously compromised as evidenced by oligoasthenoteratozoospermic semen profiles and the poor fertilizing potential of the spermatozoa. These studies indicate, for the first time, that the severe hyperbaric conditions associated with deep saturation dives have a profound effect on male reproductive function.

  3. Analysis of PAEs in semen of infertile men

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Wang, Yu; Xie, Fang-Qin; Li, Yan-Xing; Wan, Xue-Lian; Ma, Wei-Wei; Wang, De-Cai; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Phthalates are environmental chemicals with reproductive toxicity and estrogenic effects in animals. They are of increasing concern to human health. Aim: To determine whether phthalate levels in semen were associated with infertility. Methods: Using semen samples from 107 infertile and 94 fertile men, the presence and quantity of five phthalate esters were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Using data collected from questionnaires and clinical examinations, the correlation between phthalate exposure and semen quality was analyzed. Results: The cumulative levels of the measured phthalate esters were significantly higher in the infertility group compared to the control group (P<0·05). Concentrations of the five phthalate esters in men varied by age with older men showing higher cumulative levels. Conclusions: The presence of phthalates may contribute to male infertility in our study population. PMID:25384258

  4. Laboratory semen assessment and prediction of fertility: still utopia?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2003-08-01

    Finding a laboratory test reliable enough to predict the potential fertility of a given semen sample or a given sire for artificial insemination (AI) is still considered utopian, as indicated by the modest correlations seen between results obtained in vitro and field fertility. Male fertility is complex, and depends upon a heterogeneous population of spermatozoa interacting at various levels of the female genital tract, the vestments of the oocyte, and the oocyte itself. For this reason, laboratory assessment of semen must include the testing of most sperm attributes relevant for fertilization and embryo development, not only in individual spermatozoa but within a large sperm population as well. Strategies for the discovery of in vitro predictors of semen fertility require evaluations of low sperm doses for AI, so that differences in innate in vivo fertility can be accurately detected.

  5. Semen retrieval and analysis in men with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Hultling, C; Levi, R; Amark, S P; Sjöblom, P

    2000-10-01

    The introduction of advanced assisted reproduction technologies (ART) has created opportunities for the treatment of infertility among patients with myelomeningocele (MMC). The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of semen retrieval and to analyse the semen quality in men with MMC. Nine men, aged 22 to 39 with MMC participated in the study. Two participants were able to achieve unassisted ejaculation. Vibratory stimulation was unsuccessfully attempted in the remaining seven participants who then underwent electroejaculation under general anaesthesia. In total, enough spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic spermatozoa injection were retrieved from five participants. In four cases, no spermatozoa were observed in the ejaculates. Testicular biopsies, however, revealed spermatogenesis, and thus a reproductive potential, in one of these men. Therefore, in six of the nine men with MMC, fatherhood seemed possible with modern ART, despite the semen quality generally being very poor.

  6. A trial of semen collection by transrectal electroejaculation method from Amur leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilurus)

    PubMed Central

    TAJIMA, Hideo; YOSHIZAWA, Madoka; SASAKI, Shinichi; YAMAMOTO, Fujio; NARUSHIMA, Etsuo; OGAWA, Yuka; ORIMA, Hiromitsu; TSUTSUI, Toshihiko; TOYONAGA, Mari; KOBAYASHI, Masanori; KAWAKAMI, Eiichi; HORI, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We collected semen from a male Amur leopard cat using the transrectal electroejaculation method and investigated the semen qualities for about four years. In addition, the influence of the season on the spermatogenic function of the Amur leopard cat was investigated with regard to the semen qualities, testicular volume and serum testosterone level. As a result, we could collect semen with good sperm qualities that would be useable for artificial insemination. Some seasonality was noted in the testicular volume and serum testosterone level. We clarified that the semen qualities were favorable before and during the female breeding season compared with those after the breeding season. PMID:26935841

  7. Colloid centrifugation of fresh stallion semen before cryopreservation decreased microorganism load of frozen-thawed semen without affecting seminal kinetics.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, T; Lopes, G; Pinto, M; Silva, E; Miranda, C; Correia, M J; Damásio, L; Thompson, G; Rocha, A

    2015-01-15

    Freezability of equine semen may be influenced by microorganism population of semen. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of single-layer density gradient centrifugation (SLC) of fresh semen before cryopreservation on semen's microbial load (ML) and sperm cells kinetics after freezing-thawing. For that, one ejaculate was collected from 20 healthy stallions and split into control (C) samples (cryopreserved without previous SLC) and SLC samples (subjected to SLC). Semen cryopreservation was performed according to the same protocol in both groups. Microbial load of each microorganism species and total microbial load (TML) expressed in colony-forming units (CFU/mL) as well as frozen-thawed sperm kinetics were assessed in both groups. Additional analysis of the TML was performed, subdividing the frozen-thawed samples in "suitable" (total motility ≥ 30%) and "unsuitable" (total motility < 30%) semen for freezing programs, and comparing the C and SLC groups within these subpopulations. After thawing, SLC samples had less (P < 0.05) TML (88.65 × 10(2) ± 83.8 × 10(2) CFU/mL) than C samples (155.69 × 10(2) ± 48.85 × 10(2) CFU/mL), mainly due to a reduction of Enterococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. A relationship between post-thaw motility and SLC effect on ML was noted, as only in samples with more than 30% total motility was ML reduced (P < 0.05) by SLC (from 51.33 × 10(2) ± 33.26 × 10(2) CFU/mL to 26.68 × 10(2) ± 12.39 × 10(2) CFU/mL in "suitable" frozen-thawed semen vs. 240.90 × 10(2) ± 498.20 × 10(2) to 139.30 × 10(2) ± 290.30 × 10(2) CFU/mL in "unsuitable" frozen-thawed semen). The effect of SLC on kinetics of frozen-thawed sperm cells was negligible.

  8. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation.

  9. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2014-02-01

    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation. PMID:24665683

  10. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  11. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  12. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-01-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled. PMID:27313137

  13. Reproduction in nondomestic birds: Physiology, semen collection, artificial insemination and cryopreservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Bertschinger, H.; Donoghue, A.M.; Blanco, J.; Soley, J.

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering work by Quinn and Burrows in the late 1930s led to successful artificial insemination (AI) programs in the domestic poultry industry. A variety of species specific modifications to the Quinn and Burrows massage technique made AI possible in nondomestic birds. Massage semen collection and insemination techniques span the entire range of species from sparrows to ostriches. Also, cooperative semen collection and electroejaculation have found limited use in some nondomestic species. Artificial insemination produces good fertility, often exceeding fertility levels in naturally copulating populations. However, aviculturists should explore other ways to improve fertility before resorting to AI. Artificial insemination is labor intensive and may pose risks to nondomestic birds as well as handlers associated with capture and insemination. Semen collection and AI makes semen cryopreservation and germ plasma preservation possible. Yet, semen cryopreservation techniques need improvement before fertility with frozen-thawed semen will equal fertility from AI with fresh semen.

  14. Maintaining semen quality by improving cold chain equipment used in cattle artificial insemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Daniel; McClure, Elizabeth; Harston, Stephen; Madan, Damian

    2016-06-01

    Artificial insemination of dairy cattle is a common practice in the developing world that can improve farmer incomes and food security. Maintaining the fertilizing potential of frozen semen as it is manipulated, transported and stored is crucial to the success of this process. Here we describe simple technological improvements to protect semen from inadvertent thermal fluctuations that occur when users mishandle semen using standard equipment. We show that when frozen semen is mishandled, characteristics of semen biology associated with fertility are negatively affected. We describe several design modifications and results from thermal performance tests of several improved prototypes. Finally, we compare semen that has been mishandled in standard and improved equipment. The data suggest that our canister improvements can better maintain characteristics of semen biology that correlate with fertility when it is mishandled.

  15. "Tras de un Amoroso Lance" como Estructura Expresiva (The Poem, "Behind the Amorous Cast" as an Expressive Structure).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratosevich, Nicolas

    1967-01-01

    An analysis of a poem by San Juan de la Cruz (St. John of the Cross), the sixteenth century Spanish mystic, identifies symbols and images, explains themes, and offers a synthesis of his structural patterns. The poem, "Tras de amoroso lance", deals with the theme of the search of the beloved (i.e., the soul) for the lover, and incorporates the…

  16. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  17. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  18. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  19. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Zika Virus Isolated from Semen

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Victoria; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Dowall, Stuart D.; Pullan, Steven T.; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus currently circulating in numerous countries in South America, the Caribbean, and the Western Pacific Region. Using an unbiased metagenomic sequencing approach, we report here the first complete genome sequence of ZIKV isolated from a clinical semen sample. PMID:27738033

  1. TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN HOME TAP WATER AND SEMEN QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trihalomethane Levels in Home Tap Water and Semen Quality
    Laura Fenster, 1 Kirsten Waller, 2 Gayle Windham, 1 Tanya Henneman, 2 Meredith Anderson, 2 Pauline Mendola, 3 James W. Overstreet, 4 Shanna H. Swan5

    1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environm...

  2. 9 CFR 98.36 - Animal semen from Canada.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal semen from Canada. 98.36 Section 98.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION...

  3. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  4. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  5. Ebola Virus Persistence in Semen of Male Survivors.

    PubMed

    Uyeki, Timothy M; Erickson, Bobbie Rae; Brown, Shelley; McElroy, Anita K; Cannon, Deborah; Gibbons, Aridth; Sealy, Tara; Kainulainen, Markus H; Schuh, Amy J; Kraft, Colleen S; Mehta, Aneesh K; Lyon, G Marshall; Varkey, Jay B; Ribner, Bruce S; Ellison, Richard T; Carmody, Ellie; Nau, Gerard J; Spiropoulou, Christina; Nichol, Stuart T; Ströher, Ute

    2016-06-15

    We investigated the duration of Ebola virus (EBOV) RNA and infectious EBOV in semen specimens of 5 Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors. EBOV RNA and infectious EBOV was detected by real-time RT-PCR and virus culture out to 290 days and 70 days, respectively, after EVD onset. PMID:27045122

  6. Bloody semen, severe hypertension and a worried man

    PubMed Central

    Ambakederemo, Tamaraemumoemi Emmanuella; Dodiyi-Manuel, Sotonye Tamunobelema; Ebuenyi, Ikenna Desmond

    2015-01-01

    Haematospermia is often associated with severe uncontrolled hypertension. The bloody semen is often very worrisome for the patient and his sexual partner(s). In addition to anti-hypertensive, counselling and lifestyle modification are essential for management of the condition. PMID:26175817

  7. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  8. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  9. 19 CFR 12.32 - Honeybees and honeybee semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honeybees and honeybee semen. 12.32 Section 12.32 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Wild Animals, Birds, and Insects § 12.32 Honeybees and...

  10. Effectiveness of two systems for transporting equine semen.

    PubMed

    Malmgren, L

    1998-10-15

    The storage and transport of cooled, liquid semen is an effective way of facilitating the use of desirable stallions for breeding mares located on distant farms. The Equitainer System is the most widely used transport container and it has been shown that it is possible to ship semen in this container and obtain good conception rates. However, the cost of Equitainers is high, and stud-farms that ship large quantities of semen have tended to rely on cheaper alternatives, even though little documentation exists concerning their reliability, especially under extreme temperature conditions. Two different containers for transporting equine semen (the Equitainer and a styrofoam box) were compared in their effectiveness at maintaining semen quality (i.e. sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity) during 24 h of storage. The transport containers were stored at 2 different environmental temperatures, i.e., room temperature (20 degrees C) and 37 degrees C. Thirty-seven ejaculates from 10 Standardbred stallions (3 to 6 samples per stallion) were examined. Sperm function and plasma membrane integrity were assessed using a Mika Motion Analyzer and a fluorescein stain (Calcein AM/Ethidium homodimer) in fresh diluted semen that had been stored for 24 h at room temperature (20 degrees C). Another 18 ejaculates from 5 stallions were examined using methods described above, but the transport boxes were kept at a high environmental temperature (37 degrees C). After storage at room temperature, there was no significant difference in total sperm motility and frequency of spermatozoa with an intact plasma membrane between the 2 types of transport boxes. A significant difference was seen in linear sperm motility, with the Equitainer being the better container. However, a significant difference was also seen in average path velocity, with the styrofoam box being the better container. After storage at 37 degrees C, the Equitaner maintained semen quality better. A significant difference

  11. Semen quality in relation to biomarkers of pesticide exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Kruse, Robin L; Liu, Fan; Barr, Dana B; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Brazil, Charlene; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported reduced sperm concentration and motility in fertile men in a U.S. agrarian area (Columbia, MO) relative to men from U.S. urban centers (Minneapolis, MN; Los Angeles, CA; New York, NY). In the present study we address the hypothesis that pesticides currently used in agriculture in the Midwest contributed to these differences in semen quality. We selected men in whom all semen parameters (concentration, percentage sperm with normal morphology, and percentage motile sperm) were low (cases) and men in whom all semen parameters were within normal limits (controls) within Missouri and Minnesota (sample sizes of 50 and 36, respectively) and measured metabolites of eight current-use pesticides in urine samples provided at the time of semen collection. All pesticide analyses were conducted blind with respect to center and case-control status. Pesticide metabolite levels were elevated in Missouri cases, compared with controls, for the herbicides alachlor and atrazine and for the insecticide diazinon [2-isopropoxy-4-methyl-pyrimidinol (IMPY)]; for Wilcoxon rank test, p = 0.0007, 0.012, and 0.0004 for alachlor, atrazine, and IMPY, respectively. Men from Missouri with high levels of alachlor or IMPY were significantly more likely to be cases than were men with low levels [odds ratios (ORs) = 30.0 and 16.7 for alachlor and IMPY, respectively], as were men with atrazine levels higher than the limit of detection (OR = 11.3). The herbicides 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and metolachlor were also associated with poor semen quality in some analyses, whereas acetochlor levels were lower in cases than in controls (p = 0.04). No significant associations were seen for any pesticides within Minnesota, where levels of agricultural pesticides were low, or for the insect repellent DEET (N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide) or the malathion metabolite malathion dicarboxylic acid. These associations between current-use pesticides and reduced semen quality suggest that

  12. Dietary patterns and semen quality in young men

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Colaci, Daniela S.; Mendiola, Jaime; Swan, Shanna H.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2012-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are different dietary patterns associated with semen parameters in young men? STUDY ANSWER The consumption of a Prudent dietary pattern was significantly associated with higher progressive sperm motility and unrelated to sperm concentration and morphology. The consumption of a Western dietary pattern was unrelated to conventional semen quality parameters. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Over the past decades there has been evidence of a concomitant decline in sperm and diet quality. Yet whether diet composition influences semen quality remains largely unexplored. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The Rochester Young Men's Study (n= 188) was a cross-sectional study conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the University of Rochester. PARTICIPANTS, SETTING, METHODS Men aged 18–22 years were included in this analysis. Diet was assessed via food frequency questionnaire and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns and conventional semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, progressive motility and morphology) adjusting for abstinence time, multivitamin use, race, smoking status, BMI, recruitment period, moderate-to-intense exercise and total calorie intake. RESULTS Two dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The ‘Western’ pattern was characterized by high intake of red and processed meat, refined grains, pizza, snacks, high-energy drinks and sweets. The ‘Prudent’ pattern was characterized by high intake of fish, chicken, fruit, vegetables, legumes and whole grains. The Prudent pattern was positively associated with percent progressively motile sperm in multivariate models (P-trend = 0.04). Men in the highest quartile of the Prudent diet had 11.3% (95% CI 1.3, 21.3) higher % progressively motile sperm compared with men in the lowest quartile. The Prudent pattern was unrelated to sperm concentration and morphology. The Western pattern was not associated with any semen

  13. Some factors that influence semen characteristics in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Theau-Clément, M; Bolet, G; Sanchez, A; Saleil, G; Brun, J M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study, based on a five-year-long experiment, was to analyse some of the factors that influence rabbit sperm production. A total of 174 bucks between 23 and 44 weeks of age from five successive groups were used for semen collection one day per week, two times, at a 15 min interval (ejaculates of rank 1 and 2), over a period of 21 weeks. Immediately after collection, pH, mass motility, volume and concentration were measured using classical methods, and a set of motility parameters were recorded by a computer-assisted semen analysis system. Between groups, the number of motile sperm per ejaculate, considered as a synthetic criterion combining both qualitative and quantitative aspects of semen characteristics, varied from simple to double (from 150 to 326×10(6)), reflecting the strong influence of uncontrolled environmental factors. Adult (37-43 weeks old) expressed a higher number of motile sperm/ejaculate than younger bucks (300 vs. 205×10(6)). In autumn the number of motile sperm/ejaculate was higher than in summer (287 vs. 188×10(6)). Sperm production was higher on average for the first ejaculate compared to the second one (270 vs. 167×10(6)). For several semen characteristics, the effect of the collector was significant but without any repercussion on sperm production. Bucks born to nulliparous or primiparous does had higher performances. This study highlights the high variability of rabbit semen characteristics and the multitude of factors involved, either controlled or uncontrolled. PMID:25862381

  14. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in avian semen.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Lukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-10-01

    The present study compared the antioxidant system and lipid peroxidation in semen of two avian species: chicken and goose. The experiment was conducted on Greenleg Partridge roosters and White Koluda(®) ganders, each represented by 10 mature males. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma. In gander spermatozoa, the amount of MDA was 10 times greater (P<0.01) than in rooster spermatozoa. Each of the investigated antioxidant enzymes had greater (P<0.01) activity in goose than chicken sperm. Catalase activity was detected in seminal plasma and spermatozoa from both studied species for the first time. In seminal plasma, the activity of GPx was two times greater (P<0.01) in the White Koluda(®) than in chickens, whereas SOD activity was less (P<0.01) than in chickens. This is the first study describing the presence of CAT in avian semen and the occurrence of indicator of lipid peroxidation (LPO) in geese. Data from the present study clearly show the species-specific differences in the activity of antioxidant defense and LPO. The greater amount of lipid peroxidation and greater activity of antioxidant enzymes in goose semen might suggest that spermatozoa were under greater oxidative stress and the enzymes were not utilized for the protection of functionally and structurally impaired cells. In turn, in fresh chicken semen a lesser activity of antioxidant enzymes accompanied with a lesser lipid peroxidation amount and good semen quality could indicate that fowl spermatozoa were under oxidative stress, but the enzymes were employed to protect and maintain sperm quality.

  15. Ways to improve the biosecurity of bovine semen.

    PubMed

    de Ruigh, L; Bosch, J C; Brus, M C; Landman, B; Merton, J S

    2006-08-01

    Semen production and trade is a worldwide industry. A framework, based on international standards is awaiting international and national regulation. In the perspective of biosecurity of the final product, critical notes can be made according to the semen production regulation and product safety. Process description brings the obligatory health standards for the production bulls, collection and processing of semen, identification, registration, worldwide distribution and insemination into discussion. Test frequency, test quality and demands, way of sampling and test consistency can influence product safety. New scientific knowledge can influence the value of the regulation. Whether a country is free of notifiable disease should influence decisions regarding necessary tests for the production bulls. The biosecurity of the semen production process is influenced by several factors. The effectiveness of the antibiotics used is questionable. The extenders for cryopreservation added to the semen can affect product safety. The way materials and storage containers have to be disinfected must be clear. In modern industry, tracking and tracing is an important issue. Worldwide differences in ways of identification of straws do not benefit a proper identification and registration throughout the process. Regulation could help improve the transparency of production and trade. Before anything concerning biohazard is implemented in regulation, each rule should be thoroughly based on scientific research where possible and furthermore it must be possible to enforce the regulation. The effort it takes to enforce the regulation should be in balance with the benefit it provides. An approach to alter regulation quickly is advisable. To produce a safe product that is accepted for international trade is of vital interest for the survival of artificial insemination (AI) in cattle. PMID:16869880

  16. Application and commercialization of flow cytometrically sex-sorted semen.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Johnson, L A

    2008-07-01

    The current technology to sort X and Y chromosome bearing sperm population requires individual identification and selection of spermatozoa in a modified high-speed flow cytometer. For farm animal species, the technology is capable of producing sexed sperm at greater than 90% purity. However, only in the bovine, the technology has reached a developmental level that allows its commercial application. Meanwhile, the demand for female calves has grown rapidly, which encourages the demand for sex-sorted semen from high genetic value bulls. The success of the technology will depend mainly on the fertilizing capacity of the sorted spermatozoa, as this is the most affecting and economically relevant factor. To date, fertility is still variable and is quite dependent on post-sort processing. New processing techniques are under investigation and will likely be able to improve the fertility rates after AI with sex-sorted semen. It is of great importance to select the right bulls and to test the sorted samples on a routine basis. In addition to the demand for sex-sorted semen by the cattle industry, there is also a significant demand expressed by pig farmers. However, it is still unknown if the use of sex-sorted semen through commercial pig AI will be economically feasible. For the pig, the combination of in vitro fertilization with sexed semen and non-surgical embryo transfer is an alternative that merits further scientific attention. Recent developments in ovine AI and ET will make it very likely that commercial sheep industry will adopt the sexing technology in their breeding concepts. PMID:18638144

  17. TEMPORARY STORAGE OF BOVINE SEMEN CRYOPRESERVED IN LIQUID NITROGEN ON DRY ICE AND REFREEZING OF FROZEN-THAWED SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Abdussamad, A M; Gauly, M; Holtz, W

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to investigate whether viability of bovine semen stored in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) will be adversely affected by temporary exposure to dry ice (-79°C). It was convincingly shown that post thaw-motility was not affected, regardless whether semen was thawed immediately or after being returned to liquid nitrogen. Shipping or temporary storage on dry ice, thus, is a viable option. In Experiment 2, refreezing of frozen-thawed semen was attempted. The proportion of motile spermatozoa was reduced by a factor of ten to between 6.0 % and 7.4 %, regardless whether thawing occurred directly after removal from liquid nitrogen or after an interim period on dry ice. When semen was refrozen on dry ice before being returned to liquid nitrogen, motility rates were significantly improved (13.0 % to 17.0 %, P<0.05). In both experiments sperm cells that remained motile displayed vigorous forward movement and normal morphological appearance. PMID:26576003

  18. Long term storage of bee semen – A six month assessment of cryopreserved semen quality using motility as an index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bee (Apis mellifera Linn.) spermatozoa is known for its ability to remain viable for at the least two years within the spermatheca as attested to by the queens’ continued laying of fertile eggs without remating over two to three (Woyke 1960; Winston 1987). However, the semen collected from the dron...

  19. Characterization of semen collected from beagles and captive Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Kojima, E; Tsuruga, H; Komatsu, T; Murase, T; Tsubota, T; Kita, I

    2001-02-01

    This study characterized semen collected from the Japanese black bear, Ursus thibetanus aponicus, to provide information on semen cryopreservation for artificial breeding. Preliminary studies using a beagle dog as the model species showed that sperm concentration and total sperm count were lower in semen collected by electroejaculation than in semen collected by digital manipulation, but that sperm motility, viability and morphology were similar. Characterization of semen obtained from Japanese black bears by electroejaculation under general anesthesia revealed that semen volume and total number of spermatozoa collected were lower; but that sperm concentration, motility, viability and morphology were equivalent to those reported in other ursids. When semen was collected via a catheter inserted into the urethra during the stimulation for ejaculation, the sperm concentration, total sperm count and motility were relatively higher than when semen was collected directly in a test tube. Specific normal semen characteristics (mean +/- SEM) were pH, 7.6 +/- 0.0; volume, 0.212 +/- 0.038 mL; sperm concentration, 361 +/- 100 x 10(6)/mL; total sperm count, 84.0 +/- 32.2 x 106; +++ motility, 30 +/- 5%; motility, 77 +/- 3%; viability 77 +/- 2%; and abnormal morphology, 11+/- 2%. These results suggest that semen can be collected from Japanese black bears by electroejaculation. PMID:11245261

  20. Relationship between age and semen parameters in men with normal sperm concentration: analysis of 6022 semen samples.

    PubMed

    Levitas, E; Lunenfeld, E; Weisz, N; Friger, M; Potashnik, G

    2007-04-01

    This study evaluates retrospectively the relationship between age and semen parameters among men with normal sperm concentration. It was based on computerized data and performed in an Academic Fertility and IVF Unit. Six thousand and twenty-two semen samples with sperm concentrations of >or=20 x 10(6) ml(-1) were examined according to WHO criteria and analysed in relation to patients' age. For each age group, mean values +/- SD of semen volume, sperm concentration, percentage of motile spermatozoa, normal morphology, acrosome index, total sperm count/ejaculate, total motile sperm count/ejaculate and sexual abstinence duration were examined. A peak semen volume of 3.51 +/- 1.76 ml(-1) was observed at age >or=30 to <35 years and a lowest volume of 2.21 +/- 1.23 ml(-1) was observed at age >or=55 years (P<0.05). Sperm motility was found to be inversely related to age with peak motility of 44.39 +/- 20.69% at age <25 years and lowest motility of 24.76 +/- 18.27% at age >or=55 years (P<0.05). A reduction of 54% was observed for total motile sperm, between values of 103.34 +/- 107 x 10(6) at age >or=30 to <35 years and 46.68 +/- 53.73 x 10(6) (P<0.05) at age >55 years. A statistically significant and inverse relationship was observed between semen volume, sperm quality and patient age, in spite of prolonged sexual abstinence duration. Top sperm parameters were observed at age >or=30 to <35 years, while the most significant reduction in sperm parameters occurred after the age of 55 years.

  1. Estimation of the genetic parameters of semen quality in Beijing-You chickens.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Chen, J L; Wen, J; Zhao, G P; Zheng, M Q; Liu, R R; Liu, W P; Zhao, L H; Liu, G F; Wang, Z W

    2013-10-01

    By estimating the genetic parameters of various semen quality traits in Beijing-You chickens, this study aims to elucidate the inheritance patterns of these traits and the correlations between them to facilitate setting up appropriate breeding strategies for enhanced semen quality. Semen samples were collected from 518 Beijing-You roosters at 43 wk of age from 3 selection lines related to meat flavor traits. Seven semen quality traits, consisting of semen volume, pH, and color, and sperm viability, motility, percent deformity, and concentration, were determined. Sizeable variations (18-24% CV) were observed for all traits, except for semen pH. The effects of semen collection time and origin of the chickens (line) were analyzed to optimize the proper models for estimating genetic parameters for each trait. The multiple-trait derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood method was used for estimating variance components. The results revealed that sperm viability, motility, and percent deformity exhibited high heritabilities (h(2) = 0.52, 0.85, and 0.60, respectively). Semen volume, semen color, and sperm concentration had moderate heritabilities (h(2) = 0.28, 0.19, and 0.12, respectively). Semen pH showed low heritability (h(2) = 0.03). Genetic and phenotypic correlations between sperm motility and viability were positive and high (rA = 0.88 and rP = 0.59). In addition, these 2 traits were genetically negatively correlated with percent deformity. This implied the possibility of reducing sperm deformity, which is difficult to measure, by indirect selection. It is concluded from this study that semen quality can be improved by selection. The traits with high variations and heritabilities such as semen volume are promising traits for selection to improve semen quality and likely reproductive performance of native chicken breeds.

  2. Testing usability of butylated hydroxytoluene in conservation of goat semen.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, T A A; Lymberopoulos, A G; El-Saidy, B E

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) could be used as a suitable supporter or alternative of egg yolk during preservation of goat spermatozoa. Three in vitro experiments and a fertility test were conducted to evaluate the effect of BHT on viability of chilled-stored semen as well as motility and kidding rate of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. In the first two experiments, ejaculates (n = 30/experiment) were collected from 10 bucks, split, diluted with egg yolk-based and egg yolk-free extenders supplemented with or without 0.3, 0.6, 2, 5 and 8 mM BHT and stored at 5 degrees C for 168 h. In the third experiment, 30 ejaculates were collected from the above-mentioned bucks, split and diluted with egg yolk-free extenders supplemented with or without 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 mM BHT and egg yolk-based extenders supplemented with or without 5 mM BHT. Diluted semen was cooled to 5 degrees C over a period of 4 h, frozen and thawed in the form of 0.3-ml pellets. In the fertility test, 75 ejaculates were collected from two proven fertile bucks, split, diluted with egg yolk-free extenders containing 0.6 mm BHT and egg yolk-based extenders supplemented with or without 5 mM BHT, frozen and thawed as described above. An insemination volume of 0.6 ml containing 120-140 x 10(6) progressively motile spermatozoa was used for a single cervical insemination of cloprostenol-synchronized does (n = 230). The results showed that addition of 5 mM BHT to egg yolk-deficient (2.5%) extenders significantly improved viability of chilled-stored semen together with motility (48.5%) and fertility (62.5%) of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. Replacement of egg yolk in semen extenders by 0.6 mm BHT could sustain not only viability of chilled-stored semen but also post-thaw motility (47.5%) and fertility (53.75%) of frozen-thawed spermatozoa. In conclusion, supplementation of semen diluents with BHT can ameliorate preservability of goat sperm.

  3. Studies on Freezing RAM Semen in Absence of Glycerol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelnaby, Abdelhady Abdelhakeam

    1988-12-01

    Glycerol is widely used as a major cryoprotective agent for freezing spermatozoa of almost all species. However, it reduces fertility of sheep inseminated cervically compared with intrauterine insemination. Studies were conducted to develop a method and procedure for freezing ram semen in the absence of glycerol. Post -thaw survival of ram spermatozoa frozen in the absence of glycerol was affected by time and temperature after collection and before dilution and time after dilution and before freezing. Increase in time at 5^ circC before or after dilution and before freezing increased both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter. A cold dilution method was developed. Slow cooling of fresh ram semen and diluting at 5^circ C 2-3 hr. after collection, then freezing 1 hr. after dilution improved both post-thaw motility and number of cells passing through Sephadex filter compared with immediate dilution at 30-37^circC after collection and freezing 3-4 hr. later (P < 0.05). An extender was developed to freeze ram semen in the absence of glycerol. An increase in post-thaw motility was obtained when semen was extended in TES titrated with Tris to pH 7.0 (TEST) and osmotic pressure of 375-400 mOsm/kg, containing 25-30% (v/v) egg yolk and 10% (v/v) maltose. A special device (boat) for freezing was constructed to insure the same height of the sample above LN _2 and thus the same freezing rate from freeze to freeze. Freezing of semen in 0.25cc straws at 5-10 cm above LN_2 (73.8 to 49.5 ^circC/min) yielded higher post-thaw motility than the rates resulted from freezing at 15 cm above LN_2 or 1 cm above LN _2. Faster Thawing in 37^ circC water for 30 sec. (7.8^ circC/sec.) increased post-thaw motility compared with slower thawing in 5 or 20^circ C water (P < 0.05). A lambing rate of 52.2% was obtained in one fertility trial conducted with ram semen frozen without glycerol and 17.1% in a second trial. One injection (IM) of 15 mg PGF_{2alpha}/ewe for

  4. Impact of pig insemination technique and semen preparation on profitability.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Peña, D; Knox, R V; Pettigrew, J; Rodriguez-Zas, S L

    2014-01-01

    Artificial insemination technique and semen preparation impact boar utilization efficiency, genetic dissemination, and biosecurity. Intrauterine (IUI) and deep intrauterine (DUI) AI techniques require lower number of spermatozoa per dose compared to conventional (CON) AI. Frozen semen (FRO) has been associated with lower reproductive performance compared to fresh semen (FRE) preparation. The combined effects of 3 AI techniques (CON, IUI, and DUI) and 2 semen preparations (FRE and FRO) on the financial indicators of a pig crossbreeding system were studied. A 3-tier system was simulated in ZPLAN and the genetic improvement in a representative scenario was characterized. The cross of nucleus lines B and A generated 200,000 BA sows at the multiplier level. The BA sows were inseminated (CON, IUI, or DUI) with FRE or FRO from line C boars at the commercial level. Semen preparation and AI technique were represented by distinct sow:boar ratios in the C × BA cross. A range of farrowing rates (60 to 90%) and litter sizes (8 to 14 liveborn pigs) were tested. Genetic improvement per year for number born alive, adjusted 21-d litter weight, days to 113.5 kg, backfat, and ADG were 0.01 pigs per litter, 0.06 kg, -0.09 d, -0.29 mm, and 0.88 g, respectively. On average, the net profit for FRE (FRO) increased (P-value < 0.0001) from CON to IUI and DUI by 2.2 (3.2%) and 2.6% (4%), respectively. The differences in profit between techniques were driven by differences in costs. Differences in fixed costs between IUI and DUI relative to CON were -2.4 (-5.2%) and -3.4% (-7.4%), respectively. The differences in total costs between FRE and FRO were lower than -5%. The difference in variable costs between FRE and FRO ranged from -5.3 (CON) to -24.7% (DUI). Overall, insemination technique and semen preparation had a nonlinear effect on profit. The average relative difference in profit between FRE and FRO was less than 3% for the scenarios studied.

  5. A study on the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in semen on bovine fertility.

    PubMed Central

    Eaglesome, M D; Garcia, M M; Bielanski, A B

    1995-01-01

    Two experiments were done to demonstrate whether the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in bovine semen could affect fertilization and/or early embryonic development. In the first experiment, superovulated heifers were inseminated with semen naturally contaminated with P. aeruginosa (ADRI 102) or clean semen and seven day-old embryos were collected nonsurgically. The endometrium of treated heifers appeared more sensitive to the flush procedures. In experiment 2, heifers were inseminated at synchronized estrus with semen experimentally contaminated with P. aeruginosa (ADRI 102) and processed in the same way as commercial semen with antibiotics (gentamicin, lincomycin, spectinomycin and tylosin) or processed without antibiotics added. Embryos were recovered at slaughter seven days later. In general, there was no significant reduction in fertility or development of embryos in vitro as a result of relatively high numbers of P. aeruginosa in bovine semen. PMID:7704848

  6. Characterization and differentiation of normal and abnormal semen samples using micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zufang; Chen, Xiwen; Chen, Jinhua; Li, Yongzeng; Lei, Jinping; Chen, Rong

    2012-12-01

    Growth in the percentage of male infertility has caused extensive concerns. The fast and reliable method is urgently required for diagnosis of semen samples. In our study, micro-Raman spectroscopy was employed to characterize and differentiate the normal and abnormal semen samples based on the differences of their specific Raman spectra which originated from biochemical components. Our preliminary results demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis methods has the potential of being used to detect and differentiate semen samples.

  7. Gallic Acid Is an Antagonist of Semen Amyloid Fibrils That Enhance HIV-1 Infection.

    PubMed

    LoRicco, Josephine G; Xu, Changmingzi Sherry; Neidleman, Jason; Bergkvist, Magnus; Greene, Warner C; Roan, Nadia R; Makhatadze, George I

    2016-07-01

    Recent in vitro studies have demonstrated that amyloid fibrils found in semen from healthy and HIV-infected men, as well as semen itself, can markedly enhance HIV infection rates. Semen fibrils are made up of multiple naturally occurring peptide fragments derived from semen. The best characterized of these fibrils are SEVI (semen-derived enhancer of viral infection), made up of residues 248-286 of prostatic acidic phosphatase, and the SEM1 fibrils, made up of residues 86-107 of semenogelin 1. A small molecule screen for antagonists of semen fibrils identified four compounds that lowered semen-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity. One of the four, gallic acid, was previously reported to antagonize other amyloids and to exert anti-inflammatory effects. To better understand the mechanism by which gallic acid modifies the properties of semen amyloids, we performed biophysical measurements (atomic force microscopy, electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, thioflavin T and Congo Red fluorescence assays, zeta potential measurements) and quantitative assays on the effects of gallic acid on semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and inflammation. Our results demonstrate that gallic acid binds to both SEVI and SEM1 fibrils and modifies their surface electrostatics to render them less cationic. In addition, gallic acid decreased semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection but did not decrease the inflammatory response induced by semen. Together, these observations identify gallic acid as a non-polyanionic compound that inhibits semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection and suggest the potential utility of incorporating gallic acid into a multicomponent microbicide targeting both the HIV virus and host components that promote viral infection.

  8. Symmetry-breaking phase-transitions in highly concentrated semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plouraboué, Franck; Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Cazin, Sébastien; Yu, Hui; Degond, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    New experimental evidence of self-motion of a confined active suspension is presented. Depositing fresh semen sample in an annular shaped micro-fluidic chip leads to a spontaneous rotation motion of the fluid at sufficiently large sperm concentration. The rotation occurs unpredictably clockwise or counterclockwise and is robust and stable. Furthermore, for highly active and concentrated semen, richer dynamics can occur such as self-sustained or damped rotation oscillations. Experimental results obtained with systematic dilution provide a clear evidence of a phase transition toward collective motion associated with local alignment of spermatozoa akin to the Vicsek model. A macroscopic theory based on previously derived Self-Organized Hydrodynamics (SOH) models is adapted to this context and provides predictions consistent with the observed stationary motion.

  9. Breeding soundness evaluation and semen analysis for predicting bull fertility.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, J P; Thundathil, J C

    2008-07-01

    Bull fertility is influenced by numerous factors. Although 20-40% of bulls in an unselected population may have reduced fertility, few are completely sterile. Breeding soundness refers to a bull's ability to get cows pregnant. A standard breeding soundness evaluation identifies bulls with substantial deficits in fertility, but does not consistently identify sub-fertile bulls. In this regard, the use of frozen-thawed semen (from bulls in commercial AI centres) that meets minimum quality standards can result in pregnancy rates that differ by 20-25 percentage points. Although no single diagnostic test can accurately predict variations in fertility among bulls that are producing apparently normal semen, recent studies suggested that a combination of laboratory tests were predictive of fertility. This review is focused on recent developments in prediction of bull fertility, based on assessments at the molecular, cellular and whole-animal levels. PMID:18638148

  10. Challenges and Limits Using Antimicrobial Peptides in Boar Semen Preservation.

    PubMed

    Schulze, M; Grobbel, M; Müller, K; Junkes, C; Dathe, M; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M

    2015-07-01

    Antibiotics are of great importance for the preservation of ejaculates for livestock breading. The use of antibiotics, however, is not an appropriate compensation for a lack of hygiene standards in artificial insemination (AI) centres. Sophisticated hygiene management and the proper identification of hygienic critical control points (HCCPs) at AI centres provide the basis for counteracting the development of antibiotic resistance in contaminant bacteria and their settlement in AI centres. In recent years, efforts have been made to use antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the preservation of boar semen. Investigations have included the testing of synthetic magainin derivatives and cyclic hexapeptides. One prerequisite for the application of AMPs is that they have a minor impact on eukaryotic cells. Bacterial selectivity, proteolytic stability, thermodynamic resistance, and mechanisms including synergistic interaction with conventional antibiotics have made cyclic hexapeptides highly promising candidates for potential application as peptide antibiotics for semen preservation. PMID:26174913

  11. Cryopreservation of Korean Oge chicken semen using N-methylacetamide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong Jo; Kim, Sung Kyu; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Kang, Kyung Soo; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Choi, Seong-Bok; Han, Jae Yong

    2012-01-01

    The importance of genetic resource preservation has been highlighted in the literature as a means of maintaining genetic diversity. Among the various methods of preserving such resources, semen cryopreservation can be advantageous because it reduces the time of restoring genetic resources and is less technique-dependent. The Korean Oge (KO) chicken is a Natural Monument and is recognized as an important genetic resource in Korea. However, successful cryopreservation methods for KO chickens have yet to be reported. Therefore, we completed cryopreservation methods in KO chickens using N-methylacetamide (MA) as a cryoprotectant. Also we performed additional experiments to identify whether fertility and hatchability are affected by long-term storage. Finally, we examined sperm viability in the cryopreserved semen. Our results suggest that the cryopreservation method using MA can be applied to KO chickens regardless of storage period and could be a useful tool for the preservation the endangered avian species.

  12. [Impact of endocrine disrupting chemicals on semen quality].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qian-xi; Huang, Yu-feng

    2011-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or man-made agents that interfere in some way with human or animal normal endocrine function, and even influence the endocrine function of their offspring. There are many kinds of EDCs, which are widely present in soil, water, and even food. This review elaborates the impact of EDCs on human and animal semen quality from the viewpoint of epidemiology and biology by focusing on pesticides, plasticizers and detergents. PMID:22049803

  13. Removal of bacteria from stallion semen by colloid centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Morrell, J M; Klein, C; Lundeheim, N; Erol, E; Troedsson, M H T

    2014-02-01

    Bacteria (environmental contaminants and occasionally potential pathogens) are found in most stallion ejaculates and may negatively affect sperm quality during storage. Since the use of antibiotics can lead to the development of resistance, an alternative means of microbial control is desirable. The removal of bacteria from stallion semen using Single Layer Centrifugation through Androcoll-E was investigated. Known doses of cultured bacteria were added to freshly collected ejaculates (15mL aliquots) before processing by Single Layer Centrifugation. The resulting sperm pellets and controls (not processed by Single Layer Centrifugation) were cultured and the bacteria identified. In experiment 1, doses of E. coli from 2×10(2) to 2×10(7) colony forming units were added to aliquots of semen. In experiment 2, Taylorella equigenitalis or a mix of E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (approximately 7×10(6), 5×10(6), and 6×10(6)cfu, respectively) were added to 15mL aliquots of semen. In experiment 1, more than 90% of the bacteria were removed where loading doses were >×10(4)cfu/mL. In experiment 2, varying proportions of different bacteria were removed, ranging from 68% for naturally occurring Corynebacterium spp. to >97% for added cultured E. coli. Thus, Single Layer Centrifugation can separate spermatozoa from many, but not all bacteria in stallion ejaculates and could be a useful alternative to adding antibiotics to semen extenders to control bacterial contamination. However, further research is needed to determine the effect of small numbers of bacteria on sperm quality.

  14. Superoxide Dismutase: A Predicting Factor for Boar Semen Characteristics for Short-Term Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Nemec Svete, Alenka

    2014-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in seminal plasma were evaluated on the basis of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis as predictors for distinguishing satisfactory from unsatisfactory boar semen samples after storage. SOD on day 0 correlated significantly with progressive motility (r = −0.686; P < 0.05) and viability (r = −0.513; P < 0.05) after storage; TBARS correlated only with motility (r = −0.480; P < 0.05). Semen samples that, after 3 days of storage, fulfilled all criteria for semen characteristics (viability > 85%, motility > 70%, progressive motility > 25%, and normal morphology > 50%) had significantly lower SOD levels on the day 0 than those with at least one criterion not fulfilled (P < 0.05) following storage. SOD levels of less than 1.05 U/mL predicted with 87.5% accuracy that fresh semen will suit the requirements for satisfactory semen characteristics after storage, while semen with SOD levels higher than 1.05 U/mL will not fulfill with 100% accuracy at least one semen characteristic after storage. These results support the proposal that SOD in fresh boar semen can be used as a predictor of semen quality after storage. PMID:24729963

  15. Role of Semen on Vaginal HIV-1 Transmission and Maraviroc Protection

    PubMed Central

    Council, Olivia D.; Swanson, Michael D.; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann

    2015-01-01

    We used bone marrow/liver/thymus (BLT) humanized mice to establish the effect of semen on vaginal HIV infection and on the efficacy of topically applied maraviroc. Our results demonstrate that vaginal transmission of cell-free HIV occurs efficiently in the presence of semen and that topically applied maraviroc efficiently prevents HIV transmission in the presence of semen. We also show that semen has no significant effect on the transmission of transmitted/founder viruses or cell-associated viruses. PMID:26392489

  16. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) provides antioxidant protection for boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Cano, R; González, N; Luño, V

    2012-05-01

    Boar semen is extremely vulnerable to cold shock and it is also sensitive to peroxidation due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids in the plasma membrane. Antioxidants exert a protective effect on the plasma membrane of frozen boar sperm. Fennel has been shown to contain antioxidant substances. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of fennel added to the freezing extender on boar semen quality and lipid peroxidation after thawing. Semen collected from four boars was cryopreserved in lactose-egg-yolk extender or in the same extender with varying concentration of fennel essences: low (LF); medium (MF); high (HF). Analysis of data clearly indicated that higher concentrations of fennel produced significant improvement in total motility. Moreover, when fennel was included in the extender, a dose-dependent tendency to increase sperm viability was observed. In contrast, the addition of fennel had no effect on acrosome integrity or hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST) compared with the control. Malondialdehyde (MDA) formation decreased significantly in fennel groups, yielding similar results for MF and HF. Fennel seems a new antioxidant for use in sperm cryopreservation, but its particular effects on sperm physiology must be further studied, especially the causes of motility stimulation and its effect on lipoxidation.

  17. Semen study of papaya workers exposed to ethylene dibromide

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliffe, J.M.; Schrader, S.M.; Steenland, K.; Clapp, D.; Turner, T.

    1984-01-01

    A cross sectional semen and cytogenetic study was performed on male workers exposed to ethylene-dibromide (EDB) in the papaya fumigation industry in Hawaii. Semen analyses were conducted on 46 men in six fumigation facilities with an average length of employment of 5 years and airborne exposures to EDB ranging from 16 to 213 parts per billion. Statistically significant decreases in sperm count per ejaculate and the percentage of viable and motile sperm and increases in the proportion of specific morphological abnormalities were observed among exposed men when compared with controls. Semen volume and sperm concentration were also lower in the exposed group. No effect of exposure to EDB on sperm velocity, the overall proportion of sperm with normal morphology or YFF bodies was noted. The authors conclude that based on the decreases in sperm count, viability and motility and increases in certain types of morphological abnormalities among workers exposed to EDB, EDB may increase the risk of reproductive impairment in workers at exposure levels near the NIOSH recommended limit of 45 parts per billion and far below the current OSHA standard of 20 parts per million.

  18. Semen analysis standardization: is there any problem in Polish laboratories?

    PubMed

    Walczak-Jedrzejowska, Renata; Marchlewska, Katarzyna; Oszukowska, Elzbieta; Filipiak, Eliza; Bergier, Leszek; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the degree of compliance of Polish laboratories with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, with regard to semen analysis methodology. A survey requesting information about methods of semen analysis was distributed to employees of 55 laboratories. Respondents who had participated in external seminological workshops (31%) were termed certified respondents (CR), the remaining (69%)-non-certified respondents (NCR). Only one laboratory (6%) in the CR group and none in the NCR were compliant with WHO guidelines for methods and equipment used to evaluate seminal volume, sperm motility, concentration, vitality and morphology. Most problems were of volume measurement (weighing method was reported by 17% of CR and 10% of NCR) and staining method for sperm morphology (Papanicolau or Diff-Quik were found in 33% of CR and 23% of NCR). A three- or four-point grading of sperm motility was used by the majority of respondents; however, 17% of CR and 37% of NCR did not use a laboratory counter to tally spermatozoa. Although a haemocytometer method was used by 80% of laboratories in each group, the improved Neubauer chamber was used only by 42% of CR and 19% of NCR. In each group, 24% of laboratories did not perform a vitality test. Procedural errors and the interchangeable utilization of two or even three methods to analyse a given parameter was observed in both groups. The results indicate a need for standardisation of the methods and continuous, unified training in semen analysis in Polish laboratories.

  19. Prospective surveillance of semen quality in the workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, M.B.; Samuels, S.J.; Perkins, C.; Lewis, E.L.; Katz, D.F.; Overstreet, J.W.

    1988-04-01

    We performed a prospective surveillance of semen quality among workers in the plant where 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane was first recognized as an occupational cause of impaired semen quality and of infertility. All male employees of the Agricultural Chemical Division were required to participate. Ninety-seven workers (92% participation) provided 258 semen samples over the 4 years of the program. Most samples were analyzed at the plant with a mini-laboratory designed for the study. Motility and shape measures were made objectively. Sixty-six subjects (68%) were non-azoospermic. Generalized multiple regression showed no significant predictors for any response, with the exception of the motility measures, which were reduced with longer times between ejaculation and assay. Between- and within-person standard deviations and correlations were calculated. Comparison of this population with fertile artificial insemination donors (16 men, 498 ejaculates) revealed generally higher ejaculate-to-ejaculate standard deviations in the worker samples. This is probably due to less well controlled conditions of sperm collection in the workplace setting. For cross-sectional studies, one ejaculate per worker is recommended as sufficient; for estimating an individual worker's mean, even three ejaculates may not provide enough precision.

  20. Decreases in Human Semen Quality with Age Among Healthy Men

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Kidd, S.A.; Moore, L.; Young, S.S.; Moore, D.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the associations between age and semen quality among healthy active men after controlling for identified covariates. Ninety-seven healthy, nonsmoking men between 22 and 80 years without known fertility problems who worked for or retired from a large research laboratory. There was a gradual decrease in all semen parameters from 22-80 years of age. After adjusting for covariates, volume decreased 0.03 ml per year (p = 0.001); sperm concentration decreased 2.5% per year (p = 0.005); total count decreased 3.6% per year of age (p < 0.001); motility decreased 0.7% per year (P < 0.001); progressive motility decreased 3.1% per year (p < 0.001); and total progressively motile sperm decreased 4.8% per year (p < 0.001). In a group of healthy active men, semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and sperm motility decrease continuously between 22-80 years of age, with no evidence of a threshold.

  1. Influence of chamber type integrated with computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) system on the results of boar semen evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gączarzewicz, D

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of different types of chambers used in computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) on boar sperm concentration and motility parameters. CASA measurements were performed on 45 ejaculates by comparing three commonly used chambers: Leja chamber (LJ), Makler chamber (MK) and microscopic slide-coverslip (SL). Concentration results obtained with CASA were verified by manual counting on a Bürker hemocytometer (BH). No significant differences were found between the concentrations determined with BH vs. LJ and SL, whereas higher (p<0.01) values of this parameter were obtained with MK. Compared to MK and SL, significantly higher values were recorded in LJ for velocity (VCL and VAP) as well as amplitude of the lateral head displacement (ALH) and beat cross frequency (BCF), which was associated with significantly higher percentages of motile, progressively motile and rapidly progressive motile spermatozoa. Higher values for the linearity (LIN) and straightness (STR) of sperm movement were obtained for the analysis performed in MK and SL. In both these chambers, the results of all the linearity and kinetic parameters of sperm were similar (p>0.05). The results obtained show that CASA assessment of boar semen should account for the effect of counting chamber on the results of sperm motility and concentration, which confirms the need for further study on standardizing the automatic analysis of boar semen.

  2. Pregnancy rates following AI with sexed semen in Mediterranean Italian buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Campanile, G; Gasparrini, B; Vecchio, D; Neglia, G; Senatore, E M; Bella, A; Presicce, G A; Zicarelli, L

    2011-08-01

    The use of sexed semen in farm animal production and genetic improvement has been shown to be feasible with variable degree of efficiency in a number of species, and proved to be economically viable in cattle. In the last two decades, various newly developed reproductive technologies applicable in buffaloes have mushroomed. Recently, following the birth of the first buffalo calves using AI with sexed semen, commercial interest to exploit sexing of semen in this species too is aroused. In order to verify the successful adoption of this technology in the buffalo, the present study on the use of sexed semen for AI was carried out and compared with conventional artificial insemination using nonsexed semen. A total of 379 buffalo heifers were used for synchronization of ovulation using the Presynch protocol in the South of Italy. Selected animals at the time of AI were randomly allocated to three different experiment groups: (1) 102 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with sexed semen (SS body); (2) 104 animals subjected to AI in the horn of the uterus with sexed semen (SS horn); and (3) 106 animals subjected to AI in the body of the uterus with conventional nonsexed semen (NSS body). Semen of three buffalo bulls was sexed by a collaborating company and commercially distributed in 0.25 mL straws with a total of 2 million sexed spermatozoa. Pregnancy rates were first assessed at Day 28 following AI, and rechecked at Day 45 by ultrasound. Pregnancy rates were nonsignificantly different between animals inseminated with sexed or nonsexed semen: 80/206 (38.8%) and 40/106 (37.7%), respectively (P = 0.85). However, site of insemination of sexed semen affected pregnancy rate significantly as higher pregnancy rates were obtained when sexed semen was deposited into the body rather than the horn of the uterus: 46/101 (45.5%) and 34/105 (32.3%), respectively (P = 0.05). In conclusion, the use of sexed semen in buffalo heifers gave satisfactory and similar pregnancy

  3. Persistence of DNA from laundered semen stains: Implications for child sex trafficking cases.

    PubMed

    Brayley-Morris, Helen; Sorrell, Amber; Revoir, Andrew P; Meakin, Georgina E; Court, Denise Syndercombe; Morgan, Ruth M

    2015-11-01

    In sexual assault cases, particularly those involving internal child sex trafficking (ICST), victims often hide their semen-stained clothing. This can result in a lag time of several months before the items are laundered and subsequently seized during a criminal investigation. Although it has been demonstrated previously that DNA can be recovered from clothing washed immediately after semen deposition, laundered items of clothing are not routinely examined in ICST cases, due to the assumption that the time delay and washing would result in no detectable DNA. The aim of this study was to examine whether viable DNA profiles could be recovered from laundered semen stains where there has been a significant lag time between semen deposition from one or more individuals and one or more washes of the stained clothing. Items of UK school uniform (T-shirts, trousers, tights) were stained with fresh semen (either from a single donor or a 1:1 mixture from two donors) and stored in a wardrobe for eight months. Stained and unstained items (socks) were then washed at 30 °C or 60 °C and with non-biological or biological detergent. DNA samples extracted from the semen-stained sites and from the unstained socks were quantified and profiled. High quantities of DNA, (6-18 μg) matching the DNA profiles of the semen donors, were recovered from all semen-stained clothing that had been laundered once, irrespective of wash conditions. This quantity,and profile quality,did not decline significantly with multiple washes. The two donor semen samples yielded ∼ 10-fold more DNA from the T-shirts than from the trousers. This disparity resulted in the T-shirts yielding a ∼ 1:1 mixture of DNA from the two donors, whereas the trousers yielded a major DNA profile matching only that of the second donor. The quantities of DNA recovered from the unstained socks were an order of magnitude lower, with most of the DNA being attributable to the donor of the semen on the stained clothing within the

  4. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... paragraph (h) of this section with regard to swine semen imported from Denmark, Finland, the Republic of..., Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United Kingdom, before the semen is exported to...

  5. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with regard to swine semen imported from Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the... disinfected. (h) Except for semen collected from swine in Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland,...

  6. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined EU CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with regard to swine semen imported from Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the... disinfected. (h) Except for semen collected from swine in Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland,...

  7. Survey of carnitine content of human semen using a semiquantitative auxanographic method: decreased semen total carnitine concentration in patients with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia.

    PubMed

    Soffer, Y; Shalev, D P; Weissenberg, R; Orenstein, H; Nebel, L; Lewin, L M

    1981-01-01

    A microbiological method, using the carnitine-requiring yeast, Torulopsis bovina ATCC 26014, was developed to identify samples of human semen which contained low levels (less than 250 micron M) of total carnitine. Of 399 semen samples from a male infertility clinic which were tested, 30 (7.5%) were low in carnitine. Of these, 14 were azoospermic and 16 were severely oligozoospermic. Some azoospermic samples (19 = 58%) and severely oligozoospermic samples (51 = 79%) did not give evidence of low carnitine concentrations. These results indicate that decreased total carnitine concentration in semen occurs in certain classes of azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic patients.

  8. Effect of species, breed, and age on bacterial load in bovine and bubaline semen

    PubMed Central

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of species, breed and age on bacterial load in fresh and frozen semen of Cattle and Buffalo bull. Materials and Methods: Present study covered 56 cow and 10 buffalo bulls stationed at Central Semen Station Anjora, Durg (Chhattisgarh). Impact of breeds on bacterial load in semen was assessed using six breeds of cattle viz. Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar, Jersey and Holstein Friesian (HF) cross. Cow bulls were categorized into four different groups based on their age (<4 years, 4-5 years, 5-6 years and > 6 years) to study variation among age groups. Bacterial load was measured in fresh and frozen semen samples from these bulls using the standard plate count (SPC) method and count was expressed as colony forming unit (CFU) per ml of semen. Results: Higher bacterial load was reported in fresh (2.36 × 104 ± 1943 CFU/ml) and frozen (1.00 × 10 ± 90 CFU/ml) semen of cow bulls as compared to buffalo bulls (1.95 × 104 ± 2882 and 7.75 × 102 ± 160 CFU/ml in fresh and frozen semen, respectively). Jersey bull showed significantly higher bacterial count (p < 0.05) both in fresh (4.07 × 104 ± 13927 CFU/ml) and frozen (1.92 × 103 ± 178 CFU/ml) semen followed by HF cross, Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi and Tharparkar bull. Bulls aged < 4 years and more than 6 years yielded increased bacterial load in their semen. Although a minor variation was reported between species and among age groups, no significant differences were measured. Conclusion: Bacterial load in semen did not differ significantly between species and age groups; however significant variation was reported among different breeds. Bulls of Jersey breed showed significantly higher bacterial load in semen as compared to the crossbred and indigenous bull. PMID:27047115

  9. Evaluation of the effectiveness of semen processing techniques to remove bovine viral diarrhea virus from experimentally contaminated semen samples.

    PubMed

    Galuppo, Andrea G; Junior, Nelson B; Arruda, Nathalia S; Corbellini, Angela O; Chiappetta, Catarina M; Pavão, Danielle L; D'Angelo, Magali; Canal, Cláudio W; Rodrigues, José L

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of three semen processing techniques, Percoll gradient centrifugation, Swim-up and a combination of Swim-up and Percoll gradient centrifugation, to reduce the viral load of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in experimentally infected semen samples. The evaluation was performed using two approaches: first, searching for the presence of virus in the processed samples (via virus titration and RT-PCR) and second, ascertaining the possible interference on in vitro embryo production. The sperm count and DNA integrity (Comet assay) of the processed samples were analyzed (Experiment 1). The amount of virus in the processed samples was determined by titration in cell culture (Experiment 2). The samples processed by Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation were utilized for in vitro embryo production, and the embryos produced were tested for BVDV by RT-PCR (Experiment 3). Sperm concentration, Comet assay and embryo production were analyzed by chi-squared tests (P<0.05). There was a significant difference between sperm separation techniques when the sperm count and Comet assay were analyzed. The sperm count obtained from the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group was lower than that obtained in either of the two other groups (Swim up and Percoll gradient centrifugation), and the Comet assay showed that the combination of the two semen processing techniques (Swim up/Percoll gradient) produced a 1.1% prevalence of Comet level 2, which was not observed in the other groups. The BVDV titer (10(6.68)TCID(50)/mL) added to experimentally infected semen samples decreased after Percoll gradient centrifugation to 10(2.3)-10(1)TCID(50)/mL; for the Swim up group, the titer range was 10(3.3)-10(1.87)TCID(50)/mL, and in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group, BVDV was undetectable. The decreases in titer varied from 99.9% in the Swim up-processed group to 100% in the Swim up/Percoll gradient centrifugation group. In vitro

  10. Effect of sexed-semen use on Holstein conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most artificial-insemination organizations in the United States now market sex-sorted semen. For 10.8 million US Holstein breedings with conventional semen since January 2006 and 122,705 sexed-semen breedings, data were available from all breedings for conception rate, 12 and 9% of breedings for cal...

  11. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... from Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden, or the United Kingdom: (a) The semen must come... disinfected. (h) Except for semen collected from swine in Denmark, Finland, the Republic of Ireland, Sweden... noted in paragraph (h) of this section with regard to swine semen imported from Denmark, Finland,...

  12. 9 CFR 98.38 - Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. 98.38 Section 98.38 Animals and Animal Products... Certain Animal Semen § 98.38 Restrictions on the importation of swine semen from the APHIS-defined European CSF region. In addition to meeting all other applicable provisions of this part, swine...

  13. A Review of the Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Activities of Raphani Semen

    PubMed Central

    Sham, Tung-Ting; Yuen, Ailsa Chui-Ying; Ng, Yam-Fung; Chan, Chi-On; Mok, Daniel Kam-Wah

    2013-01-01

    The dried ripe seed of Raphanus sativus L., commonly known as radish seed (or Raphani Semen), is used as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat constipation, chronic tracheitis, and hypertension. The major active compounds in Raphani Semen are alkaloids, glucosinolates, brassinosteroids, and flavonoids. Fatty acids are its main nutritional contents. Raphani Semen has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects on hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, constipation, and cough. So far, there is no report about the adverse/toxic effects of this herb on humans. However, Raphani Semen processed by roasting was reported to exhibit some adverse effects on mice. Additionally, erucic acid, the main fatty acid in Raphani Semen, was shown to enhance the toxicity of doxorubicin. Thus, Raphani Semen has a potential risk of causing toxicity and drug interaction. In summary, Raphani Semen is a valuable TCM herb with multiple pharmacological effects. More studies on Raphani Semen could help better understand its pharmacological mechanisms so as to provide clear scientific evidence to explain its traditional uses, to identify its therapeutic potential on other diseases, and to understand its possible harmful effects. PMID:23935670

  14. Influence of pre-cryopreservation pH and temperature on boar semen quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of shipping temperature and pH on semen quality parameters could determine the effectiveness of current National Animal Germplasm Program protocols. The purpose of this project is to determine associations between pH, shipping temperature, and boar semen quality: cell size, cell inte...

  15. The breeding management affects fresh and cryopreserved semen characteristics in Melopsittacus undulatus.

    PubMed

    Gloria, Alessia; Contri, Alberto; Carluccio, Augusto; Parrillo, Salvatore; Cicconi, Mirko; Robbe, Domenico

    2014-01-10

    Melopsittacus undulatus is a companion parrot worldwide diffused. Many parrots are considered endangered or vulnerable. The preservation of semen is crucial in endangered species, thus, M. undulatus could be a good model to study sperm characteristics and semen cryopreservation in these other endangered parrots. In this study the effect of the breeding management (males bred in promiscuous aviary or in couple) on sperm characteristics (motility, membrane integrity and morphometry) of fresh and cryopreserved semen was evaluated. The computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) revealed a significant effect of the husbandry method on semen characteristics in budgerigars: male housed in couple with the female in individual cages allowed the higher results in term of both semen quantity and sperm quality. Total and progressive motility were significantly higher in males bred in couple (68.7±8.9% and 54±15.9%, respectively) than in promiscuous aviary (48.3±15.1% and 24.4±12.4%, respectively), such as sperm velocity (average path velocity, straight line velocity, and curvilinear velocity). The type of sperm movement (amplitude of lateral head displacement, beat cross frequency, straightness, and linearity), sperm membrane integrity and morphometry parameters seemed not affected by the husbandry method. The standardization of a CASA procedure for the semen analysis in M. undulatus allow further studies on parrot semen manipulation and cryopreservation, but the method used for the breeding of the male could have a significant effect on the semen quality. PMID:24361005

  16. Sexed-semen usage for Holstein AI in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dairy industry has used sexed-semen to reduce the birth of undesirable bull calves for over a decade. While the efficacy of sexed-semen has been determined experimentally, we sought to tabulate statistics on the generalized use of the technology in the US dairy herd and determine its effectivene...

  17. Cryopreservation of boar semen and its future importance to the industry.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Janice L; Lessard, Christian; Jacques, Joannie; Brèque, Christelle; Dobrinski, Ina; Zeng, Wenxian; Galantino-Homer, Hannah L

    2008-11-01

    Whereas AI has arguably been the most important management tool leading to improved herd productivity, long-term storage of semen brings forth additional advantages to producers of agriculturally important animals and the AI industry. Semen cryopreservation greatly facilitates the distribution of agriculturally desirable genes, rapidly increasing herd productivity. Of particular importance to the pig industry, the use of frozen semen would help to control transmission of certain pathogens, thereby protecting the health status of the herd. Moreover, a reserve of cryopreserved semen would minimize the effects of a sudden outbreak of a contagious illness or a natural disaster. Successful cryopreservation of boar semen is necessary for international sales. Finally, effective gene banking depends on the availability of functional, cryopreserved germplasm. Despite these potential advantages of long-term semen storage, porcine sperm are notoriously sensitive to cold temperatures, and frozen-thawed semen is not routinely used by the industry. The objective of our laboratories is to develop protocols for efficient long-term storage of porcine semen using cryopreservation. We hypothesize that since the sperm plasma membrane is the primary site of cold-induced damage, reinforcing the membranes with molecules having particular properties, such as cholesterol, will improve the ability of boar sperm to withstand cold temperatures and cryopreservation protocols. Based on our data, such approaches should help alleviate the problems with sperm function after cooling, thereby resulting in better survival and motility characteristics, and reduced non-regulated capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reactions. PMID:18653225

  18. Detection of Ureaplasma spp. in semen samples from sheep in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Sandra Batista; de Souza Neto, Orestes Luiz; de Albuquerque, Pedro Paulo Feitosa; da Rocha Mota, André; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; de Moraes, Érica Paes Barreto Xavier; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; do Mota, Rinaldo Apareci

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to verify the presence of mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas DNA in sheep semen samples from the State of Pernambuco. The PCR assay was conducted of according with standard protocols with generic primers. Mollicutes DNA was detected in 26.0% and Ureaplasma spp. in 12.0% of semen samples. PMID:24516459

  19. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying sheep or goat semen intended for importation from any part of the world shall, in addition to the... clinical signs of scrapie at the time of semen collection nor developed scrapie between the time of...

  20. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying sheep or goat semen intended for importation from any part of the world shall, in addition to the... clinical signs of scrapie at the time of semen collection nor developed scrapie between the time of...

  1. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying sheep or goat semen intended for importation from any part of the world shall, in addition to the... clinical signs of scrapie at the time of semen collection nor developed scrapie between the time of...

  2. 19 Beef cattle pregnancy rates following insemination with aged frozen angus semen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Artificial insemination has proven to be a valuable asset to the cattle industry. It is assumed that once good quality semen is frozen in liquid nitrogen it should remain viable indefinitely; however, semen viability has not been systematically evaluated after being stored for several decades. In th...

  3. Raman spectroscopic signature of semen and its potential application to forensic body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-12-15

    A great potential of Raman spectroscopy for non-destructive, confirmatory identification of body fluids at the crime scene has been reported recently (Virkler and Lednev, Forensic Sci. Int. 2008). However, that analysis was carried out on only one sample of each body fluid and did not take into account any variations that might occur between different donors of the same fluid. This paper reports on the role of heterogeneity within a sample as well as among multiple donors for human semen. Near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy was used to measure spectra of pure dried human semen samples from multiple donors in a controlled laboratory environment. The major chemical components that contributed to the Raman spectrum of semen were determined and used to tentatively identify the principal spectral components. The issue of potential spectral variations that could arise between different donors of semen was also addressed. Advanced statistical analysis of spectra obtained from multiple spots on dry samples showed that dry semen is heterogeneous and its Raman spectra could be presented as a linear combination of a fluorescent background and three spectral components. The relative contribution of each of the three components varies with donor, so no single spectrum could effectively represent an experimental Raman spectrum of dry semen in a quantitative way. The combination of the three spectral components could be considered to be a spectroscopic signature for semen. This proof-of-concept approach shows the potential for Raman spectroscopy to identify an unknown substance to be semen during forensic analysis.

  4. A PROTOCOL FOR THE SHORT-TERM STORAGE OF ATLANTIC STURGEON SEMEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term, liquid-phase storage trials were conducted in 2009 on Atlantic sturgeon semen obtained from captive males, held at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Northeast Fish Technology Center and wild males, collected ripe on the spawning grounds from the Hudson River. Semen samples collected, c...

  5. Applications and cost benefits of sexed semen in pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T; Hutchinson, I A; Cromie, A R; Shalloo, L

    2014-05-01

    Sexed semen technology is now commercially available in many countries around the world, and is primarily used in dairy cattle breeding. Sperm are sorted by flow cytometry on the basis of a 4% difference in DNA content between sperm containing X and Y chromosomes. Despite reliably producing a 90% gender bias, the fertility of the sexed semen product is compromised compared with conventional semen. The negative implications of the reduced fertility of sexed semen are amplified in seasonal systems of dairy production, as the importance of fertility is greater in these systems compared with year-round calving systems. A review of the literature indicates that conception rates (CR) to 1st service with frozen-thawed sexed semen are ~75% to 80% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen. Preliminary results from a large-scale field trial carried out in Ireland in 2013 suggest that significant improvements in the performance of sexed semen have been made, with CR of 87% of those achieved with conventional semen. The improved fertility of a sexed semen product that delivers a 90% gender bias has considerable implications for the future of breeding management in pasture-based dairy production systems. Sexed semen may facilitate faster, more profitable dairy herd expansion by increasing the number of dairy heifer replacements born. Biosecurity can be improved by maintaining a closed herd during the period of herd expansion. In a non-expansion scenario, sexed semen may be used to increase the value of beef output from the dairy herd. The replacement heifer requirements for a herd could be met by using sexed semen in the 1st 3 weeks of the breeding season, with the remaining animals bred to beef sires, increasing the sale value over that of a dairy bull calf. Alternatively, very short gestation sires could be used to shorten the calving interval. Market prices have a considerable effect on the economics of sexed semen use, and widespread use of sexed semen should

  6. Factors associated with the determination of antibiotic activity in bovine semen.

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R B

    1983-01-01

    Rosaramicin, an agent shown to be effective in vitro against ureaplasma of bovine origin was tested as an additive to bovine semen extender. Although some reduction in semen quality occurred it was still deemed satisfactory for use. In a test involving 41 cows inseminated once at estrus with rosaramicin-treated semen (162 mcg/mL) the nonreturn rate was 24% compared to a calculated average for this semen of 63% (n = 3310). The effect of centrifugation, time and temperature was examined in vitro using a combination of 150 mcg of lincomycin, 300 mcg of spectinomycin and 450 mcg of tylosin against ten strains of bovine ureaplasma. This combination has ureaplasmacidal activity and is suggested as an additive to semen extenders for the control of ureaplasma. PMID:6230144

  7. Assessment of semen quality in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Umesh; Gawande, Ajay P.; Sahatpure, Sunil K.; Patil, Manoj S.; Lakde, Chetan K.; Bonde, Sachin W.; Borkar, Pradnyankur L.; Poharkar, Ajay J.; Ramteke, Baldeo R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the seminal attributes of neat, pre-freeze (at equilibration), and post-freeze (24 h after freezing) semen in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls. Materials and Methods: Total 36 ejaculates (3 ejaculates from each bull) were collected from 6 pure Jersey and 6 crossbred Jersey bulls and evaluated for various seminal attributes during neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen. Results: The mean (±standard error [SE]) values of neat semen characteristics in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls were recorded such as volume (ml), color, consistency, mass activity (scale: 0-5), and sperm concentration (millions/ml). The extended semen was further investigated at pre-freeze and post-freeze stages and the mean (±SE) values recorded at neat, pre-freeze, and post-freeze semen were compared between pure and crossbred Jersey bulls; sperm motility (80.55±1.70%, 62.77±1.35%, 46.11±1.43% vs. 80.00±1.80%, 65.00±1.66%, 47.22±1.08%), live sperm count (83.63±1.08%, 71.72±1.09%, 58.67±1.02% vs. 80.00±1.08%, 67.91±1.20%, 51.63±0.97%), total abnormal sperm count (8.38±0.32%, 12.30±0.39%, 16.75±0.42% vs. 9.00±0.45%, 12.19±0.48%, 18.11±0.64%), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) reacted spermatozoa (71.88±0.77%, 62.05±0.80%, 47.27±1.05% vs. 72.77±1.02%, 62.11±0.89%, 45.94±1.33%), acrosome integrity (89.05±0.83%, 81.33±0.71%, 71.94±0.86% vs. 86.55±0.57%, 78.66±0.42%, 69.38±0.53%), and DNA integrity (99.88±0.07%, 100, 99.66±0.11% vs. 99.94±0.05%, 100, 99.44±0.18%,). The volume, color, consistency, sperm concentration, and initial motility in pure and crossbred Jersey bulls did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The mass activity was significantly (p<0.05) higher in pure Jersey as compare to crossbred Jersey bulls. Live sperm percentage and acrosome integrity was significantly (p<0.01) higher in pure Jersey bulls as compared to crossbred Jersey bulls. However, no statistical difference (p>0.05) was observed in abnormal sperm; HOS reacted spermatozoa and DNA

  8. Semen quality in workers exposed to 2-ethoxyethanol.

    PubMed

    Ratcliffe, J M; Schrader, S M; Clapp, D E; Halperin, W E; Turner, T W; Hornung, R W

    1989-06-01

    To evaluate whether long term exposure to 2-ethoxyethanol (2EE) may affect semen quality, a cross sectional study was conducted among men exposed to 2EE used as a binder slurry in a metal castings process. Full shift breathing zone exposures to 2EE ranged from non-detectable to 24 ppm (geometric mean 6.6 ppm). Because of the potential for substantial absorption of 2EE through skin exposure, urine measurements of the metabolite of 2EE, 2-ethoxyacetic acid (2EAA) were conducted, showing levels of 2EAA ranging from non-detectable to 163 mg 2EAA/g creatinine. Only 37 exposed men (50% participation) and 39 non-exposed comparison (26% participation) from elsewhere in the plant provided a sperm sample. A questionnaire to determine personal habits, and medical and work histories, and a physical examination of the urogenital tract were also administered. The average sperm count per ejaculate among the workers exposed to 2EE was significantly lower than that of the unexposed group (113 v 154 million sperm per ejaculate respectively; p = 0.05) after consideration of abstinence, sample age, subjects' age, tobacco, alcohol and caffeine use, urogenital disorders, fever, and other illnesses. The mean sperm concentrations of the exposed and unexposed groups did not significantly differ from each other (44 and 53 million/ml respectively). No effect of exposure to 2EE on semen volume, sperm viability, motility, velocity, and normal morphology or testicular volume was detected, although some differences in the proportion of abnormal sperm shapes were observed. These data suggest that there may be an effect of 2EE on sperm count among these workers, although the possibility that other factors may be affecting the semen quality in both exposed and unexposed men in this population or that the results reflect bias introduced by the low participation rates cannot be excluded. PMID:2818974

  9. Freezing African Elephant Semen as a New Population Management Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Göritz, Frank; Bartels, Paul; Potier, Romain; Baker, Barbara; Streich, W. Jürgen; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The captive elephant population is not self-sustaining and with a limited number of breeding bulls, its genetic diversity is in decline. One way to overcome this is to import young and healthy animals from the wild. We introduce here a more sustainable alternative method - importation of semen from wild bulls without removing them from their natural habitat. Due to the logistics involved, the only practical option would be to transport cryopreserved sperm. Despite some early reports on African elephant semen cryopreservation, the utility of this new population management tool has not been evaluated. Methodology/Principal Findings Semen was collected by electroejaculation from 14 wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) bulls and cryopreserved using the directional freezing technique. Sperm treatments evaluated included the need for centrifugation, the use of hen or quail yolk, the concentration of glycerol (3%, 5% or 7%) in the extender, and maintenance of motility over time after thawing. Our results suggest that dilution in an extender containing hen yolk and 7% glycerol after centrifugation best preserved post-thaw sperm motility when compared to all other treatments (P≤0.012 for all). Using this approach we were able to achieve after thawing (mean ± SD) 54.6±3.9% motility, 85.3±2.4% acrosome integrity, and 86.8±4.6% normal morphology with no decrease in motility over 1 h incubation at 37°C. Sperm cryopreserved during this study has already lead to a pregnancy of a captive female elephant following artificial insemination. Conclusions/Significance With working techniques for artificial insemination and sperm cryopreservation of both African and Asian elephants in hand, population managers can now enrich captive or isolated wild elephant populations without removing valuable individuals from their natural habitat. PMID:23483917

  10. Deep-freezing of boar semen in plastic film 'cochettes'.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, B M; Rodriguez-Martinez, H

    2000-03-01

    The motility and membrane integrity of spermatozoa from nine boars frozen with a programmable freezing machine in plastic bags, 'cochettes', and in 'maxi-straws', in total doses of 5 x 10(9) spermatozoa/5 ml with glycerol (3%) used as cryoprotectant, were assessed after thawing. A computer-based cell motion analyser was used to evaluate sperm motility, while the integrity of the plasmalemma was assessed with fluorescent supravital dyes (C-FDA/PI). The fertilizing capacity of the semen frozen in the two containers was investigated by inseminating (AI) gilts. Pregnancy was monitored by Doppler-ultrasound, and the numbers of corpora lutea and viable embryos counted at slaughter, between days 30 and 38 after AI. The cochettes sustained the overall procedure of freezing/thawing (FT), with 30 min post-thaw (PT) sperm motility being significantly higher than for straws, 46.9 vs. 39.5%. The only significant difference in motility patterns detected when comparing the packages was a higher sperm velocity (VCL) in cochettes at 30 min PT. However, percentages of FT-spermatozoa with intact membranes, detected with the supravital probes, were higher in maxi-straws than in cochettes, 46.8 vs. 43.0% (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences found in fertilizing capacity between spermatozoa frozen in maxi-straws and those frozen in cochettes. The results indicate that although the deep-freezing of AI-doses of boar semen in large plastic bags is feasible, problems such as their inconvenient size for storage and inconsistent thawing must be solved before this type of container can be used for the commercial cryopreservation of boar semen.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Populations in Blood and Semen

    PubMed Central

    Delwart, Eric L.; Mullins, James I.; Gupta, Phalguni; Learn, Gerald H.; Holodniy, Mark; Katzenstein, David; Walker, Bruce D.; Singh, Mandaleshwar K.

    1998-01-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) usually results in outgrowth of viruses with macrophage-tropic phenotype and consensus non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) V3 loop sequences, despite the presence of virus with broader host range and the syncytium-inducing (SI) phenotype in the blood of many donors. We examined proviruses in contemporaneous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and nonspermatozoal semen mononuclear cells (NSMC) of five HIV-1-infected individuals to determine if this preferential outgrowth could be due to compartmentalization and thus preferential transmission of viruses of the NSI phenotype from the male genital tract. Phylogenetic reconstructions of ∼700-bp sequences covering the second constant region through the fifth variable region (C2 to V5) of the viral envelope gene revealed distinct variant populations in the blood versus the semen in two patients with AIDS and in one asymptomatic individual (patient 613), whereas similar variant populations were found in both compartments in two other asymptomatic individuals. Variants with amino acids in the V3 loop that predict the SI phenotype were found in both AIDS patients and in patient 613; however, the distribution of these variants between the two compartments was not consistent. SI variants were found only in the PBMC of one AIDS patient but only in the NSMC of the other, while they were found in both compartments in patient 613. It is therefore unlikely that restriction of SI variants from the male genital tract accounts for the observed NSI transmission bias. Furthermore, no evidence for a semen-specific signature amino acid sequence was detected. PMID:9420266

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 populations in blood and semen.

    PubMed

    Delwart, E L; Mullins, J I; Gupta, P; Learn, G H; Holodniy, M; Katzenstein, D; Walker, B D; Singh, M K

    1998-01-01

    Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) usually results in outgrowth of viruses with macrophage-tropic phenotype and consensus non-syncytium-inducing (NSI) V3 loop sequences, despite the presence of virus with broader host range and the syncytium-inducing (SI) phenotype in the blood of many donors. We examined proviruses in contemporaneous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and non-spermatozoal semen mononuclear cells (NSMC) of five HIV-1-infected individuals to determine if this preferential outgrowth could be due to compartmentalization and thus preferential transmission of viruses of the NSI phenotype from the male genital tract. Phylogenetic reconstructions of approximately 700-bp sequences covering the second constant region through the fifth variable region (C2 to V5) of the viral envelope gene revealed distinct variant populations in the blood versus the semen in two patients with AIDS and in one asymptomatic individual (patient 613), whereas similar variant populations were found in both compartments in two other asymptomatic individuals. Variants with amino acids in the V3 loop that predict the SI phenotype were found in both AIDS patients and in patient 613; however, the distribution of these variants between the two compartments was not consistent. SI variants were found only in the PBMC of one AIDS patient but only in the NSMC of the other, while they were found in both compartments in patient 613. It is therefore unlikely that restriction of SI variants from the male genital tract accounts for the observed NSI transmission bias. Furthermore, no evidence for a semen-specific signature amino acid sequence was detected.

  13. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Samuel S.; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Gillies, Robert D.; Foster, Andrew L.; Barbati, Zachary R.; Smith, Davey M.; Fierer, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods. We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results. Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions. One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  14. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) using chilled and frozen-thawed semen

    PubMed Central

    Thongtip, Nikorn; Mahasawangkul, Sittidet; Thitaram, Chatchote; Pongsopavijitr, Pornsawan; Kornkaewrat, Kornchai; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Angkawanish, Taweepoke; Jansittiwate, Saran; Rungsri, Ronnachit; Boonprasert, Khajornpat; Wongkalasin, Warut; Homkong, Pongpon; Dejchaisri, Suthathip; Wajjwalku, Worawit; Saikhun, Kulnasan

    2009-01-01

    Background Artificial insemination (AI) using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination (AI). Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls (age range, 12-to 42-years) by manual stimulation. Semen with high quality were either cooled to 4°C or frozen in liquid nitrogen (-196°C) before being used for AI. Blood samples collected from ten elephant females (age range, 12-to 52-years) were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during 2003 to 2008; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement. Results One female (Khod) inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in 2007. The gestation length was 663 days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female (Sao) inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant. Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population. PMID:19615097

  15. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Human Sperm and Association with Semen Quality.

    PubMed

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Łakota, Paweł; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Buciński, Adam; Jerzak, Leszek

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), europium (Eu), and gadolinium (Gd) concentrations in human semen and correlate the results with sperm quality. The median semen content of La was 19.5 µg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) (range 2.27-269), of Ce was 41.9 µg kg(-1) dw (range 4.52 to 167), of Eu was 0.68 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.06-1.95), of Gd was 3.19 µg kg(-1) dw (range 0.38-12.0), and of calcium (Ca) was 4063 mg kg(-1) dw (range 484-17,191). Concentrations of La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca were significantly lower in nondrinkers' semen than in semen from drinkers. Significant differences were detected between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen from nondrinkers and moderate drinkers. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd in semen of short-term smokers were significantly lower than those in extremely long-term smokers. Significant differences were also detected between La concentration in semen from a group of short-term smokers and that of a group of long-term smokers. Positive correlations were found between La, Ce, Eu, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen. La, Ce, Gd, and Ca concentrations in semen were positively associated with progressive motility and percentage of normal spermatozoa. Positive correlations were found between Ca and sperm concentration. Concentrations of La, Ce, and Gd were negatively associated with sperm concentration, whilst Ca concentration was negatively associated with volume of ejaculate. At the examined level, La, Ce, Eu, and Gd did not affect sperm quality, whereas alcohol consumption and smoking might have increased the level of rare earth elements in semen.

  16. Shedding of Hepatitis C Virus in Semen of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Men.

    PubMed

    Turner, Samuel S; Gianella, Sara; Yip, Marcus J-S; van Seggelen, Wouter O; Gillies, Robert D; Foster, Andrew L; Barbati, Zachary R; Smith, Davey M; Fierer, Daniel S

    2016-03-01

    Background.  The epidemic of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) has been documented for over a decade. Despite this, there is no consensus as to the risk factors for sexual acquisition of HCV in these men. Methods.  We obtained paired semen and blood samples at 2-week intervals from HIV-infected MSM with recent and chronic HCV infection and quantified HCV in semen. Results.  Hepatitis C virus was quantified in 59 semen specimens from 33 men. Hepatitis C virus was shed in 16 (27%) of semen specimens from 11 (33%) of the men. Median HCV viral load (VL) in semen was 1.49 log10 IU/mL. Hepatitis C virus VL in blood was significantly higher at the time of HCV shedding in semen than when HCV shedding in semen was not detected (P = .002). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between the HCV VL in blood and semen overall (rs = 0.41; P = .001), and in the subgroup with recent HCV infection (rs = 0.37; P = .02), but not in the subgroup with chronic HCV infection (rs = 0.34; P = .1). Conclusions.  One third of HIV-infected MSM coinfected with HCV shed HCV into their semen. Based on the HCV VL in semen in this study, an average ejaculate would deliver up to 6630 IU of virus into the rectum of the receptive partner. Therefore, our data strongly support that condoms should be used during anal intercourse among MSM to prevent transmission of HCV. PMID:27186582

  17. The in vitro effect of leptin on semen quality of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) bulls.

    PubMed

    Khaki, Amir; Batavani, Rooz Ali; Najafi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of leptin addition in different levels to the semen extender on sperm quality (motility and motility parameters, viability, sperm membrane integrity, and DNA damage). Semen specimens were evaluated immediately after leptin addition, equilibration time and after thawing the frozen semen. Five healthy buffalo bulls (5 ejaculates from each bull) were used. Each ejaculate was diluted at 37 ˚C with tris-based extender containing 0 (control), 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 ng mL(-1) leptin. The diluted semen was kept 4 hr in refrigerator to reach to the equilibration time and then packed in 0.5 mL French straws and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Our results showed that, in the fresh semen, no significant difference was observed in all sperm quality parameters evaluated among all of the examined leptin concentrations. Addition of 10 ng mL(-1) leptin into semen extender significantly preserved sperm motility, all of the motility parameters, and viability in equilibrated semen compared to that of control group. However, in vitro addition of 200 ng mL(-1) leptin, significantly decreased theses parameters. In the frozen thawed semen, all leptin concentrations decreased sperm motility and viability, but significant decrease was observed in concentrations of 100 and 200 ng mL(-1). Adding leptin to semen extender did not have any significant influence on sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane integrity in all examined groups. These findings suggest that in vitro addition of 10 ng mL(-1) leptin could preserve sperm motility and viability in cooled semen of buffaloes.

  18. LEONARDO DA VINCI AND THE ORIGIN OF SEMEN.

    PubMed

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-12-20

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy.

  19. Dioxins in the semen of men with infertility.

    PubMed

    Galimova, E F; Amirova, Z K; Galimov, Sh N

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess ejaculate contamination by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans in male infertility. The database of 168 infertile and 49 fertile men was included in the study. Dioxin content was determined using gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC/HRMS). In the ejaculate of infertile men, the content of dioxins and furans was 2.2-2.3 times higher than in fertile donors. The maximum level of the most toxic dioxin congener was detected in pathospermia. Contamination of semen of infertile men by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans supports the hypothesis about the relationship between environmental factors and reproductive health.

  20. Two new flavonoid glycosides from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Xu, Zhi-Lin; Wu, Chun-Fu; Yang, Jing-Yu; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Two novel flavonoid glycosides, 6"'-dihydrophaseoylspinosin (1) and 6″,6"'-diferuloylspinosin (2), were isolated from the MeOH extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, together with six known flavonoids, isovitexin-2″-O-β-(6-O-E-feruloyl)glucopyranoside (3), spinosin (4), isospinosin (5), 6"'-feruloylspinosin (6), swertisin (7), and isovitexin-2″-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (8). The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-TOF-MS, 1D NMR, and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22296152

  1. A novel spinosin derivative from Semen Ziziphi Spinosae.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Xu, Zhi-Lin; Wang, Hui; Kano, Yoshihiro; Yuan, Dan

    2011-12-01

    A novel spinosin derivative, 6‴-(4‴'-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl)-vanilloyl spinosin (1) was isolated from the methanol extract of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, together with five known flavonoids, swertish, spinosin, 6‴-feruloylspinosin, isospinosin and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-O-[O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside, and two alkanoids, zizyphusine and 6-(2',3'-dihydroxyl-4'-hydroxymethyl-tetrahydro-furan-1'-yl)-cyclopentene[c]pyrrole-1,3-diol. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-TOF-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:22115038

  2. Leonardo da Vinci and the origin of semen

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Denis; DiFrancesco, Dario; Zancani, Diego

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that Leonardo da Vinci made several drawings of the human male anatomy. The early drawings (before 1500) were incorrect in identifying the origin of semen, where he followed accepted teaching of his time. It is widely thought that he did not correct this mistake, a view that is reflected in several biographies. In fact, he made a later drawing (after 1500) in which the description of the anatomy is remarkably accurate and must have been based on careful dissection. In addition to highlighting this fact, acknowledged previously in only one other source, this article reviews the background to Leonardo's knowledge of the relevant anatomy. PMID:27494016

  3. A retrospective study on effects of storage time of liquid boar semen on reproductive performance in Norwegian swine.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Gaustad, A H; Hofmo, P O

    2005-09-01

    The objective of this retrospective field study was to determine the effects of storing, for up to 62 h, heterospermic and homospermic semen in the short-term extender Beltsville thawing solution (BTS), on reproductive performance in Norwegian swine of four different breed combinations. The study was based on fertility records after single or double inseminations with semen collected at an AI station in Norway from January 1998 to June 2001. Increasing the duration of storage of homospermic semen, but not heterospermic semen, from an interval of 4-14 h to an interval of 52-62 h, was associated with a 0.5 piglet reduction in litter size. There were differences in reproductive performance among breed combinations that appeared to be associated with duration of semen storage. In conclusion, prolonged semen storage decreased reproductive performance; the extent varied among breeds and was prevented by the use of heterospermic versus homospermic semen.

  4. Collection and preservation of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) semen.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, J; Hildebrandt, T B; Bouts, T; Göritz, F; Hermes, R

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge about the reproduction of the endangered pygmy hippopotamus is almost non-existent. This study takes the first step toward changing this by devising a protocol for the collection, evaluation, and short-term preservation of semen of this endangered species. Semen was collected successfully from seven bulls by electroejaculation, using a specially designed rectal probe. Mean +/- SEM values of native sperm parameters from combined best fractions were: motility-80.0 +/- 4.1%, concentration-2421 +/- 1530 x 10(6) cells/mL, total collected cell number-759 +/- 261 x 10(6) cells, intact acrosome-87.8 +/- 1.2%, intact morphology-52.7 +/- 4.3%, and, for some, hypoosmotic swelling test-79.3 +/- 4.4% and seminal plasma osmolarity-297.5 +/- 3.3 mOsm. Seven different extenders were tested for sperm storage under chilling conditions: Berliner Cryomedium (BC), Biladyl, modification of Kenney modified Tyrode's medium (KMT), MES medium, Androhep((R)), boar M III() extender and Human Sperm Refrigeration Medium. While differences between males were apparent, the BC was consistently superior to all other extenders in sperm motility and facilitated storage for 7 d with up to 30% motility and some motility even after 3 weeks. With this knowledge in hand, the obvious two directions for future research are to conduct artificial insemination and to develop a technique for sperm cryopreservation.

  5. Collection and preservation of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) semen.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, J; Hildebrandt, T B; Bouts, T; Göritz, F; Hermes, R

    2010-09-01

    Knowledge about the reproduction of the endangered pygmy hippopotamus is almost non-existent. This study takes the first step toward changing this by devising a protocol for the collection, evaluation, and short-term preservation of semen of this endangered species. Semen was collected successfully from seven bulls by electroejaculation, using a specially designed rectal probe. Mean +/- SEM values of native sperm parameters from combined best fractions were: motility-80.0 +/- 4.1%, concentration-2421 +/- 1530 x 10(6) cells/mL, total collected cell number-759 +/- 261 x 10(6) cells, intact acrosome-87.8 +/- 1.2%, intact morphology-52.7 +/- 4.3%, and, for some, hypoosmotic swelling test-79.3 +/- 4.4% and seminal plasma osmolarity-297.5 +/- 3.3 mOsm. Seven different extenders were tested for sperm storage under chilling conditions: Berliner Cryomedium (BC), Biladyl, modification of Kenney modified Tyrode's medium (KMT), MES medium, Androhep((R)), boar M III() extender and Human Sperm Refrigeration Medium. While differences between males were apparent, the BC was consistently superior to all other extenders in sperm motility and facilitated storage for 7 d with up to 30% motility and some motility even after 3 weeks. With this knowledge in hand, the obvious two directions for future research are to conduct artificial insemination and to develop a technique for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:20416932

  6. Semen Characteristics of Purebred and Crossbred Male Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah; El-Bayomi, Khairy; Abdelhamid, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the semen quality traits of purebred male rabbits and their crosses under subtropical Egyptian conditions. A full 3 x 3 diallel crossing was performed for producing the first generation progeny of New Zealand White (N), Flander (F) and Rex (R) breeds. The highest ejaculate volume (p< 0.05) and percentage of live sperms (p<0.01) with the lowest percentage of sperm cell morphological abnormalities (p<0.05) had been recorded in the NF bucks. Moreover, they possessed positive estimates of direct heterosis for ejaculate volume, mass motility (Mm), individual motility (Im) and sperm cell concentration (SCC). On the contrary, pH had negative estimates of direct heterosis in all crosses and their reciprocal. Semen pH was negatively correlated with SCC (r = -0.18), Mm (r = -0.13) and Im (r = -0.23). In conclusion, the superiority of crossbreeding was particularly obvious in the New Zealand White x Flander males, which cumulated heterosis and favorable maternal effects of the Flander dams. PMID:26020961

  7. Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Gutschi, T; Mohamad Al-Ali, B; Shamloul, R; Pummer, K; Trummer, H

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present retrospective study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on semen parameters. We examined 2110 men attending our infertility clinic from 1993 to October 2007. Semen analysis was performed in all patients. Serum free testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) were collected from all patients. The information on cell phone use of the patients was recorded and the subjects were divided into two groups according to their cell phone use: group A: cell phone use (n = 991); group B: no use (n = 1119). Significant difference was observed in sperm morphology between the two groups. In the patients of group A, 68.0% of the spermatozoa featured a pathological morphology compared to only 58.1% in the subjects of group B. Patients with cell phone usage showed significantly higher T and lower LH levels than those who did not use cell phone. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding FSH and PRL values. Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men. Further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male fertility.

  8. Antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen of HIV-1 infected men

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S.; Pereira, A.

    2001-01-01

    website extra A table detailing antiretroviral drugs appears on the STI website. www.sextransinf.com Because semen is a major vehicle for the sexual transmission of HIV-1, control of viral replication within the sanctuary of the male genital tract should be a goal of antiretroviral therapy. Local immune responses, virus specific factors, and the degree of viral and cellular trafficking all appear to be important in controlling viral replication and evolution. However, the most important factor influencing viral replication and evolution within the male genital tract may be the disposition of antiretroviral agents into genital tissues and fluids. This review proposes possible mechanisms of antiretroviral distribution into the male genital tract by using other sanctuary barriers; such as the placenta, renal tubules, and blood-brain barrier; as models. In addition, this review summarises recent clinical studies regarding the disposition of currently available antiretroviral drugs into the seminal plasma and discusses some of the difficulties in interpreting drug concentration in the genital tract. Key Words: HIV; semen; antiretrovirals; drug concentrations; pharmacokinetics; protein binding PMID:11158684

  9. Laser researches on livestock semen and oocytes: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Salam, Z.; Harith, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of the past and present literature pertinent to laser effects on sperm motility parameters, improvement of oocyte maturation and characterization of semen in livestock. The aim was, on one hand, to make the readers aware of such knowledge and on the other hand to trigger the interest of the animal reproduction scientific community in attempting some laser techniques that have not yet been fully exploited in the field of artificial insemination. With respect to the conventional methods, laser is a more sensitive and less costly technology that can be used for improving artificial insemination and embryo production system. Since 1980s, laser treatment came on the biological samples scene; its applications have continuously been developed thereafter. Exploitation of laser light by various researchers for improving the reproductive efficiency of sperm cells and the maturation rate in different livestock is demonstrated herein. Laser irradiation, in principal, can increase the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and consequently increases the energy provided to the cell. Since sperm motility and oocyte maturation depend on the energy consumption, an increase in the energy supply to the cells will be of great importance. In addition, the authors also discuss the use of laser spectrochemical analytical techniques, such as laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser induced fluorescence (LIF), in characterization of semen samples. PMID:26257928

  10. Semen quality during vincristine treatment in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor.

    PubMed

    Saratsis, P; Ypsilantis, P; Tselkas, K

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct effects of vincristine on semen quality in dogs with transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). We examined the semen of 17 dogs suffering from TVT during vincristine treatment. Each animal received 0.6 mg, i.v. vincristine sulphate per square meter of body surface, per week for 4 wk until complete regression of the tumor. The following semen parameters were evaluated: semen volume (second fraction), sperm concentration, total spermatozoa per ejaculate, percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, percentage of dead spermatozoa, percentage of swollen spermatozoa (hypo-osmotic swelling test) and percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (primary and secondary defects). Semen was collected and evaluated prior to the beginning of treatment, 3 d after each vincristine injection and 15 d after the last injection. Semen characteristics transiently deteriorated during treatment, but returned to normal 15 d later. These changes were attributed to a direct effect of vincristine on the extragonadal spermatozoal reserves contained in the epididymis and ductus deferens. A GnRH stimulation test was also performed after each semen collection in order to assess the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-Leydig cell axis. No effect was noted on the above axis.

  11. Determination of Sperm Sex Ratio in Bovine Semen Using Multiplex Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Khamlor, Trisadee; Pongpiachan, Petai; Sangsritavong, Siwat; Chokesajjawatee, Nipa

    2014-10-01

    Gender selection is important in livestock industries; for example, female calves are required in the dairy industry. Sex-sorted semen is commonly used for the production of calves of the desired gender. However, assessment of the sex ratio of the sorted semen is tedious and expensive. In this study, a rapid, cost effective and reliable method for determining the sex ratio was developed using a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. In this assay, the X and Y chromosome-specific markers, i.e., bovine proteolipid protein (PLP) gene and sex-determining region Y (SRY) were simultaneously quantified in a single tube. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was shown to have high amplification efficiencies (97% to 99%) comparable to the separated-tube simplex real-time PCR assay. The results obtained from both assays were not significantly different (p>0.05). The multiplex assay was validated using reference DNA of known X ratio (10%, 50%, and 90%) as templates. The measured %X in semen samples were the same within 95% confidence intervals as the expected values, i.e., >90% in X-sorted semen, <10% in Y-sorted semen and close to 50% in the unsorted semen. The multiplex real-time PCR assay as shown in this study can thus be used to assess purity of sex-sorted semen. PMID:25178292

  12. Bacteriospermia and Its Impact on Basic Semen Parameters among Infertile Men

    PubMed Central

    Kandasamy, Balan; Jayachandran, Abiramy Lakshmy; Sathiyanarayanan, Sarasa; Tanjore Singaravelu, Vijayalakshmi; Krishnamurthy, Veeraraghavan; Elangovan, Vanithadevi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Semen analysis is considered as the surrogate marker for male fecundity while assessing infertile men. There are several reasons for altered semen quality and bacteriospermia could be one among them. Thereby the aim of our work is to study the semen culture and its impact on semen parameters among infertile men. Materials and Methods. Semen samples were collected from men attending infertility clinic. Semen parameters were analysed based on WHO guidelines. Also, samples were subjected to culture using standard bacteriological techniques. Results. A total of 85 samples were collected. A number of 47 (55.30%) had normal sperm count, 37 (43.50%) had oligozoospermia, and one (1.17%) had azoospermia. Teratozoospermia was the most common abnormality observed (81.17%) followed by asthenozoospermia (28.23%). The prevalence of bacteriospermia was 35.3%. Enterococcus faecalis (30%) was the most common organism isolated followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (23.33%), Staphylococcus aureus (20%), and E. coli (10%). Other less frequently isolated organisms were Klebsiella pneumoniae (6.66%), Proteus sp. (6.66%), and Citrobacter sp. (3.33%). Conclusion. The presence of asymptomatic bacteriospermia did not correlate with abnormal semen parameters. PMID:26880908

  13. Effect of preputial washing on bacterial load and preservability of semen in Murrah buffalo bulls

    PubMed Central

    Meena, G. S.; Raina, V. S.; Gupta, A. K.; Mohanty, T. K.; Bhakat, M.; Abdullah, M.; Bishist, R.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of preputial washing on bacterial load, preservability and semen quality in Murrah buffalo bulls Materials and Methods: A total of 36 collections of three Murrah buffalo bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, were collected at weekly intervals from each bull without preputial washing and latter ejaculates from same bull with preputial washing by infusing normal saline (0.85%), KMnO4 (0.02%) and savlon (2.0%) to first, second and third bull, respectively. The microbial load and semen quality were evaluated during different hours of storage at refrigerated temperature (0, 24 and 48 h) and after thrawing of cryopreserved (at −196°C) semen. Results: The results of preservation of semen at refrigerated temperature showed that bacterial load was markedly lower in ejaculates of bulls subjected to preputial washing. Semen preserved at refrigerator temperature and cryopreserved, the effect of washing solution was significant for individual motility (IM), non-eosiniphilic count, hypo-osmotic swelling reactivity (HOST), total plate count (TPC) and acrosome integrity. KMnO4 was found to be the best in lowering bacterial load, sperm abnormalities and in improving semen quality such as motility, non-eosinophilic count, HOST and acrosome integrity even up to 48 h of preservation and cryopreserved semen. Effect of duration of preservation and stage of cryopreservation was also significant for IM, non-eosiniphilic count, HOST, sperm abnormalities and acrosome integrity. Conclusion: Overall the results suggested that preputial washing with KMnO4 solution improved the semen quality and reduced microbial load of Murrah buffalo bull’s semen preserved at refrigerated temperature and cryopreservation. PMID:27065650

  14. An Outbreak of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Switzerland Following Import of Boar Semen.

    PubMed

    Nathues, C; Perler, L; Bruhn, S; Suter, D; Eichhorn, L; Hofmann, M; Nathues, H; Baechlein, C; Ritzmann, M; Palzer, A; Grossmann, K; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Thür, B

    2016-04-01

    An outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) occurred in November 2012 in Switzerland (CH), traditionally PRRSV-free. It was detected after a German boar stud informed a semen importer about the detection of PRRSV during routine monitoring. Tracing of semen deliveries revealed 26 Swiss sow herds that had used semen from this stud after its last negative routine monitoring and 62 further contact herds. All herds were put under movement restrictions and examined serologically and virologically. As a first measure, 59 sows from five herds that had previously been inseminated with suspicious semen were slaughtered and tested immediately. Investigations in the stud resulted in 8 positive boars with recent semen deliveries to CH (Seven with antibodies and virus, one with antibodies only). In one boar out of six tested, virus was detected in semen. Of the 59 slaughtered sows, five from three herds were virus-positive. In one herd, the virus had spread, and all pigs were slaughtered or non-marketable animals euthanized. In the remaining herds, no further infections were detected. After confirmatory testings in all herds 3 weeks after the first examination gave negative results, restrictions were lifted in January 2013, and Switzerland regained its PRRSV-free status. The events demonstrate that import of semen from non-PRRS-free countries--even from negative studs--poses a risk, because monitoring protocols in boar studs are often insufficient to timely detect an infection, and infections of sows/herds occur even with low numbers of semen doses. The outbreak was eradicated successfully mainly due to the high disease awareness of the importer and because immediate actions were taken before clinical or laboratory diagnosis of a single case in the country was made. To minimize the risk of an introduction of PRRSV in the future, stricter import guidelines for boar semen have been implemented.

  15. Semen coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation and cryopreservation of capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) semen in coconut water solution (CWS) and TES-TRIS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karol G; Miranda, Stefania A; Leão, Danuza L; Brito, Adriel B; Santos, Regiane R; Domingues, Sheyla F S

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to test the effect of coconut water solution and TES-TRIS on the seminal coagulum liquefaction, sperm activation in fresh diluted semen, and on the cryopreservation of semen from capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Semen was collected from six males by electro-ejaculation, diluted in TES-TRIS or coconut water solution (CWS), and incubated at 35°C until the coagulated fraction of the semen was completely liquefied. In the experiment I, after liquefaction, samples were diluted in TES-TRIS or CWS, plus 6 and 10mM/mL of caffeine. Sperm motility and vigor were evaluated during 5h. For experiment II, after liquefaction, semen samples were extended in TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol in the final solution) or CWS (2.5% glycerol in the final solution), cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 week. The seminal coagulum was liquefied in (mean±SDM) 4.5±1.7 and 2.8±1.1h in TES-TRIS and CWS, respectively. Sperm were motile in TES-TRIS and CWS for 5.0±1.4 and 1.0±0.5h, respectively. The mean motility in this period was 38±22% (TES-TRIS) and 22.0±16.0 (CWS). Motility increased after caffeine addition only in samples diluted in CWS containing 6mM (22.5±16.0) or 10mM (28.0±19.0) caffeine. Post-thaw live sperm percentage was 26.2% in TES-TRIS and 13.2% in CWS. For cryopreservation of semen from C. apella TES-TRIS (3.5% glycerol) was more appropriate than CWS (2.5% glycerol). CWS+caffeine potentially increase sperm motility and may be useful in artificial insemination of fresh diluted semen.

  16. Cryopreserving turkey semen in straws and nitrogen vapour using DMSO or DMA: effects of cryoprotectant concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on post-thaw semen quality.

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, N; Di Iorio, M; Miranda, M; Zaniboni, L; Manchisi, A; Cerolini, S

    2016-04-01

    1. This study was designed to identify a suitable protocol for freezing turkey semen in straws exposed to nitrogen vapour by examining the effects of dimethylacetamide (DMA) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as cryoprotectant (CPA), CPA concentration, freezing rate and thawing rate on in vitro post-thaw semen quality. 2. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:1 (v:v) with a freezing extender composed of Tselutin diluent containing DMA or DMSO to give final concentrations of 8% or 18% DMA and 4% or 10% DMSO. The semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen (LN2) surface (1, 5 and 10 cm) for 10 min. Semen samples were thawed at 4°C for 5 min or at 50°C for 10 s. After thawing, sperm motility, viability and osmotic tolerance were determined. 3. Cryosurvival of turkey sperm was affected by DMSO concentration. Freezing rate affected the motility of sperm cryopreserved using both CPAs, while thawing rates showed an effect on the motility of sperm cryopreserved using DMA and on the viability of sperm cryopreserved using DMSO. Significant interactions between freezing rate × thawing rate on sperm viability in the DMA protocol were found. 4. The most effective freezing protocol was the use of 18% DMA or 10% DMSO with freezing 10 cm above the LN2 surface and a thawing temperature of 50°C. An efficient protocol for turkey semen would improve prospects for sperm cryobanks and the commercial use of frozen turkey semen.

  17. Mechanisms of the harmful effects of bacterial semen infection on ejaculated human spermatozoa: potential inflammatory markers in semen.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Monika; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    The invasion of the male reproductive tract by microorganisms, and its subsequent consequences for sperm fertilizing potential, has been intensely discussed. The role of the bacteria that are responsible for the colonization and contamination of the male urogenital tract, rather than its infection, in diminished sperm parameters raises the most controversy. There are numerous premises suggesting that bacterial semen infection is associated with male infertility. However, the molecular mechanism by which the fertility is affected is complex and multifactorial, and still presents a puzzle. Some authors have suggested that direct interactions between bacteria and human spermatozoa facilitate sperm immobilization, affect sperm morphology, and thus weaken the ability of sperm to fertilize. On the other hand, the massive infiltration of activated leukocytes into the inflammatory site may be associated with impairment of sperm fertilizing potential, due to oxidative, apoptotic, and immune processes. This review presents current research trends and aims to summarize the present knowledge of semen inflammation and causative bacterial agents in the male urogenital tract, with its consequence on seminological parameters, and male fertility status. PMID:26306512

  18. Evaluation of different cryoprotectants (CPAs) in boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhee; Lee, Young-Jun; Ji, Dong-Beom; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2011-07-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the use of dimethylacetamide (DMA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in boar sperm cryopreservation. Semen from eight boars was cryopreserved following treatment with 3, 5, and 7% DMA and DMSO, and 3% glycerol (control). After thawing, sperm conventional parameters and membrane integrities were evaluated. There were no significant differences among different DMA concentrations in all evaluations. Membrane intactness were higher in 5% and 7% DMSO than 3% DMSO (P<0.05). Sperm motility of 5% DMSO was lower than that of 3% glycerol (P<0.005), and membrane intactness were lower in 5% DMA and DMSO than 3% glycerol (P<0.05). DMA and DMSO didn't improve sperm quality and glycerol remains the most useful for boar sperm cryopreservation. PMID:21441721

  19. The failure of flurofamide to control ureaplasma in bovine semen.

    PubMed Central

    Truscott, R B; Brown, C

    1986-01-01

    The flurofamide sensitivities of 21 bovine ureaplasma isolates were determined using the metabolic inhibition method. The 21 isolates included seven each of vaginal, preputial and seminal origin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of flurofamide ranged from 0.0125 to 0.2 meg/mL against a ureaplasma titer of 10(4) organisms/mL. The minimum lethal concentrations ranged from less than or equal to 0.1 to 3.2 mcg/mL. Flurofamide was then evaluated in a system comparable to the procedure for semen extension with respect to temperature, time and dilution. The compound was found to be ineffective in reducing ureaplasma numbers in this system at levels up to 1500 mcg/mL. PMID:3756683

  20. Antiretroviral drug concentrations in semen of HIV-1 infected men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S; Pereira, A S

    2001-02-01

    Because semen is a major vehicle for the sexual transmission of HIV-1, control of viral replication within the sanctuary of the male genital tract should be a goal of antiretroviral therapy. Local immune responses, virus specific factors, and the degree of viral and cellular trafficking all appear to be important in controlling viral replication and evolution. However, the most important factor influencing viral replication and evolution within the male genital tract may be the disposition of antiretroviral agents into genital tissues and fluids. This review proposes possible mechanisms of antiretroviral distribution into the male genital tract by using other sanctuary barriers; such as the placenta, renal tubules, and blood-brain barrier; as models. In addition, this review summarises recent clinical studies regarding the disposition of currently available antiretroviral drugs into the seminal plasma and discusses some of the difficulties in interpreting drug concentration in the genital tract. PMID:11158684

  1. Effect of potash alum (aluminium potassium sulphate) on human semen and sperm.

    PubMed

    Singh, H P; Singh, C K; Singh, R R

    1998-04-01

    25 normal and healthy human volunteers were engaged in this investigation. The different concentration of potash alum solution have different effects on sperm, motility/death and fructose level of the semen. Higher concentration have higher effects.

  2. In vitro and in vivo fertility of ram semen cryopreserved in different extenders.

    PubMed

    Valente, S S; Pereira, R M; Baptista, M C; Marques, C C; Vasques, M I; Pereira, M V C Silva; Horta, A E M; Barbas, J P

    2010-01-01

    Seminal traits of frozen-thawed (FT) ram semen and in vitro and field fertility in native Portuguese breeds were evaluated in 4 experiments. In exp. 1 and 2 the cryopreservation capacity of 2 extenders, E1 (15% egg yolk-EY) and E2 (4.5% EY and trehalose) was compared through morphological evaluation and in vitro fertilizability of FT ram semen. Exp. 3 aimed to determine the usefulness of in vitro homologous/heterologous fertilization tests as tools for predicting ram fertility. Exp. 4 was conducted to verify if the identified differences between the 2 extenders could be confirmed by field fertility. E1 showed a better cryoprotective action expressed by higher in vitro and field fertility results. In conclusion, EY is difficult to be replaced in ram semen extenders. Heterologous fertilization seems to be a useful tool for predicting fertility of FT ram semen.

  3. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes)

    PubMed Central

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species. PMID:23797622

  4. A novel method for semen collection and artificial insemination in large parrots (Psittaciformes).

    PubMed

    Lierz, Michael; Reinschmidt, Matthias; Müller, Heiner; Wink, Michael; Neumann, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The paper described a novel technique for semen collection in large psittacines (patent pending), a procedure which was not routinely possible before. For the first time, a large set of semen samples is now available for analysis as well as for artificial insemination. Semen samples of more than 100 psittacine taxa were collected and analysed; data demonstrate large differences in the spermatological parameters between families, indicating an ecological relationship with breeding behaviour (polygamous versus monogamous birds). Using semen samples for artificial insemination resulted in the production of offspring in various families, such as Macaws and Cockatoos, for the first time ever. The present technique represents a breakthrough in species conservation programs and will enable future research into the ecology and environmental factors influencing endangered species.

  5. Semen quality: variations among fathers and effects of moderate alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Trevor G

    2015-01-01

    Semen analysis results from over 750 fathers in the USA demonstrated marked differences in the quality of semen from men at different locations and of different ethnic groups. Another paper failed to demonstrate any effects of moderate alcohol consumption during the week before provision of an ejaculate on semen quality and few on serum hormones, of over 8300 men in Europe and the USA. While these observations are interesting, the reasons for regional and ethnic differences in semen quality of fathers are unclear. Although, there was no attempt to confirm the participant-provided level of alcohol consumption, an increase in serum testosterone in the men at the higher end of alcohol intake is compatible with an alcohol effect on liver metabolism, although whether alcohol intake was the cause of higher testosterone, or men with higher androgen levels consume more alcohol, is not known.

  6. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  7. 9 CFR 98.35 - Declaration, health certificate, and other documents for animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the United States in accordance with subpart C of 9 CFR part 98. (e) The certificate accompanying... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS IMPORTATION OF CERTAIN ANIMAL EMBRYOS AND ANIMAL SEMEN Certain Animal...

  8. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and ocean...; Portland, Oregon; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Memphis, Tennessee; Galveston and Houston, Texas; Seattle,...

  9. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated for the importation of certain animal semen. (a) Air and ocean ports. The following air and ocean...; Portland, Oregon; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Memphis, Tennessee; Galveston and Houston, Texas; Seattle,...

  10. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality.

  11. Analysis of breed effects on semen traits in light horse, warmblood, and draught horse breeds.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Maren; Sieme, Harald; Martinsson, Gunilla; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, systematic effects on semen quality traits were investigated in 381 stallions representing 22 breeds. All stallions were used for AI either at the Lower Saxon National Stud Celle or the North Rhine-Westphalian National Stud Warendorf. A total of 71,078 fresh semen reports of the years 2001 to 2014 were edited for analysis of gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total number of sperm, progressive motility, and total number of progressively motile sperm. Breed differences were studied for warmblood and light horse breeds of both national studs (model I) and for warmblood breeds and the draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood from the North Rhine-Westphalian National stud (model II) using mixed model procedures. The fixed effects of age class, year, and month of semen collection had significant influences on all semen traits in both analyses. A significant influence of the horse breed was found for all semen traits but gel-free volume in both statistical models. Comparing warmblood and light horse stallions of both national studs, we observed highest sperm concentrations, total numbers of sperm, and total numbers of progressively motile sperm in Anglo-Arabian stallions. The draught horse breed Rhenish German Coldblood had the highest least squares means for gel-free volume, whereas all other investigated semen traits were significantly lower in this breed compared to the warmblood stallions under study. The variance components among stallions within breeds were significant for all semen traits and accounted for 40% to 59% of the total variance. The between-breed-variance among stallions was not significant underlining the similar size of the random stallion effect in each of the horse breeds analyzed here. In conclusion, breed and stallion are accounting for a significant proportion of the variation in semen quality. PMID:26893165

  12. Duration of Ebola virus RNA persistence in semen of survivors: population-level estimates and projections.

    PubMed

    Eggo, Rosalind M; Watson, Conall H; Camacho, Anton; Kucharski, Adam J; Funk, Sebastian; Edmunds, W John

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus can persist in semen after recovery, potentially for months, which may impact the duration of enhanced surveillance required after interruption of transmission. We combined recent data on viral RNA persistence with weekly disease incidence to estimate the current number of semen-positive men in affected West African countries. We find the number is low, and since few reported sexual transmission events have occurred, the future risk is also likely low, although sexual health promotion remains critical. PMID:26676163

  13. Application of sex-selected semen in heifer development and breeding programs.

    PubMed

    Seidel, George E

    2013-11-01

    The only practicable method for sexing mammalian sperm is by measuring DNA content with a flow cytometer/cell sorter. Although many other methods have been tried and patented, they either are inaccurate, damage sperm severely, or otherwise are unsuitable for practical application. Procedures for sexing sperm damage them slightly, and fewer sperm are packaged per straw than with unsexed semen. These 2 characteristics result in lower fertility with sexed than unsexed semen. Incremental improvements of current sexing procedures are being developed constantly.

  14. Evaluation of semen quality in 1808 university students, from Wuhan, Central China

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Meng; Meng, Tian-Qing; Hu, Si-Heng; Guan, Huang-Tao; Wei, Qin-Yu; Xia, Wei; Zhu, Chang-Hong; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the semen quality of university students in Wuhan, the largest city in the world in terms of the number of university students. All student sperm donors recorded in the Hubei Province Human Sperm Bank from 1 March 2010 to 31 December 2013 were screened. At last, a total of 3616 semen samples from 1808 university student sperm donors were eligible and retrospectively analyzed. Each donor's semen parameters were averaged over two samples and compared with the World Health Organization criteria, and a generalized linear regression model was used to examine several determinants of semen quality. We found that the mean and median values were 3.0 ml and 2.8 ml for semen volume, 50.2 × 106 ml−1 and 50.0 × 106 ml−1 for sperm concentration, 148.1 × 106 and 142.1 × 106 for total sperm count, and 58.6% and 60.0% for total sperm motility. About 85.0% of donors had parameters that were all normal. Season and duration of abstinence were critical factors affecting semen quality. We also found a decrease in sperm concentration during the 4 years observation; however, this may not be a strong evidence to confirm the declining trend of semen quality. In conclusion, semen quality of university students in Wuhan was not optimal and should be paid high attention, long-term observation and further study should be carried out to confirm the present situation. PMID:25337834

  15. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Hsun; Wu, Ting-Wen; Cheng, Feng-Pang; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glycerol (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%) and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N). Semen was collected from Duroc boars and was allocated to 32 treatment groups for cryopreservation. Analysis of post-thaw semen quality and fertility after artificial insemination (AI) was used to examine the combinatorial effects of different treatments. The best scores for post-thaw sperm motility, sperm viability, and sperm acrosomal integrity were observed in semen frozen in: (a) dry ice in the presence of 5% glycerol and no DMA (16D-treatment); (b) dry ice in the presence of 3% glycerol and no DMA (9D-treatment); and (c) liquid nitrogen in the presence of 3% glycerol and 1% DMA (10N-treatment), with no significant difference observed among these three treatments. The farrowing rates after AI with post-thawed semen after 9D- and 10N-treatments were 33% and 50%, respectively. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that the freezing extender containing 3% glycerol in combination with the straw-freezing method using dry ice produced the best post-thaw quality parameters of boar semen. Combinations of glycerol and DMA did not enhance the cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa. PMID:26952752

  16. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Iswadi, M I; Ann, Z F; Hafiz, M M; Hafiz, M D; Fahrul, F J; Hajarian, H; Wahid, H; Zawawi, I; Khairiah, M S; Mazni, O A

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur.

  17. Urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations and semen quality of male partners of subfertile couples in Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Oguri, Tomoko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Toshima, Hiroki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi; Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) has been known as a testicular toxicant in experimental rodents. Possible association between iAs exposure and semen quality (semen volume, sperm concentration, and sperm motility) was explored in male partners of couples (n = 42) who visited a gynecology clinic in Tokyo for infertility consultation. Semen parameters were measured according to WHO guideline at the clinic, and urinary iAs and methylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-hydride generation-ICP mass spectrometry. Biological attributes, dietary habits, and exposure levels to other chemicals with known effects on semen parameters were taken into consideration as covariates. Multiple regression analyses and logistic regression analyses did not find iAs exposure as significant contributor to semen parameters. Lower exposure level of subjects (estimated to be 0.5 μg kg(-1) day(-1)) was considered a reason of the absence of adverse effects on semen parameters, which were seen in rodents dosed with 4-7.5 mg kg(-1). PMID:26865228

  18. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, H; Serefoglu, E C; Yencilek, E; Atalay, H; Akbas, N B; Sarıca, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term escitalopram treatment on semen parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Between November 2008 and January 2010, patients admitted to urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were evaluated. Medical and sexual history of patients were recorded and patients with lifelong PE (a total of 25 patients) who met the International Society of Sexual Medicine definition were asked to record their intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for 1 month, complete Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) questionnaire and give semen samples. Afterwards, patients received 10 mg escitalopram daily for 12 weeks and were invited for control visits at first and third month of treatment. During control visits, PEDT was administered again whereas IELTs were recorded and semen samples were re-examined. PEDT scores, arithmetic means of IELTs and results of semen analyses, which were recorded at baseline, first and third month were compared. At the third month of treatment, a significant increase in mean IELTs and a significant decrease in PEDT scores were detected. However there was a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and morphology when compared with the baseline semen measures. Daily escitalopram treatment effects the semen parameters of patients with lifelong PE. Further investigations with larger series are needed to see whether other serotonin reuptake inhibitors have similar side effects and to expose the exact mechanism underlying it. Different treatment modalities should be suggested to patients who desire fertility.

  19. Collection, analysis and cryopreservation of semen from Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki): A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Iswadi, M.I.; Ann, Z.F.; Hafiz, M.M.; Hafiz, M.D.; Fahrul, F.J.; Hajarian, H.; Wahid, H.; Zawawi, I.; Khairiah, M.S.; Mazni, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Malayan gaur (Bos gaurus hubbacki) or Seladang is classified as vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). The Malayan gaur is mainly distributed in the tropical woodlands of Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand. The aim of this study was to collect, analyze and cryopreserve the semen of wild Malayan gaur. Transrectal massage (TM) and electroejaculation (EEJ) technique was applied in semen collection of the Malayan gaur. The semen was then cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen using slow freezing technique. Makler counting chamber was used to evaluate sperm concentration and motility, while the sperm viability and morphology of fresh and post-thaw sperm was determined using eosin-nigrosin staining protocol. As a result, we have successfully collected the Malayan gaur semen using EEJ technique. Sperm motility, viability and morphological changes of the post-thaw semen of Malayan gaur were found undesirable due to the complication of the cryopreservation process. On the basis of current study it can be concluded that Malayan gaur bulls semen can be obtain by EEJ with no evidence of rectal trauma. Optimization of the process of cryopreservation for Malayan gaur sperm is needed to maintain the cryoviability of the good sperm quality. The data generated in this study would be useful in conservation of genetic diversity program for Malayan gaur. PMID:26623302

  20. Reducing Inter-Laboratory Differences between Semen Analyses Using Z Score and Regression Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Leushuis, Esther; Wetzels, Alex; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Bossuyt, Patrick M.M.; van Trooyen, Netty; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Horst, Frans A.L.; Hompes, Peter G.A. Hompes; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Veen, Fulco

    2016-01-01

    Background Standardization of the semen analysis may improve reproducibility. We assessed variability between laboratories in semen analyses and evaluated whether a transformation using Z scores and regression statistics was able to reduce this variability. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study. We calculated between-laboratory coefficients of variation (CVB) for sperm concentration and for morphology. Subsequently, we standardized the semen analysis results by calculating laboratory specific Z scores, and by using regression. We used analysis of variance for four semen parameters to assess systematic differences between laboratories before and after the transformations, both in the circulation samples and in the samples obtained in the prospective cohort study in the Netherlands between January 2002 and February 2004. Results The mean CVBwas 7% for sperm concentration (range 3 to 13%) and 32% for sperm morphology (range 18 to 51%). The differences between the laboratories were statistically significant for all semen parameters (all P<0.001). Standardization using Z scores did not reduce the differences in semen analysis results between the laboratories (all P<0.001). Conclusion There exists large between-laboratory variability for sperm morphology and small, but statistically significant, between-laboratory variation for sperm concentration. Standardization using Z scores does not eliminate between-laboratory variability. PMID:26985342

  1. Effects of different cryoprotectants and freezing methods on post-thaw boar semen quality.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung-Hsun; Wu, Ting-Wen; Cheng, Feng-Pang; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Wu, Jui-Te

    2016-03-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations of glycerol (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 5%) and dimethylacetamide (DMA: 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5%) on post-sperm quality characteristics following semen freezing in dry ice (D) or liquid nitrogen (N). Semen was collected from Duroc boars and was allocated to 32 treatment groups for cryopreservation. Analysis of post-thaw semen quality and fertility after artificial insemination (AI) was used to examine the combinatorial effects of different treatments. The best scores for post-thaw sperm motility, sperm viability, and sperm acrosomal integrity were observed in semen frozen in: (a) dry ice in the presence of 5% glycerol and no DMA (16D-treatment); (b) dry ice in the presence of 3% glycerol and no DMA (9D-treatment); and (c) liquid nitrogen in the presence of 3% glycerol and 1% DMA (10N-treatment), with no significant difference observed among these three treatments. The farrowing rates after AI with post-thawed semen after 9D- and 10N-treatments were 33% and 50%, respectively. To summarize, the results of the present study indicated that the freezing extender containing 3% glycerol in combination with the straw-freezing method using dry ice produced the best post-thaw quality parameters of boar semen. Combinations of glycerol and DMA did not enhance the cryosurvival of boar spermatozoa.

  2. HIV enhancing activity of semen impairs the antiviral efficacy of microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Zirafi, Onofrio; Kim, Kyeong-Ae; Roan, Nadia R.; Kluge, Silvia F.; Müller, Janis A.; Jiang, Shibo; Mayer, Benjamin; Greene, Warner C.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Münch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Topically applied microbicides potently inhibit HIV in vitro but have largely failed to exert protective effects in clinical trials. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that the preclinical testing of microbicides does not faithfully reflect the conditions of HIV sexual transmission. Here, we report that candidate microbicides that target HIV components show greatly reduced antiviral efficacy in the presence of semen, the main vector for HIV transmission. This diminished antiviral activity was dependent on the ability of amyloid fibrils in semen to enhance the infectivity of HIV. Thus, the anti-HIV efficacy of microbicides determined in the absence of semen greatly underestimated the drug concentrations needed to block semen-exposed virus. One notable exception was Maraviroc. This HIV entry inhibitor targets the host cell CCR5 coreceptor and was highly active against both untreated and semen-exposed HIV. These data help explain why microbicides have failed to protect against HIV in clinical trials and suggest that antiviral compounds targeting host factors hold promise for further development. These findings also suggest that the in vitro efficacy of candidate microbicides should be determined in the presence of semen to identify the best candidates for the prevention of HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25391483

  3. Escitalopram treatment for premature ejaculation has a negative effect on semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, H; Serefoglu, E C; Yencilek, E; Atalay, H; Akbas, N B; Sarıca, K

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of long-term escitalopram treatment on semen parameters of patients with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). Between November 2008 and January 2010, patients admitted to urology outpatient clinic with a self-reported complaint of PE were evaluated. Medical and sexual history of patients were recorded and patients with lifelong PE (a total of 25 patients) who met the International Society of Sexual Medicine definition were asked to record their intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) for 1 month, complete Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) questionnaire and give semen samples. Afterwards, patients received 10 mg escitalopram daily for 12 weeks and were invited for control visits at first and third month of treatment. During control visits, PEDT was administered again whereas IELTs were recorded and semen samples were re-examined. PEDT scores, arithmetic means of IELTs and results of semen analyses, which were recorded at baseline, first and third month were compared. At the third month of treatment, a significant increase in mean IELTs and a significant decrease in PEDT scores were detected. However there was a significant decrease in sperm concentration, motility and morphology when compared with the baseline semen measures. Daily escitalopram treatment effects the semen parameters of patients with lifelong PE. Further investigations with larger series are needed to see whether other serotonin reuptake inhibitors have similar side effects and to expose the exact mechanism underlying it. Different treatment modalities should be suggested to patients who desire fertility. PMID:21776003

  4. Semen parameters can be predicted from environmental factors and lifestyle using artificial intelligence methods.

    PubMed

    Girela, Jose L; Gil, David; Johnsson, Magnus; Gomez-Torres, María José; De Juan, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Fertility rates have dramatically decreased in the last two decades, especially in men. It has been described that environmental factors as well as life habits may affect semen quality. In this paper we use artificial intelligence techniques in order to predict semen characteristics resulting from environmental factors, life habits, and health status, with these techniques constituting a possible decision support system that can help in the study of male fertility potential. A total of 123 young, healthy volunteers provided a semen sample that was analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2010 criteria. They also were asked to complete a validated questionnaire about life habits and health status. Sperm concentration and percentage of motile sperm were related to sociodemographic data, environmental factors, health status, and life habits in order to determine the predictive accuracy of a multilayer perceptron network, a type of artificial neural network. In conclusion, we have developed an artificial neural network that can predict the results of the semen analysis based on the data collected by the questionnaire. The semen parameter that is best predicted using this methodology is the sperm concentration. Although the accuracy for motility is slightly lower than that for concentration, it is possible to predict it with a significant degree of accuracy. This methodology can be a useful tool in early diagnosis of patients with seminal disorders or in the selection of candidates to become semen donors.

  5. Bovine herpesvirus 1 in semen of bulls and the risk of transmission: a brief review.

    PubMed

    van Oirschot, J T

    1995-03-01

    Outbreaks of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) infections in artificial insemination centres can run a clinical or subclinical course. Clinical signs vary from mild to severe balanoposthitis and may be associated with a decrease in semen quality. After intranasal as well as intrapreputial infection, BHV1 can replicate in the preputial and penile mucosae, although the pattern of virus shedding in semen differs considerably per individual bull. Beyond the primary phase of a genital infection, BHV1 remains latent in sacral ganglia, and consequently a protracted course of intermittent virus excretion may follow. The seminal plasma rather than the sperm cells contains the BHV1. Diluting the semen before inoculating cell cultures appears to be the best method to neutralize its toxic activity and to achieve optimal virus isolation results. Detection of BHV1 in semen by polymerase chain reaction seems to be more sensitive than virus isolation. Not each extended semen straw contains virus when the virus titre in the ejaculate is low. The minimal dose to infect a cow by artificial insemination may be more than 32 infectious virus particles. Such an infection may lead to fertility disturbances, mainly endometritis. The risk of transmitting BHV1 to inseminated cows by using BHV1-seropositive bulls for artificial insemination is substantially reduced if two straws per semen batch are assayed for virus and if each positive batch is destroyed. PMID:7610554

  6. Presence of aerobic micro-organisms and their influence on basic semen parameters in infertile men.

    PubMed

    Filipiak, E; Marchlewska, K; Oszukowska, E; Walczak-Jedrzejowska, R; Swierczynska-Cieplucha, A; Kula, K; Slowikowska-Hilczer, J

    2015-09-01

    Urogenital tract infections in males are one of the significant etiological factors in infertility. In this prospective study, 72 patients with abnormal semen parameters or any other symptoms of urogenital tract infection were examined. Semen analysis according to the WHO 2010 manual was performed together with microbial assessment: aerobic bacteria culture, Chlamydia antigen test, Candida culture, Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma-specific culture. In total, 69.4% of semen samples were positive for at least one micro-organism. Ureaplasma sp. was the most common micro-organism found in 33% of semen samples of infertile patients with suspected male genital tract infection. The 2nd most common micro-organisms were Enterococcus faecalis (12.5%) and Escherichia coli (12.5%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7%), Chlamydia trachomatis (7%) and Candida sp. (5.6%). Generally, bacteria were sensitive to at least one of the antibiotics tested. No statistically significant relationship was observed between the presence of aerobic micro-organisms in semen and basic semen parameters: volume, pH, concentration, total count, motility, vitality and morphology.

  7. Seasonal effects of semen collection and artificial insemination on dairy cow conception.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Kommisrud, E; Ropstad, E; Sehested, E

    2005-11-01

    The effects of four seasons of semen collection and of artificial insemination on conception in dairy cows were studied. The solstices and equinoxes (December, March, June and September) defined the beginning and/or end of each season. Semen was collected from 973 progeny-test bulls over 8 years at the two Norwegian AI stations at 60.8 degrees N and 63.4 degrees N where artificial light was used to provide a minimum photoperiod of 10 h/day. The effect of using semen of elite bulls during progeny testing and after selection as elite sires also was investigated. Norwegian Red (NRF) cows were inseminated over a 7-year period using progeny test semen and over the last 4 years of the same period using the semen of the elite sires. The probability of conception to only first inseminations for cows up to, and including, the fifth lactation was assessed by 56-day non-return rate (56d NRR) and calving rate. Two data sets were analysed which excluded cows culled within 270 days of AI or included such cows as non-calving. The reasons for culling were categorised as those for fertility problems or all other reasons. Semen was used for AI irrespective of the season in which it had been collected. Season of semen collection did not affect 56d NRR but calving rate was significantly higher (by 0.5-0.8%, approximately; P < 0.01) for semen collected in the December-March period, when photoperiod was increasing, than at other times of the year. The season in which AI was performed showed a peak of 56d NRR in spring for heifers (P < 0.01) and in summer for parous animals (P < 0.01). For calving rate, however, no seasonal peak was found in heifers, whereas pluriparous cows had much higher calving rates in summer and autumn/early winter than late winter and spring (P < 0.01). Semen of elite sires resulted in higher calving rates by 0.5 (NS) to 1.9% (P < 0.01) when used after selection than when used during progeny testing. The difference between the calving rate achieved when the semen

  8. Semen parameters in fertile US men: the Study for Future Families.

    PubMed

    Redmon, J B; Thomas, W; Ma, W; Drobnis, E Z; Sparks, A; Wang, C; Brazil, C; Overstreet, J W; Liu, F; Swan, S H

    2013-11-01

    Establishing reference norms for semen parameters in fertile men is important for accurate assessment, counselling and treatment of men with male factor infertility. Identifying temporal or geographic variability in semen quality also requires accurate measurement of semen parameters in well-characterized, defined populations of men. The Study for Future Families (SFF) recruited men who were partners of pregnant women attending prenatal clinics in Los Angeles CA, Minneapolis MN, Columbia MO, New York City NY and Iowa City IA. Semen samples were collected on site from 763 men (73% White, 15% Hispanic/Latino, 7% Black and 5% Asian or other ethnic group) using strict quality control and well-defined protocols. Semen volume (by weight), sperm concentration (hemacytometer) and sperm motility were measured at each centre. Sperm morphology (both WHO, 1999 strict and WHO, 1987) was determined at a central laboratory. Mean abstinence was 3.2 days. Mean (median; 5th-95th percentile) values were: semen volume, 3.9 (3.7; 1.5-6.8) mL; sperm concentration, 60 (67; 12-192) × 10(6) /mL; total sperm count 209 (240; 32-763) × 10(6) ; % motile, 51 (52; 28-67) %; and total motile sperm count, 104 (128; 14-395) × 10(6) respectively. Values for sperm morphology were 11 (10; 3-20) % and 57 (59; 38-72) % normal forms for WHO (1999) (strict) and WHO (1987) criteria respectively. Black men had significantly lower semen volume, sperm concentration and total motile sperm counts than White and Hispanic/Latino men. Semen parameters were marginally higher in men who achieved pregnancy more quickly but differences were small and not statistically significant. The SFF provides robust estimates of semen parameters in fertile men living in five different geographic locations in the US. Fertile men display wide variation in all of the semen parameters traditionally used to assess fertility potential.

  9. Isolation, culture and characterisation of somatic cells derived from semen and milk of endangered sheep and eland antelope.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, L; Gómez, M C; Damiani, P; Wirtu, G; Dresser, B L; Bondioli, K R; Lyons, L A; Pope, C E; Godke, R A

    2007-01-01

    Semen and milk are potential sources of somatic cells for genome banks. In the present study, we cultured and characterised cells from: (1) cooled sheep milk; (2) fresh, cooled and frozen-thawed semen from Gulf Coast native (GCN) sheep (Ovis aries); and (3) fresh eland (Taurotragus oryx) semen. Cells attached to the culture surface from fresh (29%), cooled (43%) and slow-frozen (1 degrees C/min; 14%) ram semen, whereas no attachment occurred in the fast-frozen (10 degrees C/min) group. Proliferation occurred in fresh (50%) and cooled (100%) groups, but no cells proliferated after passage 1 (P1). Eland semen yielded cell lines (100%) that were cryopreserved at P1. In samples from GCN and cross-bred milk, cell attachment (83% and 95%, respectively) and proliferation (60% and 37%, respectively) were observed. Immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin indicated an epithelial origin of semen-derived cells, whereas milk yielded either fibroblasts, epithelial or a mixture of cell types. Deoxyribonucleic acid microsatellite analysis using cattle-derived markers confirmed that eland cells were from the semen donor. Eland epithelial cells were transferred into eland oocytes and 12 (71%), six (35%) and two (12%) embryos cleaved and developed to morulae or blastocyst stages, respectively. In conclusion, we have developed a technique for obtaining somatic cells from semen. We have also demonstrated that semen-derived cells can serve as karyoplast donors for nuclear transfer. PMID:17524303

  10. Liquid semen storage in elephants (Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana): species differences and storage optimization.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Brown, Janine L; Siewerdt, Frank; Schmitt, Dennis L; Olson, Deborah; Crichton, Elizabeth G; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2011-01-01

    Artificial insemination plays a key role in the genetic management of elephants in zoos. Because freshly extended semen is typically used for artificial insemination in elephants, it has become imperative to optimize conditions for liquid storage and semen transport. The objectives of this study were to examine the interactions between different extenders and storage temperatures on sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants. Ejaculates were collected by rectal massage, diluted using a split-sample technique in 5 semen extenders: TL-Hepes (HEP), Modena (MOD), Biladyl (BIL), TEST refrigeration medium (TES), and INRA96 (INR), maintained at 35°C, 22°C, or 4°C. At 0, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours, aliquots were removed and assessed for sperm total motility, progressive motility, and acrosomal integrity. After 24 hours of storage, African elephant spermatozoa exhibited greater longevity and higher values in sperm quality parameters compared with those of Asian elephants. In both species, semen storage at 35°C resulted in a sharp decline in all sperm quality parameters after 4 hours of storage, whereas storage at 22°C and 4°C facilitated sperm survival. In Asian elephants, MOD and HEP were most detrimental, whereas BIL, TES, and INR maintained motility up to 12 hours when spermatozoa were cooled to 22°Cor4°C. In African elephants, there were no differences among extenders. All media maintained good sperm quality parameters at 22°C or 4°C. However, although MOD, BIL, and INR were most effective at lower temperatures, HEP and TES maintained sperm motility at all storage temperatures. This study demonstrated sperm sensitivity to components of various semen extenders and storage temperatures and offers recommendations for semen extender choices for liquid semen storage for both Asian and African elephants.

  11. Freezability and semen parameters in candidates of sperm bank donors: 1992-2010.

    PubMed

    Yogev, Leah; Paz, Gedalia; Kleiman, Sandra E; Shabtai, Esther; Gamzu, Ronni; Botchan, Amnon; Lehavi, Ofer; Yavetz, Haim; Hauser, Ron

    2012-01-01

    There has been considerable concern worldwide about possible semen quality deterioration over the last 2 decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate freezability and semen quality of healthy young males during the years 1992-2010. A total of 1211 young (20-32 years old) candidates for sperm bank donation were recruited into the study with no exclusion criteria. They were instructed to observe 2 to 3 days of abstinence from sexual activity, and most of them supplied 2 specimens each. Average values of the various semen parameters, including freezing survival, were calculated for each participant. The change in different semen parameters over years, according to yearly and monthly average temperatures, was evaluated by SAS PROC SURVEYREG analysis. During that period, there were significant increases in motility and vitality percentages, as well as in the percentage of thawed sperm motility. The parameters of volume, concentration, normal morphology, total count, and total motile count showed a significant decrease with years (P < .01). The significant increase in average yearly temperature (P < .004) had limited, nonsignificant association with any of the semen variables. However, average monthly temperature contributed significantly to the trend of semen quality parameters (ie, specimen volume, concentration, percentage of normal morphology, and thawed motility). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the occurrence of an improvement in percent thawed motility over the years, and its significance lies in enabling a higher proportion of sperm bank candidates to be suitable for donation. It is suggested that the global warming phenomenon might have only partial contribution to semen variable changes over the years. PMID:22282433

  12. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tie; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Li, Lei; Cao, Huan; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Guang-Hua; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05) for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05) for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 10 6 ml-1 (95% CI: -1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075), 2.5% (95% CI: -3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424), and 2.9% (95% CI: -3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336) respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates.

  13. Geographic differences in semen quality of fertile U.S. males.

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Shanna H; Brazil, Charlene; Drobnis, Erma Z; Liu, Fan; Kruse, Robin L; Hatch, Maureen; Redmon, J Bruce; Wang, Christina; Overstreet, James W

    2003-01-01

    Although geographic variation in semen quality has been reported, this is the first study in the United States to compare semen quality among study centers using standardized methods and strict quality control. We evaluated semen specimens from partners of 512 pregnant women recruited through prenatal clinics in four U.S. cities during 1999-2001; 91% of men provided two specimens. Sperm concentration, semen volume, and motility were determined at the centers, and morphology was assessed at a central laboratory. Study protocols were identical across centers, and quality control was rigorously maintained. Sperm concentration was significantly lower in Columbia, Missouri, than in New York, New York; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Los Angeles, California. Mean counts were 58.7, 102.9, 98.6, and 80.8 X 10(6)/mL (medians 53.5, 88.5, 81.8, and 64.8 X 10(6)/mL) in Missouri, New York, Minnesota, and California, respectively. The total number of motile sperm was also lower in Missouri than in other centers: 113, 196, 201, and 162 X 10(6) in Missouri, New York, Minnesota, and California, respectively. Semen volume and the percent morphologically normal sperm did not differ appreciably among centers. These between-center differences remained significant in multivariate models that controlled for abstinence time, semen analysis time, age, race, smoking, history of sexually transmitted disease, and recent fever (all p-values < 0.01). Confounding factors and differences in study methods are unlikely to account for the lower semen quality seen in this mid-Missouri population. These data suggest that sperm concentration and motility may be reduced in semirural and agricultural areas relative to more urban and less agriculturally exposed areas. PMID:12676592

  14. Encapsulation of sex sorted boar semen: sperm membrane status and oocyte penetration parameters.

    PubMed

    Spinaci, Marcella; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Bucci, Diego; Vallorani, Claudia; Perteghella, Sara; Lucconi, Giulia; Communod, Ricardo; Vigo, Daniele; Galeati, Giovanna; Faustini, Massimo; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2013-03-01

    Although sorted semen is experimentally used for artificial, intrauterine, and intratubal insemination and in vitro fertilization, its commercial application in swine species is still far from a reality. This is because of the low sort rate and the large number of sperm required for routine artificial insemination in the pig, compared with other production animals, and the greater susceptibility of porcine spermatozoa to stress induced by the different sex sorting steps and the postsorting handling protocols. The encapsulation technology could overcome this limitation in vivo, protecting and allowing the slow release of low-dose sorted semen. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of the encapsulation process on viability, acrosome integrity, and on the in vitro fertilizing potential of sorted boar semen. Our results indicate that the encapsulation technique does not damage boar sorted semen; in fact, during a 72-hour storage, no differences were observed between liquid-stored sorted semen and encapsulated sorted semen in terms of plasma membrane (39.98 ± 14.38% vs. 44.32 ± 11.72%, respectively) and acrosome integrity (74.32 ± 12.17% vs. 66.07 ± 10.83%, respectively). Encapsulated sorted spermatozoa presented a lower penetration potential than nonencapsulated ones (47.02% vs. 24.57%, respectively, P < 0.0001), and a significant reduction of polyspermic fertilization (60.76% vs. 36.43%, respectively, polyspermic ova/total ova; P < 0.0001). However, no difference (P > 0.05) was observed in terms of total efficiency of fertilization expressed as normospermic oocytes/total oocytes (18.45% vs. 15.43% for sorted diluted and sorted encapsulated semen, respectively). The encapsulation could be an alternative method of storing of pig sex sorted spermatozoa and is potentially a promising technique in order to optimize the use of low dose of sexed spermatozoa in vivo. PMID:23261305

  15. Effect of varicocelectomy on testis volume and semen parameters in adolescents: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tie; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Qi; Li, Lei; Cao, Huan; Xu, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Guang-Hua; Sun, Ying-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Varicocele repair in adolescent remains controversial. Our aim is to identify and combine clinical trials results published thus far to ascertain the efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving testis volume and semen parameters compared with nontreatment control. A literature search was performed using Medline, Embase and Web of Science, which included results obtained from meta-analysis, randomized and nonrandomized controlled studies. The study population was adolescents with clinically palpable varicocele with or without the testicular asymmetry or abnormal semen parameters. Cases were allocated to treatment and observation groups, and testis volume or semen parameters were adopted as outcome measures. As a result, seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized controlled trials studying bilateral testis volume or semen parameters in both treatment and observation groups were identified. Using a random effect model, mean difference of testis volume between the treatment group and the observation group was 2.9 ml (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.6, 5.2; P< 0.05) for the varicocele side and 1.5 ml (95% CI: 0.3, 2.7; P< 0.05) for the healthy side. The random effect model analysis demonstrated that the mean difference of semen concentration, total semen motility, and normal morphology between the two groups was 13.7 × 106 ml−1 (95% CI: −1.4, 28.8; P = 0.075), 2.5% (95% CI: −3.6, 8.6; P= 0.424), and 2.9% (95% CI: −3.0, 8.7; P= 0.336) respectively. In conclusion, although varicocelectomy significantly improved bilateral testis volume in adolescents with varicocele compared with observation cases, semen parameters did not have any statistically significant difference between two groups. Well-planned, properly conducted RCTs are needed in order to confirm the above-mentioned conclusion further and to explore whether varicocele repair in adolescents could improve subsequently spontaneous pregnancy rates. PMID:25677136

  16. Semen-induced luteal phase and identification of a LH surge in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; O'Callaghan, P; Nilsson, K; Tzipori, G; Curlewis, J D

    2004-11-01

    The koala ovulates in response to mating. The purpose of this study was to document the LH surge induced by copulation and to investigate the potential roles of mechanical stimulation of the urogenital sinus and deposition of semen in induction of the luteal phase. In experiment 1, serial blood samples from four koalas that underwent normal mating showed elevated concentrations of LH approximately 24-32 h post-coitus. There was no corresponding elevation in LH in koalas (n=4) that were exposed to the presence of a male but received no physical contact. In experiment 2, koalas on day 2 of oestrus were exposed to one of the following treatments (n=9 per group): artificial insemination with 1 ml 0.9% sterile saline (control group), insemination with 1 ml koala semen, stimulation of the urogenital sinus with a purpose built glass rod (designed to mimic the action of the penis during natural mating) and urogenital stimulation with the glass rod followed by insemination of 1 ml koala semen. Confirmation of a luteal phase was based on evidence of a prolonged return to oestrus, parturition and/or elevated progesterone concentrations. Insemination of saline (0/9) and urogenital stimulation (0/9) failed to induce a luteal phase. Insemination of semen without glass rod stimulation resulted in a luteal phase in 4/9 koalas, three of which gave birth. Insemination of semen in combination with urogenital stimulation produced a luteal phase in 7/9 koalas, four of which gave birth. Semen had a significant effect on induction of the koala luteal phase (P <0.001) but glass rod stimulation had no such effect (P=0.335). It was concluded that semen must be involved in the induction of a luteal phase in the koala. The results presented in this study will serve to improve optimal timing and induction of ovulation for artificial insemination in the koala. PMID:15509709

  17. Relevance of semen polymerase chain reaction positive for tuberculosis in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Regmi, Subodh Kumar; Singh, Urvashi B.; Sharma, Jai Bhagwan; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male partners of infertile women with genital tuberculosis (TB) are often screened for genital TB. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of a positive screening semen polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis test (TB-PCR) in asymptomatic men undergoing infertility evaluation and determine the need for a detailed investigation and treatment for TB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between March 2012 and January 2013, male partners of 15 infertile women with a diagnosis of genitourinary TB (GUTB) as the cause of infertility, tested positive either on semen PCR for TB (13 cases), or Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube-960 test (2 cases). These asymptomatic men underwent infertility evaluation along with evaluation for GUTB. Diagnosis of GUTB was based on standard clinical criteria, which included a high index of suspicion along with clinical, laboratory, and/or radiological evidence of GUTB. Men who had no clinical evidence of GUTB were followed up with clinical evaluation, semen analysis, and repeat semen PCR for TB after 6 months. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects consented for inclusion in the study. One had a history of pulmonary TB 20 years earlier. Another patient was found to have mediastinal lymphadenopathy (tubercular). All except one had a normal semen analysis. None of the patients met the standard clinical criteria for GUTB diagnosis. 8 patients followed up at 6 months with repeat semen analysis, which was similar to the baseline values and no clinical evidence of TB. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic men with positive screening semen PCR for TB do not have clinical evidence of TB. Male partners of women with infertility and GUTB should not be screened if they have no symptoms. PMID:26538860

  18. Prevalence of sexually transmissible pathogens in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia

    PubMed Central

    Bezold, Guntram; Politch, Joseph A.; Kiviat, Nancy B.; Kuypers, Jane M.; Wolff, Hans; Anderson, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in semen from asymptomatic male infertility patients with and without leukocytospermia (LCS), and associations between STIs, inflammatory markers and other semen variables. Design Retrospective, controlled study. Setting Center for Reproductive Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Patient(s) 241 male infertility patients undergoing routine semen analysis; 132 with LCS, and 109 without LCS. Intervention(s) None Main Outcome Measure(s) DNA from STI pathogens [human papillomavirus (HPV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)], routine semen parameters and markers of accessory gland and epididymal function and inflammation. Results STI DNA was detected in 45/241 (18.7%) of the samples (CMV 8.7%, HPV 4.5%, HHV-6 3.7%, HSV 3.7%, CT 2.5%, EBV 0.4%, and HBV 0%), with no difference in prevalence between LCS and non-LCS groups. STI DNA in semen was associated with a decrease in sperm concentration, motile sperm concentration, total sperm count and neutral α-glucosidase concentration, whereas LCS was associated with a decrease in total sperm count, % normal forms and fructose concentration. Conclusion(s) STI pathogen DNA was detected in semen from a high percentage of asymptomatic male infertility patients and was associated with poor semen quality. Efforts to diagnose and treat subclinical genital tract infections should be intensified. PMID:17433312

  19. The effect of mark enhancement techniques on the subsequent detection of semen/spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Rory; Deacon, Paul; Phillips, Darren J; Farrugia, Kevin

    2014-11-01

    Fingermarks, footwear marks, blood and semen are amongst the most commonly encountered types of evidence at crime scenes. Previous work has extensively investigated fingermark and blood enhancement techniques and a sequence developed to maximise evidence recovery; however, there is limited research as to the effect of these techniques on the subsequent detection of body fluids such as semen. In this study, seven fingermark and blood enhancement techniques (e.g. powder suspension, cyanoacrylate fuming and acid violet 17) were employed followed by the subsequent detection of semen/spermatozoa. Other variables included in the study were the use of two substrates (white ceramic tiles and grey laminate flooring), a depletion series and ageing periods of 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. The effect these techniques had on the subsequent detection of semen was assessed by visual and fluorescence examination followed by presumptive and confirmatory testing for semen and spermatozoa. The results found that protein stains (acid violet 17 and acid yellow 7) caused a loss in presumptive test reactivity; however, sperm heads were still observed using microscopic examination after extraction and staining. The use of black magnetic powder, Bluestar(®) Forensic Magnum luminol, Lumicyano™ 4% and cyanoacrylate fuming followed by basic yellow 40 staining did not hinder subsequent presumptive and confirmatory tests for semen and sperm heads. Powder suspension caused a loss in both presumptive test reactivity and sperm heads from the substrate. In general, the enhancement techniques resulted in the improved visualisation of the semen stains under white and violet/blue light. The results from this study aim to provide a strategy to maximise evidence recovery and improve efficiency in an integrated forensic approach.

  20. Effect of widespread and limited use of sexed semen on genetic progress and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Khalajzadeh, S; Nejati-Javaremi, A; Mehrbani Yeganeh, H

    2012-09-01

    Stochastic simulation was used for studying the impacts of sexed semen on genetic progress and reproductive performance of dairy cows. Three strategies were compared: WSS (use unsexed semen in cows and heifers), SSH (use sexed semen in heifers and unsexed semen in cows) and SSCH (use sexed semen in both cows and heifers). Conception rate (CR) of unsexed semen was considered to be 35% and 65% in cows and heifers, respectively. CR of sexed semen was considered to be 15 (20% in cows and 50% in heifers), 10, 5 and 0 percentage points lower than unsexed semen. Thus, four subschemes were compared under SSCH (SSCH15, SSCH10, SSCH5, SSCH0) and SSH (SSH15, SSH10, SSH5, SSH0). Moreover, the effect was studied in four distinct paths of selection: active sires (AS), young bulls (YB), bull dams (BD) and milking cows (CW). The average genetic superiority of CW was 12% and 9.5% in SSCH15 and SSH15 strategies relative to a base scheme, respectively. The average genetic superiority of CW was 19% and 10.5% in SSCH0 and SSH0, respectively. Regression analysis showed that genetic superiority of CW increased significantly, that is, 0.5% and 0.1% per every 1% increase in CR in SSCH and SSH, respectively. The result showed that there is a significant difference between genetic superiority of cows in SSCH and SSH schemes. Widespread and limited use of sexed semen in commercial dairy herds resulted in a large genetic advantage in CW. The genetic advantage of gender control was minimal in the selection paths of AS, YB and BD. Open days and services per conception reached to 153 v. 125 days and 5 v. 2.86 under SSCH15 compared with WSS. The age at first calving increased from 774 to 790 days in SSH15 and SSCH15 strategies. Mean of parities decreased to 2.26 v. 2.42 by using sexed semen. The widespread use of sexed semen increased the age average of cows in all parities. Sexed semen increased selection intensity in the CW path, and this contributed to the genetic merit of future cows. On the

  1. Effective freezing rate for semen cryopreservation in endangered Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) inhabiting the Biferno river (South Italy).

    PubMed

    Iaffaldano, Nicolaia; Di Iorio, Michele; Manchisi, Angelo; Esposito, Stefano; Gibertoni, Pier Paolo

    2016-10-01

    This study was designed to determine: (i) the in vitro effects of different freezing rates on post-thaw semen quality of Mediterranean brown trout (Salmo trutta macrostigma) from the Biferno river; and (ii) the in vivo fertilization and hatching percentage of freezing rate giving rise to the best post-thaw semen quality. Pooled semen samples were diluted 1:3 (v:v) in a freezing extender composed of 300 mM glucose, 10% egg yolk and 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The extended semen was packaged in 0.25 ml plastic straws and frozen at different heights above the liquid nitrogen surface (1, 5 or 10 cm) for 10 min to give three different freezing rates. Semen samples were thawed at 30°C for 10 s. The variables assessed after thawing were sperm motility, duration of motility and viability. Our results clearly indicate a significant effect of freezing rate on post-thaw semen quality. Semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface showed the best quality after freezing/thawing. Based on these in vitro data, 2 groups of 200 eggs were fertilized with fresh semen or semen frozen 5 cm above the liquid nitrogen surface. Fertilization and hatching rates recorded for eggs fertilized with frozen semen were significantly lower (25.4% and 22.5%, respectively) than the ones obtained using fresh semen (87.8% and 75.5%, respectively). An effective freezing protocol will allow for the creation of a sperm cryobank to recover the original population of Mediterranean brown trout in the Biferno river.

  2. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 1: in vitro proliferation of epithelial cells on embryonic fibroblasts after isolation from semen by gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, Liesl; Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle; Lopez, Monica; Wirtu, Gemechu; Cole, Alex; Dresser, Betsy L; Lyons, Leslie A; Bondioli, Kenneth R; Godke, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    Although epithelial-like somatic cells have been previously isolated from semen, cell proliferation rates were low. Culture of whole semen samples resulted in loss of potentially valuable spermatozoa. The aims of the present study were to: (1) isolate somatic cells from semen, while preserving sperm viability, and (2) optimize in vitro culture conditions for semen-derived epithelial cells. Density gradient centrifugation of washed ejaculates of two rams (Ovis aries) (n = 24) and one eland bull (Taurotragus oryx) (n = 4) was performed using a three-layer discontinuous Percoll column consisting of 90% (P-90), 50% (P-50), and 20% (P-20) Percoll. In vitro culture and Trypan Blue staining indicated that live somatic cells settled in the P-20 layer. Nonmotile spermatozoa were recovered at the P-50 and P-90 interfaces, whereas motile spermatozoa were collected in the pellet from the P-90 layer. Subsequently, somatic cells isolated from the P-20 layer were plated either on inactivated 3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast feeder layers, collagen-coated plates with 3T3 feeder cell inserts, or on collagen-coated plates. Initial somatic cell plating was similar among treatments, but proliferation significantly increased when cocultured with 3T3 cells (feeder or insert). Furthermore, two different types of epithelial cells were obtained. The exact origin of the cells in the male reproduction system is uncertain and probably variable. The present method of cell isolation and in vitro culture may be of value for preserving endangered species. Specifically, cells isolated and cultured from cryopreserved semen of nonliving males could be used for producing embryos by somatic cell nuclear transfer. PMID:18241128

  3. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level.

  4. Sperm head phenotype and male fertility in ram semen.

    PubMed

    Maroto-Morales, A; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Montoro, V; Soler, A J; Fernández-Santos, M R; Roldan, E R S; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2015-12-01

    Although there is ample evidence for the effects of sperm head shape on sperm function, its impact on fertility has not been explored in detail at the intraspecific level in mammals. Here, we assess the relationship between sperm head shape and male fertility in a large-scale study in Manchega sheep (Ovis aries), which have not undergone any selection for fertility. Semen was collected from 83 mature rams, and before insemination, head shapes were measured for five parameters: area, perimeter, length, width, and p2a (perimeter(2)/2×π×area) using a computer-assisted sperm morphometric analysis. In addition, a cluster analysis using sperm head length and p2a factor was performed to determine sperm subpopulations (SPs) structure. Our results show the existence of four sperm SPs, which present different sperm head phenotype: SP1 (large and round), SP2 (short and elongated), SP3 (shortest and round), and SP4 (large and the most elongated). No relationships were found between males' fertility rates and average values of sperm head dimensions. However, differences in fertility rates between rams were strongly associated to the proportion of spermatozoa in an ejaculate SP with short and elongated heads (P < 0.001). These findings show how the heterogeneity in sperm head shape of the ejaculate has an effect on reproductive success, and highlight the important role of modulation of the ejaculate at the intraspecific level. PMID:26318229

  5. Semen quality in captive Houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata undulata.

    PubMed

    Wishart, G J; Lindsay, C; Staines, H J; McCormick, P

    2002-01-01

    Semen quality in captive-bred Houbara bustards, Chlamydotis undulata undulata, was assessed during three consecutive breeding seasons. In any one season, sperm quality, in terms of the proportion of eosin-permeable spermatozoa and of spermatozoa with abnormally large nuclei, varied among individual males, but not among their ejaculates. Neither the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei, nor those permeable to eosin were related to the total sperm output of males. The fertilizing ability of males was related to their mean seasonal proportion of eosin-permeable spermatozoa, but not the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei. The ranking of males on the basis of the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei in their ejaculates was significantly positively correlated between seasons, although ranking on the basis of sperm eosin-permeability was not. The cause or consequence of producing spermatozoa with large nuclei (and excess DNA) remains to be elucidated, but appears to be a trait that is characteristic of houbara bustard males that is maintained between breeding seasons. PMID:12617782

  6. Semen quality in captive Houbara bustard, Chlamydotis undulata undulata.

    PubMed

    Wishart, G J; Lindsay, C; Staines, H J; McCormick, P

    2002-01-01

    Semen quality in captive-bred Houbara bustards, Chlamydotis undulata undulata, was assessed during three consecutive breeding seasons. In any one season, sperm quality, in terms of the proportion of eosin-permeable spermatozoa and of spermatozoa with abnormally large nuclei, varied among individual males, but not among their ejaculates. Neither the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei, nor those permeable to eosin were related to the total sperm output of males. The fertilizing ability of males was related to their mean seasonal proportion of eosin-permeable spermatozoa, but not the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei. The ranking of males on the basis of the proportion of spermatozoa with large nuclei in their ejaculates was significantly positively correlated between seasons, although ranking on the basis of sperm eosin-permeability was not. The cause or consequence of producing spermatozoa with large nuclei (and excess DNA) remains to be elucidated, but appears to be a trait that is characteristic of houbara bustard males that is maintained between breeding seasons.

  7. Electroejaculation and semen buffer evaluation in the microbat Carollia perspicillata.

    PubMed

    Fasel, Nicolas Jean; Helfenstein, Fabrice; Buff, Samuel; Richner, Heinz

    2015-03-15

    Scientific interests and conservation needs currently stress the necessity to better understanding bat reproductive biology. In this study, we present the first, safe, inexpensive, and reliable method to obtain sperm from a microbat species (Carollia perspicillata) by electroejaculation. This method revealed to be highly efficient (100% success rate). We obtained ejaculates composed of two characteristically different fractions. We compared three buffers and recommend using an Earle's balanced salt solution as a semen extender. Earle's balanced salt solution provided significant repeatable measure of swimming ability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.74, P < 0.01) and proportion of motile sperms (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.08, P = 0.01) and allowed sperm to maintain optimal swimming capacity over time. None of the buffers could dissolve all the coagulated sperm. Although the trypsin buffer freed a larger fraction of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, it impaired swimming ability without improving motility, viability, and stamina. We thus argue that the sperm population analyzed with Earle's balanced salt solution is a representative of the ejaculate. Finally, we found that the mean sperm velocity of C perspicillata (78.8 μm/s) is lower than that predicted by regressing sperm velocity on relative testes mass, a proxy of sperm competition. The question as to whether C perspicillata is an outsider for sperm velocity, or whether bats evolved yet another unique mechanism to cope with sperm competition deserves more investigations.

  8. Effect of seminal plasma vesicular structures in canine frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2015-12-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) in the ejaculate have been identified in various species and are considered to affect membrane fluidity due to their characteristic molecular composition. Addition of MV to human frozen semen has been shown to improve post-thaw motility. Similarly, a beneficial effect has been suggested for frozen equine semen. As post-thaw canine semen quality varies widely between dogs, the aim of our study was to test for the effect of addition of canine MV on post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen samples from 10 male dogs were purified from MV and prepared for freezing. In experiment 1, three groups were compared: sperm frozen (1) with MV (S1); (2) without MV, but MV added immediately after thawing (S2); and (3) without MV (C). Semen analysis included computer-assisted sperm analysis of motility parameters immediately after thawing (t0), after 10 (t10) and 30 minutes (t30), % living sperm, % membrane intact, % morphologically normal sperm (all t0 and t30). Computer-assisted sperm analysis motility distance and velocity parameters (all P < 0.05) and % living sperm (P < 0.001) were significantly affected by treatment with a temporary increase of distance and velocity parameters at t0 to t10, but a significant decrease of the aforementioned parameters at t30 in samples with MV. In experiment 2, different MV protein concentrations added after thawing were compared: 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg/mL. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis was performed at t0, t10, and t30. No differences between MV concentrations were identified, only a significant interaction between effect of treatment and time for progressive motility (P < 0.01). Our study identified a short-term beneficial effect of canine MV on post-thaw distance and velocity parameters, whereas at t30 progressive motility, motility parameters and % living sperm were reduced in samples with MV compared to C. The results point to species-specific differences regarding the MV effect on frozen

  9. Simple and effective methods of freezing capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) semen.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Artur; Łukaszewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    A continuous decline in the number and range of capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus L.) in many European countries can be observed, mostly due to habitat destruction by human activity, unecological forestry management, and increased density of natural predators. Ex situ in vitro gene banks provide a unique opportunity to preserve the genetic material for future generations. Simple and effective cryopreservation methods for capercaillie semen are discussed. Semen was collected from seven males kept in the Capercaillie Breeding Centre at Forestry Wisła in Poland. Within five minutes after collection, ejaculates were diluted with EK diluent, then divided into two parts, and subjected to two freezing procedures: in pellets and in straws. In fresh semen, ejaculate clearness, viscosity, color and volume, as well as sperm concentration, motility and morphology, were evaluated, while in frozen-thawed semen only motility and morphology of sperm were determined. Fertilizing ability of thawed semen was examined for samples frozen in straws. Significant (P<0.05) differences between individual males were found in relation to the majority of fresh semen traits: ejaculate volume averaged 102.1 µL (varying from 49.0 to 205.0); average sperm concentration was 632.5 x 10⁶ mL⁻¹ (178.8-1257.1); percentage of live normal cells varied from 39.2 to 70.3% (58.7% on an average); percentage of motile cells ranged from 76.0 to 85.7%) and motility parameters were male dependent, as well. Both cryopreservation methods had a negative effect on morphology and motility of frozen-thawed semen; however, the straw method yielded 60.7% and the pellet method 42.5% of live cells in total in thawed semen (P<0.05), while the number of live normal (intact) cells was similar (22.4 and 22.2%, respectively). Egg fertility varied between 77.8 and 91.7% (average 84.4%). Both freezing procedures seem to be effective in obtaining acceptable viability and high fertilizing potency of thawed sperm and can be used

  10. Effect of seminal plasma vesicular structures in canine frozen-thawed semen.

    PubMed

    Goericke-Pesch, S; Hauck, S; Failing, K; Wehrend, A

    2015-12-01

    Membrane vesicles (MVs) in the ejaculate have been identified in various species and are considered to affect membrane fluidity due to their characteristic molecular composition. Addition of MV to human frozen semen has been shown to improve post-thaw motility. Similarly, a beneficial effect has been suggested for frozen equine semen. As post-thaw canine semen quality varies widely between dogs, the aim of our study was to test for the effect of addition of canine MV on post-thaw semen quality in dogs. Semen samples from 10 male dogs were purified from MV and prepared for freezing. In experiment 1, three groups were compared: sperm frozen (1) with MV (S1); (2) without MV, but MV added immediately after thawing (S2); and (3) without MV (C). Semen analysis included computer-assisted sperm analysis of motility parameters immediately after thawing (t0), after 10 (t10) and 30 minutes (t30), % living sperm, % membrane intact, % morphologically normal sperm (all t0 and t30). Computer-assisted sperm analysis motility distance and velocity parameters (all P < 0.05) and % living sperm (P < 0.001) were significantly affected by treatment with a temporary increase of distance and velocity parameters at t0 to t10, but a significant decrease of the aforementioned parameters at t30 in samples with MV. In experiment 2, different MV protein concentrations added after thawing were compared: 0.05 mg, 0.1 mg, and 0.2 mg/mL. Computer-assisted sperm motility analysis was performed at t0, t10, and t30. No differences between MV concentrations were identified, only a significant interaction between effect of treatment and time for progressive motility (P < 0.01). Our study identified a short-term beneficial effect of canine MV on post-thaw distance and velocity parameters, whereas at t30 progressive motility, motility parameters and % living sperm were reduced in samples with MV compared to C. The results point to species-specific differences regarding the MV effect on frozen

  11. Effect of cryopreservation on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in fowl semen.

    PubMed

    Partyka, Agnieszka; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Niżański, Wojciech

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of chicken semen cryopreservation on sperm parameters, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activities. Pooled semen from 10 Black Minorca roosters was used in the study. Semen samples were subjected to cryopreservation using the "pellet" method and dimethylacetamide (DMA) as a cryoprotectant. In the fresh and the frozen-thawed semen sperm membrane integrity (SYBR-14/propidium iodide (PI)), acrosomal damage (PNA-Alexa Fluor(®)488) and mitochondrial activity (Rhodamine 123) were assessed using flow cytometry. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in sperm cells and seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. All sperm characteristics evaluated using flow cytometry were affected by cryopreservation. After freezing-thawing, there was significant (P < 0.01) reduction in sperm membrane integrity, sperm acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity. Following cryopreservation, MDA concentration significantly increased in chicken seminal plasma and spermatozoa (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). The CAT activity in seminal plasma significantly decreased (P < 0.05), while intracellular activity of this enzyme did not significantly change in frozen-thawed semen. In seminal plasma of frozen-thawed semen the significant increase (P < 0.01) in GPx activity was detected. Whereas GPx activity in spermatozoa remained statistically unchanged after thawing. The SOD activity significantly increased (P < 0.01) in cryopreserved seminal plasma with simultaneous decrease (P < 0.01) of its activity in cells. In conclusion, this is probably the first report describing the level of antioxidant enzymes in frozen-thawed avian semen. The present study showed that the activity of CAT, GPx and SOD in chicken semen was affected by cryopreservation, what increased the intensity of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Catalase appeared to play an important role

  12. Fertility of ram semen frozen in Bioexcell and used for cervical artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Gil, J; Rodriguez-Irazoqui, M; Lundeheim, N; Söderquist, L; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2003-03-01

    The current use of ingredients of animal origin, such as egg yolk, in semen extenders presents a risk of microbial contamination, and has led to the search for alternatives. Such an extender is commercially available for bull semen (Bioexcell), IMV, L'Aigle, France), and it has previously been tested in vitro for freezing ram semen, with satisfactory results. The aim of the present study was to compare the fertility results of ewes in Uruguay, after cervical insemination with ram semen that was frozen in Bioexcell versus semen frozen in a conventional milk-egg yolk extender (control). Semen from five Corriedale rams was frozen, using a split sample design, in either milk-egg yolk or Bioexcell extender, using a two-step extension method. The sperm parameters assessed after thawing were subjective motility, membrane integrity (SYBR-14/PI), and capacitation status (CTC). Thawed semen was inseminated intracervically once during spontaneous estrus in 970 Corriedale ewes that grazed in natural pastures, under extensive management conditions. Fertility was recorded as nonreturn rates at 21 days (NRR-21) and 36 days (NRR-36) after artificial insemination (AI), as well as pregnancy rate (PR-US, diagnosed ultrasonographically 50 days after AI of the last ewe). Subjective motility was slightly higher in Bioexcell than in the milk extender (47 vs. 46.5%; NS), as was membrane integrity (38 vs. 37.7%; NS) and the percentage of uncapacitated spermatozoa (28.5 vs. 26.3%; NS). There were no statistically significant differences in fertility rates found between Bioexcell and the control extender: NRR-21 (35.9 vs. 33.2%), NRR-36 (34.8 vs. 32.6%), and PR-US (28.4 vs. 27.2%). In conclusion, Bioexcell appears to be an alternative to the conventional milk-egg yolk extender for freezing ram semen, and provides similar fertility results after cervical AI under extensive management conditions. Thus, Bioexcell, containing no additives of animal origin, can offer a safer alternative when

  13. Plasma hormone levels and semen quality in male cats during non-breeding and breeding seasons.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, T; Onodera, F; Oba, H; Mizutani, T; Hori, T

    2009-07-01

    Female cats are known to be seasonal breeders and male cats annual breeders. Despite this, there are limited data on the influence of breeding season (BS) on hormone concentration and semen quality in the male cat. This study compared plasma concentrations of LH and testosterone (T), and semen quality during the non-breeding season (NBS) and BS in five male cats subject to natural hours of daylight but a constant environmental temperature. Plasma LH and T concentrations were higher during the BS in 2/35 and 3/5 cats, respectively, although when comparing both hormones combined, values were higher during the BS than the NBS in all cats (p < 0.01). There were no significant differences in the percentage of abnormal sperm between the cats. Overall, semen quality was superior during the BS with larger semen volume in 2/5, sperm motility in 2/5 and sperm viability in 3/5 cats. Although there was a clear seasonal effect on hormone secretion and semen quality, during the NBS all cats were likely to have been fertile.

  14. HPV prophylactic vaccination in males improves the clearance of semen infection.

    PubMed

    Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea; Parisi, Saverio; Ghezzi, Marco; Bertoldo, Alessandro; Di Nisio, Andrea; De Toni, Luca

    2015-10-01

    •We evaluated whether seroconversion in males influences HPV semen infection.•Naturally seroconverted patients showed reduced prevalence of HPV semen infection.•Naturally seroconverted patients also showed virtual absence of HPV multiple infection.•Prophylactic HPV vaccination induced clearance within 12 months from recruitment.•Seroconversion represents a key process involved in the clearance of the HPV.Available prophylactic vaccinations are considered of protective value for genital condyloma and precancerous lesions in female, but cost-effectiveness of the use of HPV vaccine in males is largely underinvestigated. HPV detection in semen is also an emerging problem in couples eligible for assisted reproduction techniques, since persistent infections are not compatible with repeated 6-months counselling-cycles to allow any spontaneous clearance of the virus in older infertile couples.In this study, we provide evidence that the development of seroconversion in human males affected by HPV infection in the genito-urinary tract, detected by HPV-DNA presence in the semen, has beneficial effects on the clearance of a viral load. Moreover, administration of prophylactic vaccination to HPV infected-seronegative patients induced seroconversion within 6 months from the first dosage administration, achieving 10 folds-higher antibody titre compared to natural seroconversion. If vaccine administration ameliorates the clearance of HPV semen infection, this could be a potential benefit to overcome fertility problems related to persistent HPV infections in males, after an obvious cost-effectiveness analysis.

  15. Embryo production and possible species preservation by nuclear transfer of somatic cells isolated from bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Westhusin, Mark; Long, Charles; Johnson, Gregory; Burghardt, Robert; Kraemer, Duane

    2010-12-01

    Somatic cells in semen are a potential source of nuclei for nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical animals; this is especially important when an animal has died and the only viable genetic material available is frozen semen. Usefulness of somatic cells obtained from fresh (cultured) and frozen (isolated, not cultured) bovine semen for nuclear transfer was evaluated. Twelve ejaculates were collected from nine bulls representing three breeds: Charolais, Brahman, and crossbred Rodeo bull. All samples were processed immediately and cell growth was obtained from seven of the twelve ejaculates (58.3%). Cells from three bulls (with the best growth rates) were evaluated by optical microscopy and used in cloning experiments. In culture, these cells exhibited classic epithelial morphology and expressed cytokeratin and vimentin, indicating they were of epithelial origin. When cells from the three bulls were used as donor cells, 15.9% (18/113), 34.5% (29/84), and 14.4% (13/90) of the fused embryos developed into blastocysts, respectively. Of the blastocyst stage embryos, 38.9% (7/18), 72.4% (21/29), and 61.5% (8/13) hatched, respectively. Somatic cells isolated (not cultured) from frozen bovine semen were also used in the cloning experiments. Although cleavage occurred, no compact morulae or blastocysts were obtained. In conclusion, epithelial cell growth was obtained from fresh bovine ejaculates with relatively high efficiency. Somatic cells from semen can be used as nucleus donors to produce cloned blastocyst-stage embryos.

  16. [Identification of plantaginis semen based on ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences].

    PubMed

    Song, Ming; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Lin, Yun-Han; Tu, Yuan; Ma, Xiao-Xi; Sun, Wei; Xiang, Li; Jiao, Wen-Jing; Liu, Xia

    2014-06-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences used as DNA barcodes to distinguish Plantaginis Semen from its adulterants, we collected 71 samples of Plantaginis Semen and its adulterants. The ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences were aligned through Clustal W, and the genetic distances were calculated by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA 5.1. The results indicated that the ITS2 sequence lengths of Plantago asiatica and P. depressa were 199 bp and 200 bp, respectively; the maximum intra-specific K2P distance were lower than the minimum inter-specific K2P distance; the NJ tree based on ITS2 sequence indicated that Plantaginis Semen and its adulterants could be distinguished clearly. The sequence lengths of psbA-trnH of both P. asiatica and P. depressa were 340 bp; the maximum intra-specific K2P distances were lower than the minimum inter-specific K2P distance; the NJ tree based on psbA-trnH sequence showed that Plantaginis Semen can be distinguished clearly from its adulterants except for P. major. Therefore, ITS2 sequences can be used as an ideal DNA barcode to distinguish Plantaginis Semen from its adulterants.

  17. The combined use of embryos and semen for cryogenic conservation of mammalian livestock genetic resources

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Paul J; Stella, Alessandra; Pizzi, Flavia; Gandini, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this empirical simulation study was to evaluate the use of a combination of semen and embryos in the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed. Such an approach was compared for banks with varying proportions of embryos on the basis of the amount of the material to be stored, time for reconstruction, maintenance of genetic variability, and probability of failure during reconstruction. Four types of populations were simulated, based on reproductive rate: single offspring, twinning, enhanced reproduction, and litter bearing. Reconstruction was simulated for banks consisting of different combinations of semen and reduced numbers of embryos (expressed as a percentage of the material needed for a bank containing exclusively embryos and ranging from 10 to 90%). The use of a combination of semen and embryos increased the number of insemination cycles needed for reconstruction and the level of genetic relatedness in the reconstructed population. The risk for extinction was unacceptably high when a very low proportion of embryos (< 20%) was used. However, combining semen with embryos could decrease costs, allowing for the conservation of more breeds, and specific strategies for semen use could decrease the level of relationships in the reconstructed breed. PMID:16277973

  18. Presence of Mycoplasma agalactiae in semen of naturally infected asymptomatic rams.

    PubMed

    Prats-van der Ham, Miranda; Tatay-Dualde, Juan; de la Fe, Christian; Paterna, Ana; Sánchez, Antonio; Corrales, Juan C; Contreras, Antonio; Gómez-Martín, Ángel

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the presence of Mycoplasma agalactiae (Ma), the main causative agent of ovine contagious agalactia (CA), in semen of naturally infected rams. Therefore, semen samples from 167 rams residing in three different artificial insemination (AI) centers of a CA-endemic area were studied by microbiological and molecular techniques. In addition, serial ejaculates from the same rams were evaluated to determine the excretion dynamics of Ma. Of the 384 samples studied, Ma was detected in 56 (14.58%) which belonged to 44 different rams (26.35%). These findings confirm the ability of Ma to be excreted in semen of asymptomatic rams. Furthermore, these results also evidence the presence of these asymptomatic carriers of Ma in ovine AI centers, representing a serious health risk regarding the spread and maintenance of CA, especially in endemic areas. Moreover, the excretion of Ma in semen also points to the risk of venereal transmission of this disease. The current results highlight the need to implement control measures to prevent the admission of infected rams in AI centers and the necessity to continuously monitor semen samples to effectively detect infected individuals. PMID:27045625

  19. [The spinal cord injured patient: semen quality and management by Assisted Reproductive Technology].

    PubMed

    Perrin, J; Saïas-Magnan, J; Thiry-Escudié, I; Gamerre, M; Serment, G; Grillo, J-M; Guillemain, C; Karsenty, G

    2010-09-01

    Men with spinal cord injury present a unique infertile population. Only 10 % of them can father children without medical assistance, owing to potential impairments in erection, ejaculation and semen quality. The algorithm typically followed is to retrieve semen by Penile Vibratory Stimulation, in case of failure by Electro Ejaculation. Most of these patients have normal sperm concentrations but abnormally low sperm motility and vitality in the ejaculate. The reasons for poor semen quality in spinal cord injured men are reviewed. If semen cannot be obtained by Electro Ejaculation, or if the ejaculate from Penile Vibratory Stimulation or Electro Ejaculation contains an insufficient quantity or quality of sperm for in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection, then retrieval of sperm from reproductive tissues is attempted. Despite abnormal semen quality, successful pregnancies with sperm from spinal cord injured male partners have occurred by intravaginal insemination, intrauterine insemination, and in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The prevailing pregnancy and fecundity rates in couples with a spinal cord injured male partner are reviewed. PMID:20705499

  20. [Identification of plantaginis semen based on ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences].

    PubMed

    Song, Ming; Zhang, Ya-Qin; Lin, Yun-Han; Tu, Yuan; Ma, Xiao-Xi; Sun, Wei; Xiang, Li; Jiao, Wen-Jing; Liu, Xia

    2014-06-01

    In order to evaluate the efficiency of ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences used as DNA barcodes to distinguish Plantaginis Semen from its adulterants, we collected 71 samples of Plantaginis Semen and its adulterants. The ITS2 and psbA-trnH sequences were aligned through Clustal W, and the genetic distances were calculated by kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model and the Neighbor-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA 5.1. The results indicated that the ITS2 sequence lengths of Plantago asiatica and P. depressa were 199 bp and 200 bp, respectively; the maximum intra-specific K2P distance were lower than the minimum inter-specific K2P distance; the NJ tree based on ITS2 sequence indicated that Plantaginis Semen and its adulterants could be distinguished clearly. The sequence lengths of psbA-trnH of both P. asiatica and P. depressa were 340 bp; the maximum intra-specific K2P distances were lower than the minimum inter-specific K2P distance; the NJ tree based on psbA-trnH sequence showed that Plantaginis Semen can be distinguished clearly from its adulterants except for P. major. Therefore, ITS2 sequences can be used as an ideal DNA barcode to distinguish Plantaginis Semen from its adulterants. PMID:25244750

  1. The use of maca (Lepidium meyenii) to improve semen quality: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Hye Won; You, Sooseong; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of maca (Lepidium meyenii) in improving semen quality. We searched 11 databases from their inception to March 2016 and included all clinical trials on the improvement of semen quality parameters in infertile and healthy men, regardless of the study design or the type of maca. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using the Cochrane criteria. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by the first two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the same two authors. Five studies - 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 2 uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs) - met all of the inclusion criteria. One RCT found favorable effects of maca on sperm mobility in infertile men. The two other RCTs showed positive effects of maca on several semen quality parameters in healthy men. The two UOSs also suggested favorable effects of maca on semen quality. The results of our systematic review provide suggestive evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving semen quality. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the risk of bias of the included studies prevent the drawing firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted. PMID:27621241

  2. Risks of transmitting scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy by semen and embryos.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, A E

    1997-04-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge on transmission of scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) by semen and embryos. In sheep, in particular, it is difficult to distinguish between the genetic transmission of susceptibility to scrapie and vertical transmission of the infection. Nevertheless, there is evidence that vertical transmission of infection does occur, probably across the placenta, but none to suggest a significant scrapie risk from semen. Two teams have studied scrapie transmission from experimentally infected sheep using embryo transfer. Whereas one team found no evidence for transmission, the results from the other team suggest that embryos, even after washing, might carry the disease into the offspring. In regard to goats, although genetic differences in susceptibility exist, they are much less obvious than in sheep. There is no evidence for vertical transmission or for transmission through semen and embryos. With regard to BSE, although it appears that genetic differences in susceptibility are absent or unimportant, some recent work does suggest that the disease may be passed from cow to calf. The route of transmission and stage or stages when this takes place are unclear, however. In conclusion, despite growing evidence to indicate that scrapie and BSE are unlikely to be transmitted through semen and embryos, more research is needed to confirm this. Furthermore, until all possibility of risk is ruled out, risk reduction methods must be considered, especially when semen and embryos are being imported into countries where the diseases do not exist. PMID:9329121

  3. Effect of goserelin and leuprolide added to the semen on reproductive performance in rabbits - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of two synthetic GnRH analogues, goserelin and leuprolide, to induce ovulation in rabbit does using intravaginal administration. A total of 252 primiparous lactating does were randomly divided into five groups that, at the time of insemination, received the following treatments for ovulation induction: 1 µg of buserelin administered intramuscularly (control group), 5 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G5), 10 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G10), 5 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L5), and 10 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L10). The kindling rate was 80.5% in Group G10 and 75.0% in Group L10; these values are comparable to the kindling rate obtained in the control group (85.9%). The kindling rates in Groups G5 and L5 were significantly lower than in the control group (60.0%, 54.2% and 85.9%, respectively). The number of live-born rabbits was not significantly affected by the ovulation induction treatment. As regards the total number of rabbits born the only significant difference was observed between Groups G5 and L5. This study shows the possibility of inducing ovulation in rabbits by adding goserelin and leuprolide directly to the semen dose.

  4. Effect of goserelin and leuprolide added to the semen on reproductive performance in rabbits - Short communication.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of two synthetic GnRH analogues, goserelin and leuprolide, to induce ovulation in rabbit does using intravaginal administration. A total of 252 primiparous lactating does were randomly divided into five groups that, at the time of insemination, received the following treatments for ovulation induction: 1 µg of buserelin administered intramuscularly (control group), 5 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G5), 10 µg of goserelin added to the semen dose (Group G10), 5 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L5), and 10 µg of leuprolide added to the semen dose (Group L10). The kindling rate was 80.5% in Group G10 and 75.0% in Group L10; these values are comparable to the kindling rate obtained in the control group (85.9%). The kindling rates in Groups G5 and L5 were significantly lower than in the control group (60.0%, 54.2% and 85.9%, respectively). The number of live-born rabbits was not significantly affected by the ovulation induction treatment. As regards the total number of rabbits born the only significant difference was observed between Groups G5 and L5. This study shows the possibility of inducing ovulation in rabbits by adding goserelin and leuprolide directly to the semen dose. PMID:26919148

  5. Semen quality in welders before and after three weeks of non-exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P

    1990-01-01

    In a cross sectional field study concerning the male reproductive system in metalworkers, the major findings were a moderate deterioration of semen quality in mild steel welders and less reliable changes in semen quality in low exposed stainless steel welders. In the present study, a longitudinal design was adopted to deal with methodological drawbacks inherent in the cross sectional approach. The study relies on the assumption that the effect of welding is causal and reversible. The semen quality of 19 mild steel welders, 18 stainless steel welders and 16 non-welding metal-workers, was examined before and three, five, and eight weeks after a three week break in exposure (summer vacation). No consistent improvement in any semen parameter in the follow up period relative to the prevacation period was found in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The results indicate either a non-causal nature of reported associations between welding exposure and poor semen quality, or that the effect of welding is non-reversible within the rather short non-exposure period. PMID:2393629

  6. Genetic parameters and breeding values for semen characteristics in Hanoverian stallions.

    PubMed

    Labitzke, D; Sieme, H; Martinsson, G; Distl, O

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to show whether semen traits of 30 Hanoverian stallions regularly used in AI may be useful for breeding purposes. Semen characteristics were studied using 15 149 ejaculates from 30 Hanoverian stallions of the State Stud Celle of Lower Saxony. Semen samples were collected between 2005 and 2009. Traits analysed were gel-free volume, sperm concentration, total and motile sperm number and progressive motility. A linear multivariate animal model was employed to estimate heritabilities and permanent environmental variances for stallions. The same model was used to predict breeding values for all traits simultaneously. Heritabilities were high for gel-free volume (h(2) = 0.43) and moderate for total number of sperm (h(2) = 0.29) and progressive motility (h(2) = 0.20). Gel-free volume, sperm concentration and total number of sperm were genetically negatively correlated with progressive motility. The effect of the permanent environment for stallions accounted for 9-55% of the trait variance. The total variance among stallions explained 37-69% of the trait variance. The average reliabilities of the breeding values were 0.43-0.76 for the 30 Hanoverian stallions. In conclusion, the study could demonstrate large effects of stallions, routinely employed in a breeding programme, on semen characteristics analysed here. We could demonstrate that estimated breeding values (EBV) with sufficient high reliabilities can be predicted using data from these stallions and these EBV are useful in horse breeding programmes to achieve genetic improvement in semen quality.

  7. Successful ram semen cryopreservation with lyophilized egg yolk-based extender.

    PubMed

    Alcay, Selim; Berk Toker, M; Gokce, Elif; Ustuner, Burcu; Tekin Onder, N; Sagirkaya, Hakan; Nur, Zekariya; Kemal Soylu, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of lyophilized egg yolk extender on ram semen cryopreservation. Ejaculates with a thick consistency, rapid wave motion (3-5 on a 0-5 scale) and >75% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in lyophilized egg yolk or fresh egg yolk extenders using two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25 mL straws. Semen samples were assessed for sperm motility, plasma membrane functional integrity using hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST), damaged acrosome using FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (PSA-FITC) and DNA integrity using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) at three time points: after dilution with extender A, equilibration and post-thaw. The results showed that freezing and thawing procedures (dilution, equilibration and thawing) had negative effects on motility (P<0.001), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.001), acrosome integrity (P<0.001) and DNA integrity (P<0.001). In the study, there were no significant differences between lyophilized and fresh egg yolk extenders when comparing motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and DNA integrity between groups. In conclusion, lyophilized egg yolk extender provided similar cryoprotective effects with fresh egg yolk extender to cryopreserve ram semen.

  8. The relationship between fertility potential measurements on cryobanked semen and fecundity of sperm donors.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, T; Johnson, A; Mixon, B; Wolf, D

    2000-02-01

    Sperm penetration assay (SPA) scores obtained from cryobanked semen were correlated with therapeutic insemination (TI) fecundity in a group of established sperm donors, thereby evaluating the efficacy of the SPA in screening donors for sperm banking. While the SPA has been used to separate fertile from infertile males, we altered assay conditions to use frozen semen and to distinguish performance among fertile donors. Three frozen ejaculates from 11 pregnancy-proven donors were analysed. Of 905 TI cycles, 275 recipients achieved 95 pregnancies. There were no significant relationships between fecundity and donor semen, washed sperm parameters, sperm recoveries or recipient age. A significant relationship was revealed between mean SPA scores (range 8.7-66.6 penetrations/ovum) and donor fecundity (range 0.04-0.16, P < 0.03). Sperm concentration was varied in an effort to establish the most sensitive test condition. Using 0.25x10(6) motile spermatozoa/ml, a highly significant relationship was observed (P < 0.002). The four donors with the lowest SPA scores achieved the four lowest fecundities. It is concluded that a modified SPA can be used on frozen donor semen to estimate donor fertility potential. If applied routinely in donor semen banking, poor quality applicants could be excluded, thereby increasing pregnancy rates while decreasing donor screening costs. PMID:10655306

  9. In smokers, swim-up and discontinuous gradient centrifugation recover spermatozoa with equally lower amounts of DNA damage than spermatozoa obtained from neat semen.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Jeanne; Tassistro, Virginie; Paulmyer-Lacroix, Odile; Courbière, Blandine; Botta, Alain; Sari-Minodier, Irène

    2011-06-30

    We compared the abilities of two commonly used semen preparation techniques to decrease the amount of benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide (BPDE)-DNA adducts in the spermatozoa of ten smokers. Semen processing by swim-up or discontinuous gradient centrifugation recovered spermatozoa showing an equally significantly lower amount of BPDE-DNA adducts than in unprepared spermatozoa from neat semen.

  10. Satellite test of the isotropy of the one-way spe ed of light using ExTRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, Peter

    1995-01-01

    A test of the second postulate of special relativity, the universality of the speed of light, using the ExTRAS (Experiment on Timing Ranging and Atmospheric Sounding) payload to be flown on board a Russian Meteor-3M satellite (launch date January 1997) is proposed. The propagation time of a light signal transmitted from one point to another without reflection would be measured directly by comparing the phases of two hydrogen maser clocks, one on board and one on the ground, using laser or microwave time transfer systems. An estimated uncertainty budget of the proposed measurements is given, resulting in an expected sensitivity of the experiment of delta c/c is less than 8xl0(exp -10) which would be an improvement by a factor of approximately 430 over previous direct measurements and by a factor of approximately 4 over the best indirect measurement. The proposed test would require no equipment additional to what is already planned and so is of inherently low-cost. It could be carried out by anyone having access to a laser or microwave ground station and a hydrogen maser.

  11. Anticipated uncertainty budgets of PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques as applied to ExTRAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Wolf, Peter; Uhrich, Pierre J. M.; Schaefer, W.; Nau, H.; Veillet, Christian

    1995-01-01

    The Experiment on Timing Ranging and Atmospheric Soundings, ExTRAS, was conceived jointly by the European Space Agency, ESA, and the Russian Space Agency, RSA. It is also designated the 'Hydrogen-maser in Space/Meteor-3M project'. The launch of the satellite is scheduled for early 1997. The package, to be flown on board a Russian meteorological satellite includes ultra-stable frequency and time sources, namely two active and auto-tuned hydrogen masers. Communication between the on-board hydrogen masers and the ground station clocks is effected by means of a microwave link using the modified version for time transfer of the Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment, PRARETIME, technique, and an optical link which uses the Time Transfer by Laser Link, T2L2, method. Both the PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques operate in a two-directional mode, which makes it possible to carry out accurate transmissions without precise knowledge of the satellite and station positions. Due to the exceptional quality of the on-board clocks and to the high performance of the communication techniques with the satellite, satellite clock monitoring and ground clocks synchronization are anticipated to be performed with uncertainties below 0.5 ns (1 sigma). Uncertainty budgets and related comments are presented.

  12. Anticipated uncertainty budgets of PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques as applied to ExTRAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Claudine; Wolf, Peter; Uhrich, Pierre J. M.; Schaefer, W.; Nau, H.; Veillet, Christian

    1995-05-01

    The Experiment on Timing Ranging and Atmospheric Soundings, ExTRAS, was conceived jointly by the European Space Agency, ESA, and the Russian Space Agency, RSA. It is also designated the 'Hydrogen-maser in Space/Meteor-3M project'. The launch of the satellite is scheduled for early 1997. The package, to be flown on board a Russian meteorological satellite includes ultra-stable frequency and time sources, namely two active and auto-tuned hydrogen masers. Communication between the on-board hydrogen masers and the ground station clocks is effected by means of a microwave link using the modified version for time transfer of the Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment, PRARETIME, technique, and an optical link which uses the Time Transfer by Laser Link, T2L2, method. Both the PRARETIME and T2L2 techniques operate in a two-directional mode, which makes it possible to carry out accurate transmissions without precise knowledge of the satellite and station positions. Due to the exceptional quality of the on-board clocks and to the high performance of the communication techniques with the satellite, satellite clock monitoring and ground clocks synchronization are anticipated to be performed with uncertainties below 0.5 ns (1 sigma). Uncertainty budgets and related comments are presented.

  13. Intravaginal artificial insemination in bitches using frozen/thawed semen after dilution in powdered coconut water (ACP-106c).

    PubMed

    Uchoa, D C; Silva, T F P; Mota Filho, A C; Silva, L D M

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate powdered coconut water extender (ACP-106c; ACP Serviços Tecnológicos Ltda, ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil) as a diluent for freezing dog semen and the fertility after vaginal insemination of semen frozen therein. Ten ejaculates were collected from five dogs, evaluated fresh, diluted in ACP-106c, 10% egg yolk and 6% glycerol, cooled and frozen. In the first phase of the study, straws with frozen semen were thawed and immediately subjected to the same analysis as the fresh semen and, in addition, to Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA). In phase 2, 10 bitches that had been subjected to natural breeding during a preceding oestrous cycle were vaginally inseminated with thawed semen that had been re-diluted in ACP-106c. After thawing, a mean of 77% sperm motility was obtained through subjective analysis and 77.3% through CASA. Following artificial insemination, a 60% pregnancy rate was observed, resulting in a 50% parturition rate and a mean litter size of 3.4 (SEM 0.6), with 47.1% males and 52.9% females. ACP-106c can be successfully used for freezing canine semen, and vaginal deposition of such semen yields similar pregnancy rates to those reported in other studies.

  14. Sensitive simultaneous detection of seven sexually transmitted agents in semen by multiplex-PCR and of HPV by single PCR.

    PubMed

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Medina, Fabiana Soares; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Irie, Mary Mayumi Taguti; Esquiçati, Isis Baroni; Malagutti, Natália; Vasconcellos, Vinícius Rodrigo Bulla; Discacciati, Michele Garcia; Bonini, Marcelo Gialluisi; Maria-Engler, Silvya Stuchi; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may impair sperm parameters and functions thereby promoting male infertility. To date limited molecular studies were conducted to evaluate the frequency and type of such infections in semen Thus, we aimed at conceiving and validating a multiplex PCR (M-PCR) assay for the simultaneous detection of the following STD pathogens in semen: Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Herpes virus simplex (HSV) -1 and -2, and Treponema pallidum; We also investigated the potential usefulness of this M-PCR assay in screening programs for semen pathogens. In addition, we aimed: to detect human Papillomavirus (HPV) and genotypes by single PCR (sPCR) in the same semen samples; to determine the prevalence of the seven STDs, HPV and co-infections; to assess the possibility that these infections affect semen parameters and thus fertility. The overall validation parameters of M-PCR were extremely high including agreement (99.2%), sensitivity (100.00%), specificity (99.70%), positive (96.40%) and negative predictive values (100.00%) and accuracy (99.80%). The prevalence of STDs was very high (55.3%). Furthermore, associations were observed between STDs and changes in semen parameters, highlighting the importance of STD detection in semen. Thus, this M-PCR assay has great potential for application in semen screening programs for pathogens in infertility and STD clinics and in sperm banks.

  15. [Effect of different processing conditions on content of myrisiticin, volatile oil and fatty lipid in semen Myristicae].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Tan, J

    1998-04-01

    The effect of different processing conditions on contents of myrisiticin, volatile oil and fatty lipid in Semen Myristicae was studied by orthogonal design. The result shows that these processing conditions could not influence the contents of myrisiticin, volatile oil and fatty lipid in the processed products of Semen Myristicae, suggesting that processing does not necessarily lower toxicity. PMID:11596247

  16. [Pharmacokinetic effect of combined administration on spinosin and ferulic acid in monarch drug Ziziphi Spinosae Semen kernel].

    PubMed

    Gao, Rong; Li, Shan; Chen, Xian-jin; Wang, Xiao-feng; Wang, Shi-xiang; Fang, Min-feng

    2015-08-01

    To study the pharmacokinetic effect of different combined administration with monarch drug Ziziphi Spinosae Semen on its main components in rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi spinosae Semen-Salviae Miltiorrhize Radix et Rhizoma group and Zaoren Ansheng prescription group. After oral administration, HPLC was eluted with the mobile phase of acetonitrle-0.03% phosphate acid water in a gradient mode. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. The pharmacokinetic parameters of spinosin and ferulic acid were calculated by DAS 2. 0 software. Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis group, Ziziphi Spinosae Semen-Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma group showed a lower maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but higher clearance speed (CL/F); whereas the Zaoren Ansheng prescription group showed higher maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under curve (AUC(0-t)) for spinosin and ferulic acid but lower clearance speed (CL/F). Compared with Ziziphi Spinosae Semen group, prescription group showed slower metabolism of spinosin and ferulic PMID:26790310

  17. Assessment of extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation in chilled semen of stallions during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Obara, J; Wąchocka, A; Piech, T; Bartoszek, P; Kostro, K; Tatara, M R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess apoptosis and DNA defragmentation in equine semen diluted and chilled to +4°C. Semen was collected from nine fertile stallions, including four Arabian thoroughbreds and five coldbloods. Examinations were carried out immediately after semen collection (0) and at five storage times (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h). The basic semen evaluation was performed in terms of volume, sperm concentration, viable sperm percentage, progressive motility and morphology. Using flow cytometry, DNA defragmentation and cell membrane integrity of spermatozoa were determined. The results of basic tests did not demonstrate significant differences amongst stallions, except for progressive sperm motility, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the semen of Arabian stallions. In the semen of the same stallions, a significant decrease in the percentage of alive spermatozoa was observed at 72, 96 and 120 h of storage, whereas a significant increase in the number of spermatozoa with DNA defragmentation was found after 24 h storage. In the semen of coldblood stallions, significantly reduced live spermatozoa percentage was observed at 96 and 120 h, while increased DNA defragmentation was observed at 48 h. These findings demonstrated that the semen of Arabian stallions chilled to +4°C retained original characteristics until 24 h of storage, whereas in coldbloods, these were preserved up to 48 h of storage. PMID:23531092

  18. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  19. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  20. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  1. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  2. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved... collection of the semen or embryos or were members of a qualified pseudorabies negative herd, and had...

  3. Quality assessment of wild Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) semen under conditions of short-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term storage trials were conducted with Atlantic sturgeon semen collected from a total of nine wild males during the 2008 and 2009 spawning seasons on the Hudson River. Semen samples were kept refrigerated (4 plus or minus 1 degree C) and stored in different gaseous atmospheres and storage ext...

  4. Search for the genome of bovine herpesvirus types 1, 4 and 5 in bovine semen

    PubMed Central

    Morán, P.E.; Favier, P.A.; Lomónaco, M.; Catena, M.C.; Chiapparrone, M.L.; Odeón, A.C.; Verna, A.E.; Pérez, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) causes respiratory and reproductive disorders in cattle. Recently, bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) and bovine herpesvirus type 4 (BoHV-4) have been identified to be associated with genital disease. In this study, the presence of the genome of BoHV-1, BoHV-4 and BoHV-5 in bovine semen of Argentinean and international origin was analyzed by PCR assays. The most important finding of this study is the detection of the genome of BoHV-1 and BoHV-4 in semen of bulls maintained at artificial insemination centers. It is particularly relevant that BoHV-1 DNA was also identified in one sample of international origin suggesting the need for extensive quality control measures on international transport of bovine semen. PMID:26623325

  5. Correlations between Different Heavy Metals in Diverse Body Fluids: Studies of Human Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Mínguez-Alarcón, Lidia; Mendiola, Jaime; Roca, Manuela; López-Espín, José J.; Guillén, José J.; Moreno, José M.; Moreno-Grau, Stella; Martínez-García, María J.; Vergara-Juárez, Nuria; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; García-Sánchez, Antonio; Ten, Jorge; Bernabeu, Rafael; Torres-Cantero, Alberto M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that exposure to heavy metals may impair male reproduction. To measure the effect produced by low doses of heavy metals on semen parameters, it is necessary to clarify in which body fluids those measurements must be performed. Sixty-one men attending infertility clinics participated in our study. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, and mercury were measured in whole blood, blood plasma, and seminal plasma using spectroanalytical and electrochemical methods. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. For statistical analysis, Spearman's rank correlations, mean comparison tests, and discriminant analysis were calculated. Significant correlations between the measured concentrations of the three heavy metals in the same biological fluids were observed. However, no similar relationship was seen when comparing the concentrations in different body fluids of the same metal. According to our results and previous publications, seminal plasma might be the best body fluid for assessing impairment of human semen parameters. PMID:22312326

  6. Sex hormones and semen quality in welders exposed to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Bonde, J P; Ernst, E

    1992-07-01

    Recent experimental studies in rodents document the spermatotoxic effects of water-soluble hexavalent chromium. Welders comprise, worldwide, a major occupational group with acknowledged exposure to chromium. This study examines the relationship between semen quality and chromium in the urine and blood of a population of 30 tungsten inert gas (TIG) stainless steel welders, 30 mild steel welders and 47 non-welding workers. Each subject provided two to three semen samples. The chromium concentration ranged from 0.17 to 4.74 nmol mmol1 creatinine (median 1.08) in post-shift spot urine and from 6.0 to 46.4 nmol l-1 in blood. None of several semen parameters deteriorated with increasing level of internal exposure to chromium. Low-level exposure to hexavalent chromium associated with TIG stainless steel and mild steel welding do not appear to be a major hazard for human spermatogenesis. PMID:1354973

  7. Single Layer Centrifugation Can Be Scaled-Up Further to Process up to 150 mL Semen

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, J. M.; van Wienen, M.; Wallgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Single-Layer centrifugation has been used to improve the quality of sperm samples in several species. However, where stallion or boar semen is to be used for AI, larger volumes of semen have to be processed than for other species, thus limiting the effectiveness of the original technique. The objective of the present study was to scale up the SLC method for both stallion and boar semen. Stallion semen could be processed in 100 mL glass tubes without a loss of sperm quality, and similarly, boar semen could be processed in 200 mL and 500 mL tubes without losing sperm quality. The results of these preliminary studies are encouraging, and larger trials are underway to evaluate using these methods in the field. PMID:23738111

  8. Use of combinations of in vitro quality assessments to predict fertility of bovine semen.

    PubMed

    Sellem, E; Broekhuijse, M L W J; Chevrier, L; Camugli, S; Schmitt, E; Schibler, L; Koenen, E P C

    2015-12-01

    Predicting in vivo fertility of bull ejaculates using in vitro-assessed semen quality criteria remains challenging for the breeding industry. New technologies such as computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) and flow cytometry may provide accurate and objective methods to improve semen quality control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between semen quality parameters and field fertility of bull ejaculates. A total of 153 ejaculates from 19 Holstein bulls have been analyzed using CASA (postthawing semen motility and morphology) and several flow cytometric tests, including sperm DNA integrity, viability (estimated by membrane integrity), acrosomal integrity, mitochondria aerobic functionality and oxidation. Samples were analyzed both immediately after thawing and after 4 hours at 37 °C. A fertility value (FV), based on nonreturn rate at 56 days after insemination and adjusted for environment factors, was calculated for each ejaculate. Simple and multiple regressions have been used to correlate FV with CASA and flow cytometric parameters. Significant simple correlations have been observed between some parameters and FV (e.g., straight line velocity [μm/s], r(2) = -0.12; polarized mitochondria sperm (%), r(2) = 0.07), but the relation between simple parameter and FV was too week to predict the fertility. Partial least square procedure identified several mathematical models combining flow cytometer and CASA variables and had better correlations with FV (adjusted r(2) ranging between 0.24 and 0.40 [P < 0.0001], depending on the number of included variables). In conclusion, this study suggests that quality assessment of thawed bull sperm using CASA and flow cytometry may provide a reasonable prediction of bovine semen fertility. Additional work will be required to increase the prediction reliability and promote this technology in routine artificial insemination laboratory practice.

  9. Computer aided boar semen motility analysis for cereulide detection in different food matrices.

    PubMed

    Rajkovic, Andreja; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Debevere, Johan

    2007-02-28

    Computer Aided Semen Analysis (CASA) study of the boar semen motility has been demonstrated to be an appropriate assay for detection of cereulide (Bacillus cereus emetic toxin). Application of the boar semen bio-assay to detect cereulide directly in foods requires investigation of potential interference of food components, preservatives and other microbial and chemical food contaminants with the bio-assay. Current study provides evidence that none of included Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A, B, C and D nor B. cereus Hemolysin BL (HBL) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (NHE) and three mycotoxins (Sterigmatocystin, Fumonisin B1 and Patulin) exhibited a toxic impact on semen progressive motility. Aflatoxin M1, M3 and zearalenone impaired semen motility only at concentrations (0.004 mg ml(-1), 0.1 mg ml(-1) and 10 mg ml(-1), respectively) much higher than those found in foods and those permitted by legislation, in comparison to cereulide which induces motility cease at concentrations lower than 20 ng ml(-1). Ten commonly used preservatives, namely potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, (DL) malic acid, citric acid, (L+) tartaric acid, acetic acid, (DL) lactic acid, (L+) ascorbic acid, sodium chloride and sucrose induced no cease in spermatozoa motility even at preservative concentrations higher than permitted by legislation. Dioxins, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and acrylamide had no acute effect on spermatozoa motility at concentrations of 500 and 10,000 mg ml(-1), respectively. Robustness of computer aided boar semen motility analysis, tested with 14 different foods inoculated with cereulide producing B. cereus, showed distinct cereulide production in seven samples (although B. cereus growth to counts higher than 8 log CFU g(-1) was noted in 11 samples), in amounts close to those reported in foodborne outbreaks. Test evaluation in 33 samples suspected to hold cereulide showed actual cereulide presence in ten samples and no interference of food matrix

  10. Effect of management system and season on semen freezability in Jakhrana bucks

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narendra; Rai, B.; Bhat, Showkat A.; Kharche, S. D.; Gangwar, Chetna; Jindal, S. K.; Chandra, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the management system (intensive and semi-intensive) and season (autumn and winter) on semen freezability in Jakhrana bucks. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 Jakhrana bucks of same body weight and age (BW=30 kg, age=1 year) were randomly allotted into two groups, viz., Group I (intensive system, 12 bucks) and Group II (semi-intensive system, 12 bucks). These two groups were statistically tested for their homogeneity with respect to age and BW. Semen was collected twice weekly using an artificial vagina during two seasons: autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February). A total of 240 semen samples (120 from each group and season) were evaluated for post-thaw motility (PTM), viability, abnormality, functional membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling [HOS]) response and acrosomal integrity. Results: The mean values of PTM and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group II as compared to Group I. The mean values of viability and abnormality were also differed significant (p<0.05) between groups. However, the mean values of HOS response were found non-significant (p>0.05) between groups. The season showed a significant effect on all parameters except viability and HOS response. The PTM and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher in winter as compared to autumn season. Abnormality of spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) lower in winter season. Conclusions: This study indicates that both management system and season influence semen freezability. The semen collected from bucks reared under the semi-intensive system and winter season showed better semen freezability characteristics. PMID:27051208

  11. [Effects of captopril on the male reproductive organs and various semen parameters of rabbits].

    PubMed

    Köhler-Samouilidis, G; Schmidt-Adamopoulou, B; Samouilidis, S; Papaioannou, N; Kotsaki-Kovatsi, V P

    1997-06-01

    The effect of the administration of captopril on the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca into different organs, on their histological structure and several semen parameters of male rabbits was studied. For 9 weeks 6.5 mgs captopril/kg b.w. were administered daily to 7 months old White New Zealand rabbits p.o. Semen samples were collected at the beginning of the experiment and after 4 and 9 weeks. The animals were sacrificed 9 weeks after the beginning of the experiment and organ samples were collected for histological examination and for the determination of the Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca concentrations in several tissues and the semen samples. The absolute and relative weight of the right and left testes of the test animals revealed a tendency for increase. Absolute and relative weight of the right epididymis and the relative weight of the left epididymis were significantly increased. The concentration of Zn in the blood, of Cu and Ca in the epididymis and of Mg in the testes of the test animals were significantly decreased. A significant increase was observed of the Cu and Mg concentrations in the adrenals. In the semen Cu concentration was significantly increased 9 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. Mg concentration was significantly decreased 9 weeks as compared with 4 weeks after the beginning of the experiment. Histological examination of tissue specimens of brain, liver, kidney, adrenal glands, testes, epididymis, ductus deferens and seminal vesicles from all experimental animals didn't reveal any remarkable lesion under the light microscope. The other semen parameters like volume, motility, sperm number and morphology had not changed. As the values of alcalic and acid phosphatase and ASAT in the semen samples showed many variations, statistical analysis could not be performed.

  12. Influence of semen collection method on sperm cryoresistance in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Rabadán, P; Soler, A J; Ramón, M; García-Álvarez, O; Maroto-Morales, A; Iniesta-Cuerda, M; Fernández-Santos, M R; Montoro, V; Pérez-Guzmán, M D; Garde, J J

    2016-04-01

    Semen collection for cryopreservation is a key step for small ruminant conservation programs. While in these species semen is mainly collected via artificial vagina (AV), electroejaculation (EE) provides a viable alternative for untrained males. Herein we investigated the effect of semen collection method on post-thaw sperm quality by comparing two small ruminant species, sheep and goats. Semen from Blanca-Celtibérica bucks and Manchega rams was collected by AV and EE on the same day and cryopreserved using a standard protocol. At thawing, sperm motion parameters were evaluated by CASA, whereas membrane stability (YO-PRO-1), sperm viability (propidium iodide, PI) and mitochondrial activity (Mitotracker Deep Red) were analyzed using flow cytometry. The semen collection method negatively affected post-thaw sperm quality in bucks but not in rams. Thus, in bucks, post-thaw sperm motility was higher for samples collected by AV as compared to those obtained via EE. Similarly, post-thaw sperm parameters evaluated by flow cytometry were worse for buck samples collected by EE than those collected by AV in the same species, or than ram samples regardless of collection method. These results suggest that ovine and caprine spermatozoa have a different response to the cryopreservation process depending upon the semen collection method used. We hypothesize that the EE procedure may lead to changes in the composition of the ejaculate in bucks that would make spermatozoa more susceptible to the cryopreservation process, whereas this procedure would have had no effect on ram spermatozoa. This assumption requires further investigation. PMID:26917359

  13. Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene on cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in Tris egg yolk extender.

    PubMed

    Memon, Akeel Ahmed; Wahid, H; Rosnina, Y; Goh, Y M; Ebrahimi, M; Nadia, F M; Audrey, G

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), a lipid-soluble anti-oxidant added in different concentrations to the Tris egg yolk extenders on semen cytological parameters pre freezing and post thawing (motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity and membrane integrity) of Boer goat spermatozoa. A total of 40 ejaculates from four Boer goat bucks were collected using an artificial vagina. Ten replicates of the ejaculates were diluted with a Tris egg yolk based extender which contained various concentrations (0.5mM, 1.0mM, 2.0mM and 3.0mM) of butylated hydroxytoluene while one sample was processed without supplementation of antioxidant and served as control. The diluted semen was cooled at 4°C and loaded into the straw and then stored in liquid nitrogen. It was evident that supplementation of BHT produces positive effect in terms of motility, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity in comparison with the control group in cooled and frozen Boer goat semen. Results showed significant differences in motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability of cooled and frozen Boer goat spermatozoa at different concentrations. Motility, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and viability was significantly higher in all treated groups than the control group (P<0.05) while there was no significant differences (P>0.05) in morphology trait between all group in cooled semen. However, improvement (P<0.05) was observed only in terms of the membrane integrity and acrosome integrity compared to the control and other treated groups in frozen semen. In conclusion, BHT can be used in cryopreservation of Boer goat semen in order to reduce the oxidative stress on spermatozoa.

  14. Novel functions of herbal medicines in dendritic cells: role of Amomi Semen in tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Hajime; Mitsui, Seika; Harima, Nobue; Nose, Mitsuhiko; Tsujimura, Kunio; Mizukami, Hajime; Morita, Akimichi

    2007-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) have a major role in regulating immune responses, including tumor immunity and peripheral tolerance. In the present study, we identified novel functions of herbal medicines in DCs by screening 99 herbal medicines, most of which are among the 210 Chinese medicines approved by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare, Japan. Ethanol extracts were prepared, and a murine epidermal-derived Langerhans cell line, XS106, was used to screen the 99 extracts by analyzing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression. Amomi Semen (amomum seed), Polyporus (polyporus sclerotium), and Plantaginis Semen (plantago seed) potently activated XS106 and were selected for further analysis. The effects of these extracts on bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs) generated in vitro were then analyzed using surface phenotype (MHC class II, CD80, and CD86) and interleukin (IL)-12p70 production as indicators. BM-DCs treated with Amomi Semen extract exhibited activated phenotypes and secreted IL-12p70. The activation level was similar to that induced by lipopolysaccharides. Finally, an E.G7-OVA tumor model (E.L4-OVA transfectant) was used to examine the anti-tumor effects of Amomi Semen extract. Vaccination of mice with a subcutaneous injection of BM-DCs treated with Amomi Semen extract and OVA peptide significantly inhibited the growth of tumor cells and prolonged survival time compared to controls. Furthermore, therapeutic effects were observed on established tumors. The inhibition rates for both the prophylactic and therapeutic protocols were comparable to those of lipopolysaccharides. These results indicate that Amomi Semen extract potently activate DCs and is potentially useful for DC vaccination. PMID:18037790

  15. The effect of Curcuma longa extracted (curcumin) on the quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Chanapiwat, Panida; Kaeoket, Kampon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal concentration of curcumin needed for cryopreservation of boar semen. Semen samples (n = 9) were collected from nine Duroc boars which having proven fertility were used for routine artificial insemination. Semen samples were collected and divided into six groups (groups A-F) according to various concentrations of curcumin in freezing extender (i.e. 0, 0.125, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 mmol/L, respectively). The semen was frozen by traditional liquid nitrogen vapor method and stored at -196°C in the liquid nitrogen tank. After storage, frozen semen samples were thawed at 50°C for 12 s and evaluated for progressive motility, viability and acrosome integrity. The present results indicated that the addition of curcumin at 0.25 (group C) or 0.50 mmol/L curcumin (group D) yielded the higher percentage of progressive motility (33.3 and 36.1%, respectively) (P < 0.001). A significantly higher percentage of acrosome integrity was found in groups B (29.7%), C (31.1%) and D (30.2%) than in the other groups (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in percentage of viability among groups. In conclusion, addition to the freezing extender of curcumin during cryopreservation at a concentration of 0.25 or 0.50 mmol/L is the optimal concentration of curcumin for improving the quality (i.e. increased progressive motility and acrosome integrity) of cryopreserved boar semen.

  16. A volatile inhibitor immobilizes sea urchin sperm in semen by depressing the intracellular pH

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.H.; Clapper, D.L.; Winkler, M.M.; Lee, H.C.; Epel, D.

    1983-08-01

    Sea urchin spermatozoa are normally immotile in semen, but motility can be initiated by increasing gas flow over the semen--for example, by blowing N2 gas over a thin layer of semen. This result indicates that sperm motility is not O2 limited and suggests that seminal fluid contains a volatile inhibitor of motility which is responsible for the paralysis of sperm in semen. This inhibitor might be carbon dioxide, which reversibly immobilizes sperm. /sup 31/P-NMR measurements of pH show that the sperm intracellular pH (pHi) increases by 0.36 pH unit upon dilution of semen into seawater. Since previous studies have shown that this magnitude of pH increase is sufficient to trigger sperm motility, we suggest that the volatile inhibitor is inhibiting sperm motility in semen by depressing the pHi. A simple hypothesis that explains these observations is that the volatile motility inhibitor is CO/sub 2/, which could acidify pHi as a diffusable weak acid. In this regard, sperm diluted into seawater release acid, and this acid release is related to the pHi increase and motility initiation. In fact, nearly half of the acid released by sperm upon dilution is volatile and may therefore be due to CO/sub 2/ efflux. Most of the acid, however, cannot be attributed to CO/sub 2/ release because it is not volatile. Thus, when sperm are diluted into seawater, they raise their pHi by releasing CO/sub 2/ and protons from the cytoplasm into the surrounding seawater.

  17. Boar semen can tolerate rapid cooling rates prior to freezing.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Jorge D; Parrilla, Inma; Vazquez, Juan M; Martinez, Emilio A; Roca, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were performed in the present study that demonstrated that boar spermatozoa are capable of surviving rapid cooling rates within a range of 15-5 °C before freezing. Boar ejaculates diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) (1:1, v/v) were held at 17-20 °C and shipped over a 24-h time period from two AI centres to a cryobiology laboratory, where they were pooled (Experiment 1) or cryopreserved individually (Experiment 2) using a standard 0.5-mL straw freezing protocol. The effects of cooling before freezing were assessed after thawing through the objective evaluation of sperm motility and flow cytometric analysis of membrane integrity, acrosomal status, changes in membrane lipid architecture monitored by merocyanine and annexin V binding and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species. In Experiment 1 (six replicates), two semen pools (five ejaculates per pool) were cooled from 15 to 5 °C at rates of 0.08, 0.13, 0.40 and 1.50 °C min(-1). These cooling rates did not result in any significant differences (P>0.05) in any of the post-thaw sperm assessments, even in thawed samples incubated under capacitation conditions. In Experiment 2, three individual ejaculates from 16 boars were slowly (0.08 °C min(-1)) or rapidly (1.5 °C min(-1)) cooled before freezing. A consistent interboar variability (P<0.01) was detected, which was independent of the cooling rate used. Cooling rate only significantly influenced (P<0.05) sperm assessments in four of 16 boars, which exhibited slightly higher percentages of motile cells and intact plasma and acrosomal membranes in the samples that had been cooled slowly. These findings demonstrate that boar spermatozoa undergoing cryopreservation can withstand rapid cooling rates before freezing. PMID:21635817

  18. Can we increase the estimated value of semen assessment?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2006-10-01

    Estimating the fertility of a semen sample or of the male from where it has been collected by simple assessment of in vitro sperm characteristics is still difficult, owing to the variable correlations that laboratory results achieve with in vivo fertility. A major reason behind these variations is the fact that the ejaculate and the artificial insemination (AI)-doses it generates are composed of a diverse sperm population. Such heterogeneity is reflected both in differences of intactness of attributes needed for fertilization, such as motility or morphology, but also in the relative ability of spermatozoa to prevail fertile over time, handling and exposure to different stimuli, all of which account for innate variations in fertilizing ability among doses, ejaculates and sires. However, methods are already available to select sub-populations of intact spermatozoa which can be tested for their degree of competence for fertilization and whose estimated power is promising, allowing the elimination of cases of sub-fertility, particularly in bovine. Examples of these methods are the separation of viable spermatozoa by swim-up or discontinuous gradient centrifugation, followed by testing the ability of the selected spermatozoa to dose-response/time sustain capacitation and acrosome reaction induction. Finding how large a sperm population with non-compensated attributes for fertilization and ability to display and sustain stimuli is, perhaps by a quick screening of membrane integrity and stability by multi-parametric methods, would allow, provided the particular male produces this sub-population in a repeatable manner, for a better estimation of fertility. PMID:16984464

  19. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na+/K+-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na+/K+-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility. PMID:26173069

  20. The Semen pH Affects Sperm Motility and Capacitation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Chen, Li; Li, Jie; Li, Hongjun; Hong, Zhiwei; Xie, Min; Chen, Shengrong; Yao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical environment of semen can have a profound effect on sperm quality, we examined the effect of pH on the motility, viability and capacitation of human sperm. The sperm in this study was collected from healthy males to avoid interference from other factors. The spermatozoa cultured in sperm nutrition solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were analyzed for sperm total motility, progressive motility (PR), hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) rate, and sperm penetration. Our results showed that these parameters were similar in pH 7.2 and 8.2 sperm nutrition solutions, but decreased in pH 5.2 and 6.2 solutions. The HOS rate exhibited positive correlation with the sperm total motility and PR. In addition, the sperm Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at different pHs was measured, and the enzyme activity was significantly lower in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media, comparing with that in pH 8.2 and pH 7.2 solutions. Using flow cytometry (FCM) and laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM) analysis, the intracellular Ca2(+ )concentrations of sperm cultured in sperm capacitation solution at pH 5.2, 6.2, 7.2 and 8.2 were determined. Compared with that at pH 7.2, the mean fluorescence intensity of sperm in pH 5.2 and 6.2 media decreased significantly, while that of pH 8.2 group showed no difference. Our results suggested that the declined Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at acidic pHs result in decreased sperm movement and capacitation, which could be one of the mechanisms of male infertility.

  1. The relationship between sperm quality in cool-shipped semen and embryo recovery rate in horses.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Noble, J K; Standridge, S A; Bearden, C T; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D; Cavinder, C A

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between the quality of cool-shipped stallion semen and fertility has not been adequately described. This study evaluated sperm quality of cool-shipped semen from 459 ejaculates (N = 130 stallions) that were used for insemination of 196 embryo donor mares (n = 496 estrous cycles). Embryo recovery rate (ERR; %) increased, as all sperm measures (e.g., motility, viability, DNA quality, morphology, concentration, and total number) increased. Threshold values are reported for each sperm quality measure (e.g., total sperm motility ≥ 65%) that separate two ERR groups (e.g., average: ∼50% ERR; high: ∼65% ERR). PMID:26363735

  2. [Protective effect of semen Ziziphi spinosae on superoxide dismutase reduction in mice with endotoxin fever].

    PubMed

    Peng, Z; Zhang, H; Cheng, S; Guo, W

    1995-06-01

    An animal model with decreasing SOD was established by fever from intravenous injection of endotoxin. The SOD level was measured by RIA in the animal serum and liver tissues. The results indicated that the SOD level of the model group was obviously lower than that of the normal group (P < 0.05), but the level of the group treated with Semen Ziziphi Spinosae was higher than that of the model group. The study shows that Semen Ziziphi Spinosae can protect mice with endotoxin fever from SOD decrease. PMID:7646811

  3. Studies on liquefaction and storage of ejaculated dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) semen.

    PubMed

    Wani, N A; Billah, M; Skidmore, J A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate seminal liquefaction and quality of ejaculated camel semen during storage in different extenders at room (23 degrees C) and refrigeration (4 degrees C) temperature. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina and diluted immediately (1:1), using a split-sample technique, in five extenders [(1) Tris-tes egg yolk, (2) Tris-lactose egg yolk, (3) citrate egg yolk, (4) sucrose egg yolk and (5) Tris-fructose egg yolk], while one fraction was kept without an extender to act as control. The semen was transported to the lab at 37 degrees C, in a portable incubator within half an hour, and thereafter liquefaction of semen was monitored every 15 min. After complete liquefaction of the semen it was evaluated for sperm concentration and morphology and then was extended to a final ratio of 1:3. Aliquots of each semen sample were then stored at refrigeration and room temperature. The average volume of an ejaculate was 4.3+/-0.4 mL and it had a very viscous consistency. The average concentration of spermatozoa was 230.4+/-10.7 x 10(6)mL(-1) and the proportion of spermatozoa with protoplasmic droplets averaged 1.02+/-0.2, while 2.7+/-0.6 and 9.7+/-2.9% had mid-piece and tail abnormalities, respectively. All extended semen samples liquefied within 1.5h at 37 degrees C, however, there was slow liquefaction in the sample without an added extender (control). Best liquefaction was observed in Tris-lactose extender followed by Tris-fructose and citrate egg yolk diluents whereas in the other two extenders there was head-to-head agglutination of the spermatozoa. There was no difference in the initial motility of the spermatozoa in extenders 1-5 after its liquefaction, however, after 24 and 48 h of storage a higher proportion of spermatozoa were motile in extenders 1, 2 and 4 (P<0.05) at both the temperatures. There was a gradual decline in viability of the spermatozoa in all extenders at both the temperatures, although, a high portion of the

  4. Freezing dog semen in presence of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene improves postthaw sperm membrane integrity.

    PubMed

    Neagu, V R; García, B Macías; Sandoval, C Salazar; Rodríguez, A Morillo; Ferrusola, C Ortega; Fernández, L González; Tapia, J A; Peña, F J

    2010-03-15

    In an attempt to evaluate the protective effect of a lipid-soluble antioxidant (butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT), semen from four dogs (Canis familiaris) was frozen in two different extenders (Uppsala or INRA-96 plus glycerol) with or without 1mM BHT. Sperm membrane integrity using flow cytometry and motility using a computerized system were evaluated in each experimental group. The Uppsala extender was superior in all aspects of sperm function. The percentage of sperm membranes was significantly higher in semen samples frozen in presence of BHT. Our results suggest that the Uppsala extender can be improved with the addition of BHT.

  5. Semen quality and sex hormones among mild steel and stainless steel welders: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Bonde, J P

    1990-08-01

    Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, semen quality was examined in 35 stainless steel welders, 46 mild steel welders, and 54 non-welding metal workers and electricians. These figures represent a participation rate of 37.1% in welders and 36.7% in non-welding subjects. The mean exposure to welding fume particulates was 1.3 mg/m3 (SD 0.8) in stainless steel welders using tungsten inert gas, 3.2 mg/m3 (SD 1.0) in low exposed mild steel welders using manual metal arc or metal active gas (n = 31), and 4.7 mg/m3 (SD 2.1) in high exposed mild steel welders (n = 15). The semen quality of each participant was defined in terms of the mean values of the particular semen parameters in three semen samples delivered at monthly intervals in a period with occupational exposure in a steady state. The sperm concentration was not reduced in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The sperm count per ejaculate, the proportion of normal sperm forms, the degree of sperm motility, and the linear penetration rate of the sperm were significantly decreased and the sperm concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was non-significantly increased in mild steel welders. A dose response relation between exposure to welding fumes and these semen parameters (sperm count excepted) was found. Semen quality decreased and FSH concentrations increased with increasing exposure. Significant deteriorations in some semen parameters were also observed in stainless steel welders. An analysis of information from questionnaires obtained from the whole population including subjects who declined to participate indicated an underestimation of effects due to selection bias. Potential confounding was treated by restriction and statistical analysis. The results support the hypothesis that mild steel welding and to a lesser extent stainless steel welding with tungsten inert gas is associated with reduced semen quality at exposure in the range of the

  6. Semen quality and sex hormones among mild steel and stainless steel welders: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P

    1990-01-01

    Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, semen quality was examined in 35 stainless steel welders, 46 mild steel welders, and 54 non-welding metal workers and electricians. These figures represent a participation rate of 37.1% in welders and 36.7% in non-welding subjects. The mean exposure to welding fume particulates was 1.3 mg/m3 (SD 0.8) in stainless steel welders using tungsten inert gas, 3.2 mg/m3 (SD 1.0) in low exposed mild steel welders using manual metal arc or metal active gas (n = 31), and 4.7 mg/m3 (SD 2.1) in high exposed mild steel welders (n = 15). The semen quality of each participant was defined in terms of the mean values of the particular semen parameters in three semen samples delivered at monthly intervals in a period with occupational exposure in a steady state. The sperm concentration was not reduced in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The sperm count per ejaculate, the proportion of normal sperm forms, the degree of sperm motility, and the linear penetration rate of the sperm were significantly decreased and the sperm concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was non-significantly increased in mild steel welders. A dose response relation between exposure to welding fumes and these semen parameters (sperm count excepted) was found. Semen quality decreased and FSH concentrations increased with increasing exposure. Significant deteriorations in some semen parameters were also observed in stainless steel welders. An analysis of information from questionnaires obtained from the whole population including subjects who declined to participate indicated an underestimation of effects due to selection bias. Potential confounding was treated by restriction and statistical analysis. The results support the hypothesis that mild steel welding and to a lesser extent stainless steel welding with tungsten inert gas is associated with reduced semen quality at exposure in the range of the

  7. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: The role of sexed semen within alternative breeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C; Shalloo, L; Hutchinson, I A; Butler, S T

    2016-08-01

    A simulation model was developed to determine the effects of sexed semen use in heifers and lactating cows on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Five separate artificial insemination (AI) protocols were established according to the type of semen used: (1) conventional frozen-thawed semen (CONV); (2) sexed semen in heifers and conventional semen used in cows (SS-HEIFER); (3) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows (body condition score ≥3 and calved ≥63 d), with conventional semen used in the remainder of cows (SS-CONV); (4) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and conventional beef semen used for the second AI (SS-BEEF); or (5) sexed semen in heifers and a targeted group of cows, with conventional semen in the remainder of cows for the first AI and short gestation length semen used for the second AI (SS-SGL). Each AI protocol was assessed under 3 scenarios of sexed semen conception rate (SS-CR): 100, 94, and 87% relative to that of conventional semen. Artificial insemination was used on heifers for the first 3 wk and on cows for the first 6 wk of the 12-wk breeding season. The initial herd size was 100 cows, and all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion, up to a maximum herd size of 300 cows. Once maximum herd size was reached, all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo old. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each AI protocol was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The SS-CONV protocol generated more replacement heifers than all other AI protocols, facilitating faster expansion, and reached maximum herd size in yr 9, 9, and 10 for 100, 94, and 87% SS-CR, respectively. All AI protocols, except SS-BEEF and SS-SGL at 87% SS-CR, reached maximum herd size within the 15-yr period

  8. Strategies to improve the fertility of fresh and frozen donkey semen.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Victor; Oliveira, Pedro Victor de Luna Freire; Melo e Oña, Cely Marini; Guasti, Priscilla Nascimento; Monteiro, Gabriel Augusto; Sancler da Silva, Yamê Fabres Robaina; Papa, Patrícia de Mello; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Dell'Aqua Junior, Jose Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam

    2016-04-15

    Fertility rates of donkey semen in jennies are lower compared to mares. The aims of this study were to evaluate different sperm cryopreservation methods and insemination strategies to improve the fertility of donkey semen in jennies. Three experiments were performed: (1) the comparison of two freezing methods of donkey semen (conventional method and automated method); (2) the determination of a suitable insemination dose of fresh donkey semen for jennies and mares; and (3) the influence of the semen deposition site on fertility of jennies inseminated with frozen donkey semen. For experiment 1, no differences were observed in total motility, angular velocity, curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and plasma membrane integrity between samples frozen with the conventional (Styrofoam box) and the automated method (TK 4000C). However, the automated method provided higher values of progressive motility and rapid cells in frozen-thawed samples in comparison with the conventional method (P < 0.05). For experiment 2, mares were bred using 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm (M); and jennies using 1 × 10(9) (J1) or 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm (J5). Pregnancy rates in M, J1, and J5 were 93% (14/15), 73% (11/15), and 40% (6/15), respectively. When using different insemination doses, 500 × 10(6) or 1 × 10(9) sperm, no significant difference was observed in pregnancy rates of mares (M, 14/15) and jennies (J1, 11/15). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the two insemination doses in jennies. However, with an insemination dose of 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm, the pregnancy rates were significantly higher in mares (M, 14/15) than in jennies (J5, 6/15; P < 0.05). For experiment 3, the inseminations were carried out in the uterine body (UB) or in the uterine horn of jennies with frozen-thawed donkey semen. No pregnancies were achieved with inseminations performed in the UB (0/12). The pregnancy rate for uterine horn group was 28.26% (13/46) and thus

  9. Strategies to improve the fertility of fresh and frozen donkey semen.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, José Victor; Oliveira, Pedro Victor de Luna Freire; Melo e Oña, Cely Marini; Guasti, Priscilla Nascimento; Monteiro, Gabriel Augusto; Sancler da Silva, Yamê Fabres Robaina; Papa, Patrícia de Mello; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Dell'Aqua Junior, Jose Antonio; Papa, Frederico Ozanam

    2016-04-15

    Fertility rates of donkey semen in jennies are lower compared to mares. The aims of this study were to evaluate different sperm cryopreservation methods and insemination strategies to improve the fertility of donkey semen in jennies. Three experiments were performed: (1) the comparison of two freezing methods of donkey semen (conventional method and automated method); (2) the determination of a suitable insemination dose of fresh donkey semen for jennies and mares; and (3) the influence of the semen deposition site on fertility of jennies inseminated with frozen donkey semen. For experiment 1, no differences were observed in total motility, angular velocity, curvilinear velocity, straight-line velocity, and plasma membrane integrity between samples frozen with the conventional (Styrofoam box) and the automated method (TK 4000C). However, the automated method provided higher values of progressive motility and rapid cells in frozen-thawed samples in comparison with the conventional method (P < 0.05). For experiment 2, mares were bred using 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm (M); and jennies using 1 × 10(9) (J1) or 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm (J5). Pregnancy rates in M, J1, and J5 were 93% (14/15), 73% (11/15), and 40% (6/15), respectively. When using different insemination doses, 500 × 10(6) or 1 × 10(9) sperm, no significant difference was observed in pregnancy rates of mares (M, 14/15) and jennies (J1, 11/15). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the two insemination doses in jennies. However, with an insemination dose of 500 × 10(6) fresh sperm, the pregnancy rates were significantly higher in mares (M, 14/15) than in jennies (J5, 6/15; P < 0.05). For experiment 3, the inseminations were carried out in the uterine body (UB) or in the uterine horn of jennies with frozen-thawed donkey semen. No pregnancies were achieved with inseminations performed in the UB (0/12). The pregnancy rate for uterine horn group was 28.26% (13/46) and thus

  10. Desmosterol, the main sterol in rabbit semen: distribution among semen subfractions and its role in the in vitro spermatozoa acrosome reaction and motility

    PubMed Central

    Mourvaki, Evangelia; Cardinali, Raffaella; Roberti, Rita; Dal Bosco, Alessandro; Castellini, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Sterols are essential components of the cell membrane lipid bilayer that include molecules such as cholesterol and desmosterol, which are significantly found in the spermatozoa of several animal species. However, the presence of desmosterol in rabbit semen has never been investigated. The aims of this study were to characterize the sterol composition of subfractions of ejaculated rabbit semen and evaluate the in vitro effects of sterol on the spermatozoa acrosome reaction and motility. Two sterols, occurring prevalently in the free form (94.3%), were identified in whole semen collected from 10 fertile New Zealand White rabbits, specifically desmosterol (58.5% of total sterols) and cholesterol (35.9% of total sterols). Desmosterol was the predominant sterol found in all subfractions of rabbit semen, varying from 56.7% (in the prostatic secretory granules, PSGs) to 63.8% (in the seminal plasma). Spermatozoa contained an intermediate proportion of desmosterol (59.8%), which was asymmetrically distributed between the heads (52.0% of the total content of sterols) and the tails (81.8%). Results showed that both desmosterol and cholesterol can be transferred from the PSGs to the spermatozoa and are equally effective in inhibiting in vitro spermatozoa capacitation at a concentration higher than 1 mg L−1. In contrast, neither desmosterol nor cholesterol had a significant effect on spermatozoa motility. Thus, it was concluded that, the various fractions of rabbit seminal fluid differ from each other in sterol composition and quantity, probably due to their different functional properties, and these fractions may undergo significant sterol changes depending on the stage of spermatozoa capacitation. PMID:20729867

  11. Simultaneous determination of nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine N-oxide in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Abu-Awwad, Ahmad; Arafat, Tawfiq; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine (Nic) distribution in human fluids and tissues has a deleterious effect on human health. In addition to its poisoning profile, Nic may contribute to the particular impact of smoking on human reproduction. Although present in seminal fluid, still nobody knows whether nicotine is available in sperm or not. Herein, we developed and validated a new bioanalytical method, for simultaneous determination of Nic, cotinine (Cot), and nicotine N'-oxide (Nox) in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-ESI-orbitrap-MS. Blood and semen samples were collected from 12 healthy smoking volunteers in this study. Sperm bodies were then separated quantitatively from 1 mL of semen samples by centrifugation. The developed method was fully validated for plasma following European and American guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, and partial validation was applied to semen analysis. Plasma, semen, and sperm samples were treated by trichloroacetic acid solution for protein direct precipitation in single extraction step. The established calibration range for Nic and Nox in plasma and semen was linear between 5 and 250 ng/mL, and for Cot between 10 and 500 ng/mL. Nic and Cot were detected in human sperm at concentrations as high as in plasma. In addition, Nox was present in semen and sperm but not in plasma. Graphical abstract Nicotine correlation between plasma and semen a; Nicotine correlation between semen and sperm c; Cotinine correlation between plasma and semen b; Cotinine correlation between semen and sperm d.

  12. Simultaneous determination of nicotine, cotinine, and nicotine N-oxide in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-Orbitrap MS.

    PubMed

    Abu-Awwad, Ahmad; Arafat, Tawfiq; Schmitz, Oliver J

    2016-09-01

    Nicotine (Nic) distribution in human fluids and tissues has a deleterious effect on human health. In addition to its poisoning profile, Nic may contribute to the particular impact of smoking on human reproduction. Although present in seminal fluid, still nobody knows whether nicotine is available in sperm or not. Herein, we developed and validated a new bioanalytical method, for simultaneous determination of Nic, cotinine (Cot), and nicotine N'-oxide (Nox) in human plasma, semen, and sperm by LC-ESI-orbitrap-MS. Blood and semen samples were collected from 12 healthy smoking volunteers in this study. Sperm bodies were then separated quantitatively from 1 mL of semen samples by centrifugation. The developed method was fully validated for plasma following European and American guidelines for bioanalytical method validation, and partial validation was applied to semen analysis. Plasma, semen, and sperm samples were treated by trichloroacetic acid solution for protein direct precipitation in single extraction step. The established calibration range for Nic and Nox in plasma and semen was linear between 5 and 250 ng/mL, and for Cot between 10 and 500 ng/mL. Nic and Cot were detected in human sperm at concentrations as high as in plasma. In addition, Nox was present in semen and sperm but not in plasma. Graphical abstract Nicotine correlation between plasma and semen a; Nicotine correlation between semen and sperm c; Cotinine correlation between plasma and semen b; Cotinine correlation between semen and sperm d. PMID:27422648

  13. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing.

  14. Study of enzyme activities and protein content of beluga (Huso huso) semen before and after cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Aramli, M S

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge gained regarding the biochemical processes that occur during sperm collection, processing and freezing-thawing might improve current sperm cryopreservation techniques. In our present study, we determined the effect of cryopreservation on the total protein concentration (TP) and the activities of certain enzymes in semen samples from the beluga (Huso huso). The TP content of the seminal plasma of fresh semen was 0.47 ± 0.026 g/l, and the TP after cryopreservation was 1.86 ± 0.6 g/l. The activities of acid phosphatase (0.82 ± 0.042 U/l), lactate dehydrogenase (234.4 ± 19.4 U/l), arylsulfatase (143.1 ± 32.5 U/l) and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (58.39 ± 4.14 U/l) in the seminal plasma of fresh semen were significantly lower than those in the supernatant of frozen-thawed semen samples (7.43 ± 0.64, 3224.6 ± 167.2, 422.6 ± 21.3 and 90.2 ± 5.37 U/l respectively). These parameters may be useful as biomarkers for estimating damage to the cell membrane of spermatozoa caused by freezing-thawing.

  15. Cadmium, Chromium, and Copper Concentration plus Semen-Quality in Environmental Pollution Site, China

    PubMed Central

    LI, Yan; GAO, Qiaoyan; LI, Mingcai; LI, Mengyang; GAO, Xueming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The environmental pollution is one of the factors contributing to the decrease of sperm quality for human beings. The aim of this study was to assess cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and copper (Cu) concentration of man in environmental pollution site, and explore relationships between men exposure to Cd, Cr, and Cu and semen-quality parameters in environmental pollution site. Methods Ninety five men were recruited through pollution area and controls in 2011. We measured semen quality using Computer-aided Semen Quality Analysis, and Cd, Cr, and Cu levels in seminal plasma using Graphite Gurnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between Cd, Cr and Cu concentration in seminal plasma and semen quality. Results The mean of seminal plasma Cd, Cr, and Cu values in pollution area was higher than the controls. Seminal plasma Cr values displayed a significant negative correlation with total motility and normomorph sperm rate. Seminal plasma Cu values also displayed a negative correlation with normomorph sperm rate. Conclusions Male reproductive health may be threatened by environmental pollution, and it may be influence local population diathesis. PMID:26060677

  16. The use of forensic tests to distinguish blowfly artifacts from human blood, semen, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated whether routinely used forensic tests can distinguish 3-day-old or 2-week-old fly artifacts, produced after feeding on human blood, semen, or saliva, from the biological fluid. Hemastix(®) , Hemident(™) , and Hemascein(™) were unable to distinguish blood from artifacts. Hemastix(®) returned false positives from negative controls. ABAcard(®) Hematrace(®) and Hexagon OBTI could distinguish blood from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Phadebas(®) and SALIgAE(®) were unable to distinguish saliva from artifacts. RSID(™) -Saliva was able to distinguish saliva from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. Semen tests Seminal Acid Phosphatase, RSID(™) -Semen, and ABAcard(®) p30 were all able to distinguish semen from 3-day-old artifacts, but not 2-week-old artifacts. The tests investigated cannot be relied upon to distinguish artifacts from biological fluids. However, if an artifact is identified by its morphology, a positive result may indicate which biological fluid the fly consumed, and this knowledge may prove useful for investigators searching for DNA.

  17. The effect of nocturnal sampling on semen quality and the efficiency of collection in bovine species.

    PubMed

    Yates, Jennifer H; Chandler, John E; Canal, Anita L; Braden Paul, J

    2003-12-01

    This study evaluated night and day semen collection regimes in Holstein and Brahman bulls (four bulls of each breed) that were collected weekly, each during a morning and a night collection. Ejaculates (n=64) were obtained via artificial vagina over 4 weeks. The first collection of each week alternated between night and day. Two collection teams were employed. Bull behavior parameters included reaction time to first mount, time to ejaculation, a refractory period test, and a thrust intensity test. The numbers of interruptions were counted as a managerial parameter. Pre-freeze semen parameters included total volume, initial motility and concentration. Post-freeze semen parameters measured were: 0- and 3-h post-thaw motility; percent intact acrosomes; and percent sperm abnormalities. Data were analyzed by least squares methods. The bull within breed effect differed (P<0.05) for behavior parameters. The bull within breed effect for total motile sperm harvested was not significant. The bull within breed response was mixed for post-freeze semen viability parameters. Bull within breed was not significant for sperm abnormalities. The night versus day treatment was significant for the managerial parameter (P=0.002). Although a different collection schedule for Bos indicus cattle was not warranted, the efficiency of the collection process was affected by extraneous environmental conditions. PMID:14580649

  18. Attempted semen collection using the massage technique in blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva).

    PubMed

    Della Volpe, Angelique; Volker, Schmidt; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a technique for collecting semen from blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva aestiva) and to evaluate the samples that were collected. The massage method is the most common technique used to collect semen in birds and has been proven successful in several psittacine species; however, collection attempts in larger parrots have been unsatisfactory. Six blue-fronted Amazon parrot males, 3 paired with hens and 3 unpaired, were used in this study. The semen collection technique was revised to allow collection from individual birds by a single person. Semen collection was attempted from the 6 parrots on 52-56 occasions, which totaled 330 single attempts. Nineteen ejaculates were collected, and each bird produced at least 1 ejaculate that contained spermatozoa. Large ranges of sample volume (1-15.4 microL), sperm quality (motility = 2%-60%; live:dead ratio = 2:198 to 185:15), sperm concentration (0.79-3.3 x 10(6) sperm/mL), and contamination rate (0%-100%) were observed. Measured parameters did not appear to be significantly impacted by birds being paired or kept singly. Because of the relatively short acclimation period, the birds appeared to be sexually inactive for the majority of the study. Further research using sexually active birds will be necessary to determine standard spermatological parameters and verify the success of the methodology used here.

  19. SEMEN QUALITY AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OF YOUNG CZECH MEN EXPOSED TO SEASONAL AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semen quality and reproductive health of young Czech men exposed to seasonal air pollution.

    Selevan SG, Borkovec L, Slott VL, Zudova Z, Rubes J, Evenson DP, Perreault SD.

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC 20460, USA.

    This study of male repr...

  20. Effect of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin on sperm viability and acrosome reaction in boar semen cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Seung; Lee, Seunghyung; Lee, Sang-Hee; Yang, Boo-Keun; Park, Choon-Keun

    2015-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC) on boar sperm viability and spermatozoa cryosurvival during boar semen cryopreservation, and methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) was treated for comparing with CLC. Boar semen treated with CLC and MBCD before freezing process to monitor the effect on survival and capacitation status by flow cytometry with appropriate fluorescent probes. Sperm viability was higher in 1.5mg CLC-treated sperm (76.9±1.01%, P<0.05) than un-treated and MBCD-treated sperm before cryopreservation (58.7±1.31% and 60.3±0.31%, respectively). For CTC patterns, F-pattern was higher in CLC treated sperm than MBCD-treated sperm, for B-pattern was higher in CLC-treated sperm than fresh sperm (P<0.05). For AR pattern (an acrosome-reacted sperm) was lower in CLC-treated sperm than MBCD-treated sperm (P<0.05). Moreover, we examined in vitro development of porcine oocytes after in vitro fertilization using CLC-treated frozen-thawed semen, in which CLC treatment prior to freezing and thawing increased the development of oocytes to blastocyst stage in vitro. In conclusion, CLC could protect the viability of spermatozoa from cryodamage prior to cryopreservation in boar semen. PMID:26091957

  1. Revisiting the assessment of semen viscosity and its relationship to leucocytospermia.

    PubMed

    Flint, M; du Plessis, S S; Menkveld, R

    2014-10-01

    With infertility challenges posing an obstacle to many couples, the extension of variables to assess male fertility is an important line of research. At the Reproductive Biology Unit where the study was undertaken, a considerable proportion of male patient's seeking fertility assessment presented with hyperviscous semen samples and elevated concentrations of leucocytes. Despite viscosity being included as part of a routine spermiogram, it raises a considerable amount of concern as it is assessed semiquantitatively. The study was undertaken to evaluate the quantification of semen viscosity in centipoise (cP) and to investigate whether a correlation exists between hyperviscosity and leucocytospermia. A total of 200 semen samples were assessed from a sample cohort of two population groups: 162 male patients undergoing fertility assessment and 38 volunteer donors. Semen viscosity was determined by measuring the filling time of a capillary-loaded Leja chamber and quantifying the viscosity in cP. Leucocytes were identified histochemically with a leucocyte peroxidase test. The viscosity when quantified in cP was significantly higher in the peroxidase positive sample group (9.01 ± 0.49 vs. 7.39 ± 0.23 cP; P < 0.005). The introduction of a more accurate method of quantifying viscosity may possibly help to identify, diagnose and treat patients suffering from leucocytospermia to ultimately enhance their fertility potential.

  2. A comparative evaluation of semen parameters in pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina human population

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Caner; Hellstrom, Wayne J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2015-01-01

    A natural disaster leading to accumulation of environmental contaminants may have substantial effects on the male reproductive system. Our aim was to compare and assess semen parameters in a normospermic population residing in the Southern Louisiana, USA area pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina. We retrospectively evaluated semen analyses data (n = 3452) of 1855 patients who attended the Tulane University Andrology/Fertility Clinic between 1999 and 2013. The study inclusion criteria were men whose semen analyses showed ≥ 1.5 ml volume; ≥15 million ml-1 sperm concentration; ≥39 million total sperm count; ≥40% motility; >30% morphology, with an abstinence interval of 2–7 days. After the inclusion criteria applied to the population, 367 normospermic patients were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and group-based analyses were performed to interpret the differences between the pre-Katrina (Group 1, 1999–2005) and the post-Katrina (Group 2, 2006–2013) populations. There were significant differences in motility, morphology, number of white blood cell, immature germ cell count, pH and presence of sperm agglutination, but surprisingly there were no significant differences in sperm count between the two populations. This long-term comparative analysis further documents that a major natural disaster with its accompanied environmental issues can influence certain semen parameters (e.g., motility and morphology) and, by extension, fertility potential of the population of such areas. PMID:25677132

  3. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  4. Analysis of semen parameters during 2 weeks of daily ejaculation: a first in humans study

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Aaron D.; Frederick, Luke; Leader, Benjamin; Tirado, Edna; Feustel, Paul; Kontio, James; McAsey, Mary; Köhler, Tobias S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Timed and frequent intercourse around the time of female ovulation is recommended to improve conception. Although a significant number of articles have examined how the length of abstinence affects these semen analysis, the effects of frequent (daily) ejaculation has not been rigorously studied. Methods Twenty normal men were recruited for daily ejaculation over 14 consecutive days, after a 3–5 days abstinence period. Semen samples were collected at the beginning of the study (day 1) and then on days 3, 7 and 14. In addition to the standard semen analysis, markers of sperm DNA quality were assessed. Results The mean age of men completing the study was 25 years (range, 23–33 years). Significant decreases were observed in mean semen volume, total motile count (TMC) and sperm concentration during the study period without significant changes in motility or morphology. A large initial change in ejaculate volume, TMC and sperm concentration provided the primary difference in these values over the study period, with a plateau in values after this initial decrease (after study day 3). Metrics of DNA integrity did not change in a statistically or clinically meaningful way during the study period. Conclusions While a small study, this represents the most extensive examination of sperm quality with daily ejaculation. These findings generally support an approach of a short period of abstinence followed by daily copulation around ovulation to maximize the number of sperm available and optimize conception. PMID:27785432

  5. A comparative evaluation of semen parameters in pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina human population.

    PubMed

    Baran, Caner; Hellstrom, Wayne J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2015-01-01

    A natural disaster leading to accumulation of environmental contaminants may have substantial effects on the male reproductive system. Our aim was to compare and assess semen parameters in a normospermic population residing in the Southern Louisiana, USA area pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina. We retrospectively evaluated semen analyses data (n = 3452) of 1855 patients who attended the Tulane University Andrology/Fertility Clinic between 1999 and 2013. The study inclusion criteria were men whose semen analyses showed ≥ 1.5 ml volume; ≥15 million ml -1 sperm concentration; ≥39 million total sperm count; ≥40% motility; >30% morphology, with an abstinence interval of 2-7 days. After the inclusion criteria applied to the population, 367 normospermic patients were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and group-based analyses were performed to interpret the differences between the pre-Katrina (Group 1, 1999-2005) and the post-Katrina (Group 2, 2006-2013) populations. There were significant differences in motility, morphology, number of white blood cell, immature germ cell count, pH and presence of sperm agglutination, but surprisingly there were no significant differences in sperm count between the two populations. This long-term comparative analysis further documents that a major natural disaster with its accompanied environmental issues can influence certain semen parameters (e.g., motility and morphology) and, by extension, fertility potential of the population of such areas. PMID:25677132

  6. Recent adverse trends in semen quality and testis cancer incidence among Finnish men

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, N; Vierula, M; Jacobsen, R; Pukkala, E; Perheentupa, A; Virtanen, H E; Skakkebæk, N E; Toppari, J

    2011-01-01

    Impaired semen quality and testicular cancer may be linked through a testicular dysgenesis syndrome of foetal origin. The incidence of testis cancer has been shown to increase among Finnish men, whereas there is no recent publication describing temporal trends in semen quality. Therefore, we carried out a prospective semen quality study and a registry study of testis cancer incidence among Finnish men to explore recent trends. A total of 858 men were investigated in the semen quality study during 1998–2006. Median sperm concentrations were 67 (95% CI 57–80) million/mL, 60 (51–71) and 48 (39–60) for birth cohorts 1979–81, 1982–83 and 1987; total sperm counts 227 (189–272) million, 202 (170–240) and 165 (132–207); total number of morphologically normal spermatozoa 18 (14–23) million, 15 (12–19) and 11 (8–15). Men aged 10–59 years at the time of diagnosis with testicular cancer during 1954–2008 were included in the registry study, which confirmed the increasing incidence of testicular cancer in recent cohorts. These simultaneous and rapidly occurring adverse trends suggest that the underlying causes are environmental and, as such, preventable. Our findings necessitate not only further surveillance of male reproductive health but also research to detect and remove the underlying factors. PMID:21366607

  7. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY)...

  8. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY)...

  9. Hepatoprotective effects of hoveniae semen cum fructus extracts in ethanol intoxicated mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Ilje; Kim, Joowan; Jung, Jaijun; Sung, Soohyun; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Namju; Ku, Saekwang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract in ethanol induced hepatic damages. [Methods] Hepatic damages were induced by oral administration of ethanol and then Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract was administered. [Results] Following Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract administration, body and liver weights were increased, while aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, albumin, γ-glutamyl transferase, and triglyceride levels in the serum, triglyceride contents, tumor necrosis factor -α level, cytochrome (CY) P450 2E1 activity in the liver and mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes, and Nitrotyrosine and 4-HNE-immunolabelled hepatocytes were decreased. However, mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation was increased. Also, as a protective mechanism for hepatic antioxidant defense systems, decreased liver MDA contents, increased glutathione contents, increased dismutase and catalase activities were observed when compared to the ethanol control. [Conclusion] Hoveniae Semen Cum Fructus extract favorably protected against liver damages, mediated by its potent anti-inflammatory and anti-steatosis properties through the augmentation of the hepatic antioxidant defense system by NF-E2-related factor-2 activation, and down-regulation of the mRNA expression of hepatic lipogenic genes or up-regulation of the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation. PMID:27298813

  10. FREQUENCY OF ANEUPLOID SPERMATOZOA STUDIED BY MULTICOLOR FISH IN SERIAL SEMEN SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Frequency of aneuploid spermatozoa studied by multicolor FISH in serial semen samples

    M. Vozdova1, S. D. Perreault2, O. Rezacova1, D. Zudova1 , Z. Zudova3, S. G. Selevan4, J. Rubes1,5
    1Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, Czech Republic; 2U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  11. A comparative evaluation of semen parameters in pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina human population.

    PubMed

    Baran, Caner; Hellstrom, Wayne J; Sikka, Suresh C

    2015-01-01

    A natural disaster leading to accumulation of environmental contaminants may have substantial effects on the male reproductive system. Our aim was to compare and assess semen parameters in a normospermic population residing in the Southern Louisiana, USA area pre- and post-Hurricane Katrina. We retrospectively evaluated semen analyses data (n = 3452) of 1855 patients who attended the Tulane University Andrology/Fertility Clinic between 1999 and 2013. The study inclusion criteria were men whose semen analyses showed ≥ 1.5 ml volume; ≥15 million ml -1 sperm concentration; ≥39 million total sperm count; ≥40% motility; >30% morphology, with an abstinence interval of 2-7 days. After the inclusion criteria applied to the population, 367 normospermic patients were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and group-based analyses were performed to interpret the differences between the pre-Katrina (Group 1, 1999-2005) and the post-Katrina (Group 2, 2006-2013) populations. There were significant differences in motility, morphology, number of white blood cell, immature germ cell count, pH and presence of sperm agglutination, but surprisingly there were no significant differences in sperm count between the two populations. This long-term comparative analysis further documents that a major natural disaster with its accompanied environmental issues can influence certain semen parameters (e.g., motility and morphology) and, by extension, fertility potential of the population of such areas.

  12. ANALYSIS OR THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER, SP22, IN HUMAN SEMEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL SPERM BIOMARKER SP22 IN HUMAN SEMEN
    Rebecca A. Morris Ph.D.1, Gary R. Klinefelter Ph.D.1, Naomi L. Roberts 1, Juan D. Suarez 1,
    Lillian F. Strader 1, Susan C. Jeffay 1 and Sally D. Perreault Ph.D.1

    1 U.S. EPA / ORD / National Health a...

  13. 9 CFR 98.33 - Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ports designated for the importation of certain animal semen. 98.33 Section 98.33 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY)...

  14. Detection and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from fresh semen of naturally infected dogs in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koch, M O; Weiss, R R; Cruz, A A; Soccol, V T; Gonçalves, K A; Bertol, Maf; Beltrame, O C; Dittrich, R L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate Toxoplasma gondii and determine the viability of the parasite in fresh semen samples of clinically healthy adult dogs naturally infected. Eleven seropositive dogs with T. gondii IgG antibodies from southern Brazil were selected to confirm the presence and viability of T. gondii in fresh semen samples using in vitro isolation in Vero cell culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The presence of viable T. gondii was confirmed by in vitro isolation and PCR in five semen samples. The ITS1 region of the isolated protozoa (TG S4) was amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence obtained was 99% compatible with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. It has been shown that T. gondii tachyzoites may be isolated in vitro from fresh semen samples of clinically healthy dogs seropositive for T. gondii.

  15. In vivo validation of in vitro quality tests for cryopreserved honey bee semen.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Knollmann, Ulrich; Kamp, Günter; Müller, Karin; Bienefeld, Kaspar

    2012-10-01

    Development of cryopreservation protocols for honey bee semen is hampered by the lack of validated laboratory tests that allow the prediction of in vivo performance of frozen-thawed semen. Here we analyzed correlations between seven in vitro tests and indicators of semen performance after insemination. These tests included measures of motility, cell conformation, and membrane permeability before and after exposure to physiochemical stress. We show that the proposed protocol for motility measurement yields results that correlate well with the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of queens (correlation coefficient ρ=0.67) and the proportion of viable eggs in inseminated queens (ρ=0.48). The conventional live/dead assay of membrane permeability by dual fluorescent staining and a new test based on the leakage of the glycolytic enzyme glucose-phosphate-isomerase (GPI) from damaged cells were also correlated to the number of sperm reaching the spermatheca (ρ=0.54 and -0.61, respectively). We conclude that motility, live/dead-staining and the assay for GPI-leakage are valuable tools for the improvement of cryopreservation of honey bee semen.

  16. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing. PMID:26830302

  17. Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Tina Kold; Swan, Shanna H; Skakkebaek, Niels E; Rasmussen, Sanne; Jørgensen, Niels

    2010-04-15

    The authors examined the association between semen quality and caffeine intake among 2,554 young Danish men recruited when they were examined to determine their fitness for military service in 2001-2005. The men delivered a semen sample and answered a questionnaire including information about caffeine intake from various sources, from which total caffeine intake was calculated. Moderate caffeine and cola intakes (101-800 mg/day and < or =14 0.5-L bottles of cola/week) compared with low intake (< or =100 mg/day, no cola intake) were not associated with semen quality. High cola (>14 0.5-L bottles/week) and/or caffeine (>800 mg/day) intake was associated with reduced sperm concentration and total sperm count, although only significant for cola. High-intake cola drinkers had an adjusted sperm concentration and total sperm count of 40 mill/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 32, 51) and 121 mill (95% CI: 92, 160), respectively, compared with 56 mill/mL (95% CI: 50, 64) and 181 mill (95% CI: 156, 210) in non-cola-drinkers, which could not be attributed to the caffeine they consumed because it was <140 mg/day. Therefore, the authors cannot exclude the possibility of a threshold above which cola, and possibly caffeine, negatively affects semen quality. Alternatively, the less healthy lifestyle of these men may explain these findings.

  18. Detection and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from fresh semen of naturally infected dogs in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Koch, M O; Weiss, R R; Cruz, A A; Soccol, V T; Gonçalves, K A; Bertol, Maf; Beltrame, O C; Dittrich, R L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to isolate Toxoplasma gondii and determine the viability of the parasite in fresh semen samples of clinically healthy adult dogs naturally infected. Eleven seropositive dogs with T. gondii IgG antibodies from southern Brazil were selected to confirm the presence and viability of T. gondii in fresh semen samples using in vitro isolation in Vero cell culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The presence of viable T. gondii was confirmed by in vitro isolation and PCR in five semen samples. The ITS1 region of the isolated protozoa (TG S4) was amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence obtained was 99% compatible with the T. gondii DNA sequences stored in the GenBank. It has been shown that T. gondii tachyzoites may be isolated in vitro from fresh semen samples of clinically healthy dogs seropositive for T. gondii. PMID:27287987

  19. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus DNA and RNA in semen by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Mermin, J H; Holodniy, M; Katzenstein, D A; Merigan, T C

    1991-10-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and semen of 23 men infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were examined for the presence of HIV DNA and RNA using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and a nonisotopic detection assay. None of the men was receiving antiretroviral therapy at the time of collection. Semen samples were separated into cell-free seminal fluid, nonspermatozoal mononuclear cells (NSMC), and spermatozoa. All of the PBMC samples, 17 (74%) of 23 NSMC samples, and none of the spermatozoal samples were positive for HIV gag gene DNA. Of 23 cell-free seminal fluid samples, 15 (65%) were positive for HIV gag gene RNA by PCR. Cell-free HIV RNA was more likely to be present in the semen of men with less than 400 than in those with greater than or equal to 400 cells/mm3 (P less than .04) and was present in all patient with p24 antigen in serum. The presence of HIV DNA in NSMC samples was not related to CD4 cell count, disease status, or the presence of p24 antigen in the serum. This study shows that HIV nucleic acid can be detected by PCR in either the cell-free seminal fluid or NSMC of 87% of semen samples but not in the DNA of spermatozoa from HIV-infected men.

  20. Relationship between self-reported residential indoor remodeling and semen quality: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Mao-Hua; Li, Zheng; Li, De-Kun; Yan, Bei; Liang, Hong; Zhi, Er-Lei; Du, Hong-Wei; Yuan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the association between residential indoor remodeling and poor semen quality. Sperm donors aged 18–45 years old were recruited in Shanghai, China. Semen specimens were collected and analyzed. An in-person interview was conducted to obtain information on the history of indoor remodeling and potential confounders. A total of 70 participants with abnormal semen quality (case group) and 68 controls were examined. A total of 20 subjects reported indoor remodeling in the recent 24 months, and among them 17 subjects reported indoor remodeling in the recent 12 months. Compared with participants with no history of indoor remodeling, participants with a history of indoor remodeling in the recent 24 months were more than three times as likely to have poor sperm quality (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3–12.0) after controlling for potential confounders. The association was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to those who had indoor remodeling in the recent 12 months. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that indoor remodeling has an adverse effect on semen quality. PMID:25432500

  1. ANEUPLOIDY AND CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE IN SWIM-UP VERSUS UNPROCESSED SEMEN FROM TWENTY HEALTHY MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have investigated a number of factors believed to induce cytogenetic damage in human sperm cells in order to estimate heritable risk to future generations. Most of these studies, however, have not enriched research semen specimens for fertil...

  2. The human DNA content in artifacts deposited by the blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed human blood, semen and saliva.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, Robert John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2013-12-10

    Adult flies of some species are known to be attracted to crime scenes where they feed on the proteinaceous decomposition products of dead bodies. The flies leave deposits through excretion and regurgitation, and these artifacts often appear morphologically similar to bloodstains. To date, little consideration has been given to the possibility of the fly artifacts containing forensically useful levels of human DNA, or of flies as vectors of human DNA. In the present study, groups of artifacts collected after the adult blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed on biological fluids were examined and found to contain human DNA sufficient for profiling. Random samples from each group of artifacts were then subjected to human DNA profiling. Of the samples analysed, full or partial human DNA profiles were found in 57% of samples deposited by flies after blood meals, 92% after semen meals, 46% after saliva meals, 93% after blood/semen meals, 58% after blood/saliva meals and 95% after semen/saliva meals. DNA from artifacts deposited after flies were fed blood, semen, saliva, blood/semen, blood/saliva or semen/saliva was extracted at various time points up to 750 days, and the human DNA component quantified. The human DNA extracted from blood- and semen-based fly artifacts demonstrated a clear trend in which the amount of DNA extracted increased over the first 400 days, and full human DNA profiles were still obtained 750 days after artifact deposition. Saliva- and blood/saliva-based samples were tested at intervals up to 60 days and generated partial profiles at this final time. Blood/semen- and semen/saliva-based samples generated full profiles at 250 days. The presence of human DNA in fly artifacts has considerable forensic significance. Fly artifacts could potentially compromise crime reconstruction, and/or contaminate DNA evidence, up to at least two years after their deposition. Alternatively, fly artifacts may be a useful source of DNA if an offender has attempted to clean up a

  3. Fertility results of artificial inseminations performed with liquid boar semen stored in X-cell vs BTS extender.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Gaustad, A H; Reksen, O; Gröhn, Y T; Hofmo, P O

    2007-02-01

    The objective of the present field study was to compare the fertility results for boar semen diluted in X-cell stored up to 4-5 days before artificial insemination (AI) with semen diluted in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) used for AI following 2-3 days of storage (where the first day being the collection day). A total number of 2601 double inseminations in Norwegian herds were included in this two-trial study. All the boars used in the study were mature cross-bred Norwegian Landrace x Duroc (LD), which were routinely used for AI in Norway. The inseminated gilts and sows were Norwegian Landrace x Yorkshire (LY). The AI doses contained 2.5 billion spermatozoa, and consisted of a mixture of semen from three, occasionally four, boars (i.e. heterospermic semen). Fertility was measured in terms of the likelihood of farrowing and subsequent litter size. The fertility of the semen in both of the extenders was satisfactory and no significant differences were found either in semen stored 4-5 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS or in semen stored 2-3 days in X-cell compared with 2-3 days in BTS. The storage capability findings for the long-term extender X-cell could significantly simplify the practical issues of semen production and the distribution of AI doses containing 2.5 billion spermatozoa. However, in pig production systems where all semen is used within 2-3 days, the short-term extender BTS is as good as the more expensive extender X-cell.

  4. Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guowei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Qing; Liu, Kaijun; Ling, Xi; Sun, Lei; Zhou, Niya; Wang, Zhi; Zou, Peng; Wang, Xiaogang; Tan, Lu; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence for detrimental effects of cell phone use on semen quality is still equivocal. And that recruiting participants from infertility clinic not from general population may raise the possibility of a selection bias. To investigate effects of cell phone use on semen parameters in a general population,We screened and documented the cell phone use information of 794 young men from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) cohort study in 2013, followed by 666 and 568 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. In the univariate regression analyses, we found that the daily duration of talking on the cell phone was significantly associated with decreased semen parameters, including sperm concentration [β coefficient=-6.32% per unit daily duration of talking on the cell phone (h); 95% confidence interval (CI), -11.94, -0.34] and total sperm count (-8.23; 95% CI, -14.38, -1.63) in 2013; semen volume (-8.37; 95% CI, -15.93, -0.13) and total sperm count (-16.59; 95% CI, -29.91, -0.73) in 2015]. Internet use via cellular networks was also associated with decreased sperm concentration and total sperm counts in 2013 and decreased semen volume in 2015. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders, and significant negative associations between internet use and semen parameters remained. Consistent but nonsignificant negative associations between talking on the cell phone and semen parameters persisted throughout the three study years, and the negative association was statistically significant in a mixed model that considered all three years of data on talking on the cell phone and semen quality. Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility.

  5. Effects of pH during liquid storage of goat semen on sperm viability and fertilizing potential.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-He; Dong, Hai-Bo; Ma, Dong-Li; Li, You-Wei; Han, Dong; Luo, Ming-Jiu; Chang, Zhong-Le; Tan, Jing-He

    2016-01-01

    A specific problem in goat semen preservation is the detrimental effect of seminal plasma on sperm viability in extenders containing yolk or milk. Thus, the use of chemically defined extenders will have obvious advantages. Although previous studies indicate that the initial pH of an extender is crucial to sustain high sperm motility, changes in extender pH during long-term semen storage have not been observed. Monitoring extender pH at different times of semen storage and modeling its variation according to nonlinear models is thus important for protocol optimization for long-term liquid semen preservation. The present results showed that during long-term liquid storage of goat semen, both sperm motility and semen pH decreased gradually, and a strong correlation was observed between the two. Whereas increasing the initial extender pH from 6.04 to 6.25 or storage with stabilized pH improved, storage with artificially lowered pH impaired sperm motility. Extender renewal improved sperm motility by maintaining a stable pH. Sperm coating with chicken (Gallus gallus) egg yolk improved motility by increasing tolerance to pH decline. A new extender (n-mZAP) with a higher buffering capacity was formulated, and n-mZAP maintained higher sperm motility, membrane integrity and acrosome intactness than the currently used mZAP extender did. Goat semen liquid-stored for 12 d in n-mZAP produced pregnancy and kidding rates similar to those obtained with freshly collected semen following artificial insemination. In conclusion, maintenance of a stable pH during liquid semen storage dramatically improved sperm viability and fertilizing potential.

  6. Influence of 6 different intestinal bacteria on Beltsville Small White turkey semen.

    PubMed

    Triplett, M D; Parker, H M; McDaniel, C D; Kiess, A S

    2016-08-01

    The turkey industry relies totally on artificial insemination to continue and improve production. If something compromises the insemination process, such as contaminated semen, it becomes a detrimental loss to the industry. Bacteria have been found in broiler breeder males to reduce sperm motility. The Sperm Quality Index (SQI) is a quick method to determine avian sperm motility using the sperm quality analyzer (SQA). Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if bacteria have an effect on turkey sperm motility using the SQA. For the experiment, one mL of pooled neat semen was collected from Beltsville Small White Turkey toms. Six intestinal bacteria, Bifidobacterium animalis, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium bifermentans, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Salmonella enterica were grown overnight. For each bacterium, 4 treatments were made that consisted of exposing pooled semen to either saline, sterile broth, an overnight culture of each individual bacterium, or a centrifuged pellet of each bacterium re-suspended in saline. The experiment was repeated 3 times. Once the semen was exposed to the respective treatment, a portion was pulled into a capillary tube and placed into the SQA to obtain the SQI. Each treatment was evaluated at zero, 10, and 20 min creating a completely randomized design with a split plot over time. A pH reading also was taken at each time point. The results indicated that all broths containing bacteria immediately reduced turkey sperm motility. Sperm became practically immotile in overnight cultures of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium, or Lactobacillus However, there was a time by treatment interaction in the SQI for Campylobacter, Clostridium, E. coli, Salmonella, and Lactobacillus The pH of semen decreased upon exposure to Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus No difference in pH was found when semen was exposed to E. coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Clostridium treatments. In conclusion, the results reveal when

  7. Diagnosis and effects of urine contamination in cooled-extended stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Ellerbrock, R; Canisso, I; Feijo, L; Lima, F; Shipley, C; Kline, K

    2016-04-15

    Urospermia is known to affect semen quality in many mammals, including stallions. Determinations of semen pH and creatinine and urea concentrations have been used to diagnose urine contamination in raw stallion semen. Unfortunately, practitioners suspecting urine contamination in cooled-shipped samples have no proven means to confirm the presence of urine. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to assess the effects of urine contamination on sperm motility of extended fresh and cooled-stored stallion semen, (2) to evaluate the usefulness of semen color, odor, pH, and creatinine and urea concentrations for urospermia diagnosis, and (3) to evaluate the accuracy of a commercial blood urea nitrogen test strip in diagnosing urine contamination in extended-cooled stallion semen. Thirty-seven ejaculates were obtained from 11 stallions with no history of urospermia before division into 5 mL aliquots, and contamination with stallion urine. Each resulting sample was assessed for sperm motility, color, odor, pH, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentration using both a semiquantitative test strip (Azostix), and a quantitative automated analyzer before and after cooling for 24 hour. Sperm motility parameters, pH, and creatinine and urea concentrations were analyzed using mixed models. Urine contamination decreased total and progressive motility in all samples before and after cooling (P < 0.05). Mean control total motility was 80% at 0 hour and 67% at 24 hours, whereas urine-contaminated samples ranged from 30% to 71% at 0 hour and 27% to 61% at 24 hours. Control mean urea (29 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.6 mg/dL) concentrations were significantly different (P < 0.05) from all urine-contaminated samples (158 mg/dL and 11.6 mg/dL, respectively) at 0 hour. Similarly, control mean urea (8 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.9 mg/dL) concentrations were significantly different than all urine-contaminated samples at 24 hours. Odor assessment presented moderate sensitivity (65

  8. Semen quality after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy for the management of lower ureteric stones: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gulur, Dev Mohan; Philip, Joe

    2011-10-01

    Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy has long been an important tool in the urologists' armamentarium for the treatment of distal ureteric stones. Several studies have been conducted on the morbidity and adverse effects of ESWL on human tissues but the effect of lithotripsy on semen and testes remains inconclusive. Impact on semen analysis and testes is important because the seminal vesicles and testes are exposed to the shock waves due to their anatomical proximity to the distal ureter. This article has reviewed all the published literature in English language on semen analysis after lithotripsy.

  9. The Usefulness of Selected Physicochemical Indices, Cell Membrane Integrity and Sperm Chromatin Structure in Assessments of Boar Semen Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Wysokińska, A.; Kondracki, S.; Iwanina, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes experiments undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of selected physicochemical indices of semen, cell membrane integrity and sperm chromatin structure for the assessment of boar semen sensitivity to processes connected with pre-insemination procedures. The experiments were carried out on 30 boars: including 15 regarded as providers of sensitive semen and 15 regarded as providers of semen that is little sensitive to laboratory processing. The selection of boars for both groups was based on sperm morphology analyses, assuming secondary morphological change incidence in spermatozoa as the criterion. Two ejaculates were manually collected from each boar at an interval of 3 to 4 months. The following analyses were carried out for each ejaculate: sperm motility assessment, sperm pH measurement, sperm morphology assessment, sperm chromatin structure evaluation and cell membrane integrity assessment. The analyses were performed three times. Semen storage did not cause an increase in the incidence of secondary morphological changes in the group of boars considered to provide sperm of low sensitivity. On the other hand, with continued storage there was a marked increase in the incidence of spermatozoa with secondary morphological changes in the group of boars regarded as producing more sensitive semen. Ejaculates of group I boars evaluated directly after collection had an approximately 6% smaller share of spermatozoa with undamaged cell membranes than the ejaculates of boars in group II (p≤0.05). In the process of time the percentage of spermatozoa with undamaged cell membranes decreased. The sperm of group I boars was characterised with a lower sperm motility than the semen of group II boars. After 1 hour of storing diluted semen, the sperm motility of boars producing highly sensitive semen was already 4% lower (p≤0.05), and after 24 hours of storage it was 6.33% lower than that of the boars that produced semen with a low sensitivity. Factors

  10. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P < 0.0001) interaction between the selection strategy and the AI technique-dose combination was identified for the gross return; meanwhile, significant (P < 0.0001) additive effects of the selection strategy and AI technique-dose combination were observed for the net

  11. Contribution of semen trait selection, artificial insemination technique, and semen dose to the profitability of pig production systems: A simulation study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Pena, Dianelys; Knox, Robert V; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L

    2016-01-15

    The economic impact of selection for semen traits on pig production systems and potential interaction with artificial insemination (AI) technique and semen dose remains partially understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the financial indicators (gross return, net profit, cost) in a three-tier pig production system under one of two selection strategies: a traditional strategy including nine paternal and maternal traits (S9) and an advanced strategy that adds four semen traits (S13). Maternal traits included the number of pigs born alive, litter birth weight, adjusted 21-day litter weight, and the number of pigs at 21 days, and paternal traits included days to 113.5 kg, back fat, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and carcass lean percentage. The four semen traits included volume, concentration, progressive motility of spermatozoa, and abnormal spermatozoa. Simultaneously, the impact of two AI techniques and a range of fresh refrigerated semen doses including cervical AI with 3 × 10(9) (CAI3) and 2 × 10(9) (CAI2) sperm cells/dose, and intrauterine AI with 1.5 × 10(9) (IUI1.5), 0.75 × 10(9) (IUI0.75), and 0.5 × 10(9) (IUI0.5) sperm cells/dose were evaluated. These factors were also evaluated using a range of farrowing rates (60%-90%), litter sizes (8-14 live-born pigs), and a selected semen collection frequency. The financial impact of the factors was assessed through simulation of a three-way crossbreeding system (maternal nucleus lines A and B and paternal nucleus line C) using ZPLAN. The highest return on investment (profit/cost) of boars was observed at 2.33 collections/wk (three periods of 24 hours between collections). Under this schedule, a significant (P < 0.0001) interaction between the selection strategy and the AI technique-dose combination was identified for the gross return; meanwhile, significant (P < 0.0001) additive effects of the selection strategy and AI technique-dose combination were observed for the net

  12. Effects of herbal preparation on libido and semen quality in boars.

    PubMed

    Frydrychová, S; Opletal, L; Macáková, K; Lustyková, A; Rozkot, M; Lipenský, J

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a preparation from herbal extracts (PHE) on libido and semen quality in breeding artificial insemination boars. Ten fertile boars were divided into control and experimental groups according to significant difference of libido. There were no differences in semen quality between groups. Animals were fed a commercial feeding mixture for boars. The feeding mixture for the experimental group was enriched with PHE, which was prepared from Eurycoma longifolia, Tribulus terrestris and Leuzea carthamoides. Duration of the experiment was 10 weeks. Samples of ejaculate were collected weekly. Libido was evaluated according to a scale of 0-5 points. Semen volume, sperm motility, percentage of viable spermatozoa, sperm concentration, morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, daily sperm production and sperm survival were assessed. Amounts of mineral components and free amino acids were analysed in seminal plasma. Significant differences were found in these parameters: libido (4.05 ± 0.22 vs 3.48 ± 0.78; p < 0.001), semen volume (331.75 ± 61.91 vs 263.13 ± 87.17 g; p < 0.001), sperm concentration (386.25 ± 107.95 vs 487.25 ± 165.50 × 10(3) /mm(3); p < 0.01), morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (15.94 ± 11.08 vs 20.88 ± 9.19%; p < 0.001) and Mg concentration (28.36 ± 11.59 vs 20.27 ± 13.93 mm; p < 0.05). The experimental group's libido was increased by 20% in comparison with the beginning of the experiment. Results of this study showed positive effect of PHE on libido and some parameters of boar semen quality. PMID:21092065

  13. Is photometry an accurate and reliable method to assess boar semen concentration?

    PubMed

    Camus, A; Camugli, S; Lévêque, C; Schmitt, E; Staub, C

    2011-02-01

    Sperm concentration assessment is a key point to insure appropriate sperm number per dose in species subjected to artificial insemination (AI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of two commercially available photometers, AccuCell™ and AccuRead™ pre-calibrated for boar semen in comparison to UltiMate™ boar version 12.3D, NucleoCounter SP100 and Thoma hemacytometer. For each type of instrument, concentration was measured on 34 boar semen samples in quadruplicate and agreement between measurements and instruments were evaluated. Accuracy for both photometers was illustrated by mean of percentage differences to the general mean. It was -0.6% and 0.5% for Accucell™ and Accuread™ respectively, no significant differences were found between instrument and mean of measurement among all equipment. Repeatability for both photometers was 1.8% and 3.2% for AccuCell™ and AccuRead™ respectively. Low differences were observed between instruments (confidence interval 3%) except when hemacytometer was used as a reference. Even though hemacytometer is considered worldwide as the gold standard, it is the more variable instrument (confidence interval 7.1%). The conclusion is that routine photometry measures of raw semen concentration are reliable, accurate and precise using AccuRead™ or AccuCell™. There are multiple steps in semen processing that can induce sperm loss and therefore increase differences between theoretical and real sperm numbers in doses. Potential biases that depend on the workflow but not on the initial photometric measure of semen concentration are discussed.

  14. Sperm chromatin structure integrity in liquid stored boar semen and its relationships with field fertility.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, G B; Christensen, P; Vibjerg, D; Nielsen, M B F; Hedeboe, A M

    2008-04-01

    Extended semen doses from some boars used for AI have been shown to develop high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation during storage. Studies in other animals and humans have shown that if DNA damage is present in a certain percentage of the sperm cells the fertility potential of the semen sample is reduced. The objectives of the present study was to determine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) in extended stored semen and field fertility in the boar. Three ejaculates from each of 145 boars were collected. Preparation of the semen doses included dilution with an EDTA extender and storage for up to 72 h post collection. The semen doses were assessed using flow cytometric methods for the percentage of viable sperm (PI/SYBR-14) and sperm DNA fragmentation (SCSA) at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. A total of 3276 experimental inseminations in Danish breeding herds were conducted. The results showed that for 11 (7.6%) of the boars at least one of the three samples showed a value of DNA fragmentation index (DFI) above 20% within the storage period. Total number of piglets born (litter size) for Hampshire, Landrace and Danish Large White boars was, respectively, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9 piglets smaller per litter when DFI values were above 2.1% as opposed to below this value. In conclusion the SCSA technique appears to be able to identify individuals with lower fertility with respect to litter size, and could in the future be implemented by the pig industry after a cost-benefit analysis. PMID:18242673

  15. Collection and evaluation of semen from the three-toed sloth (Bradypus tridactylus).

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Benetti, E J; Milazzotto, M P; Visintin, J A; Miglino, M A; Assumpção, M E O A

    2008-10-01

    Sloths (Bradypus sp.) are extremely sensitive animals that suffer with the destruction and fragmentation of forests. They present a low population growth rate and need to be further studied for the preservation of the specie. Thus, the aim of this study was to establish an efficient semen collection protocol as well as characterize sperm concentration, motility and morphology in order to contribute with information about the reproductive traits of this specie, which has never been described in the literature before. For that, nine Bradypus tridactylus males were captured during the wet season and six during the dry season, in Manaus (AM), located in the north region of Brazil, semen was collected by electroejaculation with shocks given in sequences of progressive intensities (minimum 20mA and maximum 60mA). All animals ejaculated small volumes of semen and in some of them, the volume ejaculated was not enough for a complete spermiogram. Physical characteristics observed on the collections of the wet season were different from those seen in the specimen collected in the dry season. Motility an vigor was very low and did not show forward progression, only oscillatory movement. After Spermac stain, spermatozoa presented a wide variety of defects; however, the differences in morphology were not significant between seasons. The morphology assessed by scanning electron microscopy shows that the head in both groups could be elongated, short or could have a base narrower than the apex and the midpiece narrowed abruptly, forming a nip in its transition to the tail. Although further studies are necessary to verify our preliminary findings concerning seasonal variation in sperm quality, these results demonstrate that semen can be safely collected from sloths by electroejaculation and provide the first reports of semen characteristics in this species.

  16. Oxidation-reduction potential of semen: what is its role in the treatment of male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage. Alleviation of oxidative stress constitutes a potential treatment strategy for male infertility. Measurement of seminal oxidative stress is of crucial role in the identification and monitoring of patients who may benefit from treatments. Various tests including reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay or malondialdehyde (MDA) assay used by different laboratories have their own drawbacks. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a measure of overall balance between oxidants and antioxidants, providing a comprehensive measure of oxidative stress. The MiOXSYS™ System is a novel technology based on a galvanostatic measure of electrons; it presents static ORP (sORP) measures with static referring to the passive or current state of activity between oxidants and antioxidants. Preliminary studies have correlated sORP to poor semen qualities. It is potentially useful in prognostication of assisted reproductive techniques outcomes, screening of antioxidants either in vivo or during IVF cycles, identification of infertile men who may benefit from treatment of oxidative stress, and monitoring of treatment success. The simplified laboratory test requiring a small amount of semen would facilitate clinical application and research in the field. In this paper, we discuss the measurement of ORP by the MiOXSYS System as a real-time assessment of seminal oxidative stress, and argue that it is a potential valuable clinical test

  17. The use of semen evaluation and assisted reproduction in Spix's macaws in terms of species conservation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dominik; Neumann, Daniel; Purchase, Cromwell; Bouts, Tim; Meinecke-Tillmann, Sabine; Wehrend, Axel; Lierz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The Spix's macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii) is the rarest parrot on earth. The remaining captive population consists of 79 individuals. Captive propagation is ongoing to increase the number of individuals for future reintroduction back into the wild. Unfortunately, from 2004 to 2012, only 33 chicks hatched from 331 eggs. Semen evaluation and assisted reproduction might help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a recently developed electro-stimulated semen collection technique was used in Spix's macaws. Semen collection was successful in 39 of 78 attempts in 10 out of 17 males. Examination of the semen included evaluation of volume, color, consistency, contaminations and pH, as well as determination of motility, viability, morphology, concentration, and total count of spermatozoa. The median volume of semen samples was 5.6 µl. On average, 34.7 ± 21.9% (median 30%) of the sperm were motile and 23.1 ± 22.1% (median 16.5%) were progressively motile. In addition to spermatozoa, round cells were detected in the samples. Median sperm concentration was 15,500/µl (range 500-97,500/µl) and median viability was 50% (range 5-87%). Morphological examination revealed in 26.5% normal spermatozoa, high numbers of malformations of the head (50.2%) and tail region (20.5%), with 29% of all sperm showing multiple abnormalities. Artificial insemination was performed in three females; two eggs laid after artificial insemination had spermatozoa present on the perivitelline layer, suggesting the possible success of the insemination technique. Although no fertilization could be demonstrated, these preliminary results are promising, as they indicate that assisted reproduction might be a tool for species conservation in the Spix's macaw.

  18. Semen quality and fertility of men employed in a South African lead acid battery plant.

    PubMed

    Robins, T G; Bornman, M S; Ehrlich, R I; Cantrell, A C; Pienaar, E; Vallabh, J; Miller, S

    1997-10-01

    Previous studies of the associations of measures of occupational lead exposure with measures of semen quality and infertility among male workers have produced conflicting results. The current study was undertaken to examine these associations among a population of workers with a broad range of measures of current and historical lead exposure. Ninety-seven lead-exposed workers from a South African lead acid battery facility provided semen samples that were analyzed for sperm density, sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and presence of antisperm antibodies. Questionnaire data were collected for reported histories of sub- or infertility. Current blood leads ranged from 28 to 93 micrograms/dl. Semen lead ranged from 1 to 87 micrograms/dl. Reasonably consistent and significant associations were found between an increased percentage of sperm with abnormal morphology and higher measures of current blood lead, cumulative blood lead, and duration of exposure. An increased percent of immotile sperm was associated only with zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) among the lead exposure measures. There were no associations of sperm density or sperm count with any of the lead exposure measures. A weak association of increased percent of sperm with antisperm antibodies with increased semen lead was present. There were no consistent associations of measures of lead exposure with measures of fertility or procreativity. This study, while supporting the association of lead exposure with increased risk of abnormal sperm morphology seen in some previous studies, does not lend support to previously reported associations of sperm density or count or infertility with measures of lead exposure. However, the relatively high range of current blood leads, high prevalence of abnormalities in semen quality, and the lack of a control population, suggest that these negative findings should be interpreted with caution.

  19. Effect of column filtration upon the quality parameters of fresh dog semen.

    PubMed

    Mogas, T; Rigau, T; Piedrafita, J; Bonet, S; Rodríguez-Gil, J E

    1998-12-01

    We filtered dog semen through various resin columns to obtain a quick, simple system for improving semen quality. Fresh ejaculates were filtered through columns with either glasswool or a chemically-inert polypropylene network disc. The columns were filled with Sephadex G-15 (nonionic resin), Sephadex A-50 (anionic-exchange resin), Sephadex C-50 (cationic-exchange resin) or a combination of Sephadex A-50 and C-50. Filtration through glasswool improved semen quality, with a significant (P < 0.001) increase in the percentage of viability and decrease in the percentage of altered acrosomes (P < 0.001) and total abnormalities (P < 0.001). Total motility was not modified, but curvilinear velocity or linearity of the movement were improved using the glasswool bed. The effect of the glasswool was so intense that it masked the effects of the filtration resins. Substitution of glasswool by polypropylene discs resulted in an unmasking of the effects of the resins, although the polypropylene exerted slight effects on semen. Elution of the spermatozoa through Sephadex G-15 or Sephadex C-50 resulted in a decrease of altered acrosomes. However, filtration through Sephadex A-50 increased viability and decreased the percentage of altered acrosomes and total abnormalities. Combined filtration through Sephadex A-50 and C-50 yielded the combined results observed with the resins individually. Ultrastructural imaging of the interaction between spermatozoa and the beds and resins showed that the cells were loosely deposited upon the glasswool fibers and the Sephadex G-15 particles, whereas close interaction was observed between spermatozoa and Sephadex A-50 and C-50 particles. The whole of the sperm cell bound to C-50 particles, whereas spermatozoa were specifically bonded to A-50 particles in the apical region of the head and in segments of the tail, which were periodically distributed. The data suggest that filtration through glasswool or an anionic resin-exchange can significantly

  20. Human urinary/seminal phthalates or their metabolite levels and semen quality: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongquan; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Pai; Wang, Shu; Tan, Hui; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2015-10-01

    Health concerns surrounding human exposure to phthalates include diminished semen quality. Epidemiological findings remain inconsistent. We have performed a quality appraisal and meta-analysis to quantitatively summarize evidence for associations between phthalate exposures and human semen quality. Pubmed and Web of Science were searched for pertinent studies through October 2014. Cited references were reviewed to identify secondary studies. Studies that reported quantitative estimates of the association between phthalates or their metabolite levels in humans and semen quality were eligible. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled effects estimates. Overall, 20 studies met our inclusion criteria. Subsequently, 14 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Urinary monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) were associated with reduced sperm concentration (MBP [7.4-25.3 µg/L], pooled odds ratio [OR]=2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.32-5.15; MBzP [14.0-540.2 µg/L], pooled OR=2.23, 95% CI=1.16-4.30). Both MBP (24.6-14,459.0 µg/L) and MEHP (3.1-208.1 µg/L) were inversely associated with straight line velocity (VSL; MBP, pooled β=-2.51, 95% CI=-4.44, -0.59; MEHP, pooled β=-1.06, 95% CI=-1.99, -0.12). An IQR increase in MBzP and MEP levels (MBzP, IQR=11.35 µg/L; MEP, IQR=449.4 µg/L) was associated with an increase in comet extent (CE; MBzP, pooled β=3.57, 95% CI=0.89-6.25; MEP, pooled β=4.22, 95% CI=1.66-6.77). No associations were observed between monomethyl phthalate and any semen parameters. Our meta-analysis strengthens the evidence that specific phthalates or their metabolite levels may affect semen quality.

  1. Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-Type Ultra Violet Light Filters and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Buck Louis, Germaine M.; Chen, Zhen; Kim, Sungduk; Sapra, Katherine J.; Bae, Jisuk; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess benzophenone-type ultra violet (UV) filter concentrations, chemicals used in sunscreen and personal care products, and semen endpoints. Design Cohort. Setting 16 counties in Michigan and Texas Participants 413 men provided semen and urine samples, 2005–2009. Five UV filters were quantified (ng/mL) in urine using liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry: BP-1 (2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone), BP-2 (2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxybenzophenone), BP-3 (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), BP-8 (2,2′-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone), and 4-OH-BP (4-hydroxybenzophenone). Using linear regression, beta coefficients (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each chemical dichotomized at the 75th percentile and Box-Cox transformed semen endpoint were estimated, after adjusting for age, BMI, cotinine, season, and site. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures 35 semen endpoints. Results BP-2 was associated with diminished sperm concentration (β=−0.74; 95% CI −1.41, −0.08), straight (β=−4.57; 95% CI −8.95, −0.18) and linear movement (β=−3.15; 95% CI −6.01, −0.30), more immature (β=0.38; 95% CI 0.15, 0.62) sperm, and a decreased percentage of other tail abnormalities (β=−0.16; 95% CI −0.31, −0.01). BP-8 was associated with decreased hypo-osmotic swelling (β=−2.57; 95% CI −4.86, −0.29) and higher acrosome area (β=1.14; 95% CI 0.01, 2.26). No associations were observed for BP-1, BP-3 or 4OH-BP. Conclusion The findings suggest that specific UV filters may be associated with some aspects of semen endpoints, but await future corroboration. PMID:26253817

  2. Effects of Taurine or Trehalose supplementation on functional competence of cryopreserved Karan Fries semen.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Shivani; Singh, Vivek Kumar; Kumar, Raj; Atreja, Suresh Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Cryopreserved semen is commonly used for assisted reproduction in livestock including cattle. However, spermatozoa undergo numerous physiological and biochemical changes during freezing and thawing process that affects their fertilizing ability. The aim of present study was to improve the post thaw quality of crossbreed cattle "Karan Fries" (Holstein-Friesian×Tharparkar) spermatozoa. A total of nine ejaculates from three randomly chosen Karan Fries bulls were extended and cryopreserved in Tris-egg yolk citrate (EYTC) extender supplemented with 50mM Taurine or 100mM Trehalose. Semen samples cryopreserved without these additives in EYTC extender were taken as a control. Cryopreserved semen were thawed and assessed for semen quality parameters like sperm motility, viability and plasma membrane integrity. Extent of capacitation was measured by estimating the number of sperm that underwent an acrosome reaction with Lysophosphatidyl choline (LPC) addition by dual staining with giemsa and trypan blue stains. Oxidative stress in terms of rate of H(2)O(2) production and membrane lipid peroxidation were assessed in spermatozoa. Intracellular calcium concentration was also measured using fluorescent dye Fura-2AM. Post-thaw semen evaluation showed that supplementation of Taurine or Trehalose to EYTC extender significantly (P<0.05) increased motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa. Percentage of cryocapacitated spermatozoa was also significantly (P<0.05) decreased in presence of these additives. Similarly, rate of H(2)O(2) production, lipid peroxidation and intracellular calcium were found to be significantly (P<0.05) higher in spermatozoa cryopreserved in absence of these additives. The results obtained clearly indicated that supplementation of Taurine or Trehalose to EYTC extender prior to cryopreservation improves Karan Fries sperm quality. PMID:22974707

  3. Development of soya milk extender for semen cryopreservation of Karan Fries (crossbreed cattle).

    PubMed

    Singh, V K; Singh, A K; Kumar, R; Atreja, S K

    2013-01-01

    Egg yolk based semen extenders are used widely, with the potential risk of xenobiotic contamination. This study was designed to develop a soya milk based extender to substitute egg yolk based extender for bovine semen cryopreservation. In the first experiment soya milk was prepared from fresh soya bean (Glycine max). Concentration of soya milk in tris based extender was standardized based on quality parameters of spermatozoa during liquid preservation at 5°C up to 72 h and compared with egg yolk tris (EYT) extender. Sperm in soya milk tris (SMT) extender with 25 percent soya milk showed no significant (P > 0.05) differences in all the quality parameters like motility, viability, membrane integrity and acrosome integrity, as compared to sperm in EYT extender up to 72h in liquid dilution. In the second experiment the Karan Fries semen was cryopreserved in SMT extender with 25 percent soya milk (selected from the first experiment) using different concentration of glycerol, as cryoprotectant, ranging from 6-7 percent with a difference of 0.2 percent to standardize optimum concentration based on post thaw motility of spermatozoa. Glycerol at a final concentration of 6.4 percent was found to be the best among all. Further, semen samples were split and cryopreserved in newly developed SMT extender containing 6.4 percent glycerol and compared with conventional EYT extender for post thaw sperm quality parameters and degree of cryocapacitation. There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between sperm in EYT extender and SMT extender for post thaw motility, viability, membrane integrity, acrosome integrity and cryocapacitation. In conclusion, the newly developed SMT extender maintained comparable semen quality as compared to EYT extender hence it can.

  4. Oxidation-reduction potential of semen: what is its role in the treatment of male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Roychoudhury, Shubhadeep; Bjugstad, Kimberly B.; Cho, Chak-Lam

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of male infertility relies largely on conventional semen analysis, and its interpretation has a profound influence on subsequent management of patients. Despite poor correlation between conventional semen parameters and male fertility potential, inclusion of advanced semen quality tests to routine male infertility workup algorithms has not been widely accepted. Oxidative stress is one of the major mediators in various etiologies of male infertility; it has deleterious effects on spermatozoa, including DNA damage. Alleviation of oxidative stress constitutes a potential treatment strategy for male infertility. Measurement of seminal oxidative stress is of crucial role in the identification and monitoring of patients who may benefit from treatments. Various tests including reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay or malondialdehyde (MDA) assay used by different laboratories have their own drawbacks. Oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) is a measure of overall balance between oxidants and antioxidants, providing a comprehensive measure of oxidative stress. The MiOXSYS™ System is a novel technology based on a galvanostatic measure of electrons; it presents static ORP (sORP) measures with static referring to the passive or current state of activity between oxidants and antioxidants. Preliminary studies have correlated sORP to poor semen qualities. It is potentially useful in prognostication of assisted reproductive techniques outcomes, screening of antioxidants either in vivo or during IVF cycles, identification of infertile men who may benefit from treatment of oxidative stress, and monitoring of treatment success. The simplified laboratory test requiring a small amount of semen would facilitate clinical application and research in the field. In this paper, we discuss the measurement of ORP by the MiOXSYS System as a real-time assessment of seminal oxidative stress, and argue that it is a potential valuable clinical test

  5. Successful artificial insemination in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) using extended and extended-chilled semen collected by electroejaculation.

    PubMed

    Allen, Camryn D; Burridge, Michelle; Mulhall, Sarah; Chafer, Mandy L; Nicolson, Vere N; Pyne, Michael; Zee, Yeng Peng; Jago, Sophia C; Lundie-Jenkins, Geoff; Holt, William V; Carrick, Frank N; Curlewis, Jonathan D; Lisle, Allan T; Johnston, Stephen D

    2008-04-01

    Artificial insemination in the koala using chilled, electroejaculated semen provides for a marked improvement in the reproductive and genetic management of captive koala colonies in Australia and internationally, and makes available the option of using semen collected from wild populations to expand restricted gene pools. Dilution of koala semen for artificial insemination is complicated because koalas are induced ovulators, and it is thought that ovulating factors are present in the semen, so that semen extension for preservation purposes might be anticipated to result in a failure to induce ovulation. The first two experiments of this study were designed to determine whether artificial insemination using undiluted, extended, and extended-chilled semen collected by electroejaculation was capable of inducing a luteal phase and/or the production of pouch young. In Experiment 1, 1 ml undiluted electroejaculated semen, 2 ml diluted (1:1) semen, and 1 ml diluted (1:1) semen resulted in seven of nine, six of nine, and six of nine koalas showing a luteal phase, respectively; four pouch young were produced in each treatment. A second artificial insemination experiment was conducted in which 2 ml diluted (1:1) semen was administered in three groups of nine koalas. The first group received semen that had been collected and diluted immediately without chilling, the second group was deposited with semen stored chilled for 24 h, and the final group received semen that had been chilled for 72 h. In the first group, five females had a luteal phase, but none became pregnant. In group 2, two of the five females that had a luteal phase gave birth, whereas in group 3, four of the six females that had a luteal phase produced pouch young. In addition, experiment 3 was conducted to determine whether it was possible to produce pouch young by naturally mating koalas that were in the latter stages of their behavioral estrus; this information is important to the logistics of transporting

  6. Molecular Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Other Sexually Transmitted Bacteria in Semen of Male Partners of Infertile Couples in Tunisia: The Effect on Semen Parameters and Spermatozoa Apoptosis Markers

    PubMed Central

    Sellami, Hanen; Znazen, Abir; Sellami, Afifa; Mnif, Hela; Louati, Nour; Zarrouk, Soumaya Ben; Keskes, Leila; Rebai, Tarek; Gdoura, Radhouane; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR). Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm)) using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%), 5 (5.8%), 5 (5.8%) and 3 (3.5%) male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%). The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a]) of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively). Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62). Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C. trachomatis

  7. Evaluation of bison (Bison bison) semen from Yellowstone National Park, Montana, USA, bulls for Brucella abortus shedding.

    PubMed

    Frey, Rebecca K; Clarke, P Ryan; McCollum, Matt P; Nol, Pauline; Johnson, Kammy R; Thompson, Brent D; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Rhyan, Jack C

    2013-07-01

    To determine if bison (Bison bison) bulls from Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Montana, USA, shed an infective dose of Brucella abortus in semen, 50 YNP bulls were captured on public lands in Montana during the winter and early spring (April-May) of 2010 and 2011. The bulls were immobilized, and blood and semen samples were collected for serology and Brucella culture. Thirty-five bulls (70%) were antibody-positive, and B. abortus was cultured from semen in three (9%) of the 35 antibody-positive or suspect bulls, though not at concentrations considered an infective dose. Eight bulls (six antibody-positive, two negative) had palpable lesions of the testes, epididymides, or seminal vesicles consistent with B. abortus infection. Breeding soundness exams and semen analysis suggested that antibody-positive bulls were more likely to have nonviable ejaculate (8/35; 23%) than bulls without detectable antibody (2/15; 13%).

  8. Preliminary examination of polymorphisms of GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTZ1 in relation to semen quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Environmental, lifestyle, and occupational exposures on semen quality have been investigated in epidemiological studies with inconsistent results. Genetic factors involved in toxicant activation and detoxification have been examined in relation to the risk of outcomes...

  9. The Food Preferences of the Blow Fly Lucilia cuprina Offered Human Blood, Semen and Saliva, and Various Nonhuman Foods Sources.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, Robert J; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2016-01-01

    As human DNA profiles can be obtained from blow fly artifacts, this study aimed to establish the feeding preferences of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) blow flies when offered human biological fluids and nonhuman food sources. One-day-old and 3-day-old blow flies of both sexes were simultaneously offered human blood, semen and saliva, pet food, canned tuna and honey, and the number and length of visits documented over 6 h. One-day-old flies visited pet food and honey most often, but stayed longest on honey and semen. Three-day-old flies visited semen and pet food most often, and stayed longest on these food sources. Blood and saliva were the least preferred options for all flies. Overall, flies preferred dry blood and semen to the wet forms. These findings demonstrate that even when other food sources are available, flies at a crime scene may feed on human biological fluids if present, potentially transferring human DNA. PMID:26211393

  10. Effect of hypoxia by intermittent altitude exposure on semen characteristics and testicular morphology of male rhesus monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, D. K.

    1995-09-01

    Semen characteristics and testicular morphology of rhesus monkeys were studied on exposure to a simulated high altitude of 4411 m for 21 days. There was a partially reversible decrease in the semen volume, sperm count and sperm motility, as well as an elevation of pH and fructose concentration. These changes were associated with degeneration of the germinal epithelium and spermatogenic arrest at the end of third week of exposure which had not recovered even 3 weeks after the exposure.

  11. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population

    PubMed Central

    Madeddu, Manuela; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Massimo; Leoni, Giovanni G; Satta, Valentina; Succu, Sara; Rotta, Andrea; Pasciu, Valeria; Zinellu, Angelo; Muzzeddu, Marco; Carru, Ciriaco; Naitana, Salvatore

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December – March) using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9%) and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05). No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 μl), spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml) and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9%) among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p < 0.001); B showed higher nucleotide concentration than both C and D, while it did not differ form A, whose values were higher compared with D. After freezing and thawing, semen in vitro viability, DNA integrity and ATP intracellular concentration were determined. Spermatozoa viability after thawing did not differ among the four individuals (52.6 +/- 5.8 in A, 53.4 +/- 4.6 in B, 50.4 +/- 3.2 in C, 42.5 +/- 2.7 in D), but it decreased significantly compared to fresh semen (p < 0.05). During 4 hrs in vitro culture, spermatozoa collected from B maintained over time a higher viability in vitro when compared to A, C and D. As evaluated by the comet assay method, DNA fragmentation after freezing and thawing did not differ in the 4 vultures. ATP concentration in frozen/thawed semen was significantly lower than in fresh semen (p < 0.0001). This study indicates that semen cryopreservation can be considered as a useful tool in the conservation of Griffon vulture genetic resources, but further studies are needed to optimize this technique. PMID:19228408

  12. Ejaculate collection efficiency and post-thaw semen quality in wild-caught Griffon vultures from the Sardinian population.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Manuela; Berlinguer, Fiammetta; Ledda, Massimo; Leoni, Giovanni G; Satta, Valentina; Succu, Sara; Rotta, Andrea; Pasciu, Valeria; Zinellu, Angelo; Muzzeddu, Marco; Carru, Ciriaco; Naitana, Salvatore

    2009-02-19

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of a programme of semen collection and cryopreservation in Griffon vultures. Four wild-caught individuals kept in captivity because of unrecoverable traumas were used. Semen collection attempts were made twice a week during three consecutive reproductive seasons (December - March) using the abdominal massage method. Ejaculation was successfully induced between late January and late February. Semen collection efficiency was rather low (27.9%) and it did not vary among individuals (p > 0.05). No differences were found in ejaculate volumes (12.5 +/- 9.1 microl), spermatozoa concentration (28.4 +/- 30.9 million cells/ml) and viability (61.3 +/- 13.9%) among the 4 vultures. ATP values differed among the four vultures (p < 0.001); B showed higher nucleotide concentration than both C and D, while it did not differ form A, whose values were higher compared with D. After freezing and thawing, semen in vitro viability, DNA integrity and ATP intracellular concentration were determined. Spermatozoa viability after thawing did not differ among the four individuals (52.6 +/- 5.8 in A, 53.4 +/- 4.6 in B, 50.4 +/- 3.2 in C, 42.5 +/- 2.7 in D), but it decreased significantly compared to fresh semen (p < 0.05). During 4 hrs in vitro culture, spermatozoa collected from B maintained over time a higher viability in vitro when compared to A, C and D. As evaluated by the comet assay method, DNA fragmentation after freezing and thawing did not differ in the 4 vultures. ATP concentration in frozen/thawed semen was significantly lower than in fresh semen (p < 0.0001). This study indicates that semen cryopreservation can be considered as a useful tool in the conservation of Griffon vulture genetic resources, but further studies are needed to optimize this technique.

  13. Efficiency of different extenders on cooled semen collected during long and short day length seasons in Martina Franca donkey.

    PubMed

    Contri, Alberto; De Amicis, Ippolito; Veronesi, Maria Cristina; Faustini, Massimo; Robbe, Domenico; Carluccio, Augusto

    2010-07-01

    Artificial insemination with cooled semen is routine in equids because of its good fertility rates and relatively low costs. In several donkey breeds, especially in restricted populations, the use of cooled semen could be seen as the best way of improving reproductive performance and avoiding excessive inbreeding. Furthermore, most jennies have ovulatory estrous throughout the year, and thus, cooled semen could also be used during short day length season. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of different extenders on sperm quality during cooling in the Martina Franca breed, and to verify the preservation of cooled semen collected during long day length (May-June) and short day length (November-December) seasons. Three ejaculates were collected at 10-day intervals from each of six jackasses during both May-June and again in November-December time periods. Each ejaculate was cooled in INRA96 or E-Z Mixin at a low cooling rate and evaluated daily over a 120-h preservation time. The results showed a significant extender influence on preservation time in both periods. Semen diluted with INRA96 maintained a progressive motility of 36% and a straightness of 89% at 120h, whereas semen extended with E-Z Mixin had a mean progressive motility of 32% and a straightness of 81% at 48h during the May-June period. Despite having the same initial characteristics, semen collected during the short day length season had a higher rate of decline in semen quality during storage at 5 degrees C with E-Z Mixin.

  14. Visual Detection of Brucella spp. in Spiked Bovine Semen Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay.

    PubMed

    Prusty, Bikash R; Chaudhuri, Pallab; Chaturvedi, V K; Saini, Mohini; Mishra, B P; Gupta, Praveen K

    2016-06-01

    Several pathogens including Brucella spp. are shed in semen of infected bulls and can be transmitted to cows through contaminated semen during artificial insemination. The present study reports omp2a and bcsp31 gene based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for detection of Brucella genomic DNA in semen from infected bulls. The positive results could be interpreted visually by change in colour of reaction mixture containing hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB) dye from violet to sky blue. LAMP assays based on omp2a and bcsp31 could detect as little as 10 and 100 fg of B. abortus S19 genomic DNA, respectively. Sensitivity of omp2a and bcsp31 LAMP assays for direct detection of organisms in bovine semen was 2.28 × 10(1) CFU and 2.28 × 10(2) CFU of B. abortus S19 in spiked bovine semen, respectively. The omp2a LAMP assay was found equally sensitive to TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR in identifying Brucella in spiked semen. The diagnostic applicability of the omp2a LAMP assay was evaluated with seventy-nine bovine semen samples and results were re-evaluated through TaqMan probe based real-time PCR and conventional PCR. Taken together, the omp2a LAMP assay is easy to perform, rapid and sensitive in diagnosis of Brucella spp. in bovine semen. PMID:27570305

  15. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, N.; Lone, S. A.; Prasad, J. K.; Jan, M. H.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12) from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull) with mass motility (≥3+) and total motility (70% and above) were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage. Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01) higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages. Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%). PMID:27397983

  16. Lifestyles Associated With Human Semen Quality: Results From MARHCS Cohort Study in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Huan; Chen, Qing; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Zhang, Guowei; Ling, Xi; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Kaijun; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Decline of semen quality in past decades is suggested to be potentially associated with environmental and sociopsychobehavioral factors, but data from population-based cohort studies is limited. The male reproductive health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) study was established in June 2013 as a perspective cohort study that recruited voluntary male healthy college students from 3 universities in Chongqing. The primary objectives of the MARHCS study are to investigate the associations of male reproductive health in young adults with sociopsychobehavioral factors, as well as changes of environmental exposure due to the relocation from rural campus (in University Town) to metro-campus (in central downtown). A 93-item questionnaire was used to collect sociopsychobehavioral information in manner of interviewer–interviewing, and blood, urine and semen samples were collected at the same time. The study was initiated with 796 healthy young men screened from 872 participants, with a median age of 20. About 81.8% of this population met the WHO 2010 criteria on semen quality given to the 6 routine parameters. Decreases of 12.7%, 19.8%, and 17.0%, and decreases of 7.7%, 17.6%, and 14.7% in total sperm count and sperm concentration, respectively, were found to be associated with the tertiles of accumulated smoking amount. Fried food consumption (1–2 times/wk or ≥3 times/wk vs nonconsumers) was found to be associated with decreased total sperm count (10.2% or 24.5%) and sperm concentration (13.7% or 17.2%), respectively. Coffee consumption was found to be associated with increased progressive and nonprogressive motility of 8.9% or 15.4% for subjects consuming 1–2 cups/wk or ≥3 cups/wk of coffee, respectively. Cola consumption appeared an association with decreased semen volume at 4.1% or 12.5% for 1–2 bottles/wk or ≥3 bottles/wk. A cohort to investigate the effects of environmental/sociopsychobehavioral factors act on semen quality was

  17. Lifestyles Associated With Human Semen Quality: Results From MARHCS Cohort Study in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Chen, Qing; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Zhang, Guowei; Ling, Xi; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Kaijun; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Decline of semen quality in past decades is suggested to be potentially associated with environmental and sociopsychobehavioral factors, but data from population-based cohort studies is limited. The male reproductive health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) study was established in June 2013 as a perspective cohort study that recruited voluntary male healthy college students from 3 universities in Chongqing. The primary objectives of the MARHCS study are to investigate the associations of male reproductive health in young adults with sociopsychobehavioral factors, as well as changes of environmental exposure due to the relocation from rural campus (in University Town) to metro-campus (in central downtown). A 93-item questionnaire was used to collect sociopsychobehavioral information in manner of interviewer-interviewing, and blood, urine and semen samples were collected at the same time. The study was initiated with 796 healthy young men screened from 872 participants, with a median age of 20. About 81.8% of this population met the WHO 2010 criteria on semen quality given to the 6 routine parameters. Decreases of 12.7%, 19.8%, and 17.0%, and decreases of 7.7%, 17.6%, and 14.7% in total sperm count and sperm concentration, respectively, were found to be associated with the tertiles of accumulated smoking amount. Fried food consumption (1-2  times/wk or ≥3  times/wk vs nonconsumers) was found to be associated with decreased total sperm count (10.2% or 24.5%) and sperm concentration (13.7% or 17.2%), respectively. Coffee consumption was found to be associated with increased progressive and nonprogressive motility of 8.9% or 15.4% for subjects consuming 1-2  cups/wk or ≥3  cups/wk of coffee, respectively. Cola consumption appeared an association with decreased semen volume at 4.1% or 12.5% for 1-2  bottles/wk or ≥3  bottles/wk. A cohort to investigate the effects of environmental/sociopsychobehavioral factors act on semen quality was successfully

  18. Lifestyles Associated With Human Semen Quality: Results From MARHCS Cohort Study in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Chen, Qing; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Zhang, Guowei; Ling, Xi; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Kaijun; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Decline of semen quality in past decades is suggested to be potentially associated with environmental and sociopsychobehavioral factors, but data from population-based cohort studies is limited. The male reproductive health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) study was established in June 2013 as a perspective cohort study that recruited voluntary male healthy college students from 3 universities in Chongqing. The primary objectives of the MARHCS study are to investigate the associations of male reproductive health in young adults with sociopsychobehavioral factors, as well as changes of environmental exposure due to the relocation from rural campus (in University Town) to metro-campus (in central downtown). A 93-item questionnaire was used to collect sociopsychobehavioral information in manner of interviewer-interviewing, and blood, urine and semen samples were collected at the same time. The study was initiated with 796 healthy young men screened from 872 participants, with a median age of 20. About 81.8% of this population met the WHO 2010 criteria on semen quality given to the 6 routine parameters. Decreases of 12.7%, 19.8%, and 17.0%, and decreases of 7.7%, 17.6%, and 14.7% in total sperm count and sperm concentration, respectively, were found to be associated with the tertiles of accumulated smoking amount. Fried food consumption (1-2  times/wk or ≥3  times/wk vs nonconsumers) was found to be associated with decreased total sperm count (10.2% or 24.5%) and sperm concentration (13.7% or 17.2%), respectively. Coffee consumption was found to be associated with increased progressive and nonprogressive motility of 8.9% or 15.4% for subjects consuming 1-2  cups/wk or ≥3  cups/wk of coffee, respectively. Cola consumption appeared an association with decreased semen volume at 4.1% or 12.5% for 1-2  bottles/wk or ≥3  bottles/wk. A cohort to investigate the effects of environmental/sociopsychobehavioral factors act on semen quality was successfully

  19. DNA methylation profiling for a confirmatory test for blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Jung, Sang-Eun; Lee, Eun Hee; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2016-09-01

    The ability to predict the type of tissues or cells from molecular profiles of crime scene samples has important practical implications in forensics. A previously reported multiplex assay using DNA methylation markers could only discriminate between 4 types of body fluids: blood, saliva, semen, and the body fluid which originates from female reproductive organ. In the present study, we selected 15 menstrual blood-specific CpG marker candidates based on analysis of 12 genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of vaginal fluid and menstrual blood. The menstrual blood-specificity of the candidate markers was confirmed by comparison with HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array data obtained for 58 samples including 12 blood, 12 saliva, 12 semen, 3 vaginal fluid, and 19 skin epidermis samples. Among 15CpG marker candidates, 3 were located in the promoter region of the SLC26A10 gene, and 2 of them (cg09696411 and cg18069290) showed high menstrual blood specificity. DNA methylation at the 2CpG markers was further tested by targeted bisulfite sequencing of 461 additional samples including 49 blood, 52 saliva, 34 semen, 125 vaginal fluid, and 201 menstrual blood. Because the 2 markers showed menstrual blood-specific methylation patterns, we modified our previous multiplex methylation SNaPshot reaction to include these 2 markers. In addition, a blood marker cg01543184 with cross reactivity to semen was replaced with cg08792630, and a semen-specific unmethylation marker cg17621389 was removed. The resultant multiplex methylation SNaPshot allowed positive identification of blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluid and menstrual blood using the 9CpG markers which show a methylation signal only in the target body fluids. Because of the complexity in cell composition, menstrual bloods produced DNA methylation profiles that vary with menstrual cycle and sample collection methods, which are expected to provide more insight into forensic menstrual blood test. Moreover, because the developed

  20. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: Intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nel-Themaat, L.; Gomez, M.C.; Pope, C.E.; Lopez, M.; Wirtu, G.; Jenkins, J.A.; Cole, A.; Dresser, B.L.; Bondioli, K.R.; Godke, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had ???8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had ???8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had ???8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. ?? 2008 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  1. Cloned embryos from semen. Part 2: intergeneric nuclear transfer of semen-derived eland (Taurotragus oryx) epithelial cells into bovine oocytes.

    PubMed

    Nel-Themaat, Liesl; Gómez, Martha C; Pope, C Earle; Lopez, Monica; Wirtu, Gemechu; Jenkins, Jill A; Cole, Alex; Dresser, Betsy L; Bondioli, Kenneth R; Godke, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    The production of cloned offspring by nuclear transfer (NT) of semen-derived somatic cells holds considerable potential for the incorporation of novel genes into endangered species populations. Because oocytes from endangered species are scarce, domestic species oocytes are often used as cytoplasts for interspecies NT. In the present study, epithelial cells isolated from eland semen were used for intergeneric transfer (IgNT) into enucleated bovine oocytes and compared with bovine NT embryos. Cleavage rates of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos were similar (80 vs. 83%, respectively; p > 0.05); however, development to the morula and blastocyst stage was higher for bovine NT embryos (38 and 21%, respectively; p < 0.0001), than for eland IgNT embryos (0.5 and 0%, respectively). DNA synthesis was not observed in either bovine NT or eland IgNT cybrids before activation, but in 75 and 70% of bovine NT and eland igNT embryos, respectively, cell-cycle resumption was observed at 16 h postactivation (hpa). For eland IgNT embryos, 13% had > or = 8 cells at 84 hpa, while 32% of the bovine NT embryos had > or = 8 cells at the same interval. However, 100 and 66% of bovine NT and eland IgNT embryos, respectively, that had > or = 8 cells synthesized DNA. From these results we concluded that (1) semen-derived epithelial cell nuclei can interact and be transcriptionally controlled by bovine cytoplast, (2) the first cell-cycle occurred in IgNT embryos, (3) a high frequency of developmental arrest occurs before the eight-cell stage in IgNT embryos, and (4) IgNT embryos that progress through the early cleavage stage arrest can (a) synthesize DNA, (b) progress through subsequent cell cycles, and (c) may have the potential to develop further. PMID:18241126

  2. A comparative study on the cryogenic preservation of semen from the sandhill crane and the domestic fowl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sexton, T.J.; Gee, G.F.; Watson, P.F.

    1978-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: Recent findings on the cryogenic preservation of semen from the crane, Grus canadensis pratensis and the domestic fowl, Gallus domesticus, are compared. Highest levels of post-thaw motility for crane semen (55%) were obtained when semen was diluted 1:1 with the Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE) and held for 30 min at 5 C before it was equilibrated with 4% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for 15 min. In contrast, post-thaw motility for fowl spermatozoa was highest (80%) when semen was diluted 1:3 with BPSE and held for 60 min at 5 C before it was equilibrated with 4% DMSO for 60 min. Post-thaw motility of spermatozoa of both species was highest when the following freezing rates were used: l C per min from +5 to -20 C, 50 C per min from -20 to -80 C, then plunging into liquid nitrogen which resulted in a rate of 160 C per min from -80 to -196 C. One of four crane eggs resulting from insemination with frozen-thawed semen was fertile, whereas 27 of 55 fowl eggs were fertile, but this difference may have been due largely to fewer spermatozoa being inseminated into the female crane than into the fowl.

  3. Association of Smoking With Semen Quality and µ-Calpain Level in Normospermia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Noorbehbahani, Mozhgan; Alipour, Meysam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Calpains are a family of Ca2+ dependent proteases. There is some evidence that calpains involved in fusion process that occurs between spermatozoa and the oocyte. The current study aimed to investigate the association of smoking with semen quality and µ-calpain level. Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted on 117 normospermia males between June 2013 and march 2014 in Jahad Laboratory in ahvaz, Iran. The semen samples were collected from male smokers (n = 50) and non-smokers (n = 67). We divided these participants as light, moderate, or heavy smokers based on their cigarettes per day (CPD). ELISA assays were used to measure µ-calpain concentration. All semen samples were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Results: The analysis of semen showed the volume, concentration, motility and morphology of semen were significantly lower among the smoker men than the non-smoker men. Also this significant difference was observed based on the number (light, moderate and heavy smokers) and duration (short term and long term smoker) of smoking. Although, showed no significant difference between µ-calpain of smoker men and non-smoker men. CPD showed negatively correlation with semen volume, concentration, motility and morphology of sperm. Conclusion: Sperm quality was negatively correlated with CPD and duration of smoking. However, there is no significant correlation between smoking and µ-calpain concentration. PMID:27385969

  4. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25050339

  5. Improved fertility in gilts and sows after artificial insemination of frozen-thawed boar semen by supplementation of semen extender with caffeine and CaCl2.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shoichiro; Funahashi, Hiroaki; Murakami, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation of semen extender with caffeine and CaCl(2) for artificial insemination (AI) of fresh spermatozoa has been demonstrated to reduce recruitment of uterine polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the activity of phagocytosis. Here, we determined if addition of caffeine and CaCl(2) to semen extender improves the fertility of frozen-thawed boar semen. In experiment 1, gilts were cervically inseminated twice with frozen-thawed boar spermatozoa (25 x 10(8) cells per dose) suspended in Modena solution (n=7) or modified Beltsville Thawing Solution supplemented with caffeine and CaCl(2) (BCC, n=7). The gilts were slaughtered 4 h later, and their oviducts and uterine horns plus the body of the uterus were flushed to recover PMNs and non-phagocytosed spermatozoa. There was no difference in the total number of uterine PMNs between gilts inseminated with Modena solution and those inseminated with BCC (3.8 x 10(8) vs. 1.5 x 10(8) cells, respectively); however, the total number of uterine spermatozoa was higher when gilts were inseminated with BCC (40.6 x 10(6) cells) compared with those inseminated with Modena solution (1.4 x 10(6) cells, P<0.05). In experiment 2, gilts and sows were subjected to intrauterine insemination twice with frozen-thawed spermatozoa suspended (25 x 10(8) sperm per dose) in Modena (n=21) or BCC (n=21). The overall pregnancy and farrowing rates were higher in females inseminated with BCC (71.4 and 61.9%, respectively) compared with those inseminated with Modena solution (38.1 and 28.6%, respectively, P<0.05). However, no significant difference in litter size of piglets was observed between treatments (7.2 +/- 1.6 piglets for Modena solution vs. 8.2 +/- 0.9 piglets for BCC solution). In conclusion, we demonstrated that use of BCC solution for frozen-thawed boar semen produced better pregnancy and farrowing rates following AI than Modena solution, probably by reducing the phagocytosis of spermatozoa.

  6. Prognostic value of a pre-freeze hypo-osmotic swelling test on the post-thaw quality of dog semen.

    PubMed

    Karger, S; Geiser, B; Grau, M; Burfeind, O; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S P

    2016-03-01

    Throughout cryopreservation, sperm are exposed to major osmotic challenges. Only intact membranes of sperm cells are able to regulate these volumetric changes, which can be determined by the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOS test). Correlations between the HOS test and conventional semen variables are inconsistent. Therefore, the objectives of this study were (1) to examine relationships between HOS test results and standard semen variables before freezing and after thawing and (2) to evaluate the prognostic value of the HOS assessments on post-thaw quality of dog semen. Semen of 35 dogs was collected and analyzed before freezing and after thawing following a 7-day freeze-thaw interval. Conventional semen variables such as sperm cell motility, membrane integrity morphology were evaluated and the HOS test was conducted with results from this test being recorded. In fresh semen the HOS test was positively correlated with progressive motility of sperm cells: r=0.52, sperm cell membrane integrity: r=0.50 and normal sperm cell morphology: r=0.46 (P<0.05). In frozen-thawed semen, the data obtained with the HOS test were positively correlated with progressive sperm cell motility: r=0.67 and membrane integrity: r=0.86 (P<0.05). The data obtained with the HOS test in fresh semen were positively correlated with sperm cell membrane integrity: r=0.50 normal sperm cell morphology: r=0.55 and data from the HOS test (r=0.43; P<0.05) with frozen-thawed semen. For the prediction of individual cryopreservation capacity, results from assessment of the fresh semen variables of good and poor semen quality were statistically compared. Based on these results, it is not possible to predict the quality of frozen-thawed dog semen using the HOS test. PMID:26837622

  7. Longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus RNA in semen of a traveller returning from Barbados to the Netherlands with Zika virus disease, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Reusken, Chantal; Pas, Suzan; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine; Mögling, Ramona; van Kampen, Jeroen; Langerak, Thomas; Koopmans, Marion; van der Eijk, Annemiek; van Gorp, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We report the longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in semen of a traveller who developed ZIKV disease after return to the Netherlands from Barbados, March 2016. Persistence of ZIKV RNA in blood, urine, saliva and semen was followed until the loads reached undetectable levels. RNA levels were higher in semen than in other sample types and declined to undetectable level at day 62 post onset of symptoms. PMID:27313200

  8. Longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus RNA in semen of a traveller returning from Barbados to the Netherlands with Zika virus disease, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Reusken, Chantal; Pas, Suzan; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine; Mögling, Ramona; van Kampen, Jeroen; Langerak, Thomas; Koopmans, Marion; van der Eijk, Annemiek; van Gorp, Eric

    2016-06-01

    We report the longitudinal follow-up of Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA in semen of a traveller who developed ZIKV disease after return to the Netherlands from Barbados, March 2016. Persistence of ZIKV RNA in blood, urine, saliva and semen was followed until the loads reached undetectable levels. RNA levels were higher in semen than in other sample types and declined to undetectable level at day 62 post onset of symptoms.

  9. Seasonal variation in serum testosterone, testicular measurements and semen characteristics in the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu).

    PubMed

    Hellgren, E C; Lochmiller, R L; Amoss, M S; Seager, S W; Magyar, S J; Coscarelli, K P; Grant, W E

    1989-03-01

    Blood samples and testicular measurements were obtained from 4-8 captive adult collared peccaries monthly for 18 months and from wild adult males during summer (N = 16) and winter (N = 22) seasons. Serum concentrations of testosterone were determined by radioimmunoassay. Semen samples were collected monthly by electroejaculation from captive males for 1 year. Serum testosterone concentrations and testicular measurements varied in a low-amplitude circannual pattern, with maximum mean testosterone concentrations in fall and winter (1150-1400 pg/ml) and minimum values in summer (500-700 pg/ml). Circannual rhythms appeared to be related to dominance. Serum testosterone levels in wild males generally were lower than in captive males, although this difference was not significant (P greater than 0.05). Semen characteristics did not exhibit a circannual rhythm. These results suggest that the male peccary remains reproductively fertile throughout the year, yet may undergo a facultative summer quiescence influenced by ambient temperature and social factors.

  10. Sperm Morphological Features Associated with Chronic Chagas Disease in the Semen of Experimentally Infected Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia; Pedro-Martínez, Elvia; Hernández-Pichardo, José Ernesto; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Aranda-Fraustro, Alberto; Graullera-Rivera, Verónica; Arce-Fonseca, Minerva

    2014-01-01

    The presence of trypanosomatids in the reproductive systems of different mammals (causing genital lesions in the acute stage of the disease) may predispose the animals to low semen quality. However, there are no studies examining the alterations in the sperm morphological features in the chronic stage of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Knowledge of these aspects is important to understand the other ways of transmission of the Chagas disease. Progressive motility, mass motility, concentration, and sperm morphology of 84 ejaculates of dogs that were chronically infected with T. cruzi were evaluated. Most of the findings were consistent with the reference values and with those obtained from healthy control dogs. The scrotal circumference was not correlated with spermatozoa concentration in the infected animals. In conclusion, the T. cruzi Ninoa (MHOM/MX/1994/Ninoa) strain does not cause significant alterations in the semen quality of dogs experiencing chronic Chagas disease (at concentrations of 5 × 104 to 1 × 106 parasites per animal). PMID:25114010

  11. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Fructus Gardeniae extracts synergistically improve learning and memory of a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Li, Baoli; Fu, Zhaoying; Hu, Rui; Chen, Yahui; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2013-03-01

    Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and Fructus Gardeniae (FG) are two herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have suggested that Fructus Gardeniae as well as Semen Ziziphi Spinosae are able to regulate the function of the central nervous system. However, their effect on learning and memory has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of SZS and FG on the learning and memory of mice using the methods of step-through and -down passive avoidance tasks and Morris water maze tasks. The results showed that SZS and FG extracts have certain effects on improving the performance of the learning and memory-impaired mouse model. Of note, compound extracts of SZS and FG have a synergistic effect on the learning and memory of mice. PMID:24648929

  12. Data for chicken semen proteome and label free quantitative analyses displaying sperm quality biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Labas, Valérie; Grasseau, Isabelle; Cahier, Karine; Gargaros, Audrey; Harichaux, Grégoire; Teixeira-Gomes, Ana-Paula; Alves, Sabine; Bourin, Marie; Gérard, Nadine; Blesbois, Elisabeth

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of biology of the avian male gamete is essential to improve the conservation of genetic resources and performances in farming. In this study, the semen proteome of the main domestic avian species (Gallus gallus) and evaluation of the molecular phenotype related to sperm quality were investigated using GeLC-MS/MS approach and label-free quantitative proteomic based on Spectral Counting (SC) and extracted ion chromatograms (XIC) methods. Here we describe in details the peptide/protein inventory of chicken ejaculated spermatozoa (SPZ) and seminal plasma (SP). We also show differential analyses of chicken semen (SPZ and corresponding SP) from 11 males demonstrating different levels of fertilizing capacity and sperm motility. The interpretation and description of these data can be found in a research article published by Labas and colleagues in the Journal of Proteomics in 2014 [1]. This is a new resource for exploring the molecular mechanisms involved in fertilizing capacity and to reveal new sets of fertility biomarkers.

  13. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae and Fructus Gardeniae extracts synergistically improve learning and memory of a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    LI, BAOLI; FU, ZHAOYING; HU, RUI; CHEN, YAHUI; ZHANG, ZHENGXIANG

    2013-01-01

    Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS) and Fructus Gardeniae (FG) are two herbs commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. Previous studies have suggested that Fructus Gardeniae as well as Semen Ziziphi Spinosae are able to regulate the function of the central nervous system. However, their effect on learning and memory has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we examined the effect of SZS and FG on the learning and memory of mice using the methods of step-through and -down passive avoidance tasks and Morris water maze tasks. The results showed that SZS and FG extracts have certain effects on improving the performance of the learning and memory-impaired mouse model. Of note, compound extracts of SZS and FG have a synergistic effect on the learning and memory of mice. PMID:24648929

  14. Analysis of fatty oil in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae by capillary gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yu-Juan, Li; Kai-Shun, Bi; Xin-Miao, Liang; Hong-Bin, Xiao

    2003-01-01

    A simple and fast capillary gas chromatographic (CGC) method with flame ionization detection is developed for the analysis of fatty oil in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. After methyl-esterification, eight components are identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The derivatization condition is investigated in order to validate this method. Palmitic acid and stearic acid are quantitated simultaneously. The limits of detection are 5.024 microg/mL for palmitic acid and 6.957 microg/mL for stearic acid, respectively. The limits of quantitation are 16.76 microg/mL for palmitic acid and 23.19 microg/mL for stearic acid, respectively. The percent recoveries of palmitic and stearic acid are 97.4% and 96.6%. CGC is shown to be a quick and informative tool for the analysis of fatty oil in Semen Ziziphi Spinosae. PMID:12597596

  15. Effects of whole-body, ionizing radiation on the semen in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Day, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Six beagle dogs were exposed to a total dose of 183 R of gamma radiation at a dose rate of 1 R/day, while three other dogs were exposed to a single dose of 100 R. Weekly semen analysis was performed on all irradiated dogs plus four nonirradiated dogs. Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility and sperm head morphometry were examined. Dogs exposed to chronic radiation showed a severe decline in sperm numbers, detected after seven weeks of exposure. Sperm concentration and total sperm count were the first parameters affected and were the only parameters consistently affected. The dogs exposed to 100 R as a single dose, did not show a significant decline in sperm numbers. During a 36 week recovery period, the chronically irradiated dogs did show a slight increase in sperm numbers, but they never approached pre-exposure levels.

  16. Semen production and fertility issues related to differences in genetic lines of boars.

    PubMed

    Sonderman, J P; Luebbe, J J

    2008-11-01

    Boars have been reported to differ in various characteristics important to productivity of AI units. These aspects include sensitivity to seasonal infertility, ejaculate volume x age interactions, optimum collection frequency, discard (trash) rate of ejaculates, age of puberty, libido and trainability, and semen shelf life. In addition to differences among individual boars, there were also identifiable differences among breeds, between purebreds and crossbreds, and between lines. The percentage of ejaculates discarded varied among seasons and among breeds within season, with maternal purebred lines being the most sensitive to warmer temperatures. These same lines were also slower to mature and produced fewer sperm per ejaculate. Breeds differed in the sustainability of motility in stored extended semen, and in farrowing rates. Boar centers need to factor breed differences into their decision-making processes to ensure adequate boar power and customer satisfaction. PMID:18783820

  17. The potential transmission of infectious agents by semen packaging during storage for artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Russell, P H; Lyaruu, V H; Millar, J D; Curry, M R; Watson, P F

    1997-07-01

    Plastic straws, of a type widely used for semen cryopreservation, sealed using three different methods, (PVA powder, plastic spheres and plasticine modelling clay) were tested for leakage of low molecular weight dye (methylene blue), bacteria (Escherichia coli) and virus (Newcastle disease virus). Leakage was found to be dependent on the method used to fill the straws. Straws filled using a traditional 'dip and wipe' method and sealed with PVA powder demonstrated a significant degree of methylene blue leakage (0.0269% of the total straw contents) probably associated with contamination of the powder sealing plug. Straws filled using an aseptic filling technique showed no detectable leakage of any agent with any of the sealing methods. This study highlights the need to establish good-practice guidelines for the packaging of semen collected for freezing and future AI from non-domestic livestock where disease-free status cannot be guaranteed and unsophisticated technology is used. PMID:9360772

  18. Cytomegalovirus DNA in Semen and Blood Is Associated With Higher Levels of Proviral HIV DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gianella, Sara; Anderson, Christy M.; Vargas, Milenka V.; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Morris, Sheldon R.; Smith, Davey M.

    2013-01-01

    Over three-fourths of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have at least one herpesvirus detected in their semen, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most prevalent. The presence of CMV is associated with higher T-cell immune activation and with HIV disease progression in treated and untreated individuals. In this study of 113 antiretroviral (ART)–naive HIV-infected MSM, we found that CMV replication in blood and semen was associated with higher levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These observations suggest that interventions aimed to reduce CMV replication and, thus, systemic immune activation could decrease the size of the latent HIV reservoir. PMID:23275608

  19. Semen characteristics and selected biochemical markers of canine seminal plasma in various seasons of the year.

    PubMed

    Strzeżek, R; Szemplińska, K; Filipowicz, K; Kordan, W

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of season on selected qualitative semen characteristics and biochemical markers of canine seminal plasma. Whole ejaculates were collected from 5 crossbred dogs aged 2-8 years. The study covered a period of one year divided into four seasons: spring (March, April, May), summer (June, July, August), autumn (September, October, November) and winter (December, January, February). Semen samples were subjected to macroscopic and microscopic analyses to determine semen volume, total sperm counts and sperm morphology parameters. The study also involved the determination of sperm motility parameters (CASA system), sperm plasma membrane integrity (SPMI, fluorescent staining SYBR-14/PI), sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, fluorescent staining JC-1/PI) and the ATP content of sperm cells. Total protein content (TPC) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) were determined in biochemical analyses of seminal plasma. No significant differences in ejaculate volume, SMPI or ATP content of sperm cells were observed between seasons. The highest total sperm counts were reported in ejaculates acquired in summer and autumn. The lowest MMP values were determined in summer ejaculates. No significant differences in sperm motility (MOT) were observed throughout the experiment, but ejaculates collected in autumn and winter were characterized by the highest progressive motility (PMOT). AP activity and TPC were not significantly affected by season. However, AcP activity levels were significantly lower in autumn than in the remaining seasons. Seasonal variations in the analyzed macroscopic and microscopic parameters of ejaculates and biochemical markers of seminal plasma did not exert a clear negative effect on the quality of canine semen.

  20. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  1. Differences in preservation of canine chilled semen using different transport containers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, G; Simões, A; Ferreira, P; Martins-Bessa, A; Rocha, A

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, the effect of three different containers in the preservation of dog chilled semen, during 24, 48 and 72h was evaluated. Weekly sperm pools of different dogs were obtained, during 10 consecutive weeks. Semen samples were diluted in egg-yolk-Tris-fructose extender and stored in a Styrofoam box, a common Thermos flask and an Equitainer. Progressive motility, morphology and sperm membrane integrity were examined in semen aliquots taken daily from each container during the 3 days of storage. Additionally, integrity of the acrosome and sperm plasma membranes, determined by PI/Fitc-PSA staining was assessed at 48 and 72h of storage. At 24h no differences were observed between the three containers for the evaluated parameters. At 48h samples kept in the Equitainer presented a higher progressive motility than samples kept in the Thermos. At 72h, progressive motility was higher in the Equitainer than in the other two containers. Only samples kept in the Equitainer maintained similar levels of progressive motility between 24 and 72h. Membrane integrity assessed by eosin-nigrosin deteriorated over the 72h period, whereas functional membrane integrity determined by the hypoosmotic swelling test was independently affected by type of container (the Equitainer) kept a higher percentage of sperm cells with intact membrane) and time of storage (a decrease of membrane integrity between 24 to 72h). Staining with PI-Fitc-PSA allowed the detection of differences between containers but not between the two studied storage periods (48 and 72h). The results indicated that the use of the Equitainer is preferable when transporting chilled dog semen for more than 48h.

  2. The effect of Rift Valley fever virus Clone 13 vaccine on semen quality in rams.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoff; Venter, Estelle H; Morley, Paul; Annandale, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of importance in livestock and humans. Epidemics occur periodically in domestic ruminants. People in contact with infected livestock may develop disease that varies from mild flu-like symptoms to fatal viraemia. Livestock vaccination may assist in disease control. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Clone 13 is a relatively new vaccine against RVF, derived from an avirulent natural mutant strain of RVFV, and has been shown to confer protective immunity against experimental infection with RVFV. The hypothesis tested in the current trial was that rams vaccinated with RVFV Clone 13 vaccine would not experience a reduction in semen quality (measured by evaluating the percentage progressively motile and percentage morphologically normal spermatozoa in successive ejaculates) relative to unvaccinated control animals. Ram lambs were screened for antibodies to RVFV using a serum neutralisation test. Animals without detectable antibodies (n = 23) were randomly allocated to either a test group (n = 12) or a control group (n = 11). Animals in the test group were vaccinated with RVFV Clone 13 vaccine. Daily rectal temperature measurements and weekly semen and blood samples were taken from all animals. Seven animals were eliminated from the statistical analysis because of potential confounding factors. Logistic regression analysis was performed on data gathered from the remaining animals to determine whether an association existed between animal group, rectal temperature and semen quality parameters. No correlation existed between the treatment group and values obtained for the semen quality parameters measured. There was no statistically significant post-vaccination decline in the percentage of live morphologically normal spermatozoa, or the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, either when assessed amongst all animals or when assessed within individual groups. A repeat study with a larger sample size and a more

  3. Semen quality detection using time of flight and acoustic wave sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M. I.; Evans, C. R.; Simons, J. J.; Hughes, D. C.

    2007-04-09

    The authors report a real-time technique for assessing the number of motile sperm in a semen sample. The time of flight technique uses a flow channel with detection at the end of the channel using quartz crystal microbalances. Data presented suggest that a simple rigid mass model may be used in interpreting the change in resonant frequency using an effective mass for the sperm.

  4. The effect of Rift Valley fever virus Clone 13 vaccine on semen quality in rams.

    PubMed

    Brown, Geoff; Venter, Estelle H; Morley, Paul; Annandale, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne viral disease of importance in livestock and humans. Epidemics occur periodically in domestic ruminants. People in contact with infected livestock may develop disease that varies from mild flu-like symptoms to fatal viraemia. Livestock vaccination may assist in disease control. Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) Clone 13 is a relatively new vaccine against RVF, derived from an avirulent natural mutant strain of RVFV, and has been shown to confer protective immunity against experimental infection with RVFV. The hypothesis tested in the current trial was that rams vaccinated with RVFV Clone 13 vaccine would not experience a reduction in semen quality (measured by evaluating the percentage progressively motile and percentage morphologically normal spermatozoa in successive ejaculates) relative to unvaccinated control animals. Ram lambs were screened for antibodies to RVFV using a serum neutralisation test. Animals without detectable antibodies (n = 23) were randomly allocated to either a test group (n = 12) or a control group (n = 11). Animals in the test group were vaccinated with RVFV Clone 13 vaccine. Daily rectal temperature measurements and weekly semen and blood samples were taken from all animals. Seven animals were eliminated from the statistical analysis because of potential confounding factors. Logistic regression analysis was performed on data gathered from the remaining animals to determine whether an association existed between animal group, rectal temperature and semen quality parameters. No correlation existed between the treatment group and values obtained for the semen quality parameters measured. There was no statistically significant post-vaccination decline in the percentage of live morphologically normal spermatozoa, or the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa, either when assessed amongst all animals or when assessed within individual groups. A repeat study with a larger sample size and a more

  5. Use of manual stimulation for collection of semen from an atactic stallion unable to mount.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, S M; Pozor, M A; Beech, J; Sweeney, R W

    1991-09-15

    A 9-year-old atactic breeding stallion was trained to ejaculate, with only manual stimulation, while standing on the ground. Ejaculates obtained yielded fertile semen with morphologic and motility characteristics within the range for normal stallions. This method extended the breeding life of a stallion unable to mount a live or dummy mare or to ejaculate into an artificial vagina while standing on the ground. PMID:1955367

  6. Conventional and fluorescent based semen quality assessment in Karan Fries bulls

    PubMed Central

    Panmei, A.; Gupta, A. K.; Shivahre, P. R.; Bhakat, M.; Upadhyay, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was carried out on semen ejaculates of 15 Karan Fries (KF) bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India with an objective to evaluate the relationship between the conventional and fluorescent based semen quality analysis of the bulls. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 ejaculates were collected from 15 KF (Holstein Friesian [HF] crossbred) bulls. Semen were evaluated for color, volume, mass activity (MA) and percentage of individual motility (IM), sperm concentration, percent live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test and acrosome integrity, chromatin integrity, sperm viability, and membrane integrity. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package for descriptive analysis. The correlation between rankings of sires based on conventional and fluorescent semen parameters were calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Results: The average ejaculates volume (ml), sperm concentration (106/ml), MA, IM (%), live (%), morphological abnormalities (%), host (%), acrosome integrity (%), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) (%), SYBR-PI (%), and fluorescent isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) (%) were 4.57±0.36, 1162.98±97.93, 2.95±0.09, 60.8±1.22, 71.41±2.10, 9.31±1.15, 65.5±1.81, 86.6±1.59, 3.53±0.43, 65.39±2.23 and 74.47±2.53, respectively. Rank correlations were found to be significant for SYBR-PI and FITC-PNA with most of the parameters evaluated by conventional methods. Overall, among conventional criteria, IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria. Conclusion: Overview of our results indicated that, among conventional criteria, MA and IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria. PMID:27047025

  7. Changes in sperm quality and lipid composition during cryopreservation of boar semen.

    PubMed

    Maldjian, A; Pizzi, F; Gliozzi, T; Cerolini, S; Penny, P; Noble, R

    2005-01-15

    Egg yolks are commonly used in diluents in order to improve the freezability of semen. Two aspects of the role of lipids in boar semen freezability are reported in this article. The first one concerns the eventual exchanges of lipid components between the spermatozoa and the yolk-based diluent during cryopreservation. Two types of yolk have been considered as ingredients in diluents for cryopreservation: yolks with a standard fatty acid composition and yolks enriched in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The relation between lipid exchanges and the quality of fresh semen is considered. The other aspect concerns the possibility to enhance the freezability of boar spermatozoa by altering the plasma membranes under the influence of dietary fatty acids. Spermatozoa were damaged significantly by the cryopreservation cycle in all experiments. Spermatozoa with the best fresh quality had accumulated the largest quantity of lipids upon thawing. A general decrease in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed after thawing. The yolks enriched in n-3 fatty acids failed to improve the quality of sperm following cryopreservation. The proportion of DHA was significantly higher in spermatozoan phospholipids from thawed cells that had been in contact with n-3 yolks. A significant reduction in cholesterol was observed in spermatozoa after the cryopreservation cycle, which correlated with an increased number of acrosome-reacted cells and changes in the parameters of motility. The addition of 3% fish oil to the daily boar ration significantly increased the content of DHA (from 33 to 45% of the total fatty acids) in the spermatozoa. Ejaculate concentrations were significantly increased in the experimental group. DHA-enriched semen did not show improved freezability, at least not as assessed by in vitro parameters. PMID:15626408

  8. Cigarette smoking is associated with human semen quality in synergy with functional NRF2 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bolan; Chen, Jingyi; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Hua; Xiao, Weiwei; Xia, Xuefeng; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2013-07-01

    Although cigarette smoking is considered a major risk factor for several human diseases, the effects of smoking on male fertility are controversial. Studies on the consequences of smoking, which also take into account genetic background, may facilitate understanding of the interactions between genes and smoking and their effects on male fertility. In this study, genetic variants of two functional polymorphisms of erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), mRNA expression levels of the antioxidant gene NRF2, catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase isoenzyme-2 (SOD2), glutathione S-transferase-M1 (GSTM1), and seminal SOD activities were compared in 314 heavy smokers and 314 matched nonsmokers. The NRF2 rs6721961 TT genotype was found to be associated with low semen quality in heavy smokers (OR [95% CI] = 2.370 [1.106-5.081]). This variant genotype was found more frequently in heavy smokers with low semen quality than in those with high semen quality (P = 0.011). Heavy smokers with this genotype had significantly lower sperm concentrations and sperm counts (P < 0.05) when compared with those without this genotype. Smoking was also significantly associated with decreased seminal SOD activity (P < 0.05) and reduced NRF2 and SOD2 mRNA expression in heavy smokers with this variant genotype. These results were specific to heavy smokers with the NRF2 rs6721961 TT genotypes, but did not apply to nonsmokers or heavy smokers that did not carry this genotype. This study suggests an association between cigarette smoking in heavy smokers with NRF2 rs6721961 TT genotype and a decrease in semen quality.

  9. Identification of male-factor semen samples prior to insemination and in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Chan, P J; Tredway, D R; Su, B C; Corselli, J; Davidson, B; Ren, S

    1991-02-01

    Semen analyses carried out as part of the clinical in vitro fertilization or intrauterine insemination protocols provide important information that determine the type of clinical treatment of the male partner and the sperm processing method. It is postulated that the sperm of male-factor patients cannot survive hypoosmotic stress conditions because of defective sperm membrane function. To test this, 0.1 ml of semen from each of 102 patients was placed in 1.0 ml of 150 mosmol/liter eosin citrate fructose solution and incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C. The percentage viability of the sperm cells was then determined. The results indicated that patients with two or more abnormal semen parameters had a significantly lower percentage viability while in the hypoosmotic solution (40.6 +/- 4.7%), in contrast to non-male-factor patients (69.0 +/- 1.6%). Donor sperm (N = 32) serving as controls (73.3 +/- 2.1%) had a viability in hypoosmotic solution similar to that of non-male-factor patients. The data suggest that sperm of male-factor patients are less able to survive the hypoosmotic stress conditions as shown by the percentage viability in hypoosmotic solution and emphasize the importance of using less stressful sperm processing methods for in vitro fertilization or insemination in these patients.

  10. Comparative analyses of semen and endocrine characteristics of free-living versus captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Morato, R G; Conforti, V A; Azevedo, F C; Jacomo, A T; Silveira, L; Sana, D; Nunes, A L; Guimarães, M A; Barnabe, R C

    2001-11-01

    Semen and blood samples were obtained from free-living (n = 6) and captive (n = 8) jaguars (Panthera onca) to compare reproductive characteristics between the two populations. Semen samples were analysed for volume (ml), percentage of motile spermatozoa, rate of forward progression (0-5), concentration (10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm count (10(6)) and sperm morphology. Serum testosterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Although ejaculate volume was greater in captive jaguars (n = 47 samples) than in free-living jaguars (n = 7 samples) (P < 0.05), the free-living jaguars produced more total spermatozoa (59.3 +/- 12.8 versus 152.0 +/- 88.0 x 10(6), respectively; not significant) with better viability and forward progression (2.8 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2, respectively; P < 0.05) and more spermatozoa with normal morphology (73.5 +/- 3.9 versus 5.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar for captive and free-living male jaguars (3.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.8 ng ml(-1), respectively). In summary, the data showed that semen may be collected successfully from free-living jaguars and evaluated under field conditions to establish normative reproductive values in this species. The results also indicate that jaguars maintained in zoos show inferior seminal characteristics compared with free-living animals.

  11. Effect of Camellia sinensis supplementation and increasing holding time on quality of cryopreserved boar semen.

    PubMed

    Gale, I; Gil, L; Malo, C; González, N; Martínez, F

    2015-06-01

    Cryopreservation of boar semen is still considered suboptimal due to the low fertility when compared with fresh semen. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) supplementation of the freezing extender at different concentration (0, 2.5%, 5%, 10%) and also to determine the influence of increasing holding time from 2 to 24 h at 15 °C. Seventeen ejaculates from nine boars were used to make pools of three of them and then cryopreserved. Sperm motility, viability, acrosome integrity, membrane functionality (HOST) and capacitation status were determined before freezing and at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min after thawing. Lipid peroxidation was evaluated just after thawing. The main findings emerging from this study were the following: (i) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with addition of tea to the freezing extender, (ii) no improvement in quality of thawed spermatozoa with prolonged holding time, (iii) lower peroxidation rate in presence of tea 5% and (iv) a decrease in the number of uncapacited viable spermatozoa with any tea supplementation. We conclude that amplification of holding time in semen cryopreservation process does not vary results, facilitating freezing protocol. Tea supplementation reduces lipoxidation but did not improve quality parameters.

  12. Effect of daily food supplementation with essential fatty acids on canine semen quality.

    PubMed

    da Rocha, A A; da Cunha, I C N; Ederli, B B; Albernaz, A P; Quirino, C R

    2009-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important membrane components that influence membrane integrity and fluidity. In the present study, the effect of oral supplementation for 60 days with essential fatty acids (omega 3, 6 and 9) and vitamin E on canine semen quality was evaluated. Sixteen dogs were selected for the experiment; eight were used as the control group and eight received the fatty acid supplemented diet for 60 days. Semen samples were taken every 15 days during the entire experimental period and were analyzed for volume (ml), motility (%), vigour (0-5), concentration (x10(6)/ml), morphology of spermatozoa (%), plasma membrane integrity (%; using the hyposmotic swelling test) and thermoresistance (motility and vigour after 4 h at 38 degrees C). We concluded that, daily supplementation with omega 3, omega 6 and omega 9 fatty acids, together with vitamin E, for a period of 60 days, significantly increased the semen volume of the treated group after 15 days of supplementation; the vigour and concentration of spermatozoa were superior after the first month of supplementation, while the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa decreased and the cells were protected against thermal stress.

  13. Increasing storage time of extended boar semen reduces sperm DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Boe-Hansen, Gry B; Ersbøll, Annette K; Greve, Torben; Christensen, Preben

    2005-04-15

    There is an extensive use of artificial insemination (AI) in the pig industry. Extended liquid boar semen may be used for insemination for up to 5 days after collection. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in sperm quality, when boar semen was extended and stored at 18 degrees C for up to 72 h post-collection. The study included three ejaculates from five boars, for each of the four breeds: Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace and Danish Large White (n=60 ejaculates). The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) showed an increase in DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 72 h of incubation (P<0.001), with no differences between breeds (P=0.07). For two Hampshire boars, all ejaculates had a large increase in DFI after 24 h of incubation. The standard deviation of DFI (SD-DFI) differed between breeds, with the SD-DFI for Hampshire being significantly greater than for the other breeds. The SD-DFI did not change during the 72 h of storage. Sperm viability was determined using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide in combination with flow cytometry. The sperm viability did not differ between breeds (P=0.21), but a difference in viability during storage (P<0.001) was detected. In conclusion, the SCSA cytogram patterns were consistent for different ejaculates within boars and storage of extended boar semen at 18 degrees C for 72 h significantly decreased the integrity of sperm DNA. PMID:15823356

  14. Dimethylformamide as a cryoprotectant for canine semen diluted and frozen in ACP-106C.

    PubMed

    Mota Filho, A C; Teles, C H A; Jucá, R P; Cardoso, J F S; Uchoa, D C; Campello, C C; Silva, A R; Silva, L D M

    2011-10-15

    The objective was to assess the effect of adding various concentrations of dimethylformamide on characteristics of canine semen diluted in powdered coconut water (ACP-106C; ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil) and frozen at -196°C. Fifteen ejaculates were collected by manual stimulation from five adult Boxer dogs. The sperm-rich fraction was diluted in ACP-106C (ACP Biotecnologia) containing 10% egg yolk and divided into four aliquots. The cryoprotectants used for each aliquot were 6% glycerol (control group; CG) or 2%, 4%, or 6% dimethylformamide (DF2, DF4, and DF6, respectively). After thawing, total motility (mean ± SEM) for CG (58.4 ± 24.6) was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the other groups (2% dimethylformamide, 24.4 ± 12.3; 4% dimethylformamide, 26.5 ± 16.1; and 6% dimethylformamide, 21.7 ± 17.9). Furthermore, there was a greater percentage of fast, average, and slow moving sperm (assessed with computer-aided semen analysis; CASA) in CG in comparison with the other three groups. Therefore, based on concentrations tested in this study, dimethylformamide, together with ACP-106C (ACP Biotecnologia) and 10% egg yolk as a diluent, yielded unsatisfactory in vitro results for freezing canine semen.

  15. Sperm Cell Population Dynamics in Ram Semen during the Cryopreservation Process

    PubMed Central

    Ramón, Manuel; Pérez-Guzmán, M. Dolores; Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; Esteso, Milagros C.; García-Álvarez, Olga; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Anel-López, Luis; Soler, Ana J.; Fernández-Santos, M. Rocío; Garde, J. Julián

    2013-01-01

    Background Sperm cryopreservation has become an indispensable tool in biology. Initially, studies were aimed towards the development of efficient freezing protocols in different species that would allow for an efficient storage of semen samples for long periods of time, ensuring its viability. Nowadays, it is widely known that an important individual component exists in the cryoresistance of semen, and efforts are aimed at identifying those sperm characteristics that may allow us to predict this cryoresistance. This knowledge would lead, ultimately, to the design of optimized freezing protocols for the sperm characteristics of each male. Methodology/Principal Findings We have evaluated the changes that occur in the sperm head dimensions throughout the cryopreservation process. We have found three different patterns of response, each of one related to a different sperm quality at thawing. We have been able to characterize males based on these patterns. For each male, its pattern remained constant among different ejaculates. This latter would imply that males always respond in the same way to freezing, giving even more importance to this sperm feature. Conclusions/Significance Changes in the sperm head during cryopreservation process have resulted useful to identify the ability of semen of males for freezing. We suggest that analyses of these response patterns would represent an important tool to characterize the cryoresistance of males when implemented within breeding programs. We also propose follow-up experiments to examine the outcomes of the use of different freezing protocols depending on the pattern of response of males. PMID:23544054

  16. The male reproductive system in classic galactosemia: cryptorchidism and low semen volume.

    PubMed

    Gubbels, Cynthia S; Welt, Corrine K; Dumoulin, John C M; Robben, Simon G F; Gordon, Catherine M; Dunselman, Gerard A J; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela; Berry, Gerard T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies examining reproductive parameters in men with galactosemia have inconsistently demonstrated abnormalities. We hypothesized that men with galactosemia may demonstrate evidence of reproductive dysfunction. Pubertal history, physical examination, hormone levels and semen analyses were examined in 26 males with galactosemia and compared to those in 46 controls. The prevalence of cryptorchidism was higher in men with galactosemia than in the general population [11.6% vs. 1.0% (95%CI: 0.75-1.26; p <0.001)]. Testosterone (461±125 vs. 532± 33 ng%; p=0.04), inhibin B (144±66 vs. 183±52 pg/mL; p=0.002) and sperm concentration (46±36 vs. 112±75×10(6) spermatozoa/mL; p=0.01) were lower and SHBG was higher (40.7±21.5 vs 26.7±14.6; p=0.002) in men with galactosemia compared to controls. Semen volume was below normal in seven out of 12 men with galactosemia. Men with galactosemia have a higher than expected prevalence of cryptorchidism and low semen volumes. The subtle decrease in testosterone and inhibin B levels and sperm count may indicate mild defects in Sertoli and Leydig cell function, but does not point towards severe infertility causing reproductive impairment. Follow-up studies are needed to further determine the clinical consequences of these abnormalities.

  17. Pregnancy rates with intrauterine insemination: comparing 1999 and 2010 World Health Organization semen analysis norms.

    PubMed

    Papillon-Smith, J; Baker, S E; Agbo, C; Dahan, M H

    2015-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, The World Health Organization has serially measured norms for human sperm. In this study, 1999 and 2010 semen analysis norms as predictors of pregnancy were compared during intrauterine insemination (IUI). A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data collected from the Stanford Fertility Center, between 2005 and 2007, with 981 couples undergoing 2231 IUI cycles. Collected semen was categorized according to total motile sperm counts (TMSC): 'normal (N.) 1999 TMSC', 'abnormal (AbN.) 1999/N. 2010 TMSC', or 'AbN. 2010 TMSC'. Sample comparison was also based on individual semen parameters: 'N. 1999 WHO', 'AbN. 1999/N. 2010 WHO', or 'AbN. 2010 WHO'. Pregnancy (defined by beta-HCG concentration) rates were calculated. Data were compared using correlation coefficients, t-tests and chi-squared tests, with and without adjusting for confounders. Pregnancy rate comparison based on TMSC ('N. 1999 TMSC', 'AbN. 1999/N. 2010 TMSC' and 'AbN. 2010 TMSC') showed a negative correlation (r = -0.41, P = 0.05). Pregnancy rate did not differ when comparisons were based on the presence of abnormal parameters, even when controlling for confounders. Therefore, TMSC based on the 1999 parameters shows best correlation with pregnancy rate for IUI; updating these norms in 2010 has little clinical implication in infertile populations.

  18. High-resolution melt analysis of DNA methylation to discriminate semen in biological stains.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Joana; Silva, Deborah S B S; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George; Alho, Clarice S; McCord, Bruce

    2016-02-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a method for the detection of semen in biological stains using high-resolution melt (HRM) analysis and DNA methylation. To perform this task, we used an epigenetic locus that targets a tissue-specific differentially methylated region for semen. This specific locus, ZC3H12D, contains methylated CpG sites that are hypomethylated in semen and hypermethylated in blood and saliva. Using this procedure, DNA from forensic stains can be isolated, processed using bisulfite-modified polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and detected by real-time PCR with HRM capability. The method described in this article is robust; we were able to obtain results from samples with as little as 1 ng of genomic DNA. Samples inhibited by humic acid still produced reliable results. Furthermore, the procedure is specific and will not amplify non-bisulfite-modified DNA. Because this process can be performed using real-time PCR and is quantitative, it fits nicely within the workflow of current forensic DNA laboratories. As a result, it should prove to be a useful technique for processing trace evidence samples for serological analysis.

  19. Comparative analyses of semen and endocrine characteristics of free-living versus captive jaguars (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Morato, R G; Conforti, V A; Azevedo, F C; Jacomo, A T; Silveira, L; Sana, D; Nunes, A L; Guimarães, M A; Barnabe, R C

    2001-11-01

    Semen and blood samples were obtained from free-living (n = 6) and captive (n = 8) jaguars (Panthera onca) to compare reproductive characteristics between the two populations. Semen samples were analysed for volume (ml), percentage of motile spermatozoa, rate of forward progression (0-5), concentration (10(6) ml(-1)), total sperm count (10(6)) and sperm morphology. Serum testosterone concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay. Although ejaculate volume was greater in captive jaguars (n = 47 samples) than in free-living jaguars (n = 7 samples) (P < 0.05), the free-living jaguars produced more total spermatozoa (59.3 +/- 12.8 versus 152.0 +/- 88.0 x 10(6), respectively; not significant) with better viability and forward progression (2.8 +/- 0.1 versus 3.5 +/- 0.2, respectively; P < 0.05) and more spermatozoa with normal morphology (73.5 +/- 3.9 versus 5.0 +/- 1.1%, respectively; P < 0.05). Serum testosterone concentrations were similar for captive and free-living male jaguars (3.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.1 +/- 0.8 ng ml(-1), respectively). In summary, the data showed that semen may be collected successfully from free-living jaguars and evaluated under field conditions to establish normative reproductive values in this species. The results also indicate that jaguars maintained in zoos show inferior seminal characteristics compared with free-living animals. PMID:11690535

  20. Sericin supplementation improves semen freezability of buffalo bulls by minimizing oxidative stress during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pradeep; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sikka, P; Singh, P

    2015-01-01

    The variety of mammalian cells has been successfully cryopreserved by use of the silk protein sericin due to its strong free-radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to examine the protective role of sericin on buffalo spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Semen of four breeding bulls was collected twice a week using artificial vagina technique. The ejaculates of four bulls were pooled, divided into five equal fractions, diluted with the extender supplemented with different concentrations of sericin (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5 and 2%) and then cryopreserved. Post-thawed motility was objectively assessed by computer assisted sperm analyzer. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was assessed by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in frozen-thawed extended seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. The extender supplemented with 0.25, 0.5 and 1% sericin resulted in the higher sperm motility and GPx acivity. Furthermore, plasma membrane integrity and SOD activity were found to be higher (P<0.05) in group supplemented with 0.25 and 0.5% sericin (P<0.05). The MDA concentration was found to be significantly lower (P<0.05) in 0.25 and 0.5% sericin treated groups than control and other treated groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of 0.25-0.5% sericin in semen extender improves frozen-thawed semen quality through protecting sperm from oxidative stress.

  1. Comparison of differents methods of sperm selection of llama raw semen.

    PubMed

    Santa Cruz, R; Giuliano, S M; Gambarotta, M C; Morrell, J M; Abraham, M C; Miragaya, M H; Carretero, M I

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of different sperm selection methods applied to the same llama ejaculate. Four treatments were compared: two variants of the swim up technique (with and without seminal plasma), and two different colloids, Androcoll-E-Large and Percoll(®). Using electroejaculation, 21 semen samples were obtained from 7 llama males (n=7, r=3). The ejaculates were incubated in a solution of 0.1% collagenase, to decrease thread formation, and then split into 4 aliquots: one aliquot was layered over a column of Androcoll-E-Large (SLC) and the second over a column of Percoll (45%). The third aliquot was deposited in a tube with culture medium and was incubated at a 45° angle for 30min at 37°C (SU1). The last aliquot was centrifuged to separate the spermatozoa and seminal plasma. The sperm pellet obtained was resuspended, and transferred to a tube with culture medium which was incubated at an angle of 45° for 30min at 37°C (SU2). Both aliquots SLC and P showed higher proportions of progressive motility and plasma membrane functionality (p≤0.05) than raw semen. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in sperm viability and in normal spermatozoa between raw semen and treatments. Nevertheless, only SLC did not have a significant increase of bent tails. In conclusion SLC centrifugation would be the method of choice for selecting llama spermatozoa.

  2. Sequential generations of honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens produced using cryopreserved semen.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Brandon K; Herr, Charles; Sheppard, Walter S

    2012-01-01

    Much of the world's food production is dependent on honey bees for pollination, and expanding food production will further increase the demand for managed pollination services. Apiculturists outside the native range of the honey bee, in the Americas, Australia and eastern Asia, have used only a few of the 27 described subspecies of honey bees (Apis mellifera) for beekeeping purposes. Within the endemic ranges of a particular subspecies, hybridisation can threaten native subspecies when local beekeepers import and propagate non-native honey bees. For many threatened species, cryopreserved germplasm can provide a resource for the preservation of diversity and recovery of endangered populations. However, although instrumental insemination of queen honey bees is well established, the absence of an effective means to cryopreserve honey bee semen has limited the success of efforts to preserve genetic diversity within the species or to develop repositories of honey bee germplasm for breeding purposes. Herein we report that some queens inseminated with cryopreserved semen were capable of producing a substantial number of fertilised offspring. These diploid female larvae were used to produce two additional sequential generations of new queens, which were then back-crossed to the same stock of frozen semen. Our results demonstrate the ability to produce queens using cryopreserved honey bee spermatozoa and the potential for the establishment of a honey bee genetic repository.

  3. Male facial attractiveness and masculinity may provide sex- and culture-independent cues to semen quality.

    PubMed

    Soler, C; Kekäläinen, J; Núñez, M; Sancho, M; Álvarez, J G; Núñez, J; Yaber, I; Gutiérrez, R

    2014-09-01

    Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that male secondary sexual traits reveal honest information about male fertilization ability. However, PLFH has rarely been studied in humans. The aim of the present study was to test PLFH in humans and to investigate whether potential ability to select fertile partners is independent of sex or cultural background. We found that on the contrary to the hypothesis, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality. As increased levels of testosterone have been demonstrated to impair sperm production, this finding may indicate a trade-off between investments in secondary sexual signalling (i.e. facial masculinity) and fertility or status-dependent differences in investments in semen quality. In both sexes and nationalities (Spanish and Colombian), ranked male facial attractiveness predicted male semen quality. However, Spanish males and females estimated facial images generally more attractive (gave higher ranks) than Colombian raters, and in both nationalities, males gave higher ranks than females. This suggests that male facial cues may provide culture- and sex-independent information about male fertility. However, our results also indicate that humans may be more sensitive to facial attractiveness cues within their own populations and also that males may generally overestimate the attractiveness of other men to females.

  4. Comparison of quality and freezability of water buffalo semen after washing or Sephadex filtration.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R L; Tuli, R K; Georgie, G C; Chand, D

    1996-09-01

    Split aliquots of pooled buffalo semen samples were processed before freezing 1) by washing twice with Tris-citric acid buffer by centrifugation and re-suspension to the original volume in the same buffer, or 2) or by passage through a G-15 Sephadex column. The effect of these procedures on progressive motility, percentages of live spermatozoa, sperm abnormalities and intact acrosomes and release of glutamate oxatoacetate transaminase (GOT) into the medium were assessed after extension, after equilibration and after 18 to 24 h or 15 d of frozen storage. Prior to extension, gel filtration reduced sperm concentration and enhanced progressive motility, whereas washing produced little effect on these attributes. Except in the case of GOT release, which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower after the washing of semen (34.3 +/- 16.40) than the filtering of semen (45.7 +/- 12.35), the 2 procedures did not cause significant effects (P > 0.05). Damage to spermatozoa due to freeze-processing was also similar in the 2 treatments, and the extent of beneficial effect in improved motility and live spermatozoan numbers after thawing was also similar.

  5. Semen characteristics of transwomen referred for sperm banking before sex transition: a case series.

    PubMed

    Hamada, A; Kingsberg, S; Wierckx, K; T'Sjoen, G; De Sutter, P; Knudson, G; Agarwal, A

    2015-09-01

    Transwomen (TW) can now turn to cryopreserve spermatozoa before gender reassignment (GR). The objective is to assess semen quality of TW and evaluate adequacy for assisted reproduction technology (ART). Pre-freezing (PF) and post-thaw (PT) semen parameters of 2 and PF data of 27 TW who were referred for sperm banking in Cleveland Clinic/USA and Ghent Center/Belgium, before GR, were retrospectively analysed. The study period was between February, 2003 and October, 2011. We also evaluated adequacy of 24-h PT data for ART. PF data of 29 TW, mean age of 28.9 years, showed high incidence of oligozoospermia (27.58%), asthenozoospermia (31%) and teratozoospermia (31%). Mean sperm concentration was 46.9 × 10(6) /ml, mean per cent motility was 42.9 and mean per cent sperm morphology (Kruger's) was 7.98. The 24-h PT data, for 2 TW, showed mean motility 22.4%, mean total motile sperm count 13.7 × 10(6) and total motile sperm concentration 8.7 × 106/ml. Single patient had used the frozen spermatozoon for intrauterine insemination (IUI) of a surrogate mother resulting in birth of healthy newborn. It is concluded that poor PF and 24-h PT semen quality is frequently seen among TW. As such, considerable proportion of TW should use more expensive method of ART, for example IVF/ICSI rather than inexpensive IUI.

  6. Improving viability of cryopreserved honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) sperm with selected diluents, cryoprotectants, and semen dilution ratios.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Guzmán-Novoa, E; Morfin, N; Buhr, M M

    2009-07-15

    This is the first study where the systematic application of theories and techniques used in mammalian sperm cryopreservation have been applied to honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) semen as a means to improve postthaw viability of cryopreserved sperm. Six newly designed diluents, three cryoprotectants (dimethyl sulfoxide, DMA, glycerol), and five diluent:semen ratios (1:1, 3:1, 6:1, 9:1, and 12:1) were tested. In addition, the sperm freezing tolerance of three honey bee strains was evaluated. Specific protocols were designed to control semen freezing and thawing rates. Sperm motility was assessed visually, whereas sperm viability was assessed using SYBR-14 and propidium iodide fluorescent stains. Diluent treatments did not affect fresh (nonfrozen) sperm viability yet affected fresh sperm motility (P<0.05). Based on these assessments, two diluents were chosen and used in all successive cryopreservation experiments. Using the selected diluents, semen was collected at various diluent:semen ratios, along with one of the three cryoprotectants. Semen collected at high dilution ratios, using a hypotonic antioxidant diluent containing catalase, in combination with dimethyl sulfoxide, provided higher postthaw sperm viability than that of all other combinations tested (68.3+/-5.4%; P<0.05). Using this combination of dilution ratio, diluent, and cryoprotectant, there were no differences among honey bee strains for postthaw sperm viability (P=0.805). Nevertheless, these new semen dilution and freezing methods improved postthaw viability of sperm to levels that could theoretically sustain worker populations in colonies, thus providing potential for further optimization of cryopreservation techniques for the genetic preservation and improvement of honey bee genotypes. PMID:19329172

  7. Comparison of the effect of semen from HIV-infected and uninfected men on CD4+ T-cell infection

    PubMed Central

    Camus, Céline; Matusali, Giulia; Bourry, Olivier; Mahe, Dominique; Aubry, Florence; Bujan, Louis; Pasquier, Christophe; Massip, Patrice; Ravel, Célia; Zirafi, Onofrio; Munch, Jan; Roan, Nadia R.; Pineau, Charles; Dejucq-Rainsford, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Semen composition is influenced by HIV-1 infection, yet the impact of semen components on HIV infection of primary target cells has only been studied in samples from HIV-uninfected donors. Design: We compared the effect of seminal plasma (SP) from chronically HIV-infected (SP+) versus uninfected donors (SP–) on HIV-1 infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and CD4+ T cells. Methods: Primary cells were infected with HIV-1 in the presence of SP+ or SP– and analyzed for infection level, metabolic activity, HIV receptor expression, proliferation and activation. SP+ and SP– were compared for infection-enhancing peptides, cytokines and prostaglandin E2 levels. Results: SP– efficiently enhanced HIV-1 R5 infection of CD4+ T cells, whereas SP+ enhancing activity was significantly reduced. RANTES (CCL5) concentrations were elevated in SP+ relative to SP–, whereas the concentrations of infectivity-enhancing peptides [semen-derived enhancer of viral infection (SEVI), SEM1, SEM2] were similar. CCR5 membrane expression levels were reduced on CD4+ T cells shortly postexposure to SP+ compared with SP– and correlated to R5-tropic HIV-1 infection levels, and CCR5 ligands’ concentrations in semen. SP+ and SP– displayed similar enhancing activity on PBMC infection by X4-tropic HIV-1. Addition/depletion of RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted) from SPs modulated their effect on PBMC infection by R5-tropic HIV-1. Conclusion: Semen from HIV-infected donors exhibits a significantly reduced enhancing potential on CD4+ T-cell infection by R5-tropic HIV-1 when compared with semen from uninfected donors. Our data indicate that elevated seminal concentrations of RANTES in HIV-infected men can influence the ability of semen to enhance infection. PMID:26854806

  8. TRIXcell+, a new long-term boar semen extender containing whey protein with higher preservation capacity and litter size

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, B.M.; Reesink, J.; Reesink, W.

    2014-01-01

    It was the aim of the present study to test whey as protective protein for the sperm cell in the long-term boar semen preservation medium TRIXcell. Analyses of sperm cell motility using computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) indicated that the whey protein Porex has a similar protective effect as bovine serum albumin (BSA) in maintaining viability of stored boar sperm. Boar sperm diluted in TRIXcell+ maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 10 days, while swine sperm diluted in the semen preservation medium Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS) maintains commercially acceptable motility (>60%) for 3-5 days for most boars. To test the on-farm fertility performance of TRIXcell+ compared to BTS, inseminations were started on 35 commercial pig production farms in the summer of 2006. During the period of July 2006 until July 2012 for each farm and each calendar year the mean farrowing rate and litter size for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and stored for 3-5 days was found higher than that of semen stored for 1-2 days in BTS. Based on data gained from a total of 583.749 sows inseminated through the years 2006-2012, the mean farrowing rate for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 90.4 ± 4.0 and 87.9 ± 3.6, respectively, which is not significantly different. Based on the same data, the mean total number of piglets born alive for semen diluted in TRIXcell+ and BTS was 14.2 ± 0.7 and 13.6 ± 0.6, respectively, which is significantly different. We conclude that whey protein can effectively be used in the long-term preservation medium TRIXcell resulting in a higher litter size. PMID:26623335

  9. Implementation of a National Semen Testing and Counseling Program for Male Ebola Survivors - Liberia, 2015-2016.

    PubMed

    Purpura, Lawrence J; Soka, Moses; Baller, April; White, Stephen; Rogers, Emerson; Choi, Mary J; Mahmoud, Nuha; Wasunna, Christine; Massaquoi, Moses; Vanderende, Kristin; Kollie, Jomah; Dweh, Straker; Bemah, Philip; Christie, Athalia; Ladele, Victor; Subah, Onyekachi; Pillai, Satish; Mugisha, Margaret; Kpaka, Jonathan; Nichol, Stuart; Ströher, Ute; Abad, Neetu; Mettee-Zarecki, Shauna; Bailey, Jeff A; Rollin, Pierre; Marston, Barbara; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Gasasira, Alex; Knust, Barbara; Williams, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    According to World Health Organization (WHO) data, the Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak that began in West Africa in 2014 has resulted in 28,603 cases and 11,301 deaths (1). In March 2015, epidemiologic investigation and genetic sequencing in Liberia implicated sexual transmission from a male Ebola survivor, with Ebola virus detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) 199 days after symptom onset (2,3), far exceeding the 101 days reported from an earlier Ebola outbreak (4). In response, WHO released interim guidelines recommending that all male survivors, in addition to receiving condoms and sexual risk reduction counseling at discharge from an Ebola treatment unit (ETU), be offered semen testing for Ebola virus RNA by RT-PCR 3 months after disease onset, and every month thereafter until two consecutive semen specimens collected at least 1 week apart test negative for Ebola virus RNA (5). Male Ebola survivors should also receive counseling to promote safe sexual practices until their semen twice tests negative. When these recommendations were released, testing of semen was not widely available in Liberia. Challenges in establishing and operating the first nationwide semen testing and counseling program for male Ebola survivors included securing sufficient resources for the program, managing a public health semen testing program in the context of ongoing research studies that were also collecting and screening semen, identification of adequate numbers of trained counselors and appropriate health communication messages for the program, overcoming Ebola survivor-associated stigma, identification and recruitment of male Ebola survivors, and operation of mobile teams. PMID:27632552

  10. Enriching the captive elephant population genetic pool through artificial insemination with frozen-thawed semen collected in the wild.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, T B; Hermes, R; Saragusty, J; Potier, R; Schwammer, H M; Balfanz, F; Vielgrader, H; Baker, B; Bartels, P; Göritz, F

    2012-10-01

    The first successful AI in an elephant was reported in 1998, using fresh semen. Since then almost 40 calves have been produced through AI in both Asian and African elephants worldwide. Following these successes, with the objective of enriching the captive population with genetic material from the wild, we evaluated the possibility of using frozen-thawed semen collected from wild bulls for AI in captivity. Semen, collected from a 36-yr-old wild African savanna elephant (Loxodonta africana) in South Africa was frozen using the directional freezing technique. This frozen-thawed semen was used for four inseminations over two consecutive days, two before and two after ovulation, in a 26-yr-old female African savanna elephant in Austria. Insemination dose of 1200 × 10(6) cells per AI with 61% motility resulted in pregnancy, which was confirmed through ultrasound examination 75, 110 and 141 days after the AI procedure. This represents the first successful AI using wild bull frozen-thawed semen in elephants. The incorporation of AI with frozen-thawed semen into the assisted reproduction toolbox opens the way to preserve and transport semen between distant individuals in captivity or, as was done in this study, between wild and captive populations, without the need to transport stressed or potentially disease-carrying animals or to remove animals from the wild. In addition, cryopreserved spermatozoa, in combination with AI, are useful methods to extend the reproductive lifespan of individuals beyond their biological lifespan and an important tool for genetic diversity management and phenotype selection in these endangered mammals.

  11. Reproductive organ weights and semen quality of pubertal boars fed dietary fumonisin B1.

    PubMed

    Gbore, F A

    2009-08-01

    Fumonisins, a group of toxic metabolites produced by the genus Fusarium, are known to be consumed by farm animals and are the causative agent or a suspected contributing factor in farm animal diseases. Pigs are particularly susceptible to fumonisins. Reproductive inefficiency is recognized as the most costly limiting constraint to efficient animal production. To account for potential reproductive effects of fumonisin in boars, dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1) was fed to 24 male Large White weanling pigs, 8 to 9 weeks of age. The animals were randomly assigned to four diets containing 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 0.2 mg FB1/kg constituting diets 1, 2, 3 and control diet, respectively. After 6 months, semen samples were collected from the pubertal boars and analysed. After the semen collection, all the pubertal boars were killed by decapitation, their reproductive systems dissected and the weights of the testes and epididymides as well as the volumes of the testes recorded. Dietary FB1 did not influence both the relative weights of the testes and epididymides as well as the volumes of the testes. Except for the semen volume and spermatozoa morphological abnormalities, all the semen characteristics studied decreased in a dose-dependent manner and the decrease was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The sperm concentration, total sperm and motile sperm per ejaculate of the animals on diet 3 were 83.3%, 79.1% and 59.6% of the controls, respectively. The dietary FB1 levels influenced the mass activities of the semen, which ranged from very turbulent motion for animals on the control diet to absence of wave motion for those on diet 3. The study revealed that male weanling pigs for breeding should not be exposed to dietary FB1 higher than 5 mg/kg for optimum reproductive performance. The results of this present study suggest that the recommendation of 10 mg/kg by the United States Food and Drug Administration as the maximum level of total dietary fumonisins was above the no

  12. Communication requested: Boar semen transport through the uterus and possible consequences for insemination.

    PubMed

    Rath, D; Knorr, C; Taylor, U

    2016-01-01

    Recent insemination techniques bypass the interactions between sperm and the uterine wall because the semen is deposited deep into the tip of uterine horn or directly into the oviduct. Such techniques allow high dilution of the ejaculates. After normal mating, semen entering the uterus communicates with the uterine milieu. Intact sperm of high mitochondrial membrane potential bind to uterine epithelial cells, whereas most of the unbound sperm in the uterine lumen have damaged membranes. Lectins are the most likely factors to mediate these sperm-uterine interactions. The lectin wheat germ agglutinin is known to induce the strongest binding of sperm, whereas binding is impaired when sialic acid receptors are blocked by wheat germ agglutinin. This suggests that sialic acid is involved in porcine sperm-endometrium interactions, and it is hypothesized that the use of a semen extender supplemented with sialidase would allow insemination with reduced sperm numbers. A lack of contact of sperm and seminal plasma with the uterine wall, as a result of deep insemination, may adversely affect (1) events during ovulation, (2) induction of immunologic tolerance against paternal antigens, (3) preparation of the endometrium for implantation and placentation, and (4) immunologic support required for the fetus during pregnancy. Seminal plasma is known to signal post-insemination changes in the uterine endometrium involving the redistribution of leukocytes. This may involve migration of leukocytes from the uterine wall to the ovary, as seminal plasma particularly increases the appearance of the major histocompatibility complex class II-positive cells. Uterine epithelial cells respond to sperm binding by the production of pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. These cytokines may include synchronizing substances, transferred through a counter-current pathway to the ipsilateral ovary, thereby accelerating the final maturation of preovulatory follicles and advancing time of ovulation. In

  13. Urinary Bisphenol A Levels in Young Men: Association with Reproductive Hormones and Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Joensen, Ulla N.; Main, Katharina M.; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders; Jørgensen, Niels; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few human studies have examined bisphenol A (BPA) exposure in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones in men, and results are divergent. Objectives: We examined associations between urinary BPA concentration and reproductive hormones, as well as semen quality, in young men from the general population. Methods: Our study population consisted of 308 young men from the general population. Urinary BPA concentration was measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. We used multiple linear regression analysis to estimate associations between BPA concentration and reproductive hormones and semen quality, adjusting for confounding factors. Results: We found that 98% of the men had detectable urinary levels of BPA. Median (5th–95th percentiles) BPA concentration was 3.25 ng/mL (0.59–14.89 ng/mL). Men with BPA concentrations above the lowest quartile had higher concentrations of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, and free testosterone compared with the lowest quartile (ptrend ≤ 0.02). Men in the highest quartile of BPA excretion had on average 18% higher total testosterone (95% CI: 8, 28%), 22% higher LH (95% CI: 6, 39%), and 13% higher estradiol (95% CI: 4, 24%) compared with lowest quartile. Men in the highest quartile of BPA also had significantly lower percentage progressive motile spermatozoa compared with men in the lowest quartile (–6.7 percentage points, 95% CI: –11.76, –1.63). BPA was not associated with other semen parameters. Adjusting for dietary patterns did not influence the results. Conclusions: The pattern of associations between BPA and reproductive hormones could indicate an antiandrogenic or antiestrogenic effect, or both, of BPA on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal hormone feedback system, possibly through a competitive inhibition at the receptor level. However, additional research is needed to confirm our findings and to further test the suggested

  14. Risks of transmitting ruminant spongiform encephalopathies (prion diseases) by semen and embryo transfer techniques.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, A E; Holyoak, G R; Parsonson, I M; Simmons, H A

    2008-09-15

    Early experiments suggested that scrapie transmission via sheep embryos was a possibility, and gave rise to much controversy. However, when account is taken of the complex genetic effects on ovine susceptibility to scrapie, and of the several different scrapie strains with different clinical and pathological effects, the overall conclusion now is that transmission of classical scrapie by embryo transfer is very unlikely if appropriate precautions are taken. Recent embryo transfer studies have confirmed this. Other studies in sheep have shown that from about the middle of pregnancy the placental trophoblast is liable to scrapie infection in genetically susceptible ewes if the fetus is also susceptible. Since the contrary is also true, use of resistant ewes as embryo recipients could add to the safety of the embryo transfer, at least for classical scrapie. There has been little recent research on scrapie transmission via semen in sheep, and, with hindsight, the early studies, though negative, were inadequate. There is scant information on scrapie transfer via goat semen or embryos, although one study did find that bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was not transmitted via goat embryos. In cattle it has been shown that, if appropriate precautions are taken, the risks of transmitting BSE via semen and in vivo-derived embryos are negligible, and this conclusion has gained worldwide acceptance. Research on TSE transmission via reproductive technologies in deer has not yet been done, but information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer, and on transmission risks in other species, provides optimism that transmission of CWD via semen and embryos of deer is unlikely. The presence of TSE infectivity in blood and various other tissues of infected animals, particularly sheep, gives rise to concerns that certain biological products currently used in reproductive technologies, e.g. pituitary gonadotrophins for superovulation, and

  15. Effects of antioxidants and duration of pre-freezing equilibration on frozen-thawed ram semen.

    PubMed

    Câmara, D R; Silva, S V; Almeida, F C; Nunes, J F; Guerra, M M P

    2011-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of various antioxidants and duration of pre-freezing equilibration on cryopreservation of ram semen. Semen samples from four rams were pooled, diluted with Tris-egg yolk extender without antioxidants (control), or supplemented with reduced glutathione (GSH: 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM), superoxide dismutase (SOD: 5, 10, and 20 U/mL), or catalase (CAT: 5, 10, and 20 U/mL), and cryopreserved, immediately after thermal equilibrium was reached at 5 °C (0 h), or 12 or 24 h after equilibration. Total antioxidant capacity was determined in the in natura extenders and after addition of semen samples for various durations of processing (fresh/dilute, throughout refrigeration, and post-thaw). Plasma membrane (PI-CFDA), acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA), and mitochondrial membrane potential (JC-1) were determined in fresh/diluted, refrigerated, and post-thaw samples. Post-thaw sperm motility was assessed with a computerized analysis system (CASA). There were no significant differences in acrosome damage or mitochondrial membrane potential after refrigeration and freeze-thaw, regardless of antioxidant addition. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was worse (P < 0.05) with cryopreservation immediately after equilibration (average 20.1 ± 8.3; mean ± SD) than after 12 h of equilibration (average 42.5 ± 10.9); however, the addition of SOD and CAT (10 and 20 U/mL) resulted in no significant difference between post-equilibration intervals of 0 and 12 h. Total antioxidant activity was not different (P > 0.05) among treatments after sperm addition or throughout the refrigeration and post-thaw. In conclusion, adding GSH, SOD or CAT did not increase the total antioxidant capacity of semen, nor did it enhance the quality of the post-thaw sperm. However, maintenance of ram semen at 5 °C for 12 h prior to cryopreservation reduced membrane damage of frozen-thawed sperm. PMID:21529917

  16. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  17. Cryopreservation of collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen using different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Peixoto, G C X; Castelo, T S; Lima, G L; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effect of different freezing curves, straw sizes, and thawing rates on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen. Twelve ejaculates were obtained from captive adult males by electroejaculation, and evaluated for sperm motility, kinetic rating, viability, morphology, and functional membrane integrity. The ejaculates were diluted in a coconut water extender (ACP-116c) with egg yolk and glycerol, packaged into 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL plastic straws and cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen following a slow (-10 °C/min) or a fast (-40 °C/min) freezing curve. After one week, samples were thawed at 37 °C/1 min or 70 °C/8s and evaluated as reported for fresh semen, and also for kinematic parameters (computerized analysis). A significant decrease in sperm motility and kinetic rating was observed after glycerol addition at 5 °C and also after thawing for all the treatments (P<0.05). Regarding post-thaw semen variables, no differences were verified between freezing curves when the same straw size and thawing rate were taken as reference (P>0.05). In general, values for sperm characteristics found after thawing at 37 °C were better preserved than at 70 °C (P<0.05), both in the use of 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL straws, which were similar for semen packaging (P>0.05). The evaluation of the kinematic parameters of sperm motility confirmed these results at values varying from 20% to 30% motile sperm for the samples tha wed at 37 °C, and values fewer than 12% motile sperm for samples thawed at 70 °C (P<0.05). In conclusion, we recommend the use of a fast freezing curve that reduces the time spent on the cryopreservation of collared peccary semen, which could be packaged both in 0.25 mL or 0.50 mL straws, but the thawing should be conducted at 37 °C/1 min.

  18. Endocrine alterations around the time of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen.

    PubMed

    Boeta, M; Zarco, L

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor and compare the concentrations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), progesterone and estrone sulphate during normal and failed pregnancies of mares impregnated with donkey or horse semen, relating their individual endocrine profiles to the time of pregnancy loss, and to the histopathologic findings in the aborted fetuses and placenta. Mares (n=54) were used, 32 of them impregnated with donkey semen and 22 impregnated with horse semen. Blood samples were taken twice a week from Day 35 to 120 of pregnancy. Ultrasonographic observations of the fetus were carried out twice a week. The incidence of abortion in mares impregnated with donkey semen (30%) was greater (P<0.05) than the 5% observed in mares impregnated with horse semen. From Week 8 to the end of the sampling period, the mean progesterone concentrations of mares with normal mule pregnancies were less (P<0.05) than those of mares with normal pregnancies with equine fetuses. The concentrations of eCG were less (P<0.05) in mule pregnancies from Week 6. Estrone sulphate concentrations were only different (P<0.05) between types of pregnancy on Weeks 13 and 14, being in this case greater with the mule pregnancies. Most of the abortions of mule fetuses were associated with lesser progesterone concentrations than the average for mares with successful mule pregnancies. Four of the abortions of mule fetuses and the only abortion of horse fetus occurred in mares with lesser progesterone and very low eCG concentrations, and were classified as caused by luteal impairment secondary to eCG deficiency; estrone sulphate concentrations were less than normal or absent before these abortions. Two mares aborted after several weeks of low progesterone concentrations in the presence of eCG concentrations that were normal for mule pregnancies, suggesting primary luteal deficiency. In three mares carrying a mule fetus, the concentrations of progesterone and estrone sulphate decreased

  19. The human DNA content in artifacts deposited by the blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed human blood, semen and saliva.

    PubMed

    Durdle, Annalisa; Mitchell, Robert John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

    2013-12-10

    Adult flies of some species are known to be attracted to crime scenes where they feed on the proteinaceous decomposition products of dead bodies. The flies leave deposits through excretion and regurgitation, and these artifacts often appear morphologically similar to bloodstains. To date, little consideration has been given to the possibility of the fly artifacts containing forensically useful levels of human DNA, or of flies as vectors of human DNA. In the present study, groups of artifacts collected after the adult blowfly Lucilia cuprina fed on biological fluids were examined and found to contain human DNA sufficient for profiling. Random samples from each group of artifacts were then subjected to human DNA profiling. Of the samples analysed, full or partial human DNA profiles were found in 57% of samples deposited by flies after blood meals, 92% after semen meals, 46% after saliva meals, 93% after blood/semen meals, 58% after blood/saliva meals and 95% after semen/saliva meals. DNA from artifacts deposited after flies were fed blood, semen, saliva, blood/semen, blood/saliva or semen/saliva was extracted at various time points up to 750 days, and the human DNA component quantified. The human DNA extracted from blood- and semen-based fly artifacts demonstrated a clear trend in which the amount of DNA extracted increased over the first 400 days, and full human DNA profiles were still obtained 750 days after artifact deposition. Saliva- and blood/saliva-based samples were tested at intervals up to 60 days and generated partial profiles at this final time. Blood/semen- and semen/saliva-based samples generated full profiles at 250 days. The presence of human DNA in fly artifacts has considerable forensic significance. Fly artifacts could potentially compromise crime reconstruction, and/or contaminate DNA evidence, up to at least two years after their deposition. Alternatively, fly artifacts may be a useful source of DNA if an offender has attempted to clean up a

  20. Inverse U-shaped Association between Sleep Duration and Semen Quality: Longitudinal Observational Study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qing; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Bao, Huaqiong; Tan, Lu; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Zhang, Guowei; Huang, Linping; Li, Lianbing; Ma, Mingfu; Yang, Hao; Wang, Xiaogang; Zou, Peng; Peng, Kaige; Liu, Taixiu; Cui, Zhihong; Ao, Lin; Roenneberg, Till; Zhou, Ziyuan; Cao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep duration and semen parameters as well as reproductive hormone levels. Methods: We designed a cohort of male college students in Chongqing, China. A total of 796 subjects were recruited in 2013 and 656 (82.4%) were followed up in 2014. Each time, semen and peripheral blood samples were collected for semen quality and reproductive hormone measurement. Sleep duration was estimated by revised Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. In 2014, sleep quality was also measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: There was a substantial inverse U-shaped association between sleep duration and two semen parameters (semen volume and total sperm number), with 7.0–7.5 h/day of sleep showing highest parameters. Either longer or shorter sleep was associated with decreased semen parameters in a dose-response manner (P = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively). Sleeping > 9.0 h was associated with a 21.5% (95% confidence interval 9.2, 32.2) reduction in semen volume and 39.4% (23.3, 52.1) reduction in total sperm number; sleeping ≤ 6.5 h was associated with 4.6% (−10.5, 22.3) and 25.7% (−1.2, 60.1) reduction. Increase of the two parameters was found in those who changed sleep duration toward 7.0–7.5 h/day from 2013 to 2014. The U-shaped association was independent from PSQI and was replicated in another dataset of 1,346 males. No association found between sleep duration and reproductive hormone. Conclusions: Either restricted or excessive sleep may impair semen quality. Further research is needed to validate this finding. Citation: Chen Q, Yang H, Zhou N, Sun L, Bao H, Tan L, Chen H, Ling X, Zhang G, Huang L, Li L, Ma M, Yang H, Wang X, Zou P, Peng K, Liu T, Cui Z, Ao L, Roenneberg T, Zhou Z, Cao J. Inverse u-shaped association between sleep duration and semen quality: longitudinal observational study (MARHCS) in Chongqing, China. SLEEP 2016;39(1):79–86. PMID:26350472

  1. Prevention of urethral blockage following semen collection in two species of lemur, Varecia variegata variegata and Lemur catta.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Penfold, Linda

    2007-06-01

    Lemurs are a diverse group of primates comprised of five families, all of which are found only on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands. Of the 60 known species, 17 are endangered and 5 of these are considered critically endangered. The effects of inbreeding on population health and viability have been well described; though negative inbreeding effects can be ameliorated through the introduction of new genetic material. Introduction of new individuals into a population can be extremely challenging because of the highly social nature of lemurs. Semen collection in lemur species is notoriously challenging, as the ejaculate forms a coagulum. During normal breeding, the coagulum forms a copulatory plug in the female. However, this coagulum can present a life-threatening situation when retained in the urethra abnormally following electroejaculation. This study investigates the use of ascorbic acid in preventing urethral blockage in two lemur species during semen collection, demonstrates successful collection of semen by electroejaculation from two species of lemur during the breeding season, and discusses removal of urethral plugs subsequent to semen collection. Semen was collected successfully from all animals. Urethral plugs formed during each collection and were abnormally retained in 2/11 collections. Both plugs were successfully and immediately removed with the use of retropulsion through a urethral catheter. Although the results of this study are encouraging, more investigation is required to establish whether or not this procedure can be safely performed in the field.

  2. The different surrogate measures of adiposity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile men.

    PubMed

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with different surrogate measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). Standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones were measured in 260 male partners of pregnant women at a university hospital andrology centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that all adiposity markers were negatively related to sex hormone-binding globulin and total testosterone levels. After adjustment for covariates a high BF%, WC and WHtR were negatively associated with total sperm count. The BF% was also negatively related to semen volume. These significant changes occurred from a BF% ≥ 23.4%, WC > 98 cm and WHtR > 0.54. Next to these changes the BMI was not related to sperm parameters. This study shows that semen quality is affected by central adiposity and confirms earlier findings that adiposity markedly changes serum sex hormone levels. Further studies are required to find out what is the best body composition marker showing most clearly the relationships between adiposity, semen characteristics and sex hormone levels.

  3. Effects of in vitro storage time and semen-extender on membrane quality of boar sperm assessed by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Waterhouse, K E; De Angelis, P M; Haugan, T; Paulenz, H; Hofmo, P O; Farstad, W

    2004-12-01

    The Norwegian AI company Norsvin has used the short-term semen-extender BTS to extend and store boar semen since the late 1980s. Fertility results have been consistent when extended semen has been used for AI within 3 days after collection, however, from a production and economic point of view it is preferable that semen stored for up to 5 days can be used. The aim of this study was to compare membrane quality of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days with sperm stored in the long-term semen-extenders Androstar, Mulberry III and X-cell for 5 days. Using a split-sample design, plasma membrane- and acrosome-integrity were assessed flow cytometrically by use of Yo-Pro-1 and PNA-FITC, and fluidity and phospholipid asymmetry of the membrane were assessed by use of MC540 and Annexin V-FITC. Due to observed sperm fragmentation in Androstar after Day 1, the data for Androstar were excluded from the analyses. After 5 days of storage, the membrane quality of X-cell-stored sperm was not statistically different from that of sperm stored in BTS for 3 days, while membrane quality of sperm stored in Mulberry III was statistically better on Day 5 compared to BTS on Day 3. In conclusion, Mulberry III and X-cell preserve sperm quality, as well as that of BTS on Day 3, for up to 5 days after collection. PMID:15511551

  4. Methylation loss at H19 imprinted gene correlates with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene promoter hypermethylation in semen samples from infertile males.

    PubMed

    Rotondo, John C; Selvatici, Rita; Di Domenico, Maura; Marci, Roberto; Vesce, Fortunato; Tognon, Mauro; Martini, Fernanda

    2013-09-01

    Aberrant methylation at the H19 paternal imprinted gene has been identified in different cohorts of infertile males. The causes of H19 methylation errors are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the methylation status of the H19 gene in semen DNA samples from infertile males affected by MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylation. DNA from normal and abnormal semen samples harbouring MTHFR gene promoter hypermethylated, hmMTHFR-nor and hmMTHFR-abn, and without MTHFR methylation, MTHFR-nor and MTHFR-abn, were investigated for methylation status in the H19 locus using bisulfite-treated DNA PCR, followed by cloning and sequencing. The prevalence of H19 hypomethylated clones was 20% in hmMTHFR-nor and 0% in MTHFR-nor semen samples (p<0.05), and 28% in hmMTHFR-abn compared with 16% in MTHFR-abn semen samples (p>0.05). These results underscore the association between H19 methylation defects and hypermethylation of the MTHFR gene promoter in normal semen samples and suggest that aberrant methylation at H19 may occur in the normal sperm of infertile males affected by MTHFR gene dysfunction. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms causing abnormal methylation in imprinted genes and, in turn, male infertility.

  5. Effects of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) on incident of ejaculation and semen quality in the goat.

    PubMed

    Kimsakulvech, S; Suttiyotin, P; Pinyopummin, A

    2015-04-01

    Male temporary contraception is occasionally required in some animals. Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin) can cause ejaculation disorder. Two sets of Latin square were applied to six male goats to received either normal saline, dimethylsulphoxide or tamsulosin (179.8 nmol kg(-1) ) at 1-week interval. Semen collection and libido scoring were undertaken at 3, 6 and 24 h post-injection. For ejaculated semen, its quality was evaluated. Physiological measurements including body temperature, respiration and heart rates were measured before injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that libido score and physiological changes were not affected by treatments and time periods. Anejaculation was observed in 11 (91.7%), 5 (41.7%) and 1 (8.3%) males at 3, 6 and 24 h post-tamsulosin injection respectively. The incidence returned to normal when compared with control groups at 24 h. The percentages of motile and live spermatozoa at 6 h post-tamsulosin injection were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of normal saline group. At 24 h post-injection, there were no significant differences of all semen parameters among treatments. This study demonstrated that tamsulosin had temporary effects on ejaculation and semen quality without reducing sex desire and physiological functions in male goats.

  6. Concurrent zidovudine levels in semen and serum determined by radioimmunoassay in patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, K.; Chinnock, B.J.; Quinn, R.P.; Fletcher, C.V.; de Miranda, P.; Balfour, H.H.

    1988-05-27

    Zidovudine was present in the semen and serum of six patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or the related complex who were receiving 200 mg of the drug orally every four to six hours. Mean semen zidovudine levels (as measured by a new radioimmunoassay) in samples collected 0.75 to 1.25 hours after oral dosing were 3.63 to 7.19 ..mu..mol/L. Levels in semen samples collected 3.0 to 4.5 hours after oral dosing were 1.68 to 6.43 ..mu..mol/L. These values are above the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration for the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Mean serum concentrations at the early and late times after oral dosing were 0.22 to 3.07 ..mu..mol/L and 0.10 to 1.42 ..mu..mol/L, respectively. Ratios of semen/serum zidovudine levels ranged from 1.3 to 20.4. It is possible that a pH-dependent trapping mechanism, which has been described in the prostate for other antibiotics, was responsible for the relatively high semen levels observed.

  7. [Effects of occupational exposure to pesticides on semen quality of workers in an agricultural community of Merida state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Contreras, Leticia; Cruz, Ibis; Osuna, Jesús A; Gómez-Pérez, Roald; Berrueta, Lisbeth; Salmen, Siham; Colmenares, Melisa; Barreto, Silvio; Balza, Alirio; Morales, Yasmin; Zavala, Leisalba; Labarca, Emilitza; García, Nelly; Sanchez, Beluardi; Contreras, Carlos A; Andrade, Henry

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies report adverse effects of pesticides on male reproductive health. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there is a relationship between occupational exposure to pesticides and semen quality, and to determine whether chronic exposure to pesticides differentially affects semen quality in men of different ages. A comparative study of 64 farmers and 64 control men was performed. The farmers were interviewed to determine their occupational history and particularly, activities that may involve exposure to pesticides. Semen parameters were evaluated and a comparative analysis of semen variables between exposed and control groups, as well as between age groups: 18-29, 30-37 and 38-60 years was done. Significant alterations of some semen parameters in the exposed group were found, such as: decreases in sperm concentration, slow progressive motility and sperm membrane integrity; at the same time, increases in eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index. The results obtained by age groups showed significant differences between exposed and control groups for the parameters of membrane integrity, eosin Y positive and sperm DNA fragmentation index, being the exposed group between 18-29 years that showed the highest altered cases of these parameters. Our results prove that occupational pesticide exposure is associated with alterations in sperm quality, creating a risk to farm workers in their reproductive capacity.

  8. Development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in bovine semen.

    PubMed Central

    van Engelenburg, F A; Maes, R K; van Oirschot, J T; Rijsewijk, F A

    1993-01-01

    We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen. Since bovine semen contains components that inhibit PCR amplification, a protocol was developed to purify BHV-1 DNA from bovine semen. To identify failures of PCR amplification, we used an internal control template that was coamplified by the same PCR primers. When separated fractions of BHV-1-contaminated semen were analyzed by the PCR, we found that more than 90% of the BHV-1 DNA was present in a pooled fraction consisting of seminal fluid, nonsperm cells, and virus adsorbed to spermatozoa. By using this fraction, three to five molecules of BHV-1 DNA in 50 microliters of bovine semen could be detected. A pilot study to compare this PCR assay with the routinely used virus isolation method showed that this PCR assay is 2- to 100-fold more sensitive. In addition, the results of the PCR assay are available in 1 day, whereas the virus isolation method takes 7 days. Therefore, the PCR assay may be a good alternative to the virus isolation method. Images PMID:8308103

  9. Additional value of computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) compared to conventional motility assessments in pig artificial insemination.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Soštarić, E; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2011-11-01

    In order to obtain a more standardised semen motility evaluation, Varkens KI Nederland has introduced a computer assisted semen analysis (CASA) system in all their pig AI laboratories. The repeatability of CASA was enhanced by standardising for: 1) an optimal sample temperature (39 °C); 2) an optimal dilution factor; 3) optimal mixing of semen and dilution buffer by using mechanical mixing; 4) the slide chamber depth, and together with the previous points; 5) the optimal training of technicians working with the CASA system; and 6) the use of a standard operating procedure (SOP). Once laboratory technicians were trained in using this SOP, they achieved a coefficient of variation of < 5% which was superior to the variation found when the SOP was not strictly used. Microscopic semen motility assessments by eye were subjective and not comparable to the data obtained by standardised CASA. CASA results are preferable as accurate continuous motility dates are generated rather than discrimination motility percentage increments of 10% motility as with motility estimation by laboratory technicians. The higher variability of sperm motility found with CASA and the continuous motility values allow better analysis of the relationship between semen motility characteristics and fertilising capacity. The benefits of standardised CASA for AI is discussed both with respect to estimate the correct dilution factor of the ejaculate for the production of artificial insemination (AI) doses (critical for reducing the number of sperm per AI doses) and thus to get more reliable fertility data from these AI doses in return.

  10. PCV2 Vaccination Prevented Clinical PCVAD and Reduced PCV2 Viremia and Semen Shedding in Boars Concurrently Infected with PCV2b and Mycoplasma hyopneumoiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction. It has been determined that porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) DNA is shed in semen of naturally and experimentally infected boars (1). Recently, it also has been shown that PCV2 DNA present in semen is infectious in a swine bioassay model (2). However, under experimental conditions the ...

  11. Use of sexed semen and its effect on conception rate, calf sex, dystocia, and stillbirth of Holsteins in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexed-semen use for breeding Holstein heifers and cows in Dairy Herd Improvement herds was documented by frequency and percentage for parity and service number as well as for herd region, size, and milk yield. Year of breeding accounted for the most variation in the amount of use of sexed semen for ...

  12. The effects of frequent electroejaculation on the semen characteristics of a captive Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Fukui, Daisuke; Nagano, Masashi; Nakamura, Ryohei; Bando, Gen; Nakata, Shinichi; Kosuge, Masao; Sakamoto, Hideyuki; Matsui, Motozumi; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2013-10-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) can help to avoid inbreeding and genetic degeneration for sustaining genetically healthy populations of endangered species in captivity. Collection of a sufficient quantity of viable sperm is an essential first step in the AI process. In the present study, we examined the effects of frequent electroejaculation on semen characteristics in a Siberian tiger. We collected semen in all 17 trials during 6 breeding seasons (6 years). The mean number of sperm and the percentage of motile sperm were 294.3 ± 250.2 × 10⁶/ejaculate and 82.4 ± 11.4%, respectively. The number of motile sperm tended to increase during frequent electroejaculation in the same breeding season. Semen collection by electroejaculation can be performed effectively up to the fourth sequential ejaculate, which contained the most sperm in the study. In conclusion, frequent collection of sperm by electroejaculation from tigers may be effective for collection of a large number of motile sperm.

  13. Exosomes in human semen restrict HIV-1 transmission by vaginal cells and block intravaginal replication of LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus complex.

    PubMed

    Madison, Marisa N; Jones, Philip H; Okeoma, Chioma M

    2015-08-01

    Exosomes are membranous extracellular nanovesicles secreted by diverse cell types. Exosomes from healthy human semen have been shown to inhibit HIV-1 replication and to impair progeny virus infectivity. In this study, we examined the ability of healthy human semen exosomes to restrict HIV-1 and LP-BM5 murine AIDS virus transmission in three different model systems. We show that vaginal cells internalize exosomes with concomitant transfer of functional mRNA. Semen exosomes blocked the spread of HIV-1 from vaginal epithelial cells to target cells in our cell-to-cell infection model and suppressed transmission of HIV-1 across the vaginal epithelial barrier in our trans-well model. Our in vivo model shows that human semen exosomes restrict intravaginal transmission and propagation of murine AIDS virus. Our study highlights an antiretroviral role for semen exosomes that may be harnessed for the development of novel therapeutic strategies to combat HIV-1 transmission.

  14. Semen quality and prediction of IUI success in male subfertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ombelet, Willem; Dhont, Nathalie; Thijssen, Annelies; Bosmans, Eugene; Kruger, Thinus

    2014-03-01

    Many variables may influence success rates after intrauterine insemination (IUI), including sperm quality in the native and washed semen sample. A literature search was performed to investigate the threshold levels of sperm parameters above which IUI pregnancy outcome is significantly improved and/or the cut-off values reaching substantial discriminative performance in an IUI programme. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library revealed a total of 983 papers. Only 55 studies (5.6%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria and these papers were analysed. Sperm parameters most frequently examined were: (i) inseminating motile count after washing: cut-off value between 0.8 and 5 million; (ii) sperm morphology using strict criteria: cut-off value ⩾5% normal morphology; (iii) total motile sperm count in the native sperm sample: cut-off value of 5-10 million; and (iv) total motility in the native sperm sample: threshold value of 30%. The results indicate a lack of prospective studies, a lack of standardization in semen testing methodology and a huge heterogeneity of patient groups and IUI treatment strategies. More prospective cohort trials and prospective randomized trials investigating the predictive value of semen parameters on IUI outcome are urgently needed. It is generally believed that intrauterine insemination (IUI) with homologous semen should be a first-choice treatment to more invasive and expensive techniques of assisted reproduction in cases of cervical, unexplained and moderate male factor subfertility. The rationale for the use of artificial insemination is to increase gamete density at the site of fertilization. Scientific validation of this strategy is difficult because literature is rather confusing and inconclusive. Many variables may influence success rates after IUI treatment procedures. It seems logical that sperm quality has to be one of the main determinants to predict IUI success. Clinical practice would benefit from the establishment of

  15. French field results (1985-2005) on factors affecting fertility of frozen stallion semen.

    PubMed

    Vidament, M

    2005-10-01

    Results on procedures for freezing stallion semen and the subsequent fertility during 20 years are presented. The present system applied in French National Stud includes: (1) a freezing protocol (dilution in milk, centrifugation and addition of freezing extender (INRA82+egg yolk (2%, v/v)+glycerol (2.5%, v/v) at 22 degrees C, a moderate cooling rate to 4 degrees C and freezing at -60 degrees C/min in 0.5-ml straws); (2) selection of ejaculates showing post-thaw rapid motility >35%; and (3) an insemination protocol (mares examined once daily, two AI of 400 x 10(6) spermatozoa 24 h apart before ovulation, sufficient number of straws to have the possibility to perform six AI of 400 x 10(6) total spermatozoa, i.e. 2.4 x 10(9) total spermatozoa available per mare per season). This system was applied to >110 stallions per year, the average post-thaw motility of ejaculates was 50% (>1800 ejaculates) before selection. The semen freezability was defined as the number of selected ejaculates divided by the total number of ejaculates frozen. Of the stallions, 5, 4, 5, 21 and 64% had semen freezability of 0-10, 10-33, 33-60, 60-90 and over 90%, respectively. Per-cycle pregnancy rate was 45-48% (>1500 mares per year, 1.8 cycles per mare) and foaling rate 64%. In comparison, per-cycle pregnancy rate and foaling rate of mares hand-mated to stallions were 57-59% and 64%, respectively. The average number of straws used was 32-35 (1.75 x 10(9) total spermatozoa) per mare per season. According to our results and the literature, the most important factors for improving fertility of frozen equine semen include: (1) a low concentration of glycerol (2-3.5% final concentration); (2) a suitable base extender for freezing like Lactose-Glucose EDTA or INRA82; (3) a post-thaw motility >30-35%; and (4) a sufficient number of spermatozoa per mare per season (1.5-2 x 10(9) total spermatozoa for two to three cycles) divided into small units. Numbers of spermatozoa, lower than 750.10(6) total

  16. The effect of superoxide dismutase mimetic and catalase on the quality of postthawed goat semen.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Mojtaba; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr

    2015-05-01

    Manganese(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin chloride (MnTE) is a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent which can convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Supplementation of MnTE to a commercial semen extender can protect sperm from superoxide but not H2O2. Therefore, we proposed that addition of catalase (0.0, 200, or 400 IU/mL) in combination with MnTE (0.1 μM) may further improve the cryopreservation efficiency of goat semen in commercially optimized freezing media such as Andromed. Therefore, ejaculates were obtained from three adult bucks twice a week during the breeding season and diluted with Andromed supplemented with or without MnTE and catalase and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species contents were evaluated 2 hours after dilution (before freezing) and after freezing/thawing. The results revealed that all the treatments significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity after freezing and reduced reactive oxygen species content compared with the control group, but maximum improvement was obtained in MnTE + 400 IU/mL catalase. In addition, supplementation with these antioxidants significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increases the cleavage rate after IVF. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that addition of antioxidant MnTE or catalase to commercial optimized media, such as Andromed, improves total motility, membrane integrity, and viability of goat semen samples after thawing. But the degree of improvement for these parameters significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher when MnTE and catalase were simultaneously added to the cryopreservation media.

  17. Evaluation of the semen swim-up method for bovine sperm RNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Han, C M; Chen, R; Li, T; Chen, X L; Zheng, Y F; Ma, M T; Gao, Q H

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of high-quality RNA is important for assessing sperm gene expression, and semen purification methods may affect the integrity of the isolated RNA. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the sperm swim-up method for seminal RNA isolation. Frozen semen samples in straws from three bulls of proven fertility were purified by the swim-up method. RNA extraction was carried out using the E.Z.N.A.(TM) Total RNA kit II, with non-swim-up sperm as a control. Total sperm RNA was analyzed by UV spectrophotometry, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and agarose gel electrophoresis, and expression of the sex-determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY), leptin (LEP), and ribosomal protein subunit 23 (RPS23) genes, were determined. 18S RNA was used as a positive control. Fewer somatic cells were found in sperm swim-up samples than in the non-swim-up counterparts (0 x 10(3) vs 17.33 ± 2.52 x 10(3) sperm, P < 0.05). In addition, high-quality RNA was obtained in about 2 h, with no significant difference between groups. Interestingly, the yields of RNA fragments containing ≥200 nucleotides were significantly reduced in sperm swim-up samples (0.92 ± 0.41 x 10(7) sperm) compared with the non-swim-up samples (1.36 ± 0.33 x 10(7) sperm, P < 0.05). After RT-PCR, clear bands representing SRY, LEP, and RPS23 in sperm cDNA were observed on agarose gel electrophoresis. Finally, no bands corresponding to 18S RNA were found in RNA samples from the sperm swim-up group. Our findings suggest that small amounts of sperm RNA can be efficiently extracted from frozen straw semen samples using the swim-up technique. PMID:27173315

  18. Associations between occupation exposure to Formaldehyde and semen quality, a primary study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-xu; Li, He-cheng; Lv, Mo-qi; Zhou, Dang-xia; Bai, Li-zhi; Du, Liang-zhi; Xue, Xia; Lin, Pu; Qiu, Shu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of having male reproductive toxicity. However, FA male reproductive toxicity was inconclusive due to dearth of human studies. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether occupational exposure to FA affects semen quality. Semen quality including five conventional parameters and seven kinematics parameters were compared between 114 male workers occupationally exposed to FA and 76 referents. FA exposure index (FEI) was measured and calculated. Our results showed that sperm progressive motility, total sperm motility, VCL, VSL and VAP were statistically significant decreased in FA exposure workers compared with the referents. Moreover, FEI was significantly negative associated with sperm progressive motility (β = -0.19, P = 0.01) and total sperm motility (β = -0.23, P = 0.004). In addition, a significant elevated risk of abnormal sperm progressive motility were observed in both low- (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.11-5.97) and high-FA-exposed group (OR = 3.41; 95% CI: 1.45-7.92) respectively. Furthermore, a significant increased risk was also estimated for abnormal total sperm motility in both low- (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.24-8.28) and high-FA-exposed group (OR = 4.84; 95% CI: 1.83-12.81) respectively. In conclusion, our study revealed the adverse effects of FA occupation exposure on semen quality, especially on sperm motion parameters.

  19. Distribution of BHV1 in fractions of semen from a naturally infected bull.

    PubMed

    Guérin, C; Harlay, T; Guérin, B; Thibier, M

    1993-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of BHV1 (Bovine Herpesvirus 1) in the semen from a naturally infected bull and more particularly, to determine if there were viral particles associated with sperm that could interfere with in-vivo or in-vitro fertilization. Frozen semen from a single ejaculate that had been previously identified as being contaminated with BHV1 was used. The contents of 12 ministraws were mixed. Two aliquotes served as controls, the first was held at 0 degrees C in ice water while the second was held at 4 degrees C in the centrifuge during the procedure. The remaining semen was separated into seminal plasma and sperm cell fractions by centrifugation. The seminal plasma was kept at 0 degrees C until viral titration. The pellet was treated by 10 consecutive washes in PBS and by a trypsin treatment after the fifth wash. Subsequently, the last pellet was macerated to break the cell membranes. Aliquotes for viral titration were taken from all washing fluids, from pellets after the fourth, sixth and tenth washes, and from the last crushed pellet. These aliquotes were kept in ice water until titration. The virus was titrated on secondary cell cultures of fetal calf kidney. The titers were 4.3, 4.2 and 4.4 log TCID50/ml, respectively, in the 2 controls and the seminal plasma. Titers declined from 3.8 log to 0 from the first to the tenth wash. The titer was 2.2 log in the resuspended pellet of sperm cell fraction prior to trypsin treatment. No virus was detected in the sixth pellet, the tenth one or from the crushed cells. It was concluded that a significant proportion of the BHV1 particles was associated with the sperm cells. Ten washes and a trypsin treatment could remove the adsorbed virus. No viral particles were detected within the sperm cells.

  20. Associations between occupation exposure to Formaldehyde and semen quality, a primary study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai-xu; Li, He-cheng; Lv, Mo-qi; Zhou, Dang-xia; Bai, Li-zhi; Du, Liang-zhi; Xue, Xia; Lin, Pu; Qiu, Shu-dong

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, has long been suspected of having male reproductive toxicity. However, FA male reproductive toxicity was inconclusive due to dearth of human studies. Therefore, we sought to investigate whether occupational exposure to FA affects semen quality. Semen quality including five conventional parameters and seven kinematics parameters were compared between 114 male workers occupationally exposed to FA and 76 referents. FA exposure index (FEI) was measured and calculated. Our results showed that sperm progressive motility, total sperm motility, VCL, VSL and VAP were statistically significant decreased in FA exposure workers compared with the referents. Moreover, FEI was significantly negative associated with sperm progressive motility (β = −0.19, P = 0.01) and total sperm motility (β = −0.23, P = 0.004). In addition, a significant elevated risk of abnormal sperm progressive motility were observed in both low- (OR = 2.58; 95% CI: 1.11–5.97) and high-FA-exposed group (OR = 3.41; 95% CI: 1.45–7.92) respectively. Furthermore, a significant increased risk was also estimated for abnormal total sperm motility in both low- (OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.24–8.28) and high-FA-exposed group (OR = 4.84; 95% CI: 1.83–12.81) respectively. In conclusion, our study revealed the adverse effects of FA occupation exposure on semen quality, especially on sperm motion parameters. PMID:26515386

  1. Relationship between apoptotic markers in semen from fertile men and demographic, hormonal and seminal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Specht, Ina O; Spanò, Marcello; Hougaard, Karin S; Manicardi, Gian C; Bizzaro, Davide; Toft, Gunnar; Giwercman, Aleksander; Bonde, Jens-Peter E

    2012-11-01

    Apoptosis in the testis has two putative roles during normal spermatogenesis; limitation of the germ cell population to numbers that can be supported by the Sertoli cells, and, possibly, selective depletion of meiotic and postmeiotic abnormal germ cells. We investigated the demographic and biological correlates of the pro-apoptotic marker Fas and the anti-apoptotic marker Bcl-xL in sperm cells of fertile men. Six hundred and four men from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were consecutively enrolled during their pregnant wife's antenatal visits. Semen analysis was performed as recommended by the World Health Organization. Immunofluorescence coupled to flow cytometry was utilized for detection of apoptotic markers in the sperm cell. DNA damage was assessed by flow cytometry using both the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay. The percentage of Fas-positive sperm cells was higher in men with high total sperm count (P<0.01), more motile sperms (P=0.04) and fewer sperm head defects (P=0.05). These associations were consistent within and across study regions. Furthermore, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sexual hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly negatively correlated with Fas within and across regions as well. The data indicated no association between the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL marker and semen or personal characteristics. The finding of Fas-positive sperm cells associated with better semen quality in a cohort of spouses of pregnant women seems different from previous data obtained in infertile men and warrants further investigation to clarify the biological significance of sperm apoptotic markers. PMID:23064689

  2. A study of the effect of perchloroethylene exposure on semen quality in dry cleaning workers

    SciTech Connect

    Eskenazi, B.; Wyrobek, A.J.; Fenster, L.; Katz, D.F.; Sadler, M.; Lee, J.; Hudes, M.; Rempel, D.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of perchloroethylene (PCE) exposure on human semen quality. We compared the semen quality of 34 dry cleaners with that of 48 laundry workers. We examined the relationships of 17 semen parameters to expired air levels of PCE and to an index of exposure based on job tasks in the last three months. The average sperm concentration was over 80 million for both dry cleaners and laundry workers, but approximately one-quarter of each group was oligospermic. The overall percentage of abnormal forms was similar for the two groups; however, sperm of dry cleaners were significantly more likely to be round (t = -3.29, p = 0.002) and less likely to be narrow (t = 2.35, p = 0.02) than the sperm of laundry workers. These effects were dose-related to expired air levels and to the exposure index after controlling for potential confounders (e.g., heat exposure). The average percent motile sperm for both groups was slightly over 60%; however, sperm of dry cleaners tended to swim with greater amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH) than those of laundry workers (t = -1.73, p = 0.09), and level of PCE in expired air was a significant predictor of ALH in the multiple regression model (t = 2.00, p = 0.05). In addition, exposure index was a significant negative predictor of the sperm linearity parameter (t = -2.57, p = 0.01). These results suggest that occupational exposures to PCE can have subtle effects on sperm quality. Additional analyses are required to determine whether these effects are associated with changes in fertility.

  3. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L; Schmitt, Dennis L; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  4. Fertility of boar semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Monika; Bryła, Magdalena; Gajda, Barbara; Gogol, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    The present study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on quality and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar semen. In the first experiment, five crossbreds of Polish Landrace and Large White boars (five ejaculates per boar) were frozen in 0.5 mL straws after dilution with lactose-egg yolk-glycerol extender supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM BHT. The sperm quality was verified based on the motility (computer-assisted sperm analysis; total motility, %; progressive motility, %), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide [PI] assay), acrosome integrity (fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated with peanut agglutinin/PI), and lipid peroxidation (chemiluminescence method) at 15 minutes postthaw. In the second experiment, the semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT were selected for intrauterine artificial insemination of synchronized gilts. An intrauterine artificial insemination with low numbers of spermatozoa (500 × 10(6)) was surgically infused into each uterine horn. The highest (P < 0.001) progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and acrosomal integrity were noted by the addition of 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender. Moreover, the various concentrations (0.5-2.0 mM) of BHT caused a considerable decrease in lipid peroxidation in relation to the control extender (P < 0.001). The highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (farrowing rate, 86.7%; litter size, 10.8 ± 1.6) was observed when semen was cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 mM BHT. These findings demonstrate that the addition of 1.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender efficiently improves the fertilizing ability of postthaw boar spermatozoa.

  5. Testicular development and its relationship to semen production in Murrah buffalo bulls.

    PubMed

    Pant, H C; Sharma, R K; Patel, S H; Shukla, H R; Mittal, A K; Kasiraj, R; Misra, A K; Prabhakar, J H

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of age and body weight to testicular development and to establish norms for breeding soundness evaluations of Murrah buffalo bulls. Testicular measurements of 133 Murrah buffalo bulls of various ages were recorded with a caliper and a tape. Semen was collected twice a week for 5 weeks from groups of bulls which were 25-36 (n=17), 37-48 (n=16), 49-60 (n=14), of >60 (n=10) months of age. After examining volume, sperm concentration, and progressive motility semen was diluted in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-fructose extender and frozen in 0.5 ml French straws. Testicular measurements of buffalo bulls were lower than those recorded for European breeds of cattle bulls. Nevertheless, like cattle bulls, scrotal circumference was highly correlated with other testicular measurements. Also, it had a significant positive relationship with semen volume and sperm concentration per ejaculate. Average sperm output per week in order of increasing age group was 15.3, 18.2, 19.8 and 23.6 x 10(9). Corresponding values for sperm output per week per gram of testis were 59.1, 45.8, 41.1, 36.2 x 10(6) indicating a reduction in spermatogenesis per unit of testis with advancing age. Compared to European breeds, daily sperm output in Murrah bulls was nearly 45% lower, presumably due to their nearly 40% lower scrotal circumference than Holstein bulls of the same age. These results indicate that in buffalo, as in cattle, scrotal circumference is a useful indicator of potential sperm output and may serve as an important criterion for selecting young bulls as AI sires. PMID:12620577

  6. Thermal manipulation during embryogenesis improves certain semen parameters in layer breeder chicken during hot climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, M; Vinoth, A; Rajaravindra, K S; Rajkumar, U

    2015-10-01

    Thermal manipulation during incubation has been shown to improve post hatch performance in poultry. The aim of the present experiment was to evaluate thermal manipulation on semen quality of roosters during hot climatic conditions. Eggs obtained after artificial insemination from Dahlem Red layer breeders were randomly divided into two groups control (C) and heat exposed (HE). C group eggs were incubated at 37.5°C throughout the incubation period while the HE group eggs were exposed to higher temperature 40.5°C from 15th to 17th day of incubation for 3h each day. The relative humidity was maintained at 65% in both the groups throughout incubation. The chicks hatched were reared separately under standard husbandry conditions. During high ambient temperature semen from roosters (45 weeks of age) was collected and evaluated for different gross parameters, sperm chromatin integrity and sperm HSP27 and HSP70 gene expression by real-time PCR. The seminal plasma was evaluated for lipid peroxidation, ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), triiodothyronine (T3) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity. The shed average Temperature Humidity Index (THI) during the experiment period was 78.55. The percent live sperm and FRAP level were significantly (P<0.05) higher and sperm gene expressions were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the HE group. No differences in other parameters were observed between the groups. Thus from the results it could be concluded that thermal manipulation during incubation improves certain semen parameters of roosters at high ambient temperature.

  7. Honey Supplementation to Semen-Freezing Medium ImprovesHuman Sperm Parameters Post-Thawing

    PubMed Central

    Alsaadi, Rana A-R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of honey supplemented to cryoprotectant medium on post-thaw sperm motility, concentration, morphology and agglutination. Materials and methods Thirty semen samples were collected from 30 infertile patients. After assessment of semen analysis, semen samples were divided into 3 aliquots (0.7ml for each) and mixed with 1 ml of cryopreservation solution (G1, control) alone, or enriched with 5% honey (G2) or with 10% honey (G3) for cryopreservation. Cryopreservation was done at -196°C in liquid nitrogen and thawing was performed after six months. Direct swim up technique was used for in vitro sperm preparation post-thawing. Sperm parameters were assessed and data were statistically analyzed pre- and post-thawing. Results Results appeared that the percentage of sperm motility for G1 and G2 groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) post-thawing when compared to pre-cryopreservation. However, there was no significant difference in the total motility (%) of the post-thaw sperm between the G1 and G2 groups. While there was significant increased (P < 0.05) in the percentage of normal sperm morphology for G1 and G3 groups post-thawing. Post-thawing normal sperm morphology (%) for G3 group was significantly increased (P < 0.05) as compared to G1 and G2 groups. In contrast non significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between G1 and G2 groups. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) was seen in the sperm concentration for all groups post-thawing as compared to pre-cryopreservation groups. After thawing the results reveal significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the sperm agglutination (%) for G3 group as compared to G1 and G2 groups. Conclusion The results of this study indicated that the supplementation of honey (10%) to cryoprotectant solution results in enhancement of sperm quality post-thawing. PMID:24971130

  8. Urinary Concentrations of Parabens and Serum Hormone Levels, Semen Quality Parameters, and Sperm DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, John D.; Yang, Tiffany; Ye, Xiaoyun; Calafat, Antonia M.; Hauser, Russ

    2011-01-01

    Background Parabens are commonly used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and food and beverage processing. Widespread human exposure to parabens has been recently documented, and some parabens have demonstrated adverse effects on male reproduction in animal studies. However, human epidemiologic studies are lacking. Objective We investigated relationships between urinary concentrations of parabens and markers of male reproductive health in an ongoing reproductive epidemiology study. Methods Urine samples collected from male partners attending an infertility clinic were analyzed for methyl paraben (MP), propyl paraben (PP), butyl paraben (BP), and bisphenol A (BPA). Associations with serum hormone levels (n = 167), semen quality parameters (n = 190), and sperm DNA damage measures (n = 132) were assessed using multivariable linear regression. Results Detection rates in urine were 100% for MP, 92% for PP, and 32% for BP. We observed no statistically significant associations between MP or PP and the outcome measures. Categories of urinary BP concentration were not associated with hormone levels or conventional semen quality parameters, but they were positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). When urinary BPA quartiles were added to the model, BP and BPA were both positively associated with sperm DNA damage (p for trend = 0.03). Assessment of paraben concentrations measured on repeated urine samples from a subset of the men (n = 78) revealed substantial temporal variability. Conclusions We found no evidence for a relationship between urinary parabens and hormone levels or semen quality, although intraindividual variability in exposure and a modest sample size could have limited our ability to detect subtle relationships. Our observation of a relationship between BP and sperm DNA damage warrants further investigation. PMID:20876036

  9. Lactotransferrin in Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) seminal plasma correlates with semen quality.

    PubMed

    Kiso, Wendy K; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L; Schmitt, Dennis L; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×10⁶ cells ml⁻¹) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species.

  10. Fertility of boar semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with butylated hydroxytoluene.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Monika; Bryła, Magdalena; Gajda, Barbara; Gogol, Piotr

    2015-02-01

    The present study was to determine the effect of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on quality and fertilizing ability of frozen-thawed boar semen. In the first experiment, five crossbreds of Polish Landrace and Large White boars (five ejaculates per boar) were frozen in 0.5 mL straws after dilution with lactose-egg yolk-glycerol extender supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM BHT. The sperm quality was verified based on the motility (computer-assisted sperm analysis; total motility, %; progressive motility, %), membrane integrity (YO-PRO-1/propidium iodide [PI] assay), acrosome integrity (fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated with peanut agglutinin/PI), and lipid peroxidation (chemiluminescence method) at 15 minutes postthaw. In the second experiment, the semen cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT were selected for intrauterine artificial insemination of synchronized gilts. An intrauterine artificial insemination with low numbers of spermatozoa (500 × 10(6)) was surgically infused into each uterine horn. The highest (P < 0.001) progressive motility (%), membrane integrity, and acrosomal integrity were noted by the addition of 1.0 and 2.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender. Moreover, the various concentrations (0.5-2.0 mM) of BHT caused a considerable decrease in lipid peroxidation in relation to the control extender (P < 0.001). The highest reproductive performance of inseminated gilts (farrowing rate, 86.7%; litter size, 10.8 ± 1.6) was observed when semen was cryopreserved in extender supplemented with 1.0 mM BHT. These findings demonstrate that the addition of 1.0 mM BHT to the freezing extender efficiently improves the fertilizing ability of postthaw boar spermatozoa. PMID:25468554

  11. Lactotransferrin in Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) Seminal Plasma Correlates with Semen Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kiso, Wendy K.; Selvaraj, Vimal; Nagashima, Jennifer; Asano, Atsushi; Brown, Janine L.; Schmitt, Dennis L.; Leszyk, John; Travis, Alexander J.; Pukazhenthi, Budhan S.

    2013-01-01

    Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) have highly variable ejaculate quality within individuals, greatly reducing the efficacy of artificial insemination and making it difficult to devise a sperm cryopreservation protocol for this endangered species. Because seminal plasma influences sperm function and physiology, including sperm motility, the objectives of this study were to characterize the chemistry and protein profiles of Asian elephant seminal plasma and to determine the relationships between seminal plasma components and semen quality. Ejaculates exhibiting good sperm motility (≥65%) expressed higher percentages of spermatozoa with normal morphology (80.3±13.0 vs. 44.9±30.8%) and positive Spermac staining (51.9±14.5 vs. 7.5±14.4%), in addition to higher total volume (135.1±89.6 vs. 88.8±73.1 ml) and lower sperm concentration (473.0±511.2 vs. 1313.8±764.7×106 cells ml−1) compared to ejaculates exhibiting poor sperm motility (≤10%; P<0.05). Comparison of seminal plasma from ejaculates with good versus poor sperm motility revealed significant differences in concentrations of creatine phosphokinase, alanine aminotransferase, phosphorus, sodium, chloride, magnesium, and glucose. These observations suggest seminal plasma influences semen quality in elephants. One- and two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis revealed largely similar compositional profiles of seminal plasma proteins between good and poor motility ejaculates. However, a protein of ∼80 kDa was abundant in 85% of ejaculates with good motility, and was absent in 90% of poor motility ejaculates (P<0.05). We used mass spectrometry to identify this protein as lactotransferrin, and immunoblot analysis to confirm this identification. Together, these findings lay a functional foundation for understanding the contributions of seminal plasma in the regulation of Asian elephant sperm motility, and for improving semen collection and storage in this endangered species. PMID:23976974

  12. The effect of superoxide dismutase mimetic and catalase on the quality of postthawed goat semen.

    PubMed

    Shafiei, Mojtaba; Forouzanfar, Mohsen; Hosseini, Sayyed Morteza; Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein Nasr

    2015-05-01

    Manganese(III) meso-tetrakis(N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin chloride (MnTE) is a cell-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic agent which can convert superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Supplementation of MnTE to a commercial semen extender can protect sperm from superoxide but not H2O2. Therefore, we proposed that addition of catalase (0.0, 200, or 400 IU/mL) in combination with MnTE (0.1 μM) may further improve the cryopreservation efficiency of goat semen in commercially optimized freezing media such as Andromed. Therefore, ejaculates were obtained from three adult bucks twice a week during the breeding season and diluted with Andromed supplemented with or without MnTE and catalase and were frozen in liquid nitrogen. Sperm parameters and reactive oxygen species contents were evaluated 2 hours after dilution (before freezing) and after freezing/thawing. The results revealed that all the treatments significantly (P ≤ 0.05) improved sperm motility, viability, and membrane integrity after freezing and reduced reactive oxygen species content compared with the control group, but maximum improvement was obtained in MnTE + 400 IU/mL catalase. In addition, supplementation with these antioxidants significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increases the cleavage rate after IVF. In conclusion, the results of present study suggest that addition of antioxidant MnTE or catalase to commercial optimized media, such as Andromed, improves total motility, membrane integrity, and viability of goat semen samples after thawing. But the degree of improvement for these parameters significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher when MnTE and catalase were simultaneously added to the cryopreservation media. PMID:25698161

  13. Comparison of semen variables, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins in two male layer breeder lines.

    PubMed

    M, Shanmugam; T R, Kannaki; A, Vinoth

    2016-09-01

    Semen variables are affected by the breed and strain of chicken. The present study was undertaken to compare the semen quality in two lines of adult chickens with particular reference to sperm chromatin condensation, sperm DNA damage and sperm membrane proteins. Semen from a PD3 and White Leghorn control line was collected at 46 and 47 weeks and 55 weeks of age. The semen was evaluated for gross variables and sperm chromatin condensation by aniline blue staining. Sperm DNA damage was assessed by using the comet assay at 47 weeks of age and sperm membrane proteins were assessed at 55 weeks of age. The duration of fertility was studied by inseminating 100 million sperm once into the hens of the same line as well as another line. The eggs were collected after insemination for 15days and incubated. The eggs were candled on 18th day of incubation for observing embryonic development. The White Leghorn control line had a greater sperm concentration and lesser percentage of morphologically abnormal sperm at the different ages where assessments occurred. There was no difference in sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage and membrane proteins between the lines. Only low molecular weight protein bands of less than 95kDa were observed in samples of both lines. The line from which semen was used had no effect on the duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination either when used in the same line or another line. Thus, from the results of the present study it may be concluded that there was a difference in gross semen variables between the lines that were studied, however, the sperm chromatin condensation, DNA damage, membrane proteins and duration over which fertility was sustained after insemination did not differ between the lines. PMID:27470200

  14. Bivalent response to long-term storage in liquid-preserved boar semen: a flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Henning, Heiko; Petrunkina, Anna M; Harrison, Robin A P; Waberski, Dagmar

    2012-07-01

    The fertility of liquid-preserved boar semen declines during storage at 17°C, insemination trials even indicating early losses in fertilizing ability within the first 24-48 h of storage. Standard semen parameters barely reflect these changes in semen quality, and new approaches for assessment of functional changes in stored spermatozoa are needed. Capacitation, the essential prefertilization step for spermatozoa in the female genital tract, is specifically induced in vitro by bicarbonate. Therefore, we have investigated changes in responsiveness of boar spermatozoa to bicarbonate during storage. Ejaculates of 14 boars were diluted in Beltsville thawing solution, cooled to 17°C and stored for 12, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h before investigation. At each time, basic semen quality was characterized by sperm motility and viability. Subsequently, washed subsamples were