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Sample records for delaware basin class

  1. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Mendez, Daniel L.

    2001-05-08

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover oil more economically through geologically based field development. This project was focused on East Ford field, a Delaware Mountain Group field that produced from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 9160, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO2 flood was being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  2. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  3. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  4. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.

    2000-07-07

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstone's of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO{sub 2} flood in the demonstration area.

  5. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.; Zirczy, Helena H.

    2000-05-24

    The objective of this Class 3 project was to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, was completed this year, and Phase 2 began. The project is focused on East Ford field, a representative Delaware Mountain Group field that produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The field, discovered in 1960, is operated by Oral Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit. A CO{sub 2} flood is being conducted in the unit, and this flood is the Phase 2 demonstration for the project.

  6. Hydrogeology of the West Branch Delaware River basin, Delaware County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, began a study of the hydrogeology of the West Branch Delaware River (Cannonsville Reservoir) watershed. There has been recent interest by energy companies in developing the natural gas reserves that are trapped within the Marcellus Shale, which is part of the Hamilton Group of Devonian age that underlies all the West Branch Delaware River Basin. Knowing the extent and thickness of stratified-drift (sand and gravel) aquifers within this basin can help State and Federal regulatory agencies evaluate any effects on these aquifers that gas-well drilling might produce. This report describes the hydrogeology of the 455-square-mile basin in the southwestern Catskill Mountain region of southeastern New York and includes a detailed surficial geologic map of the basin. Analysis of surficial geologic data indicates that the most widespread surficial geologic unit within the basin is till, which is present as deposits of ablation till in major stream valleys and as thick deposits of lodgment till that fill upland basins. Till and colluvium (remobilized till) cover about 89 percent of the West Branch Delaware River Basin, whereas stratified drift (outwash and ice-contact deposits) and alluvium account for 8.9 percent. The Cannonsville Reservoir occupies about 1.9 percent of the basin area. Large areas of outwash and ice-contact deposits occupy the West Branch Delaware River valley along its entire length. These deposits form a stratified-drift aquifer that ranges in thickness from 40 to 50 feet (ft) in the upper West Branch Delaware River valley, from 70 to 140 ft in the middle West Branch Delaware River valley, and from 60 to 70 ft in the lower West Branch Delaware River valley. The gas-bearing Marcellus Shale underlies the entire West Branch Delaware River Basin and ranges in thickness from 600 to 650 ft along the northern divide of the basin to 750 ft thick

  7. Selected streamflow data for the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopp, Robert D.; Gillespie, Brian D.

    1979-01-01

    Selected streamflow data for the Delaware River basin include runoff-precipitation relationships for 28 selected subbasins for the period 1941-70; low-flow frequency curves for four mainstem Delaware River sites; monthly comparative duration curves and twenty year hydrographs at Montague and Trenton, New Jersey; and flow duration tables based on observed daily streamflow for gaging stations near 21 proposed dam sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Chemical character of streams in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Peter W.; McCarthy, Leo T.

    1963-01-01

    The water chemistry of streams in the Delaware River basin falls into eight general groups, when mapped according to the prevalent dissolved-solids content and the predominant ions normally found in the water. The approximate regions representing each of these iso-chemical quality groups are shown on the accompanying base map of the drainage basin.

  9. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, Shirley

    1999-11-09

    The objective of this Class 3 project was demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area.

  10. Forward stratigraphic modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S.

    1996-12-31

    Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world`s most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined stratigraphic framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward stratigraphic model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is inversely modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the inverse model.

  11. Forward stratigraphic modeling of the Permian of the Delaware Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Qiucheng, Ye; Kerans, C.; Bowman, S. )

    1996-01-01

    Permian platform-to-basin strata of the Delaware Basin In west Texas and New Mexico represent one of the world's most complete, best studied, and most hydrocarbon productive records of this geologic period in the world. This superb marriage of a refined stratigraphic framework and active exploration provided impetus to develop a forward stratigraphic model of this section to better predict the distribution of reservoir and seal relationships. The approximately 30 m.y. interval modeled is composed of 2 km of platform strata and 3 km of basinal strata divided into 8 composite sequences (average 3 m.y. duration) and 45 high-frequency sequences (400 ky m.y. duration). A 130 km dip section through the basin margin Guadalupe/Deleware Mountain outcrop is inversely modeled to derive local tectonic subsidence and a sea level curve for the Permian. In this process, the highest and lowest shoreline positions of each sequence are interpreted based on facies description which are assumed to approximate the highest and lowest relative sea level. A eustatic sea level curve is calculated by restoring these shoreline positions and removing local tectonic subsidence using a polynomial fit to the derived relative sea level curve. The quantitatively constrained curve for the Permian contains 2nd, 3rd, and 4th order 180m. This quantitatively constrained accommodation history (calculated eustatic curve and subsidence history) are input into the PHIL forward modeling program. Model variables of sediment supply are depositional system are adjusted to match known outcrop relations. The resulting model is potentially capable of predicting stratigraphy elsewhere in the basin using only subsidence history data from the inverse model.

  12. Characterization of a Delaware slope basin reservoir for optimal development

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.W.; Ouenes, A.; Sultan, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    A reliable reservoir description is essential to various scenarios for successful field development. In this study, various new tools have been applied to fully characterize the East Livingston Ridge Delaware reservoir. The Delaware formations in their slope/basin environment are difficult to characterize due to the channels in the submarine fans. Using well logs, a complex 3-D reservoir model composed of a channel through the bottom three layers of a seven layer model with one non-oil bearing zone was constructed to represent this complex depositional setting. Drastic changes in layer lithologies resulting in multiple oil/water contacts and varying water saturations required detailed log interpretation. The porosity logs were tuned with available sidewall core information. Log porosity was determined for each layer at each well and kriging was used to estimate the areal distribution of the porosity. Porosity-permeability correlations for each layer were developed from sidewall core data. The correlations were used to make an initial estimate of the interwell permeabilities. A production history match was not possible with the initial characterization of the reservoir. The production rates of the oil, gas, and water phases of each of the twenty-three wells in the East Livingston Ridge field and the pressure data were automatically history matched using a recently developed simulated annealing technique. The absolute and relative permeabilities of the layers were varied automatically during the history matching phase of the reservoir study. The larger scale properties resulting from the calibrated model were used to forecast the results of continued primary, infill drilling and/or waterflooding.

  13. A checklist of the aquatic invertebrates of the Delaware River Basin, 1990-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bilger, Michael D.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Wall, Gretchen L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper details a compilation of aquatic-invertebrate taxa collected at 1,080 sites as part of 13 surface-water-quality studies completed by selected Federal, state, and local environmental agencies during 1990-2000, within the 32,893-km2 area of the Delaware River Basin. This checklist is intended to be a 'working list' of aquatic invertebrates that can be applied successfully to the calculation and interpretation of various biological estimators to determine the status of water quality and can be used as a foundation to document the current state of biodiversity. It is not intended as a comprehensive historical inventory of the literature or of private and public holdings. A total of 11 phyla comprising 20 classes, 46 orders, 196 families, 685 genera, and 835 species were recorded.

  14. Water quality trends in the Delaware River Basin (USA) from 1980 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Gerald J; Homsey, Andrew R; Belden, Andrew C; Sanchez, Jessica Rittler

    2011-06-01

    In 1940, the tidal Delaware River was "one of the most grossly polluted areas in the United States." During the 1950s, water quality was so poor along the river at Philadelphia that zero oxygen levels prevented migration of American shad leading to near extirpation of the species. Since then, water quality in the Delaware Basin has improved with implementation of the 1961 Delaware River Basin Compact and 1970s Federal Clean Water Act Amendments. At 15 gages along the Delaware River and major tributaries between 1980 and 2005, water quality for dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment improved at 39%, remained constant at 51%, and degraded at 10% of the stations. Since 1980, improved water-quality stations outnumbered degraded stations by a 4 to 1 margin. Water quality remains good in the nontidal river above Trenton and, while improved, remains fair to poor for phosphorus and nitrogen in the tidal estuary near Philadelphia and in the Lehigh and Schuylkill tributaries. Water quality is good in heavily forested watersheds (>50%) and poor in highly cultivated watersheds. Water quality recovery in the Delaware Basin is coincident with implementation of environmental laws enacted in the 1960s and 1970s and is congruent with return of striped bass, shad, blue crab, and bald eagle populations. PMID:20665109

  15. Water Quality in the Delaware River Basin, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Hickman, R. Edward; Chichester, Douglas C.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Delaware River Basin. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that quality compares to the quality of water in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Delaware River Basin summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed from http://nj.water.usgs.gov/nawqa/delr/. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report, in addition to reports in this series from other basins, can be accessed from the national NAWQA Web site (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa).

  16. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and... Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.556 Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware...

  17. Simulated effects of climatic change on runoff and drought in the Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, Mark A.; Tasker, Gary D.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; ,

    1990-01-01

    Various projection of climatic change were applied to watershed models of the Delaware River basin. Simulations indicate that a warming could reduce annual runoff by as much as 25 percent if current precipitation patterns continue. Simulations indicate that the largest changes in basin drought are in response to relatively small changes in precipitation. Basin drought was less sensitive to increases in temperature, reservoir capacity, ground-water pumpage during drought, and consumptive water use--in that order of importance. The effects of global warming on basin runoff and drought cannot be determined precisely, as yet, principally because of the unreliability of precipitation projections.

  18. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope, and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley P. Dutton

    1998-07-31

    The objective of this Class 3 project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two main phases. The original objectives of the reservoir-characterization phase of the project were (1) to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two representative fields of the Delaware Mountain Group, Geraldine Ford and Ford West, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, (2) to chose a demonstration area in one of the fields, and (3) to simulate a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area. The Bureau's industry partner for the initial Phase 1 of the project was Conoco, Inc.. After the reservoir characterization and simulation of an area at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit were completed, Conoco decided not to proceed to Phase 2, installation of a CO 2 flood in the demonstration area. This decision by Conoco provides an opportunity for a more extensive field demonstration in East Ford field, with Orla Petco as the industry partner. East Ford field is immediately adjacent to the Ford Geraldine unit and produces from the same Ramsey sandstone channel. Phase 1 of the project has been expanded to include reservoir characterization of East Ford field. This additional reservoir-characterization task provides an excellent opportunity to test the transferability of the geologic model and log-interpretation methods developed during reservoir characterization of the Ford Geraldine unit to another Delaware sandstone field. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project remain the same, to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and

  19. Reservoir Operations and Flow Modeling to Support Decision Making in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinodoz, H. A.

    2006-12-01

    About five percent of the US population depends on the waters from the Delaware River Basin for its water supply, including New York City and Philadelphia. Water management in the basin is governed by a compact signed in 1961 by the four basin states and the federal government. The compact created the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC) and gave it broad powers to plan, regulate, and manage the development of the basin water resources. The compact also recognized a pre-existing (1954) U.S. Supreme Court Decree that grants the City of New York the right to export up to 800 million gallons per day out of the basin, provided that a prescribed minimum flow is met at Montague, New Jersey for the use of the lower-basin states. The Delaware River Basin Compact also allows the DRBC to adjust the releases and diversions under the Decree, subject to the unanimous consent of the decree parties. This mechanism has been used several times over the last 30 years, to implement and modify rules governing drought operations, instream flows, minimum flow targets, and control of salinity intrusion. In every case, decision makers have relied upon extensive modeling of alternative proposals, using a basin-wide daily flow model. Often, stakeholders have modified and used the same model to test and refine their proposals prior to consideration by the decision makers. The flow model has been modified over the years, to simulate new features and processes in a river system partially controlled by more than ten reservoirs. The flow model has proved to be an adaptable tool, able to simulate the dynamics of a complex system driven by conflicting objectives. This presentation reviews the characteristics of the daily flow model in its current form, discuss how model simulations are used to inform the decision-making process, and provide a case study of a recent modification of the system-wide drought operating plan.

  20. Records available to September 30, 1956, on use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kammerer, John C.

    1957-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize data on the use of water in the Delaware Basin Project area (fig. 2) and to list the principal data sources that are available in published form. The tables and bibliography will assist Geological Survey personnel assigned to the Delaware Basin Project in evaluating the scope and deficiencies of previous studies of the basin. Information is also given on the use of water by public supplies in the New York-New Jersey region comprising the New York City Metropolitan Area and in the remaining north-central and south-eastern parts of New Jersey. These regions may depend increasingly on water from the Delaware River basin for part of their public supplies. The Geological Survey has the responsibility for appraising and describing the water resources of the Nation as a guide to use, development, control, and conservation of these resources. Cooperative Federal-State water-resources investigations in the Delaware Basin States have been carried on the the Geological Survey for more than 50 years. In July 1956 the Survey began the "Delaware Basin Project," a hydrologic study of the Delaware River basin in order to: 1) Determine present status and trends in water availability, quality, and use, 2) assess and improve the adequacy of the Survey's basic water data program in the basin, 3) interpret and evaluate the water-resources data in terms of past and possible future water-use and land-use practices, and 4) disseminate promptly the results of this investigation for the benefit of all interested agencies and the general public. The Geological Survey is working closely with the U.S. Corps of Engineers and other cooperating Federal and State agencies in providing water data which will contribute to the present coordinated investigation aimed at developing a plan for long-range water development in the Delaware River basin. Estimates of quantities of water used are given for water withdrawn from streams and aquifers during calendar

  1. Permian Bone Spring formation: Sandstone play in the Delaware basin. Part I - slope

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1997-08-01

    New exploration in the Permian (Leonardian) Bone Spring formation has indicated regional potential in several sandstone sections across portions of the northern Delaware basin. Significant production has been established in the first, second, and third Bone Spring sandstones, as well as in a new reservoir interval, the Avalon sandstone, above the first Bone Spring sandstone. These sandstones were deposited as submarine-fan systems within the northern Delaware basin during periods of lowered sea level. The Bone Spring as a whole consists of alternating carbonate and siliciclastic intervals representing the downdip equivalents to thick Abo-Yeso/Wichita-Clear Fork carbonate buildups along the Leonardian shelf margin. Hydrocarbon exploration in the Bone Spring has traditionally focused on debris-flow carbonate deposits restricted to the paleoslope. Submarine-fan systems, in contrast, extend a considerable distance basinward of these deposits and have been recently proven productive as much as 40-48 km south of the carbonate trend.

  2. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  3. Preliminary analysis of ERTS-relayed water resources data in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary analysis of ERTS-DCS data from water-resources stations in the Delaware River Basin indicates that the Data-Collection System is performing well. Data-Collections Platforms have been successfully interfaced with five stream-gaging station and three ground-water observation wells and are being interfaced with 12 water-quality monitors in the basin. Data are being relayed during four or five ERTS orbital passes per day, which is within the design specifications of the ERTS-DCS.

  4. Estimation of daily mean streamflow for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin, water years 1960–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.

    2016-06-09

    The ability to characterize baseline streamflow conditions, compare them with current conditions, and assess effects of human activities on streamflow is fundamental to water-management programs addressing water allocation, human-health issues, recreation needs, and establishment of ecological flow criteria. The U.S. Geological Survey, through the National Water Census, has developed the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) to estimate baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) and altered streamflow at a daily time step for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin for water years 1960–2010. Daily mean baseline streamflow is estimated by using the QPPQ method to equate streamflow expressed as a percentile from the flow-duration curve (FDC) for a particular day at an ungaged stream location with the percentile from a FDC for the same day at a hydrologically similar gaged location where streamflow is measured. Parameter-based regression equations were developed for 22 exceedance probabilities from the FDC for ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin. Water use data from 2010 is used to adjust the baseline daily mean streamflow generated from the QPPQ method at ungaged stream locations in the Delaware River Basin to reflect current, or altered, conditions. To evaluate the effectiveness of the overall QPPQ method contained within DRB-SET, a comparison of observed and estimated daily mean streamflows was performed for 109 reference streamgages in and near the Delaware River Basin. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values were computed as a measure of goodness of fit. The NSE values (using log10 streamflow values) ranged from 0.22 to 0.98 (median of 0.90) for 45 streamgages in the Upper Delaware River Basin and from -0.37 to 0.98 (median of 0.79) for 41 streamgages in the Lower Delaware River Basin.

  5. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew G. Cole; George B. Asquith; Jose I. Guzman; Mark D. Barton; Mohammad A. Malik; Shirley P. Dutton; Sigrid J. Clift

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based enhanced oil recovery. The study focused on the Ford Geraldine unit, which produces from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). Reservoirs in this and other Delaware Mountain Group fields have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Outcrop analogs were studied to better interpret the depositional processes that formed the reservoirs at the Ford Geraldine unit and to determine the dimensions of reservoir sandstone bodies. Facies relationships and bedding architecture within a single genetic unit exposed in outcrop in Culberson County, Texas, suggest that the sandstones were deposited in a system of channels and levees with attached lobes that initially prograded basinward, aggraded, and then turned around and stepped back toward the shelf. Channel sandstones are 10 to 60 ft thick and 300 to 3,000 ft wide. The flanking levees have a wedge-shaped geometry and are composed of interbedded sandstone and siltstone; thickness varies from 3 to 20 ft and length from several hundred to several thousands of feet. The lobe sandstones are broad lens-shaped bodies; thicknesses range up to 30 ft with aspect ratios (width/thickness) of 100 to 10,000. Lobe sandstones may be interstratified with laminated siltstones.

  6. Structural controls on Ochoan salt dissolution and Delaware Mountain Group oil field permeability trends in the Delaware basin, west Texas and southeast New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zaengle, J.F.; Lohmann, K.C. )

    1991-03-01

    A Landsat TM image of the Delaware basin, west Texas and southeast New Mexico, reveals geomorphic lineaments and tonal anomalies with preferred northwest-southeast and northeast-southwest orientations. Lineament orientations are the same as the trend of joints and fractures observed in Delaware Mountain exposures and from subsurface borehole break-out and televiewer data. These data suggest that lineament trends are controlled by subsurface joints and fractures. Petrographic data indicate that Delaware Mountain Group porosity/permeability development is controlled in large part by the occurrence of calcite/dolomite cement and chlorite/corrensite clays. The unimodality of grain size, sorting, and framework grain mineralogy, along with the virtual absence of detrital clays, favors a diagenetic control on cementation patterns. These observations coupled with formation water chemistry, and cement carbon-oxygen isotope and fluid inclusion data suggest that the occurrence of Delaware Mountain Group cements is related to diagenetic alteration by waters that have dissolved Ochoan halite and potash salts. Hydrodynamic fluid flow along joint and fracture systems coupled with rock-water interactions are proposed that account for the coincidence of salt dissolution fronts and oil field permeability barriers as well as formation water chemical trends and cement isotopic signatures. Preliminary data suggest fracture systems provide conduits for hydrodynamic fluid flow capable of extensive Ochoan salt dissolution and the transport of reactive solutions to remote horizons both laterally and vertically in the basin.

  7. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... areas, found in 33 CFR 165.13, apply to the regulated navigation area described in paragraph (a) of this...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area:...

  8. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  9. Measuring College and Career Readiness: The Class of 2009. Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Measuring College and Career Readiness" report for each state represents a snapshot of the ACT-tested graduates in the class of 2009 and focuses on their readiness for college and careers. Designed to inform policymakers and practitioners about selected indicators of effectiveness, the report is not intended to be comprehensive but instead is…

  10. The Role of Remotely Sensed and Relayed Data in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W.

    1971-01-01

    The planned integration of the existing water quality monitoring and data processing systems in the Delaware River Basin with a data relay experiment proposed for the ERTS-1 is discussed. The experiment is designed to use ERTS-1 as a data relay link for a maximum of 20 hydrologic stations in the basin, including stream gaging, reservoir level, ground water level, and water quality monitoring stations. This experiment has the potential for reducing the time lag between data collection and dissemination to less than 12 hours. The experiment will also provide impetus to develop an operational system of real time data processing and dissemination to handle the large quantity of data that will be obtained from the stations in the basin. The results of this experiment will demonstrate the relative merits of satellite relay of data versus conventional means of data telemetry and will provide a basis for the development of operational satellite relay of hydrologic data.

  11. User’s guide for the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2016-06-09

    IntroductionThe Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) is a tool for the simulation of streamflow at a daily time step for an ungaged stream location in the Delaware River Basin. DRB-SET was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and funded through WaterSMART as part of the National Water Census, a USGS research program on national water availability and use that develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at the regional and national scales. DRB-SET relates probability exceedances at a gaged location to those at an ungaged stream location. Once the ungaged stream location has been identified by the user, an appropriate streamgage is automatically selected in DRB-SET using streamflow correlation (map correlation method). Alternately, the user can manually select a different streamgage or use the closest streamgage. A report file is generated documenting the reference streamgage and ungaged stream location information, basin characteristics, any warnings, baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) daily mean streamflow, and the mean and median streamflow. The estimated daily flows for the ungaged stream location can be easily exported as a text file that can be used as input into a statistical software package to determine additional streamflow statistics, such as flow duration exceedance or streamflow frequency statistics.

  12. User’s guide for the Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThe Delaware River Basin Streamflow Estimator Tool (DRB-SET) is a tool for the simulation of streamflow at a daily time step for an ungaged stream location in the Delaware River Basin. DRB-SET was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and funded through WaterSMART as part of the National Water Census, a USGS research program on national water availability and use that develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at the regional and national scales. DRB-SET relates probability exceedances at a gaged location to those at an ungaged stream location. Once the ungaged stream location has been identified by the user, an appropriate streamgage is automatically selected in DRB-SET using streamflow correlation (map correlation method). Alternately, the user can manually select a different streamgage or use the closest streamgage. A report file is generated documenting the reference streamgage and ungaged stream location information, basin characteristics, any warnings, baseline (minimally altered) and altered (affected by regulation, diversion, mining, or other anthropogenic activities) daily mean streamflow, and the mean and median streamflow. The estimated daily flows for the ungaged stream location can be easily exported as a text file that can be used as input into a statistical software package to determine additional streamflow statistics, such as flow duration exceedance or streamflow frequency statistics.

  13. Dissolution of evaporites in and around the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico and west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, S.J.

    1983-03-01

    permian evaporites in the Ochoan Castile, Salado, and Rustler Formations in the Delaware Basin of southeast New Mexico and west Texas have been subjected to various degrees of dissolution (notably of halite and gypsum) through geologic time. Eastward tilting of the Delaware Basin has resulted in the exhumation and erosion of Ochoan rocks in the western part of the basin. Waters in the Capitan, Rustler, Castile, and Bell Canyon Formations have previously been proposed as agents or consequences of evaporite dissolution according to four principal models: solution-and-fill, phreatic dissolution, brine density flow, and stratabound dissolutin (along bedding planes). Several geomorphological features of positive and negative relief have previously been cited as indicators of evaporite dissolution. Brine density flow has been used to explain the selective dissolution of certain evaporite horizons during the late Cenozoic. A review of available geological data has revealed that: Halite deposition was probably not so extensive as formerly believed. Waters with potential to dissolve evaporites are in the Rustler and Capitan, but not in the Bell Canyon, Salado mine seeps, or the Castile brine reservoirs. Brine density flow has not been active in removing most of the missing halite, nor are point-source dissolution features likely to have their roots at the Bell Canyon. Major evaporite dissolution has not been confined to the late Cenozoic, but much of it took place during the Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Tertiary periods. The Bell Canyon Formation has been a sink for dissolution-derived brine.

  14. Flood of June 26-29, 2006, Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River Basins, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.; Szabo, Carolyn O.

    2009-01-01

    A stalled frontal system caused tropical moisture to be funneled northward into New York, causing severe flooding in the Mohawk, Delaware, and Susquehanna River basins during June 26-29, 2006. Rainfall totals for this multi-day event ranged from 2 to 3 inches to greater than 13 inches in southern New York. The storm and flooding claimed four lives in New York, destroyed or damaged thousands of homes and businesses, and closed hundreds of roads and highways. Thousands of people evacuated their homes as floodwaters reached new record elevations at many locations within the three basins. Twelve New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas, more than 15,500 residents applied for disaster assistance, and millions of dollars in damages resulted from the flooding. Disaster-recovery assistance for individuals and businesses adversely affected by the floods of June 2006 reached more than $227 million. The National Weather Service rainfall station at Slide Mountain recorded storm totals of more than 8 inches of rainfall, and the stations at Walton and Fishs Eddy, NY, recorded storm totals of greater than 13 inches of rainfall. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) stream-gaging stations at Mohawk River at Little Falls, West Branch Delaware River at Hale Eddy, and Susquehanna River at Vestal, NY, among others, recorded peak discharges of 35,000 ft3/s, 43,400 ft3/s, and 119,000 ft3/s respectively, with greater than 100-year recurrence intervals. The peak water-surface elevation 21.47 ft and the peak discharge 189,000 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, at the Delaware River at Port Jervis stream-gaging station were the highest recorded since the flood of August 1955. At the Susquehanna River at Conklin, NY, stream-gaging station, which has been in operation since 1912, the peak water-surface elevation 25.02 ft and peak discharge 76,800 ft3/s recorded on June 28, 2006, exceeded the previous period-of-record maximums that were set during the flood of March 1936. Documented

  15. Spatial Characterization of Flood Magnitudes from Hurricane Irene (2011) over Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.; Smith, J. A.; Cunha, L.; Lin, N.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding from landfalling tropical cyclones can affect drainage networks over a large range of basin scales. We develop a method to characterize the spatial distribution of flood magnitudes continuously over a drainage network, with focus on flooding from landfalling tropical cyclones. We use hydrologic modeling to translate precipitation fields into a continuous representation of flood peaks over the drainage network. The CUENCAS model (Cunha 2012) is chosen because of its ability to predict flooding over various scales with minimal calibration. Taking advantage of scaling properties of flood magnitudes, a dimensionless flood index (Smith 1989, Villarini and Smith 2010) is obtained for a better representation of flood magnitudes for which the effects of basin scales are reduced. Case study analyses from Hurricane Irene are carried for the Delaware River using Stage IV radar rainfall fields. Reservoir regulation is implemented in CUENCAS since the Delaware River, like many large rivers, is strongly regulated. With limited info of dam operation and initial water level, reservoirs are represented as filters that directly reduce streamflow downstream, as a trade-off between efficiency and accuracy. Results show a correlation coefficient greater than 0.9 for all the available flood peak observations. Uncertainties are mostly from errors in rainfall fields for small watersheds, and reservoir regulation for large ones. The hydrological modeling can also be driven by simulated rainfall from historical or synthetic storms: this study fits into our long-term goal of developing a methodology to quantify the risk of inland flooding associated with landfalling tropical cyclone.

  16. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, west Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual progress report, March 31, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Hovorka, S.D.; Cole, A.G.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this Class III project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of clastic reservoirs in basinal sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover more of the original oil in place by strategic infill-well placement and geologically based field development. Reservoirs in the Delaware Mountain Group have low producibility (average recovery <14 percent of the original oil in place) because of a high degree of vertical and lateral heterogeneity caused by depositional processes and post-depositional diagenetic modification. Detailed correlations of the Ramsey sandstone reservoirs in Geraldine Ford field suggest that lateral sandstone continuity is less than interpreted by previous studies. The degree of lateral heterogeneity in the reservoir sandstones suggests that they were deposited by eolian-derived turbidites. According to the eolian-derived turbidite model, sand dunes migrated across the exposed shelf to the shelf break during sea-level lowstands and provided well sorted sand for turbidity currents or grain flows into the deep basin.

  17. Some hydrological impacts of climate change for the Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.

    1990-01-01

    To gain insight into possible impacts of climate change on water availability in the Delaware River, two models are linked. The first model is a monthly water balance model that converts the temperature and precipitation values generated by a random number generator to monthly streamflow values. The monthly streamflow values are input to a second model that simulates the operation of reservoirs and diversions within the basin. The output for the two linked models consists of time series of reservoir levels and streamflow at key points in the basin. Model results for a base case, in which monthly temperature and precipitation statistics are unchanged from historical records, are compared to several changed-climate scenarios under a standard set of rules of operation.

  18. Sequence stratigraphy of the Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation, northern Delaware basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, A.R.; Baltensperger, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Stratigraphic sequence analysis of the Pennsylvanian Morrow Formation is a new technique useful in predicting and understanding shifts in sand trends that can help locate Morrow gas reservoirs in the mature northern Delaware basin. Morrow sandstone reservoirs are fluvial deltaic channel fill and transgressive beach deposits that typically are 10-30 ft thick and consistently less than 1 mi wide. Detailed mapping and correlation within the systems tracts of each sequence can high-grade specific areas in the basin for exploration. Based on subsurface log correlations, the Morrow clastics and Atoka carbonates in the northern Delaware basin are interpreted as three stratigraphic sequences bounded by subregional type I unconformities. The post-Mississippian unconformity represents the oldest sequence boundary in the Morrow-to-Atoka succession and formed as the base level dropped and the shoreline shifted at least 50 mi basinward. The uplifted Pedernal Highlands supplied sediment to dip-trending lower Morrow channels that downcut into the exposed Mississippian carbonate ramp surface. The transgressive systems tract in this sequence consists of landward-stepping, wave-dominated deltaic deposit. The Morrow shale, a regionally correlatable organic-rich shale that separates the lower Morrow from the middle Morrow, represents the highstand deposits as base level that rose to a maximum. Another base level drop occurred at the end of Morrow shale deposition and resulted in dip-trending channel-fill sandstones and, stacked landward stepping transgressive beach and offshore ridge deposits oriented parallel to strike. The highstand progradational deposits of this sequence formed a terrace that supplied a shelf margin system of deltaic and slope-apron sediments during the succeeding third sequence. The shelf margin deposits are capped by highstand shelf carbonates of the upper Morrow and lower Atoka.

  19. Dissolved methane in groundwater, Upper Delaware River Basin, Pennsylvania and New York, 2007-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kappel, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The prospect of natural gas development from the Marcellus and Utica Shales has raised concerns about freshwater aquifers being vulnerable to contamination. Well owners are asking questions about subsurface methane, such as, “Does my well water have methane and is it safe to drink the water?” and “Is my well system at risk of an explosion hazard associated with a combustible gas like methane in groundwater?” This newfound awareness of methane contamination of water wells by stray gas migration is based upon studies such as Molofsky and others (2011) who document the widespread natural occurrence of methane in drinking-water wells in Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. In the same county, Osborn and others (2011) identified elevated methane concentrations in selected drinking-water wells in the vicinity of Marcellus Shale gas-development activities, although pre-development groundwater samples were not available for comparison. A compilation of dissolved methane concentrations in groundwater for New York State was published by Kappel and Nystrom (2012). Recent work documenting the occurrence and distribution of methane in groundwater was completed in southern Sullivan County, Pennsylvania (Sloto, 2013). Additional work is ongoing with respect to monitoring for stray gases in groundwater (Jackson and others, 2013). These studies and their results indicate the importance of collecting baseline or pre-development data. While such data are being collected in some areas, published data on methane in groundwater are sparse in the Upper Delaware River Basin of Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey. To manage drinking-water resources in areas of gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the Upper Delaware River Basin, the natural occurrence of methane in the tri-state aquifers needs to be documented. The purpose of this report is to present data on dissolved methane concentrations in the groundwater in the Upper Delaware River Basin. The scope is restricted to

  20. Decadal Change in Forest Carbon Stocks in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, B.; Plante, A. F.; Pan, Y.; Johnson, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    Forest carbon dynamics at different scales are controlled by different factors, which may alter the forest structure and processes. Long-term measurements of biomass and soil carbon stocks in a nested watershed DRB provide good opportunity for monitoring forest carbon dynamics at multiple scale, calibrating a regional forest process model, and exploring the carbon-water interaction. The Delaware River Basin (DRB) is an ideal watershed for forest carbon cycle research because the basin features diverse forest types and land-use history, and includes physiographic provinces representative of the eastern US. In 2001-2003, the Delaware River Basin Monitoring and Research Initiative established 66 forest plots in three intensive monitoring research sites (nested sub-watersheds in DRB) using Forest Service inventory protocols and enhanced measurements. Mean biomass carbon density was 235.7 × 93.7 Mg C ha-1 in French Creek, 193.2 × 83.9 Mg C ha-1 in Delaware Water Gap, and 264.7 × 74.4 Mg C ha-1 in Neversink River Basin. Soil carbon density (including forest floor and mineral soil to depth of 20 cm) was 80.1 Mg C ha-1, 85.4 Mg C ha-1, and 88.6 Mg C ha-1, respectively. These plots were revisited and re-measured in 2012-2013. In French Creek, where the biomass remeasurement was conducted in fall 2012, results show that, the average biomass carbon density increased by 17.9 Mg C ha-1 over the past decade. Changes in live biomass (live tree, sapling, shrub, herb etc.) and dead biomass (dead tree, coarse woody debris, litter, duff etc.) contribute equally to the total biomass change. However, in a few plots total biomass carbon density decreased by 7.6 to 43.1 Mg C ha-1 due to disturbance from logging or invasive species. Based on the preliminary result, the different effects of climatic, topographic and geological factors on carbon stocks could be detected among the small watersheds. But within a watershed, changes in biomass and soil carbon stocks may depend mainly on

  1. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the greenhouse effect, projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climate change; and presents the results of sensitivity analyses of how climate change might affect water resources in the Delaware River basin. Sensitivity analyses suggest that potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some scenarios for climate change come true . The results of model simulations of the basin streamflow demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing the effects that climate change versus natural climate variability have on streamflow and water supply . The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be precisely determined because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation . This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant . The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans for evaluating and responding to changes, should they occur.

  2. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the "greenhouse effect," projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climatic change, and presents the results of sensitivity-analysis studies of the potential effects of climate change on water resources in the Delaware River basin. On the basis of sensitivity analyses, potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some climatic-change scenarios become true. The results of basin streamflow-model simulations in this study demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing effects of climatic change on streamflow and water supply from effects of natural variability in current climate. The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be determined precisely because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation. This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant. The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans on how to evaluate and respond to changes, should they occur.

  3. Estimated ground-water availability in the Delaware River basin, 1997-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Buxton, Debra E.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water availability using a watershed-based approach was estimated for the 147 watersheds that make up the Delaware River Basin. This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC), supports the DRBC's Water Resources Plan for the Delaware River Basin. Different procedures were used to estimate ground-water availability for the region underlain by fractured rocks in the upper part of the basin and for surficial aquifers in the region underlain by unconsolidated sediments in the lower part of the basin. The methodology is similar to that used for the Delaware River Basin Commission's Ground-Water Protected Area in Pennsylvania. For all watersheds, ground-water availability was equated to average annual base flow. Ground-water availability for the 109 watersheds underlain by fractured rocks in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania was based on lithology and physiographic province. Lithology was generalized by grouping 183 geologic units into 14 categories on the basis of rock type and physiographic province. Twenty-three index streamflow-gaging stations were selected to represent the 14 categories. A base-flow-recurrence analysis was used to determine the average annual 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year-recurrence intervals for each index station. A GIS analysis used lithology and base flow at the index stations to determine the average annual base flow for the 109 watersheds. Average annual base flow for these watersheds ranged from 0.313 to 0.915 million gallons per day per square mile for the 2-year-recurrence interval to 0.150 to 0.505 million gallons per day per square mile for the 50-year-recurrence interval. Ground-water availability for watersheds underlain by unconsolidated surficial aquifers was based on predominant surficial geology and land use, which were determined from statistical tests to be the most significant controlling factors of base flow. Twenty-one index streamflow

  4. Estimating probabilities of reservoir storage for the upper Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for estimating conditional probabilities of reservoir system storage is described and applied to the upper Delaware River Basin. The results indicate that there is a 73 percent probability that the three major New York City reservoirs (Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink) would be full by June 1, 1981, and only a 9 percent probability that storage would return to the ' drought warning ' sector of the operations curve sometime in the next year. In contrast, if restrictions are lifted and there is an immediate return to normal operating policies, the probability of the reservoir system being full by June 1 is 37 percent and the probability that storage would return to the ' drought warning ' sector in the next year is 30 percent. (USGS)

  5. Analysis of stream-temperature variations in the Upper Delaware River Basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Owen O.

    1971-01-01

    The effect of climatologic conditions and reservoir releases on downstream conditions was determined by means of statistical and graphical analyses of stream-temperature variations measured in the upper Delaware River basin, May-September 1964-67. Climatologic conditions normally increase water temperatures from February through July and decrease them from August through January. Summer releases from New York City's Cannonsville Reservoir were observed to decrease water temperatures by 13?C (Celsius) in 8.1 miles and by 1?C, 55.9 miles downstream from this reservoir. Releases from New York City's Pepacton Reservoir were observed to decrease water temperatures by 11?C in 31.0 miles and between 1?-3?C in 71.0 miles downstream from this reservoir. The influence of releases from these reservoirs is dependent upon five factors: thermal stratification in the reservoir, depth at which water is withdrawn from the reservoir, rate of release, distance downstream from the reservoir, and climatologic conditions.

  6. Pesticide compounds in streamwater in the Delaware River Basin, December 1998-August 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, R. Edward

    2004-01-01

    During 1998-2001, 533 samples of streamwater at 94 sites were collected in the Delaware River Basin in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, and Delaware as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Of these samples, 531 samples were analyzed for dissolved concentrations of 47 pesticide compounds (43 pesticides and 4 pesticide degradation products); 70 samples were analyzed for an additional 6 pesticide degradation products. Of the 47 pesticide compounds analyzed for in 531 samples, 30 were detected. The most often detected compounds were atrazine (90.2 percent of samples), metolachlor (86.1 percent), deethylatrazine (82.5 percent), and simazine (78.9 percent). Atrazine, metolachlor, and simazine are pesticides; deethylatrazine is a degradation product of atrazine. Relations between concentrations of pesticides in samples from selected streamwater sites and characteristics of the subbasins draining to these sites were evaluated to determine whether agricultural uses or nonagricultural uses appeared to be the more important sources. Concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, and pendimethalin appear to be attributable more to agricultural uses than to nonagricultural uses; concentrations of prometon, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, tebuthiuron, trifluralin, and carbaryl appear to be attributable more to nonagricultural uses. In general, pesticide concentrations during the growing season (April-October) were greater than those during the nongrowing season (November-March). For atrazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor, the greatest concentrations generally occurred during May, June, and July. Concentrations of pesticide compounds rarely (in only 7 out of 531 samples) exceeded drinking-water standards or guidelines, indicating that, when considered individually, these compounds present little hazard to the health of the public through consumption of the streamwater. The combined effects of more than one pesticide compound in streamwater were not

  7. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M.

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  8. Water budgets for selected watersheds in the Delaware River basin, eastern Pennsylvania and western New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Buxton, Debra E.

    2005-01-01

    This pilot study, done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission, developed annual water budgets using available data for five watersheds in the Delaware River Basin with different degrees of urbanization and different geological settings. A basin water budget and a water-use budget were developed for each watershed. The basin water budget describes inputs to the watershed (precipitation and imported water), outputs of water from the watershed (streamflow, exported water, leakage, consumed water, and evapotranspiration), and changes in ground-water and surface-water storage. The water-use budget describes water withdrawals in the watershed (ground-water and surface-water withdrawals), discharges of water in the watershed (discharge to surface water and ground water), and movement of water of water into and out of the watershed (imports, exports, and consumed water). The water-budget equations developed for this study can be applied to any watershed in the Delaware River Basin. Data used to develop the water budgets were obtained from available long-term meteorological and hydrological data-collection stations and from water-use data collected by regulatory agencies. In the Coastal Plain watersheds, net ground-water loss from unconfined to confined aquifers was determined by using ground-water-flow-model simulations. Error in the water-budget terms is caused by missing data, poor or incomplete measurements, overestimated or underestimated quantities, measurement or reporting errors, and the use of point measurements, such as precipitation and water levels, to estimate an areal quantity, particularly if the watershed is hydrologically or geologically complex or the data-collection station is outside the watershed. The complexity of the water budgets increases with increasing watershed urbanization and interbasin transfer of water. In the Wissahickon Creek watershed, for example, some ground water is discharged to streams in

  9. Modeling the Effects of Land Use and Climate Change on Streamflow in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, P. Y. S.; Endreny, T. A.; Kroll, C. N.; Williamson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-cover loss and drinking-water reservoirs in the upper Delaware River Basin of New York may alter summer low streamflows, which could degrade the in-stream habitat for the endangered dwarf wedgemussel. Our project analyzes how flow statistics change with land-cover change for 30-year increments of model-simulated streamflow hydrographs for three watersheds of concern to the National Park Service: the East Branch, West Branch, and main stem of the Delaware River. We use four treatments for land cover ranging from historical high to low forest cover. We subject each land cover to adjusted GCM climate scenarios for 1600, 1900, 1940, and 2040 to isolate land cover from potential climate-change effects. Hydrographs are simulated using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER), a TOPMODEL-based United States Geological Survey hydrologic decision-support tool, which uses the variable-source-area concept and water budgets to generate streamflow. Model parameters for each watershed change with land-use, and capture differences in soil-physical properties that control how rainfall infiltrates, evaporates, transpires, is stored in the soil, and moves to the stream. Our results analyze flow statistics used as indicators of hydrologic alteration, and access streamflow events below the critical flow needed to provide sustainable habitat for dwarf wedgemussels. These metrics will demonstrate how changes in climate and land use might affect flow statistics. Initial results show that the 1940 WATER simulation outputs generally match observed unregulated low flows from that time period, while performance for regulated flow from the same time period and from 1600, 1900, and 2040 require model input adjustments. Our study will illustrate how increased forest cover could potentially restore in-stream habitat for the endangered dwarf wedgemussel for current and future climate conditions.

  10. Orbital forced rhythmites in the upper Lamar Limestone (Guadalupian) of the Delaware Basin, West Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Xuan, C.; Noble, P. J.

    2010-12-01

    Gray scale data, radiolarian relative abundance, and three types of geochemical data (oxygen isotope of bulk carbonates, organic carbon isotope, and total organic carbon) collected from an ~8 m section of the upper Lamar Limestone (Guadalupian) in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, USA, show apparent rhythms that mimic orbital variations. Spectral analyses on the radiolarian relative abundance and geochemical data, using Blackman-Tukey, multi-taper, maximum entropy, and REDFIT (Schulz, M., Mudelsee, M., 2002, REDFIT: estimating red-noise spectra directly from unevenly spaced paleoclimatic time series. Comput. Geosci. 28, 421-426) methods, reveal a common period with cycle length of ~1.16 m. Another spectral peak, which corresponds to period with cycle length of ~5.50 m, appears to be common in power spectra of the geochemical proxies. Power spectra of the high-resolution gray scale data are dominated by periods that have cycle length around 1.2-1.6 m, 0.67 m, 0.24-0.31 m, 0.14-0.18 m, and 0.07-0.09 m. Wavelet analyses confirm the existence of these cycles, and suggest that the power of the dominant periods in these parameters varies through the section, presumably due to accumulation rate variations. Average spectral misfit calculation (Meyers, S.R., Sageman, B.B., 2007, Quantification of deep-time orbital forcing by average spectral misfit. Am. J. Sci. 307, 773-792) using dominant frequencies from the power spectra of the gray scale data implies that average accumulation rates of ~1.5 cm/kyr provide the best fit of the data to orbital frequencies. Statistic tests for rejecting the null hypothesis (no orbital signal), on a wide range of average accumulation rates, also suggest lowest significance levels of the tests for accumulation rates around 1.5 cm/kyr. The ~1.5 cm/kyr accumulation rates are within the accumulation rate range estimated for the Capitanian strata in the basin-margin facies of the Delaware Basin. The Lamar Limestone appears to record the eccentricity

  11. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.; Asquith, G.B.; Barton, M.D.; Cole, A.G.; Gogas, J.; Malik, M.A.; Clift, S.J.; Guzman, J.I.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost-effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. This project involves reservoir characterization of two Late Permian slope and basin clastic reservoirs in the Delaware Basin, West Texas, followed by a field demonstration in one of the fields. The fields being investigated are Geraldine Ford and Ford West fields in Reeves and Culberson Counties, Texas. Project objectives are divided into two major phases, reservoir characterization and implementation. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of the two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once reservoir characterized was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} at the northern end of the Ford Geraldine unit was chosen for reservoir simulation. This report summarizes the results of the second year of reservoir characterization.

  12. Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

  13. Estimating exploration potential in mature producing area, northwest shelf of Delaware Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.

    1985-11-01

    The case history presented here describes an investigation of the Northwest shelf of the Delaware basin carried out in 1979 for estimating the potential of finding new reserves and a follow-up study to measure predictions against results. A total of 191 new-field wildcats had been drilled during 1974-1979 in the study area. An analysis of target zones and success ratios showed that the best chances of drilling a successful test were in the San Andres (Permian) and Silurian-Devonian. However, cumulative frequency plots of existing fields in these two intervals showed that the chance of finding a field larger than 1 million bbl (159,000 m/sup 3/) in either of these zones was relatively low. As a result of the 1979 analysis, three prospective areas representing 8% of the total study area were high graded, or rated as having a higher potential than other parts of the study area. The 1980-1983 drilling results show that the original high-graded areas contain 52% of the 21 successful San Andres tests and the only discovery in the Silurian-Devonian. However, as predicted by the analysis, all of these discoveries appear to be small. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  14. The origin of fluids in the salt beds of the Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Johnson, C.M.; White, L.D.; Roedder, E.

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope analyses have been made of (1) brines from several wells in the salt deposits of the Delaware Basin, (2) inclusion fluids in halite crystals from the ERDA No. 9 site, and (3) local ground waters of meteoric origin. The isotopic compositions indicate that the brines are genetically related and that they probably originated from the evaporation of paleo-ocean waters. Although highly variable in solute contents, the brines have rather uniform isotopic compositions. The stable isotope compositions of brine from the ERDA No. 6 site (826.3 m depth) and fluid inclusions from the ERDA No. 9 site are variable but remarkably regular and show that (1) mixing with old or modern meteoric waters has occurred, the extent of mixing apparently decreasing with depth, and (2) water in the ERDA No. 6 brine may have originated from the dehydration of gypsum. Alternatively, the data may reflect simple evaporation of meteoric water on a previously dry marine flat. Stable isotope compositions of all the waters analyzed indicate that there has been fairly extensive mixing with ground water throughout the area, but that no significant circulation has occurred. The conclusions bear importantly on the suitability of these salt beds and others as repositories for nuclear waste. ?? 1986.

  15. The use of Earth Resources Technology Satellite for relaying hydrologic data in the Delaware River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    The earth resources data acquisition systems on ERTS are providing data from the earth's surface that have great potential for resources management. The Data Collection System is providing water resources data several times a day from widely scattered locations in the Delaware River Basin. Within the constraints of an experimental test, the data are being processed and released to water resources agencies in near-real time. The results of ERTS investigations have shown that there is a potential application for satellite-borne systems for earth resources data acquisition. It is becoming clear that the solutions to many natural resource problems can be found faster and more efficiently with the help of data acquisition systems such as those on the ERTS observatory. Under operational conditions, low cost battery-operated DCP's could provide the Geological Survey with data from a large number of field instruments. These data could be used by the Geological Survey to monitor the operational status of field instrumentation and could be used by cooperating agencies to monitor a wide range of earth resources conditions. Under operational conditions, the data flow could be in real time. The delay from time of data acquisition by ERTS to the time of data availability to data users could be reduced to seconds, rather than the present lag time of a few hours.

  16. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality in both study areas is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards exceeded are color (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), pH (three samples in the Delaware study area), sodium (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), total dissolved solids (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), aluminum (one sample in the Delaware study area and one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), iron (seven samples in the St. Lawrence study area), manganese (one sample in the Delaware study area and five samples in the St. Lawrence study area), gross alpha radioactivity (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), radon-222 (10 samples in the Delaware study area and 14 samples in the St. Lawrence study area), and bacteria (

  17. Radiometric dating of Ochoan (Permian) evaporites, WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) site, Delaware Basin, New Mexico, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Brookins, D.G.; Lambert, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have attempted radiometric dating of halide-sulfate salts and clay minerals from the Delaware Basin, New Mexico, USA, as part of geochemical study of the stability of the evaporite sequence at the WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - a US DOE facilty) site. We undertook this dating to determine: (1) primary age of evaporite genesis or time(s) of recrystallization; (2) if previously undated evaporite minerals (leonite, polyhalite, kieserite) give useful data; and (3) if the detrital clay minerals have been radiometrically reset at any time following their incorporation into the evaporite medium. We have shown earlier that polyhalites can indeed be successfully dated by the K-Ar method, and once corrections are applied for admixed halide minerals, dates of 210-230 Ma for the Delaware Basin are obtained. Rb-Sr isochrons from early stage sylvites-polyhalites- anhydrites yield 220 +- 10 Ma, even when some sylvites yield lower K-Ar dates due to loss of *40-Ar. K-Ar dates on leonites and kieserities are also low due to *40-Ar loss, but their Rb-Sr dates are higher. Detrital clay minerals from the Delaware Basin collectively yield a highly scattered isochron (390 +- 77 Ma), but samples from a local area, such as the WIPP Site, give a much better age of 428 +- 7 Ma. These dates show that the interaction between the clay minerals and the evaporitic brines was insufficient to reset the clay minerals Rb-Sr systematics. In a related study, we note that a dike emplaced into the evaporite at 34 Ma had only very limited effect on the intruded rocks; contact phenomena were all within 2 m of the dike. All of our geochemical (radio-metric and trace element) studies of the WIPP site argue for preservation of the isotopic and chemical integrity of the major minerals for the past 200 Ma.

  18. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Second quarterly report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine Unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation.

  19. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley P. Dutton

    1998-04-30

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project were to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization utilized 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields was completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi 2 in one of the fields was chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the demonstration area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil can be recovered by a CO 2 flood of the demonstration area, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery CO 2 flood and well-completion program will be developed. Through technology transfer workshops and other presentations, the knowledge gained in this study can then be applied to increase production from the more than 100 other Delaware Mountain Group reservoirs.

  20. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope, and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin)

    SciTech Connect

    Shirley P. Dutton

    1997-04-30

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi 2 in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO 2 flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Through technology transfer workshops and other presentations, the knowledge gained in the comparative study of these two fields can then be applied to increase production from the more

  1. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water quality in both study areas is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards exceeded are color (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), pH (three samples in the Delaware study area), sodium (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), total dissolved solids (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), aluminum (one sample in the Delaware study area and one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), iron (seven samples in the St. Lawrence study area), manganese (one sample in the Delaware study area and five samples in the St. Lawrence study area), gross alpha radioactivity (one sample in the St. Lawrence study area), radon-222 (10 samples in the Delaware study area and 14 samples in the St. Lawrence study area), and bacteria (5 samples in the Delaware study area and 10 samples in the St. Lawrence study area). E. coli bacteria were detected in samples from two wells in the St. Lawrence study area. Concentrations of chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, thallium, zinc, and uranium did not exceed existing drinking-water standards in any of the samples collected.

  2. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay basins, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Buxton, Debra E.; Hickman, R. Edward

    1999-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 28 surface-water-quality stations within the drainage area of the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay Basins for water years 1976-93. Surface-water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and between constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall\\'s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows. Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes through time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) and constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. High- and low-flow trends in concentrations were determined for some constituents at 26 of the 28 water-quality stations. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 10 constituents at 14 or more stations. Dissolved oxygen shows seasonal dependency at all stations. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of dilution of instream concentrations from storm runoff. The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values indicate larger contributions from

  3. Effects of climatic change and climatic variability on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCabe, G.J.; Wolock, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Thornthwaite moisture index is useful as an indicator of the supply of water in an area relative to the demand under prevailing climatic conditions. This study examines the effects of long-term changes in climate (temperature and precipitation) on the Thornthwaite moisture index in the Delaware River basin. Temperature and precipitation estimates for doubled-CO2 conditions derived from three general circulation models (GCMs) are used to study the response of the moisture index for steady-state doubled-CO2 conditions and for gradual changes from present to doubled-CO2 conditions. Results of the study indicate that temperature and precipitation under doubled-CO2 conditions will cause the Thornthwaite moisture index to decrease, implying significantly drier conditions in the Delaware River basin than currently exist. The amount of decrease depends, however, on the GCM climatic-change scenario used. The results also indicate that future changes in the moisture index will be partly masked by natural year-to-year variability in temperature and precipitation. ?? 1992 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  4. Ground-Water Quality in the Delaware River Basin, New York, 2001 and 2005-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act Amendments of 1977 require that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the Delaware River Basin in New York, water samples were collected from December 2005 to February 2006 from 10 wells finished in bedrock. Data from 9 samples collected from wells finished in sand and gravel in July and August 2001 for the National Water Quality Assessment Program also are included. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures. Samples were analyzed for more than 230 properties and compounds, including physical properties, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Concentrations of most compounds were less than drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health; many of the organic analytes were not detected in any sample. Drinking-water standards that were exceeded at some sites include those for color, turbidity, pH, aluminum, arsenic, iron, manganese, radon-222, and bacteria. pH ranged from 5.6 to 8.3; the pH of nine samples was less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary drinking-water standard range of 6.5 to 8.5. Water in the basin is generally soft to moderately hard (hardness 120 milligrams per liter as CaCO3 or less). The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentrations was bicarbonate. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level. The

  5. Sulfuric acid speleogenesis of Carlsbad Cavern and its relationship to hydrocarbons, Delaware basin, New Mexico and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Sulfur-isotope data and pH-dependence of the mineral endellite support the hypothesis that Carlsbad Cavern and other caves in the Guadalupe Mountains were dissolved primarily by sulfuric acid rather than by carbonic acid. Floor gypsum deposits up to 10 m thick and native sulfur in the caves are significantly enriched in {sup 32}S; {delta}{sup 34}S values as low as {minus}25.8 {per thousand} (CDT) indicate that the cave sulfur and gypsum are the end products of microbial reactions associated with hydrocarbons. A model for a genetic connection between hydrocarbons in the basin and caves in the Guadalupe Mountains is proposed. As the Guadalupe Mountains were uplifted during the late Pliocene-Pleistocene, oil and gas moved updip in the basin. The gas reacted with sulfate anions derived from dissolution of the Castile anhydrite to form H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and castile limestone. The hydrogen sulfide rose into the Capitan reef along joints, forereef carbonate beds, or Bell Canyon siliciclastic beds and there reacted with oxygenated groundwater to form sulfuric acid and Carlsbad Cavern. A sulfuric-acid mode of dissolution may be responsible for large-scale porosity of some Delaware basin reservoirs and for oil-field karst reservoirs in other petroleum basins of the world. 8 figs.

  6. Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Fish Tissue and Bed Sediment in the Delaware River Basin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin; Bilger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program activities in the Delaware River Basin (DELR), samples of fish tissue from 21 sites and samples of bed sediment from 35 sites were analyzed for a suite of organic compounds and trace elements. The sampling sites, within subbasins ranging in size from 11 to 600 square miles, were selected to represent 5 main land-use categories in the DELR -forest, low-agricultural, agricultural, urban, and mixed use. Samples of both fish tissue and bed sediment were also collected from 4 'large-river' sites that represented drainage areas ranging from 1,300 to 6,800 square miles, areas in which the land is used for a variety of purposes. One or more of the organochlorine compounds-DDT and chlordane metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), and dieldrin- were detected frequently in samples collected over a wide geographic area. One or more of these compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples from 92 percent of the sites and in bed-sediment samples from 82 percent of the sites. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in whole white suckers and in bed sediment were significantly related to urban/industrial basin characteristics, such as percentage of urban land use and population density. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total phthalates, and phenols- were detected frequently in bed-sediment samples. All three types of SVOCs were detected in samples from at least one site in each land-use category. The highest detection rates and concentrations typically were in samples from sites in the urban and mixed land-use categories, as well as from the large-river sites. Concentrations of total PAHs and total phthalates in bed-sediment samples were found to be statistically related to percentages of urban land use and to population density in the drainage areas represented by the sampling sites. The samples of fish tissue and bed

  7. Role of sea-level change in deep water deposition along a carbonate shelf margin, Early and Middle Permian, Delaware Basin: implications for reservoir characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shunli; Yu, Xinghe; Li, Shengli; Giles, Katherine A.

    2015-04-01

    The architecture and sedimentary characteristics of deep water deposition can reflect influences of sea-level change on depositional processes on the shelf edge, slope, and basin floor. Outcrops of the northern slope and basin floor of the Delaware Basin in west Texas are progressively exposed due to canyon incision and road cutting. The outcrops in the Delaware Basin were measured to characterize gravity flow deposits in deep water of the basin. Subsurface data from the East Ford and Red Tank fields in the central and northeastern Delaware Basin were used to study reservoir architectures and properties. Depositional models of deep water gravity flows at different stages of sea-level change were constructed on the basis of outcrop and subsurface data. In the falling-stage system tracts, sandy debris with collapses of reef carbonates are deposited on the slope, and high-density turbidites on the slope toe and basin floor. In the low-stand system tracts, deep water fans that consist of mixed sand/mud facies on the basin floor are comprised of high- to low-density turbidites. In the transgression and high-stand system tracts, channel-levee systems and elongate lobes of mud-rich calciturbidite deposits formed as a result of sea level rise and scarcity of sandy sediment supply. For the reservoir architecture, the fan-like debris and high-density turbidites show high net-to-gross ratio of 62 %, which indicates the sandiest reservoirs for hydrocarbon accumulation. Lobe-like deep water fans with net-to-gross ratio of 57 % facilitate the formation of high quality sandy reservoirs. The channel-levee systems with muddy calciturbidites have low net-to-gross ratio of 30 %.

  8. Summary of hydrologic modeling for the Delaware River Basin using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.; Claggett, Peter; Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Milly, Paul C.D.; Nelson, Hugh L.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Colarullo, Susan J.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. In order to quantify the uncertainty associated with these simulations, however, streamflow and the associated hydroclimatic variables of potential evapotranspiration, actual evapotranspiration, and snow accumulation and snowmelt must be simulated and compared to long-term, daily observations from sites. This report details model development and optimization, statistical evaluation of simulations for 57 basins ranging from 2 to 930 km2 and 11.0 to 99.5 percent forested cover, and how this statistical evaluation of daily streamflow relates to simulating environmental changes and management decisions that are best examined at monthly time steps normalized over multiple decades. The decision support system provides a database of historical spatial and climatic data for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover and general circulation model forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that were parameterized by using three hydrologic response units: forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. This integration enables the regional hydrologic modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model.

  9. Bridging the GAPS from Space: A Research/Educational Partnership in the Upper Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown de Colstoun, E.; Robin, J.; Minelli, S.; Katsaros, M.; Peterec, I.; Sandt, K.

    2006-05-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program is currently developing scientific protocols to inventory and monitor the natural resources of 270 park units at the national level. These are aimed at providing critical tools needed by park managers for effective decision-making regarding the management and stewardship of the resources they are charged with protecting. We are currently developing a satellite-based regional land cover and land use monitoring protocol that addresses the immediate needs of the NPS I&M. This is a pilot project that examines land cover/use changes in and around the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area national parks from Landsat data for the period 1984 to 2005, in one the fastest growing regions in the country. The products resulting from the application of the protocols are then used to guide the simulation of land cover/use changes within a simple Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer (SVAT) model called GAPS in order to better understand the consequences of the measured land cover/use change on the water and energy cycles of the parks and surrounding areas. The data needed for product validation and model parameterization are being acquired with the assistance of students and educators from area schools using protocols established through the GLOBE program. Through focused workshops organized in collaboration with NPS educational specialists and PA regional educational service agencies called Intermediate Units, and participation in hands-on field measurement campaigns, students and educators are learning about satellite remote sensing interpretation, land cover classification, and how to measure/monitor changes in land cover/use in their communities. Students will also assist in the model simulations using the data they acquire in the field. This partnership between the Principal Investigator, the NPS, Intermediate Units and area students and educators is

  10. Assessment of the potential effects of climate change on water resources of the Delaware River basin; work plan for 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayers, M.A.; Leavesley, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    The current consensus is that some global atmospheric warming will occur as a result of increasing ' greenhouse ' gases. Water resources scientists, planners, and managers are concerned about the uncertainty associated with climatic-change effects on water supplies and what planning might be necessary to mitigate the effects. Collaborative studies between climatologists, hydrologists, biologists, and others are needed to gain this understanding. The Delaware River basin study is an interdisciplinary effort on the part of the U.S. Geological Survey that was initiated to improve understanding of the sensitivity of the basin 's water resources to the potential effects of climate change. The Delaware River basin is 12,765 sq mi in area, crosses five physiographic provinces, and supplies water for an estimated 20 million people within and outside the basin. Climate change presumably will result in changes in precipitation and temperature and could have significant effects on evapotranspiration, streamflow, and groundwater recharge. A rise in sea level is likely to accompany global warming and, depending on changes in freshwater inflows, could alter the salinity of the Estuary and increase saline-water intrusion into adjacent aquifer systems. Because the potential effects are not well understood, this report discusses how the effects of climate change on the basin 's water resources might be defined and evaluated. The study objective is to investigate the basin 's hydrologic response, under existing water management policy and infrastructure, to various scenarios of climate change. Specific objectives include defining the temporal and spatial variability of basin hydrology under existing climate conditions , developing climate-change scenarios, and evaluating the potential effects and sensitivities of basin water availability to these scenarios. The objectives will be accomplished through intensive modeling analysis of the basin 's climate, watershed, estuary, and

  11. Landscape characteristics affecting streams in urbanizing regions of the Delaware River Basin (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, U.S.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riva-Murray, K.; Riemann, R.; Murdoch, P.; Fischer, J.M.; Brightbill, R.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread and increasing urbanization has resulted in the need to assess, monitor, and understand its effects on stream water quality. Identifying relations between stream ecological condition and urban intensity indicators such as impervious surface provides important, but insufficient information to effectively address planning and management needs in such areas. In this study we investigate those specific landscape metrics which are functionally linked to indicators of stream ecological condition, and in particular, identify those characteristics that exacerbate or mitigate changes in ecological condition over and above impervious surface. The approach used addresses challenges associated with redundancy of landscape metrics, and links landscape pattern and composition to an indicator of stream ecological condition across a broad area of the eastern United States. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected during 2000-2001 from forty-two sites in the Delaware River Basin, and landscape data of high spatial and thematic resolution were obtained from photointerpretation of 1999 imagery. An ordination-derived 'biotic score' was positively correlated with assemblage tolerance, and with urban-related chemical characteristics such as chloride concentration and an index of potential pesticide toxicity. Impervious surface explained 56% of the variation in biotic score, but the variation explained increased to as high as 83% with the incorporation of a second land use, cover, or configuration metric at catchment or riparian scales. These include land use class-specific cover metrics such as percent of urban land with tree cover, forest fragmentation metrics such as aggregation index, riparian metrics such as percent tree cover, and metrics related to urban aggregation. Study results indicate that these metrics will be important to monitor in urbanizing areas in addition to impervious surface. ?? 2010 US Government.

  12. Hydrogeology of the Beaver Kill basin in Sullivan, Delaware, and Ulster Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the 299-square-mile Beaver Kill basin in the southwestern Catskill Mountains of southeastern New York is depicted in a surficial geologic map and five geologic sections, and is summarized through an analysis of low-flow statistics for the Beaver Kill and its major tributary, Willowemoc Creek. Surficial geologic data indicate that the most widespread geologic units within the basin are ablation and lodgment till. Large masses of ablation till as much as 450 feet thick were deposited as lateral embankments within the narrow Beaver Kill and Willowemoc Creek valleys and have displaced the modern stream courses by as much as 1,000 feet from the preglacial bedrock-valley axis. Low-flow statistics for the Beaver Kill and Willowemoc Creeks indicate that the base flows (discharges that are exceeded 90 percent of the time) of these two streams--0.36 and 0.39 cubic feet per square mile,respectively--are the highest of 13 Catskill Mountain streams studied. High base flows elsewhere in the glaciated northeastern United States are generally associated with large stratified-drift aquifers, however, stratified drift in these two basins accounts for only about 5 percent and 4.4 percent of their respective surface areas, respectively. The high base flows in these two basins appear to correlate with an equally high percentage of massive sandstone members of the Catskill Formation, which underlies the entire region. Ground-water seepage from these sandstone members may be responsible for the high base flows of these two streams.

  13. Pathogenic bacteria and microbial-source tracking markers in Brandywine Creek Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 2009-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Olson, Leif E.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Wilmington, Delaware, is in the downstream part of the Brandywine Creek Basin, on the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Wilmington uses this stream, which drains a mixed-land-use area upstream, for its main drinking-water supply. Because the stream is used for drinking water, Wilmington is in need of information about the occurrence and distribution of specific fecally derived pathogenic bacteria (disease-causing bacteria) and their relations to commonly measured fecal-indicator bacteria (FIB), as well as information regarding the potential sources of the fecal pollution and pathogens in the basin. This study focused on five routinely sampled sites within the basin, one each on the West Branch and the East Branch of Brandywine Creek and at three on the main stem below the confluence of the West and East Branches. These sites were sampled monthly for 1 year. Targeted event samples were collected on two occasions during high flow and two occasions during normal flow. On the basis of this study, high flows in the Brandywine Creek Basin were related to increases in FIB densities, and in the frequency of selected pathogen and source markers, in the West Branch and main stem of Brandywine Creek, but not in the East Branch. Water exceeding the moderate fullbody-contact single-sample recreational water-quality criteria (RWQC) for Escherichia coli (E. coli) was more likely to contain selected markers for pathogenic E. coli (eaeA,stx1, and rfbO157 gene markers) and bovine fecal sources (E. hirae and LTIIa gene markers), whereas samples exceeding the enterococci RWQC were more likely to contain the same pathogenic markers but also were more likely to carry a marker indicative of human source (esp gene marker). On four sample dates, during high flow between October and March, the West Branch was the only observed potential contributor of selected pathogen and bovine source markers to the main stem of Brandywine Creek. Indeed, the stx2 marker, which indicates a highly

  14. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    PubMed

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. PMID:23673831

  15. Calcitization and silicification of evaporites in Guadalupian back-reef carbonates of the Delaware basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Outcrop of the Seven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill formations contain numerous examples of evaporites that have been replaced by both quartz and calcite. The original evaporites consisted of discrete horizons, scattered nodules, enterolithic layers, and individual crystal laths of gypsum and/or anhydrite within a predominantly dolomitic matrix. Based on field and petrographic observations, evaporite replacement proceeded from the exterior to the interior of the nodules. The earliest replacement was by euhedral, black megaquartz containing abundant hydrocarbon inclusions. Calcite replacement followed silicification and consists of coarse, equant, blocky spar. Isotopic analyses of these calcites form two distinct groups: the first group ranges from -10.9 to -20.1{per thousand} (average -16.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.4 to -13.8{per thousand} (average -10.9{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O; the second group ranges from +1.4 to 5.8{per thousand} (average -2.4{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 13}C and -6.2 to 14.1{per thousand} (average -9.2{per thousand}) {delta}{sup 18}O. Evaporite silicification was coeval with hydrocarbon migration as indicated by the inclusion data. Calcitization, however, was associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting that uplifted the area causing deep groundwater circulation. The isotopically very light calcites resulted from the mixing of meteoric fluids and hydrocarbon-rich pore fluids, probably during early uplift while these strata were still at significant depth. The calcites with heavier isotopic values were produced somewhat later by meteoric fluids that had little or no contact with hydrocarbons. Evaporite diagenesis in the Delaware basin is an ongoing process that started during hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to significantly change the porosity of these units.

  16. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    PubMed

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings.

  17. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  18. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  19. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  20. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... part, include all projects other than Class I projects, in non-tidal areas of the basin, which...

  1. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  2. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, July 1 - September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sup 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Accomplishments for this past quarter are discussed.

  3. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, October 1 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir-characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Technical progress is summarized for: geophysical characterization; reservoir characterization; outcrop characterization; and recovery technology identification and analysis.

  4. Application of advanced reservoir characterization, simulation, and production optimization strategies to maximize recovery in slope and basin clastic reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin). Quarterly report, April 1,1996 - June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dutton, S.P.

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate that detailed reservoir characterization of slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico is a cost effective way to recover a higher percentage of the original oil in place through strategic placement of infill wells and geologically based field development. Project objectives are divided into two major phases. The objectives of the reservoir characterization phase of the project are to provide a detailed understanding of the architecture and heterogeneity of two fields, the Ford Geraldine unit and Ford West field, which produce from the Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon Formations, respectively, of the Delaware Mountain Group and to compare Bell Canyon and Cherry Canyon reservoirs. Reservoir characterization will utilize 3-D seismic data, high-resolution sequence stratigraphy, subsurface field studies, outcrop characterization, and other techniques. Once the reservoir- characterization study of both fields is completed, a pilot area of approximately 1 mi{sup 2} in one of the fields will be chosen for reservoir simulation. The objectives of the implementation phase of the project are to (1) apply the knowledge gained from reservoir characterization and simulation studies to increase recovery from the pilot area, (2) demonstrate that economically significant unrecovered oil remains in geologically resolvable untapped compartments, and (3) test the accuracy of reservoir characterization and flow simulation as predictive tools in resource preservation of mature fields. A geologically designed, enhanced-recovery program (CO{sub 2} flood, waterflood, or polymer flood) and well-completion program will be developed, and one to three infill wells will be drilled and cored. Progress to date is summarized for reservoir characterization.

  5. Sulfur redox reactions: Hydrocarbons, native sulfur, Mississippi Valley-type deposits, and sulfuric acid karst in the Delaware Basin, New Mexico and Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.A.

    1995-02-01

    Hydrocarbons, native sulfur, Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) deposits, and sulfuric acid karst in the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico, and west Texas, USA, are all genetically related through a series of sulfur redox reactions. The relationship began with hydrocarbons in the basin that reacted with sulfate ions from evaporite rock to produce isotopically light ({delta}{sup 34}S = -22 to -12) H{sub 2}S and bioepigenetic limestone (castiles). This light H{sub 2}S was then oxidized at the redox interface to produce economic native sulfur deposits ({delta}{sup 34}S = -15 to +9) in the castiles, paleokarst, and along graben-boundary faults. This isotopically light H{sub 2}S also migrated from the basin into its margins to accumulate in structural (anticlinal) and stratigraphic (Yates siltstone) traps, where it formed MVT deposits within the zone of reduction ({delta}{sup 34}S = -15 to +7). Later in time, in the zone of oxidation, this H{sub 2}S reacted with oxygenated water to produce sulfuric acid, which dissolved the caves (e.g., Carlsbad Cavern and Lechuguilla Cave, Guadalupe Mountains). Massive gypsum blocks on the floors of the caves ({delta}{sup 34}S = -25 to +4) were formed as a result of this reaction. The H{sub 2}S also produced isotopically light cave sulfur ({delta}{sup 34}S = -24 to -15), which is now slowly oxidizing to gypsum in the presence of vadose drip water. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Trends in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish tissue from selected sites in the Delaware River basin in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1969-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2003-01-01

    Trends in concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish tissue from selected sites in the Delaware River basin in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1969-98 by Karen Riva-Murray, Robin A. Brightbill, and Michael D. Bilger U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4066 ABSTRACT Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in fish tissue collected during the 1990's from selected sites in the Delaware River Basin were compared with concentrations in fish tissue collected during 1969-88. Data collected by State and Federal agencies on concentrations in whole-body common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and white sucker (Catostomus commersoni), and edible portions of American eel (Anguilla rostrata), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) during 1969-98 were compiled to define temporal trends in concentrations of PCBs in fish tissue from selected segments of the Delaware River, Lehigh River, Schuylkill River, and Brandywine Creek. The Delaware River in the vicinity of Trenton, New Jersey and Yardley, Pennsylvania (above the tidal influence) had the largest long-term data set among the sites considered for this study and was the only site with sufficient data for statistical analysis. A general pattern of decline in PCB concentrations during 1969-98 was apparent for this river segment. PCB concentrations in whole-body white sucker from this lower Delaware River segment declined during 1969-98 from a highest concentration of 7 micrograms per gram (?g/g, wet weight) in a sample collected during 1972 to 0.26 ?g/g (wet weight) in a sample collected during 1998. PCB concentration was negatively correlated with year (Spearman rank correlation -0.46, p < 0.08, n = 15); especially after removal of a sample from 1977 with an unusually low concentration (Spearman rank correlation -0.53, p = 0.05, n = 14). PCB concentrations in edible flesh of American eel declined during 1975-95, from a highest concentration of 3

  7. 18 CFR 415.20 - Class I projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Class I projects. 415.20 Section 415.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Types of Projects and Jurisdiction § 415.20...

  8. 18 CFR 415.20 - Class I projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Class I projects. 415.20 Section 415.20 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Types of Projects and Jurisdiction § 415.20...

  9. 18 CFR 415.21 - Class II projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Class II projects. 415.21 Section 415.21 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Types of Projects and Jurisdiction § 415.21...

  10. Overview of the structural geology and tectonics of the Central Basin Platform, Delaware Basin, and Midland Basin, West Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Hoak, T.; Sundberg, K.; Ortoleva, P.

    1998-12-31

    The structural geology and tectonics of the Permian Basin were investigated using an integrated approach incorporating satellite imagery, aeromagnetics, gravity, seismic, regional subsurface mapping and published literature. The two primary emphases were on: (1) delineating the temporal and spatial evolution of the regional stress state; and (2) calculating the amount of regional shortening or contraction. Secondary objectives included delineation of basement and shallower fault zones, identification of structural style, characterization of fractured zones, analysis of surficial linear features on satellite imagery and their correlation to deeper structures. Gandu Unit, also known as Andector Field at the Ellenburger level and Goldsmith Field at Permian and younger reservoir horizons, is the primary area of interest and lies in the northern part of Ector county. The field trends northwest across the county line into Andrews County. The field(s) are located along an Ellenburger thrust anticline trap on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform.

  11. Mesohabitat use of threatened hemlock forests by breeding birds of the Delaware River basin in northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, R.M.; Redell, L.A.; Bennett, R.M.; Young, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Avian biodiversity may be at risk in eastern parks and forests due to continued expansion of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae), an exotic homopteran insect native to East Asia. To assess avian biodiversity, mesohabitat relations, and the risk of species loss with declining hemlock forests in Appalachian park lands, 80 randomly distributed fixed-radius plots were established in which territories of breeding birds were estimated on four forest-terrain types (hemlock and hardwood benches and ravines) in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Both species richness and number of territories were higher in hardwood than hemlock forest types and in bench than ravine terrain types. Four insectivorous species, Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), blue-headed vireo (Vireo solitarius), black-throated green warbler (Dendroica virens), and Blackburnian warbler (Dendroica fusca), showed high affinity for hemlock forest type and exhibited significantly greater numbers of territories in hemlock than hardwood sites. These species are hemlock-associated species at risk from continued hemlock decline in the Delaware River valley and similar forests of the mid-Atlantic east slope. Two of these species, the blue-headed vireo and Blackburnian warbler, appeared to specialize on ravine mesohabitats of hemlock stands, the vireo a low-to-mid canopy species, the warbler a mid-to-upper canopy forager. Unchecked expansion of the exotic adelgid and subsequent hemlock decline could negatively impact 3,600 pairs from the park and several million pairs from northeastern United States hemlock forests due to elimination of preferred habitat.

  12. Strategic Reinvention: The Rodel Foundation of Delaware's Journey to Catalyzing a System of World-Class Schools. Principles for Effective Education Grantmaking. Case Study No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lynn; Wisdom, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    As the summer of 2014 began, Paul Herdman, President and CEO of the Rodel Charitable Foundation of Delaware, paused to reflect on what Delaware had accomplished over the past decade in the public education realm. Academic standards had been raised across the K-12 system, and a new assessment system aligned to those standards was being implemented.…

  13. Hydrologic effects of climate change in the Delaware River Basin, by Gregory J. McCabe, Jr. and Mark A. Ayers

    SciTech Connect

    Verbyla, D.L. )

    1990-10-01

    Water resource scientists, planners, and managers need to know what hydrology changes to expect due to CO{sub 2}-induced climate warming. McCabe and Ayer's study is a useful first-cut approximation of how climate change might affect seasonal soil moisture and runoff in the Delaware River basin. However, I question that the findings of this study are in agreement with those obtained in other climate-change studies. The change in runoff agree in direction, but the magnitudes differ according to region. Ayers estimated that unless precipitation increases, climate warming will cause a decrease in runoff. Will the effect of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} on reduced transpiration rates be a major factor influencing runoff That depends on seasonal distribution of precipitation and distribution and quantity of transpiring vegetation. The effect of CO{sub 2}-induced climate warming on watershed hydrology will be complex. Runoff changes may result from several competing factors including: warmer temperatures, changes in quantity and seasonal distribution of precipitation, changes in cloudiness, windiness, and humidity, changes in soil wetness, increased length of the growing season, increased transpiration leaf area, increased leaf temperatures, species changes in vegetation communities, increased plant water used efficiency, decreased stomatal conductance and decreased stomate density due to increased CO{sub 2}.

  14. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Brandywine Creek subbasin of the Christina River basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 mi2 (square miles) in Pennsylvania and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Brandywine Creek is the largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 327 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on streamwater quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at six sites in the Brandywine Creek subbasin and five sites in the other subbasins. The HSPF model for the Brandywine Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 35 reaches draining areas that ranged from 0.6 to 18 mi2. Three of the reaches contain regulated reservoir. Eleven different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the basin are forested

  15. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Wallkill and upper Delaware River Basins, New Jersey and vicinity, water years 1976-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Debra E.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Hickman, R. Edward

    1999-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 18 surface-water stations within the drainage basins of the Wallkill and upper Delaware Rivers in New Jersey and vicinity for water years 1976-93. Surface-water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and between constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall’s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows. Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes through time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) or constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. Highand low-flow trends in concentrations were determined for some constituents at 15 of the 18 water-quality stations; 3 stations have insufficient data to determine trends. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 16 of the 18 constituents. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of the dilution of instream concentrations by storm runoff. The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent (storm runoff) sources. Greater slope values indicate larger contributions from storm runoff to instream load

  16. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins. The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested, residential

  17. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  18. Geohydrology and simulation of ground-water flow in the Red Clay Creek Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania, and New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogel, K.L.; Reif, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    The 54-square-mile Red Clay Creek Basin, located in the lower Delaware River Basin, is underlain primarily by metamorphic rocks that range from Precambrian to Lower Paleozoic in age. Ground water flows through secondary openings in fractured crystalline rock and through primary openings below the water table in the overlying saprolite. Secondary porosity and permeability vary with hydrogeologic unit, topographic setting, and depth. Thirty-nine percent of the water-bearing zones are encountered within 100 feet of the land surface, and 79 percent are within 200 feet. The fractured crystalline rock and overlying saprolite act as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The water table is a subdued replica of the land surface. Local ground-water flow systems predominate in the basin, and natural ground-water discharge is to streams, comprising 62 to 71 percent of streamflow. Water budgets for 1988-90 for the 45-square-mile effective drainage area above the Woodale, Del., streamflow-measurement station show that annual precipitation ranged from 43.59 to 59.14 inches and averaged 49.81 inches, annual streamflow ranged from 15.35 to 26.33 inches and averaged 20.24 inches, and annual evapotranspiration ranged from 27.87 to 30.43 inches and averaged 28.98 inches. The crystalline rocks of the Red Clay Creek Basin were simulated two-dimensionally as a single aquifer under unconfined conditions. The model was calibrated for short-term steady-state conditions on November 2, 1990. Recharge was 8.32 inches per year. Values of aquifer hydraulic conductivity in hillside topographic settings ranged from 0.07 to 2.60 feet per day. Values of streambed hydraulic conductivity ranged from 0.08 to 26.0 feet per day. Prior to simulations where ground-water development was increased, the calibrated steady-state model was modified to approximate long-term average conditions in the basin. Base flow of 11.98 inches per year and a ground-water evapotranspiration rate of 2.17 inches per

  19. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Red Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Brandywine Creek, and Christina River. The Red Clay Creek is the smallest of the subbasins and drains an area of 54 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency, waterquality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpointsource contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpointsource evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at 1 site in the Red Clay Creek subbasin and at 10 sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin. The HSPF model for the Red Clay Creek subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.7 to 10 mi2. One of the reaches contains a regulated reservoir. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Red Clay Creek subbasin are agricultural, forested, residential

  20. Delaware's Dream Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    To librarians at the Delaware Division of Libraries, Governor Ruth Ann Minner, Secretary of State Harriet Smith Windsor, and Assistant Secretary of State Rick Geisenberger are "the Delaware Dream Team." The governor and her team supported funding for the 2004 statewide effort that resulted in the Delaware Master Plan for Library Services and…

  1. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  2. Analysis of Flood-Magnitude and Flood-Frequency Data for Streamflow-Gaging Stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  3. Ground-water quality and its relation to hydrogeology, land use, and surface-water quality in the Red Clay Creek basin, Piedmont Physiographic Province, Pennsylvania and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.

    1996-01-01

    The Red Clay Creek Basin in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Pennsylvania and Delaware is a 54-square-mile area underlain by a structurally complex assemblage of fractured metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks that form a water-table aquifer. Ground-water-flow systems generally are local, and ground water discharges to streams. Both ground water and surface water in the basin are used for drinking-water supply. Ground-water quality and the relation between ground-water quality and hydrogeologic and land-use factors were assessed in 1993 in bedrock aquifers of the basin. A total of 82 wells were sampled from July to November 1993 using a stratified random sampling scheme that included 8 hydrogeologic and 4 land-use categories to distribute the samples evenly over the area of the basin. The eight hydrogeologic units were determined by formation or lithology. The land-use categories were (1) forested, open, and undeveloped; (2) agricultural; (3) residential; and (4) industrial and commercial. Well-water samples were analyzed for major and minor ions, nutrients, volatile organic compounds (VOC's), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCB's), and radon-222. Concentrations of some constituents exceeded maximum contaminant levels (MCL) or secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water. Concentrations of nitrate were greater than the MCL of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen (N) in water from 11 (13 percent) of 82 wells sampled; the maximum concentration was 38 mg/L as N. Water from only 1 of 82 wells sampled contained VOC's or pesticides that exceeded a MCL; water from that well contained 3 mg/L chlordane and 1 mg/L of PCB's. Constituents or properties of well-water samples that exceeded SMCL's included iron, manganese, dissolved solids, pH, and corrosivity. Water from 70 (85 percent) of the 82 wells sampled contained radon-222 activities greater than the proposed MCL of

  4. Delaware: Library Automation and Networking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Tom

    1996-01-01

    Describes automation and networking activities among Delaware libraries, including integrated library systems for public libraries, the Delaware Technical and Community College telecommunications network, Delaware Public Library Internet access planning, digital resources, a computer/technology training center, and the Delaware Center for…

  5. Atrazine in Surface Water and Relation to Hydrologic Conditions Within the Delaware River Basin Pesticide Management Area, Northeast Kansas, July 1992 Through December 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.

    1995-01-01

    Since about 1960, atrazine has been used as an effective pre- and postemergent herbicide in the production of corn and grain sorghum. Atrazine is a triazine-class herbicide and was the most frequently detected herbicide in surface water of the lower Kansas River Basin of southeast Nebraska and northeast Kansas (Stamer and Zelt, 1994). Approximately 95 percent of the atrazine applied in the United States is used in corn and grain-sorghum production, predominately in the Mississippi River Basin where about 82 percent of the Nation's corn acreage is planted (CIBA-GEIGY Corp., 1992). Until recent changes in product labeling, atrazine commonly was applied at relatively high rates to control weeds around commercial and industrial areas and along railroad right-of-ways. Crop yields have increased during the last 40 years due in part to the use of herbicides in reducing weed growth and competition for moisture and nutrients. However, concern on the part of water suppliers, health officials, and the public also has increased regarding the safe and responsible use of herbicides. One issue is whether the widespread use of atrazine may pose a potential threat to public-water supplies in areas where the herbicide is used because of its ability to easily dissolve in water and its possible effects on the health of humans and aquatic life.

  6. Geologic framework of the offshore region adjacent to Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, R.N.; Roberts, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    Several multichannel, common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection profiles concentrated in the area of the entrance to Delaware Bay provide a tie between the known onshore geology of the Coastal Plain of Delaware and the offshore geology of the Baltimore Canyon Trough. The data provide a basis for understanding the geologic framework and petroleum resource potential of the area immediately offshore Delaware. Our research has focused on buried early Mesozoic rift basins and their geologic history. Assuming that the buried basins are analogous to the exposed Newark Supergroup basins of Late Triassic-Early Jurassic age, the most likely possibility for occurrence of hydrocarbon source beds in the area of the landward margin of the Baltimore Canyon Trough is presumed to be lacustrine, organic-rich shales probably present in the basins. Although buried basins mapped offshore Delaware are within reach of drilling, no holes have been drilled to date; therefore, direct knowledge of source, reservoir, and sealing beds is absent. Buried rift basins offshore Delaware show axial trends ranging from NW-SE to NNE-SSW. Seismic reflection profiles are too widely spaced to delineate basin boundaries accurately. Isopleths of two-way travel time representing basin fill suggest that, structurally, the basins are grabens and half-grabens. As shown on seismic reflection profiles, bounding faults of the basins intersect or merge with low-angle fault surfaces that cut the pre-Mesozoic basement. The rift basins appear to have formed by Mesozoic extension that resulted in reverse motion on reactivated basement thrust faults that originated from compressional tectonics during the Paleozoic. Computer-plotted structure contour maps derived from analysis of seismic reflection profiles provide information on the burial history of the rift basins. The postrift unconformity bevels the rift basins and, in the offshore area mapped, ranges from 2000 to 12,000 m below present sea level. The oldest

  7. A predictive model for anti-degradation monitoring of the Delaware River mainstem

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-tidal portion of the Delaware River can be considered to be in minimally disturbed condition, but there is increasing pressure on the watershed. Thus, the primary goal of this research was to develop a monitoring tool that can be used by the Delaware River Basin Commissi...

  8. Delaware and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with Delaware and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead Goals for Education", which calls for the region to lead the…

  9. Distributed Leadership in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Joan L.; Pizzini, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The Delaware Education Research and Development Center (DERDC) conducted a two-part study to determine the impacts of this program on participating schools in the state. In the first part, DERDC interviewed a sample of administrators and teachers from 6 of the 15 participating schools. Their responses helped design a survey that was administered…

  10. Influence of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) on fish community structure and function in headwater streams of the Delaware River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, R.M.; Bennett, R.M.; Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest of the eastern U.S. are in decline due to invasion by the exotic insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Aquatic biodiversity in hemlock ecosystems has not been documented; thus the true impact of the infestation cannot be assessed. We compared ichthyofaunal assemblages and trophic structure of streams draining hemlock and hardwood forests by sampling first- and second-order streams draining 14 paired hemlock and hardwood stands during base flows in July 1997 at the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Over 1400 fish of 15 species and 7 families were collected, but hemlock and hardwood streams individually harbored only one to four species. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were two to three times as prevalent in hemlock than hardwood streams. Insectivorous fishes occurred in significantly higher proportion in streams of hardwood (0.90) than hemlock (0.46) stands, while piscivores occurred more often in hemlock (0.85) than hardwood (0.54) stands. Functional (trophic) diversity of fishes in hemlock and second-order streams was numerically greater than that of hardwood and first-order streams. Species composition also differed by stream order and terrain type. Biodiversity is threatened at several levels within hemlock ecosystems at risk to the hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern U.S. forests.

  11. The Perceived Readiness of the Graduates of Delaware State University to Transition into the Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Cheatham, Lawita Germaine

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the perceived readiness of the graduating seniors at Delaware State University to transition from the classroom into the workforce. Delaware State University's undergraduate graduating class of 2012, 547 undergraduate seniors, were invited to participate in an online survey comprised of 23 items--derived…

  12. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Christina River subbasin and overview of simulations in other subbasins of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, 1994-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Christina River subbasin (exclusive of the Brandywine, Red Clay, and White Clay Creek subbasins) drains an area of 76 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking water supply, and support of aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point- and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Waterquality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint- source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the Christina River subbasin and nine sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin. The HSPF model for the Christina River subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 3.8 to 21.9 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Christina

  13. Astronomy in the Delaware Public Schools Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H.; Martin, K.; Moyer, J.; Baldwin, J.; Bole, D.; Bouchelle, H.; Densler, S.; Gizis, J.; Matthes, M.; Mills, B.; Stubbolo, G.; Sypher, J.

    2005-12-01

    100 years ago, the Committee of Ten cast astronomy into the back rooms of K-12 education, among other things. Ten years ago, the State of Delaware approved science standards which brought astronomy back to center stage. "Earth in Space" is now one of eight strands in the state's K-12 science standards. The authors of this paper form a team of university astronomers, K-12 teachers, and dedicated workers in the state's department of education. We guide statewide efforts to transform the nice words in the standards into high-quality classroom teaching. Our most robust achievements are in middle school, where the the FOSS Planetary Systems kit has given all Delaware eighth grade students an extensive exposure to astronomy. The authors of this paper have written additional materials, most classroom-tested by us, to supplement the kit and align the contents of the 8th grade curriculum with the Delaware standards. Pilot testing of the new curricular units begins in the spring of 2006, and astronomy questions will soon appear on the state assessments. Implementation of the standards in K-5 and in high school now varies considerably from teacher to teacher. We plan to help teachers who know little or no astronomy do more in their classes. In high school, a unit on the Big Bang will be developed in conjunction with a unit on biological evolution. In K-5, astronomy activities can naturally be introduced along with the other science curriculum kits that the state has used for the past decade to produce demonstrable, statistically significant improvements in student achievement. HS will lead a small team which will develop support materials. We thank the State of Delaware, private industries, the National Science Foundations Distinguished Teaching Scholars Program (DUE-0306557), and the NASA E/PO program for support.

  14. Transportability Class of Americium in K Basin Sludge under Ambient and Hydrothermal Processing Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmitt, Bruce E.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2006-08-01

    This report establishes the technical bases for using a ''slow uptake'' instead of a ''moderate uptake'' transportability class for americium-241 (241Am) for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) dose consequence analysis. Slow uptake classes are used for most uranium and plutonium oxides. A moderate uptake class has been used in prior STP analyses for 241Am based on the properties of separated 241Am and its associated oxide. However, when 241Am exists as an ingrown progeny (and as a small mass fraction) within plutonium mixtures, it is appropriate to assign transportability factors of the predominant plutonium mixtures (typically slow) to the Am241. It is argued that the transportability factor for 241Am in sludge likewise should be slow because it exists as a small mass fraction as the ingrown progeny within the uranium oxide in sludge. In this report, the transportability class assignment for 241Am is underpinned with radiochemical characterization data on K Basin sludge and with studies conducted with other irradiated fuel exposed to elevated temperatures and conditions similar to the STP. Key findings and conclusions from evaluation of the characterization data and published literature are summarized here. Plutonium and 241Am make up very small fractions of the uranium within the K Basin sludge matrix. Plutonium is present at about 1 atom per 500 atoms of uranium and 241Am at about 1 atom per 19000 of uranium. Plutonium and americium are found to remain with uranium in the solid phase in all of the {approx}60 samples taken and analyzed from various sources of K Basin sludge. The uranium-specific concentrations of plutonium and americium also remain approximately constant over a uranium concentration range (in the dry sludge solids) from 0.2 to 94 wt%, a factor of {approx}460. This invariability demonstrates that 241Am does not partition from the uranium or plutonium fraction for any characterized sludge matrix. Most of the K Basin sludge characterization

  15. A Decision Support Framework for Water Management inthe Upper Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Waddle, Terry J.; Bartholow, John; Burris, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Delaware River Basin occupies an area of 12,765 square miles, in portions of south central New York, northeast Pennsylvania, northeast Delaware, and western New Jersey (fig. 1). The river begins as two streams in the Catskill Mountains, the East and West Branches. The two tributaries flow in a southwesterly direction until they meet at Hancock, N.Y. The length of the river from the mouth of Delaware Bay to the confluence at Hancock is 331 miles. Approximately 200 miles of the river between Hancock, N.Y., and Trenton, N.J., is nontidal.

  16. Identifying baldcypress-water tupelo regeneration classes in forested wetlands of the Atchafalaya Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faulkner, Stephen P.; Bhattarai, Prajwol; Allen, Yvonne C.; Barras, John A.; Constant, Glenn C.

    2009-01-01

    Baldcypress-water tupelo (cypress-tupelo) swamps are critically important coastal forested wetlands found throughout the southeastern U.S. The long-term survival and sustainability of these swamp forests is unknown due to large-scale changes in hydrologic regimes that prevent natural regeneration following logging or mortality. We used NWI wetland maps and remotely sensed hydrologic data to map cypress-tupelo communities, surface water, and the extent and location of proposed regeneration condition classes for cypress-tupelo swamps in the Atchafalaya Basin, LA. Only 6,175 ha (5.8%) of the 106,227 ha of cypress-tupelo forest in the Lower Atchafalaya Basin Floodway was classified as capable of naturally regenerating. Over 23% (24,525 ha) of the forest area was mapped as unable to regenerate either naturally or artificially. The loss and conversion of nearly 25,000 ha of cypress-tupelo forest would have significant and long-lasting impacts on ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat for birds and Louisiana black bears. Given the landscape-scale changes in surface elevations and flooding depths and durations throughout southern Louisiana, similar conditions and impacts are likely applicable to all coastal cypress-tupelo forests in Louisiana. Better data on flooding during the growing season are needed to more accurately identify and refine the location and spatial extent of the regeneration condition classes.

  17. Delaware's first serial killer.

    PubMed

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  18. Delaware's first serial killer.

    PubMed

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992. PMID:11125664

  19. Preliminary report on fluid inclusions from halites in the Castile and lower Salado formations of the Delaware Basin, southeastern New Mexico. [Freezing-point depression

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.L.

    1985-09-01

    A suite of samples composed primarily of halite from the upper Castile and lower Salado Formations of the Permian Basin was selected from Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) core for a reconnaissance study of fluid inclusions. Volume percent of these trapped fluids averaged 0.7% to 1%. Freezing-point depressions varied widely and appeared to be unrelated to fluid-inclusion type, to sedimentary facies, or to stratigraphic depth. However, because very low freezing points were usually associated with anhydrite, a relation may exist between freezing-point data and lithology. Dissolved sulfate values were constant through the Castile, then decreased markedly with lesser depth in the lower Salado. This trend correlates very well with observed mineralogy and is consistent with an interpretation of the occurrence of secondary polyhalite as a result of gypsum or anhydrite alteration with simultaneous consumption of dissolved sulfate from the coexisting fluids. Together with the abundance and distribution of fluid inclusions in primary or ''hopper'' crystal structures, this evidence suggests that inclusions seen in these halites did not migrate any significant geographical distance since their formation. 28 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. The role of run-of-river impoundments in CO2 and CH4 emissions from floodplains of the Delaware Piedmont, Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, A.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Vargas, R.

    2014-12-01

    There is strong interest in understanding how run-of-river impoundments affect streams and their floodplains. Most recent work has focused on the fate of sediment within these dammed systems both past and current, the geomorphic impacts associated with sediment, and issues associated with removing run-of-the-river dams. Here, we assess how run-of-river impoundments alter the floodplain effluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). We sampled two pairs of floodplains on the Red Clay Creek (140 km2) located in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory. The floodplain pairs were centered on a current and a former location of a run-of-river dam (one floodplain upstream, one downstream of dam location). Each floodplain was subjected to a suite of measurements that included bi-weekly gas flux (CO2, CH4, and H2O), bi-weekly soil moisture and temperature, monthly biomass sampling, C/N ratio sampling from O and A horizons, and cores that constrain the total organic carbon and nitrogen at depth as well as provide a description of the stratigraphy. Preliminary findings show that all floodplains are sources of CH4 (0.18 - 1.12 nmol m-2s-1) and CO2 (0.42 - 3.12 µmol m-2s-1). Despite temporal variability, the upstream floodplains produce more CH4 and CO2 than downstream floodplains. Our results may suggest that run-of-the-river dams enhance release of carbon from floodplains into the atmosphere.

  1. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... utilization of Delaware River Basin water resources, including during periods of drought. Article III...

  2. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... utilization of Delaware River Basin water resources, including during periods of drought. Article III...

  3. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... utilization of Delaware River Basin water resources, including during periods of drought. Article III...

  4. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain or inspect a copy at the Delaware River... utilization of Delaware River Basin water resources, including during periods of drought. Article III...

  5. Delaware River and Catskill Region Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, M. B.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Walter, M. T.; Degaetano, A. T.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    This poster presents the nationally unique opportunities for hydrology-based research in the Delaware River and Catskill Mountain (DelCat) Region. The DelCat region encompasses all of the Delaware river Basin and the New York City Catskills' source watersheds. It has been a key water resource region prior to the founding of our country. This mountain-river-estuary hydrologic system together with other watersheds in the Catskills has supported the population and economic growth of major metropolitan areas of the early United States by providing water supply, land and forests, transportation, power generation, fisheries, recreation, and pollution elimination. The presentation is an account of a forthcoming effort designed to elicit support and participation. After greatly expanding the user and research community for the DelCat observatory, we will design the facility to serve a large user base interested in studies on a wide range of basic and applied hydrologic science topics and issues. Our current plans are to define the form of the hydrologic observatory, and to forecast the nature of what hydrologic sciences can achieve in the DelCat Region.

  6. Libraries in Delaware: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/delaware.html Libraries in Delaware To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dover Dover Public Library 45 South State Street Dover, DE 19901 302- ...

  7. New School of Management, Delaware State University, Dover, Delaware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents features of Delaware State University's New School of Management designed to stimulate positive gains in teaching and learning. The design incorporates state of the art distance learning systems that includes a 350-seat auditorium possessing the same capability, and a commercial kitchen and dining facility for chef and hotel management…

  8. Delaware Technical & Community College's response to the critical shortage of Delaware secondary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Nancy S.

    This executive position paper examines the critical shortage of Delaware high school science teachers and Delaware Technical & Community College's possible role in addressing this shortage. A concise analysis of economic and political implications of the science teacher shortage is presented. The following topics were researched and evaluated: the specific science teacher needs for Delaware school districts; the science teacher education program offerings at Delaware universities and colleges; the Alternative Route to Teacher Certification (ARTC); and the state of Delaware's scholarship response to the need. Recommendations for Delaware Tech's role include the development and implementation of two new Associate of Arts of Teaching programs in physics secondary science education and chemistry secondary science education.

  9. Book review: Birds of Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2001-01-01

    Located along Delaware Bay and the Atlantic coast, the state of Delaware’s significance for bird conservation has been well established for decades. The extensive tidal habitats and marshes bordering Delaware Bay host shorebird and waterbird populations of hemispheric importance, and protecting these populations has become an urgent conservation priority in recent years. Other habitats found in the state vary from barrier beaches to dry coniferous woods on the coastal plain and mesophytic communities along the Piedmont in the north, allowing a diverse avifauna to prosper within a small geographic area. Ornithologists and birders have actively studied birds within the state for more than a century, but surprisingly, no single reference has provided a complete summary of the status and distribution of the state’s birds until publication of the Birds of Delaware.Review info: Birds of Delaware. By Gene K. Hess, Richard L. West, Maurice V. Barnhill III, and Lorraine M. Fleming, 2000. ISBN: 0-8229-4069-8, 635 pp.

  10. ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE NEW YORK CATSKILL - DELAWARE WATERSHED (1973-1998)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of this study is to improve risk assessment through the development of methods and tools for characterization of landscape and water resource change. Exploring the relationship between landscape pattern and water quality in the Catskill-Delaware basins will impro...

  11. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2008–November 30, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.; Owens, Marie

    2016-04-06

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 56th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2009 River Master report year, the period from December 1, 2008, to November 30, 2009.During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 50.89 inches (in.) or 116 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs remained high throughout the year and did not decline below 80 percent of combined capacity at any time. Delaware River operations during the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree and the Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP).Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 25 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates—rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs—on all other days.During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master.As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature, specific conductance

  12. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  13. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  14. University of Delaware Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Michael T

    2012-09-30

    The main goal of this project funded through this DOE grant is to help in the establishment of the University of Delaware Energy Institute (UDEI) which is designed to be a long-term, on-going project. The broad mission of UDEI is to develop collaborative programs encouraging research activities in the new and emerging energy technologies and to partner with industry and government in meeting the challenges posed by the nation's pressing energy needs.

  15. Magnitude and Frequency of Floods on Nontidal Streams in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.

    2006-01-01

    area, basin storage, housing density, soil type A, and mean basin slope as explanatory variables, and have average standard errors of prediction ranging from 28 to 72 percent. Additional regression equations that incorporate drainage area and housing density as explanatory variables are presented for use in defining the effects of urbanization on peak-flow estimates throughout Delaware for the 2-year through 500-year recurrence intervals, along with suggestions for their appropriate use in predicting development-affected peak flows. Additional topics associated with the analyses performed during the study are also discussed, including: (1) the availability and description of more than 30 basin and climatic characteristics considered during the development of the regional regression equations; (2) the treatment of increasing trends in the annual peak-flow series identified at 18 gaged sites, with respect to their relations with maximum 24-hour precipitation and housing density, and their use in the regional analysis; (3) calculation of the 90-percent confidence interval associated with peak-flow estimates from the regional regression equations; and (4) a comparison of flood-frequency estimates at gages used in a previous study, highlighting the effects of various improved analytical techniques.

  16. World class Devonian potential seen in eastern Madre de Dios basin

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, K.E.; Wagner, J.B.; Carpenter, D.G.; Conrad, K.T.

    1997-02-17

    The Madre de Dios basin in northern Bolivia contains thick, laterally extensive, organic-rich Upper Devonian source rocks that reached the oil-generative stage of thermal maturity after trap and seal formation. Despite these facts, less than one dozen exploration wells have been drilled in the Madre de Dios basin, and no significant reserves have been discovered. Mobil geoscientists conducted a regional geological, geophysical, and geochemical study of the Madre de Dios basin. The work reported here was designed to assess the distribution, richness, depositional environment, and thermal maturity of Devonian source rocks. It is supported by data from over 3,000 m of continuous slimhole core in two of the five Mobil wells in the basin. Source potential also exists in Cretaceous, Mississippian, and Permian intervals. The results of this study have important implications for future exploration in Bolivia and Peru.

  17. Delaware: The State and Its Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    Delaware is a good example of the falsity of the old notion that small is simple. Although a small state in terms of population, its social systems and bureaucracies can be complex indeed. Delaware has been unusually popular with American businesses, leading to more Fortune 500 companies being incorporated there than in any other state. The…

  18. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delaware. 81.308 Section 81.308 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.308 Delaware. Delaware—TSP Designated area Does not...

  19. Nutrient Enrichment Study Data from the Upper, Middle, and Lower Sections of the Non-Tidal Delaware River, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Limbeck, Robert; Silldorff, Erik; Eggleston, Heather L.

    2011-01-01

    The Delaware River Basin Commission is charged with establishing water-quality objectives for the tidal and non-tidal portions of the Delaware River, which include developing nutrient standards that are scientifically defensible. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware River Basin Commission and the Academy of Natural Sciences, studied the effects of nutrient enrichment in the upper, middle, and lower sections of the non-tidal Delaware River. Algal samples were collected from the natural habitat using rock scrapes and from the artificial nutrient enrichment samplers, Matlock periphytometers. The knowledge gained from this study is to be used in helping determine appropriate nutrient criteria for the Delaware River in the oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic sections of the river and is a first step toward gathering data that can be used in selecting nutrient effect levels or criteria thresholds for aquatic-life use protection. This report describes the methods for data collection and presents the data collected as part of this study.

  20. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.308 Delaware... classified Better than national standards City of Wilmington X Section within City of Newark bounded...

  1. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.308 Delaware... classified Better than national standards City of Wilmington X Section within City of Newark bounded...

  2. Occurrences of three classes of antibiotics in a natural river basin: association with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinqin; Jia, Ai; Wan, Yi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Kunping; Peng, Hui; Dong, Zhaomin; Hu, Jianying

    2014-12-16

    To investigate the occurrence of antibiotics in urban rivers and their association with antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, 20 (fluoro)quinolone antibiotics (FQs), 16 tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) and their degradation products, and 25 sulfonamides (SAs) and some degradation products were determined in 45 river samples and 13 discharged wastewater samples collected from Wenyu River and its tributaries and 4 composite effluent samples from sewage treatment plants in Beijing, China. Fifteen FQs, eight TCs, including four degradation chemicals, and sixteen SAs, including four acetylated products, were detected in the river water. The SAs were the dominant antibiotic (total concentrations up to 3164.0 ng/L) in river water, followed by FQs (1430.3 ng/L) and TCs (296.6 ng/L). The sum concentrations for each class of detected antibiotic in the 13 discharge site samples were higher than those in river samples, up to 12326.7 ng/L for SAs, 6589.2 ng/L for FQs, and 730.1 ng/L for TCs, largely contributing to the high concentrations in the river basin. Log-linear regression analysis confirmed that the concentrations of FQs, TCs, and SAs in the Wenyu River basin were strongly correlated with the number of E. coli resistant to FQs (p < 0.05), TCs (p < 0.05), and SAs (p < 0.05), providing evidence for the environmental impacts of antibiotic usage.

  3. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2005-November 30, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2010-01-01

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 53rd Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2006 River Master report year-the period from December 1, 2005, to November 30, 2006. During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 55.03 inches (in.) or 126 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs was above the long-term median level on December 1, 2005. Reservoir storage remained above long–term median levels throughout the report year. Delaware River operations during the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree. Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 27 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates-or rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs-on all other days. During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master. As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature, specific conductance

  4. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the Period December 1, 2003-November 30, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered in 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 51st Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2004 River Master report year; that is, the period from December 1, 2003, to November 30, 2004. During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 9.03 in. (121 percent) greater than the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs was at a record high level on December 1, 2003. Reservoir storage remained high throughout the year with at least one reservoir spilling every month of the year. Delaware River operations throughout the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree. Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 30 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates - or rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs - on all other days. During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master. As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature

  5. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the Period December 1, 2002-November 30, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered in 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 50th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2003 River Master report year; that is, the period from December 1, 2002 to November 30, 2003. During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 13.40 inches (131 percent) greater than the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs was above the long-term median on December 1, 2002. Reservoir storage increased rapidly in mid-March 2003 and all the reservoirs filled and spilled. The reservoirs remained nearly full for the remainder of the report year. Delaware River operations throughout the report year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree. Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 10 days during the report year. Releases were made at experimental conservation rates - or rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs - on all other days. During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master. As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island

  6. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2004-November 30, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered in 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 52nd Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2005 River Master report year; that is, the period from December 1, 2004, to November 30, 2005. During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 7.56 in., or 117 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs remained high from December 2004 to May 2005 and reached a record high level on April 3, 2005. Reservoir storage decreased steadily from May to early October, then increased rapidly through the end of November. Delaware River operations throughout the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree. Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 120 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates-or rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs-on all other days. During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master. As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations

  7. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2006–November 30, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2011-01-01

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 54th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2007 River Master report year—the period from December 1, 2006, to November 30, 2007. During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 46.72 inches (in.) or 107 percent of the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs was high on December 1, 2006. Reservoir storage remained high throughout the winter, declined seasonally during the summer, and began to recover in mid-October. Delaware River operations throughout the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree. Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 123 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates—or rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs—on all other days. During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master. As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature

  8. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 2007-November 30, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Blanchard, Stephen F.

    2014-01-01

    A Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States, entered June 7, 1954, established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 55th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2008 River Master report year, the period from December 1, 2007, to November 30, 2008. During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 49.79 inches (in.) or 114 percent of the 67 report-year average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs remained high from December 2007 to May 2008. Reservoir storage decreased seasonally from June to late October, then increased gradually through the end of November. Delaware River operations during the year were conducted as stipulated by the Decree. Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in full compliance with the Decree. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 107 days during the report year. Releases were made at conservation rates—rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs—on all other days. During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and directives and requests of the River Master. As part of a long-term program, the quality of water in the Delaware Estuary between Trenton, New Jersey, and Reedy Island Jetty, Delaware, was monitored at various locations. Data on water temperature

  9. Application of automated multispectral analysis to Delaware's coastal vegetation mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Daiber, D.; Bartlett, D. S.; Crichton, O. W.; Fornes, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Overlay maps of Delaware's wetlands have been prepared, showing the dominant species or group of species of vegetation present. Five such categories of vegetation were used indicating marshes dominated by: (1) salt marsh cord grass; (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass; (3) reed grass; (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle; and (5) a group of fresh water species found in impounded areas built to attract water fowl. Fifteen such maps cover Delaware's wetlands from the Pennsylvania to the Maryland borders. The mapping technique employed utilizes the General Electric multispectral data processing system. This system is a hybrid analog-digital system designed as an analysis tool to be used by an operator whose own judgment and knowledge of ground truth can be incorporated at any time into the analyzing process. The result is a high speed, cost effective method for producing enhanced photomaps showing a number of spectral classes, each enhanced spectral class being representative of a vegetative species or group of species.

  10. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY... and seeks a waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions... with its first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the...

  11. The world-class Jinding Zn-Pb deposit: ore formation in an evaporite dome, Lanping Basin, Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leach, David L.; Song, Yu-Cai; Hou, Zeng-Qian

    2016-07-01

    The Jinding Zn-Pb sediment-hosted deposit in western Yunnan, China, is the fourth largest Zn deposit in Asia. Based on field observations of the ore textures, breccias, and the sandstone host rocks, the ores formed in a dome that was created by the diapiric migration of evaporites in the Lanping Basin during Paleogene deformation and thrust loading. Most of the ore occurs in sandstones that are interpreted to be a former evaporite glacier containing a mélange of extruded diapiric material, including breccias, fluidized sand, and evaporites that mixed with sediment from a fluvial sandstone system. A pre-ore hydrocarbon and reduced sulfur reservoir formed in the evaporite glacier that became the chemical sink for Zn and Pb in a crustal-derived metalliferous fluid. In stark contrast to previous models, the Jinding deposit does not define a unique class of ore deposits; rather, it should be classified as MVT sub-type hosted in a diapiric environment. Given that Jinding is a world-class ore body, this new interpretation elevates the exploration potential for Zn-Pb deposit in other diapir regions in the world.

  12. Detection and Prediction of the Delaware Summertime Sea/Bay Breeze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Hughes, C.

    2011-12-01

    The Delaware Bay/Sea Breeze is a thermally driven coastal circulation that has significant impacts along Delaware's coastline. The passage of a sea breeze front has a cooling effect which often moderates summer heat. Pollutants can be transported by a sea breeze circulation affecting air quality. In addition, this frequently occurring local circulation is strong enough and of enough vertical and horizontal extent to effect offshore wind turbines. The potential moderation of weather, air quality, and offshore wind resource all have significant environmental and economic impacts which are important to a coastal population which has nearly doubled in the last two decades. An analysis of weather radar (NEXRAD) images is used as an initial method for detecting a sea/bay breeze front. These case study days are then used to develop an objective sea breeze detection scheme based on changes in the observed conditions at twenty-one meteorological stations run by the Delaware Environmental Observing System and the National Data Buoy Center. Three distinct classes of sea breeze circulation (classic, dew-point and weak) are derived based on location, penetration distance, temperature drop, and time of onset. In general, based on nine years of data from 2000 to 2009, sea/bay breezes along the Delaware coast are found to occur in the summer 63% of the time at coastal stations and 20% at inland stations. These same data are used to develop a local sea breeze prediction scheme for the Delaware ocean coast. Details of the return flow and structure of the sea breeze at high spatial and temporal resolution are investigated using a regional atmospheric model, WRF. Characterization of Delaware's sea/bay breezes using multiple data sources and locations creates a more complete understating of the impact of this low-level circulation on the local climate, and will be useful in understanding how things may change in the future as local land-use and global climate changes.

  13. Flood of April 2-4, 2005, Delaware River Main Stem from Port Jervis, New York, to Cinnaminson, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Timothy J.; Protz, Amy R.

    2007-01-01

    Several conditions, including saturated soils, snowmelt, and heavy rains, caused flooding on the Delaware River on April 2-4, 2005. The event occurred 50 years after the historic 1955 Delaware River flood, and only six months after a smaller but equally notable flood on September 18-19, 2004. The Delaware River flooded for a third time in 22 months in June, 2006. The peak flows and elevations of the 2005 flood were similar to those on June 28-29, 2006. The following report describes the April 2-4, 2005, Delaware River flood, and includes the associated precipitation amounts, peak flows and elevations, and flood frequencies. A comparison of historic Delaware River floods also is presented. The appendix of the report contains detailed information for 156 high-water mark elevations obtained on the main stem of the Delaware River from Port Jervis, New York, to Cinnaminson, New Jersey, for the April 2-4, 2005 flood. The April 2005 event originated with frequent precipitation from December 2004 to March 2005 which saturated the soils in the upper Delaware River Basin. The cold winter froze some of the soils and left a snowpack at higher elevations equivalent to as much as 10 inches of water in some areas. Temperatures rose above freezing, and heavy rains averaging 1 to 3 inches on March 27, 2005, melted some of the snow, causing the Delaware River to rise; however, peak elevations were still 2 to 7 feet below flood stage. Another round of rainfall averaging 2-5 inches in the basin on April 2, 2005, melted the remaining snowpack. The combination of snowmelt and runoff from the two storms produced flood conditions along the main stem of the Delaware River. Flood frequencies of flows at selected tributaries to the Delaware River did not exceed the 35-year recurrence intervals. The Delaware River main stem peak-flow recurrence intervals ranged from 40 to 80 years; flows were approximately 20 percent less than those from the peak of record in 1955. Peak elevations exceeded

  14. River basins of the United States: the Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1987-01-01

    This leaflet, one of a series on the river basins of the United States, contains information on the Colorado River Basin, including a brief early history, a description of the physical characteristics, and other statistical data. At present, other river basins included in the series are The Columbia, The Delaware, The Hudson, The Potomac, and The Wabash.

  15. 5. ISLAND ROAD BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ISLAND ROAD BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 5.58. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. 4. COBBS CREEK BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. COBBS CREEK BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 5.73 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section in 33 CFR part 207. ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal). 162.40 Section 162.40 Navigation... Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal). (a) Applicability. The regulations in this...

  18. Delaware County Community College Business and International Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware County Community Coll., Media, PA.

    In 1987, Delaware County Community College (DCCC) initiated the Delaware Valley Trade Enhancement Project, comprising a number of activities to promote the involvement of local firms in international trade. One of the first activities of the Delaware Valley Trade Enhancement project was a survey of over 6,000 small and medium-sized businesses in…

  19. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period December 1, 1981, to November 30, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Francis T.; Fish, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    The Amended Decree of the Supreme Court of the United States in 1954 established the position of Delaware River Master to administer provisions of the decree relative to diversions from the Delaware by the City of New York and the State of New Jersey , and releases from reservoirs of the City of New York designed to maintain stipulated rates of flow in the river. Reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually, with copies to the Governors and the Mayor, were stipulated. Water-supply conditions at the beginning of the year were under a status of emergency resulting from drought, which had been declared by the Delaware River Basin Commission. With the filling of the reservoirs, the emergency was lifted April 27. Runoff of Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, was 19 percent below median during the year as compared to 28 percent below median the previous year. By November, with reservoir storage again declining, reductions in both diversions and releases were imposed. To conserve supplies, reductions were effected on November 13 limiting New York City diversions at 680 mgd and New Jersey to 85 mgd, and the required discharge at Montague was targeted at 1,655 cfs. Water quality of the Delaware River and Estuary was monitored on a continuous basis at six sites for most of the year and on a monthly basis at ten sites to accurately locate the salt front. Highest chloride concentration observed at the Chester, PA, site was 870 mg/l November 4. (USGS)

  20. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point...

  1. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point...

  2. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point...

  3. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR chapter... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security Zone; Atlantic...

  4. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR chapter... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Atlantic...

  5. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR chapter... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Security Zone; Atlantic...

  6. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR chapter... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Atlantic...

  7. 33 CFR 165.511 - Security Zone; Atlantic Ocean, Chesapeake & Delaware Canal, Delaware Bay, Delaware River and its...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... escorted passenger vessels in the Captain of the Port, Delaware Bay zone as defined in 33 CFR 3.25-05. (b... vessel in order to ensure safe passage in accordance with the Navigation Rules as seen in 33 CFR chapter... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Atlantic...

  8. A Laboratory Safety Program at Delaware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitmyre, George; Sandler, Stanley I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory safety program at the University of Delaware. Includes a history of the program's development, along with standard safety training and inspections now being implemented. Outlines a two-day laboratory safety course given to all graduate students and staff in chemical engineering. (TW)

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Delaware students showed consistent gains in math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. There were mixed results in reading. Achievement gaps narrowed in both reading and math in…

  10. Results of the 1975 Delaware PLATO Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    During the Spring semester of 1975, the University of Delaware initiated a PLATO project with the dual purpose of demonstrating how a computer system might function in a university and of evaluating what part such a system might play in the future of the university and its supporting community. The demonstration phase of the project, which…

  11. The Geology of Delaware Coastal Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert E.

    This teachers' manual provides model classroom lessons in earth science. It is specially designed to be used with John C. Kraft's A GUIDE TO THE GEOLOGY OF DELAWARE'S COASTAL ENVIRONMENT. The lessons suggest an approach for using the guide in the science classroom and in field studies. The manual can be used as a complete unit, or individual…

  12. U. of Delaware Abandons Sessions on Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The University of Delaware spent years refining its residence-life education program. One week of public criticism unraveled it. Late last month, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education, a free-speech group, accused the university of promoting specific views on race, sexuality, and morality in a series of discussions held in dormitories.…

  13. 33 CFR 117.716 - Delaware River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... railroad bridge, after the signal to open is given. (c) The owners of drawbridges shall provide and keep in... requirements apply to all drawbridges across the Delaware River: (a) The draws of railroad bridges need not be opened when there is a train in the bridge block approaching the bridge with the intention of...

  14. 76 FR 63700 - Delaware Disaster #DE-00010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Delaware Disaster DE-00010 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  15. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.308 Delaware... classified Better than national standards City of Wilmington X Section within City of Newark bounded by...-Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA-NJ-MD-DE: 2 New Castle County Nonattainment Marginal. Seaford: 2 Sussex...

  16. 40 CFR 81.308 - Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.308 Delaware... classified Better than national standards City of Wilmington X Section within City of Newark bounded by... Type Classification Date 1 Type Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA-NJ-MD-DE: 2 New Castle...

  17. State Teacher Policy Yearbook, 2009. Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Delaware edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) 2009 "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the third annual look at state policies impacting the teaching profession. It is hoped that this report will help focus attention on areas where state policymakers can make changes that will have a positive impact on teacher quality…

  18. Source of zircon in world-class heavy mineral placer deposits of the Cenozoic Eucla Basin, southern Australia from LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Anthony; Keeling, John; Boyd, Doug; Belousova, Elena; Hou, Baohong

    2013-03-01

    The Eucla Basin of southern Australia is a newly recognised zircon-rich mineral sands province with mining operations underway at the world-class Jacinth-Ambrosia deposits. Detrital zircon U-Pb dating via laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry from samples distributed along the length of the Eucla Basin paleoshore system reveals the majority of zircons (c. 55%) are from c. 1300 to 1000 Ma source rocks. Many of the zircons of this age range have metamorphic textures indicating the source province(s) of these zircons underwent high-grade metamorphism during the Mesoproterozoic. A secondary provenance signature occurs at c. 1800-1600 Ma, with significant amounts of c. 1680-1600 Ma zircon. These two key age intervals, c. 1300-1000 Ma and c. 1800-1600 Ma match the major rock-forming intervals of the Albany Fraser Orogen and Musgrave Province, crystalline basement regions that crop out in the western and northern hinterland of the Eucla Basin and which are transected by extensive Early Cenozoic paleodrainage systems. The subordinant volume of Archean zircons in the paleoshoreline deposits are predominantly c. 2660 Ma or older and are most likely derived from the Yilgarn Craton. The primary source regions for the zircons thus lie to the west and north of the main sites of heavy mineral sand accumulation, located in the central and eastern portions of the paleoshoreline complex of the Eucla Basin. This is indicative of the dominant process of westerly longshore drift as the primary control on sediment movement and redistribution along much of the Eucla Basin coastline. Zircons of these ages were also likely derived from recycling sediments of Neoproterozoic and Phanerozoic intracontinental basins, in particular the Officer Basin, which contains dominantly c. 1350-1000 Ma zircons, and was widely incised by the Paleogene drainage network. Monazite U-Pb data from the Jacinth Mine records an abundance of c. 1350-1160 Ma grains, supporting source areas to

  19. Testing the Delaware sand filter's effectiveness for treating stormwater runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Leszczynska, D.; Dzurik, A.

    1998-07-01

    The use of the Delaware Sand Filter for treatment of ultra-urban stormwater is investigated for Florida applications. An experimental Delaware filter is designed in conjunction with a typical sand filter as part of a street improvement project in Tallahassee, Florida. The design allows for testing of different filter media in an attempt to determine the suitability of the Delaware Sand Filter in hot climates with numerous heavy rainfall episodes.

  20. 4. VIEW EAST, WEST ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW EAST, WEST ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  1. 3. VIEW WEST, EAST ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW WEST, EAST ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTH, NORTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL, INSPECTION PIT - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL, TYPICAL WINDOW BAY - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW NORTH, SOUTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  6. 19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, OVERHEAD CATWALK - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  7. 22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR Delaware, Lackawanna & Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, WOOD BLOCK FLOOR - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  8. 1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DELAWARE AVE. (right, looking north) AND WASHINGTON AVE. SHOWING GLORIA DEI CHURCH (note steeple) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Metals in horseshoe crabs from Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Burger, J; Dixon, C; Shukla, T; Tsipoura, N; Jensen, H; Fitzgerald, M; Ramos, R; Gochfeld, M

    2003-01-01

    We examined the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the eggs, leg muscle, and apodeme (carapace musculature) in horseshoe crabs ( Limulus polyphemus) from eight places on the New Jersey and Delaware sides of Delaware Bay to determine whether there were locational differences. Although there were locational differences, the differences were not great. Further, contaminant levels were generally low. The levels of contaminants found in horseshoe crabs were well below those known to cause adverse effects in the crabs themselves or in organisms that consume them or their eggs. Contaminant levels have generally declined in the eggs of horseshoe crabs from 1993 to 2001, suggesting that contaminants are not likely to be a problem for secondary consumers or a cause of their decline.

  10. Lessons Learned from Delaware State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, James T.

    2008-01-01

    The unfortunate events at Delaware State University (DSU) on September 21, 2007, were a whirlwind of emotions for everyone at DSU. At 12:54 a.m. Friday morning, a gunman (one of its students) shot two students who were leaving the on-campus cafe. Tragically, the female victim died one month later as a result of her injuries. As the Chief of Police…

  11. Enzyme activities in the Delaware Estuary affected by elevated suspended sediment load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziervogel, K.; Arnosti, C.

    2009-09-01

    Extracellular enzyme activities were compared among surface water, bottom water, and sediments of the Delaware Estuary using six fluorescently labeled, structurally distinct polysaccharides to determine the effects of suspended sediment transport on water column hydrolytic activities. Potential hydrolysis rates in surface waters were also measured for the nearby shelf. Samples were taken in December 2006, 6 months after a major flood event in the Delaware Basin that was followed by high freshwater run-off throughout the fall of 2006. All substrates were hydrolyzed in sediments and in the water column, including two (pullulan and fucoidan) that previously were not hydrolyzed in surface waters of the Delaware estuary. At the time of sampling, total particulate matter (TPM) in surface waters at the lower bay, bay mouth, and shelf ranged between 31 mg l -1 and 48 mg l -1 and were 2 to 20 times higher than previously reported. The presence of easily resuspended sediments at the lower bay and bay mouth indicated enhanced suspended sediment transport in the estuary prior to our sampling. Bottom water hydrolysis rates at the two sites affected by sediment resuspension were generally higher than those in surface waters from the same site. Most notably, fucoidan and pullulan hydrolysis rates in bay mouth bottom waters were 22.6 and 6.2 nM monomer h -1, respectively, and thus three and five times higher than surface water rates. Our data suggest that enhanced mixing processes between the sediment and the overlying water broadened the spectrum of water column hydrolases activity, improving the efficiency of enzymatic degradation of high molecular weight organic matter in the water with consequences for organic matter cycling in the Delaware estuary.

  12. Late Pleistocene drainage systems beneath Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.; Circe, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Analyses of an extensive grid of seismic-reflection profiles, along with previously published sedimentary data and geologic information from surrounding coastal areas, outline the ancestral drainage systems of the Delaware River beneath lower Delaware Bay. Major paleovalleys within these systems have southeast trends, relief of 10-35 m, widths of 1-8 km, and axial depths of 31-57 m below present sea level. The oldest drainage system was carved into Miocene sands, probably during the late Illinoian lowstand of sea level. It followed a course under the northern half of the bay, continued beneath the Cape May peninsula, and extended onto the present continental shelf. This system was buried by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and shallow-marine sediments during Sangamonian time. At the height of the Sangamonian sea-level transgression, littoral and nearshore processes built the Cape May peninsula southward over the northern drainage system and formed a contiguous submarine sedimentary ridge that extended partway across the present entrance to the bay. When sea level fell during late Wisconsinan time, a second drainage system was eroded beneath the southern half of the bay in response to the southerly shift of the bay mouth. This system, which continued across the shelf, was cut into Coastal Plain deposits of Miocene and younger age and included not only the trunk valley of the Delaware River but a large tributary valley formed by the convergence of secondary streams that drained the Delaware coastal area. During the Holocene rise of sea level, the southern drainage system was covered by a transgressive sequence of fluvial, estuarine, and paralic deposits that accumulated due to the passage of the estuarine circulation cell and to the landward and upward migration of coastal sedimentary environments. Some Holocene deposits have been scoured subsequently by strong tidal currents. The southward migration of the ancestral drainage systems beneath Delaware

  13. Concentrations and transport of atrazine in the Delaware River-Perry Lake system, northeast Kansas, July 1992 through September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Larry M.; Brewer, Lesley D.; Foley, Greg A.; Morgan, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    About 283,000 pounds of atrazine are applied annually in the 1,100-square-mile Delaware River basin. Of this amount, an annual average of 3,500 pounds runs off into Perry Lake, a public-water supply source and main reservoir in the basin. About 90 percent of the atrazine that runs off to streams occurs between May and July. However, annual average concentrations did not exceed the maximum contaminant level in water from any of 10 stream sites or the outflow of Perry Lake for either the 1993 or 1994 crop years.

  14. Evaluating temporal changes in stream condition in three New Jersey rive basins by using an index of biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, Ming; Kennen, Jonathan G.; Del Corso, Ellyn

    2000-01-01

    An index of biotic integrity (!B!) modified for New Jersey streams was used to compare changes in stream condition from the 1970s to the 1990s in Delaware, Passaic, and Raritan River Basins. Stream condition was assessed at 88 sampling locations. Mean IBI scores for all basins increased from the 1970s to the 1990s, but the stream-condition category improved (from fair to good) only for the Delaware River Basin. The number of benthic insectivores and the proportion of insectivorous cyprinds increased in all three basins; however, the number of white suckers decreased significantly only in the Delaware River Basin. Results of linear-regression analysis indicate a significant correlation between the percentage of altered land in the basin and change in IBI score (1970s to 1990s) for Delaware River sites. Results of analysis of variance of the rank-transformed IBI scores for the 1970s and 1990s indicate that the three basins was equal in the 1970s. Results of a multiple-comparison test demonstrated that the 1990s IBI values for the Delaware River Basin differed significantly from those for the Passaic and Raritan River Basins. Many factors, such as the imposition of the more stringent standards on water-water and industrial discharges during the 1980s and changes in land-use practices, likely contributed to the change in the Delaware River Basin. A general increase in IBI values for the Passaic, Raritan, and Delaware River Basins over the past 25 years appears to reflect overall improvements in water quality.

  15. Fourth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Third Summative Report (1978) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and activity…

  16. Alcoholic Beverage Buying Habits of University of Delaware Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, John P.

    1978-01-01

    Goal of study was comparing alcoholic beverage buying habits of University of Delaware students with those of students at other colleges. Random sample of 639 was drawn from 13,000 undergraduates and interviews conducted. Drinking at Delaware was similar to that at other schools. Seniors spent significantly more on alcohol than freshmen. (Author)

  17. Fifth Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    A brief history of the Delaware PLATO project and descriptions of the new developments in facilities, applications, user services, research, evaluation, and courseware produced since the Fourth Summative Report (1979) are provided, as well as an overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Sample lessons, illustrations, and…

  18. 75 FR 51457 - Delaware Pipeline Company LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Delaware Pipeline Company LLC; Notice of Filing August 13, 2010. Take notice that on July 13, 2010, Delaware Pipeline Company LLC (DPC) submitted a request for waiver of the requirement to file the FERC Form No. 6-Q for the second quarter of 2010. On June 1, 2010, DPC acquired...

  19. 76 FR 60850 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of an emergency for the State of Delaware (FEMA-3336-EM), dated August 28, 2011, and...

  20. 77 FR 69490 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of the Presidential declaration of an emergency for the State of Delaware (FEMA-3357-EM), dated October 29, 2012, and...

  1. 33 CFR 110.67 - Delaware River, Essington, Pa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware River, Essington, Pa. 110.67 Section 110.67 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.67 Delaware River, Essington, Pa. North...

  2. Career Education Resource Bibliography: Delaware's Occupational-Vocational Education Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milford Special School District, DE.

    This bibliography lists professional books and instructional materials, concerning aspects of career education, for Delaware's Occupational-Vocational Education Model, at Milford, Delaware. Entries are arranged alphabetically by title under these categories: (1) Educational Theory, including theories relating to career development, child…

  3. Investing in Better Outcomes: The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamel-McCormick, Michael; Amsden, Deborah

    This report details the outcomes for children enrolled in two types of early intervention programs in Delaware: those serving young children with disabilities and those serving young children living in poverty. The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study was designed as a retrospective, two-group, posttest-only design. Participating in the…

  4. Delaware Pushes to Meet Race to Top Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on how Delaware pushes to meet Race to the Top promises. The Delcastle Technical High School teachers are on the front lines of the push to deliver on promises that last year won Delaware, 10 other states, and the District of Columbia shares of the Race to the Top pie, the $4 billion competition that is driving much of the…

  5. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware..., located in the center of the drawspan on both sides of the bridge, shall be used: (a) When the draw is...

  6. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware..., located in the center of the drawspan on both sides of the bridge, shall be used: (a) When the draw is...

  7. 33 CFR 117.235 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 117.235 Section 117.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Delaware § 117.235 Chesapeake and Delaware..., located in the center of the drawspan on both sides of the bridge, shall be used: (a) When the draw is...

  8. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count and Families Count indicators have been combined into four new categories: health and health behaviors, educational involvement and achievement, family environment and…

  9. Kids Count in Delaware, Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15-17 years; (2) births to teens 10 to 14 years; (3) low birth weight babies; (3)…

  10. Report for the River Master of the Delaware River for the Period December 1, 2001-November 30, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Paulachok, Gary N.; Carswell, William J.

    2006-01-01

    A Decree of the United States Supreme Court in 1954 established the position of Delaware River Master within the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, the Decree authorizes diversions of water from the Delaware River Basin and requires compensating releases from certain reservoirs, owned by New York City, to be made under the supervision and direction of the River Master. The Decree stipulates that the River Master will furnish reports to the Court, not less frequently than annually. This report is the 49th Annual Report of the River Master of the Delaware River. It covers the 2002 River Master report year, that is, the period from December 1, 2001, to November 30, 2002. During the report year, precipitation in the upper Delaware River Basin was 2.73 in. greater than the long-term average. Combined storage in Pepacton, Cannonsville, and Neversink Reservoirs was at a record low level on December 1, 2001. Reservoir storage increased steadily from mid-winter until late June. Storage declined steadily from early July to mid-October then increased through the end of the year. Delaware River operations were conducted at reduced levels from December 1, 2001, to May 25, 2002, when drought emergency conditions prevailed, and as prescribed by the Decree from May 26, 2002, to November 30, 2002. Diversions from the Delaware River Basin by New York City and New Jersey were in compliance with the terms of the Decree or with the reduced limits in effect during drought emergency conditions. Reservoir releases were made as directed by the River Master at rates designed to meet the flow objective for the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, on 101 days during the report year. Releases were made at experimental conservation rates-or rates designed to relieve thermal stress and protect the fishery and aquatic habitat in the tailwaters of the reservoirs-on all other days. During the report year, New York City and New Jersey complied fully with the terms of the Decree, and during

  11. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and... Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal); use, administration, and navigation. (a... regulations and monitor traffic through the canal. (c) Safe navigation required. Clearance for any vessel...

  12. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  13. Application of ecological geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The Author has identified the following significant results. Significant results obtained by analysis of digital ERTS-1 data are: (1) Statistical outputs indicating the reliability of discriminating eight coastal vegetation and land use classes on a given group of training sets included: (a) mean and standard deviation of response in each class chosen; (b) contribution tables indicating importance of each channel in discriminating each thematic class from the background; (c) scatter diagrams showing relationships of thematic spectral signatures in spectral space; and (d) classification table showing reliability (in percent) of identification of each thematic class. (2) Thematic color maps at a scale of 1:1,000,000 showing vegetation and land use categories for Delaware's entire coastal zone. (3) Thematic computer plots at specified smaller (i.e. 1:24,000) scales for comparison with existing map data such as U.S.G.S. topographic maps.

  14. Quality of Delaware River water at Trenton, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Leo T.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1964-01-01

    Water in the Delaware River at Trenton, NJ, is a mixture of several types--water from the mountainous headwater region, water from the coal-mining regions, and water from the limestone valleys. The quantities of these types of water, in relation to the total quantity of water at Trenton, vary with changes in season and reservoir releases. The chemical quality of the water during the 17-year period 1945-61 was excellent, and the water was suitable for most uses after little or no treatment. The average concentration of dissolved solids was 86 ppm (parts per million), and 90 percent of the time it ranged from 57 to 126 ppm. Usually the pH of the water was close to 7.0 (considered to be a neutral point-neither acid nor alkaline). The hardness was less than 86 ppm 95 percent of the time. The general composition of the dissolved-solids content, in terms of equivalents, is 28 percent calcium, 14 percent magnesium, 8 percent sodium plus potassium, 43 percent bicarbonate plus sulfate, 5 percent chloride, and 2 percent nitrate. Concentrations of minerals in the river water are lowest during March, April and May (median concentration of dissolved solids 66 PPM) and are highest during August and September (median, 107 PPM). Each year an average of 880,000 tons of dissolved solids and 932,000 tons of suspended solids are carried past Trenton by the Delaware River. The greatest monthly loads of dissolved solids are in March and April, and the smallest are from July to October. Suspended-solids loads are greater when the streamflow is high but small the rest of the time. Concentration of suspended solids exceeds 100 PPM only 5 percent of the time. The headwaters in the Delaware River basin are the source of water of excellent quality. Much of this water is stored in reservoirs, and when released during August and September, it improves the quality of the water at Trenton. These releases to augment low flow have the effect of narrowing the range of concentrations of dissolved

  15. Water Quality of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River and Tributary Streams, New York and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siemion, Jason; Murdoch, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River (UPDE) and its tributaries during the period October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2007, to document existing water quality, determine relations between land use and water quality, and identify areas of water-quality concern. A tiered water-quality monitoring framework was used, with the tiers consisting of intensively sampled sites, gradient sites representing the range of land uses present in the basin, and regional stream-survey sites. Median nitrate and total phosphorous concentrations were 1.15 and 0.01 mg/L (milligrams per liter) for three sites on the mainstem Delaware River, 1.27 and 0.009 mg/L for the East Branch Delaware River, 2.04 and 0.01 mg/L for the West Branch Delaware River, and 0.68 and 0.006 mg/L for eight tributaries that represent the range of land uses resent in the basin, respectively. The percentage of agricultural land varied by basin from 0 to 30 percent and the percentage of suburbanization varied from 0 to 17 percent. There was a positive correlation between the percentage of agricultural land use in a basin and observed concentrations of acid neutralizing capacity, calcium, potassium, nitrate, and total dissolved nitrogen, whereas no correlation between the percentage of suburbanization and water quality was detected. Results of stream surveys showed that nitrate concentrations in 55 to 65 percent of the UPDE Basin exceeded the nitrate reference condition and a suggested water-quality guideline for ecological impairment in New York State (0.98 mg/L) during the spring. Many of the affected parts of the basin were more than 90 percent forested and showed signs of episodic acidification, indicating that the long-term effects of acid deposition play a role in the high nitrate levels. Nitrate concentrations in 75 percent of samples collected from agricultural sites exceeded the suggested nitrate water-quality guideline for ecological impairment

  16. Increased Oil Production and Reserves from Improved Completion Techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah, Class I

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Craig D.; Gwynn, Wallace; Deo, Milind D.; Jarrard, Richard; Curtice, Richard; Morris, Thomas H.; Smouse, DeForrest; Tripp, Carol N.

    2000-01-20

    The objective of this project was to increase oil production and reserves by the use of improved reservoir characterization and completion techniques in the Unita Basin Utah. To accomplish this objective, a two-year geologic and engineering characterization of the Bluebell field was conducted. The study evaluated surface and subsurface data, currently used completion techniques, and common production problems. It was determined that advanced case- and open-hole logs could be effective in determining productive beds and that staged-interval (about 500 ft [150 m] per stage) and bed-scale isolation completion techniques could result in improved well performance.

  17. Water-level data for the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnelly, C.A.; Hinaman, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    Water-level data for 171 wells and one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area northwest of Delaware City, Delaware, are presented for 1993 and 1994. Eight sets of synoptic ground- water-level measurements collected between April 1993 and September 1994, and locations and field notes for the 171 wells are presented. A hydrograph from December 19, 1993 through November 8, 1994 is presented for one surface-water site on Red Lion Creek in the industrial area. Hydrographs from October 15, 1993 through November 8, 1994 are presented for eight wells screened in the water- table aquifer. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers collected the synoptic ground-water-level measurements. The U.S. Geological Survey collected the continuously recorded water-level data.

  18. Late Paleozoic structural evolution of Permian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, T.E.

    1984-04-01

    The southern Permian basin is underlain by the NNW-trending Central Basin disturbed belt of Wolfcamp age (Lower Permian), the deep Delaware basin to its west, and the shallower Midland basin to its eat. The disturbed belt is highly segmented with zones of left-lateral offset. Major segments from south to north are: the Puckett-Grey Ranch zone; the Fort Stockton uplift; the Monahans transverse zone; the Andector ridges and the Eunice ridge; the Hobbs transverse zone; and the Tatum ridges, which abut the broad Roosevelt uplift to the north. The disturbed belt may have originated along rift zones of either Precambrian or Cambrian age. The extent of Lower and Middle Pennsylvanian deformation is unclear; much of the Val Verde basin-Ozona arch structure may have formed then. The main Wolfcamp deformation over thrust the West Texas crustal block against the Delaware block, with local denudation of the uplifted edge and eastward-directed backthrusting into the Midland basin. Latter in the Permian, the area was the center of a subcontinental bowl of subsidence - the Permian basin proper. The disturbed belt formed a pedestal for the carbonate accumulations which created the Central Basin platform. The major pre-Permian reservoirs of the Permian basin lie in large structural and unconformity-bounded traps on uplift ridges and domes. Further work on the regional structural style may help to predict fracture trends, to assess the timing of oil migration, and to evaluate intrareservoir variations in the overlying Permian giant oil fields.

  19. Extent and frequency of floods on Delaware River in vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farlekas, George M.

    1966-01-01

    A stream overflowing its banks is a natural phenomenon. This natural phenomenon of flooding has occurred on the Delaware River in the past and will occur in the future. T' o resulting inundation of large areas can cause property damage, business losses and possible loss of life, and may result in emergency costs for protection, rescue, and salvage work. For optimum development of the river valley consistent with the flood risk, an evaluation of flood conditions is necessary. Basic data and the interpretation of the data on the regimen of the streams, particularly the magnitude of floods to be expected, the frequency of their occurrence, and the areas inundated, are essential for planning and development of flood-prone areas.This report presents information relative to the extent, depth, and frequency of floods on the Delaware River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Belvidere, N.J. Flooding on the tributaries detailed in the report pertains only to the effect of backwater from the Delaware River. Data are presented for several past floods with emphasis given to the floods of August 19, 1955 and May 24, 1942. In addition, information is given for a hypothetical flood based on the flood of August 19, 1955 modified by completed (since 1955) and planned flood-control works.By use of relations presented in this report the extent, depth, and frequency of flooding can be estimated for any site along the reach of the Delaware River under study. Flood data and the evaluation of the data are presented so that local and regional agencies, organizations, and individuals may have a technical basis for making decisions on the use of flood-prone areas. The Delaware River Basin Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey regard this program of flood-plain inundation studies as a positive step toward flood-damage prevention. Flood-plain inundation studies, when followed by appropriate land-use regulations, are a valuable and economical supplement to physical works for flood

  20. Water resources data, Maryland and Delaware, water year 1997, volume 2. ground-water data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smigaj, Michael J.; Saffer, Richard W.; Starsoneck, Roger J.; Tegeler, Judith L.

    1998-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Maryland and Delaware each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data - Maryland and Delaware.' This series of annual reports for Maryland and Delaware began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the l975 water year, the report format was changed to present, in one volume, data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. In the 1989 water year, the report format was changed to two volumes. Both volumes contained data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels. Volume 1 contained data on the Atlantic Slope Basins (Delaware River thru Patuxent River) and Volume 2 contained data on the Monongahela and Potomac River basins. Beginning with the 1991 water year, Volume 1 contains all information on quantities of surface water and surface- water-quality data and Volume 2 contains ground-water levels and ground-water-quality data. This report is Volume 2 in our 1998 series and includes records of water levels and water quality of ground-water wells and springs. It contains records for water levels at 397 observation wells, discharge data for 6 springs, and water quality at 107 wells. Location of ground-water level wells are shown on figures 3 and 4. The location for the ground-water-quality sites are shown on figures 5

  1. 5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SOUTHWEST, NORTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  2. 23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CONTEXTUAL, RAIL CARS IN MU SHED - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  3. 6. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW NORTHWEST, SOUTH AND EAST ELEVATIONS - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  4. 16. INTERIOR, NORTH INSPECTION TRACK, FACING WEST Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR, NORTH INSPECTION TRACK, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. 10. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LEANTO ALONG NORTH ELEVATION Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW SOUTHWEST, LEAN-TO ALONG NORTH ELEVATION - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  6. 7. VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  7. 8. VIEW EASTNORTHEAST, SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW EAST-NORTHEAST, SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  8. 13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE Delaware, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL, LATERAL BRACING FOR INTERIOR OVERHEAD CRANE - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  9. 10. Bent under temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Bent under temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad over Erie at west end of old Bergen Tunnel, taken May 19, 1906 - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  10. 9. Temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Temporary bridge of Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad over Erie at west end of old Bergen Tunnel, taken May 19, 1906 - Erie Railway, Bergen Hill Open Cut, Palisade Avenue to Tonnele Avenue, Jersey City, Hudson County, NJ

  11. 2. DELAWARE AVE. (far right, looking north) AND BAINBRIDGE ST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DELAWARE AVE. (far right, looking north) AND BAINBRIDGE ST. (lower horizontal line) SHOWING SOCIETY HILL TOWERS (upper left, by I.M. Pei) - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  13. Ground-water levels in Delaware in 1952

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marine, I.W.

    1954-01-01

    In 1943 the towns of Lewes and Rehoboth entered into cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey in order to study salt-water encroachment in that area. Three observation wells were established, of which one, NI 3, had observations continued on the statewide program in 1952. Cooperation with the town was conducted in 1950. In December 1949 the State of Delaware, through the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Delaware and the Highway Department, cooperated with the U.S. Geological Survey for the purpose of making of a reconnaissance study of ground water within the State. In the fall of 1950, under the cooperative agreement with the Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Delaware, 13 water-table wells were established for measurement. Beginning July 1, 1951, cooperation transferred to the Delaware Geological Survey of the University of Delaware, and measurement s continued the remainder of the year. Cooperation was also established with the Delaware Geological Survey representing the city of Newark for a detailed study of the Newark area. An additional observation well, Cb 123, was established in the course of this program.

  14. Report of the River Master of the Delaware River for the period of December 1, 1980 to November 30, 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaefer, Francis T.; Fish, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Water supply conditions at the beginning of the year were marginal in marked contrast to those for the preceeding nine years. Discharge of the Delaware River at Montague, New Jersey, was only 72% of median as compared to 68% in excess of median the previous year. In December, with reservoir storage again declining, further reductions in both diversions and releases were imposed. With consent of all the parties, reductions were effected on December 20 limiting New York City diversions to 560 mgd, New Jersey to 65 mgd, and the required discharge at Montague was targeted at 1550 cfs. To conserve supplies, additional reductions were imposed in January when the Delaware River basin Commission formally declared a drought. New York City 's limitations was set at 520 mgd and that for New Jersey at 62 mgd. Montague flows were targeted between 1100 cfs, depending upon the location of the salt front in the estuary. Water quality of the Delaware River and Estuary was monitored on a continuous basis at eight sites for most of the year and on a monthly basis at ten sites to accurately locate the salt front. Highest concentrations observed at the Benjamin Franklin Bridge site was 133 mg/l (milligram per liter) on February 2. (USGS)

  15. Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Sylves, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included.

  16. Are historical pollution events on the Delaware River recorded as geochemical marker horizons in adjacent marsh sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, R.; Yemane, K. . Dept. of Geology Bryn Mawr Coll., PA . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    In the last two hundred years of massive population and industrial growth, the Delaware River has been subjected to several minor and major pollutions. For example, as recently as June 1989 the tanker Presidente Rivera spilled an estimated hundred thousand to million gallons of oil into the river. In the Lower Delaware Basin tides affect the river and its tributaries up to a hundred kilometers inland. The freshwater marshes adjacent to the creeks that empty into the Delaware River experience diurnal tidal sedimentation. It is thus expected that the pollutants in the waterway would be transported via the tidal channels into the adjacent wetlands. The high sedimentation rate, clay-rich sediments, accumulation of terrestrial organic matter, and the low energy environments in these marshes should ensure rapid burial which may preserve some of the contaminants transported into the marshes. To test this hypothesis the authors selected a freshwater marsh along the Raccoon Creek just south of Philadelphia in New Jersey, and collected a 2 m core from a relatively undisturbed portion of the marsh, about 15 m away from the tidal channels. The pH averages around 6.2, ranges from 5.5--6.8, but, is slightly higher in the middle part of the core. The bulk mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite, kaolinite, feldspars and quartz. Vivianite and vermiculite were observed at places lower in the core. Graminae dominates the pollen/spore taxa. The organic debris is unaltered throughout the core. The authors will measure heavy metals and toxic chemicals on < 2[mu]m clay fractions. Also pristane/phytane ratios, indicative of hydrocarbons (crude oils), will be determined on organic matter extracts. The authors will compare and correlate the results to historically documented events of chemical and petroleum spills on the Delaware River.

  17. TIMSS-R 1999: An Analysis of the Delaware Science Coalition Data. TIMSS-R Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikla, Julie

    This report explores some of the critical issues that have emerged from the data collected from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study-Repeat (TIMSS-R) to inform educational decisions in the state of Delaware. Research questions include Delaware's student performance on the TIMSS-R and the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP),…

  18. Planning Delaware's School Needs: Issues of Location, Design, and Infrastructure. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Stephanie; Edgell, David

    This report presents discussion from the 2000 Delaware Policy Forum "Planning Delaware's School Needs: Issues of Location, Design, and Infrastructure," which was held October 12, 2000, in Wyoming, Delaware. The forum brought together representatives of state agencies, including people from the Department of Transportation, the Department of…

  19. 78 FR 4167 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Offshore Delaware. SUMMARY: BOEM has issued a commercial wind energy lease to Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Commercial Wind Lease Issuance on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf Offshore Delaware AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice...

  20. Annual Report of School Climate and Student Conduct in Delaware Schools: 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Francine Simmons; Houston, Ronald L.

    This report provides information on the conduct of students in Delaware public schools during the 1999-2000 school year. The focus of the analysis is on reported incidence of serious student conduct offenses as defined by Delaware Code or as defined by Delaware State Board of Education regulations and reported incidence of student suspensions and…

  1. Taconic collision in SE Penna and Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, M.L.; Crawford, W.A.; Hoersch, A.L.; Srogi, L.A.; Wagner, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Taconic metamorphism and tectonism in SE Pennsylvania and northern Delaware were a result of the collision of a volcanic arc with North America. The Wilmington Complex, the infrastructure of the arc, is presently the highest structural unit. It consists of granulite facies volcanogenic sediments intruded by gabbro and a ca. 500 Ma gabbronorite-charnockite suite. Latest Precambrian-earliest Paleozoic sediments of the Glenarm series were metamorphosed to conditions above the second sillimanite isograd beneath the overthrust hot (700-800/sup 0/C) Wilmington Complex. As the edge of the continent was depressed and heated under the advancing thrust complex, basement-involved nappes of Grenville age rocks (Avondale anticline, Woodville dome) with the Glenarm sedimentary cover were thrust over still rigid autochthonous basement (West Chester Prong). On the NW flank of the orogen, Grenville age gneiss-cored massifs (Honey Brook Upland, Mine Ridge, Trenton Prong), unconformably overlain by lower Paleozoic continental shelf sediments, were involved in the thrusting but metamorphosed only to the greenschist facies. Steep anticlines developed later in the Paleozoic, contributing to the present pattern of northeast trending Grenville basement massifs mantled by overlying units.

  2. Improvements in Correctional HIV Services: A Case Study in Delaware.

    PubMed

    Swan, Holly; O'Connell, Daniel J; Visher, Christy A; Martin, Steven S; Swanson, Karen R; Hernandez, Kristin

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the experience and outcomes of the National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies HIV Services and Treatment Implementation in Corrections protocol in the state of Delaware. The protocol was designed to test the effectiveness of a change team model in improving HIV services in correctional settings. In Delaware, a team was created with representatives from correctional and community agencies to work on improving linkage to HIV care for individuals released from incarceration. The team made improvements in the entire HIV service continuum: linkage to HIV care, HIV education, and HIV testing. The experiences in Delaware and the findings from this study suggest that the use of a change team model is a viable method for making organizational change in correctional settings. PMID:25788611

  3. Distribution and concentration of suspended matter in Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Philpot, W.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The problem of remote sensing of suspended matter in water was analyzed in terms of the single-scattering albedo, and a semiempirical relationship between satellite radiance measurements and the concentration of suspended matter in the water was developed. The relationship was tested using data from the 7 July 1973 LANDSAT overpass of Delaware Bay with good results. Suspended sediment concentration maps for the entire Delaware Bay were prepared using radiance values extracted from LANDSAT MSS imagery and correlating them with ground truth samples collected from boats and helicopter.

  4. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA region 3): Delaware City PVC (Polyvinylchloride Resin) Site, New Castle County, Delaware, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-30

    The Delaware City PVC site is located two miles northwest of Delaware City, New Castle County, Delaware. In 1966 Stauffer Chemical Company (SCC) of Westport, Connecticut, founded the Delaware City PVC Plant, which is used for the manufacturing of polyvinylchloride resin (PVC), polyvinyl acetate, and other polymers. An EPA-conducted inspection in May 1982 indicated serious contamination of the shallow ground water. Currently, ground water, surface water, and soils are contaminated with PVC, benzyl chloride monomer (VCM), TCE, and 1,2-dichloroethane (EDC).

  5. Monitoring estuarine circulation and ocean waste dispersion using an integrated satellite-aircraft-drogue approach. [Delaware coast and Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G.; Wang, H.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An inexpensive, integrated drogue-aircraft-satellite approach was developed which is based on the Lagrangian technique and employs remotely tracked drogues and dyes together with satellite observation of natural tracers, such as suspended sediment. Results include current circulation studies in Delaware Bay in support of an oil slick movement model; investigations of the dispersion and movement of acid wastes dumped 40 miles off the Delaware coast; and coastal current circulation. In each case, the integrated drogue-aircraft-satellite approach compares favorably with other techniques on the basis of accuracy, cost effectiveness, and performance under severe weather conditions.

  6. Manual for School Building Commissions of the State of Delaware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This manual contains provisions of Delaware state law and recommended procedures for construction programs. Areas discussed include--(1) financing, (2) school construction formulae for space allowances, (3) proposed school building budget, (4) procedures for school building construction, (5) a check list for an accounting system, (6) purchase…

  7. Second Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Begun on an experimental basis in March 1975, the ongoing PLATO project at the University of Delaware has become an established part of the University's academic program. This descriptive report is divided into three sections: (1) project history and development, including organization, utilization, instructor and author training, and projections…

  8. Third Summative Report of the Delaware PLATO Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    Descriptions of new developments in the areas of facilities, applications, user services, support staff, research, evaluation, and courseware production since the Second Summative Report (1977) are provided, as well as a summative overview of PLATO applications at the University of Delaware. Through the purchase of its own PLATO system, this…

  9. An Inventory of ESEA Title III Projects, FY 1974 [Delaware].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, John S.

    Forty-eight projects funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III, and providing the funds to public school districts to demonstrate the feasibility of educational innovations, are the focus of this inventory of ESEA Title III projects for the State of Delaware, fiscal year 1974. Sixteen operating projects are described in Part I…

  10. 15. Photocopy of a photograph in Delaware Department of Transportation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of a photograph in Delaware Department of Transportation files, photographer unknown, about 1970 VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM (EAST) SIDE OF BRIDGE 808 AND THE GATES, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD THE MILL - Wagamon Pond Dam & Bridge, Spanning Broadkill River at State Road No. 197 (Mulberry Street), Milton, Sussex County, DE

  11. 16. Photocopy of a photograph in Delaware Department of Transportation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of a photograph in Delaware Department of Transportation files, photographer unknown, about 1970 VIEW OF BRIDGE 808, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD THE MILL - Wagamon Pond Dam & Bridge, Spanning Broadkill River at State Road No. 197 (Mulberry Street), Milton, Sussex County, DE

  12. Kids Voices Count: Listening to Delaware's Children Talk about Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count special report examines attitudes of adolescents in Delaware toward smoking and the use of tobacco products. Data are based on interviews with middle and high school students conducted by journalism students at Glasgow High School under the supervision of their teacher, and on statewide data. The report presents statewide data and…

  13. Sex, Lies, and Residence Life: Delaware's Thought Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissel, Adam

    2009-01-01

    The University of Delaware has a zero-tolerance policy for anything remotely resembling "hate speech." As such, the school implemented a mandatory training for all 7,000-odd students in its dorms. The sessions were part of a thorough thought-reform curriculum, designed by the school's Office of Residence Life, psychologically to "treat" and…

  14. 77 FR 73490 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq. (the ``Stafford Act''), as follows: I... warrant a major disaster declaration under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations...

  15. Delaware and the Southern Regional Education Board, December 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report details Delaware's participation in Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) programs and services from December 2013 through November 2014. Appropriations from member states support SREB's core operations and general services. SREB leverages the long-standing commitment of member states to attract external funding for an array of…

  16. National Environmental/Energy Workforce Assessment for Delaware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Field Research Center Inc., Iowa City, IA.

    This report presents existing workforce levels, training programs and career potentials and develops staffing level projections (1976-1982) based on available information for the State of Delaware. The study concerns itself with the environmental pollution control areas of air, noise, potable water, pesticides, radiation, solid waste, wastewater,…

  17. Nutrient Management Certification for Delaware: Developing a Water Quality Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David J.; Binford, Gregory D.

    2004-01-01

    Water quality is a critical environmental, social, and political issue in Delaware. In the late 1990s, a series of events related to water quality issues led to the passage of a state nutrient management law. This new law required nutrient management planning and established a state certification program for nutrient users in the agricultural and…

  18. Factors Influencing School Choice in a School District in Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, John J., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to examine the factors that influenced parents in a school district in Delaware when they selected a high school for their child. This study also sought to examine the sources of information that parents used. Also examined was the impact of socio-economic status in the high school selection process. A…

  19. 33 CFR 167.174 - Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area. 167.174 Section 167.174 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.174 Off Delaware Bay: Precautionary area. A precautionary area is established as follows: from 38°42.80′ N, 74°58.90′ W; then northerly by...

  20. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Davis, G. R.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data from twelve successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been analyzed with special emphasis on coastal vegetation, land use, current circulation, water turbidity and pollution dispersion. Secchi depth, suspended sediment concentration and transmissivity as measured from helicopters and boats were correlated with ERTS-1 image radiance. Multispectral signatures of acid disposal plumes, sediment plumes and slick were investigated. Ten vegetative cover and water discrimination classes were selected for mapping: (1) forest-land; (2) Phragmites communis; (3) Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata; (4) Spartina alterniflora; (5) cropland; (6) plowed cropland; (7) sand and bare sandy soil; (8) bare mud; (9) deep water; and (10) sediment-laden and shallow water. Canonical analysis predicted good classification accuracies for most categories. The actual classification accuracies were very close to the predicted values with 8 of 10 categories classified with greater than 90% accuracy indicating that representative training sets had been selected.

  1. Kids Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001 [and] Families Count in Delaware: Fact Book, 2000-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware Univ., Newark. Kids Count in Delaware.

    This Kids Count Fact Book is combined with the Families Count Fact Book to provide information on statewide trends affecting children and families in Delaware. The Kids Count statistical profile is based on 11 main indicators of child well-being: (1) births to teens 15 to 17 years; (2) births to teens 15 to 19 years; (3) low birth weight babies;…

  2. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Digital analysis of ERTS-1 imagery was used in an attempt to map and inventory the significant ecological communities of Delaware's coastal zone. Eight vegetation and land use discrimination classes were selected: (1) Phragmites communis (giant reed grass); (2) Spartina alterniflora (salt marsh cord grass); (3) Spartina patens (salt marsh hay); (4) shallow water and exposed mud; (5) deep water (greater than 2 m); (6) forest; (7) agriculture; and (8) exposed sand and concrete. Canonical analysis showed the following classification accuracies: Spartina alterniflora, exposed sand, concrete, and forested land - 94% to 100%; shallow water - mud and deep water - 88% and 93% respectively; Phragmites communis 83%; Spartina patens - 52%. Classification accuracy for agriculture was very poor (51%). Limitations of time and available class-memory space resulted in limiting the analysis of agriculture to very gross identification of a class which actually consists of many varied signature classes. Abundant ground truth was available in the form of vegetation maps compiled from color and color infrared photographs. It is believed that with further refinement of training set selection, sufficiently accurate results can be obtained for all categories.

  3. Calibration of a streamflow-routing model for the Delaware River and its principal tributaries in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flippo, H.N.; Madden, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    The flow-routing module of the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran watershed model was calibrated for 31 reaches on the Delaware River and 5 of it principal tributaries. These calibrations primarily involved the development of discharge-storage volume relations for the defined reaches. Daily discharge records for stream-gaging stations located at the upstream ends of the study reaches on the respective streams provided the primary hydrographic inputs for the routing models. Streamflow records for gaging stations at upstream locations and on other tributaries were used to estimate all other inflows for the 5-year calibration period, 1979-83. Root mean square errors of streamflows that were simulated for the downstream ends of gaged reaches ranged from 0.4 to 9.4 percent for the Delaware River, Lehigh River, Schuylkill River, and Brandywine Creek. Errors of 13 and 30 percent resulted from the streamflow simulations for the Lackawaxen and Neversink Rivers, respectively. Verification simulations for a 3-month period of extreme low flows on the Delaware River in 1966 resulted in overestimation of discharges for the Trenton, NJ, gaging station by approximately 50 percent on many days. Observed (recorded) streamflows at the Trenton gaging station during this time were exceptionally low, owing to comparatively large diversions of flow for public supplies, and into the Delaware and Raritan Canal. A flow-verification simulation for 3 months of the summer and fall of 1985, during which time minimum flows in the basin were comparable to those of 1966, resulted in a root mean square error of 3.3 percent for the Trenton gaging station. There was no diversion to the Delaware and Raritan Canal at the time. Simulated flows closely matched observed flows for upstream gaging stations on the Delaware River as well, thereby confirming the routing calibration for this stream. Information contained in this report can be used, with little modification, to develop routing modules for

  4. User's manual for the upper Delaware River riverine environmental flow decision support system (REFDSS), Version 1.1.2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.; Holmquist-Johnson, Chris; Hanson, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field surveys, organized workshops, and performed analysis of habitat for trout and shad in the Upper Delaware River Basin. This work culminated in the development of decision support system software (the Delaware River DSS–DRDSS, Bovee and others, 2007) that works in conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission’s reservoir operations model, OASIS, to facilitate comparison of the habitat and water-delivery effects of alternative operating scenarios for the Basin. This original DRDSS application was developed in Microsoft Excel and is available to all interested parties through the FORT web site (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Software/DRDSS/). Initial user feedback on the original Excel-based DSS highlighted the need for a more user-friendly and powerful interface to effectively deliver the complex data and analyses encapsulated in the DSS. In order to meet this need, the USGS FORT and Northern Appalachian Research Branch (NARB) developed an entirely new graphical user interface (GUI) application. Support for this research was through the DOI WaterSmart program (http://www.doi.gov/watersmart/html/index.php) of which the USGS component is the National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/WaterSMART.html). The content and methodology of the new GUI interface emulates those of the original DSS with a few exceptions listed below. Refer to Bovee and others (2007) for the original information. Significant alterations to the original DSS include: • We moved from Excel-based data storage and processing to a more powerful database back end powered by SQLite. The most notable effect of this is that the previous maximum temporal extent of 10 years has been replaced by a dynamic extent that can now cover the entire period of record for which we have data (1928–2000). • We incorporated interactive geographic information system (GIS

  5. Infrared view of Chesapeake Bay showing Virginia, Maryland and Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An infrared, near view of the Chesapeake Bay area showing portions of Virginia, Maryland and Delaware, as photographed from the Apollo spacecraft in Earth orbit during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission. Richmond and Norfolk can be seen in this picture. Tidewater, Virginia covers much of this view. The photograph was taken at an altitude of 217 kilometers (135 statute miles).

  6. Southeast New Mexico. Methanol foam fracs open up Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mickey, V.

    1983-10-01

    Part of the recent success in Brushy Canyon, Cherry Canyon, and Delaware formations in SE. New Mexico is being attributed to improved stimulation techniques. Historically, fracturing Delaware-age sands caused water sensitive clays within the formation to swell. Methanol foam fracs have been applied in Delaware-aged formations for the past year, and results are encouraging. Well potentials have been improved on some wells from under 10 bopd after acidization to 100 bopd after stimulation with methanol in nitrogen foam. The wells are cleaned up after perforation with 7.5% iron and clay control acid. Then the well is stimulated with a 75-quality nitrogen foam. The remaining 25% of the fluid is 50% methanol and 50% KCl water, 2% or 3% concentration. Additives required are minor, and typically include 1 gal/1,000/gal of some nonemulsifying agent and a special methanol foamer. The base fluid is a 30-lb gel system which gives stability to the foam and improves the foam's sand transport qualities. The gel also reduces friction pressures.

  7. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V. )

    1993-06-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O[sup 9] m[sup 3]. Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts.

  8. Exploring Marine Science through the University of Delaware's TIDE camp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, D. E.; Newton, F. A.; Veron, F.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    For the past five years, the University of Delaware has offered a two-week, residential, summer camp to rising sophomores, juniors, and seniors who are interested in marine science. The camp, named TIDE (Taking an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) camp, is designed to introduce students to the breadth of marine science while providing them with a college experience. Campers participate in a variety of academic activities which include classroom, laboratory, and field experiences, as well as numerous social activities. Two unique features of this small, focused camp is the large number of university faculty that are involved, and the ability of students to participate in ongoing research projects. At various times students have participated in fish and dolphin counts, AUV deployment, wind-wave tank experiments, coastal water and beach studies, and ROV activities. In addition, each year campers have participated in a local service project. Through communication with former TIDE participants, it is clear that this two-week, formative experience plays a large role in students choice of major when entering college.2012 Tide Camp - Salt marsh in southern Delaware 2012 Tide Camp - Field trip on a small boat

  9. Study of salt transport processes in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy

    1992-01-01

    The study described here is a subset of a broader climate-related study, and is focused primarily on salinity intrusion into Delaware Bay and River. Given changes in freshwater discharge into the Delaware River as determined from the larger study, and given probable sea level rise estimates, the purpose here is to calculate the distribution of salinity within Delaware Bay and River. The approach adopted for this study is composed of two parts: an analysis of existing physical data in order to derive a basic understanding of the salt dynamics, and numerical simulation of future conditions based on this analysis. There are two important constraints in the model used: it must resolve the spatial scales important to the salt dynamics, and it must be sufficiently efficient to allow extensive sensitivity studies. This has led to the development of a 3D model that uses harmonic decomposition in time and irregular finite elements in space. All nonlinear terms are retained in the governing equations, including quadratic bottom stress, advection, and wave transport (continuity nonlinearity). These equations are coupled to the advection-diffusion equation for salt so that density gradient forcing is included in the momentum equations. Although this study is still in progress, the model has reproduced sea level variations and the 3D structure of tidal and residual currents very well. In addition, the study has addressed the effects of a 1-meter rise in mean sea level on hydrodynamics of the study area. Current work is focused on salt dynamics.

  10. Experiments in water spreading at Newark, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Haye; Rima, Donald Robert

    1962-01-01

    Two experiments in water spreading were made at Newark, Del., to evaluate the prospects of using excess storm runoff to recharge the shallow water-table aquifer which serves the community. Water was diverted from 1 of the city's 3 production wells and released into an infiltration ditch near the municipal well field. Although slightly more than 65,000 cubic feet of water (nearly 500,000 gallons ) was spread in the infiltration ditch and allowed to seep into the subsurface, there was no indication that any appreciable amount of water reached the producing aquifer. Instead, a perched zone of saturation was created by the presence of an impermeable or slightly permeable bed above the water table. So effective is this barrier to the downward movement of water that within a period of less than 1 day, the apex of the perched zone rose about 10 feet to the level of the bottom of the infiltration ditch. As more water was added, the mound of saturation spread laterally. On the basis of these experiments, it appears that the principal aquifer at Newark, Del., would not be benefited by spreading water in shallow infiltration ditches or basins. However, the absorptive capacity of the unsaturated materials which occur at a shallow depth, is sufficient to permit the disposal of large volumes of storm runoff.

  11. University of Delaware Library/Statewide K-12 Partnership Providing Online Resources and Training: UDLib/SEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Sandra K.

    UDLib/SEARCH is a unique partnership between the University of Delaware Library and state K-12 education in Delaware. UDLib/SEARCH provides access to 16 full text databases via the Internet on the state network to all Delaware public high schools and middle schools, and training for teachers and librarians. Using $30 million in state funds,…

  12. Annual Report of Delaware's Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students, Staff and Programs, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyer, Francine Simmons

    This report presents information on limited English proficient (LEP) students, staff, and programs in Delaware schools during the 1999-2000 school year. It focuses on data collected from a spring 2000 survey distributed to the district LEP contact person in each of Delaware's school districts and charter schools. Results indicated an increase of…

  13. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Fireworks Display... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict vessel traffic on the Delaware River from operating within 400 yards of a fireworks barge located at...

  14. 75 FR 54026 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River, Camden, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Marina and South of the Benjamin Franklin Bridge. The safety zone will restrict vessel traffic from a... Delaware River in an area described as north of the Wiggins Park Marina and south of the Benjamin Franklin... vessel intending to transit East of Anchorage Area 13 in the Delaware River South of the...

  15. 33 CFR 110.70 - Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. 110.70 Section 110.70 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... and Delaware Canal, easterly of Courthouse Point, Md. The waters southerly of a line joining...

  16. 78 FR 68026 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 99-Wilmington, Delaware, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Section 400.38 of the FTZ Board's regulations. The facility is used for the production of a pharmaceutical... Production Activity, Noramco, Inc., (Pharmaceutical Intermediate), Wilmington, Delaware The Delaware Economic... to the requirements of the regulations of the FTZ Board (15 CFR 400.22) was received on November...

  17. 78 FR 57573 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Attainment Plan for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... X emission control, New Castle County (effective June 2012). SIP approved May 5, 2012 (77 FR 28489... Plan for the Philadelphia-Wilmington, Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware Nonattainment Area for the 1997... standard (NAAQS) for the Philadelphia-Wilmington, Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Delaware (PA-NJ- DE) PM...

  18. Delaware Technical and Community College Policy Recommendations for Improved Online Courses and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andrew James

    2010-01-01

    Delaware Technical and Community College online courses are not properly focused to ensure instructors are effective in improving student achievement. First time online students are not given the proper tools when navigating online courses at the college. The focus at Delaware Tech should be on improving the format which students use when…

  19. 75 FR 9426 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, PA to discuss various issues to improve oil spill prevention and...

  20. 75 FR 18524 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, PA to discuss and approve DRBOSAC's report on oil spill prevention...

  1. 75 FR 12561 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meeting. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill... Federal Register on March 2, 2010 (75 FR 9426) is cancelled. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  2. 75 FR 73116 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meetings AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of advisory committee meetings. SUMMARY: The Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee (DRBOSAC) will meet in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to discuss and approve DRBOSAC's report on...

  3. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A...

  4. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A...

  5. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A...

  6. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. 334.120 Section 334.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A...

  7. Evaluation of Delaware Stars for Early Success: Year 1 Report. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Heather L.; Karoly, Lynn A.; Le, Vi-Nhuan; Tamargo, Jennifer; Setodji, Claude Messan

    2014-01-01

    Delaware was in the first group of states to receive a federal grant in 2012 to improve early care and education services and increase the number of infants, toddlers, and preschool-age children in high-quality programs. One component of the state's grant is a rigorous validation process for Delaware Stars for Early Success, a voluntary quality…

  8. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  9. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way...

  10. 33 CFR 167.173 - Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic Route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way Traffic... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY OFFSHORE TRAFFIC SEPARATION SCHEMES Description of Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Atlantic East Coast § 167.173 Off Delaware Bay: Two-Way...

  11. The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative: Lessons Learned in Designing a GIS-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Silberman, Jordan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Delaware Geography-Health Initiative is a Web- and GIS-based set of lesson units for teaching geographic concepts and research methods within the context of the state's high school geography standards. Each unit follows a research-based, inquiry-centered model addressing questions of health because of Delaware's high incidence of cancer,…

  12. State of Delaware Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards: Music, Visual Arts, Theatre, Dance, November 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    This guide to content standards in the visual and performing arts in the state of Delaware is the work of a curriculum framework commission whose members have crafted clear standards for development of curriculum that will prepare Delaware's students to become effective, productive citizens. Standards-based education reform is an initiative for…

  13. Delaware River Streamflow Reconstruction using Tree Rings: Exploration of Hierarchical Bayesian Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devineni, N.; Lall, U.; Cook, E.; Pederson, N.

    2011-12-01

    We present the application of a linear model in a Hierarchical Bayesian Regression (HBR) framework for reconstructing the summer seasonal averaged streamflow at five stations in the Delaware River Basin using eight newly developed regional tree ring chronologies. This technique directly provides estimates of the posterior probability distribution of each reconstructed streamflow value, considering model parameter uncertainty. The methodology also allows us to shrink the model parameters towards a common mean to incorporate the predictive ability of each tree chronology on multiple stations. We present the results from HBR analysis along with the results from traditional Point by Point Regression (PPR) analysis to demonstrate the benefits of developing the reconstructions under a Bayesian modeling framework. Further, we also present the comparative results of the model validation using various performance evaluation metrics such as reduction in error (RE) and coefficient of efficiency (CE). The reconstructed streamflow at various stations can be utilized to examine the frequency and recurrence attributes of extreme droughts in the region and their potential connections to known low frequency climate modes.

  14. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Kelsea A.; Schumacher, Thomas; Agbemabiese, Lawrence

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033.

  15. 18 CFR 410.1 - Basin regulations-Water Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Code and Administrative Manual-Part III Water Quality Regulations. 410.1 Section 410.1 Conservation of... CODE AND ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL-PART III WATER QUALITY REGULATIONS § 410.1 Basin regulations—Water Code and Administrative Manual—Part III Water Quality Regulations. (a) The Water Code of the Delaware...

  16. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    2002-01-16

    The overall objective of this project was to demonstrate that a development program-based on advanced reservoir management methods-can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan included developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals were (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  17. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, New Mexico, Class III

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Michael B.

    2002-02-21

    The overall objective of this project is to demonstrate that a development program based on advanced reservoir management methods can significantly improve oil recovery at the Nash Draw Pool (NDP). The plan includes developing a control area using standard reservoir management techniques and comparing its performance to an area developed using advanced reservoir management methods. Specific goals are (1) to demonstrate that an advanced development drilling and pressure maintenance program can significantly improve oil recovery compared to existing technology applications and (2) to transfer these advanced methodologies to oil and gas producers in the Permian Basin and elsewhere throughout the U.S. oil and gas industry.

  18. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Kelsea A; Schumacher, Thomas; Agbemabiese, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware's e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033. PMID:25130982

  19. Teen mothers, unintended pregnancies, and costs across Delaware.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Kristin; Gunter, Whitney D; Martin, Steven S; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2014-04-01

    The present study used data from several sources to 1) present information on mothers and births in a single state (Delaware); 2) present cost data to estimate health-related birth real costs; and 3) use the data to estimate the costs and impact on mothers, health care providers, and taxpayers. In addition, this study explicitly examined costs of births through the lens of unplanned/unintended teen and young adult births. Concomitantly, the medical cost of these pregnancies for most of these young mothers who had not wanted to be pregnant at the time, was paid for through the state's Medicaid program. The percentage of Medicaid funded births was much higher for young mothers than for older mothers. Ultimately, it was estimated that young teen (age 17 and under) births cost about $4.0 million each year, older teens (18-20) births $14.0 million, and young adults (21-24) over $26 million. The State funded almost 75 percent of the health care costs of young teen pregnancy prenatal care, deliveries, and newborn care, through Medicaid. And over 75 percent of these Medicaid costs are for births that were unintended at the time. The cost of unintended teen and young adult births funded through Medicaid in Delaware was approximately $25 million annually.

  20. Selected Streamflow Statistics for Streamgaging Stations in Delaware, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ries, Kernell G.

    2004-01-01

    Flow-duration and low-flow frequency statistics were calculated for 15 streamgaging stations in Delaware, in cooperation with the Delaware Geological Survey. The flow-duration statistics include the 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-, 50-, 60-, 70-, 80-, 90-, 95-, 98-, and 99-percent duration discharges. The low-flow frequency statistics include the average discharges for 1, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days that recur, on average, once in 1.01, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 years. The statistics were computed using U.S. Geological Survey computer programs that can be downloaded from the World Wide Web at no cost. The computer programs automate standard U.S. Geological Survey methods for computing the statistics. Documentation is provided at the Web sites for the individual programs. The computed statistics are presented in tabular format on a separate page for each station, along with the station name, station number, the location, the period of record, and remarks.

  1. Evidence for an Early Cretaceous mineralizing event above the basement/sediment unconformity in the intracratonic Paris Basin: paragenetic sequence and Sm-Nd dating of the world-class Pierre-Perthuis stratabound fluorite deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigoux, Morgane; Delpech, Guillaume; Guerrot, Catherine; Pagel, Maurice; Augé, Thierry; Négrel, Philippe; Brigaud, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    World-class stratabound fluorite deposits are spatially associated with the basement/sediment unconformity of the intracratonic Paris Basin and the Morvan Massif in Burgundy (France). The reserves are estimated to be about 5.5 Mt of fluorite within six fluorite deposits. In this study, we aim to determine the age of the major fluorite mineralization event of the Pierre-Perthuis deposit (1.4 Mt fluorite) by a combined study of the paragenetic mineral sequence and Sm-Nd dating on fluorite crystals. Fluorite occurs as isolated cubes or filling geodes in a Triassic, silicified, dolomitic formation. Three fluorite stages associated with sphalerite, pyrite, galena, barite, and quartz have been distinguished using optical, cathodoluminescence, and scanning electron microscopes. Seven crystals of the geodic fluorite stage were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents and their 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions. The normalized REE distribution displays homogeneous bell-shaped patterns for all the geodic fluorite samples with a Mid-REE enrichment over the Light-REE and Heavy-REE. The 147Sm/144Nd varies from 0.3108 to 0.5504 and the 143Nd/144Nd from 0.512313 to 0.512518. A six-point Sm-Nd isochron defines an age of 130 ± 15 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512054, MSWD = 0.21). This Sm-Nd isochron provides the first age for the stratabound fluorite sediment-hosted deposit, related to an unconformity in the Paris Basin, and highlights a major Early Cretaceous fluid circulation event mainly above the basement/sediment unconformity during a flexural deformation of the Paris Basin, which relates to the rifting of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Ligurian Sea in the Western Europe domain.

  2. Skylab and ERTS-1 investigations of coastal land use and water properties. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Bartlett, D.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 multispectral scanner and Skylab's S190A, S190B, and S192 data products were evaluated for their utility in studying current circulation, suspended sediment concentrations and pollution dispersal in Delaware Bay and in mapping coastal vegetation and land use. Imagery from the ERTS-1 MSS, S190A and S190B cameras shows considerable detail in water structure, circulation, suspended sediment distribution and within waste disposal plumes in shelf waters. These data products were also used in differentiating and mapping twelve coastal vegetation and land use classes. The spatial resolution of the S190A multispectral facility appears to be about 30 to 70 meters while that of the S190B earth terrain camera is about 10 to 30 meters. Such resolution, along with good cartographic quality, indicates a considerable potential for mapping coastal land use and monitoring water properties in estuaries and on the continental shelf. The ERTS-1 MSS has a resolution of about 70-100 meters. Moreover, its regular 18-day cycle permits observation of important changes, including the environmental impact of coastal zone development on coastal vegetation and ecology.

  3. Contrasting fish assemblages in free-flowing and impounded tributaries to the Upper Delaware River: Implications for conserving biodiversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldigo, Barry P.; Delucia, Mari-Beth; Keller, Walter D.; Schuler, George E.; Apse, Colin D.; Moberg, Tara

    2015-01-01

    The Neversink River and the Beaver Kill in southeastern New York are major tributaries to the Delaware River, the longest undammed river east of the Mississippi. While the Beaver Kill is free flowing for its entire length, the Neversink River is subdivided by the Neversink Reservoir, which likely affects the diversity of local fish assemblages and health of aquatic ecosystems. The reservoir is an important part of the New York City waster-supply system that provides drinking water to more than 9 million people. Fish population and community data from recent quantitative surveys at comparable sites in both basins were assessed to characterize the differences between free-flowing and impounded rivers and the extent of reservoir effects to improve our capacity to define ecosystems responses that two modified flow-release programs (implemented in 2007 and 2011) should produce in the Neversink River. In general, the continuum of changes in fish assemblages which normally occur between headwaters and mouth was relatively uninterrupted in the Beaver Kill, but disrupted by the mid-basin impoundment in the Neversink River. Fish assemblages were also adversely affected at several acidified sites in the upper Neversink River, but not at most sites assessed herein. The reservoir clearly excluded diadromous species from the upper sub-basin, but it also substantially reduced community richness, diversity, and biomass at several mid-basin sites immediately downstream from the impoundment. There results will aid future attempts to determine if fish assemblages respond to more natural, yet highly regulated, flow regimes in the Neversink River. More important, knowledge gained from this study can help optimize use of valuable water resources while promoting species of special concern, such as American eel (Anguilla rostrata) and conserving biodiversity in Catskill Mountain streams.

  4. Application of remotely sensed land-use information to improve estimates of streamflow characteristics, volume 8. [Maryland, Virginia, and Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pluhowski, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Land use data derived from high altitude photography and satellite imagery were studied for 49 basins in Delaware, and eastern Maryland and Virginia. Applying multiple regression techniques to a network of gaging stations monitoring runoff from 39 of the basins, demonstrated that land use data from high altitude photography provided an effective means of significantly improving estimates of stream flow. Forty stream flow characteristic equations for incorporating remotely sensed land use information, were compared with a control set of equations using map derived land cover. Significant improvement was detected in six equations where level 1 data was added and in five equations where level 2 information was utilized. Only four equations were improved significantly using land use data derived from LANDSAT imagery. Significant losses in accuracy due to the use of remotely sensed land use information were detected only in estimates of flood peaks. Losses in accuracy for flood peaks were probably due to land cover changes associated with temporal differences among the primary land use data sources.

  5. Advanced Oil Recovery Technologies for Improved Recovery from Slope Basin Clastic Reservoirs, Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool, Eddy County, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark B.

    1999-02-24

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County New Mexico is a cost-shared field demonstration project in the US Department of Energy Class II Program. A major goal of the Class III Program is to stimulate the use of advanced technologies to increase ultimate recovery from slope-basin clastic reservoirs. Advanced characterization techniques are being used at the Nash Draw project to develop reservoir management strategies for optimizing oil recovery from this Delaware reservoir. Analysis, interpretation, and integration of recently acquired geologic, geophysical, and engineering data revealed that the initial reservoir characterization was too simplistic to capture the critical features of this complex formation. Contrary to the initial characterization, a new reservoir description evolved that provided sufficient detail regarding the complexity of the Brushy Canyon interval at Nash Draw. This new reservoir description is being used as a risk reduction tool to identify ''sweet spots'' for a development drilling program as well as to evaluate pressure maintenance strategies. The reservoir characterization, geological modeling, 3-D seismic interpretation, and simulation studies have provided a detailed model of the Brushy Canyon zones. This model was used to predict the success of different reservoir management scenarios and to aid in determining the most favorable combination of targeted drilling, pressure maintenance, well simulation, and well spacing to improve recovery from this reservoir.

  6. Knowledge of preconception health care among primary care physicians in Delaware.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, Ruchi; Locke, Robert G; Hack, David; Paul, David A

    2012-11-01

    Pregnancy outcomes including premature birth are influenced by multiple factors including preconception health. This study was designed to assess the knowledge of various aspects of preconception health care in clinical practice in the state of Delaware. After assuring content validity, a questionnaire was provided to primary care physicians in Delaware. A total of 94 Delaware clinicians completed the survey and 96 percent indicated they should provide preconception counseling. Physicians frequently discussed some aspects of preconception care including diabetes and weight management, while other topics including reproductive life plans, vaccinations, and HIV screening were less frequently discussed. Preconception health care has been recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve the health of women of childbearing age. Our data indicate a need to increase education and programs regarding preconception health to Delaware primary care physicians.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF THE DELAWARE AND MARYLAND COASTAL BAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The coastal bays of Delaware and Maryland are an important ecological and economic resource whose physical characteristics and location make them particularly vulnerable to the effects of pollutants. This project was undertaken as a collaborative effort between state and federal ...

  8. Satellite studies of turbidity and circulation patterns in Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Srna, R.; Treasure, W. M.; Rogers, R.

    1973-01-01

    Satellite imagery from four successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle are interpreted with special emphasis on visibility of suspended sediment and its use as a natural tracer for gross circulation patters. The MSS red band (band 5) appears to give the best contrast, although the sediment patterns are represented by only a few neighboring shades of grey. Color density slicing improves the differentiation of turbidity levels. However, color additive enhancements are of limited value since most of the information is in a single color band. The ability of ERTS-1 to present a synoptic view of the surface circulation over the entire bay is shown to be a valuable and unique contribution of ERTS-1 to coastal oceanography.

  9. Improving public addiction treatment through performance contracting: the Delaware experiment.

    PubMed

    McLellan, A Thomas; Kemp, Jack; Brooks, Adam; Carise, Deni

    2008-09-01

    In fiscal 2002, Delaware replaced traditional cost-reimbursement contracts with performance-based contracts for all outpatient addiction treatment programs. Incentives included 90% capacity utilization and active patient participation in treatment. One of the programs failed to meet requirements. Strategies adopted by successful programs included extended hours of operation, facility enhancements, salary incentives for counselors, and two evidence-based therapies (MI and CBT). Average capacity utilization from 2001 to 2006 went from 54% to 95%; and the average proportion of patients' meeting participation requirements went from 53% to 70%--with no notable changes in the patient population. We conclude that properly designed, program-based contract incentives are feasible to apply, welcomed by programs and may help set the financial conditions necessary to implement other evidence-based clinical efforts; toward the overall goal of improving addiction treatment. PMID:18325621

  10. Improving public addiction treatment through performance contracting: The Delaware experiment☆

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, A. Thomas; Kemp, Jack; Brooks, Adam; Carise, Deni

    2009-01-01

    In fiscal 2002, Delaware replaced traditional cost-reimbursement contracts with performance-based contracts for all outpatient addiction treatment programs. Incentives included 90% capacity utilization and active patient participation in treatment. One of the programs failed to meet requirements. Strategies adopted by successful programs included extended hours of operation, facility enhancements, salary incentives for counselors, and two evidence-based therapies (MI and CBT). Average capacity utilization from 2001 to 2006 went from 54% to 95%; and the average proportion of patients’ meeting participation requirements went from 53% to 70%—with no notable changes in the patient population. We conclude that properly designed, program-based contract incentives are feasible to apply, welcomed by programs and may help set the financial conditions necessary to implement other evidence-based clinical efforts; toward the overall goal of improving addiction treatment. PMID:18325621

  11. Novel Coronavirus and Astrovirus in Delaware Bay Shorebirds

    PubMed Central

    Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Briese, Thomas; Krauss, Scott; Sanchez, Maria D.; Jain, Komal; Hutchison, Stephen K.; Webster, Robert G.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild birds are an important but to some extent under-studied reservoir for emerging pathogens. We used unbiased sequencing methods for virus discovery in shorebird samples from the Delaware Bay, USA; an important feeding ground for thousands of migratory birds. Findings Analysis of shorebird fecal samples indicated the presence of a novel astrovirus and coronavirus. A sanderling sample yielded sequences with distant homology to avian nephritis virus 1, an astrovirus associated with acute nephritis in poultry. A ruddy turnstone sample yielded sequences with homology to deltacoronaviruses. Conclusions Our findings highlight shorebirds as a virus reservoir and the need to closely monitor wild bird populations for the emergence of novel virus variants. PMID:24699424

  12. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    SciTech Connect

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  13. Mycobacterial infections in striped bass from Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ottinger, C.A.; Brown, J.J.; Densmore, Christine L.; Starliper, C.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Weyers, H.S.; Beauchamp, K.A.; Rhodes, M.W.; Kator, H.; Gauthier, David T.; Vogelbein, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    Eighty striped bass Morone saxatilis were obtained from Delaware Bay using commercial gill nets set adjacent to Woodland Beach (n = 70) and Bowers Beach (n = 10) in December 2003. Fish were examined for gross lesions. Total lengths (TLs) and eviscerated weights were determined to calculate condition factors (K). Portions of spleens were aseptically harvested for bacterial culture, and portions of spleens, kidneys (anterior and posterior), livers, and gonads were obtained for histological examination. The size distribution of the striped bass was relatively homogeneous; the mean TL was about 600 mm for all samples. Mean K exceeded 0.95 in all samples and was not significantly different (P > 0.05) among samples. Significant differences in mycobacterial infection prevalence (P ??? 0.05) were observed among samples; samples obtained at Woodland Beach (WB) on December 10 (53.8%, n = 13) and December 17 (7.1%, n = 42) exhibited the most striking differences in prevalence. Mycobacterial infection intensity ranged from 1 ?? 102 to 1 ?? 107 colony-forming units per gram of spleen. Acanthocephalan infection prevalence and intensity, non-acid-fast bacterial infection prevalence, and fish sex ratio were also significantly different among the samples (P ??? 0.05). Similar to the mycobacterial infections, differences in sex ratio, acanthocephalan infection, and non-acid-fast bacterial infection were observed between the WB samples taken on December 10 and 17. However, no significant associations (P > 0.05) were observed between sex ratio or these infections and mycobacterial infection. The differences in bacterial and parasite infection prevalence and intensity and fish sex ratio in some samples indicate that these fish had a different history and that the epizootiology of mycobacterial infection in striped bass from Delaware Bay may be relatively complex. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  14. Upper Cenozoic sediments of the lower Delaware Valley and the northern Delmarva Peninsula, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owens, James Patrick; Minard, James Pierson

    1979-01-01

    The 'yellow gravels' referred to by R. D. Salisbury in 1898 and the 'Trenton gravel,' as defined by H. C. Lewis in 1880, were investigated along the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain in southern New Jersey and in the northern Delmarva Peninsula. The highest level deposits, the Beacon Hill gravel, are found on only the highest hills in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Their distribution suggests deposition from north to south across the plain. After deposition of the Beacon Hill, probably in middle or late Miocene time, a narrow valley was formed paralleling the inner edge of the New Jersey Coastal Plain between Raritan Bay and Camden. South of Camden, the valley broadened, covering much of southern New Jersey. The deposits in this valley are largely the Bridgeton Formation as we have redefined it. A second narrow valley was entrenched through the Bridgeton between Trenton and Salem, N.J. This valley broadens and covers much of the northern Delmarva Peninsula west of the Delaware River. The fill in the valley is largely the Pensauken Formation, as we have redefined it in our report. Collectively, the Beacon Hill, the Bridgeton, and the Pensauken were originally the 'yellow gravels' of Salisbury. These deposits are all fluviatile in origin and were largely formed as a series of step like downcutting channels. The Delaware Valley between Trenton and the lower Delaware Bay region is occupied by the 'Trenton gravel,' which is below the average level of the 'yellow gravels.' Two units recognized throughout the area and informally named the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are lithologically distinct from the 'yellow gravel' formations. The lithologies of the Spring Lake beds and the Van Sciver Lake beds are much more heterogeneous than those of the older formations. These two units, particularly, contain much greater amounts of silt and clay, often in thick beds. The depositional environments associated with the two units include fluviatile, estuarine

  15. Flood of April 2-3, 2005, Neversink River Basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.

    2006-01-01

    Heavy rain on April 2-3, 2005 produced rainfall amounts of 3 inches to almost 6 inches within a 36-hour period throughout the Delaware River basin. Major flooding occurred in the East and West Branches of the Delaware River and their tributaries, the main stem of the Delaware River and the Neversink River, a major tributary to the Delaware River. The resultant flooding damaged hundreds of homes, caused millions of dollars in damage to infrastructure in Orange and Sullivan Counties, and forced more than 1,000 residents to evacuate their homes. A total of 20 New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas. Some of the most extensive flooding occurred along the Neversink and Delaware Rivers in Orange and Sullivan Counties, New York. Disaster recovery assistance from the April 2005 flooding in New York stood at almost $35 million in 2005, at which time more than 3,400 New Yorkers had registered for Federal aid. All U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations on the Neversink River below the Neversink Reservoir recorded peak water-surface elevations higher than those recorded during the September 2004 flooding. Peak water-surface elevations at some study sites on the Neversink River exceeded the 500-year flood elevation as documented in flood-insurance studies by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Flood peaks at some long-term U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations were the highest ever recorded. Several U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations on the Delaware River also recorded peak water-surface elevations that exceeded those recorded during the September 2004 flooding.

  16. Isolation over 35 years in a heated biotest basin causes selection on MHC class IIß genes in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, Mats; Aho, Teija; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2015-01-01

    Genes that play key roles in host immunity such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are expected to be major targets of selection. It is well known that environmental conditions can have an effect on host–parasite interactions and may thus influence the selection on MHC. We analyzed MHC class IIß variability over 35 years in a population of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea that was split into two populations separated from each other. One population was subjected to heating from cooling water of a nuclear power plant and was isolated from the surrounding environment in an artificial lake, while the other population was not subjected to any change in water temperature (control). The isolated population experienced a change of the allelic composition and a decrease in allelic richness of MHC genes compared to the control population. The two most common MHC alleles showed cyclic patterns indicating ongoing parasite–host coevolution in both populations, but the alleles that showed a cyclic behavior differed between the two populations. No such patterns were observed at alleles from nine microsatellite loci, and no genetic differentiation was found between populations. We found no indications for a genetic bottleneck in the isolated population during the 35 years. Additionally, differences in parasitism of the current perch populations suggest that a change of the parasite communities has occurred over the isolation period, although the evidence in form of in-depth knowledge of the change of the parasite community over time is lacking. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective sweep imposed by a change in the parasite community. PMID:25897384

  17. Isolation over 35 years in a heated biotest basin causes selection on MHC class IIß genes in the European perch (Perca fluviatilis L.).

    PubMed

    Björklund, Mats; Aho, Teija; Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca

    2015-04-01

    Genes that play key roles in host immunity such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in vertebrates are expected to be major targets of selection. It is well known that environmental conditions can have an effect on host-parasite interactions and may thus influence the selection on MHC. We analyzed MHC class IIß variability over 35 years in a population of perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea that was split into two populations separated from each other. One population was subjected to heating from cooling water of a nuclear power plant and was isolated from the surrounding environment in an artificial lake, while the other population was not subjected to any change in water temperature (control). The isolated population experienced a change of the allelic composition and a decrease in allelic richness of MHC genes compared to the control population. The two most common MHC alleles showed cyclic patterns indicating ongoing parasite-host coevolution in both populations, but the alleles that showed a cyclic behavior differed between the two populations. No such patterns were observed at alleles from nine microsatellite loci, and no genetic differentiation was found between populations. We found no indications for a genetic bottleneck in the isolated population during the 35 years. Additionally, differences in parasitism of the current perch populations suggest that a change of the parasite communities has occurred over the isolation period, although the evidence in form of in-depth knowledge of the change of the parasite community over time is lacking. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis of a selective sweep imposed by a change in the parasite community. PMID:25897384

  18. Collective Bargaining Agreement between the Board of Trustees of Delaware State College and the Delaware State College Chapter of the American Association of University Professors, 1986-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Coll., Dover.

    The collective bargaining agreement between the board of trustees and the Delaware State College chapter of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) covering the period 1986 to 1990 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: definitions; recognition of unit; non-discrimination; rights and privileges (professional dues…

  19. Carbonate gravity-flow processes on the Lower Permian slope, northwest Delaware basin

    SciTech Connect

    Loucks, R.G.; Brown, A.A.; Achauer, C.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Wolfcampian carbonate gravity-flow deposits accumulated on a low-angle slope in front of a platform of relatively low relief ({approximately}220 m). A 25 m core, located approximately 15 km basinward of the self margin, was examined to determine processes of carbonate deposition in the middle to distal slope environments. The majority of the deposits are cohesive debris-flows composed of clast-supported conglomerates with a calcareous siliciclastic mudstone matrix. Other deposits include high- and low-density turbidites of lime packstones (sand- to boulder-size range), lime grainstones, and siliclastic muddy silstones and suspension deposits of calcareous siliciclastic mudstones. Cohesive debris flows are generally massive and structureless, although several flows show an inverse-graded zone at their base indicating dispersive pressure forces that developed in a traction carpet. Other flows display coarse-tail fining-upward sequences indicating deposition by suspension settling from liquefied flow. At the base of each high-density, gravelly turbidite is one to several inversely graded zones of carbonated clasts indicating a traction carpet zone. These traction carpets are overlain by normal-graded units of shell and clast material. The upper units appear to be deposited directly out of suspension. The low-density turbidites are interpreted to be the residual products of more shelfward-deposited debris flows and high-density turbidity currents. Many of the depositional features described here for carbonate gravity-flow deposits are identical to those in siliclastic deposits, therefore the depositional processes controlling these features are probably similar.

  20. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  1. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  2. Development, calibration, and analysis of a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.; Raffensperger, Jeffrey Peter

    2003-01-01

    Excessive nutrients and sediment are among the most significant environmental stressors in the Delaware Inland Bays (Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman Bays). Sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants within the Inland Bays watershed include point-source discharges from industries and wastewater-treatment plants, runoff and infiltration to ground water from agricultural fields and poultry operations, effluent from on-site wastewater disposal systems, and atmospheric deposition. To determine the most effective restoration methods for the Inland Bays, it is necessary to understand the relative distribution and contribution of each of the possible sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants. A cooperative study involving the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2000 to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed that can be used as a water-resources planning and management tool. The model code Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was used. The 719-square-kilometer watershed was divided into 45 model segments, and the model was calibrated using streamflow and water-quality data for January 1999 through April 2000 from six U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations within the watershed. Calibration for some parameters was accomplished using PEST, a model-independent parameter estimator. Model parameters were adjusted systematically so that the discrepancies between the simulated values and the corresponding observations were minimized. Modeling results indicate that soil and aquifer permeability, ditching, dominant land-use class, and land-use practices affect the amount of runoff, the mechanism or flow path (surface flow, interflow, or base flow), and the loads of sediment and nutrients. In general, the edge-of-stream total suspended solids yields in the Inland Bays

  3. MISR Views Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the Appalachian Mountains acquired on March 24, 2000 during Terra orbit 1417. The large image on the right was taken by the MISR camera viewing straight down (nadir). The series of smaller images, from top to bottom, respectively, were taken by cameras viewing 70.5 degrees forward, 45.6 degrees forward, 45.6 degrees aftward, and 70.5 degrees aftward of nadir. These images cover the environs of Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond. Differences in brightness, color, and contrast as a function of view angle are visible over both land and water. Scientists are using MISR data to monitor changes in clouds, Earth's surface, and pollution particles in the air, and to assess their impact on climate. North is toward the top.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

    For more information: http://www-misr.jpl.nasa.gov

  4. Climate Change Impacts in the State of Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.

    2011-12-01

    The State of Delaware is currently completing its first statewide climate impacts and vulnerability assessment that will provide the foundation for a new statewide adaptation planning process. The assessment focuses on both the observed impacts and the projected impacts on five main sectors: public health and safety; infrastructure and water; industry, agriculture, and forestry; tourism and recreation; and wildlife, plants, and natural ecosystems. Examples of key impacts to the State include loss of wetlands from sea level rise and public health impacts from increased tropospheric ozone and heatwaves. The assessment is a result of collaboration across state agencies, universities, local governments, and non-governmental organizations. We discuss several challenges in translating national and regional research to locally-specific and locally-meaningful impacts necessary for the policy process, adaptation planning, and public outreach. We identify information and research gaps that continue to slow progress at the local and state level. There are lessons learned on how to best engage with policymakers and be relevant and useful for policy planning. Lastly, we give examples of successes in diverse collaborations, public communication of the results, and early policy actions resulting from the findings.

  5. Delaware K-12 & School Choice Survey: What Do Voters Say about K-12 Education? Polling Paper No. 21

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The "Delaware K-12 & School Choice Survey" project, commissioned by the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice and conducted by Braun Research, Inc. (BRI), measures Delaware registered voters' familiarity and views on a range of K-12 education topics and school choice reforms. The author and his colleagues report response levels…

  6. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  7. 78 FR 64912 - Approval of Expansion of Subzone 99E, Delaware City Refining Company LLC, New Castle County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Expansion of Subzone 99E, Delaware City Refining Company LLC, New... application to the Board to expand Subzone 99E at the facilities of Delaware City Refining Company LLC... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (78 FR 25698-25699, 05-02-13) and...

  8. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report... methodology proposed to be used in the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report is...: Comments will be accepted via email to john.yagecic@drbc.state.nj.us , with ``Water Quality Assessment...

  9. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality... methodology proposed to be used in the 2012 Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is... to 609-883-9522; by U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2012, P.O. Box 7360,...

  10. Delaware Student Testing Program: Guidelines For The Inclusion Of Students With Disabilities And Students With Limited English Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The first section of this report guides Delaware educators through the decision-making process for participation in the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) for students with disabilities and for students who are dually eligible as a student with a disability and limited English proficient (SD/LEP).The second section will guide Delaware…

  11. 75 FR 29805 - CSX Transportation, Inc. and Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc.-Joint Use Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... either the quality of the human environment or the conservation of energy resources. It is ordered: 1... Surface Transportation Board CSX Transportation, Inc. and Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc.--Joint.... (CSXT), and Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc. (D&H). The application seeks Board approval...

  12. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  13. Monitoring coastal water properties and current circulation with ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle have been analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay. Convergent shear boundaries between different water masses were observed from ERTS-1. In several ERTS-1 frames, waste disposal plumes have been detected 36 miles off Delaware's Atlantic coast. The ERTS-1 results are being used to extend and verify hydrodynamic models of the bay, developed for predicting oil slick movement and estimating sediment transport.

  14. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  15. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  16. Sand dunes on the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Owens, James Patrick

    1979-01-01

    Inconspicuous ancient sand dunes are present in parts of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. Many dunes are roughly V-shaped, built by northwest winds, especially on the east sides of some of the large rivers. On the uplands, the form and spacing of the dunes are variable. A surficial blanket composed mainly of medium and fine-grained sand-the Parsonsburg Sand-forms both the ancient dunes and the broad plains between the dunes. The sand that forms the dunes is massive and intensely burrowed in the upper part; traces of horizontal or slightly inclined bedding appear near the base. Quartz is the dominant mineral constituent of the sand. Microline is abundant in the very fine to fine sand fraction. The heavy-mineral assemblages (high zircon, tourmaline, rutile) are more mature than in most of the possible source rocks. The most abundant minerals in the clay-sized fraction are dioctahedral vermiculite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and gibbsite. The first four minerals are common in deposits of late Wisconsin and Holocene age. The gibbsite may be detrital, coming from weathered rocks of Tertiary age. The soil profile in the dune sand is weakly to moderately developed. At or near the base of the Parsonsburg Sand are peaty beds that range in age from about 30,000 to about 13,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Microfloral assemblages in the peaty beds suggest that the dunes on the uplands formed in a spruce parkland during the late Wisconsin glacial maximum. The river dunes may also be of late Wisconsin age, but could be Holocene.

  17. Concentrations and transport of atrazine in the Delaware River-Perry Lake system, northeast Kansas, July 1993 through September 1995

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, L.M.; Brewer, L.D.; Foley, G.A.; Morgan, S.C.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the distribution and transport of atrazine in surface water in the 1,117 square-mile Delaware River Basin in northeast Kansas was conducted from July 1992 through September 1995. The purpose of this report is to present information to assess the present (1992-95) conditions and possible future changes in the distribution and magnitude of atrazine concentrations, loads, and yields spatially, temporally, and in relation to hydrologic conditions and land-use characteristics. A network of 11 stream-monitoring and sample-collection sites was established within the basin. Stream- water samples were collected during a wide range of hydrologic conditions throughout the study. Nearly 5,000 samples were analyzed by enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for triazine herbicide concentrations. Daily mean triazine herbicide concentrations were calculated for all sampling sites and subsequently used to estimate daily mean atrazine concentrations with a linear- regression relation between ELISA-derived triazine concentrations and atrazine concentrations determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for 141 dual-analyzed surface-water samples. During May, June, and July, time-weighted, daily mean atrazine concentrations in streams in the Delaware River Basin commonly exceeded the value of 3.0-ug/L (micrograms per liter) annual mean Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking-water supplies. Time-weighted, daily mean concentrations equal to or greater than 20 ug/L were not uncommon. However, most time- weighted, daily mean concentrations were less than 1.0 ug/L from August through April. The largest time-weighted, monthly mean atrazine concentrations occurred during May, June, and July. Most monthly mean concentrations between August and April were less than 0.50 ug/L. Large differences were documented in monthly mean concentrations within the basin. Sites receiving runoff from the northern and

  18. 78 FR 53709 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure Requirements for the 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental... revised national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) are promulgated, the CAA requires states to...

  19. 77 FR 55419 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Section 110(a)(2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000), because the SIP is not approved to apply in Indian..., 2012 (77 FR 39456), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of Delaware. The... infrastructure elements: CAA section 110(a)(2)(C), (D) and (J). See 77 FR 45527 (August 1, 2012). IV....

  20. 75 FR 48627 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Administrative and Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ...; Administrative and Non-Substantive Changes to Existing Delaware SIP Regulations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA proposes to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP... Implementation Plan (SIP). In the Final Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA is approving the State's...

  1. 77 FR 12608 - Delaware; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Delaware; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency...; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster Legal Services; 97.034,...

  2. Improving Anti-Rape Policy and Education at the University of Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiffman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    It is incumbent on colleges and universities to evaluate the conditions that lead to sexual assault on their campuses and to address those that may support a climate that encourages or tolerates rape. Though various policies and educational programs attempt to mitigate the problem, still it persists. The University of Delaware has not engaged in a…

  3. 77 FR 37039 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Delaware

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ..., the final Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR) was published in the Federal Register (70 FR 59848) and codified as part 3 of title 40 of the CFR. CROMERR establishes electronic reporting... AGENCY Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Delaware...

  4. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display... out zone that covers part of the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico... Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display will pose significant risks to the public. The purpose of the...

  5. Equinox. A Model for the Environmental Education Curriculum for Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve in Delaware's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas M.; Reiher, John F.

    This publication represents the state model for environmental education curriculum for kindergarten through grade twelve in Delaware's schools. The document defines environmental education, lists major curriculum objectives and guidelines, and stresses the importance of the interdisciplinary approach. Four model units, representing the grade level…

  6. Knocking at the College Door: Projections of High School Graduates. Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    National and regional trends mask important variation among states in the supply of high school graduates. This profile provides brief indicators for Delaware related to: current levels of educational attainment, projections of high school graduates into the future, and two common barriers to student access and success--insufficient academic…

  7. 75 FR 32858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries Correction...

  8. 77 FR 28489 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... (77 FR 3211), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of Delaware. The NPR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory...

  9. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  10. Partnering To Promote Emotional Wellness in Young Children: Delaware's Framework for Action, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover.

    On the premise that access to services addressing children's emotional well-being is essential to improving the quality of care received, this paper presents a framework or plan of action to ensure that those services are accessible in Delaware and meet the needs of all children, their parents, and the child care community that serves them.…

  11. Synopsis of the University of Delaware's Office of Computer-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, Fred T.

    This brief paper presents background information and a description of the organizational structure and educational objectives of the Office of Computer-Based Instruction, formerly the Delaware PLATO project, whose name was changed to reflect the University's ongoing commitment to providing leadership in educational computing following the…

  12. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area. 334.110 Section 334.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS §...

  13. 33 CFR 334.120 - Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.120 Delaware Bay off Milford Neck; naval aircraft bombing target area. (a) The danger zone. A circular...°17′30″. (b) The regulations. (1) Anchoring, trawling, crabbing, fishing and dragging in the...

  14. 75 FR 34671 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ...) floor wax strippers. Regulation 1141 provides alternative control plans (ACP) by allowing responsible... Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds From Consumer Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... submitted by the State of Delaware concerning the control of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The...

  15. 77 FR 39456 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Section 110(a)(2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rose Quinto... from Stephen D. Page, Director, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards to the Regional Air... FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information collection burden under the provisions...

  16. Understanding Transfer Students at the University of Delaware: Transition Experiences and Recommendations for Improving Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinci, Carolyn Eaton

    2012-01-01

    Transfer students comprise about ten percent of the student population in the College of Arts and Sciences (CAS) at the University of Delaware. This research presents findings from a mixed methods study investigating the transition experiences of transfer students in the college. Demographic data were gathered on CAS transfer students admitted to…

  17. 77 FR 22224 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ..., 2012 (77 FR 5207), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of Delaware. The... Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...

  18. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  19. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  20. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  1. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  2. 33 CFR 165.535 - Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean... Guard District § 165.535 Safety Zone: Atlantic Ocean, Vicinity of Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware. (a) Location. The following area is a safety zone: All waters of the Atlantic Ocean within the area bounded...

  3. 75 FR 77798 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds From Portable Fuel Containers AGENCY: Environmental Protection...'s regulation for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from Consumer and Commercial Products, Section 3.0... Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Portable Fuel...

  4. 77 FR 60053 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...; Requirements for Prevention of Significant Deterioration and Nonattainment New Source Review; Fine Particulate... promulgated on May 16, 2008 (73 FR 28321). The second is the ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD.... This SIP revision pertaining to Delaware's Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)...

  5. Geothermal energy: tomorrow's alternative today. A handbook for geothermal-energy development in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    Mancus, J.; Perrone, E.

    1982-08-01

    This is a general procedure guide to various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development in Delaware. The following are covered: geothermal as an alternative, resource characteristics, geology, well mechanics and pumping systems, fluid disposal, direct heat utilization-feasibility, environmental and legal issues, permits and regulations, finance and taxation, and steps necessary for geothermal development. (MHR)

  6. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.71 Section 7.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) (b) Designated snowmobile routes. (1) A route in Middle Smithfield Township, Monroe... within the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area: (i) Those operated by businesses based within...

  7. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.71 Section 7.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) (b) Designated snowmobile routes. (1) A route in Middle Smithfield Township, Monroe... within the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area: (i) Those operated by businesses based within...

  8. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.71 Section 7.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) (b) Designated snowmobile routes. (1) A route in Middle Smithfield Township, Monroe... within the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area: (i) Those operated by businesses based within...

  9. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.71 Section 7.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) (b) Designated snowmobile routes. (1) A route in Middle Smithfield Township, Monroe... within the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area: (i) Those operated by businesses based within...

  10. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Recreation Area. 7.71 Section 7.71 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Recreation Area. (a) (b) Designated snowmobile routes. (1) A route in Middle Smithfield Township, Monroe... within the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area: (i) Those operated by businesses based within...

  11. 78 FR 40399 - Safety Zone; Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA. AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is temporarily changing the enforcement date of a safety zone for one...

  12. Race to the Top. Delaware. State-Reported APR: Year One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes Delaware's progress in implementing a comprehensive and coherent approach to education reform from the time of application through June 30, 2011. In particular, it highlights key accomplishments over the reporting period in the four reform areas: standards and assessments, data systems to support instruction, great teachers…

  13. Project Pet: Preserving Ethnic Traditions through Delaware High School Student Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The final product of an ethnic heritage studies project entitled Preserving Ethnic Traditions (PET), the document presents photographs and transcriptions of interviews by high school students with members of various ethnic groups. Carried out by 50 high school students from seven Delaware school districts, the interviews focus on values, cuisine,…

  14. 76 FR 26679 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... November 29, 2005 (70 FR 71612) that finalized NO X as a precursor for ozone regulations set forth at 40... (70 FR 71612) that finalized NO X as a precursor for ozone regulations set forth at 40 CFR 51.166 and... NO X found in the Federal Register action for Delaware dated July 27, 1993 (58 FR 40065)....

  15. 76 FR 58120 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... November 29, 2005 (70 FR 71612) that finalized the NO x as a precursor for ozone regulations set forth at... document, whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. On May 9, 2011 (76 FR 26679), EPA... NO X found in the Federal Register notice for Delaware dated July 27, 1993 (58 FR 40065)...

  16. A PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR ANTI-DEGRADATION MONITORING OF THE DELAWARE RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The non-tidal portion of the Delaware River consists of many large sections designated as Wild and Scenic Rivers and passes through two national parks. Although there is increasing pressure on the watershed, large sections of the mainstem of the river can be considered to be in m...

  17. BIOREMEDIATION OF AN EXPERIMENTAL OIL SPILL ON THE SHORELINE OF DELAWARE BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 1994, a field study was undertaken in Delaware in which light crude oil was intentionally released onto plots to evaluate bioremediation. The objectives were to obtain credible statistical evidence to determine if bioremediation with inorganic mineral nutrients ...

  18. 78 FR 63877 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... (78 FR 49409), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of Delaware. In the... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); is not an economically significant regulatory...

  19. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  20. 75 FR 12449 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendment to Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... Regulation of Delaware's Administrative Code, and it modifies the sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) mass emissions limit.... Background On January 5, 2010 (75 FR 2), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the State of... of future operations using the low sulfur (0.5%) residual fuel to generate electricity at the...

  1. 75 FR 283 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendment to Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...-Pollutant Regulation of Delaware's Administrative Code, and it modifies the sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) mass..., 2008 (73 FR 50723). II. Summary of SIP Revision On October 7, 2009, EPA received a SIP revision to... and the estimate of future operations using the low sulfur (0.5%) residual fuel to...

  2. 76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Hook, PA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Hook, PA. This action is necessary to maintain the 42 ft. berth draft in this portion of the Delaware..., PA. DATES: This rule is effective from 8 a.m. on March 3, 2011 through 10 p.m. on March 14,...

  3. 78 FR 58465 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Update to Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    .../or revised regulations as being part of the SIP. On May 22, 1997 (62 FR 27968), EPA revised the... Register document. On December 7, 1998 (63 FR 67407), EPA published a document in the Federal Register beginning the new IBR procedure for Delaware. On June 21, 2004 (69 FR 34285), April 3, 2007 (72 FR...

  4. 76 FR 66768 - Delaware Disaster #DE-00012, Declaration of Economic Injury

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Delaware Disaster DE-00012, Declaration of Economic Injury AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Economic Injury Disaster Loan (EIDL)...

  5. An Evaluation of the Delaware State Public Elementary and Secondary Educational Equalization Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Link, Charles R.; And Others

    In the wake of court decisions in the cases of "Serrano v. Priest,""San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez," and "Robinson v. Cahill," Congress set aside funds as part of Public Law 93-380 for state departments of education to study the equitability of current educational funding arrangements. This document analyzes Delaware's…

  6. Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

  7. 77 FR 3211 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Amendments to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ...-3213] [FR Doc No: 2012-1225] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R03-OAR-2011-0642 FRL... amends Delaware's regulation that establishes controls for nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions from industrial boilers and process heaters at petroleum refineries by including a NO X emission limit for...

  8. Statewide Assessment of School-Age Children with Asthma in Delaware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Linda; Dryer, Christy; Hendrix, Elizabeth; Wong, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    School nurses throughout Delaware completed surveys regarding the needs of students with asthma and services and accommodations available for them. Asthma was a significant problem among students. Many protocols were in place for administering medication. Several measures were used to modify school environments to improve air quality and reduce…

  9. The implementation and utility of fire incident reporting systems: the Delaware experience.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Gwendolyn; Frattaroli, Shannon; Ballesteros, Michael F; Ta, Van M; Beach, Crystal; Gielen, Andrea C

    2008-04-01

    Fires and burns are the fifth most common cause of unintentional injury deaths in the United States. To address fires and fire deaths, the National Fire Data Center (NFDC) established the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) as a surveillance system for fires. Delaware implemented NFIRS as the Delaware Fire Incident Reporting System (DFIRS), and is currently capturing all fires reported in the system. The objectives of this study are to: 1) understand the implementation of DFIRS; 2) analyze data from DFIRS to describe fire incidents; and 3) inform other states' fire surveillance efforts. We interviewed Delaware State Fire Marshal's Office personnel to understand the implementation of DFIRS and analyzed DFIRS data from May 2003 to December 2004 to examine data completeness, and characteristics of fires, smoke alarms, and fire injuries and deaths. DFIRS captures 100% of Delaware fires reported to fire departments. Data completeness for the fields examined ranged from 33% to 100%. Fires in which smoke alarms alerted occupants were significantly less likely to result in injury or death than fires in which smoke alarms did not. DFIRS has the potential to serve as a valuable fire prevention and fire analysis tool. For DFIRS to reach its full potential as a surveillance system, increased attention to data completeness is necessary. PMID:18074209

  10. Beach Fun. Exploring the Delaware Seashore. A Story and Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Mary V.

    Activities and a narrative which focus on Delaware's seashore are contained in this book for elementary school age students. A graphically illustrated story is related and activities are interspersed throughout the narrative account. Several marine organisms are identified and beach phenomena are highlighted in the story. Student exercises…

  11. A Quantitative Analysis of the Increase in Public School Segregation in Delaware: 1989-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the increase in school segregation in Delaware from a quantitative perspective. The article tests the hypothesis that the declaration of unitary status that released the Wilmington area school districts from their desegregation order caused the increase in segregation. The research reveals that the declaration of unitary status…

  12. An Evaluation of Leadership Competencies and Professional Development Recommendations for the Leaders of Delaware Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    There is no specialized professional leadership development for the leaders of adult education in Delaware. This study examined competencies for such leaders as the researcher adapted a survey instrument asking participants to rank the relevance of performance indicators, derived from leadership competencies, to their work responsibilities, and…

  13. State Teacher Policy Yearbook: Progress on Teacher Quality, 2007. Delaware State Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Teacher Quality, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" examines what is arguably the single most powerful authority over the teaching profession: state government. This Delaware edition of the National Council on Teacher Quality's (NCTQ's) "State Teacher Policy Yearbook" is the first of what will be an annual look at the status of state policies impacting the…

  14. Paleochannels of the Delaware River on the mid-Atlantic shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, D.E. . Coll. of Marine Studies); McGeary, S.E.; Madsen, J.A. . Dept. of Geology); Gayes, P.T. . Dept. of Geology and Marine Science)

    1993-03-01

    Shallow seismic data recently collected from the inner and middle continental shelf off Delaware reveal what appears to be a relatively complete stratigraphic record of middle to late Pleistocene sea-level events. At least four separate paleochannels of the Delaware River that have been identified and traced across the inner and middle shelf can be projected to the major submarine canyons of the continental slope. These same channels can be traced landward through the modern Delaware Bay to the fluvial portion of the Delaware River; two of these paleochannels trend underneath the peninsula of Cape May. The relative ages of the channels have been inferred from superposition and cross-cutting relationships. Subsurface reflectors associated with these paleochannels can be traced laterally to define the shallow flanks of estuaries formed as the valley was flooded during a subsequent transgression. In two cases, the depositional margins identified in the seismic profiles coincide with distinct geomorphic boundaries on the seafloor, delimiting allostratigraphic units interpreted as Pleistocene estuaries that are preserved on the modern shelf. The complementary highstands for this system are preserved on the emergent coastal plain as shoreline complexes and paralic sequences. These data reveal a much more intricate preserved record than previously realized, and change substantially the current models for the Quaternary development of the shelf.

  15. USDA food-borne virus research initiatives at Delaware State University

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA ARS Microbial Safety of Aquaculture Products Center of Excellence located on the campus of Delaware State University is conducting research geared toward; 1) improving detection methods for virus contamination of shellfish; 2) understanding how and why viruses persist within shellfish; and ...

  16. Food safety research at Delaware State University: keeping the runs from slowing you down

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than a decade, the USDA ARS Center of Excellence located within the Delaware State University College of Agriculture and Related Sciences has been focused on foodborne virus research with special emphasis on bivalve shellfish. Research accomplishments include: 1) development of expedient e...

  17. Modern sedimentary environments in a large tidal estuary, Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knebel, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from an extensive grid of sidescan-sonar records reveal the distribution of sedimentary environments in the large, tidally dominated Delaware Bay estuary. Bathymetric features of the estuary include large tidal channels under the relatively deep (> 10 m water depth) central part of the bay, linear sand shoals (2-8 m relief) that parallel the sides of the tidal channels, and broad, low-relief plains that form the shallow bay margins. The two sedimentary environments that were identified are characterized by either (1) bedload transport and/or erosion or (2) sediment reworking and/or deposition. Sand waves and sand ribbons, composed of medium to coarse sands, define sites of active bedload transport within the tidal channels and in gaps between the linear shoals. The sand waves have spacings that vary from 1 to 70 m, amplitudes of 2 m or less, and crestlines that are usually straight. The orientations of the sand waves and ribbons indicate that bottom sediment movement may be toward either the northwest or southeast along the trends of the tidal channels, although sand-wave asymmetry indicates that the net bottom transport is directed northwestward toward the head of the bay. Gravelly, coarse-grained sediments, which appear as strongly reflective patterns on the sonographs, are also present along the axes and flanks of the tidal channels. These coarse sediments are lag deposits that have developed primarily where older strata were eroded at the bay floor. Conversely, fine sands that compose the linear shoals and muddy sands that cover the shallow bay margins appear mainly on the sonographs either as smooth featureless beds that have uniform light to moderate shading or as mosaics of light and dark patches produced by variations in grain size. These acoustic and textural characteristics are the result of sediment deposition and reworking. Data from this study (1) support the hypothesis that bed configurations under deep tidal flows are functions of current

  18. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on class size,…

  19. Class Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ever since George Washington opted for the title of president rather than king, Americans have been uncomfortable with the idea of class distinctions. This article presents an interview with Dr. Janet Galligani Casey regarding the idea of class distinctions. Galligani Casey, who grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts,…

  20. Connecting onshore and offshore near-surface geology: Delaware's sand inventory project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsey, K.W.; Jordan, R.R.; Talley, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1988, the Delaware Geological Survey began a program to inventory on-land sand resources suitable for beach nourishment. The inventory included an assessment of the native beach textures using existing data and developing parameters of what would be considered suitable sand textures for Delaware's Atlantic beaches. An assessment of the economics of on-land sand resources was also conducted, and it was determined that the cost of the sand was competitive with offshore dredging costs. In addition, the sand resources were put into a geologic context for purposes of predicting which depositional environments and lithostratigraphic units were most likely to produce suitable sand resources. The results of the work identified several suitable on-land sand resource areas in the Omar and Beaverdam formations that were deposited in barrier-tidal delta and fluvial-estuarine environments, respectively. The identified on-land resources areas have not been utilized due to difficulties of truck transport and development pressures in the resource areas. The Delaware Geological Survey's participation in years 8, 9, and 10 of the Continental Margins Program was developed to extend the known resource areas onshore to offshore Delaware in order to determine potential offshore sand resources for beach nourishment. Years 8 and 9 involved primarily the collection of all available data on the offshore geology. These data included all seismic lines, surface grab samples, and cores. The data were filtered for those that had reliable locations and geologic information that could be used for geologic investigations. Year 10 completed the investigations onshore by construction of a geologic cross-section from data along the coast of Delaware from Cape Henlopen to Fenwick. This cross section identified the geologic units and potential sand resource bodies as found immediately along the coast. These units and resources are currently being extended offshore and tied to known and

  1. An updated Holocene sea-level curve for the Delaware coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nikitina, D.L.; Pizzuto, J.E.; Schwimmer, R.A.; Ramsey, K.W.

    2000-01-01

    We present an updated Holocene sea-level curve for the Delaware coast based on new calibrations of 16 previously published radiocarbon dates (Kraft, 1976; Belknap and Kraft, 1977) and 22 new radiocarbon dates of basal peat deposits. A review of published and unpublished 137Cs and 210Pb analyses, and tide gauge data provide the basis for evaluating shorter-term (102 yr) sea-level trends. Paleosea-level elevations for the new basal peat samples were determined from the present vertical zonation of marsh plants relative to mean high water along the Delaware coast and the composition of plant fossils and foraminifera. Current trends in tidal range along the Delaware coast were used to reduce elevations from different locations to a common vertical datum of mean high water at Breakwater Harbor, Delaware. The updated curve is similar to Belknap and Kraft's [J. Sediment. Petrol., 47 (1977) 610-629] original sea-level curve from 12,000 to about 2000 yr BP. The updated curve documents a rate of sea-level rise of 0.9 mm/yr from 1250 yr BP to present (based on 11 dates), in good agreement with other recent sea-level curves from the northern and central U.S. Atlantic coast, while the previous curve documents rates of about 1.3 mm/yr (based on 4 dates). The precision of both estimates, however, is very low, so the significance of these differences is uncertain. A review of 210Pb and 137Cs analyses from salt marshes of Delaware indicates average marsh accretion rates of 3 mm/yr for the last 100 yr, in good agreement with shorter-term estimates of sea-level rise from tide gauge records. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  2. Mercury concentrations in tidal marsh sparrows and their use as bioindicators in Delaware Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Warner, Sarah E; Shriver, W Gregory; Pepper, Margaret A; Taylor, Robert J

    2010-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial sources is pervasive throughout North America and is recognized by the US Environmental Protection Agency as a health hazard for wildlife and humans. Avian species are commonly used as bioindicators of Hg because they are sensitive to contaminants in the environment and are relatively easy to sample. However, it is important to select the appropriate avian species to use as a bioindicator, which should be directly related to the project objectives. In this study, we tested the utility of two tidal marsh sparrows, Seaside (Ammodramus maritimus) and Saltmarsh (Ammodramus caudacutus) sparrows, as bioindicator species of the extent of Hg contamination in tidal marshes along the Delaware Bay. To determine the possibility of using one or both of these species, we estimated sparrow blood Hg burden in five Delaware watersheds. We found no difference in Hg concentrations between species (F (1,133) < 0.01, P=0.99), but Saltmarsh Sparrows had limited sample size from each site and were, therefore, not appropriate for a Delaware Bay-wide Hg indicator. Seaside Sparrows, however, were abundant and relatively easy to sample in the five watersheds. Seaside Sparrow blood Hg levels ranged from 0.15 to 2.12 ppm, differed among drainages, and were greatest in two drainages distant from the Delaware Bay shoreline (F (4,95) =2.51, P=0.05). Based on a power analysis for Seaside Sparrow blood Hg, we estimated that 16 samples would be necessary to detect differences among sites. Based on these data, we propose that Seaside Sparrows may be used as a tidal marsh Hg bioindicator species given their habitat specificity, relative abundance, widespread distribution in marsh habitats, ease of sampling, and limited variation in blood Hg estimates within a sampling area. In Delaware Bay, Saltmarsh Sparrows may be too rare (making them difficult to sample) to be a viable tidal marsh Hg bioindicator.

  3. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  4. Minority Pre-service Teachers' and Faculty Training on Climate Change Education in Delaware State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbay, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Veron, D. E.; Rogers, M.; Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Mead, H.

    2015-12-01

    Delaware State University is working toward infusing undergraduate education with climate change science and enhancing the climate change learning content of pre-service teacher preparation programs as part of the MADE-CLEAR project (www.madeclear.org). Faculty development workshops have been conducted to prepare and educate a cadre of faculty from different disciplines in global climate science literacy. Following the workshops, the faculty participants have integrated climate literacy tenets into their existing curriculum. Follow up meetings have helped the faculty members to use specific content in their curriculum such as greenhouse gases, atmospheric CO2, sea level rise, etc. Additional training provided to the faculty participants in pedagogical methods of climate change instruction to identify common misconceptions and barriers to student understanding. Some pre-service teachers were engaged in summer internships and learned how to become messenger of climate change science by the state parks staff during the summer. Workshops were offered to other pre-service teachers to teach them specific climate change topics with enhanced hands-on laboratory activities. The participants were provided examples of lesson plans and guided to develop their own lesson plans and present them. Various pedagogical methods have been explored for teaching climate change content to the participants. The pre-service teachers found the climate content very challenging and confusing. Training activities were modified to focus on targeted topics and modeling of pedagogical techniques for the faculty and pre-service teachers. Program evaluation confirms that the workshop participant show improved understanding of the workshop materials by the participants if they were introduced few climate topics. Learning how to use hands-on learning tools and preparing lesson plans are two of the challenges successfully implemented by the pre-service teachers. Our next activity includes pre

  5. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  6. Scour at bridge sites in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Scour data were obtained from discharge measure- ments to develop and evaluate the reliability of constriction-scour and local-scour equations for rivers in Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia. No independent constriction-scour or local-scour equations were developed from the data because no significant relation was deter-mined between measured scour and streamflow, streambed, and bridge characteristics. Two existing equations were evaluated for prediction of constriction scour and 14 existing equations were evaluated for prediction of local scour. Constriction-scour data were obtained from historical stream discharge measurements, field surveys, and bridge plans at nine bridge sites in the three-State area. Constriction scour was computed by subtracting the average-streambed elevation in the constricted reach from an uncontracted-channel reference elevation. Hydraulic conditions were estimated for the measurements with the greatest discharges by use of the Water-Surface Profile computation model. Measured and calculated constriction-scour data were used to evaluate the reliability of Laursen's clear-water constriction-scour equation and Laursen's live-bed constriction-scour equation. Laursen's clear-water constriction-scour equation underestimated 21 of 23 scour measure- ments made at three sites. A sensitivity analysis showed that the equation is extremely sensitive to estimates of the channel-bottom width. Reduction in estimates of bottom width by one-third resulted in predictions of constriction scour slightly greater than measured values for all scour measurements. Laursen's live-bed constriction- scour equation underestimated 10 of 14 scour measurements made at one site. The error between measured and predicted constriction scour was less than 1.0 ft (feet) for 12 measure-ments and less than 0.5 ft for 8 measurements. Local-scour data were obtained from stream discharge measurements, field surveys, and bridge plans at 15 bridge sites in the three-State area. The

  7. Ground-water resources of southern New Castle County, Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rima, Donald Robert; Coskery, O.J.; Anderson, P.W.

    1964-01-01

    Southern New Castle County has a land area of 190 square miles in northcentral Delaware. It is predominantly a rural area with a population of about 9,500 people who are engaged chiefly in agriculture. By and large, the residents are dependent upon ground water as a source of potable water. This investigation was made to provide knowledge of the availability and quality of .the ground-water supply to aid future development. The climate, surface features, and geology of the area are favorable for the occurrence of ground water. Temperatures are generally mild and precipitation is normally abundant and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year. The topography of the area is relatively fiat and, hence, the streams have low gradients. The surface is underlain to a considerable depth by highly permeable unconsolidated sediments that range in age from Early Cretaceous to Recent. Nearly all the subsurface stratigraphic units yield some water to wells, but only four parts or combinations of these units are sufficiently permeable, to yield large supplies. These are, from oldest to youngest, the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation, the Monmouth Group, the Rancocas Formation, and .the surficial terrace and valley-fill deposits. In the northern part of the area the nonmarine Cretaceous sediments and the Magothy Formation can be reached economically by wells. Yields in excess of 300 gpm (gallons per minute) have been obtained from wells screened in this aquifer, but the maximum productivity of the aquifer has not been .tested. The Monmouth Group is used as a source of water in the central part of the area, where some wells yield as much as 125 gpm. The Rancocas Formation is the principal aquifer in the southern part of the area. Yields of 200-400 gpm can be expected from this aquifer, owing to its uniformly coarse texture, particularly in the upper part of the formation. The terrace deposits compose the shallow watertable aquifer throughout the area. In

  8. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  9. The economic impacts of climate change in water resource allocation and welfare on selected river basins in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, J.M.; Hurd, B.

    1996-12-31

    For this study, the authors developed three river basin planning models from the ground up and modified an existing model of the Colorado River basin to forecast the effects of parametric changes in monthly average precipitation and temperature in the individual basins. The models they developed are mathematical programming models (QP). The objective function of each model is to maximize the net present value of consumer and producer surplus of water users less flooding costs, subject to a flow and storage matrix of linear constraints. This matrix characterizes, in both time and space, the inflow of surface runoff, the flow of major rivers, storage of surface water in reservoirs, and the distribution of ground and surface water to users in the basin, as well as low and maximum flow constraints required to satisfy major institutional agreements in each basin. The authors modeled the Colorado River Basin, Missouri River Basin, Delaware River Basin, and the Apalachicola-Flint-Chatahooche River Basin. Using these models, they could simulate the effects of changes in monthly average temperature and precipitation on changes in: (1) the allocation of water to different types of consumptive and non-consumptive uses at different points in the basin; (2) surface water storage in major reservoirs; (3) the value of the net benefits of water use (including flooding) in the basin.

  10. Classifying and quantifying basins of attraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sprott, J. C.; Xiong, Anda

    2015-08-15

    A scheme is proposed to classify the basins for attractors of dynamical systems in arbitrary dimensions. There are four basic classes depending on their size and extent, and each class can be further quantified to facilitate comparisons. The calculation uses a Monte Carlo method and is applied to numerous common dissipative chaotic maps and flows in various dimensions.

  11. Simulation of Runoff and Reservoir Inflow for Use in a Flood-Analysis Model for the Delaware River, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Regan, R. Steve; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A model was developed to simulate inflow to reservoirs and watershed runoff to streams during three high-flow events between September 2004 and June 2006 for the main-stem subbasin of the Delaware River draining to Trenton, N.J. The model software is a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The PRMS model simulates time periods associated with main-stem flooding that occurred in September 2004, April 2005, and June 2006 and uses both daily and hourly time steps. Output from the PRMS model was formatted for use as inflows to a separately documented reservoir and riverrouting model, the HEC-ResSim model, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center to evaluate flooding. The models were integrated through a graphical user interface. The study area is the 6,780 square-mile watershed of the Delaware River in the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York that drains to Trenton, N.J. A geospatial database was created for use with a geographic information system to assist model discretization, determine land-surface characterization, and estimate model parameters. The USGS National Elevation Dataset at 100-meter resolution, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), was used for model discretization into streams and hydrologic response units. In addition, geospatial processing was used to estimate initial model parameters from the DEM and other data layers, including land use. The model discretization represents the study area using 869 hydrologic response units and 452 stream segments. The model climate data for point stations were obtained from multiple sources. These sources included daily data for 22 National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative Climate Station network

  12. Satellite studies of suspended matter and aquatic interfaces in Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Three successful ERTS-1 satellite passes have produced synoptic imagery showing distribution of suspended matter and aquatic interfaces over Delaware Bay and adjacent Atlantic coastal regions. The interfaces are a major hydrographic feature in Delaware Bay and frequently include regions of high convergence. In the upper and middle bay the interfaces tend to align along the flow axis of the river and parallel to the shoreline. A correlation has been found between the concentration of sand particles in suspension and the depth, suggesting that most of the heavier particles are lifted into temporary suspension over shoals and shallow areas by currents and waves. The second type of interface is primarily a tidal intrusion of shelf water into the bay during incipient flood tide, with associated discontinuities in salinity and temperature. The convergence properties of such fronts attract heavy accumulations of foam which were found to contain strong concentrations of heavy metals and other toxic substances.

  13. Mapping coastal vegetation, land use and environmental impact from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Vegetation map overlays at a scale of 1:24,000 compiled by multispectral analysis from NASA aircraft imagery for all of Delaware's wetlands are being used as ground truth for ERTS-1 mapping and by state agencies for wetlands management. Six major vegetation species were discriminated and mapped, including percentages of minor species. Analogue enhancements of wetlands vegetation and dredge-fill operations have been produced using General Electric's GEMS data processing and ERTS-1 false color composites. Digital, thematic land use, and vegetation mapping of entire Delaware Bay area is in progress using Bendix Corporation's Earth Resources Data System and ERTS-1 digital tapes. Statistical evaluation of target-group selection reliability has been completed. Three papers have been published on ERTS-1 coastal vegetation and land use. Local and state officials are participating in the ERTS-1 program as co-investigators.

  14. Metals in horseshoe crab eggs from Delaware Bay, USA: temporal patterns from 1993 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-10-01

    The health of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs is important not only to maintain horseshoe crab populations, but because they are a resource for higher trophic levels, such as fish and shorebirds. We examined the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the eggs of horseshoe crabs from Delaware Bay (between New Jersey and Delaware, USA) in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1999, 2000, and 2012 to determine if there were significant temporal changes and if levels appear to pose a health risk to the crabs themselves, or to predators that consume them. All metal levels declined in horseshoe crab eggs between 1994 and 2012, although the declines were much less consistent for lead and chromium than that for mercury and cadmium. Levels of contaminants found in these eggs are well below those known to cause adverse effects in the crabs themselves or to organisms that consume them, such as migrating shorebirds.

  15. Metals in horseshoe crab eggs from Delaware Bay, USA: temporal patterns from 1993 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-10-01

    The health of horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs is important not only to maintain horseshoe crab populations, but because they are a resource for higher trophic levels, such as fish and shorebirds. We examined the concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium in the eggs of horseshoe crabs from Delaware Bay (between New Jersey and Delaware, USA) in 1993, 1994, 1995, 1999, 2000, and 2012 to determine if there were significant temporal changes and if levels appear to pose a health risk to the crabs themselves, or to predators that consume them. All metal levels declined in horseshoe crab eggs between 1994 and 2012, although the declines were much less consistent for lead and chromium than that for mercury and cadmium. Levels of contaminants found in these eggs are well below those known to cause adverse effects in the crabs themselves or to organisms that consume them, such as migrating shorebirds. PMID:25015345

  16. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  17. Low-flow routing in the Lehigh and Delaware Rivers, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flippo, H.N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Flow-routing studies were made to evaluate the response of the Lehigh and Delaware Rivers to low-flow augmentative releases from two reservoirs --Francis E. Walter Reservoir and Beltzville Lake--in the Lehigh River basin. Digital routing models that use diffusion-analogy methods to convolute flows with system-response functions were developed to simulate daily flows at selected sites. Model errors, for five sites and for periods of 1 year or more, were mostly between 3 and 12 percent in terms of absolute errors in daily flows and were mostly within 4 percent for flow volumes. The developed models were satisfactory for predicting hydrographic response at eight sites in the reach from White Haven, Pennsylvania to Trenton, New Jersey. However, abrupt changes in the flow rate of the Lehigh River at the Bethlehem and the Glendon gaging stations could not be adequately replicated with the model. The model tends to underestimate peaks by as much as 30 percent and to overestimate some low flows of short duration by as much as 20 percent. This occurs primarily because inflows from ungaged areas could not be reliably modeled throughout their ranges by use of flow records for gaged streams. The model will underestimate long-duration low flows at the Glendon site for periods when underflows at the gaging stations on Little Lehigh and Monocacy Creeks are significant. The models were used to route hypothetical releases from Francis E. Walter Reservoir during a low-flow period. The model for the Lehigh River indicated that an added release of 50 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) over a 64-day period during the severe drought in the summer of 1965 would have increased minimum flows for this period at Bethlehem and Glendon by approximately the same amount. A hypothetical release of 200 ft3/s for the period July 20-22, 1965, which is about eight times the actual release in this period, would have been attenuated by about 25 percent when it reached the Bethlehem gage. The synthesized

  18. Suspended sediment yield of New Jersey coastal plain streams draining into the Delaware estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mansue, Lawrence J.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize sediment data collected at selected stream-sampling sites in southern New Jersey. Computations of excepted average annual yields at each sampling site were made and utilized to estimate the annual yield at ungaged sites. Similar data currently are being compiled for streams draining Pennsylvania and Delaware. It is planned to report on the combined information at a later date in the Geological Survey's Water-Supply Paper series.

  19. Skylab and ERTS-1 investigations of coastal land-use and water properties in Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    Study of coastal land use and water properties of Delaware Bay using digital and visual analysis of enhanced imagery from NASA's Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) and from the Skylab Earth Resources Experimental Package (EREP). ERTS is shown to have the advantage of repetitive coverage of the test site which facilitates change detection experiments by gathering data under a variety of tidal, seasonal, and atmospheric conditions. Skylab-EREP data, on the other hand, are superior in both spatial and spectral resolution.

  20. Inventory and management of trespass recreation use at Upper Delaware and Scenic and Recreational River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, J.L.; More, Thomas A.; Donnelly, Maureen P.; Graefe, Alan R.; Vaske, Jerry J.

    1989-01-01

    Recreational trespass on private lands within the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River, located along the eastern border between Pennsylvania and New York, prompted this survey of recreational trespass sites. The National Park Service has been mandated to manage river recreational use within its boundaries but land ownership shall remain predominantly private. This survey was conducted to document the number and distribution of river recreation trespass sites and to recommend appropriate management actions to minimize trespass use.

  1. Effects of runoff changes and sea level rise on salinity in the Delaware River estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate changes in the spatial distribution of salt in the Delaware Estuary resulting from climate induced changes in freshwater inflows and in the position of mean sea level. The approach adopted for this study is composed of two parts: An analysis of existing physical data in order to derive a basic understanding of the salt dynamics, and numerical simulation of future conditions based upon this analysis.

  2. Monitoring coastal water properties and circulation from ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle have been analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes, and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. MSS band 5 seemed to give the best representation of sediment load in the upper one meter of the water column. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay. During flood tide the suspended sediment as visible from ERTS-1 also correlated well with the depth profile. Convergent shear boundaries between different water masses were observed from ERTS-1, with foam lines containing high concentrations of lead, mercury, and other toxic substances. Several fronts have been seen. Those near the mouth of the bay are associated with the tidal intrusion of shelf water. Fronts in the interior of the bay on the Delaware side appear to be associated with velocity shears induced by differences in bottom topography. Waste disposal plumes have benn detected 36 miles offshore.

  3. Effects of horseshoe crab harvest in delaware bay on red knots: Are harvest restrictions working?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niles, L.J.; Bart, J.; Sitters, H.P.; Dey, A.D.; Clark, K.E.; Atkinson, P.W.; Baker, A.J.; Bennett, K.A.; Kalasz, K.S.; Clark, N.A.; Clark, J.; Gillings, S.; Gates, A.S.; Gonzalez, P.M.; Hernandez, D.E.; Minton, C.D.T.; Morrison, R.I.G.; Porter, R.R.; Ross, R.K.; Veitch, C.R.

    2009-01-01

    Each May, red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) congregate in Delaware Bay during their northward migration to feed on horseshoe crab eggs (Limulus polyphemus) and refuel for breeding in the Arctic. During the 1990s, the Delaware Bay harvest of horseshoe crabs for bait increased 10-fold, leading to a more than 90% decline in the availability of their eggs for knots. The proportion of knots achieving weights of more than 180 grams by 26-28 May, their main departure period, dropped from 0.6-0.8 to 0.14-0.4 over 1997-2007. During the same period, the red knot population stopping in Delaware Bay declined by more than 75%, in part because the annual survival rate of adult knots wintering in Tierra del Fuego declined. Despite restrictions, the 2007 horseshoe crab harvest was still greater than the 1990 harvest, and no recovery of knots was detectable. We propose an adaptive management strategy with recovery goals and annual monitoring that, if adopted, will both allow red knot and horseshoe crab populations to recover and permit a sustainable harvest of horseshoe crabs.

  4. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Delaware

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Delaware, a watercourse is not to be confused with surface water. Each gives rise to certain riparian rights, but the law makes certain distinctions between the two. The presence of both surface waters and watercourses give rise to private and public rights related to the presence of the water. Some of these rights are vested in riparian owners. Recent Delaware case law has described the riparian owner as one who owns land on the bank of a river, or who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting, or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with a river. But, ownership of the bank does not give the riparian ownership of the water. Some law cases are cited to discuss the laws in Delaware.

  5. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the delaware bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, C.P.; Smith, D.R.; Sweka, J.A.; Martin, J.; Nichols, J.D.; Wong, R.; Lyons, J.E.; Niles, L.J.; Kalasz, K.; Brust, J.; Klopfer, M.; Spear, B.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species. ?? 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Multispecies modeling for adaptive management of horseshoe crabs and red knots in the Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David; Sweka, John A.; Martin, Julien; Nichols, James D.; Wong, Richard; Lyons, James E.; Niles, Lawrence J.; Kalasz, Kevin; Brust, Jeffrey; Klopfer, Michelle; Spear, Braddock

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive management requires that predictive models be explicit and transparent to improve decisions by comparing management actions, directing further research and monitoring, and facilitating learning. The rufa subspecies of red knots (Calidris canutus rufa), which has recently exhibited steep population declines, relies on horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) eggs as their primary food source during stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. We present a model with two different parameterizations for use in the adaptive management of horseshoe crab harvests in the Delaware Bay that links red knot mass gain, annual survival, and fecundity to horseshoe crab dynamics. The models reflect prevailing hypotheses regarding ecological links between these two species. When reported crab harvest from 1998 to 2008 was applied, projections corresponded to the observed red knot population abundances depending on strengths of the demographic relationship between these species. We compared different simulated horseshoe crab harvest strategies to evaluate whether, given this model, horseshoe crab harvest management can affect red knot conservation and found that restricting harvest can benefit red knot populations. Our model is the first to explicitly and quantitatively link these two species and will be used within an adaptive management framework to manage the Delaware Bay system and learn more about the specific nature of the linkage between the two species.

  7. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    PubMed Central

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect 3H-leucine incorporation in light–dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance. PMID:24824666

  8. Changes in Fetch Limited Barrier Islands along the Delaware Bay coast of New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, A. S.; Lacovara, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Fetch limited barrier islands protect vast swaths of sensitive intertidal biomes in the Delaware Bay, but little is known about their specific response to sea level change. The continued viability of barrier islands is threatened in the face of rising seas and coastal erosion. To assess the response of barrier islands in Delaware Bay to sea level rise, we quantified shoreline migration and changes in their size using historic maps and aerial imagery. We establish a historical record of changes of barrier island area and rates of shoreline migration, we built a time-series analysis using aerial images and historic maps of Delaware Bay along the coast of New Jersey, dating back to 1970. Since 1970 the barrier islands have decreased in size, and the region experienced an average shoreline transgression rate of 3 m/yr. However, some areas are experiencing substantiality higher rates of shoreline migration, while other areas remain relatively stable. We interpret this as resulting from varying wind energy and currents in the bay. Using our measured rates of shoreline migration and NOAA wind data for the region, we developed a GIS model examining how wind and current energy may contribute to variation in rates of shoreline change in the region. This information allows us to better anticipate the effects of sea level rise on the fragile estuarine system.

  9. Effects of contaminant exposure on reproductive success of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware River and Bay, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toschik, P.C.; Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Hale, R.C.; Matson, C.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite serious water-quality problems and pollutant loading and retention, Delaware River and Bay (USA) provide important wildlife habitat. In 2002, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in Delaware River and Bay. Sample eggs were collected from 39 nests and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury; a subset of 15 eggs was analyzed for perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The fate of each nest was monitored weekly. Concentrations of 10 organochlorine pesticides or metabolites, total PCBs, and several toxic PCB congeners were greater (p < 0.05) in eggs collected between the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (C and D Canal) and Trenton (Delaware River and northern Bay) compared to other sites. Concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; 0.785-3.84 mug/g wet wt) and total PCBs (5.50-14.5 mug/g wet wt) in eggs collected between the C and D Canal and Trenton were similar to levels recently found in the Chesapeake Bay. In all study segments, at least one young fledged from 66 to 75% of nests. Productivity for Delaware Inland Bays (reference area) and southern Delaware Bay was 1.17 and 1.42 fledglings/active nest, respectively; north of the C and D Canal, productivity was 1.00 fledgling/active nest, which is marginally adequate to maintain the population. Using these data, a logistic regression model found that contaminant concentrations (p,p'-DDE, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane and metabolites, and total PCBs) were predictive of hatching success. Several perfluorinated compounds and PBDEs were detected in eggs at concentrations approaching 1 mug/g wet weight. These findings provide evidence that contaminants continue to be a significant stressor on osprey productivity in the northern Delaware River and Bay.

  10. Effects of contaminant exposure on reproductive success of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware River and Bay, USA.

    PubMed

    Toschik, Pamela C; Rattner, Barnett A; McGowan, Peter C; Christman, Mary C; Carter, David B; Hale, Robert C; Matson, Cole W; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2005-03-01

    Despite serious water-quality problems and pollutant loading and retention, Delaware River and Bay (USA) provide important wildlife habitat. In 2002, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in Delaware River and Bay. Sample eggs were collected from 39 nests and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury; a subset of 15 eggs was analyzed for perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The fate of each nest was monitored weekly. Concentrations of 10 organochlorine pesticides or metabolites, total PCBs, and several toxic PCB congeners were greater (p < 0.05) in eggs collected between the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (C and D Canal) and Trenton (Delaware River and northern Bay) compared to other sites. Concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; 0.785-3.84 microg/g wet wt) and total PCBs (5.50-14.5 microg/g wet wt) in eggs collected between the C and D Canal and Trenton were similar to levels recently found in the Chesapeake Bay. In all study segments, at least one young fledged from 66 to 75% of nests. Productivity for Delaware Inland Bays (reference area) and southern Delaware Bay was 1.17 and 1.42 fledglings/active nest, respectively; north of the C and D Canal, productivity was 1.00 fledgling/active nest, which is marginally adequate to maintain the population. Using these data, a logistic regression model found that contaminant concentrations (p,p'-DDE, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane and metabolites, and total PCBs) were predictive of hatching success. Several perfluorinated compounds and PBDEs were detected in eggs at concentrations approaching 1 microg/g wet weight. These findings provide evidence that contaminants continue to be a significant stressor on osprey productivity in the northern Delaware River and Bay. PMID:15779762

  11. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10`` to 20`` API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  12. Feasibility study of heavy oil recovery in the Permian Basin (Texas and New Mexico)

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Johnson, W.I.

    1993-05-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production. Each report covers select areas of the United States. The Permian Basin of West Texas and Southeastern New Mexico is made up of the Midland, Delaware, Val Verde, and Kerr Basins; the Northwestern, Eastern, and Southern shelves; the Central Basin Platform, and the Sheffield Channel. The present day Permian Basin was one sedimentary basin until uplift and subsidence occurred during Pennsylvanian and early Permian Age to create the configuration of the basins, shelves, and platform of today. The basin has been a major light oil producing area served by an extensive pipeline network connected to refineries designed to process light sweet and limited sour crude oil. Limited resources of heavy oil (10'' to 20'' API gravity) occurs in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs of Permian and Cretaceous Age. The largest cumulative heavy oil production comes from fluvial sandstones of the Cretaceous Trinity Group. Permian heavy oil is principally paraffinic and thus commands a higher price than asphaltic California heavy oil. Heavy oil in deeper reservoirs has solution gas and low viscosity and thus can be produced by primary and by waterflooding. Because of the nature of the resource, the Permian Basin should not be considered a major heavy oil producing area.

  13. Preliminary Investigation of Paleochannels and Groundwater Specific Conductance using Direct-Current Resistivity and Surface-Wave Seismic Geophysical Surveys at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc., Superfund Site, Delaware City, Delaware, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Region III of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the State of Delaware, is conducting an ongoing study of the water-quality and hydrogeologic properties of the Columbia and Potomac aquifers and the extent of cross-aquifer contamination with benzene; chlorobenzene; 1,2-dichlorobenzene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; and hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid when dissolved in water) in the vicinity of the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. (SCD), Superfund Site, Delaware City, Delaware. Surface geophysical surveys and well data were used to identify and correlate low-permeability units (clays) across the site and to search for sand and gravel filled paleochannels that are potential conduits and receptors of contaminated groundwater and (or) Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) contaminants. The combined surveys and well data were also used to characterize areas of the site that have groundwater with elevated (greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter) specific conductance (SC) as a result of contamination. The most electrically conductive features measured with direct-current (DC) resistivity at the SCD site are relatively impermeable clays and permeable sediment that are associated with elevated SC in groundwater. Many of the resistive features include paleochannel deposits consisting of coarse-grained sediments that are unsaturated, have low (less than 200 microsiemens per centimeter) SC pore water, or are cemented. Groundwater in uncontaminated parts of the Columbia aquifer and of the Potomac aquifer has a low SC. Specific-conductance data from monitoring wells at the site were used to corroborate the DC-resistivity survey results. For comparison with DC-resistivity surveys, multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) surveys were used and were able to penetrate deep enough to measure the Columbia aquifer, which is known to have elevated SC in some places. MASW survey results respond to solid

  14. Community-Level and Species-Specific Associations between Phytoplankton and Particle-Associated Vibrio Species in Delaware's Inland Bays

    PubMed Central

    Main, Christopher R.; Salvitti, Lauren R.; Whereat, Edward B.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio species are an abundant and diverse group of bacteria that form associations with phytoplankton. Correlations between Vibrio and phytoplankton abundance have been noted, suggesting that growth is enhanced during algal blooms or that association with phytoplankton provides a refuge from predation. Here, we investigated relationships between particle-associated Vibrio spp. and phytoplankton in Delaware's inland bays (DIB). The relative abundances of particle-associated Vibrio spp. and algal classes that form blooms in DIB (dinoflagellates, diatoms, and raphidophytes) were determined using quantitative PCR. The results demonstrated a significant correlation between particle-associated Vibrio abundance and phytoplankton, with higher correlations to diatoms and raphidophytes than to dinoflagellates. Species-specific associations were examined during a mixed bloom of Heterosigma akashiwo and Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) and indicated a significant positive correlation for particle-associated Vibrio abundance with H. akashiwo but a negative correlation with F. japonica. Changes in Vibrio assemblages during the bloom were evaluated using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), which revealed significant differences between each size fraction but no significant change in Vibrio assemblages over the course of the bloom. Microzooplankton grazing experiments showed that losses of particle-associated Vibrio spp. may be offset by increased growth in the Vibrio population. Moreover, analysis of Vibrio assemblages by ARISA also indicated an increase in the relative abundance for specific members of the Vibrio community despite higher grazing pressure on the particle-associated population as a whole. The results of this investigation demonstrate links between phytoplankton and Vibrio that may lead to predictions of potential health risks and inform future management practices in this region. PMID:26070682

  15. Hydrogeology, degradation of ground-water quality, and simulation of infiltration from the Delaware River into the Potomac aquifers, northern Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Brackish water is infiltrating from the Delaware River into the underlying Potomac aquifers in the Cretaceous Potomac Formation in northern Delaware. Evidence that infiltration at the river is actually occurring includes chloride concentrations in the aquifers that are above ambient levels and chemical characteristics of groundwater and river water that are similar. Water quality within the Potomac aquifers has been degraded by the infiltration of river water and by leachate from waste disposal sites. The ambient groundwater has chloride concentrations from 10 to 21 mg/L. Chemical analyses indicate that the ambient groundwater is a sodium magnesium calcium-chloride sulfate bicarbonate type. Areas of the Potomac aquifers that have been degraded have chloride concentrations from 40 to 8,600 m/L, with specific conductances of 200 to 27 ,200 microsiemens/cm at 25 C. Chemical analyses indicate the groundwater in these areas is a sodium-chlorate type. Two wells in the lower Potomac aquifer near the Wilmington Marine Terminal also have been affected by the infiltration of river water. Leachate from waste disposal sites has caused localized groundwater degradation in all three Potomac aquifers, especially north of the Delaware Memorial Bridge and at sites near Army Creek and Red Lion Creek. Chloride concentrations up to 8,600 mg/L have resulted from waste disposal leachate. Simulated infiltration of river water into the Potomac aquifers accounts for approximately 6 to 12% of the total aquifer recharge in the area of influence of the pumping. There is a direct correlation between the rate of infiltration of river water and the total well-field pumpage. The rate of infiltration of river water for the pumping scenarios ranged from 0.31 to 0.62 million gal/day. Simulations of freshwater injection demonstrated that 12 barriers wells, each injecting 300 gal/min, would be needed to create a barrier against the infiltration of river water in the upper Potomac aquifer, whereas the

  16. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  17. Geodatabase of sites, basin boundaries, and topology rules used to store drainage basin boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupree, Jean A.; Crowfoot, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    This geodatabase and its component datasets are part of U.S. Geological Survey Digital Data Series 650 and were generated to store basin boundaries for U.S. Geological Survey streamgages and other sites in Colorado. The geodatabase and its components were created by the U.S. Geological Survey, Colorado Water Science Center, and are used to derive the numeric drainage areas for Colorado that are input into the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Information System (NWIS) database and also published in the Annual Water Data Report and on NWISWeb. The foundational dataset used to create the basin boundaries in this geodatabase was the National Watershed Boundary Dataset. This geodatabase accompanies a U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods report (Book 11, Section C, Chapter 6) entitled "Digital Database Architecture and Delineation Methodology for Deriving Drainage Basins, and Comparison of Digitally and Non-Digitally Derived Numeric Drainage Areas." The Techniques and Methods report details the geodatabase architecture, describes the delineation methodology and workflows used to develop these basin boundaries, and compares digitally derived numeric drainage areas in this geodatabase to non-digitally derived areas. 1. COBasins.gdb: This geodatabase contains site locations and basin boundaries for Colorado. It includes a single feature dataset, called BasinsFD, which groups the component feature classes and topology rules. 2. BasinsFD: This feature dataset in the "COBasins.gdb" geodatabase is a digital container that holds the feature classes used to archive site locations and basin boundaries as well as the topology rules that govern spatial relations within and among component feature classes. This feature dataset includes three feature classes: the sites for which basins have been delineated (the "Sites" feature class), basin bounding lines (the "BasinLines" feature class), and polygonal basin areas (the "BasinPolys" feature class). The feature dataset

  18. Estimating the Influence of a Tributary on Primary Productivity in Delaware Bay from Continuous Data: Biogeochemical and Ecological Responses to Inputs from the Murderkill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voynova, Y. G.; Lebaron, K. C.; Barnes, R. T.; Ullman, W. J.

    2014-12-01

    Since April 2012, the University of Delaware has operated a real-time water quality monitoring station at Bowers, DE, to determine the effect of nutrient loads from the Murderkill Estuary to the Delaware Bay. The Land Ocean Biogeochemical Observatory (LOBO; Hach/Sea-Bird Electronics) is deployed under a public dock, with support from the Kent County Board of Public Works and Delaware's Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, and in collaboration with the USGS that operates a gauging station at the same site (01484085). Every hour the LOBO measures salinity, temperature, pressure, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll, CDOM, nitrate (NO3-) and orthophosphate (PO43-). Ebb tide measurements reflect conditions in the Estuary and flood tide measurements reflect conditions in Delaware Bay. Real-time data are available to the public at kentcounty.loboviz.com. Using hourly data from the LOBO, we are able to assess the nutrient and particle exchange between the Murderkill and the Delaware Bay, as well as biogeochemical and ecological responses to this exchange. Primary production in the turbid Estuary is low and nutrients from the Murderkill are efficiently delivered to Delaware Bay, where O2 production response to nitrate influx is almost instantaneous. In the summer, during the day, nutrients originating in the Estuary (ebb tide NO3- > 50-60 μM) stimulate phytoplankton growth in Delaware Bay, indicated by chlorophyll increases and O2 supersaturation during flood tide. This suggests that the Murderkill and other similar tributaries are important nutrient sources to the Delaware Bay. We use a phase-sensitive analysis to extract data characterizing the Delaware Bay, and then use dissolved oxygen to calculate rates of primary production and respiration. Newly produced Delaware Bay phytoplankton (often > 40 µg Chla L-1) may be an important labile carbon source supporting respiration in the Estuary and its surrounding salt marshes.

  19. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-08-01

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2-3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity.

  20. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in pipping black-crowned night-herons in Delaware Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hoffman, D.J.; Melancon, M.J.; Olsen, G.H.; Parsons, K.C.; Schmidt, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Pea Patch Island in Delaware Bay is the site of the largest heronry north of Florida. From 1989-93. the population of 9 species of wading birds numbered approximately 12,000 pairs. but has recently declined to 7,000 pairs. Because Delaware Bay is a major shipping channel. and receives anthropogenic releases of toxic substances from agricultural, industrial and municipal point and nonpoint sources, contaminant exposure and effects to the heronry have been an ongoing concern. In 1997, piping black-crowned night-herons (BCNHs) wee collected from separate nests at Pea Patch Island (N=l5), and from a coastal reference site, Middle Island (N=9), in Rehoboth Bay. DE. There was neither evidence of malformations nor hepatic histopathological lesions, and body and liver weights did not differ between sites. Biomarkers of petroleum hydrocarbons, polyhalogenated contaminant and metal exposure (cytochrome P450 induction and oxidative stress responses) did not differ (P>0.05) between sites, however, activities of benzyloxy- and ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase were greater in 3 of 15 embryos from Pea Patch Island compared to Middle Island. Concentrations of 21 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites were relatively low at both sites. with p,.p'DDE values well below the threshold associated with eggshell thinning. Although total PCB concentration was modestly elevated (P<0.05) in Pea Patch Island BCNH embryos, levels of axylhydrocarbon-receptor active PCB congeners. dioxins, dibenzofurans and Toxic Equivalents were low and did not differ between sites. Surprisingly, organochlorine contaminant exposure and effects in Delaware Bay BCNHs appear to be considerably less than that observed and recently reported (ETC 16:2315-2322,1997) for herons residing in the Chesapeake Bay.

  1. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  2. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant events. Coastal vegetation species appearing in the ERTS-1 image taken of the Southern Coast of Delaware, during orbit 333 on August 16, 1972, have been correlated with ground truth vegetation maps, and imagery obtained from high altitude RB-57 and U-2 overflights. The vegetation maps of the entire Delaware Coast were prepared using data collected on foot, in small boats, and from low altitude aircraft. Multispectral analysis of high altitude RB-57 and U-2 photographs indicated that five vegetation species could be clearly discriminated from 60,000 feet altitude, including: (1) salt marsh cord grass (Spartina alterniflora); (2) salt marsh hay and spike grass (Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata); (3) reed grass (Phragmites communis); (4) high tide bush and sea myrtle (Iva species and Baccharus halimifolia); and (5) a group of fresh water species found in impounded areas built to attract water fowl. Major Spartina alterniflora and Spartina patens communities within the tidal marshes can be identified in the ERTS-1 imagery. Phragmites, and other species however, occur in smaller, more dispersed groupings and are difficult to discriminate within the resolution capability of the ERTS-1 scanner. Similarly, major impounded areas, built to attract water fowl can be detected; however, mosquito drainage ditches, covering many of Delaware's marshes, are too narrow and not long enough to be resolved by ERTS-1 sensors. High-marsh and dune communities dominated by high tide bush (Iva frutescens) and sea myrtle (Baccharus halimifolia) can be distinguished from adjacent maritime forest and beach grass communities.

  3. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of the stream-gaging program in Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, David H.; James, R.W.; Gillen, D.F.

    1987-01-01

    This report documents the results of a cost-effectiveness study of the stream-gaging program in Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia. Data uses and funding sources were identified for 99 continuously operated stream gages in Maryland , Delaware, and the District of Columbia. The current operation of the program requires a budget of $465,260/year. The average standard error of estimation of streamflow records is 11.8%. It is shown that this overall level of accuracy at the 99 sites could be maintained with a budget of $461,000, if resources were redistributed among the gages. (USGS)

  5. Delaware Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Delaware homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Delaware homeowners will save $10,409 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $616 for the 2012 IECC.

  6. Opioid Exposed Mothers and Infants in Delaware: Clinical and Legal Considerations.

    PubMed

    Savin, Michele K; Paul, David A

    2016-04-01

    Drug use is on the rise in Delaware, as demonstrated by the continued increase in infants born with neonatal abstinence syndrome. Thoughtful, evidence-based, and coordinated approaches are necessary to impact this problem. There is solid evidence that mothers and infants who remain together have improved outcomes. Professional medical and nursing societies are unanimous in support of non-punitive approaches to care. Medical professionals, legislators, and society in general would benefit from ongoing education on the addiction disease process in order to best care for the increasing number of mother/baby dyads with neonatal abstinence syndrome. PMID:27263243

  7. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  8. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  9. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  10. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  11. 33 CFR 334.110 - Delaware Bay off Cape Henlopen, Del.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the south shore of Delaware Bay at longitude 75°06′12″; thence to latitude 38°47′25″, longitude 75°06′20″; thence to latitude 38°47′48″, longitude 75°06′00″; thence to latitude 38°50′43″, longitude 75°02′11″; thence to latitude 38°49′16″, longitude 74°59′35″; thence to a point on the shore at latitude...

  12. Application of LANDSAT to the management of Delaware's marine and wetland resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Rogers, R. H.; Bartlett, D. S.; Davis, G.; Philpot, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LANDSAT data were found to be the best source of synoptic information on the distribution of horizontal water mass discontinuities (fronts) at different portions of the tidal cycle. Distributions observed were used to improve an oil slick movement prediction model for the Delaware Bay. LANDSAT data were used to monitor the movement and dispersion of industrial acid waste material dumped over the continental shelf. A technique for assessing aqueous sediment concentration with limited ground truth was proposed.

  13. Vigilance and feeding behaviour in large feeding flocks of laughing gulls, Larus atricilla, on Delaware Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    1991-02-01

    Laughing gulls ( Larus atricilla) forage on horseshoe crab ( Limulus polyphemus) eggs during May in Delaware Bay each year. They feed in dense flocks, and foraging rates vary with vigilance, bird density, number of steps and location in the flock, whereas time devoted to vigilance is explained by number of steps, density, location and feeding rates. The time devoted to vigilance decreases with increasing density, increasing foraging rates and decreasing aggression. Birds foraging on the edge of flocks take fewer pecks and more steps, and devote more time to vigilance than those in the intermediate or central parts of a flock.

  14. Trail inventory and assessment approaches to trail system planning at Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, P.B.; Marion, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    Trail system planning and management require accurate assessments of existing trail resources and their condition. A standardized and efficient process for surveying, inventorying, and assessing trail systems was developed and applied in the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. Two approaches employed were (1) a Trail System Inventory, and (2) Prescriptive Work Logs. These complimentary approaches provide resource managers with valuable information regarding the location and length of individual trails, their current condition and needed maintenance work, and material and labor estimates necessary to conduct such work.

  15. Water Accounting from Ungauged Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastiaanssen, W. G.; Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    Water scarcity is increasing globally. This requires a more accurate management of the water resources at river basin scale and understanding of withdrawals and return flows; both naturally and man-induced. Many basins and their tributaries are, however, ungauged or poorly gauged. This hampers sound planning and monitoring processes. While certain countries have developed clear guidelines and policies on data observatories and data sharing, other countries and their basin organization still have to start on developing data democracies. Water accounting quantifies flows, fluxes, stocks and consumptive use pertaining to every land use class in a river basin. The objective is to derive a knowledge base with certain minimum information that facilitates decision making. Water Accounting Plus (WA+) is a new method for water resources assessment reporting (www.wateraccounting.org). While the PUB framework has yielded several deterministic models for flow prediction, WA+ utilizes remote sensing data of rainfall, evaporation (including soil, water, vegetation and interception evaporation), soil moisture, water levels, land use and biomass production. Examples will be demonstrated that show how remote sensing and hydrological models can be smartly integrated for generating all the required input data into WA+. A standard water accounting system for all basins in the world - with a special emphasis on data scarce regions - is under development. First results of using remote sensing measurements and hydrological modeling as an alternative to expensive field data sets, will be presented and discussed.

  16. The axial salinity distribution in the delaware estuary and its weak response to river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvine, Richard W.; McCarthy, Robert K.; Wong, Kuo-Chuin

    1992-08-01

    We use long term salinity and river discharge data from the Delaware estuary, U.S.A. to determine the mean axial salinity distribution and the salinity response to fresh water discharge. The Delaware is a weakly stratified estuary with a typical vertical salinity variation of only 1 psu. We find that over most of the estuarine salt intrusion length the mean axial distribution of salinity is surprisingly close to a linear decrease with axial distance. Using linear regression analysis, we find that the response of salinity to river discharge is surprisingly weak. The equivalent displacement of a given isohaline for a change in discharge of one standard deviation is only about 4 km, about half the amplitude of the M2 tidal displacement. This implies that some powerful buffering agent exists to reduce the salinity response. We suggest two possible mechanisms for this agent: the action of vertical shear flow dispersion in a tidally stirred regime and the action of lateral shear coupled to strong lateral salinity gradients.

  17. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  18. Upper campanian (upper cretaceous) ammonites from the Marshalltown Formation-Mount laurel boundary beds in Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, W.J.; Cobban, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    New collections from the Marshalltown Formation and basal Mount Laurel Sand along the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal in Delaware clarify the ammonite dating of the interval. The Marshalltown Formation yields Pachydiscus (Pachydiscus) sp., Menuites portlocki (Sharpe, 1855) complexus (Hall and Meek, 1856), a subspecies restricted to the Baculites gregoryensis and Baculites scotti zones in the Western Interior of the United States, and Didymoceras binodosum (Kennedy and Cobban, 1993a) known only from the B. scotti zone of the Western Interior and correlatives in Arkansas and Texas. The basal part of the Mount Laurel Sand contains a complex assemblage preserved as phosphatic molds: Nostoceras (Nostoceras) monotuberculatum Kennedy and Cobban, 1993a, Nostoceras (N.) sp., Didymoceras platycostatum (Kennedy and Cobban, 1993b), D. stevensoni (Whitfield, 1877) (previously thought to be from the Marshalltown) and Exiteloceras jenneyi (Whitfield, 1877). The last two are index species of their eponymous zones in the Western Interior. This sequence is compatible with ammonites from the Wenonah Formation, which lies between the Marshalltown and Mount Laurel to the north and contains ammonites indicative of the Baculites scotti zone, and the fauna from higher in the Mount Laurel Sand, which includes elements of the Didymoceras cheyennense and Baculites compressus zones of the Western Interior sequence.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction from Particles and Solutes in the Delaware Estuary under Contrasting Hydrological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Song, Guisheng; Richardson, John D; Werner, James P; Xie, Huixiang; Kieber, David J

    2015-12-15

    Full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV), and visible broadband apparent quantum yields (AQYs) for carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in the Delaware Estuary in two hydrologically contrasting seasons in 2012: an unusually low flow in August and a storm-driven high flow in November. Average AQYs for CDOM and POM in November were 10 and 16 times the corresponding AQYs in August. Maximum AQYs in November occurred in a midestuary particle absorption maximum zone. Although POM AQYs were generally smaller than CDOM AQYs, the ratio of the former to the latter increased substantially from the UV to the visible. In both seasons, UV solar radiation was the primary driver for CO photoproduction from CDOM whereas visible light was the principal contributor to POM-based CO photoproduction. CDOM dominated CO photoproduction in the uppermost water layer while POM prevailed at deeper depths. On a depth-integrated basis, the Delaware Estuary shifted from a CDOM-dominated system in August to a POM-dominated system in November with respect to CO photoproduction. This study reveals that flood events may enhance photochemical cycling of terrigenous organic matter and switch the primary photochemical driver from CDOM to POM. PMID:26506215

  20. Flood Magnitude and Frequency of the Delaware River in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopp, Robert D.; Firda, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    From September 2004 to June 2006, the Delaware River in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania experienced three major floods that caused extensive damage. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) needed updated information on the flood magnitude and frequency for the eight active streamflow-gaging stations along the main stem Delaware River in New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania that included the three recent floods in order to update its flood insurance studies. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) computed updated flood magnitude and frequency values following the guidelines published by the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data in its Bulletin 17B. The updated flood-frequency values indicate that the recurrence interval of the September 2004 flood ranged from 20 to 35 years, the recurrence interval of the April 2005 flood ranged from 40 to 70 years, and the recurrence interval of the June 2006 flood ranged from 70 to greater than 100 years. Examination of trends in flood discharges indicate no statistically significant trends in peak flows during the period of record for any of the eight streamflow-gaging stations.

  1. A Multiple Resource Inventory of Delaware Using an Airborne Profiling Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross; Short, Austin; Valenti, Michael A.; Keller, Cherry; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An airborne profiling laser is used to monitor multiple resources related to landscape structure, both natural and man-made, across regions encompassing hundreds of thousands of hectares. A small, lightweight, inexpensive airborne profiling laser is used to inventory Delaware forests, to estimate impervious surface area statewide, and to locate potentially Suitable Delmarva Fox Squirrel (Scrotum niger cinereus) habitat. Merchantable volume estimates are within 14% of US Forest Service estimates at the county level and within 4% statewide. Total above-ground dry biomass estimates are within 19% of USES estimates at the county level and within 16% statewide. Mature forest stands suitable for reintroduction of the Delmarva Fox Squirrel, an endangered species historically endemic to the eastern shores of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia, are identified and mapped along the laser transacts. Intersection lengths with various types of impervious surface (roofs, concrete/asphalt) and open water are tallied to estimate percent and areal coverage statewide, by stratum and county. Laser estimates of open water are within 7% of photointerpreted GIS estimates at the county level and within 3% of the GIS at the state level.

  2. Shewanella and Photobacterium spp. in oysters and seawater from the Delaware Bay.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Crane, Edward J; Burt, Iris G; Bushek, David

    2008-06-01

    Shewanella algae, S. putrefaciens, and Photobacterium damselae subsp. damselae are indigenous marine bacteria and human pathogens causing cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, abscesses, septicemia, and death. Infections are rare and are most often associated with the immunocompromised host. A study was performed on the microbiological flora of oysters and seawater from commercial oyster harvesting sites in the Delaware Bay, New Jersey. From 276 water and shellfish samples tested, 1,421 bacterial isolates were picked for biochemical identification and 170 (12.0%) of the isolates were presumptively identified as S. putrefaciens, 26 (1.8%) were presumptively identified as P. damselae subsp. damselae, and 665 (46.8%) could not be identified using the API 20E identification database. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of 22 S. putrefaciens-like isolates identified them as S. abalonesis, S. algae, S. baltica, S. hafniensis, S. marisflavi, S. putrefaciens, Listonella anguillarum, and P. damselae. Beta-hemolysis was produced by some S. algae and P. damselae isolates, while isolates of S. baltica and L. anguillarum, species perceived as nonpathogenic, also exhibited beta-hemolysis and growth at 37 degrees C. To our knowledge, this is the first time these beta-hemolytic strains were reported from shellfish or seawater from the Delaware Bay. Pathogenic Shewanella and Photobacterium species could pose a health threat through the ingestion of contaminated seafood, by cuts or abrasions acquired in the marine environment, or by swimming and other recreational activities. PMID:18378645

  3. Contamination in Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Estuary: Results from the NOAA NS and T program

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, N.J.; Daskalakis, K.D.; Velinsky, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Since 1986, the NOAA National Status and Trends Program through its Mussel Watch Project has been collecting and analyzing sediments and bivalves (oysters and mussels) at about 350 sites distributed around the United States. Since 1984, sediments where also collected and analyzed through the Benthic Surveillance Project. The data used for the sediments include most of the data previously available as well as the NOAA newly developed COSED data base. The analysis includes 17 trace metals and over 70 organic compounds. When comparing the results obtained for the bivalves collected in the Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware Estuary to those obtained in the rest of the United States, it appears that the concentrations of Cd in Chesapeake and Cd, Ni, and total DDT in Delaware Estuary, are high. In an effort to understand the reasons for these high concentrations, the authors compared bivalves and sediments data in relation to the various inputs (including river transport, point source, urban runoff and atmospheric deposition) to these estuarine systems. From this study, it appears that depending on the compound and on the location, natural and/or anthropogenic inputs are responsible for the observed concentrations. For example, in Chesapeake Bay, urban runoff and riverine transport appear to play major roles.

  4. Epidemiologic, Racial and Healthographic Mapping of Delaware Pediatric Cancer: 2004–2014

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Laurens; Vandenberg, Jonathan; McClarin, Lavisha; Dabney, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer remains the leading cause of disease-related death among children 0 to 14 years and incidence varies by race, ethnicity, sex, geographic locale, and age at onset. However, data are unavailable in some regions, indicative of a need for such information for cancer awareness, education and prevention program. We utilized retrospective epidemiologic design to assess and characterize pediatric tumors in the Nemours Electronic Medical Records, between 2004 and 2014. Tumor frequency and children population size were used to determine the period prevalence as cumulative incidence (CI) proportion, as well as chi-square and Poisson Regression. The CI for overall childhood cancer in Delaware was 234 per 100,000 children, and varied by race, black (273 per 100,000), white (189 per 100,000). Similarly, sex variability was observed in CI, boys (237 per 100,000) and girls (230 per 100,000). The most commonly diagnosed malignancies were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS)/brain and renal cancer. The geographic locales with relatively higher cancer CI in the state of DE were zip codes 19804 and 19960, but this does not imply cancer clustering. Differences in overall childhood cancer distribution occurred by race, sex, geography, and age. These findings are indicative of the need for cancer-specific health education, awareness and prevention programs in reducing the observed disparities in Delaware. PMID:26703649

  5. Oyster mortality in Delaware Bay: Impacts and recovery from Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munroe, D.; Tabatabai, A.; Burt, I.; Bushek, D.; Powell, E. N.; Wilkin, J.

    2013-12-01

    One predicted consequence of climate change is increasing variability of local weather extremes such as the frequency and intensity of storms. In August and September of 2011, Hurricane Irene and Tropical Storm Lee generated extreme flooding in the Delaware River watershed that produced prolonged baywide low salinity and consequent historically-high mortalities for the oyster stock in the upper reaches of Delaware Bay. The dynamics, consequences, and projections for recovery from the anomalously high oyster mortality that occurred as a consequence are reported using a combination of physical modeling, field sampling, and metapopulation dynamics modeling. Monthly mortality of 10% and 55% on the upper bay beds (Arnolds and Hope Creek respectively) exceeded the longer-term average at those locations and was associated with a continuous low salinity (<7) exposure of greater than 20 days. Population recovery projections based on metapopulation modeling suggests that recovery will take approximately 10 years for the uppermost beds. Clear understanding of the circumstances leading to this high population-level impact on oysters is important because anticipated future conditions of increased storm frequency will intensify the challenge such events pose for the management of fishery and aquaculture resources, and the siting of restoration efforts.

  6. Epidemiologic, Racial and Healthographic Mapping of Delaware Pediatric Cancer: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Laurens; Vandenberg, Jonathan; McClarin, Lavisha; Dabney, Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Childhood cancer remains the leading cause of disease-related death among children 0 to 14 years and incidence varies by race, ethnicity, sex, geographic locale, and age at onset. However, data are unavailable in some regions, indicative of a need for such information for cancer awareness, education and prevention program. We utilized retrospective epidemiologic design to assess and characterize pediatric tumors in the Nemours Electronic Medical Records, between 2004 and 2014. Tumor frequency and children population size were used to determine the period prevalence as cumulative incidence (CI) proportion, as well as chi-square and Poisson Regression. The CI for overall childhood cancer in Delaware was 234 per 100,000 children, and varied by race, black (273 per 100,000), white (189 per 100,000). Similarly, sex variability was observed in CI, boys (237 per 100,000) and girls (230 per 100,000). The most commonly diagnosed malignancies were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS)/brain and renal cancer. The geographic locales with relatively higher cancer CI in the state of DE were zip codes 19804 and 19960, but this does not imply cancer clustering. Differences in overall childhood cancer distribution occurred by race, sex, geography, and age. These findings are indicative of the need for cancer-specific health education, awareness and prevention programs in reducing the observed disparities in Delaware.

  7. Class distinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    Typical 101 courses discourage many students from pursuing higher level science and math courses. Introductory classes in science and math serve largely as a filter, screening out all but the most promising students, and leaving the majority of college graduates—including most prospective teachers—with little understanding of how science works, according to a study conducted for the National Science Foundation. Because few teachers, particularly at the elementary level, experience any collegiate science teaching that stresses skills of inquiry and investigation, they simply never learn to use those methods in their teaching, the report states.

  8. The impact of land and sea surface variations on the Delaware sea breeze at local scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher P.

    The summertime climate of coastal Delaware is greatly influenced by the intensity, frequency, and location of the local sea breeze circulation. Sea breeze induced changes in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and precipitation influence many aspects of Delaware's economy by affecting tourism, farming, air pollution density, energy usage, and the strength, and persistence of Delaware's wind resource. The sea breeze front can develop offshore or along the coastline and often creates a near surface thermal gradient in excess of 5°C. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the dynamics of the Delaware sea breeze with a focus on the immediate coastline using observed and modeled components, both at high resolutions (~200m). The Weather Research and Forecasting model (version 3.5) was employed over southern Delaware with 5 domains (4 levels of nesting), with resolutions ranging from 18km to 222m, for June 2013 to investigate the sensitivity of the sea breeze to land and sea surface variations. The land surface was modified in the model to improve the resolution, which led to the addition of land surface along the coastline and accounted for recent urban development. Nine-day composites of satellite sea surface temperatures were ingested into the model and an in-house SST forcing dataset was developed to account for spatial SST variation within the inland bays. Simulations, which include the modified land surface, introduce a distinct secondary atmospheric circulation across the coastline of Rehoboth Bay when synoptic offshore wind flow is weak. Model runs using high spatial- and temporal-resolution satellite sea surface temperatures over the ocean indicate that the sea breeze landfall time is sensitive to the SST when the circulation develops offshore. During the summer of 2013 a field campaign was conducted in the coastal locations of Rehoboth Beach, DE and Cape Henlopen, DE. At each location, a series of eleven small, autonomous thermo-sensors (i

  9. Subsurface radar applications in the Delaware Basin. Final report, June 1, 1980-January 31, 1981. [To probe into potash bed

    SciTech Connect

    Unterberger, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Purpose was to find a method of probing into potash to determine if dangers lie ahead. Of specific interest to Sandia, was the problem of outlining a breccia pipe which Mississippi Chemical Company (MCC) found protruded into the potash bed in Carlsbad, New Mexico, they were mining. MCC mined around it and continued their work. If, however, the discontinuity in the ore (breccia pipe) had any fractures linking with a high pressure water zone above the mining level, the act of mining into the pipe could have lost the mine to incoming water. Imperial Chemical Industries, Ltd. had this happen to them in their only salt mine in England. Chapter II discusses our attempts (unsuccessful) to probe through the potash ore and see the breccia pipe. Chapter III contains data on laboratory measurements of the complex electric permittivity (dielectric constant and loss tangent) of potash samples from MCC.

  10. LAND COVER CHANGE AND LARGE SCALE HYDROLOGIC MODELING OF THE SAN PEDRO RIVER AND CATSKILL/DELAWARE BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is based on the assumption that land cover change and rainfall spatial variability affect the r-ainfall-runoff relationships on the watershed. Hydrologic response is an integrated indicator of watershed condition, and changes in land cover may affect the overall health...

  11. Silicification of evaporites in Permian (Guadalupian) back-reef carbonates of the Delaware basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer-Scholle, D.; Scholle, P.A.; Brady, P.V. . Dept. of Geological Science)

    1993-09-01

    Outcrops of the Seven Rivers, Yates, and Tansill Formations contain widespread evaporites replaced by quartz and calcite. The original evaporites consisted of discrete horizons, scattered nodules, enterolithic layers, and individual crystals or crystal fragments of gypsum and/or anhydrite within a finely crystalline dolomite matrix. The fluid inclusions in the replacive megaquartz are primary,and many contain both hydrocarbons and water. Daughter minerals of halite, gypsum, or possibly antarcticite (CaCl[sub 2] [center dot] 6H[sub 2]O) are also found within the aqueous inclusions. Homogenization-temperature data for hydrocarbon and aqueous fluid inclusions average 67.7C and 67.1C, respectively. Hydrocarbon-bearing and aqueous inclusions are thus interpreted to have formed simultaneously from the same fluids. Eutectic melting and final melting temperatures for aqueous inclusions indicate that the fluids were concentrated brines consisting of CaCl[sub 2] and NaCl. Oxygen-isotope values for the megaquartz replacements averaged 28.4[per thousand] (SMOW), indicating precipitation from evaporative waters with an isotopic composition of +2.9 [per thousand] (SMOW). Evaporite silicification was coeval with or slightly postdated hydrocarbon migration. The fluid-inclusion data provide a record of the fluid temperatures and compositions that prevailed during silica precipitation. These data, coupled with regional stratigraphy and published geothermal gradients, suggest a burial depth of approximately 1.3 km during silicification. The source of the silica for evaporite replacement is problematic. The authors postulate, however, that silica may have been derived from dissolution of siliciclastics in back-reef units.

  12. Equinox. A Model for the Natural Science Education Curriculum for the Ninth Through Twelfth Grades in the Delaware Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas M.; Reiher, John F.

    This publication represents a model for the Natural Science Education Curriculum for grades nine through twelve in Delaware's schools. This guide is meant to serve as a minimal standard for natural science education, but at the same time strives for maximum output of the natural science program. The guide is based on the processes of science…

  13. Equinox. A Model for the Natural Science Education Curriculum for the Second, Third, and Fourth Grades in the Delaware Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas M.; Reiher, John F.

    This publication represents a model for the Natural Science Education Curriculum for grades two through four in Delaware's schools. This guide is meant to serve as a minimal standard for natural science education, but at the same time strives for maximum output of the natural science program. The guide is based on the processes of science…

  14. Equinox. A Model for the Natural Science Education Curriculum for Kindergarten and First Grade in Delaware's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Thomas M.; Reiher, John F.

    This publication represents a model for the Natural Science Education Curriculum for kindergarten and grade one in Delaware's schools. This guide is meant to serve as a minimal standard for natural science education, but at the same time strives for maximum output of the natural science program. The guide is based on the processes of science…

  15. Designing Rural Schools As Community Learning and Service Centers: Conference Summary and Related Resource Guide (Dover, Delaware, March 11, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Better Schools, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.

    In March 1994, representatives of rural Delaware school districts and community agencies met to develop information, insights, and plans that would lead to better services for all children, youth, and adults in their communities. The first part of this report summarizes the major ideas generated by small-group working sessions, and discusses the…

  16. Natural radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb in the Delaware and Chesapeake Estuaries: modeling scavenging rates and residence times.

    PubMed

    Marsan, D; Rigaud, S; Church, T

    2014-12-01

    During the spring and summer months of 2012, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity were measured in the dissolved and particulate phases from the Delaware and upper Chesapeake estuaries. The upper Delaware estuary, near the freshwater end member, was characterized by high-suspended matter concentrations that scavenged dissolved (210)Po and (210)Pb. Box models were applied using mass balance calculations to assess the nuclides residence times in each estuary. Only 60% of the dissolved (210)Po and 55% of the dissolved (210)Pb from the Delaware estuary were exported to coastal waters. A large fraction of soluble (210)Po and (210)Pb within the estuary was either reversibly adsorbed onto suspended particles, trapped in sediment accumulation zones (such as intertidal marshes), bioaccumulated into phytoplankton and discharged to the coastal ocean. The upper Chesapeake estuary was largely characterized by sub-oxic bottom waters that contained higher concentrations of dissolved (210)Po and (210)Pb, hypothesized to be subjected to redox cycling of manganese. The Delaware and Chesapeake estuary mean residence times for (210)Po differed significantly at 86 ± 7 and 126 ± 10 days respectively, while they were similar for (210)Pb (67 ± 6-55 ± 5 days). The difference in residence times corresponds to the greater extent of biogeochemical scavenging and regeneration processes within the upper Chesapeake. PMID:25239647

  17. 77 FR 21095 - UEK Delaware L.P.; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... of Project: Indian River Inlet Hydroelectric Tidal Facility. f. Location: The proposed Indian River Inlet Hydroelectric Tidal Facility will be located on the Indian River in Sussex County, Delaware. The.... Filed Pursuant to: Section 23(b)(1) of the Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 817(b). h. Applicant...

  18. Improving the Enrollment and Retention of Students in the Associate in Arts Program at the University of Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, J. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The University of Delaware established the Associate in Arts Program to ensure that students on branch campuses were prepared for the rigors of the University. However, enrollment and retention in the Program remained below expectations. High school seniors, guidance counselors, Program faculty and staff, and both enrolled students and students…

  19. Juvenile atlantic menhaden ( Brevoortia tyrannus) in Delaware Bay, USA are the result of local and long-distance recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Light, Phillip R.; Able, Kenneth W.

    2003-08-01

    We examined patterns of abundance, age, and spawning date distribution for juvenile Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, collected during monthly sampling in Delaware Bay salt marshes during 1996 and 1997 in order to determine temporal patterns of recruitment and their spawning locations. Two distinct cohorts were present during both years of the study; the first cohort appeared in April-May and persisted throughout the summer, while the second cohort appeared in July but was only represented in subsequent collections during 1997. Back-calculated birth dates indicated that some fish had spawned during the fall (September and October) during both years, probably in the vicinity of Delaware Bay. However, the majority of individuals were spawned during winter months (primarily December and January) when water temperatures were too cold to permit local spawning. These winter-spawned individuals probably originated south of Cape Hatteras where winter water temperatures are warm enough (>16 °C) to allow spawning and larval development. These winter-spawned fish were an important but variable fraction of the fish surviving to the juvenile stage in Delaware Bay fish (92 and 73% during 1996 and 1997, respectively). The pattern of fall and winter-spawned juvenile Atlantic menhaden using Delaware Bay is consistent with an earlier study of larval Atlantic menhaden in another southern New Jersey estuary and thus suggests that contributions of spawning from both the Middle Atlantic States and south of Cape Hatteras may occur consistently for Atlantic menhaden and other species.

  20. Natural radionuclides (210)Po and (210)Pb in the Delaware and Chesapeake Estuaries: modeling scavenging rates and residence times.

    PubMed

    Marsan, D; Rigaud, S; Church, T

    2014-12-01

    During the spring and summer months of 2012, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity were measured in the dissolved and particulate phases from the Delaware and upper Chesapeake estuaries. The upper Delaware estuary, near the freshwater end member, was characterized by high-suspended matter concentrations that scavenged dissolved (210)Po and (210)Pb. Box models were applied using mass balance calculations to assess the nuclides residence times in each estuary. Only 60% of the dissolved (210)Po and 55% of the dissolved (210)Pb from the Delaware estuary were exported to coastal waters. A large fraction of soluble (210)Po and (210)Pb within the estuary was either reversibly adsorbed onto suspended particles, trapped in sediment accumulation zones (such as intertidal marshes), bioaccumulated into phytoplankton and discharged to the coastal ocean. The upper Chesapeake estuary was largely characterized by sub-oxic bottom waters that contained higher concentrations of dissolved (210)Po and (210)Pb, hypothesized to be subjected to redox cycling of manganese. The Delaware and Chesapeake estuary mean residence times for (210)Po differed significantly at 86 ± 7 and 126 ± 10 days respectively, while they were similar for (210)Pb (67 ± 6-55 ± 5 days). The difference in residence times corresponds to the greater extent of biogeochemical scavenging and regeneration processes within the upper Chesapeake.

  1. Leadership Development: An Assessment of the Aspiring Leaders Program in Seven Delaware School Districts and One Charter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittingham, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, The Wallace Foundation, nationally recognized for its involvement in educational programs, has supported efforts to improve the training and conditions of school leaders to better enable them to improve student achievement. One of these efforts in Delaware was the development of district level aspiring leadership development programs.…

  2. Differential Mathematics Performance on the TIMSS-R across Delaware Students of Color. TIMSS-R Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cwikla, Julie

    This report examines performance differences between Asian, Black, Hispanic, and White students in Delaware on the mathematics portion of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study-Repeat (TIMSS-R). Data analyses show that the mathematics performance gap across ethnic groups is significant. The lowest 100 Black and White performers were…

  3. ON THE WIND-INDUCED EXCHANGE BETWEEN INDIAN RIVER BAY, DELAWARE AND THE ADJACENT CONTINENTAL SHELF. (R826945)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure of the wind-induced exchange between Indian River Bay, Delaware and the adjacent continental shelf is examined based on current measurements made at the Indian River Inlet which represents the only conduit of exchange between the bay and the coastal ocean. Local ...

  4. Race to the Top. Delaware Report. Year 2: School Year 2011-2012. [State-Specific Summary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This State-specific summary report serves as an assessment of Delaware's Year 2 Race to the Top implementation, highlighting successes and accomplishments, identifying challenges, and providing lessons learned from implementation from approximately September 2011 through September 2012. Despite some implementation challenges and delays during the…

  5. 76 FR 31678 - Saratoga and North Creek Railway, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Delaware and Hudson...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Delaware and Hudson Railway Company, Inc. d/b/a Canadian Pacific (CP) a permanent and exclusive freight... approximately 3.2 miles of operating rights for the purpose of interchange with CP between Adirondack Branch milepost 39.44 and CP's yard at Saratoga Springs located at Canadian Subdivision milepost 35.\\3\\ The...

  6. Rift basins in western margin of India and their hydrocarbon prospects with special reference to Kutch basin

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, S.K.

    1982-10-01

    The western continental margin of India can be classed as a divergent or passive margin. The western continental shelf is an extensive carbonate bank (Bombay offshore basin) passing into clastic sediments on the north and south. Three craton-margin embayed basins-Kutch, Cambay, and Narmada- in the northern part of the shelf, are filled predominantly with clastic sediments. These basins occupy grabens bounded by faults diverging seaward. The grabens were formed by three rift systems along major Precambrian tectonic trends. The rifting developed sequentially from north to south around the Saurashtra horst. Kutch basin was formed in the Early Jurassic, followed by Cambay basin in Early Cretaceous time, and the Narmada in the Late Cretaceous. It appears that these rifting events occurred at successive stages during the northward migration of the Indian plate after its break from Gondwanaland in Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. It is inferred that these rift basins opened up successively as a result of the counterclockwise drift of the Indian craton. Bombay offshore and Cambay are two major oil-producing basins in the western margin. These basins are characterized by high geothermal gradients attributed to the shallowness of the mantle in this region. Oil has not been found in KUtch basin, which is mainly an onshore Mesozoic basin. The basin basin depocenter shifted offshore at the northwestern part of the continental shelf where the shelf is wide.

  7. A model of late quaternary landscape development in the Delaware Valley, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridge, John C.; Evenson, Edward B.; Sevon, William D.

    1992-03-01

    In the Delaware Valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania the late Quaternary history of colluviation, fluvial adjustment, and soil formation is based on the ages of pre-Wisconsinan soils and glacial deposits which are indicated by feld relationships and inferred from mid-latitude climate changes indicated by marine oxygen-isotope records. The area is divided into four terranes characterized by sandstone, gneiss, slate and carbonate rocks. Since the last pre-Wisconsinan glaciation (> 130 ka, inferred to be late Illinoian), each terrane responded differently to chemical and mechanical weathering. During the Sangamon interglacial stage (˜ 130-75 ka) in situ weathering is inferred to have occurred at rates greater than transportation of material which resulted in the formation of deep, highly weathered soil and saprolite, and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Cold climatic conditions during the Wisconsinan, on the other hand, induced erosion of the landscape at rates faster than soil development. Upland erosion during the Wisconsinan removed pre-Wisconsinan soil and glacial sediment and bedrock to produce muddy to blocky colluvium, grézes litées, and alluvial fans on footslopes. Fluvial gravel and overlying colluvium in the Delaware Valley, both buried by late Wisconsinan outwash, are inferred to represent episodes of early and middle Wisconsinan (˜ 75-25 ka) upland erosion and river aggradiation followed by river degradation and colluvium deposition. Early-middle Wisconsinan colluvium is more voluminous than later colluvium despite colder, possibly permafrost conditions during the late Wisconsinan ˜ 25-10 ka). Extensive colluviation during the early and middle Wisconsinan resulted from a longer (50 kyr), generally cold interval of erosion with a greater availability of easily eroded pre-Wisconsinan surficial materials on uplands than during the late Wisconsinan. After recession of late Wisconsinan ice from its terminal position, soil formation and landscape

  8. A model of late quaternary landscape development in the Delaware Valley, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridge, J.C.; Evenson, E.B.; Sevon, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the Delaware Valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania the late Quaternary history of colluviation, fluvial adjustment, and soil formation is based on the ages of pre-Wisconsinan soils and glacial deposits which are indicated by feld relationships and inferred from mid-latitude climate changes indicated by marine oxygen-isotope records. The area is divided into four terranes characterized by sandstone, gneiss, slate and carbonate rocks. Since the last pre-Wisconsinan glaciation (> 130 ka, inferred to be late Illinoian), each terrane responded differently to chemical and mechanical weathering. During the Sangamon interglacial stage (??? 130-75 ka) in situ weathering is inferred to have occurred at rates greater than transportation of material which resulted in the formation of deep, highly weathered soil and saprolite, and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Cold climatic conditions during the Wisconsinan, on the other hand, induced erosion of the landscape at rates faster than soil development. Upland erosion during the Wisconsinan removed pre-Wisconsinan soil and glacial sediment and bedrock to produce muddy to blocky colluvium, gre??zes lite??es, and alluvial fans on footslopes. Fluvial gravel and overlying colluvium in the Delaware Valley, both buried by late Wisconsinan outwash, are inferred to represent episodes of early and middle Wisconsinan (??? 75-25 ka) upland erosion and river aggradiation followed by river degradation and colluvium deposition. Early-middle Wisconsinan colluvium is more voluminous than later colluvium despite colder, possibly permafrost conditions during the late Wisconsinan ??? 25-10 ka). Extensive colluviation during the early and middle Wisconsinan resulted from a longer (50 kyr), generally cold interval of erosion with a greater availability of easily eroded pre-Wisconsinan surficial materials on uplands than during the late Wisconsinan. After recession of late Wisconsinan ice from its terminal position, soil formation and

  9. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  10. Delaware estuary situation reports: Sea-level rise. How could a potential rise in sea level due to global warming affect Delaware. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Washburn, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Our atmosphere is largely transparent to the solar radiation that warms the Earth's surface. But rather than allowing all the warmth to be radiated back into space, clouds and certain gases naturally present in the atmosphere act remarkably like glass in a greenhouse, retaining part of the heat by absorption and reradiation. Although human beings are not the primary cause of the greenhouse effect, many of our activities may enhance it, thereby altering global climate. Scientists who believe the climate balance will shift toward warmer temperatures see rising sea levels as a major consequence of such a change. The intent of the report is to inform the reader of how a rise in sea level may affect the state of Delaware, if predictions of global warming prove correct. Those responsible for managing our natural resources and developed communities should neither ignore nor overreact to potential scenarios for climate warming or sea-level rise. Instead, they should be aware of the range of possibilities for the years ahead as a basis for precautionary action.

  11. Hands-On Astrophysics, 680 Hands at a Time: Lab Activities in Big Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, H.

    1996-12-01

    In brief: it is possible to have students do experiments in very large lecture classes. Evaluations show it works. Hands-on science, while traditional in many other disciplines, has not played a large role in astronomy teaching, though many of the concepts we deal with such as heat and pressure can be explored with simple experiments. 340 students in a large lecture class did an experiment with drink bottles, ice, warm water, and baggies to explore the dependence of pressure on temperature. They worked together in approximately 100 groups, working through a teaching sequence which included both a classic demonstration done by the instructor and a hands-on activity where they did the experiment themselves. This activity was carried out in a rather challenging setting: a large lecture room with fixed seats and no plumbing. Handling and disposing of the materials was only modestly more challenging than teaching a regular class. Student evaluations and student performance on exam questions demonstrated that the activity was successful. This research was part of DISCUS (Delaware Innovative Science/Math Collaborative for Undergraduate Success), an initiative supported by the Delaware Department of Public Instruction and the National Science Foundation (DUE-9553787).

  12. LANDSAT observations of ocean dump plume movement and dispersion. [Cape Henlopen, Delaware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Davis, G. R.; Henry, R.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Eighteen LANDSAT images were analyzed to study the dispersion and movement of ocean dump plumes thirty-eight miles southeast of Cape Henlopen, Delaware, at the disposal site for waste discharged from a plant producing titanium dioxide. Long visual persistence was explained by the formation of a suspended ferric floc. Spectrometric measurements indicate that upon combining with sea water the acid waste develops a strong reflectance peak in the band 0.55 to 0.60 micron region, resulting in a stronger contrast in the MSS band 4 than the other bands. Predominant direction of movement of the waste plumes was to the southeast. Average drift velocity for surface drogues and the waste plumes was about 0.5 knots. The water at the test site was highly stratified and stable in the summer and nearly homogenous in the winter.

  13. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    This document is the Final Report of the Solar Energy System located at the Wilmington, Swim School, New Castle, Delaware. This active solar system is composed of 2,700 square feet of Revere liquid flat plate collectors piped to a 2,800 gallon concrete storage tank located below ground near the building. A micro-computer based control system selects the optimal applications of the stored energy among space, domestic water and pool alternatives. The controlled logic is planned for serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat-new addition, domestic water-entire facility, and pool heating-entire facility. A modified trombe wall passive operation the active system will bypass the areas being served passively. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution.

  14. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  15. Seasonal cycling of sulfur and iron in porewaters of a Delaware salt marsh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luther, George W., III; Church, Thomas M.

    1987-01-01

    An extensive pore water data set has been gathered in the Great Marsh, Delaware over various seasons, salinities, and tides. The data all point to a complimentary redox cycle for sulfur and iron which operates seasonally and tidally. Surface oxidizing conditions prevail in summer, with more reducing conditions at depth during the winter. During the spring tides which flood the marsh, pyrite oxidation occurs releasing excess dissolved iron (II) and sulfate to the porewaters, and precipitating authigenic solid iron phases. The redox conditions in the porewaters of the upper zone during the summer is poised between mildly oxidizing and mildly reducing conditions as shown by pE calculations. This redox environment and intermediate iron-sulfur redox species may be important for the stimulation of plant growth (photosynthesis) and sustenance of a viable microbial community (heterotrophy and chemoautropy).

  16. Health assessment for Dover Gas Light, Dover, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980693550. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-12

    The Dover Gas Light Site, located in Dover, Delaware, is the former site of a coal gasification plant (1859-1948); the site is now paved and serves as a parking lot for a music museum. The by-products of its operations were coal oil and coal tar. Soil and groundwater contamination were discovered in feasibility test borings at the site in 1984. The contaminants of concern at the site include benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, naphthalene, benzo-(a)-pyrene, chromium, and lead. They were identified in groundwater from a monitoring well and in soil from test pits. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via contaminated groundwater, soil and air.

  17. Understanding water column and streambed thermal refugia for endangered mussels in the Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Martin A.; Voytek, Emily B.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater discharge locations along the upper Delaware River, both discrete bank seeps and diffuse streambed upwelling, may create thermal niche environments that benefit the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon). We seek to identify whether discrete or diffuse groundwater inflow is the dominant control on refugia. Numerous springs and seeps were identified at all locations where dwarf wedgemussels still can be found. Infrared imagery and custom high spatial resolution fiber-optic distributed temperature sensors reveal complex thermal dynamics at one of the seeps with a relatively stable, cold groundwater plume extending along the streambed/water-column interface during mid-summer. This plume, primarily fed by a discrete bank seep, was shown through analytical and numerical heat-transport modeling to dominate temperature dynamics in the region of potential habitation by the adult dwarf wedgemussel.

  18. Fresh-water discharge salinity relations in the tidal Delaware River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1966-01-01

    Sustained flows of fresh water greater than 3,500, 4,400, and 5,300 cubic feet per second into the Delaware River estuary at Trenton, NJ assure low salinity at League Island, Eddystone, and Marcus Hook, respectively. When the discharge at Trenton is less than these critical values, salinity is very sensitive to change in discharge, so that a relatively small decrease in fresh-water discharge results in a relatively great increase in salinity. Comparison of the discharge-salinity relations observed for the 14-year period August 1949-December 1963 with relations proposed by other workers but based on other time periods indicate that such relations change with time and that salinity is affected not only by discharge but also by dredging; construction of breakwater, dikes, and tidal barriers; changing sea level; tidal elevation; tidal range; and wind intensity and direction.

  19. Spatial pattern of hormone and antibiotic concentrations in surface waters in Delaware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaicunas, R.; Inamdar, S. P.; Dutta, S.; Aga, D.; Zimmerman, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    Water quality surveys of the U.S. have confirmed the presence of hormones and antibiotics in some surface waters. Although the reported concentrations of these substances are extremely low, there is substantial concern about their effect on aquatic species. For example, chronic exposure to estradiol (E2β) concentrations as low as 40 ng/L have been shown to cause endocrine disruption in fish. Furthermore, there is potential for contaminants to enter our drinking supply. Significant sources of hormones and antibiotics include discharge from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and wastewater treatment plants as well as runoff from agricultural land receiving application of animal manure. Since Sussex County, Delaware is one of the leading poultry producing counties in the nation, and many farmers in the state use poultry litter as fertilizer for their crops, it is critical to study the concentrations of contaminants in surface waters. Fifty surface water (streams, lakes, and ponds) sampling locations throughout the state of Delaware were chosen based on DNREC (Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control) data. Locations with the highest nitrogen and phosphorus levels were assumed to be associated with agriculture and wastewater sources and therefore were likely to be contaminated with hormones and antibiotics. The first set of sampling occurred in April representing high-flow conditions, and the second set will occur in September representing low-flow conditions. Water samples will be screened through the cost-effective enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method followed by more rigorous analyses of selected samples using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). ELISA screening includes estradiol (E2β), sulfamethazine and triclosan, while LC/MS/MS will quantify both free and conjugated forms of estrone (E1), estradiol (E2β), estriol (E3), as well as selected sulfa and tetracycline antibiotics. Initial ELISA results

  20. Benthic macrofauna productivity enhancement by an artificial reef in Delaware Bay, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimle, F; Foster, Karen L.; Kropp, Roy K.; Conlin, B

    2002-10-15

    To understand the potential enhancement value of a habitat-loss mitigation reef in Delaware Bay, especially as a source of food for fishery resources, the secondary productivity of the reef epifauna and nearby sand infauna was estimated and compared. The mean production of natural sand infauna was estimated at between 215 and 249 kcal m(2) yr(-1), while that of the epifauna on the reef surfaces was between 3990 and 9555 kcal m(2) yr(-1). With the 36 m(2) footprint of a reef unit as a basis for comparison, the 407 m(2) of reef unit surface covering that footprint produced 1.62-3.89 X 10(6) kcal yr(-1) of epifauna compared with 7.74-8.96 X 10(3) kcal yr(-1) per footprint area for the adjacent sand infauna. There was, however, substantial annual variability in the productivity of the epifauna, based on the recruitment success of Mytilus edulis.