Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong
Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.
Lee, Mu-Hsien; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Lee, Ching-Song; Liu, Nai-Jen; Sung, Kai-Feng; Cheng, Hao-Tsai
AIM: To predict the re-bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding. METHODS: Over a 15-year period, data from 161 patients with delayed post-ES bleeding were retrospectively collected from a single medical center. To identify risk factors for re-bleeding after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis, parameters before, during and after the procedure of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were analyzed. These included age, gender, blood biochemistry, co-morbidities, endoscopic diagnosis, presence of peri-ampullary diverticulum, occurrence of immediate post-ES bleeding, use of needle knife precut sphincterotomy, severity of delayed bleeding, endoscopic features on delayed bleeding, and type of endoscopic therapy. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (21.7%) had re-bleeding after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-ES bleeding. Univariate analysis revealed that malignant biliary stricture, serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL, initial bleeding severity, and bleeding diathesis were significant predictors of re-bleeding. By multivariate analysis, serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL and initial bleeding severity remained significant predictors. Re-bleeding was controlled by endoscopic therapy in a single (n = 23) or multiple (range, 2-7; n = 6) sessions in 29 of the 35 patients (82.9%). Four patients required transarterial embolization and one went for surgery. These five patients had severe bleeding when delayed post-ES bleeding occurred. One patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis died from re-bleeding. CONCLUSION: Re-bleeding occurs in approximately one-fifth of patients after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-ES bleeding. Severity of initial bleeding and serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL are predictors of re-bleeding. PMID:27003996
Gholson, C F; Favrot, D; Vickers, B; Dies, D; Wilder, W
To define the clinical significance of delayed postsphincterotomy hemorrhage, we reviewed 476 consecutive ERCP procedures performed over a three-year period. Of 250 patients who underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), five (2%) developed postprocedure hemorrhage, two of whom had immediate, self-limited bleeding that resolved after endoscopic injection of epinephrine and did not require transfusion. The other three had delayed hemorrhage characterized by: onset 20-48 hr after the procedure, melena without hematemesis as the index clinical manifestation of bleeding, and atraumatic balloon extraction of common duct stones. Transfusion of 2-6 units of packed erythrocytes was necessary in each and one patient required surgical hemostasis. Delayed hemorrhage following ERS is an important, frequently severe complication to remember when contemplating performing ERS as an outpatient procedure.
Naunheim, Matthew R.; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Lin, Derrick T.; Bleier, Benjamin S.; Holbrook, Eric H.; Curry, William T.; Gray, Stacey T.
Objectives To characterize the temporal distribution and resolution rate of postoperative complications from endoscopic skull base surgery. Design Retrospective review of patients undergoing endoscopic resection of paranasal sinus or skull base neoplasm from 2007 to 2013. Setting Massachusetts General Hospital/Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Cranial Base Center. Participants Fifty-eight consecutive patients. Main Outcome Measures Postoperative complications were categorized as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, pituitary, orbital, intracranial, or sinonasal. Complications were temporally categorized as “perioperative” (within 1 week), “early” (after 1 week and within 6 months), or “delayed” (after 6 months). Results The most common perioperative complications were diabetes insipidus (19.0%), CSF leak (5.2%), and meningitis (5.2%), with resolution rates of 75%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Overall, CSF leak occurred in 13.8% of patients and resolved in all cases. A total of 53.8% of all complications were evident within 1 week of surgery. Chronic rhinosinusitis was the most common delayed complication (3.4%). Hypopituitarism and delayed complications were less likely to resolve (p = 0.014 and p = 0.080, respectively). Conclusions Monitoring of complications after endoscopic skull base surgery should focus on neurologic complications and CSF leak in the early postoperative period and development of chronic rhinosinusitis in the long term. Late-onset complications and hypopituitarism are less likely to resolve. PMID:26401482
An endoscope is a medical device with a light attached. It is used to look inside a body cavity ... sigmoidoscopy . A medical procedure using any type of endoscope is called an endoscopy . See also: Colonoscopy Cystourethroscopy ...
Hoteya, Shu; Kaise, Mitsuru; Iizuka, Toshiro; Ogawa, Osamu; Mitani, Toshifumi; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Furuhata, Tsukasa; Yamashita, Satoshi; Yamada, Akihiro; Kimura, Ryusuke; Nomura, Kousuke; Kuribayashi, Yasutaka; Miyata, Yoshifumi; Yahagi, Naohisa
Duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is technically challenging because of anatomical specificities and, to date, has not been validated concerning the high rate of complications such as perforation and delayed bleeding. In the present study, the risk factors for delayed bleeding after duodenal ESD are presented with the goal of establishing preventive measures. We analyzed 63 patients with non-ampullary superficial duodenal neoplasias treated by ESD from April 2005 to March 2014. To analyze the risk factors of delayed bleeding after duodenal ESD, we divided the patients into a delayed bleeding group and a non-bleeding group. To verify the risk factors of delayed bleeding after duodenal ESD, we analyzed various patient-, lesion-, and treatment-related factors. Delayed bleeding was experienced in 11 patients (17.5%) Univariate analysis of patient-related risk factors of delayed bleeding indicated no significant risk factor. Univariate analysis of lesion-related and treatment-related risk factors indicated only endoscopic closure as a significant risk factor. Multivariate analysis also identified endoscopic closure (not done > done: P = 0.049) as an independent factor significantly associated with delayed bleeding after duodenal ESD. Hypertension (present > absent: P = 0.055) showed a non-significant tendency of association by multivariate analysis. This retrospective evaluation found that endoscopic closure was associated with a reduced risk of delayed bleeding after duodenal ESD. Delayed bleeding after duodenal ESD might be prevented by prophylactic endoscopic closure. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nakajima, Takeshi; Saito, Yutaka
To identify the actual clinical management and associated factors of delayed perforation after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). A total of 4943 early gastric cancer (EGC) patients underwent ESD at our hospital between January 1999 and June 2012. We retrospectively assessed the actual management of delayed perforation. In addition, to determine the factors associated with delayed perforation, after excluding 123 EGC patients with perforations that occurred during the ESD procedure, we analyzed the following clinicopathological factors among the remaining 4820 EGC patients by comparing the ESD cases with delayed perforation and the ESD cases without perforation: age, sex, chronological periods, clinical indications for ESD, status of the stomach, location, gastric circumference, tumor size, invasion depth, presence/absence of ulceration, histological type, type of resection, and procedure time. Delayed perforation occurred in 7 (0.1%) cases. The median time until the occurrence of delayed perforation was 11 h (range, 6-172 h). Three (43%) of the 7 cases required emergency surgery, while four were conservatively managed without surgical intervention. Among the 4 cases with conservative management, 2 were successfully managed endoscopically using the endoloop-endoclip technique. The median hospital stay was 18 d (range, 15-45 d). There were no delayed perforation-related deaths. Based on a multivariate analysis, gastric tube cases (OR = 11.0; 95%CI: 1.7-73.3; P = 0.013) were significantly associated with delayed perforation. Endoscopists must be aware of not only the identified factors associated with delayed perforation, but also how to treat this complication effectively and promptly.
Suzuki, Haruhisa; Oda, Ichiro; Sekiguchi, Masau; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Nakajima, Takeshi; Saito, Yutaka
AIM: To identify the actual clinical management and associated factors of delayed perforation after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: A total of 4943 early gastric cancer (EGC) patients underwent ESD at our hospital between January 1999 and June 2012. We retrospectively assessed the actual management of delayed perforation. In addition, to determine the factors associated with delayed perforation, after excluding 123 EGC patients with perforations that occurred during the ESD procedure, we analyzed the following clinicopathological factors among the remaining 4820 EGC patients by comparing the ESD cases with delayed perforation and the ESD cases without perforation: age, sex, chronological periods, clinical indications for ESD, status of the stomach, location, gastric circumference, tumor size, invasion depth, presence/absence of ulceration, histological type, type of resection, and procedure time. RESULTS: Delayed perforation occurred in 7 (0.1%) cases. The median time until the occurrence of delayed perforation was 11 h (range, 6-172 h). Three (43%) of the 7 cases required emergency surgery, while four were conservatively managed without surgical intervention. Among the 4 cases with conservative management, 2 were successfully managed endoscopically using the endoloop-endoclip technique. The median hospital stay was 18 d (range, 15-45 d). There were no delayed perforation-related deaths. Based on a multivariate analysis, gastric tube cases (OR = 11.0; 95%CI: 1.7-73.3; P = 0.013) were significantly associated with delayed perforation. CONCLUSION: Endoscopists must be aware of not only the identified factors associated with delayed perforation, but also how to treat this complication effectively and promptly. PMID:26640340
Sanders-Taylor, Chris; Anaizi, Amjad; Kosty, Jennifer; Zimmer, Lee A.; Theodosopoulos, Phillip V.
Objectives Delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are a complication in transsphenoidal surgery, potentially causing morbidity and longer hospital stays. Sella reconstruction can limit this complication, but is it necessary in all patients? Design Retrospective review. Setting Single-surgeon team (2005–2012) addresses this trend toward graded reconstruction. Participants A total of 264 consecutive patients with pituitary adenomas underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resections. Sellar defects sizable to accommodate a fat graft were reconstructed. Main outcomes Delayed CSF leak and autograft harvesting. Results Overall, 235 (89%) had reconstruction with autograft (abdominal fat, septal bone/cartilage) and biological glue. Delayed CSF leak was 1.9%: 1.7%, and 3.4% for reconstructed and nonreconstructed sellar defects, respectively (p = 0.44). Complications included one reoperation for leak, two developed meningitis, and autograft harvesting resulted in abdominal hematoma in 0.9% and wound infection in 0.4%. Conclusion In our patients, delayed CSF leaks likely resulted from missed intraoperative CSF leaks or postoperative changes. Universal sellar reconstruction can preemptively treat missed leaks and provide a barrier for postoperative changes. When delayed CSF leaks occurred, sellar reconstruction often allowed for conservative treatment (i.e., lumbar drain) without repeat surgery. We found universal reconstruction provides a low risk of delayed CSF leak with minimal complications. PMID:26225317
Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Choi, Jeongmin; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae
Although post-endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) iatrogenic ulcer is known to heal faster than peptic ulcer, some iatrogenic ulcers show delayed healing. The aim of this study was to clarify risk factors of delayed ulcer healing after gastric ESD. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients who had ESD for gastric neoplasms (866 adenomas and 814 early gastric cancers) between January 2005 and February 2011. Of 1680 subjects, 95 had delayed ulcer healing in 3-month follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that diabetes (OR 1.743; 95% CI 1.017-2.989, p = 0.043), coagulation abnormality (OR 3.195; 95% CI 1.535-6.650, p = 0.002), specimen size greater than 4 cm (OR 2.999; 95% CI 1.603-5.611, p = 0.001), and electrocoagulation (OR 7.149; 95% CI 1.738-29.411, p = 0.006) were revealed to be independent risk factors of delayed ulcer healing. Meanwhile, persistent Helicobacter pylori infection was not related to the delayed ulcer healing. Large iatrogenic ulcer by ESD with massive hemostasis, especially in patients with diabetes mellitus or coagulation abnormalities, tends to take more than 3 months to heal. For such cases, initial dosage increment of PPI or addition of other anti-ulcer agents after ESD may be beneficial.
Na, Shin; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kee Don; Kim, Mi-Young; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Kim, Do Hoon; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin-Ho
Forrest classification is a valid tool to predict rebleeding rate in peptic ulcer, not in post-endoscopic resection ulcer. We evaluated the delayed bleeding rate in Forrest classification II and III lesions when they were not treated in second-look endoscopy. Between July 2011 and February 2012, 706 lesions in 656 consecutive patients who underwent second-look endoscopy performed on the second day after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) were prospectively investigated. Endoscopic findings were described according to Forrest classification, and late delayed bleeding was defined as bleeding from second-look endoscopy to 1 month. We evaluated the rate of late delayed bleeding in untreated Forrest classification II and III lesions during second-look endoscopy. Among the 706 gastric tumors analyzed, late delayed bleeding after ESD occurred in 29 lesions (4.1%). At second-look endoscopy, Forrest I lesions (immediately treated by endoscopic hemostasis) were found in 63 cases [Ia, 8 lesions (1.1%); Ib, 55 lesions (7.8%)]; there was no further bleeding after discharge. Forrest II and III lesions (not treated in second-look endoscopy) were found in 643 cases [IIa, 62 lesions (8.8%); IIb, 119 lesions (16.9%); IIc, 460 lesions (65.2 %); III, 2 lesions (0.3%)]; and there was no significant difference in the late delayed bleeding rate between these groups [IIa, 2/62 (3.2%); IIb, 5/119 (4.2%); IIc and III, 22/462 (4.8%); P = 1.000]. The rate of late delayed bleeding of post-ESD ulcers with non-bleeding visible vessels was not significantly different from that of ulcers with non-visible vessels ( http://cris.nih.go.kr , identifier KCT0000268).
El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Abdelhady, Mohammad; Amer, Hazem Saeed; Ghali, Manar A.
Introduction Due to the close anatomical relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the orbit, involvement or injury of the orbit from paranasal sinuses procedures may occur. Objectives We aimed to study the early and delayed effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods We included in the study 38 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), undergoing FESS. We performed FESS with the standard anterior to posterior approach. We measured IOP at the same time one day before surgery as well as day 1 and 6 weeks after surgery. Results One day after surgery, mean IOP in the right eye was 14.176 ± 1.91 mm Hg and in the left eye was 13.79 ± 2.42 mm Hg with statistically non-significant difference from preoperative values. Six weeks postoperative, the mean IOP in the right eye was 15.14 ± 2.28 mm Hg. The difference between the mean preoperative and postoperative IOP values was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.0012). While in the left eye, mean postoperative IOP was 15.14 + 2.23mm Hg. The difference between the mean preoperative and postoperative IOP values was also found to be highly statistically significant (p = 0.0005). Conclusion Delayed significant increase in IOP can occur after FESS, Thus, special measures must be taken to reduce IOP to protect the patient́s eye from the risk of increased IOP, especially in patients with glaucoma. PMID:27746840
Mukai, Shinichi; Cho, Songde; Kotachi, Takahiro; Shimizu, Akinori; Matuura, Genta; Nonaka, Michihiro; Hamada, Toshihide; Hirata, Ken; Nakanishi, Toshio
Aim. Delayed bleeding after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for gastric epithelial neoplasms is a major complication. We investigated factors related to post-ESD bleeding to identify preventive measures. Methods. The study included 161 gastric epithelial neoplasms in 142 patients from June 2007 to September 2010. Post-ESD bleeding was defined as an ulcer with active bleeding or apparent exposed vessels diagnosed by an emergency endoscopy or a planned follow-up endoscopy. We analyzed associations between bleeding and the following factors: age, sex, morphology, pathology, tumor depth, ulcer presence/absence, location, size of the resected lesion, duration of the procedure, the number of times bleeding occurred during ESD, and the use of anticoagulants and/or antiplatelet drugs. Subsequently, we examined characteristics of bleeding cases. Results. Post-ESD bleeding occurred in 21 lesions. Univariate analysis of these cases showed that ulcer presence/absence (P < 0.001), middle or lower third lesions (P = 0.036), circumference (P = 0.014), and a post-ESD ulcer with an extended lesser curve (P = 0.009) were significant predictors of bleeding. Multivariate analysis showed that ulcer presence/absence (OR 9.73, 95% CI 2.28–41.53) was the only significant predictor. Conclusion. Ulcer presence/absence was considered the most significant predictor of post-ESD bleeding. PMID:22536221
Al-Khudari, Samer; Succar, Eric; Ghanem, Tamer; Gardner, Glendon M.
We present a rare complication of endoscopic staple repair of a pharyngeal diverticulum related to prior anterior cervical spine surgery. A 70-year-old male developed a symptomatic pharyngeal diverticulum 2 years after an anterior cervical fusion that was repaired via endoscopic stapler-assisted diverticulectomy. He initially had improvement of his symptoms after the stapler-assisted approach. Three years later, the patient presented with dysphagia and was found to have erosion of the cervical hardware into the pharyngeal lumen at the site of the prior repair. We present the first reported case of late hardware erosion into a pharyngeal diverticulum after endoscopic stapler repair. PMID:24454395
Albéniz, Eduardo; Fraile, María; Ibáñez, Berta; Alonso-Aguirre, Pedro; Martínez-Ares, David; Soto, Santiago; Gargallo, Carla Jerusalén; Ramos Zabala, Felipe; Álvarez, Marco Antonio; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Joaquín; Múgica, Fernando; Nogales, Óscar; Herreros de Tejada, Alberto; Redondo, Eduardo; Guarner-Argente, Carlos; Pin, Noel; León-Brito, Helena; Pardeiro, Remedios; López-Roses, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Téllez, Manuel; Jiménez, Alejandra; Martínez-Alcalá, Felipe; García, Orlando; de la Peña, Joaquín; Ono, Akiko; Alberca de Las Parras, Fernando; Pellisé, María; Rivero, Liseth; Saperas, Esteban; Pérez-Roldán, Francisco; Pueyo Royo, Antonio; Eguaras Ros, Javier; Zúñiga Ripa, Alba; Concepción-Martín, Mar; Huelin-Álvarez, Patricia; Colán-Hernández, Juan; Cubiella, Joaquín; Remedios, David; Bessa I Caserras, Xavier; López-Viedma, Bartolomé; Cobian, Julyssa; González-Haba, Mariano; Santiago, José; Martínez-Cara, Juan Gabriel; Valdivielso, Eduardo
After endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of colorectal lesions, delayed bleeding is the most common serious complication, but there are no guidelines for its prevention. We aimed to identify risk factors associated with delayed bleeding that required medical attention after discharge until day 15 and develop a scoring system to identify patients at risk. We performed a prospective study of 1214 consecutive patients with nonpedunculated colorectal lesions 20 mm or larger treated by EMR (n = 1255) at 23 hospitals in Spain, from February 2013 through February 2015. Patients were examined 15 days after the procedure, and medical data were collected. We used the data to create a delayed bleeding scoring system, and assigned a weight to each risk factor based on the β parameter from multivariate logistic regression analysis. Patients were classified as being at low, average, or high risk for delayed bleeding. Delayed bleeding occurred in 46 cases (3.7%, 95% confidence interval, 2.7%-4.9%). In multivariate analysis, factors associated with delayed bleeding included age ≥75 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.36; P < .01), American Society of Anesthesiologist classification scores of III or IV (OR, 1.90; P ≤ .05), aspirin use during EMR (OR, 3.16; P < .05), right-sided lesions (OR, 4.86; P < .01), lesion size ≥40 mm (OR, 1.91; P ≤ .05), and a mucosal gap not closed by hemoclips (OR, 3.63; P ≤ .01). We developed a risk scoring system based on these 6 variables that assigned patients to the low-risk (score, 0-3), average-risk (score, 4-7), or high-risk (score, 8-10) categories with a receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.77 (95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.83). In these groups, the probabilities of delayed bleeding were 0.6%, 5.5%, and 40%, respectively. The risk of delayed bleeding after EMR of large colorectal lesions is 3.7%. We developed a risk scoring system based on 6 factors that determined the risk for delayed bleeding (receiver operating characteristic
Ono, Shoko; Ono, Masayoshi; Nakagawa, Manabu; Shimizu, Yuichi; Kato, Mototsugu; Sakamoto, Naoya
Although second-look endoscopy is performed within several days after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there has been no evidence supporting the usefulness of the intervention. We investigated the relationship between delayed bleeding and hemorrhage of mucosal defects after ESD on second-look endoscopy and analyzed risk factors of active bleeding on second-look endoscopy. A total of 441 consecutive ESD cases with gastric cancer or adenoma were retrospectively analyzed. Second-look endoscopy was performed in the morning after the day of ESD. Bleeding of mucosal defects on second-look endoscopy was classified according to the Forrest classification, and active bleeding was defined as Forrest Ia or Ib. Delayed bleeding was defined as hematemesis or melena after second-look endoscopy. A total of 406 second-look endoscopies were performed, and delayed bleeding occurred in 11 patients. The incidence rate of delayed bleeding after second-look endoscopy in patients with Forrest Ia or Ib was significantly higher than that in patients with Forrest IIa, IIb or III (7.69 vs. 2.02 %, p < 0.05). Complication of a histological ulcer, large size of the resected specimen and long ESD procedure time were shown to be risk factors for hemorrhage of mucosal defects after ESD on second-look endoscopy by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that only large size of the resected specimen was a risk factor. In a specimen size of >35 mm, the odds ratio of active bleeding on second-look endoscopy was 1.9. Active bleeding of mucosal defects on second-look endoscopy is a risk factor for delayed bleeding.
Choby, Garret W; Mattos, Jose L; Hughes, Marion A; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Wang, Eric W
To assess delayed nasoseptal flaps as a viable reconstructive option for sellar defects, evaluate postoperative vascularity of delayed nasoseptal flaps, and compare cerebrospinal fluid leak and surgery-specific complication rates of primary to delayed nasoseptal flaps. Case series with chart review. University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. All patients undergoing transsellar approaches for skull base tumors from 2009 to 2013 were evaluated. In cases where the necessity of a vascularized reconstructive flap was made evident only after tumor resection, the nasoseptal flap was raised after tumor resection and/or cerebrospinal fluid leak development, thus constituting a delayed nasoseptal flap. Outcome measures include postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, cerebrospinal leak rates, and complication rates. During this timeframe, 437 patients underwent transsellar approaches. Primary nasoseptal flaps were used to reconstruct 179 patients while 32 patients had delayed flaps. All available postoperative MRI scans of delayed nasoseptal flap patients maintained vascularity on examination of T1 postcontrast images. There was no significant difference in cerebrospinal fluid leak rate between primary (3.4%) and delayed flaps (3.1%) (P = .95). There was no significant difference in surgery-specific complication rates between primary flaps (10.6%) and delayed flaps (3.1%; P = .14). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated no significant effect of flap type, age, or sex on cerebrospinal fluid leak rates. Delayed nasoseptal flaps are a viable reconstructive option for sellar skull base defects. They maintain vascularity as evidenced on postoperative MRI and are comparable to primary nasoseptal flaps with regard to cerebrospinal fluid leak rates and complication rates. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.
Kim, Gwang-Un; Seo, Myeongsook; Song, Eun Mi; Hwang, Sung Wook; Park, Sang Hyoung; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Byeon, Jeong-Sik
Bleeding is the most common adverse event following colonoscopic endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of a colon EMR according to the post-EMR ulcer status, and determine the risk factors of delayed postpolypectomy bleeding (DPPB) based on the post-EMR ulcer status. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and endoscopic images of patients who underwent EMR of colon polyps with diameters of ≥5 mm. If any exposed vessels were observed on the post-EMR ulcer, the types of exposed vessels were classified into cut and uncut vessels. The coagulation injuries on the post-EMR ulcer were categorized as grade 1, 2, or 3. In total, 505 patients with 728 polyps were examined. Exposed vessels were present in 416 post-EMR ulcers, including cut vessels in 11 (1.5%) and uncut vessels in 405 (55.6%). With regard to coagulation injury, 113 (15.5%), 443 (60.9%), and 172 (23.6%) post-EMR ulcers had grade 1, 2, and 3 injuries, respectively. DPPB was observed in 20 lesions (2.7%). Multivariate analysis indicated that a polyp size >10 mm (odds ratio [OR], 3.354; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.229-9.154), cut vessels (OR, 18.913; 95% CI, 3.106-115.187), and grade 3 coagulation injury (OR, 16.796; 95% CI, 1.825-154.556) were associated with DPPB. Cut vessels and severe coagulation injury on post-EMR ulcers, as well as larger polyp size, are risk factors for DPPB. Careful inspection of post-EMR ulcers and prophylactic hemostasis, if necessary, may improve the clinical outcomes of colonoscopic EMR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Golinelli, Gloria; Toso, Andrea; Taranto, Fausto; Aluffi, Paolo; Pia, Francesco
Internal carotid artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare but potentially lethal complication of sinus surgery. We present 2 cases of delayed carotid pseudoaneurysm development after internal carotid laceration during functional sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis to emphasize the need to follow up the patients with profuse bleeding perioperatively and to identify when to suspect iatrogenic vascular malformations.
Pioche, Mathieu; Camus, Marine; Rivory, Jérôme; Leblanc, Sarah; Lienhart, Isabelle; Barret, Maximilien; Chaussade, Stanislas; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Prat, Frederic; Ponchon, Thierry
Background: Endoscopic resections have low morbidity and mortality. Delayed bleeding has been reported in approximately 1 – 15 % of cases, increasing with antiplatelet/anticoagulant therapy or portal hypertension. A self-assembling peptide (SAP) forming a gel could protect the mucosal defect during early healing. This retrospective trial aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of SAP in preventing delayed bleeding after endoscopic resections. Methods: Consecutive patients with endoscopic resections were enrolled in two tertiary referral centers. Patients with a high risk of bleeding (antiplatelet agents, anticoagulation drugs with heparin bridge therapy, and cirrhosis with portal hypertension) were also included. The SAP gel was applied immediately after resection to cover the whole ulcer bed. Results: In total, 56 patients were included with 65 lesions (esophagus [n = 8], stomach [n = 22], duodenum [n = 10], ampullary [n = 3], colon [n = 7], and rectum [n = 15]) in two centers. Among those 65 lesions, 29 were resected in high risk situations (9 uninterrupted aspirin therapy, 6 heparin bridge therapies, 5 cirrhosis and portal hypertension, 1 both cirrhosis and heparin bridge, 3 both cirrhosis and uninterrupted aspirin, 3 large duodenal lesions > 2 cm, and 2 early introduction of clopidogrel at day 1). The resection technique was endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in 40 cases, en bloc endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) in 16, piecemeal EMR in 6, and ampullectomy in 3. The mean lesion size was 37.9 mm (SD: 2.2 mm) with a mean area of 6.3 cm2 (SD: 3.5 cm2). No difficulty was noted during application. Four delayed overt bleedings occurred (6.2 %) (3 hematochezia, 1 hematemesis) requiring endoscopic hemostasis. The mean hemoglobin drop off was 0.6 g/dL (– 0.6 to 3.1 g/dL). No adverse events occurred. Conclusion: The use of this novel extracellular matrix scaffold may help to reduce post-endoscopic resection
García-Aparicio, L; Blázquez-Gómez, E; Vila Santandreu, A; Camacho Diaz, J A; Vila-Cots, J; Ramos Cebrian, M; de Haro, I; Martin, O; Tarrado, X
Some guidelines recommend an early voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) after endoscopic treatment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), but there's no consensus if it's necessary a long-term follow-up in these patients. The aim of our study is analyze if it's necessary a delayed VCUG after initial successful treatment with Dx/HA. We have reviewed all medical charts of patients that underwent Dx/HA treatment from 2006 to 2010. We have selected patients with initial successful treatment and more than 3 years of radiological and clinical follow-up. We have analyzed late clinical and radiological outcomes. One hundred and sixty children with 228 refluxing ureters underwent Dx/HA endoscopic treatment with a mean follow-up of 52.13 months. Early VCUG was performed in 215 ureters with an initial successful rate of 84.1%. The group of study was 94/215 ureters with more than 3 years of follow-up with a delayed VCUG. VUR was still resolved in 79,8% of the ureters. Clinical success rate was 91.7%. The incidence of febrile urinary tract infection in those patients with cured VUR and those with a relapsed VUR was 8 and 15%, respectively; but there were no significant differences. We have not found any variable related with relapsed VUR except those ureters that initially received 2 injections (P<.05). If our objective in the treatment of VUR is to reduce the incidence of febrile urinary tract infection it is not necessary to perform a delayed VCUG even though the long-term radiological outcomes is worse than clinical outcome. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chew, Joyce Ruo Yi; Balan, Anu; Griffiths, William; Herre, Jurgen
Cyanoacrylate injection is a recognised endoscopic treatment option for variceal haemorrhage. We describe a 34-year old man with hepatitis B cirrhosis who presented to the hospital with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage from gastric and oesophageal varices. Haemostasis was achieved via cyanoacrylate injection sclerotherapy and banding. Ten days later, the patient developed acute hypoxia and fever. His chest radiograph showed wide-spread pulmonary shadowing. A non-contrast CT scan confirmed multiple emboli of injected glue material from the varix with parenchymal changes either suggesting acute lung injury or pulmonary oedema. He gradually recovered with supportive treatment and was discharged home. On follow-up, he remained asymptomatic from a chest perspective. This case report discusses the rare complication of pulmonary embolisation of cyanoacrylate glue from variceal injection sites and the diagnostic dilemmas involved. Emphasis is placed on the importance of maintaining high index of clinical suspicion when assessing patients with possible procedure related complications.
Choi, Hyun Ho
Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing. PMID:26473115
Getz, Anne E; Hwang, Peter H
Successful septoplasty involves accurate assessment of septal pathology and sound technique to avoid persistent symptoms and new complications. This review highlights endoscopic septoplasty techniques and instrumentation, as well as the indications for and advantages of endoscopic septoplasty as compared with traditional headlight septoplasty. Isolated lesions such as septal spurs and contact points may be better addressed with limited endoscopic techniques. Powered instrumentation has been utilized with reported success. Operative time and outcomes of endoscopic septoplasty are at least commensurate with, and at times superior to, traditional techniques. Endoscopic technology greatly enhances visualization during septoplasty. Discrete septal pathologies such as isolated deflection, spurs, perforations, and contact points can be addressed in a directed fashion. These advantages can be especially important in revision cases. Endoscopic technique in conjunction with video imaging is valuable for the education of residents and staff.
Sautter, Nathan B; Smith, Timothy L
Endoscopic septoplasty has gained popularity since Lanza and colleagues and Stammberger first described the technique. This technique has several advantages over the traditional "headlight" septoplasty. These advantages include superior visualization, accommodation of limited and minimally invasive septoplasty, and usefulness as an effective teaching tool. This article reviews and illustrates the endoscopic septoplasty technique and discusses its limitations and advantages.
... Pancreatitis References Lee LS. Endoscopic ultrasound. In: McNalley PR, ed. GI/Liver Secrets Plus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...
Madhavan, Karthik; Chieng, Lee Onn; Hofstetter, Christoph P; Wang, Michael Y
Isthmic spondylolisthesis due to pars defects resulting from trauma or spondylolysis is not uncommon. Symptomatic patients with such pars defects are traditionally treated with a variety of fusion surgeries. The authors present a unique case in which such a patient was successfully treated with endoscopic discectomy without iatrogenic destabilization. A 31-year-old man presented with a history of left radicular leg pain along the distribution of the sciatic nerve. He had a disc herniation at L5/S1 and bilateral pars defects with a Grade I spondylolisthesis. Dynamic radiographic studies did not show significant movement of L-5 over S-1. The patient did not desire to have a fusion. After induction of local anesthesia, the patient underwent an awake transforaminal endoscopic discectomy via the extraforaminal approach, with decompression of the L-5 and S-1 nerve roots. His preoperative pain resolved immediately, and he was discharged home the same day. His preoperative Oswestry Disability Index score was 74, and postoperatively it was noted to be 8. At 2-year follow-up he continued to be symptom free, and no radiographic progression of the listhesis was noted. In this case preservation of stabilizing structures, including the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments and the facet capsule, may have reduced the likelihood of iatrogenic instability while at the same time achieving symptom control. This may be a reasonable option for select patient symptoms confined to lumbosacral radiculopathy.
Kwon, Se Hwan
It has been reported that intrathoracic esophageal leakages occur at a rate of 4%–17% after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. There has been no consensus on a specific treatment for the post-operative anastomotic leakage. Recently, endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (E-VAC) has been introduced as a novel treatment for the post-operative anastomotic leakage. We herein report the case of a patient with early perforation of the gastric conduit followed by late esophagogastric anastomotic leakage who was successfully treated with early surgical repair and subsequent E-VAC. The patient had been previously diagnosed with achalasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and undergone an Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. PMID:27075934
Youn, Hyo Chul; Kwon, Se Hwan
It has been reported that intrathoracic esophageal leakages occur at a rate of 4%-17% after Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy. There has been no consensus on a specific treatment for the post-operative anastomotic leakage. Recently, endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure (E-VAC) has been introduced as a novel treatment for the post-operative anastomotic leakage. We herein report the case of a patient with early perforation of the gastric conduit followed by late esophagogastric anastomotic leakage who was successfully treated with early surgical repair and subsequent E-VAC. The patient had been previously diagnosed with achalasia and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus and undergone an Ivor-Lewis esophagectomy.
Sousa, Aderito de; Iniciarte, Livia; Levine, Howard
While nasal endoscopy is typically used for diagnosis and sinus surgery, endoscopy can be combined with powered instrumentation to perform nasal septal surgery. Powered Endoscopic Nasal Septum Surgery (PENSS) is an easy, effective and quick alternative to traditional headlight approaches to septoplasty. PENSS limits the dissection to the area of the deviation and markedly reduces the extent of subperichondrial dissection. This is particularly valuable in patients who have undergone prior septal cartilage resection. PENSS was used in 2,730 patients over 8 years. Surgical indications and technique are discussed. These patients had either isolated nasal septal deformities associated with other rhinologic pathology (sinusitis, adenoid hypertrophy polyps and external nasal deformity). PENSS was utilized with video assistance to allow an enhanced view of the endoscopic operative field. These patients were operated upon in an outpatient surgical suite and were seen for a post-operative video endoscopic evaluation at 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after surgery. The patients who had associated functional endoscopic sinus surgery were evaluated as needed until 6 weeks after surgery. There were no delayed complications. Endoscopic resection of septal spurs, deformities and deviations can be performed safely alone or in combination with endoscopic sinus surgery with minimal additional morbidity.
Opinions differ regarding the surgical treatment of posterior calcaneal exostosis. After failure of conservative treatment, open surgical bursectomy and resection of the calcaneal prominence is indicated by many investigators. Clinical studies have shown high rates of unsatisfactory results and complications. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty (ECP) is a minimally invasive surgical option that can avoid some of these obstacles. ECP is an effective procedure for the treatment of patients with posterior calcaneal exostosis. The endoscopic exposure is superior to the open technique and has less morbidity, less operating time, fewer complications, and the disorders can be better differentiated.
von Bernstorff, Wolfram; Glitsch, Anne; Schreiber, André; Partecke, Lars Ivo; Heidecke, Claus Dieter
The purpose of the study was to prospectively assess the impact of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy on the formation of major anastomotic rectal leaks and treatment by endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage (ETVARD). Twenty six patients with malignancies with rectal anastomotic leaks were prospectively treated, including 14 of 26 patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. ETVARD was the first-line treatment. In 23 of 26 patients, ETVARD was successfully completed. In patients following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy sizes of leakage cavities, duration of ETVARD, number of sponge exchanges, and endoscopies as well as time to closure of cavities were significantly increased (0.009 < p < 0.035) compared to patients after primary surgery. Increased age showed similar correlations, whereas the level of anastomoses did not influence these parameters. Patients without (ile)ostomies could also be treated by ETVARD. Follow-up endoscopies have not shown any major changes. Radiochemotherapy has a significant impact on development and treatment of major anastomotic rectal leaks. Most patients can be successfully treated by ETVARD, avoiding additional resective surgery or permanent (col)ostomies.
Rushfeldt, Christian; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Aabakken, Lars
Endoscopic surgery of the stomach/gastrointestinal tract was developed in the 1990s in Japan as a minimally invasive method of removing early-stage tumours, using a gastro-/coloscope instead of open or laparoscopic surgery. Its advantages are obvious, in that the patient is spared more major surgery, the hospital saves on resources as well as admission to a ward, and society is spared the costs of days of sickness absence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is considered the most difficult technique, but it allows for the accurate dissection of large tumours. In 1999, Japanese surgeon Takuji Gotoda and his team were the first to perform these types of dissections of early cancers in the rectum using a diathermic needle and a flexible scope.
Rubenwolf, Peter C; Ebert, Anne-Karoline; Ruemmele, Petra; Rösch, Wolfgang H
We report 4 patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) obstruction requiring ureteric reimplantation at 1, 7, 28, and 63 months after dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA) injection for vesicoureteric reflux. Histopathologic evaluation of ureteric segments revealed extensive foreign body formation in all cases. We conclude that UUT obstruction is a rare but serious complication after Dx/HA injection that can occur even years after surgery. The incidence of delayed-onset UUT obstruction may be higher than previously noted. Long-term follow-up and a critical reappraisal of the method are needed to assess the late sequelae of Dx/HA injection therapy for vesicoureteric reflux.
Seibold, Leonard K.; SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Kahook, Malik Y.
In recent years, many new procedures and implants have been introduced as safer alternatives for the surgical treatment of glaucoma. The majority of these advances are implant-based with a goal of increased aqueous drainage to achieve lower intraocular pressure (IOP). In contrast, endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) lowers IOP through aqueous suppression. Although ciliary body ablation is a well-established method of aqueous suppression, the novel endoscopic approach presents a significant evolution of this treatment with marked improvement in safety. The endoscope couples a light source, video imaging, and diode laser to achieve direct visualization of the ciliary processes during controlled laser application. The result is an efficient and safe procedure that can achieve a meaningful reduction in IOP and eliminate or reduce glaucoma medication use. From its initial use in refractory glaucoma, the indications for ECP have expanded broadly to include many forms of glaucoma across the spectrum of disease severity. The minimally-invasive nature of ECP allows for easy pairing with phacoemulsification in patients with coexisting cataract. In addition, the procedure avoids implant or device-related complications associated with newer surgical treatments. In this review, we illustrate the differences between ECP and traditional cyclophotocoagulation, then describe the instrumentation, patient selection, and technique for ECP. Finally, we summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of this procedure. PMID:25624669
Fujihara, Shintaro; Mori, Hirohito; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Matsunaga, Tae; Ayaki, Maki; Yachida, Tatsuo; Masaki, Tsutomu
Duodenal endoscopic resection is the most difficult type of endoscopic treatment in the gastrointestinal tract (GI) and is technically challenging because of anatomical specificities. In addition to these technical difficulties, this procedure is associated with a significantly higher rate of complication than endoscopic treatment in other parts of the GI tract. Postoperative delayed perforation and bleeding are hazardous complications, and emergency surgical intervention is sometimes required. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to establish a management protocol for preventing serious complications. For instance, the prophylactic closure of large mucosal defects after endoscopic resection may reduce the risk of hazardous complications. However, the size of mucosal defects after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is relatively large compared with the size after endoscopic mucosal resection, making it impossible to achieve complete closure using only conventional clips. The over-the-scope clip and polyglycolic acid sheets with fibrin gel make it possible to close large mucosal defects after duodenal ESD. In addition to the combination of laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic resection, endoscopic full-thickness resection holds therapeutic potential for difficult duodenal lesions and may overcome the disadvantages of endoscopic resection in the near future. This review aims to summarize the complications and closure techniques of large mucosal defects and to highlight some directions for management after duodenal endoscopic treatment. PMID:27547003
Höller, Kurt; Penne, Jochen; Schneider, Armin; Jahn, Jasper; Guttiérrez Boronat, Javier; Wittenberg, Thomas; Feussner, Hubertus; Hornegger, Joachim
An open problem in endoscopic surgery (especially with flexible endoscopes) is the absence of a stable horizon in endoscopic images. With our "Endorientation" approach image rotation correction, even in non-rigid endoscopic surgery (particularly NOTES), can be realized with a tiny MEMS tri-axial inertial sensor placed on the tip of an endoscope. It measures the impact of gravity on each of the three orthogonal accelerometer axes. After an initial calibration and filtering of these three values the rotation angle is estimated directly. Achievable repetition rate is above the usual endoscopic video frame rate of 30 Hz; accuracy is about one degree. The image rotation is performed in real-time by digitally rotating the analog endoscopic video signal. Improvements and benefits have been evaluated in animal studies: Coordination of different instruments and estimation of tissue behavior regarding gravity related deformation and movement was rated to be much more intuitive with a stable horizon on endoscopic images.
Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Selva, Dinesh
Minimally invasive "keyhole" surgery performed using endoscopic visualization is increasing in popularity and is being used by almost all surgical subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, however, endoscopic surgery is not commonly performed and there is little literature on the use of the endoscope in orbital surgery. Transorbital use of the endoscope can greatly aid in visualizing orbital roof lesions and minimizing the need for bone removal. The endoscope is also useful during decompression procedures and as a teaching aid to train orbital surgeons. In this article, we review the history of endoscopic orbital surgery and provide an overview of the technique and describe situations where the endoscope can act as a useful adjunct to orbital surgery.
Matsumoto, Satohiro; Miyatani, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Yukio
Endoscopic therapies for lesions of the duodenum are technically more difficult than those for lesions of the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract due to the anatomical features of the duodenum, and the incidence rate of complications such as perforation and bleeding is also higher. These aforementioned trends were especially noticeable for the case of duodenal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). The indication for ESD of duodenal tumors should be determined by assessment of the histopathology, macroscopic morphology, and diameter of the tumors. The three types of candidate lesions for endoscopic therapy are adenoma, carcinoma, and neuroendocrine tumors. For applying endoscopic therapies to duodenal lesions, accurate preoperative histopathological diagnosis is necessary. The most important technical issue in duodenal ESD is the submucosal dissection process. In duodenal ESD, a short needle-type knife is suitable for the mucosal incision and submucosal dissection processes, and the Small-caliber-tip Transparent hood is an important tool. After endoscopic therapies, the wound should be closed by clipping in order to prevent complications such as secondary hemorrhage and delayed perforation. At present, the criteria for selection between ESD and EMR vary among institutions. The indications for ESD should be carefully considered. Duodenal ESD should have limitations, such as the need for its being performed by experts with abundant experience in performing the procedure. PMID:25901218
Lui, Tun Hing
Peroneal tenosynovitis usually responds to conservative therapy. Early diagnosis and management are imperative because improper or delayed diagnosis and treatment of peroneal tenosynovitis may lead to progression of the tenosynovitis to peroneal tendon rupture, ultimately limiting the benefit of nonoperative treatment. For refractory cases, endoscopic tenosynovectomy is indicated. The purpose of this Technical Note is to report a minimally invasive approach to perform a synovectomy of zones 1 and 2 of the peroneal tendon sheath.
Roxbury, Christopher R; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L; Reh, Douglas D
Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of sinonasal origin. These tumors typically present with unilateral nasal obstruction and epistaxis, and diagnosis is confirmed on biopsy. Over the past 15 years, significant advances have been made in endoscopic technology and techniques that have made this tumor amenable to expanded endonasal resection. There is growing evidence supporting the feasibility of safe and effective resection of esthesioneuroblastoma via an expanded endonasal approach. This article outlines a technique for endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma and reviews the current literature on esthesioneuroblastoma with emphasis on outcomes after endoscopic resection of these malignant tumors.
Konda, Vani Ja; Dalal, Kunal
Esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor, Barrett's esophagus, are rapidly rising in incidence. This review serves to highlight the role of pharmacologic, endoscopic, and surgical intervention in the management of Barrett's esophagus, which requires acid suppression and endoscopic assessment. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor may decrease acid exposure and delay the progression to dysplasia. Patients who require aspirin for cardioprotection or other indications may also benefit in terms of a protective effect against the development of esophageal cancer. However, without other indications, aspirin is not indicated solely to prevent cancer. A careful endoscopic examination should include assessment of any visible lesions in a Barrett's segment. An expert gastrointestinal pathologist should confirm neoplasia in the setting of Barrett's esophagus. For those patients with high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma, careful consideration of endoscopic therapy or surgical therapy must be given. All visible lesions in the setting of dysplasia should be targeted with focal endoscopic mucosal resection for both accurate histopathologic diagnosis and treatment. The remainder of the Barrett's epithelium should be eradicated to address all synchronous and metachronous lesions. This may be done by tissue acquiring or nontissue acquiring means. Radiofrequency ablation has a positive benefit-risk profile for flat Barrett's esophagus. At this time, endoscopic therapy is not indicated for nondysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Esophagectomy is still reserved for selected cases with evidence of lymph node metastasis, unsuccessful endoscopic therapy, or with high-risk features of high-grade dysplasia or intramucosal carcinoma.
Kim, Sang-Wook; Joo, Yeon-Hee; Jeon, Sea-Yuong
Endoscopic septoplasty provides several advantages over traditional headlight septoplasty in terms of better visualization. However, surgeons may experience frequent soiling of the endoscope lens by blood from the incision site and awkwardness in finding adequate space for the endoscope and dissectors in narrow septal mucosal tunnels. Here, we propose a simple and safe modification for endoscopic septoplasty. A total of 21 patients underwent endoscopic septoplasty using a new modification. Briefly, a posterosuperior extension incision was made along the dorsal septum at the superior end of the caudal septal incision, and a posteroinferior-based septal mucosal flap was developed and placed laterally over the inferior turbinate during surgery. The new modification reported here provided clear endoscopic visualization and a comfortable working space from making the incision to closing the wound. In addition, no significant complications related to this modification, such as increased operation time, intraoperative or postoperative bleeding, delayed wound healing, synechia, nasal septal perforation, and reduced olfaction, were observed. Adding a posterosuperior extension incision to the caudal septal incision might be a safe and efficient modification for endoscopic septoplasty. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is surgery to treat sweating that is much heavier than normal. This condition ... hyperhidrosis . Usually the surgery is used to treat sweating in the palms or face. The sympathetic nerves ...
... information in the popular media may not reflect reality. Although useful, balloon sinuplasty is not for everyone. In many cases standard endoscopic sinus surgery or medical therapy may be the best treatment. However, in some ...
Cobb, Tyson K
A minimally invasive endoscopic approach has been successfully applied to surgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. This procedure allows for smaller incisions with faster recovery time. This article details relevant surgical anatomy, indications, contraindications, surgical technique, complications, and postoperative management.
Moraites, Eleni; Vaughn, Olushola Akinshemoyin; Hill, Samantha
Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is a surgical technique most commonly used in the treatment of severe palmar hyperhidrosis in selected patients. The procedure also has limited use in the treatment axillary and craniofacial hyperhidrosis. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is associated with a high rate of the development of compensatory hyperhidrosis, which may affect patient satisfaction with the procedure and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Artifon, Everson L A; Aparicio, Dayse P S; Otoch, Jose P; Carvalho, Paulo B; Marson, Fernando P; Fernandes, Kaie; Tchekmedyian, Asadur J
Since its development, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has evolved from a simple diagnostic technique to an important therapeutic tool for interventional endoscopy. EUS analysis provides real-time imaging of most major thoracic and abdominal vessels, and the possibility to use needle puncture with a curved linear array echoendoscope as a vascular intervention. In this review, we describe the endoscopic ultrasound approach to vascular therapy outside of the gastrointestinal wall.
Karip, Bora; Ozcabi, Yetkin; Ağca, Birol; Alahdab, Yesim; Memisoglu, Kemal
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy is a safe way for enteral nutrition in selected patients. Generally, complications of this procedure are very rare but due to patients general health condition, delayed diagnosis and treatment of complications can be life threatening. In this study, we present a PEG-related massive pneumoperitoneum and subcutaneous emphysema in a patient with neuro-Behçet. PMID:25120935
Inadequate drying of endoscope channels is a possible cause of replication and survival of remaining pathogens during storage. The presence during storage of potentially contaminated water in endoscope channels may promote bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation. An incomplete drying procedure or lack of drying and not storing in a vertical position are the most usual problems identified during drying and endoscope storage. Inadequate drying and storage procedures, together with inadequate cleaning and disinfection, are the most important sources of endoscope contamination and post-endoscopic infection. Flexible endoscopes may be dried in automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs), manually, or in drying/storage cabinets. Flushing of the endoscope channels with 70-90% ethyl or isopropyl alcohol followed by forced air drying is recommended by several guidelines. Current guidelines recommend that flexible endoscopes are stored in a vertical position in a closed, ventilated cupboard. Drying and storage cabinets have a drying system that circulates and forces the dry filtered air through the endoscope channels. Endoscope reprocessing guidelines are inconsistent with one another or give no exact recommendations about drying and storage of flexible endoscopes. There is no conclusive evidence on the length of time endoscopes can be safely stored before requiring re-disinfection and before they pose a contamination risk. To minimize the risk of disease transmission and nosocomial infection, modification and revision of guidelines are recommended as required to be consistent with one another. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fitch, Joseph P.
An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.
An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.
Gallia, Gary L; Reh, Douglas D; Lane, Andrew P; Higgins, Thomas S; Koch, Wayne; Ishii, Masaru
Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is an uncommon malignant tumor arising in the upper nasal cavity. Surgical approaches to this and other sinonasal malignancies involving the anterior skull base have traditionally involved craniofacial resections. Over the past 10 years to 15 years, there have been advances in endoscopic approaches to skull base pathologies, including malignant tumors. In this study, we review our experience with purely endoscopic approaches to esthesioneuroblastomas. Between January 2005 and February 2012, 11 patients (seven men and four women, average age 53.3 years) with esthesioneuroblastoma were treated endoscopically. Nine patients presented with newly diagnosed disease and two were treated for tumor recurrence. The modified Kadish staging was: A, two patients (18.2%); B, two patients (18.2%); C, five patients (45.5%); and D, two patients (18.2%). All patients had a complete resection with negative intraoperative margins. Three patients had 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose avid neck nodes on their preoperative positron emission tomography-CT scan. These patients underwent neck dissections; two had positive neck nodes. Perioperative complications included an intraoperative hypertensive urgency and pneumocephalus in two different patients. Mean follow-up was over 28 months and all patients were free of disease. This series adds to the growing experience of purely endoscopic surgical approaches in the treatment of skull base tumors including esthesioneuroblastoma. Longer follow-up on larger numbers of patients is required to clarify the utility of purely endoscopic approaches in the management of this malignant tumor.
Sabnis, Ravindra B; Bhattu, Amit; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar
Sterilization of endoscopic instruments is an important but often ignored topic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the sterilization of endoscopic instruments and elaborate on the appropriate sterilization practices. Autoclaving is an economic and excellent method of sterilizing the instruments that are not heat sensitive. Heat sensitive instruments may get damaged with hot sterilization methods. Several new endoscopic instruments such as flexible ureteroscopes, chip on tip endoscopes, are added in urologists armamentarium. Many of these instruments are heat sensitive and hence alternative efficacious methods of sterilization are necessary. Although ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are excellent methods of sterilization, they have some drawbacks. Gamma irradiation is mainly for disposable items. Various chemical agents are widely used even though they achieve high-level disinfection rather than sterilization. This article reviews various methods of endoscopic instrument sterilization with their advantages and drawbacks. If appropriate sterilization methods are adopted, then it not only will protect patients from procedure-related infections but prevent hypersensitive allergic reactions. It will also protect instruments from damage and increase its longevity.
Liu, Na; Jing, Chao; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Yimo; Jing, Wencai; Zhou, Ge
A microstructure inspection endoscope, based on directly imaging, is proposed. It is designed for detecting defects on the surface of optical fiber end. It is matched with FC or SC female fiber connector. The inspection head of the endoscope can be put into a 2.5-millimeter-diameter micro-pore. Its numerical aperture is not restricted by tiny dimension of object lenses. System resolution is increased to 600 line-pairs per millimeter. The endoscope consists of object lenses, scanner slab and kohler illumination system. The design provides possibility of various utilities such as aiming at a smaller subject by micro optical scanner and modeling the surface by tri-dimensional vision. And the optical system includes low-magnification lenses and high-magnification zoom lenses. Rough observation at low-magnification and particularly inspection at high-magnification are provided. The instrument has the advantages of high identification, compact configuration and flexible manipulation.
Yassin, Mohamed H; Hariri, Rahman; Hamad, Yasir; Ferrelli, Juliet; McKibben, Leeanna; Doi, Yohei
BACKGROUND Endoscope-associated infections are reported despite following proper reprocessing methods. Microbiological testing can confirm the adequacy of endoscope reprocessing. Multiple controversies related to the method and interpretation of microbiological testing cultures have arisen that make their routine performance a complex target. OBJECTIVE We conducted a pilot study using disposable bronchoscopes (DBs) to simulate different reprocessing times and soaking times and to compare high-level disinfection versus ethylene oxide sterilization. We also reviewed the time to reprocessing and duration of the procedures. METHODS Bronchoscopes were chosen because an alternative disposable scope is commercially available and because bronchoscopes are more prone to delays in processing. Disposable bronchoscopes were contaminated using a liquid bacterial suspension and were then incubated for 1-4 hours. Standard processing and high-level disinfection were performed on 36 endoscopes. Ethylene oxide sterilization was performed on 21 endoscopes. Endoscope cultures were performed using the standard "brush, flush, brush" technique. RESULTS After brushing was performed, a final water-flush culture procedure was the most effective method of detecting bacterial persistence on the disposable scopes. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most commonly recovered organism after reprocessing. Ethylene oxide sterilization did not result in total elimination of viable bacteria. CONCLUSION Routine endoscopy cultures may be required to assess the adequacy of endoscopic processing. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:136-142.
Ejaculatory incompetence; Sex - delayed ejaculation; Retarded ejaculation; Anejaculation; Infertility - delayed ejaculation ... include: Religious background that makes the person view sex as sinful Lack of attraction for a partner ...
Araki, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Watanabe, Mamoru
In September 2003, a double-balloon endoscope (DBE) composed of balloons attached to a scope and an overtube was released in Japan prior to becoming available in other parts of the world. The DBE was developed by Dr. Yamamoto (1), and 5 different types of scopes with different uses have already been marketed. In April 2007, a single-balloon small intestinal endoscope was released with a balloon attached only to the overtube as a subsequent model. This article presents a detailed account of the development of these scopes up to the present time.
Tu, Chen G; McGuire, Duncan T; Morse, Levi P; Bain, Gregory I
Olecranon bursitis is a common clinical problem. It is often managed conservatively because of the high rates of wound complications with the conventional open surgical technique. Conventional olecranon bursoscopy utilizes an arthroscope and an arthroscopic shaver, removing the bursa from inside-out. We describe an extrabursal endoscopic technique where the bursa is not entered but excised in its entirety under endoscopic vision. A satisfactory view is obtained with less morbidity than the open method, while still avoiding a wound over the sensitive point of the olecranon.
Zoli, Matteo; Mazzatenta, Diego; Valluzzi, Adelaide; Mascari, Carmelo; Pasquini, Ernesto; Frank, Giorgio
Odontoidectomy is the treatment of choice for irreducible ventral cervical-medullary compression. The endonasal endoscopic approach is an innovative approach for odontoidectomy. The aim of this article is to identify in which conditions this approach is indicated, discussing variants of the technique for selected cases of craniovertebral malformation with platybasia. We believe that the technical difficulties of this approach are balanced by the advantages for patients. Some conditions related to the patient and to the anatomy of the craniovertebral junction may favor adoption of the endoscopic endonasal approach, which should be considered complementary and not alternative to standard approaches.
Wang, Quanzeng; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Leiner, Dennis; Shafer, David; Zobel, Jurgen
The current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard (ISO 8600-3: 1997 including Amendment 1: 2003) for determining endoscope field of view (FOV) does not accurately characterize some novel endoscopic technologies such as endoscopes with a close focus distance and capsule endoscopes. We evaluated the endoscope FOV measurement method (the FOVWS method) in the current ISO 8600-3 standard and proposed a new method (the FOVEP method). We compared the two methods by measuring the FOV of 18 models of endoscopes (one device for each model) from seven key international manufacturers. We also estimated the device to device variation of two models of colonoscopes by measuring several hundreds of devices. Our results showed that the FOVEP method was more accurate than the FOVWS method, and could be used for all endoscopes. We also found that the labelled FOV values of many commercial endoscopes are significantly overstated. Our study can help endoscope users understand endoscope FOV and identify a proper method for FOV measurement. This paper can be used as a reference to revise the current endoscope FOV measurement standard. PMID:28663840
Wang, Quanzeng; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Leiner, Dennis; Shafer, David; Zobel, Jurgen
The current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard (ISO 8600-3: 1997 including Amendment 1: 2003) for determining endoscope field of view (FOV) does not accurately characterize some novel endoscopic technologies such as endoscopes with a close focus distance and capsule endoscopes. We evaluated the endoscope FOV measurement method (the FOVWS method) in the current ISO 8600-3 standard and proposed a new method (the FOVEP method). We compared the two methods by measuring the FOV of 18 models of endoscopes (one device for each model) from seven key international manufacturers. We also estimated the device to device variation of two models of colonoscopes by measuring several hundreds of devices. Our results showed that the FOVEP method was more accurate than the FOVWS method, and could be used for all endoscopes. We also found that the labelled FOV values of many commercial endoscopes are significantly overstated. Our study can help endoscope users understand endoscope FOV and identify a proper method for FOV measurement. This paper can be used as a reference to revise the current endoscope FOV measurement standard.
Burks, Joshua D.; Glenn, Chad A.; Conner, Andrew K.; Bonney, Phillip A.; Sanclement, Jose A.; Sughrue, Michael E.
Fractures of the anterior skull base may occur in gunshot victims and can result in traumatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak. Less commonly, CSF leaks occur days or even weeks after the trauma occurred. Here, we present the case of a 21-year-old man with a delayed-onset, traumatic CSF leak secondary to a missile injury that left a bullet fragment in the Rosenmuller fossa. The patient was treated successfully with endoscopic, endonasal extraction of the bullet, and repair with a nasal septal flap. Foreign bodies lodged in Rosenmuller fossa can be successfully treated with endoscopic skull base surgery. PMID:27330924
Zhou, Chao; Fujimoto, James G.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Mashimo, Hiroshi
New gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are expected to affect more than 290,200 new patients and will cause more than 144,570 deaths in the United States in 2013 . When detected and treated early, the 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer increases by a factor of 1.4 . For esophageal cancer, the rate increases by a factor of 2 . The majority of GI cancers begin as small lesions that are difficult to identify with conventional endoscopy. With resolutions approaching that of histopathology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for detecting the changes in tissue microstructure associated with early GI cancers. Since the lesions are not endoscopically apparent, however, it is necessary to survey a relatively large area of the GI tract. Tissue motion is another limiting factor in the GI tract; therefore, in vivo imaging must be performed at extremely high speeds. OCT imaging can be performed using fiber optics and miniaturized lens systems, enabling endoscopic OCT inside the human body in conjunction with conventional video endoscopy. An OCT probe can be inserted through the working channel of a standard endoscope, thus enabling depth-resolved imaging of tissue microstructure in the GI tract with micron-scale resolution simultaneously with the endoscopic view (Fig. 68.1).
El-Badrawy, Amr; Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad
Objective. Adenoid curette guided by an indirect transoral mirror and a headlight is a simple and quick procedure that has already been in use for a long time, but this method carries a high risk of recurrence unless done by a well-experienced surgeon. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy in relieving the obstructive nasal symptoms. Methods. 300 children underwent transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy using the classic adenoid curette and St Claire Thomson forceps with a 70∘ Hopkins 4-mm nasal endoscope introduced through the mouth and the view was projected on a monitor. Telephone questionnaire was used to follow-up the children for one year. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy was carried out for children with recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms to detect adenoid rehypertrophy. Results. No cases presented with postoperative complications. Only one case developed recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms due to adenoid regrowth and investigations showed that he had nasal allergy which may be the cause of recurrence. Conclusion. Transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy is the recent advancement of classic curettage adenoidectomy with direct vision of the nasopharynx that enables the surgeon to avoid injury of important structures as Eustachian tube orifices, and also it gives him the chance to completely remove the adenoidal tissues. PMID:20111586
El-Badrawy, Amr; Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad
Objective. Adenoid curette guided by an indirect transoral mirror and a headlight is a simple and quick procedure that has already been in use for a long time, but this method carries a high risk of recurrence unless done by a well-experienced surgeon. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy in relieving the obstructive nasal symptoms. Methods. 300 children underwent transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy using the classic adenoid curette and St Claire Thomson forceps with a 70( composite function) Hopkins 4-mm nasal endoscope introduced through the mouth and the view was projected on a monitor. Telephone questionnaire was used to follow-up the children for one year. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy was carried out for children with recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms to detect adenoid rehypertrophy. Results. No cases presented with postoperative complications. Only one case developed recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms due to adenoid regrowth and investigations showed that he had nasal allergy which may be the cause of recurrence. Conclusion. Transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy is the recent advancement of classic curettage adenoidectomy with direct vision of the nasopharynx that enables the surgeon to avoid injury of important structures as Eustachian tube orifices, and also it gives him the chance to completely remove the adenoidal tissues.
Kumar, Raj; Singhal, Namit
A 15-year-old female presented with primary amenorrhea and delayed onset of secondary sexual characteristics. Earlier she was operated for endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for a tense suprasellar arachnoid cyst with obstructive hydrocephalus. MRI revealed recurrence of hydrocephalus. Hormonal levels were suggestive of hypogonadism and deficiency of growth hormone. She was operated for fenestration of cyst. In this case, suprasellar arachnoid cyst presented with delayed puberty, which is unusual.
Inoki, Kazuya; Sakamoto, Taku; Sekiguchi, Masau; Yamada, Masayoshi; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka
A 73-year-old man underwent endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of a 20-mm flat elevated lesion on the transverse colon. The morning after the procedure, he started to have severe right upper quadrant pain after his first meal. A computed tomography scan revealed free air and a stomach filled with food. He was diagnosed to have delayed post-EMR intestinal perforation. He underwent emergent colonoscopy and clipping of the perforated site. He was discharged 8 d after the endoscopic closure without the need for surgical intervention. The meal was not the cause of the colon transversum perforation. PMID:27574613
Mahadev, Srihari; Kumbhari, Vivek; Campos, Josemberg M; Galvao Neto, Manoel; Khashab, Mouen A; Chavez, Yamile Haito; Bessler, Marc; Gonda, Tamas A
Background and study aims Staple-line leaks occur in 1 % - 7 % of patients who undergo sleeve gastrectomy, and can be challenging to treat. The success of endoscopic approaches decreases as leaks develop into chronic sinus tracts. Endoscopic septotomy has been used to facilitate healing of refractory leaks by incision and enlargement of the tract to allow direct communication with the gastric lumen and internal drainage. Patients and methods We reviewed the technique and outcomes among patients who underwent endoscopic septotomy at two centers for the management of sleeve gastrectomy-associated gastric fistulas and perigastric collections refractory to occlusive endoscopic therapies. Results Nine patients underwent endoscopic septotomy at a mean of 8.6 weeks after leak diagnosis, following failure of percutaneous and conventional endoscopic modalities. Perigastric collections ranged from 3 cm to 10 cm in size. The mean procedure time for endoscopic septotomy was 87.2 minutes. Multiple endoscopic septotomy procedures (mean 2.3, range 1 - 4) were required to achieve radiological resolution. The mean follow-up period was 21.2 weeks, and all nine patients achieved symptom resolution without the need for surgery. Bleeding at the time of endoscopic septotomy occurred in three patients, and was managed with endoscopic clips and did not require transfusion. No other adverse events or delayed complications were recorded. Conclusions Endoscopic septotomy appears to be a safe and effective technique for the management of sleeve gastrectomy-associated fistulae and collections, including those refractory to other endoscopic and percutaneous methods.
Kee, Won-Ju; Park, Chang-Hwan; Chung, Kyoung-Myeun; Park, Seon-Young; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Ki, Ho-seok; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun
Endoscopic scissors offer a benefit over other devices by avoiding potential complications related to thermal and mechanical injury of surrounding structures. We describe our experience with endoscopic scissors in three difficult endoscopic interventions. A fishbone embedded in the esophageal wall penetrated very close to the pulsating aorta and the bronchus. The fishbone was cut in half by endoscopic scissors and removed without injury to adjacent organs. A gastric submucosal tumor with an insulated core that could not be resected by electrosurgical devices was cut using endoscopic scissors following endoloop placement. Extravascular coil migration after transcatheter arterial embolization resulted in a duodenal ulcer. The metallic coil on the duodenal ulcer was cut by endoscopic scissors without mechanical or thermal injury.
Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has recently been accepted as a standard treatment for patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), without lymph node metastases. Given the rise in the number of ESDs being performed, new endoscopic accessories are being developed and existing accessories modified to facilitate the execution of ESD and reduce complication rates. This paper examines the history underlying the development of these new endoscopic accessories and indicates future directions for the development of these accessories. PMID:28609819
Cheriyan, Danny G; Byrne, Michael F
Compared to standard endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are often lengthier and more complex, thus requiring higher doses of sedatives for patient comfort and compliance. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with information regarding the use, safety profile, and merits of propofol for sedation in advanced endoscopic procedures like ERCP and EUS, based on the current literature. PMID:24833847
Kyuno, Daisuke; Ohno, Keisuke; Katsuki, Shinichi; Fujita, Tomoki; Konno, Ai; Murakami, Takeshi; Waga, Eriko; Takanashi, Kunihiro; Kitaoka, Keisuke; Komatsu, Yuya; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Hirata, Koichi
The use of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for duodenal neoplasms has increased in recent years, but delayed perforation and bleeding are also known to frequently occur. We present two cases in which duodenal adenoma was successfully treated with laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery. ESD was combined with laparoscopic seromuscular sutures. The lesions in both cases were located in the second portion of the duodenum. The patients requested resection of the lesion, and we performed laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the laparoscopic surgeon mobilized the duodenum, the endoscopic surgeon performed ESD for the duodenal tumor without perforation. The laparoscopic surgeon sutured the duodenal wall in the seromuscular layer to strengthen the ulcer bed after ESD. Histopathological studies confirmed that the surgical margins were tumor-free in both cases. The patients were discharged with no complications. This unique laparoscopic-endoscopic cooperative procedure is a safe and effective method for resecting superficial nonampullary duodenal tumors.
Awan, Amjad N; Swain, C P
Vertical band gastroplasty is an accepted surgical operation for the treatment of obesity. It is performed by means of an open technique. This is a description of a new endoscopic technique for gastroplasty. An endoscopic sewing machine was mounted on a flexible upper endoscope. On a postmortem specimen of porcine gastroesophageal tissue an area of the stomach, about 8-cm long and 4-cm wide, extending from and in line with the esophagus, was marked. A flexible plastic ring about 3 cm in diameter was sutured to the stomach along the lesser curvature at 8 cm from the gastroesophageal junction with an endoscopic sewing machine. Vertical gastroplasty was accomplished by suturing together the anterior and posterior walls of the stomach with the endoscopic sewing machine. Hence, a gastroplasty was fashioned as an 8-cm-long tube along the lesser curvature of the stomach extending from the gastroesophageal junction to the outlet ring. An endoscopic gastroplasty for obesity was successfully performed by using an endoscopic sewing machine on a postmortem specimen of porcine stomach. The technical feasibility of endoscopic vertical ring gastroplasty should be tested in a live animal model. This will serve as the next phase in the development of this interventional endoscopic technique, which has potential for clinical applicability.
Venkatachalapathy, Suresh; Nayar, Manu K
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is now firmly established as one of the essential tools for diagnosis in most gastrointestinal MDTs across the UK. However, the ability to provide therapy with EUS has resulted in a significant impact on the management of the patients. These include drainage of peripancreatic collections, EUS-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram, EUS-guided coeliac plexus blocks, etc. The rapid development of this area in endoscopy is a combination of newer tools and increasing expertise by endosonographers to push the boundaries of intervention with EUS. However, the indications are limited and we are at the start of the learning curve for these high-risk procedures. These therapies should, therefore, be confined to centres with a robust multidisciplinary team, including interventional endoscopists, radiologists and surgeons. PMID:28261439
Fabbri, C; Luigiano, C; Cennamo, V; Ferrara, F; Pellicano, R; Polifemo, A M; Tarantino, I; Barresi, L; Morace, C; Consolo, P; D'Imperio, N
Since its development in the 1980s, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has undergone a great deal of technological modifications. EUS has become an important tool in the evaluation of patients with various clinical disorders and is increasingly being utilized in many centers. EUS has been evolving over the years; EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) for cytological and/or histological diagnosis has become standard practice and a wide array of interventional and therapeutic procedures are performed under EUS guidance for diseases which otherwise would have needed surgery, with its associated morbidities. EUS shares the risks and complications of other endoscopic procedures. This article addresses the specific adverse effects and risks associated with EUS, EUS-FNA and interventional EUS, namely perforation, bleeding, pancreatitis and infection. Measures to help minimizing these risks will also be discussed.
Yahaghi, Hossein; Sorooshian, Shahryar; Yahaghi, Javad
The time delay between submission of a thesis and Viva Voce is intolerable for students. This letter tries to draw the readers' attention to the effect of choosing the right examiner, in order to reduce the Viva Voce delay.
Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es...one of endoscopic semiology (disease descriptions) and one of endoscopic exams (patients’ iconography). A Case-Based Reasoning (CBR)  whose...knowledge of these Scenes. B) Object Information Lesions or any element of interest, i.e. the "endoscopic findings", constitute the objects to be
Gaab, Michael R
The technology and instrumentation for neuroendoscopy are described: endoscopes (principles, designs, applications), light sources, instruments, accessories, holders, and navigation. Procedures for cleaning, sterilizing, and storing are included. The description is based on the author's own technical development and neuroendoscopic experience, published technology and devices, and publications on endoscopic surgery. The main work horses in neuroendoscopy are rigid glass rod endoscopes (Hopkins optics) due to the optical quality, which allows full high-definition video imaging, different angles of view, and autoclavability, which is especially important in neuroendoscopy due to the risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infection. Applications are endoscopy assistance to microsurgery, stand-alone endoscopy controlled approaches such as transnasal skull base, ventriculoscopy, and cystoscopy in the cranium. Rigid glass rod optics are also applicable in spinal endoscopy and peripheral nerve decompression using special tubes and cannulas. Rigid minifiberoptics with less resolution may be used in less complex procedures (ventriculoscopy, cystoscopy, endoscopy assistance with pen-designs) and have the advantages of smaller diameters and disposable designs. Flexible fiberoptics are usually used in combination with rigid scopes and can be steered, e.g. through the ventricles, in spinal procedures for indications including syringomyelia and multicystic hydrocephalus. Upcoming flexible chip endoscopes ("chip-in-the-tip") may replace flexible fiberoptics in the future, offering higher resolution and cold LED-illumination, and may provide for stereoscopic neuroendoscopy. Various instruments (mechanical, coagulation, laser guides, ultrasonic aspirators) and holders are available. Certified methods for cleaning and sterilization, with special requirements in neuroapplications, are important. Neuroendoscopic instrumentation is now an established technique in neurosurgical practice and
Saclarides, Theodore John
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was developed by Professor Gerhard Buess 30 years ago at the dawn of minimally invasive surgery. TEM utilizes a closed proctoscopic system whereby endoluminal surgery is accomplished with high-definition magnification, constant CO2 insufflation, and long-shafted instruments. The end result is a more precise excision and closure compared to conventional instrumentation. Virtually any benign lesion can be addressed with this technology; however, proper patient selection is paramount when using it for cancer. PMID:26491409
Kumbhari, Vivek; Khashab, Mouen A
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) incorporates concepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizing a submucosal tunnel as an operating space. Although intended for the palliation of symptoms of achalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is also efficacious in the management of spastic esophageal disorders. The technique requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders as well as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut. POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% of patients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition, it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremes of age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken. Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist to manage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical as failure to do so could result in significant morbidity. The major late adverse event is gastroesophageal reflux which appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients. Research is being conducted to clarify the optimal technique for POEM and a personalized approach by measuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junction distensibility appears promising. In addition to esophageal disorders, POEM is being studied in the management of gastroparesis (gastric pyloromyotomy) with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift the management of esophageal motility disorders, the results of prospective randomized controlled trials with long-term follow up are eagerly awaited. PMID:25992188
Martinez-Serna, T; Davis, R E; Mason, R; Perdikis, G; Filipi, C J; Lehman, G; Nigro, J; Watson, P
The transoral, endoscopic route has been suggested as a possible approach for the correction of severe gastroesophageal reflux. Such a procedure would involve no mobilization of the cardia or other structures. The optimal placement, number, and configuration of sutures remains undefined. With the use of a previously developed endoscopic sewing machine, this study was undertaken in baboons with two suture arrangements immediately below the lower esophageal sphincter. A linear arrangement (group I) and a circular arrangement (group II) were compared. During the 6 months after the procedure, the animals were evaluated using manometry, fluoroscopic barium swallow, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and a pressure volume test. A significant increase in lower esophageal sphincter length was demonstrated only in group II (p = 0. 010). A significant increase in lower esophageal sphincter pressure was demonstrated only in group I animals (p = 0.008). The abdominal length increased in group I (p = 0.004) and group II (p = 0.004). The yield pressure and yield volume did not differ significantly from those measured previously in control animals. No evidence of reflux, stricture formation, esophagitis, or other pathology was noted. Some manometric parameters associated with gastroesophageal reflux are altered by the endoscopic placement of sutures below the gastroesophageal junction, with no associated serious complications.
Kumbhari, Vivek; Khashab, Mouen A
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) incorporates concepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizing a submucosal tunnel as an operating space. Although intended for the palliation of symptoms of achalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is also efficacious in the management of spastic esophageal disorders. The technique requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders as well as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut. POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% of patients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition, it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremes of age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken. Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist to manage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical as failure to do so could result in significant morbidity. The major late adverse event is gastroesophageal reflux which appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients. Research is being conducted to clarify the optimal technique for POEM and a personalized approach by measuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junction distensibility appears promising. In addition to esophageal disorders, POEM is being studied in the management of gastroparesis (gastric pyloromyotomy) with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift the management of esophageal motility disorders, the results of prospective randomized controlled trials with long-term follow up are eagerly awaited.
Tytgat, G N
The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000 endoscopies when the infection rate in the endoscoped population is about 60%. Iatrogenic transmission has also been shown to be the cause of the so-called 'acute mucosal lesion' syndrome in Japan. Traditional cleaning and alcohol rinsing is insufficient to eliminate endoscope/forceps contamination. Only meticulous adherence to disinfection recommendations guarantees H. pylori elimination.
Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon; Chun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin Ho; Song, In Hye; Kim, Yong-Gil
Gastrointestinal involvement in vasculitis may result in life-threatening complications. However, its variable clinical presentations and endoscopic features, and the rarity of the disease, often result in delayed diagnosis. Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and histopathological findings were reviewed from medical records. Of 6,477 patients with vasculitis, 148 were diagnosed as primary vasculitis with upper gastrointestinal involvement. Of these, 21 cases (14.2%) were classified as large-vessel vasculitis, 17 cases (11.5%) as medium-vessel vasculitis, and 110 cases (74.3%) as small-vessel vasculitis. According to the specific diagnosis, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was the most common diagnosis (56.8%), followed by Takayasu arteritis (14.1%), microscopic polyangiitis (10.1%), and polyarteritis nodosa (6.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 113 subjects (76.4%), with abdominal pain (78.8%) the most common symptom. Erosion and ulcers were striking endoscopic features, and the second portion of the duodenum was the most frequently involved site. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 124 patients, and only eight (5.4%) presented histopathological signs of vasculitis. Diagnosis of vasculitis involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Because of the widespread use of endoscopy, combining clinical features with endoscopic findings may facilitate making appropriate diagnoses; however, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic biopsy is low.
Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon; Chun, Joo Hyun; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kwi-Sook; Jung, Kee Wook; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Jin Ho; Song, In Hye; Kim, Yong-Gil
Background/Aims Gastrointestinal involvement in vasculitis may result in life-threatening complications. However, its variable clinical presentations and endoscopic features, and the rarity of the disease, often result in delayed diagnosis. Methods Clinical characteristics, endoscopic features, and histopathological findings were reviewed from medical records. Results Of 6,477 patients with vasculitis, 148 were diagnosed as primary vasculitis with upper gastrointestinal involvement. Of these, 21 cases (14.2%) were classified as large-vessel vasculitis, 17 cases (11.5%) as medium-vessel vasculitis, and 110 cases (74.3%) as small-vessel vasculitis. According to the specific diagnosis, IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura) was the most common diagnosis (56.8%), followed by Takayasu arteritis (14.1%), microscopic polyangiitis (10.1%), and polyarteritis nodosa (6.8%). Gastrointestinal symptoms were present in 113 subjects (76.4%), with abdominal pain (78.8%) the most common symptom. Erosion and ulcers were striking endoscopic features, and the second portion of the duodenum was the most frequently involved site. Biopsy specimens were obtained from 124 patients, and only eight (5.4%) presented histopathological signs of vasculitis. Conclusions Diagnosis of vasculitis involving the upper gastrointestinal tract is difficult. Because of the widespread use of endoscopy, combining clinical features with endoscopic findings may facilitate making appropriate diagnoses; however, the diagnostic yield of endoscopic biopsy is low. PMID:27226428
Sato, H; Inoue, H; Ikeda, H; Grace R Santi, E; Yoshida, A; Onimaru, M; Kudo, S
Esophageal perforation occurring during or after endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a rare, but serious complication. However, reports of its characteristics, including endoscopic imaging and management, have not been fully detailed. To analyze and report the clinical presentation and management of esophageal perforations occurred during or after EMR/ESD. Four hundred seventy-two esophageal neoplasms in 368 patients were treated (171 EMR; ESD 306) at Northern Yokohama Hospital from 2003 to 2012. Esophageal perforation occurred in a total of seven (1.9%) patients, all of whom were male and had undergone ESD. The etiology of perforation was: three (42.9%) intraoperative; three (42.9%) balloon dilatation for stricture prevention; one (14.2%) due to food bolus impaction. All cases were managed non-operatively based on the comprehensive assessment of clinical severity, extent of the injury, and the time interval from perforation to treatment onset. Conservative management included (i) bed rest and continuous monitoring to determine the need for operative intervention; (ii) fasting and intravenous fluid infusion/ tube feeding; and (iii) intravenous antibiotics. All defects closed spontaneously, save one case where closure was achieved by endoscopic clipping. Surgery was not required. Conservative management for esophageal perforation during advanced endoscopic resection is may be possible when there is no delay in diagnosis or treatment. Decision-making should be governed purely by multidisciplinary discussion.
Kaltenbach, Tonya; Martin, Beth; Rouse, Robert V.; Soetikno, Roy
Severe thrombocytopenia is a contraindication for therapeutic endoscopy due to the risk of bleeding. Platelet transfusions can temporarily increase platelet count, but are difficult to administer in the 2 weeks following endoscopic resection, during which the patient is at high risk for delayed bleeding. We present the use of a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist, eltrombopag, to sustain platelet levels for the safe and complete endoscopic submucosal dissection of a gastric carcinoid in a patient with severe thrombocytopenia due to cirrhosis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. We performed complete and safe endoscopic removal of a gastric carcinoid after correcting the thrombocytopenia. PMID:26157896
Albrecht, Tobias; Baumann, Ingo; Plinkert, Peter K; Simon, Christian; Sertel, Serkan
Three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic vision in sinus surgery has been achieved with the microscope so far. The introduction of two-dimensional (2D) endoscopes set a milestone in the visualization of the surgical field and paved the way to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), although the 2D endoscopes cannot provide a stereoscopic visualization. The latest technology of 3D endoscopes allows stereoscopic vision. We provide a clinical investigation of all commercially available 3D endoscopes in FESS to compare their clinical value and efficacy to routinely used conventional 2D HD endoscopes. In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study, 46 patients with polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis underwent FESS with one of the following three endoscopes: 2D 0° high definition (HD), 3D 0° standard definition (SD) and 3D 0° HD. Four surgeons qualitatively assessed endoscopes on stereoscopic depth perception (SDP) of the surgeon, sharpness and brightness of the image, as well as their comfort in use during surgery. Surgeons assessed the brightness of the control (2D HD) significantly better than 3D SD (p = 0.009) and brightness of 3D HD was rated significantly better than 3D SD (p = 0.038). Stereoscopic depth perception (SDP) of 3D SD was assessed highly significantly better than the control (2D HD) (p = 0.021), whereas 3D HD displayed best SDP (p = 0.0001). The comfort in use was rated significantly higher in the 3D HD group compared to the control group (p = 0.025). No significant differences in sharpness could be seen among all endoscopes. 3D HD endoscopy provides an improvement in SDP and brightness of the surgical field. It enhances the intraoperative visualization and is therefore an important and efficient development in endoscopic sinus surgery.
Vienne, Ariane; Prat, Frédéric
High grade dysplasia and superficial carcinomas (with no extension under muscularis mucosae) can be indications for endoscopic treatments of Barrett oesophagus. When an endoscopic treatment is considered, a gastroscopy with use of acetic acid and planimetry and the confirmation of high-grade dysplasia by a new examination after PPI treatment and a pathologic second confirmation is needed. For high-grade dysplasia in focalised and visible lesions, an endoscopic resection by EMR or ESD should be proposed: it allows a more accurate pathologic examination and can be an effective curative treatment. After endoscopic resection of visible high grade dysplasia lesions, a complete eradication of Barrett oesophagus may be proposed to prevent dysplasia recurrence. In case of extensive high-grade dysplasia or to eradicate Barrett oesophagus residual lesions, radiofrequency ablation is the preferred endoscopic technique. Photodynamic therapy may also be proposed for more invasive lesions or after other endoscopic techniques with mucosal scars. Surgical oesophagus resection is still recommended for diffuse high-grade dysplasia in young patients or in case of pathologic pejorative criteria in endoscopic resection specimen. In case of Low-grade dysplasia, either endoscopic surveillance should be performed every six or 12 months or radiofrequency ablation could be proposed in the yield of prospective studies.
Lui, Tun Hing
Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released. PMID:26900563
Miner, Norman; Harris, Valerie; Lukomski, Natalie; Ebron, Towanda
Orthophthalaldehyde high level disinfectants are contraindicated for use with urological instruments such as cystoscopes due to anaphylaxis-like allergic reactions during surveillance of bladder cancer patients. Allergic reactions and mucosal injuries have also been reported following colonoscopy, laryngoscopy, and transesophageal echocardiography with devices disinfected using orthophthalaldehyde. Possibly these endoscopes were not adequately rinsed after disinfection by orthophthalaldehyde. We examined this possibility by means of a zone-of-inhibition test, and also a test to extract residues of orthophthalaldehyde with acetonitrile, from sections of endoscope insertion tube materials, to measure the presence of alkaline glutaraldehyde, or glutaraldehyde plus 20% w/w isopropanol, or ortho-phthalaldehyde that remained on the endoscope materials after exposure to these disinfectants followed by a series of rinses in water, or by aeration overnight. Zones of any size indicated the disinfectant had not been rinsed away from the endoscope material. There were no zones of inhibition surrounding endoscope materials soaked in glutaraldehyde or glutaraldehyde plus isopropanol after three serial water rinses according to manufacturers' rinsing directions. The endoscope material soaked in orthophthalaldehyde produced zones of inhibition even after fifteen serial rinses with water. Orthophthalaldehyde was extracted from the rinsed endoscope material by acetonitrile. These data, and other information, indicate that the high level disinfectant orthophthalaldehyde, also known as 1,2-benzene dialdehyde, cannot be rinsed away from flexible endoscope material with any practical number of rinses with water, or by drying overnight. PMID:22665966
Lui, Tun Hing
Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released.
Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico
The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126
Sharma, Malay; Ecka, Ruth Shifa; Somasundaram, Aravindh; Shoukat, Abid; Kirnake, Vijendra
Background: Tubercular lymphadenitis is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation in cervical and mediastinal locations. Normal characteristics of lymph nodes (LN) have been described on ultrasonography as well as by Endoscopic Ultrasound. Many ultrasonic features have been described for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. The inter and intraobserver agreement of the endosonographic features have not been uniformly established. Methods and Results: A total of 266 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and 134 cases were diagnosed as mediastinal tuberculosis. The endoscopic ultrasound location and features of these lymph nodes are described. Conclusion: Our series demonstrates the utility of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration as the investigation of choice for diagnosis of mediastinal tuberculosis and also describes various endoscopic ultrasound features of such nodes. PMID:27051097
Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Holsinger, F Christopher; Tufano, Ralph P; Park, Jae Hong; Sim, Nam Suk; Kim, Won Shik; Choi, Eun Chang; Koh, Yoon Woo
We sought to seek the potential role of endoscopic thyroidectomy with the retroauricular (RA) approach prior to future comparative study with the robotic RA thyroidectomy. Therefore, this study aims to verify the surgical feasibility of endoscopic RA thyroidectomy. Eighteen patients who underwent endoscopic RA thyroidectomy for clinically suspicious papillary thyroid carcinoma or benign lesions from January to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. All endoscopic operations via RA or modified facelift approach were successfully performed, without any significant intraoperative complications or conversion to open surgery. Based on patient-reported outcome questionnaires, all patients were satisfied with their postoperative surgical scars. Endoscopic RA thyroidectomy is technically feasible and safe with satisfactory cosmetic results for patients where indicated.
Kumar, Nitin; Larsen, Michael C.
A gastrointestinal fistula is a common occurrence, especially after surgery. Patients who develop a fistula may have an infection, surgically altered anatomy, nutritional deficiency, or organ failure, making surgical revision more difficult. With advancements in flexible endoscopic devices and technology, new endoscopic options are available for the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. Endoscopically deployable stents, endoscopic suturing devices, through-the-scope and over-the-scope clips, sealants, and fistula plugs can be used to treat fistulae. These therapies are even more effective in combination. Despite the inherent challenges in patients with fistulae, endoscopic therapies for treatment of fistulae have demonstrated safety and efficacy, allowing many patients to avoid surgical fistula repair. In this paper, we review the emerging role of endoscopy in the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. PMID:28845140
Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T
Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.
Hwang, Joo Ha; Konda, Vani; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Enestvedt, Brintha K; Fujii-Lau, Larissa L; Komanduri, Sri; Maple, John T; Murad, Faris M; Pannala, Rahul; Thosani, Nirav C; Banerjee, Subhas
EMR has become an established therapeutic option for premalignant and early-stage GI malignancies, particularly in the esophagus and colon. EMR can also aid in the diagnosis and therapy of subepithelial lesions localized to the muscularis mucosa or submucosa. Several dedicated EMR devices are available to facilitate these procedures. Adverse event rates, particularly bleeding and perforation, are higher after EMR relative to other basic endoscopic interventions but lower than adverse event rates for ESD. Endoscopists performing EMR should be knowledgeable and skilled in managing potential adverse events resulting from EMR.
Stelnicki, Eric J
We are entering a new era of craniosynostosis repair. When detected early, endoscopic skull remodeling, combined with a postoperative external skull-molding device, gives an excellent long-standing reconstruction of the cranial skeleton. This technique diminishes the morbidity of the operation and decreases the overall cost. It does not replace classic plate and screw cranial vault reconstruction in the older patient but is a useful weapon in the armamentarium of the craniofacial surgeon for the treatment of craniosynostosis in the neonatal period.
Lui, Tun Hing
Morton neuroma is an entrapment of the intermetatarsal nerve by the deep intermetatarsal ligament. It is usually treated conservatively. Surgery is considered if there is recalcitrant pain that is resistant to conservative treatment. The surgical options include resection of the neuroma or decompression of the involved nerve. Decompression of the nerve by release of the intermetatarsal ligament can be performed by either an open or minimally invasive approach. We describe 2-portal endoscopic decompression of the intermetatarsal nerve. The ligament is released by a retrograde knife through the toe-web portal under arthroscopic guidance through the plantar portal.
Edouard, T; Tauber, M
Delayed puberty is defined in girls by the absence of breast development beyond 13 years old and in boys by the absence of testicular enlargement (< 4 ml) beyond 14 years old. Simple investigations lead to the diagnosis of central or peripheral hypogonadism and constitutional delay of puberty. In girls, delayed puberty is rare and often organic, and then Turner syndrome should be systematically suspected. In boys, delayed puberty is often constitutional and functional. Treatment is etiologic when possible, hormonal replacement therapy (oestrogen in girls and testosterone in boys) and psychological management.
Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz
Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758
Bergen, Tobias; Ruthotto, Steffen; Rupp, Stephan; Winter, Christian; Münzenmayer, Christian
Computer assistance in Minimally Invasive Surgery is a very active field of research. Many systems designed for Computer Assisted Surgery require information about the instruments' positions and orientations. Our main focus lies on tracking a laparoscopic ultrasound probe to generate 3D ultrasound volumes. State-of-the-art tracking methods such as optical or electromagnetic tracking systems measure pose with respect to a fixed extra-body coordinate system. This causes inaccuracies of the reconstructed ultrasound volume in the case of patient motion, e.g. due to respiration. We propose attaching an endoscopic camera to the ultrasound probe and calculating the camera motion from the video sequence with respect to the organ surface. We adapt algorithms developed for solving the relative pose problem to recreate the camera path during the ultrasound sweep over the organ. By this image-based motion estimation camera motion can only be determined up to an unknown scale factor, known as the depth-speed-ambiguity. We show, how this problem can be overcome in the given scenario, exploiting the fact, that the distance of the camera to the organ surface is fixed and known. Preprocessing steps are applied to compensate for endoscopic image quality deficiencies.
Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Currently, ESD is accepted as the standard method for endoscopic resection of EGC in indicated cases. In this review, the history of endoscopic treatment for EGC, overall ESD procedures, and indications and clinical results of endoscopic treatment will be presented. PMID:22076219
Kim, Hyun Gun; Sethi, Saurabh; Banerjee, Subhas; Friedland, Shai
Piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) of large nonpedunculated colorectal adenomas is associated with significant recurrence rates. After salvage endoscopic treatment of recurrences, there is a significant rate of second recurrences. There is a paucity of data on the efficacy and safety of continued endoscopic treatment after a second recurrence. Consecutive patients with recurrent adenomas after initial piecemeal EMR of nonpedunculated colorectal adenomas >2 cm were reviewed. We assessed the feasibility, safety and efficacy of continued endoscopic treatment in these patients. Sixty-four patients with 70 recurrent lesions were identified. All were retreated endoscopically. Follow-up colonoscopy (mean interval 6.4 months) was performed on 62/70 lesions (89 %), and a second recurrence was found in 21/62 (34 %). One patient underwent surgery for a circumferential adenoma of the ileocecal valve. The other 20 lesions were treated endoscopically. Follow-up colonoscopy was performed on 15/20 (75 %) and demonstrated a third recurrence in 3/15 (20 %). One was a deep T1 cancer; curative surgery was performed. The other two patients each had one additional endoscopic treatment and both had no recurrence on subsequent colonoscopy. There were two complications: Both were delayed bleeds after treatment of the first recurrence. A mean of 1.3 endoscopic procedures was required to achieve a cure (range 1-3) for recurrent adenomas after piecemeal EMR. Endoscopic treatment of patients with second recurrences is safe and effective, but is associated with a significant rate of additional recurrences. Continued endoscopic treatment of patients with multiple recurrences is associated with high cure rates, low complication rates and a low risk of progression to malignancy.
... photographic accessories for endoscope, miscellaneous bulb adapter for endoscope, binocular attachment for endoscope, eyepiece attachment for prescription lens, teaching attachment, inflation bulb, measuring device...
... photographic accessories for endoscope, miscellaneous bulb adapter for endoscope, binocular attachment for endoscope, eyepiece attachment for prescription lens, teaching attachment, inflation bulb, measuring device...
Brichtova, Eva; Chlachula, Martin; Hrbac, Tomas; Lipina, Radim
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%). There were two serious complications (4.7%)-one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.
Stankiewicz, J A
A consecutive series of 90 patients undergoing endoscopic intranasal ethmoidectomy was reviewed. There were 26 complications (29%) in 19 patients in this group. Eight complications (8%) including CSF leak, temporary blindness, and hemorrhage were considered major with the latter occurring most commonly. Synechiae were the most commonly occurring minor complications. Endoscopic nasal sinus surgery performed by inexperienced operators carries with it the same risks and complications as traditional intranasal sinus surgery. Any surgeon who does not routinely perform traditional intranasal ethmoidectomy should accrue endoscopic experience through appropriate didactic training and multiple cadaver dissections (akin to otologic training).
By definition, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) combines endoscopy and high-frequency ultrasound, incorporating a small ultrasonic transducer into the tip of endoscopes. For the upper gastrointestinal tract, mostly oblique-viewing endoscopes are used, although recently, forward viewing instruments have become available. For colorectal EUS, rigid probes for the rectum and a flexible forward-viewing echocolonoscope are available. EUS generates ultrasound either mechanically or electronically, depending on the type of instrument used. The electronic technique potentially allows the incorporation of (color) Doppler ultrasound, which allows for additional processing and postprocessing functions. This generally is considered the EUS technique of the future.
Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel
The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis.
Chen, Z; Qiu, Q H; Zhan, J B; Zhu, Z C; Peng, Y; Liu, H
Objective: To investigate the clinical efficacy of endoscopic surgery for extensive osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of skull base in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy. Methods: Seventeen patients diagnosed as ORN of skull base after radiotherapy for NPC and underwent endoscopic surgery were retrospectively studied with their clinic data. Results: Based on the CT and endoscopic examination, all patients had large skull base defects with bone defects averaged 7.02 cm(2) (range, 3.60 - 14.19 cm(2)). Excepting for curetting the sequestra, endoscopic surgery was also used to repair the wound or to protect the internal carotid artery with flap in 12 patients. No bone reconstructions were conducted in all patients with the bone defects of skull base. CT examinations were taken after endoscopic surgery when required. The postoperative follow-up ranged from 8 months to 6 years (average, 14 months). Aside from 1 patient with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), others had no related complications. Conclusions: The patients with extensive ORN can be treated with endoscopic surgery to curette the necrotic bone of skull base, and endoscopic reconstruction provides an alternative technique. It may not be necessary to reconstruct the bone defects at skull base, however, the exposed important structures of skull base, such as internal carotid artery, need to repair with soft tissue such as flap.
Abstract. We present a foveated miniature endoscopic lens implemented by amplifying the optical distortion of the lens. The resulting system provides a high-resolution region in the central field of view and low resolution in the outer fields, such that a standard imaging fiber bundle can provide both the high resolution needed to determine tissue health and the wide field of view needed to determine the location within the inspected organ. Our proof of concept device achieves 7∼8 μm resolution in the fovea and an overall field of view of 4.6 mm. Example images and videos show the foveated lens’ capabilities. PMID:22463022
Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Pande, Sonjjay; Namdev, Hemant; Agarwal, Moneet
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of long term follow
Lee, Daniel Jin Keat; Tan, Kok-Yang
The adoption of endoscopic surgery continues to expand in clinical situations with the recent natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique enabling abdominal organ resection to be performed without necessitating any skin incision. In recent years, the development of numerous devices and platforms have allowed for such procedures to be carried out in a safer and more efficient manner, and in some ways to better simulate triangulation and surgical tasks (e.g., suturing and dissection). Furthermore, new novel techniques such as submucosal tunneling, endoscopic full-thickness resection and hybrid endo-laparoscopic approaches have further widened its use in more advanced diseases. Nevertheless, many of these new innovations are still at their pre-clinical stage. This review focuses on the various innovations in endoscopic surgery, with emphasis on devices and techniques that are currently in human use. PMID:26649156
Pons, Y; Champagne, C; Genestier, L; Ballivet de Régloix, S
This article is designed to provide a step-by-step description of our endoscopic septoplasty technique and discuss its difficulties and technical tips. Endoscopic septoplasty comprises 10 steps: diagnostic endoscopy, subperichondral infiltration, left mucosal incision, dissection of the left subperichondral flap, cartilage incision (0.5 centimetre posterior to the mucosal incision), dissection of the right subperichondral flap, anterior cartilage resection, perpendicular plate dissection, dissection and resection of the maxillary crest, endoscopic revision, mucosal suture and Silastic stents. A satisfactory postoperative result was observed at 3 months in 97% of cases in this series. The main contraindication to endoscopic septoplasty is anterior columellar deviation of the nasal septum requiring a conventional procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R
A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.
Lui, Tun Hing
Chronic distal tibiofibular syndesmosis disruption can be managed by endoscopic arthrodesis of the syndesmosis. This is performed through the proximal anterolateral and posterolateral portals. The scar tissue and bone block are resected to facilitate the subsequent reduction of the syndesmosis. The reduction of the syndesmosis can be guided either arthroscopically or endoscopically. The tibial and fibular surfaces of the tibiofibular overlap can be microfractured to facilitate subsequent fusion.
Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S
During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.
Kim, Yong Hoon; Jang, Sung Ill; Rhee, Kwangwon; Lee, Dong Ki
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease that destroys pancreatic parenchyma and alters ductal stricture, leading to ductal destruction and abdominal pain. Pancreatic duct stones (PDSs) are a common complication of chronic pancreatitis that requires treatment to relieve abdominal pain and improve pancreas function. Endoscopic therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and surgery are treatment modalities of PDSs, although lingering controversies have hindered a consensus recommendation. Many comparative studies have reported that surgery is the superior treatment because of reduced duration and frequency of hospitalization, cost, pain relief, and reintervention, while endoscopic therapy is effective and less invasive but cannot be used in all patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice when endoscopic therapy has failed, malignancy is suspected, or duodenal stricture is present. However, in patients with the appropriate indications or at high-risk for surgery, endoscopic therapy in combination with ESWL can be considered a first-line treatment. We expect that the development of advanced endoscopic techniques and equipment will expand the role of endoscopic treatment in PDS removal.
Khan, Mubarak M; Parab, Sapna R
The popularity of endoscopes has been expanding not only in diagnostics but also in therapeutics. The traditional septal surgery also has come under the purview of endoscopic surgery in the last few decades. Endoscopic septoplasty has definitely many advantages over the conventional procedure. But the only disadvantage of endoscopic surgery is that it is a single handed technique as the other hand is used for holding the endoscope which may compromise the overall surgical time as the hemostasis and suctioning of the surgical field off the blood cannot be done simultaneously, in addition to the surgeon fatigue associated with holding the endoscope in the left hand. Endoscope holder allows both hands of the surgeon to be free for surgical manipulation and also imitates more or less same actions of the left hand. To report the preliminary use of Khan's endoscope holder for endoscopic septoplasty. Prospective Non Randomized Clinical Study. Khan's Endoscope Holder, which was primarily designed for endoscopic ear surgery, has been used for two handed technique of endoscopic septoplasty. The design of the Endoscope holder is described in detail. A total of 49 endoholder assisted endoscopic septoplasties were operated from Nov 2014 to Jan 2015 in MIMER Medical College and Sushrut ENT Hospital, Talegaon D, Pune, India. Our Endoscope Holder is a good option for two handed technique in Endoscopic Septoplasty due to its advantages. The study reports the successful usage and applicability of the endo holder for endoscopic Septoplasty. Level of evidence IV.
Ho, Simon; Rayzan, Daniel; Fox, Adrian; Kalogeropoulos, George; Mackay, Sean; Hassen, Sayed; Banting, Simon; Cade, Richard
Balloon dilatation of the ampulla at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is increasingly utilized in the management of large bile duct stones. The aim of this study was to review and compare the outcomes of using endoscopic sphincterotomy with endoscopic balloon dilatation (sphincteroplasty) in a combined approach as a single-stage (immediate) or a two-stage procedure (delayed). A retrospective review of medical records for all patients undergoing ERCP and balloon dilatation for choledocholithiasis between January 2010 and December 2012 was undertaken. Outcomes measured included patient demographics, stone size, degree of dilatation performed, success of stone extraction, number of procedures required for duct clearance and procedure-related complications. One hundred and thirty-six ERCPs were performed with balloon sphincteroplasty. One hundred and four had a previous sphincterotomy with a delayed balloon dilatation and 32 had sphincterotomy with immediate dilatation. The overall clearance rate of the common bile duct for immediate and delayed groups was 93% (28/30) and 93% (81/87), respectively. Bile duct clearance after the first procedure was achieved in 70% (21/30) of patients in the immediate group and 74% (64/87) in the delayed group. There were six complications in the delayed group and four in the immediate group. The most frequently used balloon size was 10 mm for both groups with mean sizes of 10.34 (2.93) and 11.73 (2.87) in the immediate and delayed groups, respectively. Our study suggests that use of a combined approach is safe and effective and may provide benefits over using endoscopic balloon dilatation or endoscopic sphincterotomy alone in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Ji, Jeong-Seon; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Cho, Hyunjung; Cho, Young-Seok
The most appropriate type of endoscopic hemostasis for bleeding due to duodenal Dieulafoy's lesions (DLs) is not yet established. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of mechanical endoscopic hemostasis for duodenal DLs and long-term outcome after successful hemostasis, as well as to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and endoscopic hemoclip placement (EHP). Patients admitted to the emergency unit with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from duodenal DLs were enrolled in this study. The data were collected prospectively, but data analysis was performed retrospectively. Twenty-four patients with duodenal DLs were treated with EBL (n = 11) or EHP (n = 13). There were no significant differences between groups with respect to clinical or endoscopic characteristics, apart from the number of epinephrine (three cases with EBL vs. 11 cases with EHP; p = 0.011). Primary hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Recurrent bleeding was observed in one patient (9.1 %) from the EBL group and in five patients (38.5 %) from the EHP group (p = 0.166). The recurrent bleeding in the patient from the EBL group was treated by EHP. In the EHP group, all five patients achieved successful secondary hemostasis by endoscopic treatment (EBL in two patients and EHP in three patients). There were no differences in secondary outcomes between the two groups, including the number of endoscopic sessions required, need for angiographic embolization or emergent surgery, transfusion requirements, or length of hospital stay. No complications occurred, and there was no recurrence of bleeding in either group during the follow-up period. Mechanical endoscopic treatments are effective and safe for the treatment of bleeding duodenal DLs. A large-scale, randomized, controlled study is required to confirm the efficacy and safety of EBL and EHP for the management of bleeding duodenal DLs.
Song, Eun Mi; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Lee, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hyun Seok; Cha, Jae Myung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Byung Chang; Byeon, Jeong-Sik
Endoscopic resection of polyps located at the appendiceal orifice (AO) is challenging, and the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic resection for cecal polyps involving AO are unconfirmed. We evaluated the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic resection for cecal polyps involving AO. In this retrospective, multicenter study involving nine tertiary referral centers, we evaluated 131 patients who underwent endoscopic resection for cecal polyps involving AO. The median size of polyps resected was 10 mm (range 3-60 mm). Endoscopic mucosal resection, endoscopic piecemeal mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection were performed in 75 (57.3%), 31 (23.7%), and 5 (3.8%) patients, respectively. The en bloc resection rate was 68.7%. Endoscopic complete resection was achieved in 123 lesions (93.9%). Intraprocedural and delayed bleeding occurred in 14 (10.7%) and three patients (2.3%), respectively, and perforation occurred in two patients (1.5%). Seven patients (5.3%) underwent additional surgery because of treatment failure or recurrence. Polyps of ≥20 mm in size showed significantly higher rates of perforation and additional surgery (p < 0.05), and a lower rate of en bloc resection (p < 0.005). Patients with polyps involving ≥75% of AO circumference exhibited a significantly lower rate of en bloc resection (p < 0.001), and significantly higher rates of surgery and recurrence (p < 0.05). Recurrence during follow-up occurred in 12 patients (15.6%); polyps involving ≥75% of AO circumference were an independent risk factor for recurrence. Endoscopic resection of cecal polyps involving AO is safe and effective in select patients.
Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.; Al-azzawi, Khairallh H.; Alkarboly, Taha A.
Background Biliary leak can occur as a complication of biliary surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography manipulations and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Consequently, bile may collect in the abdominal cavity, a condition called biloma. Rarely, it may reach a massive size. Case presentation A 72-year-old man presented with gastric upset with gradual abdominal distension reaching a large size due to intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stenting for post laparoscopic cholecystectomy common bile duct stricture. This huge biloma was treated by percutaneous insertion of a tube drain for a few days, evacuating the collection successfully without recurrence. Discussion This patient might sustain injury to the common bile duct either by the guide wire or stent, or the injury occurred at the angle between the common bile duct and duodenum during sphincterotomy of the ampulla. Although any of these rents may lead to a bile leak, causing a huge biloma, they could be successfully treated by percutaneous drainage. Conclusions (1) Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2) A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3) Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective. PMID:26402876
Traggiai, Cristina; Stanhope, Richard
Puberty is the acquisition of secondary sexual characteristics associated with a growth spurt and resulting in the attainment of reproductive function. Delayed puberty is diagnosed when there is no breast development by 13.4 years of age in a girl and no testicular enlargement by 14.0 years in a boy. The aetiologies are: (i) pubertal delay, either with constitutional delay of growth and puberty or secondary to chronic illness, and (ii) pubertal failure, with hypogonadotrophic (defect in the hypothalamo-pituitary region) or hypergonadotrophic (secondary to gonadal failure) hypogonadism, or both (secondary to radio/chemotherapy). The investigation includes: history, auxological data and pubertal development examination. Boys usually require treatment and, if they do not respond, investigation. In girls it is appropriate to measure the thyroid function and karyotype first and, if necessary, to offer treatment. If they present with dysmorphic features, or positive familial history, an assessment is required before treatment.
Fischer, Milos; Gröbner, Christina; Dietz, Andreas; Krinninger, Maximillian; Lüth, Tim C; Strauss, Gero
The goal of this study was to examine the theoretical feasibility of a new manipulator system for endoscope guidance in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The accuracy of endoscope positioning and time of endoscope movement with an endoscope manipulator system were determined with an artificial sinus model. A laboratory trial was performed. The time for 60 repetitions of manual compared to manipulator-assisted endoscope movements directed at 3 different target positions was evaluated. In addition, the alignment of the position vector for each endoscope movement was examined. A zero-degree Hopkins II telescope with a camera was used to head for the target positions. First, the endoscope movements were done manually, and afterward the endoscope manipulator system was used for endoscope guidance. The alignment of the position vector of the endoscope was measured with a portable measuring arm. There was no statistical difference between the time for manual and manipulator-assisted endoscope movements for all target positions. The alignment of the position vector of the endoscope was statistically different at 2 target positions: anterior ethmoid left side and ostium of maxillary sinus left side. There was no statistical difference at all other positions. The endoscope manipulator system has the potential to be integrated into the operating workflow without extending the time for endoscope guidance. The surgeon will be able to use both hands for the manipulation of the instruments. Less frequent endoscope movements and instrument changes may be expected after technical modification.
Maple, John T; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Hwang, Joo Ha; Komanduri, Sri; Manfredi, Michael; Konda, Vani; Murad, Faris M; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Banerjee, Subhas
ESD is an established effective treatment modality for premalignant and early-stage malignant lesions of the stomach, esophagus, and colorectum. Compared with EMR, ESD is generally associated with higher rates of en bloc, R0, and curative resections and a lower rate of local recurrence. Oncologic outcomes with ESD compare favorably with competing surgical interventions, and ESD also serves as an excellent T-staging tool to identify noncurative resections that will require further treatment. ESD is technically demanding and has a higher rate of adverse events than most endoscopic procedures including EMR. As such,sufficient training is critical to ensure safe conduct and high-quality resections. A standardized training model for Western endoscopists has not been clearly established,but will be self-directed and include courses, animal model training, and optimally an observership at an expert center.Numerous dedicated ESD devices are now available in the United States from different manufacturers. Although the use of ESD in the United States is increasing, issues related to technical difficulty, limited training opportunities and mentors, risk of adverse events, long procedure duration,and suboptimal reimbursement may limit ESD adoption in the United States to a modest number of academic referral centers for the foreseeable future.
Li, Meng; Wang, Thomas D
Summary Endoscopy has undergone explosive technological growth in over recent years, and with the emergence of targeted imaging, its truly transformative power and impact in medicine lies just over the horizon. Today, our ability to see inside the digestive tract with medical endoscopy is headed toward exciting crossroads. The existing paradigm of making diagnostic decisions based on observing structural changes and identifying anatomical landmarks may soon be replaced by visualizing functional properties and imaging molecular expression. In this novel approach, the presence of intracellular and cell surface targets unique to disease are identified and used to predict the likelihood of mucosal transformation and response to therapy. This strategy can result in the development of new methods for early cancer detection, personalized therapy, and chemoprevention. This targeted approach will require further development of molecular probes and endoscopic instruments, and will need support from the FDA for streamlined regulatory oversight. Overall, this molecular imaging modality promises to significantly broaden the capabilities of the gastroenterologist by providing a new approach to visualize the mucosa of the digestive tract in a manner that has never been seen before. PMID:19423025
... the design of endoscopes to ensure patient safety. Quality Assurance and Training Any facility in which gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed must have an effective quality assurance program in place to ensure that endoscopes ...
Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Fei; Wei, Gong; Cai, Jian-Qun; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Bai, Yang
Endoscopic tunneling resection is a relatively novel endoscopic technology for removing gastric submucosal tumors. Our study aimed to compare the differences between tunneling and nontunneling resection for gastric submucosal tumors. Resections of gastric submucosal tumors (n = 97) performed from 2010 to 2015 at our endoscopy center were reviewed, and PubMed was searched for clinical studies on gastric submucosal tumor resection by endoscopic nontunneling and tunneling techniques. At our endoscopy center, nontunneling (Group 1) and tunneling resection (Group 2) were performed for 78 and 19 submucosal tumors, respectively; median tumor diameters were 15 and 20 mm (P = 0.086), median procedural times were 50 and 75 min (P = 0.017), successful resection rates were 94.9% (74/78) and 89.5% (17/19) (P = 0.334), and en bloc resection rates were 95.9% (71/74) and 94.1% (16/17) (P = 0.569) in the Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Postoperative fever, delayed hemorrhage and perforation, hospitalization time, and hospitalization expense were statistically similar between the 2 groups. A literature review on gastric submucosal tumor resection suggested that the en bloc resection rates of the two methods for tumors with a median diameter of 15-30 mm were also high, and there were no relapses during the follow-up period. Both endoscopic nontunneling and tunneling resection seem to be effective and safe methods for removing relatively small gastric submucosal tumors. Compared with endoscopic nontunneling, tunneling resection does not seem to have distinct advantages for gastric submucosal tumors, and has a longer mean operative time.
Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Fei; Wei, Gong; Cai, Jian-Qun; Zhi, Fa-Chao; Bai, Yang
Background/Aim: Endoscopic tunneling resection is a relatively novel endoscopic technology for removing gastric submucosal tumors. Our study aimed to compare the differences between tunneling and nontunneling resection for gastric submucosal tumors. Materials and Methods: Resections of gastric submucosal tumors (n = 97) performed from 2010 to 2015 at our endoscopy center were reviewed, and PubMed was searched for clinical studies on gastric submucosal tumor resection by endoscopic nontunneling and tunneling techniques. Results: At our endoscopy center, nontunneling (Group 1) and tunneling resection (Group 2) were performed for 78 and 19 submucosal tumors, respectively; median tumor diameters were 15 and 20 mm (P = 0.086), median procedural times were 50 and 75 min (P = 0.017), successful resection rates were 94.9% (74/78) and 89.5% (17/19) (P = 0.334), and en bloc resection rates were 95.9% (71/74) and 94.1% (16/17) (P = 0.569) in the Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Postoperative fever, delayed hemorrhage and perforation, hospitalization time, and hospitalization expense were statistically similar between the 2 groups. A literature review on gastric submucosal tumor resection suggested that the en bloc resection rates of the two methods for tumors with a median diameter of 15–30 mm were also high, and there were no relapses during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Both endoscopic nontunneling and tunneling resection seem to be effective and safe methods for removing relatively small gastric submucosal tumors. Compared with endoscopic nontunneling, tunneling resection does not seem to have distinct advantages for gastric submucosal tumors, and has a longer mean operative time. PMID:28139501
Perl, Daniel; Leddin, Desmond; Bizos, Damon; Veitch, Andrew; N'Dow, James; Bush-Goddard, Stephanie; Njie, Ramou; Lemoine, Maud; Anderson, Suzanne T; Igoe, John; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Shah, Brijen
Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-methods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses encountered. In a three-day course, healthcare professionals were surveyed on endoscopic resources and capacity and were taught through active observation of live cases, case discussion, simulator experience and didactics. Before and after didactics, multiple-choice exams as well as questionnaires were administered to assess for course efficacy. Also, a case series of 23 patients needing upper GI endoscopy was done. In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an EGD and none could perform an ERCP, while waiting time for emergency endoscopy in urban populations was at least one day. In assessing improvement in medical knowledge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI course with simulation and didactics improves gastrointestinal knowledge amongst participants.
Oh, Hyun Jin
Gastrointestinal endoscopy is effective and safe for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. However, issues regarding endoscope-transmitted infections are emerging. Many countries have established and continuously revise guidelines for endoscope reprocessing in order to prevent infections. While there are common processes used in endoscope reprocessing, differences exist among these guidelines. It is important that the reprocessing of gastrointestinal endoscopes be carried out in accordance with the recommendations for each step of the process. PMID:26473117
Since puberty is a long ongoing developmental process with significant individual and population differences in timing, the definition of delayed puberty for a given individual needs to rest on simple, though arbitrary criteria based on epidemiological data. Although several genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal maturation cascade have been characterized recently from familial or sporadic cases of primitive isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, many genes regulating puberty onset remain undetermined. In case of delayed puberty and/or primary amenorrhea, a complete clinical examination including a detailed past history will evaluate the development of secondary sex characteristics, verify the association with a growth delay and look for specific indicative features pertaining to the etiological diagnosis. This clinical check-up completed if necessary with biological, ultrasonographic, radiological and genetic investigations will try to determine which girls will have a permanent sexual infantilism of gonadal, hypophyseal or hypothalamic origin, which girls will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty and which girls have primary amenorrhea with developed secondary sex characteristics. Therapeutic attitude will have to integrate etiological factors, statural prognosis, bone mass preservation and psychological factors.
We have developed the novel video endoscope imaging techniques; Narrow band imaging (NBI), Auto-Fluorescence Imaging (AFI), Infra-Red Imaging (IRI) and Endo-Cytoscopy System (ECS). The purpose of these imaging techniques is to emphasize the important tissue features associated with early stage of lesions. We have already launched the new medical endoscope system including NBI, AFI and IRI (EVIS LUCERA SPECTRUM, OLYMPUS MEDICAL SYSTEMS Co., Ltd., Fig.1). Moreover ECS, which has enough magnification to observe cell nuclei on a superficial mucosa under methylene blue dye staining, is the endoscopic instrument with ultra-high optical zoom. In this paper we demonstrate the concepts and the medical efficacy of each technology.
Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.
Abstract. We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique’s benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument’s flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system. PMID:24887743
Bashaw, Marie A
The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McLeod, A. Jonathan; Baxter, John S. H.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Peters, Terry M.
Endoscopic and laparoscopic surgeries are used for many minimally invasive procedures but limit the visual and haptic feedback available to the surgeon. This can make vessel sparing procedures particularly challenging to perform. Previous approaches have focused on hardware intensive intraoperative imaging or augmented reality systems that are difficult to integrate into the operating room. This paper presents a simple approach in which motion is visually enhanced in the endoscopic video to reveal pulsating arteries. This is accomplished by amplifying subtle, periodic changes in intensity coinciding with the patient's pulse. This method is then applied to two procedures to illustrate its potential. The first, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, is a neurosurgical procedure where the floor of the third ventricle must be fenestrated without injury to the basilar artery. The second, nerve-sparing robotic prostatectomy, involves removing the prostate while limiting damage to the neurovascular bundles. In both procedures, motion magnification can enhance subtle pulsation in these structures to aid in identifying and avoiding them.
Pham, Khanh N.; Jeldres, Claudio; Hefty, Thomas; Corman, John M.
A 50-year-old man with benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary retention had a very large diverticulum on the posterior wall of the bladder. The patient was managed with transurethral resection of the prostate and endoscopic fulguration of the bladder diverticulum mucosa using the Orandi technique. There was near-complete resolution of the bladder diverticulum following endoscopic management, obviating the need for bladder diverticulectomy. The patient now empties his bladder, with a postvoid residual < 50 mL and the absence of urinary tract infection after 6-month follow-up. We report the successful treatment of a large bladder diverticulum with endoscopic fulguration to near-complete resolution. This minimally invasive technique is a useful alternative in patients unfit for a more extensive surgical approach. PMID:27601971
Kuthe, A; Mainik, F; Flade-Kuthe, R
One can no longer think about modern hernia surgery without mentioning endoscopic techniques. But due to their high technical demands the learning curve is comparatively long. And by technical mistakes and their consequences (pain, recurrence, complications) the benefits of the endoscopic techniques can easily be turned to drawbacks. The following text explains the steps of the total extraperitoneal endoscopic hernioplasty (TEP) technique in detail pointing out alternatives and risks. From preparation, indication and positioning, from trocar placement to extraperitoneal dissection and mesh placement, the principles of TEP are elucidated in respect of local anatomy and possible complications. The text as well as the accompanying video in the Mediathek are based on the authors' 20 years of experience in the TEP technique. Both of them may help in safe TEP application to minimise the complication rate as well as recurrences. Then patients can benefit from the advantages of this technique.
Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.
We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.
Wang, Sinan; Cao, Hailong; Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Mengque; Chen, Xue; Piao, Meiyu; Wang, Bangmao
Abstract Gastric adenomyoma (GA) is a kind of rare gastric submucosal eminence lesions. As the malignant transformation cannot be ruled out, surgery and laparoscopic resection are usually considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for GA. All of the patients with gastric submucosal eminence lesions who underwent ESD from June 2008 to June 2015 in General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, China, were identified, and patients with GA, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation, were enrolled for further analysis. Among the 571 patients who received ESD, 15 cases with uncertain diagnosis before the procedure were finally confirmed as GA. The mean age of these 15 patients was 46.93 ± 15.56 years (range: 18–73). Most of the lesions were located in antrum (12/15 patients), with 2 in the body of stomach and 1 in cardia, respectively. The mean size of the lesions was 1.47 ± 0.67 cm (range: 0.4–3.0). According to the endoscopic ultrasonography, the lesions of 14 patients originated from submucosa and 1 originated from superficial muscularis, totally with mixed echoes changes. En bloc complete resection was achieved in all of the lesions. No perforation, intraoperative bleeding, delayed bleeding, and mortalities occurred. No recurrence or metastasis was found during 1 to 67 months. ESD appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for GA with clinical presentation of gastric submucosal eminence lesions. PMID:28248886
Dhepnorrarat, Rataphol Chris; Ang, Beng Ti; Sethi, Dharambir Singh
Endoscopic pituitary surgery has been gaining wide acceptance as the first-line treatment of most functional pituitary adenomas. This technique has many advantages over traditional procedures, and growing evidence supports its use for endocrine control of functioning tumors. This article reviews data on the different modalities of treatment of functioning pituitary adenomas and compares the results. Endoscopic pituitary surgery controls tumor growth and endocrinopathy as well as or better than other treatment modalities. Complication rates are low and patient recovery is fast. Furthermore, surgery provides a means of achieving prompt decompression of neurologic structures and endocrine remission.
Yura, Shinya; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Izumiyama, Yuri
When a tooth with an apical lesion is identified, an apicoectomy is frequently performed when nonsurgical treatment is considered unfeasible or has previously failed. However, the treatment is usually difficult in molars. This article describes a minimally invasive procedure for removing a gutta-percha point under the maxillary sinus mucosa using an ultrathin arthroscope and a visualization approach in apicoectomy using an intranasal endoscope. These surgical techniques using endoscopes are minimally invasive and reliable procedures that provide limited incision and bone removal and respect the integrity of the maxillary sinus.
Feurer, Matthew E; Draganov, Peter V
Advanced endoscopy has evolved from diagnostic ERCP to an ever-increasing array of therapeutic procedures including EUS with FNA, ablative therapies, deep enteroscopy, luminal stenting, endoscopic suturing and endoscopic mucosal resection among others. As these procedures have become increasingly more complex, the risk of potential complications has also risen. Training in advanced endoscopy involves more than obtaining a minimum number of therapeutic procedures. The means of assessing a trainee's competence level and ability to practice independently continues to be a matter of debate. The use of quality indicators to measure performance levels may be beneficial as more advanced techniques and procedures become available.
Gholson, C F; Provenza, J M; Doyle, J T; Bacon, B R
Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy was performed on four sedated pigs, ages 3-4 months, using a standard human duodenoscope and papillotome. Sphincterotomies, 1 cm in length, were well-tolerated, and all animals recovered promptly, spontaneously regained gastrointestinal function, and gained weight. The first three animals were sacrificed after one week, and autopsy revealed no complications. The fourth animal was sacrificed immediately following the procedure, and no evidence of perforation was found. These observations demonstrate that the pig is a valid experimental model for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Its use in training is limited by technical and anatomic differences from humans. Potential uses of this technique in research are discussed.
Patel, Bhupendra C K
Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.
Lui, Tun Hing
Resection of the ganglion of the elbow is indicated if the size or location of the cyst impairs function or causes significant pain. Arthroscopic decompression or endoscopic resection of the cyst is the minimally invasive surgical option. It has the potential advantage of better cosmetic results and less soft-tissue dissection. Endoscopic resection is indicated if the cyst is not communicating with the joint or the communication is not identifiable arthroscopically or if there is a long and narrow communication placing the cyst away from the elbow joint. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging is essential for surgical planning.
Reiter, Edward O; Lee, Peter A
Normal puberty is a time of life and a process of development that results in full adult maturity of growth, sexual development, and psychosocial achievement. Delayed puberty describes the clinical condition in which the pubertal events start late (usually > +2.5 SD later than the mean) or are attenuated in progression. The differential diagnosis includes syndromes of low gonadotropin production, usually constitutional delay of growth and maturation associated with chronic disease, but also an array of gene-mediated disorders, and syndromes of primary gonadal dysfunction with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, including Turner and Klinefelter syndromes, and a group of acquired and genetic abnormalities. Diagnostic assessment and varied therapeutic modalities are discussed. The issues of androgen or estrogen therapy are important to assess, and growth hormone treatment remains a difficult dilemma.
Wen, Jing; Linghu, Enqiang; Yang, Yunsheng; Liu, Qingsen; Yang, Jing; Wang, Shufang; Wang, Xiangdong; Du, Hong; Meng, Jiangyun; Wang, Hongbin; Lu, Zhongsheng
Endoscopic submucosal dissection of the esophagogastric junction is the most difficult gastric and esophageal dissection procedure. No reports of endoscopic submucosal dissection for Siewert type II carcinoma of the esophagogastric junction have compared the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for all three Siewert types of adenocarcinoma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for intraepithelial neoplasia of the esophagogastric junction. From October 2008 to June 2013, 73 patients underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection for intraepithelial neoplasia of the esophagogastric junction. The patients were prospectively evaluated regarding the executability of the technique, short-term results of the procedure, en bloc resection rate, curative resection rate, complications and additional treatment after endoscopic submucosal dissection, and follow-up outcomes. Sixty-eight of the 73 patients (93.2%) underwent en bloc resection; the mean maximum specimen diameter was 33.7 mm. Fifty-seven of 61 patients (93.4%) who underwent curative resection were successfully followed-up for 1.0 to 56.0 months (average, 24.1 months). Local recurrence developed in one patient with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasm. Twelve patients underwent noncurative resection, including lateral resection margin residues in three, vertical resection margin residues in one, signet ring cell carcinoma or undifferentiated adenocarcinoma in four, lymphatic or vessel invasion in one, vertical residual margin residues combined with signet ring cell carcinoma in one, and undifferentiated adenocarcinoma with lymphatic or vessel invasion in two. In the noncurative resection group, one patient was lost to follow-up, seven underwent additional surgery, and the remaining four were periodically followed up; none had local recurrence or distant metastases. The only complication was delayed bleeding in three patients, which was successfully controlled by
Paspatis, Gregorios A; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc; Barthet, Marc; Meisner, Søren; Repici, Alessandro; Saunders, Brian P; Vezakis, Antonios; Gonzalez, Jean Michel; Turino, Stine Ydegaard; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Fockens, Paul; Hassan, Cesare
This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each center implements a written policy regarding the management of iatrogenic perforation, including the definition of procedures that carry a high risk of this complication. This policy should be shared with the radiologists and surgeons at each center. 2 In the case of an endoscopically identified perforation, ESGE recommends that the endoscopist reports: its size and location with a picture; endoscopic treatment that might have been possible; whether carbon dioxide or air was used for insufflation; and the standard report information. 3 ESGE recommends that symptoms or signs suggestive of iatrogenic perforation after an endoscopic procedure should be carefully evaluated and documented, possibly with a computed tomography (CT) scan, in order to prevent any diagnostic delay. 4 ESGE recommends that endoscopic closure should be considered depending on the type of perforation, its size, and the endoscopist expertise available at the center. A switch to carbon dioxide insufflation, the diversion of luminal content, and decompression of tension pneumoperitoneum or tension pneumothorax should also be done. 5 After closure of an iatrogenic perforation using an endoscopic method, ESGE recommends that further management should be based on the estimated success of the endoscopic closure and on the general clinical condition of the patient. In the case of no or failed endoscopic closure of the iatrogenic perforation, and in patients whose clinical condition is deteriorating, hospitalization and surgical consultation are recommended.
Bae, Youngsam; Manohara, Harish; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill V.; Shahinian, Hrayr
Stereo imaging requires two different perspectives of the same object and, traditionally, a pair of side-by-side cameras would be used but are not feasible for something as tiny as a less than 4-mm-diameter endoscope that could be used for minimally invasive surgeries or geoexploration through tiny fissures or bores. The proposed solution here is to employ a single lens, and a pair of conjugated, multiple-bandpass filters (CMBFs) to separate stereo images. When a CMBF is placed in front of each of the stereo channels, only one wavelength of the visible spectrum that falls within the passbands of the CMBF is transmitted through at a time when illuminated. Because the passbands are conjugated, only one of the two channels will see a particular wavelength. These time-multiplexed images are then mixed and reconstructed to display as stereo images. The basic principle of stereo imaging involves an object that is illuminated at specific wavelengths, and a range of illumination wavelengths is time multiplexed. The light reflected from the object selectively passes through one of the two CMBFs integrated with two pupils separated by a baseline distance, and is focused onto the imaging plane through an objective lens. The passband range of CMBFs and the illumination wavelengths are synchronized such that each of the CMBFs allows transmission of only the alternate illumination wavelength bands. And the transmission bandwidths of CMBFs are complementary to each other, so that when one transmits, the other one blocks. This can be clearly understood if the wavelength bands are divided broadly into red, green, and blue, then the illumination wavelengths contain two bands in red (R1, R2), two bands in green (G1, G2), and two bands in blue (B1, B2). Therefore, when the objective is illuminated by R1, the reflected light enters through only the left-CMBF as the R1 band corresponds to the transmission window of the left CMBF at the left pupil. This is blocked by the right CMBF. The
Schurr, M O; Breitwieser, H; Melzer, A; Kunert, W; Schmitt, M; Voges, U; Buess, G
Today's rigid endoscopic instruments limit the intracorporeal mobility of the surgical tool and are a severe impediment for the further spread of endoscopic techniques in operative medicine. Since 1992 flexible, steerable instruments with additional links for pivoting and rotating the tip have been developed and experimentally evaluated. The latest versions of this series of instruments are equipped with electromotors for better handling. The next aim in this development is a fully mobile telemanipulator with six motion axes dedicated to use in endoscopic surgery. Its first tests are planned for 1995. For successful operation of an electric telemanipulator, the man-machine interface (MMI) is of cardinal importance. For the definition of surgical requirements for the MMI, a conventional master-slave manipulator designed for technical application was modified for use in guiding a laparoscopic instrument. Master and slave sites of the system were 1.3 km apart and linked by means of a fiber-optic cable. Using this modified telepresence system, remote laparoscopic cholecystectomy was feasible in a phantom model. In a standardized test series using a test parcours, different parameters of the control system were modified, and their influence on the execution time of the parcours tasks was recorded. Well-suited parameter configurations were found and allowed experimental verification and completion of the important aspects of our concepts for development of an endoscopic manipulator MMI.
Li, Wenjing; Nie, Sixiang; Soto-Thompson, Marcelo; Chen, Chao-I.; A-Rahim, Yousif I.
Endoscopic images suffer from a fundamental spatial distortion due to the wide angle design of the endoscope lens. This barrel-type distortion is an obstacle for subsequent Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) algorithms and should be corrected. Various methods and research models for the barrel-type distortion correction have been proposed and studied. For industrial applications, a stable, robust method with high accuracy is required to calibrate the different types of endoscopes in an easy of use way. The correction area shall be large enough to cover all the regions that the physicians need to see. In this paper, we present our endoscope distortion correction procedure which includes data acquisition, distortion center estimation, distortion coefficients calculation, and look-up table (LUT) generation. We investigate different polynomial models used for modeling the distortion and propose a new one which provides correction results with better visual quality. The method has been verified with four types of colonoscopes. The correction procedure is currently being applied on human subject data and the coefficients are being utilized in a subsequent 3D reconstruction project of colon.
Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Park, Bum-Jin; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Cha, Myung-Kyu; Lim, So-Young; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung
Although the removal of forehead and brow benign tumors using an endoscopic technique has proven to be valuable, the efficacy of an endoscopic excision for cheek masses is unclear. A retrospective review was performed on 8 patients with a lipoma (7) and a foreign body granuloma (1) located at the cheek region. There were 7 men and 1 woman with a mean age of 34.8 years (range, 22-54 years). All the excisional procedures were performed with an endoscope through 2 small incisions, one on the hair-bearing sideburns and the other behind the earlobe. The masses varied from 0.7 x 0.7 cm to 4.0 x 3.0 cm in size. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications, and no recurrence was detected after a 5- to 61-month follow-up. An endoscopically assisted excision of cheek lipomas is an effective procedure and might be a good alternative to the more conventional procedures.
Simal-Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda-Lloret, Pablo; Pancucci, Giovanni; Evangelista-Zamora, Rocío; Pérez-Borreda, Pedro; Sanromán-Álvarez, Pablo; Cámara-Gómez, Rosa; Botella-Asunción, Carlos
The endoscopic techniques used in pituitary surgery have evolved greatly in recent years. Our objective in this study was to conduct a review of the systematic reviews published in the English language literature, to examine their consistency and conclusions reached following studies comparing microsurgery and endoscopic surgery in hypophyseal surgery. We carried out a bibliographic search on MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases, selecting those systematic reviews and meta-analyses published from the year 2000 until January 2013, focusing on comparisons between microsurgical and endoscopic techniques. We concluded with type A consistency that hospital stay was shorter and diabetes insipidus and rhinological complications were less frequent in the endoscopy group. We concluded with type B consistency that lower rates of patient blood loss, shorter operative times, higher rate of gross total resection, lesser association to visual impairment and lower rate of hypopituitarism were observed in the endoscopy group. Vascular complications and cerebrospinal fluid fistulas were reduced with microsurgery. It is crucial to perform a combined analysis of all the systematic reviews treating a specific topic, observing and analysing the trends and how these are affected by new contributions. Randomized multicenter studies are necessary to resolve the controversy over endoscopic and microsurgical approaches in hypophyseal pathology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Hellinger, Achim; Kaminski, Cornelia; Benhidjeb, Tahar
Transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery seems to be the logical consequence in the evolution of thyroid surgery. Animal and cadaver studies have shown that different endoscopic techniques can be performed in a safe and successful way. Presently, the minimally invasive aspect and cosmetic advantage seem to be the most important factor for the patients. However, even if these procedures are feasible in patients, the transoral access must still be considered as experimental. In this study then we aim at comparing the available literature on transoral thyroid surgery with our own experience in this field. The access itself needs to be further refined, and even more suitable and better adapted instruments need to be developed so that optimal and safe results that meet all requirements on endocrine surgery can be achieved and all requirements for endocrine surgery are met. The transoral thyroidectomy should only be performed in highly specialized centres for endocrine and endoscopic surgery. As an alternative, a combination with endoscopic non-transoral techniques—so called hybrid techniques—might be useful for our patients. PMID:27294042
Kim, Keri; Kubota, Misao; Ohkawa, Yuji; Shiraishi, Takashi; Kawai, Teruo; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio
Endoscopic surgery has become an accepted major type of minimally invasive surgery. However, complications arising from heat generated by sources of endoscopic illumination can include surgical fire or burns, and intense illumination during ob-gyn/fetoscopic surgery might damage fetal ocular development. Fiber-optic bundles for illumination within the endoscope essentially double the outer diameter of the endoscope, which is a major obstacle to miniaturization and decreasing costs. Light cables also decrease the maneuverability of the endoscope We developed a novel endoscope with ultralow illumination to visualize dark body cavities and investigated its feasibility in vivo. An adaptor was created to connect a conventional endoscope to an ultrahigh-sensitivity camera developed by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) for broadcasting. The ability to visualize rabbit visceral blood vessels in vivo by the new prototype and by a current endoscope under ultralow illumination provided by a standard light source was compared. In addition, the performance of the two endoscopes was compared using only an extracorporeal flashlight without any specific light source placed within body cavities. The new endoscope could visualize the target under ultralow illumination of approximately 100 lx. Very little could be visualized using the current endoscope, whereas the prototype generated clear images of the rabbit blood vessels under both ultralow illumination and extracorporeal illumination provided by a flashlight. The potential for damage caused by a light source can be minimized using our new endoscope, which results in safer and less invasive procedures. Further studies are under way to develop a nonilluminated endoscope without a light cable or source and to miniaturize the camera to decrease costs and improve the maneuverability of the entire endoscope system.
Vigneswaran, Yalini; Ujiki, Michael B
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an emerging minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of achalasia. Due to the improvements in endoscopic technology and techniques, this procedure allows for submucosal tunneling to safely endoscopically create a myotomy across the hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter. In the hands of skilled operators and experienced centers, the most common complications of this procedure are related to insufflation and accumulation of gas in the chest and abdominal cavities with relatively low risks of devastating complications such as perforation or delayed bleeding. Several centers worldwide have demonstrated the feasibility of this procedure in not only early achalasia but also other indications such as redo myotomy, sigmoid esophagus and spastic esophagus. Short-term outcomes have showed great clinical efficacy comparable to laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM). Concerns related to postoperative gastroesophageal reflux remain, however several groups have demonstrated comparable clinical and objective measures of reflux to LHM. Although long-term outcomes are necessary to better understand durability of the procedure, POEM appears to be a promising new procedure.
Arcuri, Francesco; Baragiotta, Nicola; Poglio, Giuseppe; Benech, Arnaldo
We describe delayed treatment of a post-traumatic fracture of the anterior table of the frontal sinus with a titanium mesh using an endoscopic approach. To our knowledge this is the first case of a delayed post-traumatic deformity of the anterior table being treated by this method.
Schwartz, Theodore H; Stieg, Phillip E; Anand, Vijay K
The two most recent significant advances in pituitary surgery have been the endonasal endoscopic approach and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI). Each provides improved visualization of intra- and parasellar anatomy with the goal of attaining a complete resection. The combination of the two techniques has not been previously reported in the literature. We performed endoscopic, endonasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in 15 patients using the Polestar N-10 (0.12T) IMRI (Odin Medical Technologies, Inc., Newton, MA). Eleven patients had nonfunctioning tumors, three had acromegaly, and one had a medication-resistant prolactinoma. The effect of the magnetic field on the cathode ray tube screen and the image quality of the IMRI images were assessed. The presence of residual tumor on IMRI was noted and then re-examined with the endoscope. Although the Polestar N-10 is a low Tesla magnet, the IMRI caused significant distortion of the cathode ray tube screen regardless of the viewing angle. This was overcome with the use of a wall-mounted plasma screen. IMRI images were obtained in all cases and were of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate adequate decompression of the optic chiasm and the removal of all suprasellar tumor. In three cases, residual tumor was found with IMRI that was resected endoscopically before the completion of surgery. In four other cases, potential residual tumor was examined endoscopically and found to be normal postoperative change. In eight cases no residual intrasellar tumor was seen on the IMRI. Preresection visual deficits improved in all cases and the insulin-like growth factor levels normalized in two of three cases. There were no delayed cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Combining intraoperative endoscopy and IMRI is feasible and distortion of the cathode ray tube screen can be overcome with the use of either a plasma or liquid crystal display screen. Each technology provides complementary information, which can assist the
Jürgensen, Christian; Brückner, Stefan; Reichel, Stephanie; Kilian, Maik; Pannach, Sven; Distler, Marius; Weitz, Jürgen; Neser, Frank; Hampe, Jochen; Will, Uwe
Minimally invasive or endoscopic transluminal drainage and necrosectomy are the standard of care for infected pancreatic fluid collections and necroses after pancreatitis. In an endoscopic treatment algorithm, necroses beyond the reach of safe endoscopic access are typically treated by percutaneous drainage. We aimed to evaluate percutaneous minimally invasive necrosectomy using a purely endoscopic technique in patients with extensive necrosis. In patients with necroses beyond safe transluminal reach, the percutaneous drainage canal was used for flexible endoscopic access and dilatation of the tract to 20mm. Percutaneous endoscopic necrosectomy (PEN) was performed through this canal. We present a case series of 14 patients in whom between 1 and 4 necrosectomy (median 2) sessions were performed to remove solid necroses successfully in 13 out of 14 patients. There were no major complications apart from one patient with abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to delayed arrosion of the splenic artery. Percutaneous flexible necrosectomy might evolove to an alternative to surgical minimally invasive necrosectomy in anatomic sites beyond transluminal endoscopic reach. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Mohanty, Aaron; Vasudev, M K; Sampath, S; Radhesh, S; Sastry Kolluri, V R
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for obstructive hydrocephalus has a failure rate of 20-50% in various series. The present study analyzes ETV failures in 72 patients over a 2-year period and attempts to outline a management plan. Of the 72 patients who underwent ETV, it failed in 13. Seven of these failures occurred within 1 month, and in 5 others, ETV failed after 1-2 months. Another patient had a delayed failure 2 years after the initial surgery. Upon clinical failure, MRI scans were performed in all patients using either T2 fast spin echo or two-dimensional phase contrast MRI techniques. Of these, no flow could be demonstrated in 12 patients, whereas in 1 patient, good flow was observed. Endoscopic exploration was undertaken in the 12 patients in whom flow could not be demonstrated. Of the 12 who underwent endoscopic exploration, a patent stoma was observed in 7, necessitating insertion of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). In the other 5, the stoma had closed by gliosis and a repeat ETV was performed. In 3 of these patients, in addition to the ETV, a VPS was also inserted in accordance with the family's wishes. VPS insertion was carried out in the patient with suggestion of good flow through the stoma. In failed ETV, MRI with flow studies is essential to identify the possible cause of failure. Endoscopic exploration is indicated for patients with no evidence of flow. A repeat ETV is indicated in patients with a closed stoma. Patients with a patent stoma could require insertion of a cerebrospinal fluid shunt. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
Kuo, Che-Hung; Wu, Hsing-Mei
Tympanoplasty was conventionally performed using a microscope for decades. However, since the endoscope began to be used in middle ear surgery in the 1970s, endoscopic tympanoplasty has gained increasing attention. The main objective of this study was to compare endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty with and without ossiculoplasty, demonstrating the potential advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of each. This retrospective study included 126 patients with chronic otitis media who received tympanoplasty from 2013 to 2015 in our hospital. The clinical follow-up continued for at least 3 months postoperatively. Otoscopy and audiometry were conducted before and after the procedure. The different variables affecting surgical outcomes were thoroughly documented in each case. A total of 126 patients (131 ears) were included in this retrospective study. Moreover, 74 and 57 ears underwent endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty, respectively. The overall endoscopic tympanoplasty graft uptake rate was 97.7% (128/131). The operation time was significantly shorter in the endoscopic group statistically. A paired t test was used to compare pre- and postoperative audiometry results and showed significant differences between the endoscopic and microscopic groups. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in audiometry improvement between the two groups. No major complications were observed in any of the patients. Our study demonstrated that endoscopic tympanoplasty can be feasibly applied in middle ear surgery. The success rate, audiometry improvement, and complication rate are comparable between endoscopic tympanoplasty and conventional microscopic tympanoplasty. Moreover, the endoscopic group had smaller operation wounds and lower medical expenditures.
Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahisa; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Yuichi; Ohdan, Hideki
The image quality and performance of 3-dimensional video image systems has improved along with improvements in technology. However, objective evaluation on the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems is insufficient. Therefore, we decided to investigate the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems using the objective endoscopic surgery technology evaluating apparatus that we have developed, the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD). The participants were 28 student volunteers enrolled in Hiroshima University (17 men and 11 women, age: median 22.5, range 20-25), with no one having experienced endoscopic surgery training. Testing was carried out by dividing the subjects into two groups to initially carry out HUESAD with 2-dimensional video imaging (N = 14) and with 3-dimensional video imaging (N = 14). Questionnaires were carried out along with the investigation regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. The task was carried out for approximately 15 min regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. Lastly, the Mental Rotation Test, which is a standard space perception ability test, was used to evaluate the space perception ability. No difference was observed in the nauseous and uncomfortable feeling of practitioners between the two groups. Regarding smoothness, no difference was observed between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging (p = 0.8665). Deviation (space perception ability) and approaching time (accuracy) were significantly lower with 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging. Moreover, the approaching time (accuracy) significantly improved in 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging in the group with low space perception ability (p = 0.0085). Objective evaluation using HUESAD and subjective evaluation by questionnaire revealed that endoscopic surgery techniques significantly improved in 3-dimensional video
Guibert, Nicolas; Mhanna, Laurent; Droneau, Sylvain; Plat, Gavin; Didier, Alain; Mazieres, Julien; Hermant, Christophe
Interventional bronchoscopy has a predominant role in the management of both early and advanced-stage airway tumors. Given the very poor prognosis of lung cancer, there is a need for new tools to improve early detection and bronchoscopic treatment of endo-bronchial precancerous lesions. In more advanced stages, interventional bronchoscopy plays an important role, as nearly a third of lung cancers lead to proximal airway obstruction. This will cause great discomfort or even life-threatening symptoms related to local extension, such as dyspnea, post-obstructive pneumonia, and hemoptysis. Surgery for very locally advanced disease is only effective for a limited number of patients and the effects of conventional antitumor therapies, like radiation therapy or chemotherapy, are inconstant and are too delayed in a palliative context. In this review, we aim to provide pulmonologists with an exhaustive technical overview of (I) the bronchoscopic management of benign endobronchial lesions; (II) the bronchoscopic management of malignant tumors, including the curative treatment of localized lesions and palliative management of malignant proximal airway stenosis; and (III) descriptions of the emerging endoscopic techniques used to treat peripheral lung tumors.
Mhanna, Laurent; Droneau, Sylvain; Plat, Gavin; Didier, Alain; Mazieres, Julien; Hermant, Christophe
Interventional bronchoscopy has a predominant role in the management of both early and advanced-stage airway tumors. Given the very poor prognosis of lung cancer, there is a need for new tools to improve early detection and bronchoscopic treatment of endo-bronchial precancerous lesions. In more advanced stages, interventional bronchoscopy plays an important role, as nearly a third of lung cancers lead to proximal airway obstruction. This will cause great discomfort or even life-threatening symptoms related to local extension, such as dyspnea, post-obstructive pneumonia, and hemoptysis. Surgery for very locally advanced disease is only effective for a limited number of patients and the effects of conventional antitumor therapies, like radiation therapy or chemotherapy, are inconstant and are too delayed in a palliative context. In this review, we aim to provide pulmonologists with an exhaustive technical overview of (I) the bronchoscopic management of benign endobronchial lesions; (II) the bronchoscopic management of malignant tumors, including the curative treatment of localized lesions and palliative management of malignant proximal airway stenosis; and (III) descriptions of the emerging endoscopic techniques used to treat peripheral lung tumors. PMID:28066616
This paper argues that those who emphasise that designers and engineers need to plan for obsolescence are too conservative. Rather, in addition to planning for obsolescence, designers and engineers should also think carefully about what they could do in order delay obsolescence. They should so this by thinking about the design itself, thinking of ways in which products could be useful and appealing for longer before becoming obsolete, as well thinking about the wider context in terms of the marketing of products, and also the social and legal. The paper also considers objections that these suggestions are unrealistically idealistic, failing to recognise the economic realities. I respond to these objections appealing to research in advertising, psychology, cognitive linguistics, philosophy, history, and economics, as well as drawing on the Statement of Ethical Principles developed by the Royal Academy of Engineering and the Engineering Council.
Chen, Elvis C. S.; Fowler, Sharyle A.; Hookey, Lawrence C.; Ellis, Randy E.
Navigation of a flexible endoscope is a challenging surgical task: the shape of the end effector of the endoscope, interacting with surrounding tissues, determine the surgical path along which the endoscope is pushed. We present a navigational system that visualized the shape of the flexible endoscope tube to assist gastrointestinal surgeons in performing Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES). The system used an electromagnetic positional tracker, a catheter embedded with multiple electromagnetic sensors, and graphical user interface for visualization. Hermite splines were used to interpret the position and direction outputs of the endoscope sensors. We conducted NOTES experiments on live swine involving 6 gastrointestinal and 6 general surgeons. Participants who used the device first were 14.2% faster than when not using the device. Participants who used the device second were 33.6% faster than the first session. The trend suggests that spline-based visualization is a promising adjunct during NOTES procedures.
Robertson, Paul; Smith, Andrew; Anderson, Margaret; Stewart, Jackie; Hamilton, Kate; McNamee, Sandra; Curran, Evonne T
We report a historic nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis affecting 4 inpatients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The cause was attributed to inadequate decontamination of an on-loan endoscope used over a weekend. This report highlights the risks of using on-loan endoscopes, particularly regarding their commissioning and adherence to disinfection protocols. In an era of increasing antibiotic resistance, transmission of Enterobacteriaceae by endoscopes remains a significant concern.
Khan, Mubarak M; Parab, Sapna R
The well established techniques in tympanoplasty are routinely performed with operating microscopes for many decades now. Endoscopic ear surgeries provide minimally invasive approach to the middle ear and evolving new science in the field of otology. The disadvantage of endoscopic ear surgeries is that it is one-handed surgical technique as the non-dominant left hand of the surgeon is utilized for holding and manipulating the endoscope. This necessitated the need for development of the endoscope holder which would allow both hands of surgeon to be free for surgical manipulation and also allow alternate use of microscope during tympanoplasty. To report the preliminary utility of our designed and developed endoscope holder attachment gripping to microscope for two handed technique of endoscopic tympanoplasty. Prospective Non Randomized Clinical Study. Our endoscope holder attachment for microscope was designed and developed to aid in endoscopic ear surgery and to overcome the disadvantage of single handed endoscopic surgery. It was tested for endoscopic Tympanoplasty. The design of the endoscope holder attachment is described in detail along with its manipulation and manoeuvreing. A total of 78 endoholder assisted type 1 endoscopic cartilage tympanoplasties were operated to evaluate its feasibility for the two handed technique and to evaluate the results of endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. In early follow up period ranging from 6 to 20 months, the graft uptake was seen in 76 ears with one residual perforation and 1 recurrent perforations giving a success rate of 97.435 %. Our endocsope holder attachment for gripping microscope is a good option for two handed technique in endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. The study reports the successful application and use of our endoscope holder attachment for gripping microscope in two handed technique of endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty and comparable results with microscopic techniques. IV.
Butt, Joshua; Kandel, Gabor
Increasing interest in identifying an effective strategy for decreasing the burden of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been fuelled by the rising EAC rates worldwide, the morbidity associated with esophagectomy, and the development of endoscopic methods for curing early-stage EAC. In the face of this enthusiasm, however, we should be cautious about continuing our current evidence-free approach to screening and one with unclear benefits and unclear costs to the community. The literature is increasingly recognizing that the value of traditional endoscopy for screening and surveillance of Barrett esophagus may be more limited than initially believed. A better understanding of the risk factors for Barrett esophagus and progression to dysplasia and a more individualized risk calculation will be useful in defining populations to consider for Barrett screening. The development of novel, nonendoscopic screening techniques and of less expensive endoscopic techniques holds promise for a cost-effective screening and surveillance method to curtail the increasing rates of EAC.
Coté, Gregory A.; Sherman, Stuart
Endoscopy has an increasingly important role in the palliation of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic biliary drainage is still requested in the majority of patients who present with obstructive jaundice, and the increased use of self-expandable metallic stents has reduced the incidence of premature stent occlusion. First-line use of metallic stents is expected to be utilized more frequently as neoadjuvant protocols are improved. The efficacy of endoscopy for palliating gastroduodenal obstruction has advanced with the development of through-the-scope, self-expandable gastroduodenal stents. There have been advances in pain management, with endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis reducing opiate requirements and pain for patients with unresectable malignancy. Future applications of endoscopy in pancreatic cancer may include fine needle injection of chemotherapeutic and other agents into the lesion itself. This review will summarize the evidence of endoscopy in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23187846
Honeycutt, Johnnie Harrel
Over the last decade, endoscopy has been increasingly utilized in craniosynostosis surgery. In 2006, the author added endoscopy followed by helmet therapy to the treatment of young craniosynostosis patients. Since then, 73 children have been successfully treated utilizing endoscopic techniques with a transfusion rate of 23%. Most children are discharged on the first postoperative day; helmet therapy begins one week later. A helmet is worn for 4 to 6 months with one helmet replacement. Complications were limited to three reoperations to address suboptimal results, and one reoperation for a persisting skull defect. One sagittal sinus injury was addressed successfully, with resolution of a small intrasinus thrombus and no adverse brain sequelae. Although not applicable to every craniosynostosis patient, properly applied endoscopic-assisted craniosynostosis surgery is safe and effective, adding another option to the treatment armamentarium for craniosynostosis. PMID:25210508
Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B
The objective of this work is to develop endoscopic subsurface optical imaging technology that will be able to image different tissue components located underneath the surface of the tissue at an imaging depth of up to 1 centimeter. This effort is based on the utilization of existing technology and components developed for medical endoscopes with the incorporation of the appropriate modifications to implement the spectral and polarization difference imaging technique. This subsurface imaging technique employs polarization and spectral light discrimination in combination with image processing to remove a large portion of the image information from the outer layers of the tissue which leads to enhancement of the contrast and image quality of subsurface tissue structures.
Molpus, Kelly L; Wedergren, June S; Carlson, Mark A
Ovarian transposition is the anatomical relocation of the ovaries from the pelvis to the abdomen. Transposition is beneficial in women who are to undergo pelvic radiation, because it allows maintenance of ovarian function and preservation of assisted reproductive capacity. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountainview, CA, USA) was used to perform an endoscopic ovarian transposition. The ovaries were mobilized on their respective infundibulopelvic ligaments and sutured to the ipsilateral pericolic gutters. A series, of laboratory sessions using the da Vinci system was completed at our institution's training facility. Surgical experience included cadaveric pelvic dissection and abdominopelvic procedures on anesthetized porcine models. Additional didactic and laboratory training, including a certification examination, was obtained from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. The first clinical case of robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition was performed. Robotically assisted endoscopy was successfully used for ovarian transposition.
Smati, Belhassen; Marghali, Adel; Abid, Mohamed; Bakhtri, Malek; Ben Youssef, Atef; Mestiri, Taher; Djilani, Habiba; Kilani, Tarek
Hyperhidrosis is a benin affection representing a social and professional problems and occupational handicaps in young patient. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy thus provides a radical treatment for severe palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. We describe the technique used in our institut and present results From 1995 to 2002, 32 patients were operated on for hyperhidrosis. There were 17 mens and 15 women raging in age from 15 to 32 years The intervention consisting on destruction by electrocoagulation to the sympathetic trunk There was no major complication and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 2 days. The disappearance of the palmar sweating was immediately after operation. 7 patients complained of compensatory sweating Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis is a safe effect technique for treating palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. Compensatry sweeting represent the major that necessite a preable information
Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H
Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy.
Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H
Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy. Images PMID:1413743
Durr, Dory G
Recent literature has already embraced the topic of endoscopic septoplasty, with several published articles on the subject. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. It allows improved evaluation of the posterior nasal septal deformities, identification of the degree of mucosal involvement of the posterior ends of the inferior turbinates, and concomitant assessment of the middle meatus. It permits objective documentation of the cause of nasal obstruction with possible use in outcome assessment. It is also an effective teaching method and a motivating approach for the nursing team. We present our experience in a series of 47 patients performed during a 1 1/2-year period and discuss the surgical technique and patients' outcomes. We systematically used the endoscope for all septal and turbinate surgery. We evaluated outcomes using a telephone survey along with a validated disease-specific health status measure and a global rating questionnaire.
Natalin, Ricardo A; Landman, Jaime
The concept of examining the body's interior and its organs dates back to ancient times. The roots of modern endoscopy lie in early nineteenth century Europe, and the intervening centuries have seen a steady evolution of devices and techniques. Nowadays, a wide variety of urinary tract disorders are successfully managed in a minimally invasive manner thanks to the endoscope and related technologies. Distal-sensor, 'digital', endoscopes have the potential to revolutionize the field, and change the way in which we use and think about endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, and a range of other techniques derived from physics and molecular biology all promise great improvements in visualization of the urinary tract and other urologic structures. Ultimately, the continued improvement of these minimally invasive technologies will enhance the quality of care that we can offer our patients.
Flexible endoscopes are important tools in patient care, yet recent outbreaks of infections in patients who have undergone endoscopic procedures have increased awareness of how the complex design of these instruments makes them difficult to clean. This Back to Basics article focuses on flexible endoscope processing and provides sterile processing, endoscopy, and perioperative team members with strategies for successful processing of these instruments. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Badipatla, Kanthi Rekha; Kamireddy, Chandana; Niazi, Masooma; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar
Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumors arising from the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propriae and possibly from smooth muscle of the vessel wall. Management depends on the size, location and the clinical scenario. Endoscopic snare cauterization with or without saline lift has been described in literature for tumors involving the left colon. To the best of our knowledge, endoscopic resection of right colon leiomyoma was never attempted in the past. We present a case of cecal leiomyoma which was resected endoscopically. PMID:28058080
Alvarez-Maestro, M; Rios Gonzalez, E; Martinez-Piñeiro, L; Sanchez Gomez, F J
Endoscopic Inguinal Lymphadenectomy is an evolution of laparoscopic surgery thanks to background in these techniques. This is a new technique and the indications in the field of penile tumors today are expanding. The technique aims at reducing the morbidity of the procedure without compromising the cancer control or reducing the template of the dissection. We present the modified endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy in a 70 years-old male patient with penile melanoma and positive sentinel lymph node in left inguinal limb. Intraoperative data, pathology, post operatory evolution and oncological follow-up is described Operative time was 120 min. Nine lymph nodes were retrieved and none of then showed positivity at pathology. There were no complications. The drain was kept for five days. After 12 months of follow up, no signs of disease progression were noted. The endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy is feasible in clinical practice. New studies with a greater number of patients and long-term follow-up may confirm the oncological efficacy and possible lower morbidity of these new approach. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Naveau, S; Chaput, J C
Endoscopic gastrointestinal laser therapy was originally inspired by the haemostatic properties of the laser beam and was subsequently used to destroy tumours. In endoscopic gastroenterology, the most commonly used type of laser is the neodyme+-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. Endoscopic Nd:YAG laser therapy of obstructive cancers of the oesophagus and cardia rapidly reduces dysphagia in 70 to 100% of the patients. In the treatment of colorectal cancers, the intestinal transit returns to normal in 57 to 83% of the cases, and rectal haemorrhages are controlled in 38 to 92% of the cases. However, sustained results can only be obtained by a maintenance treatment with at least one application every 4 weeks. The Nd:YAG laser makes it possible to destroy villose tumours in patients who cannot, or will not, be operated upon; the number of applications depends on the size of the tumour. Finally, the Nd:YAG laser seems to be able to control bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and to stabilize the course of Rendu-Osler-Weber disease.
Heidary, Behrouz; Phang, Terry P.; Raval, Manoj J.; Brown, Carl J.
Rectal adenomas and cancers occur frequently. Small adenomas can be removed colonoscopically, whereas larger polyps are removed via conventional transanal excision. Owing to technical difficulties, adenomas of the mid- and upper rectum require radical resection. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was first designed as an alternative treatment for these lesions. However, since its development TEM has been also used for a variety of rectal lesions, including carcinoids, rectal prolapse and diverticula, early stage carcinomas and palliative resection of rectal cancers. The objective of this review is to describe the current status of TEM in the treatment of rectal lesions. Since the 1980s, TEM has advanced substantially. With low recurrence rates, it is the method of choice for resection of endoscopically unresectable adenomas. Some studies have shown benefits to its use in treating early T1 rectal cancers compared with radical surgery in select patients. However, for more advanced rectal cancers TEM should be considered palliative or experimental. This technique has also been shown to be safe for the treatment of other uncommon rectal tumours, such as carcinoids. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery may allow for new strategies in the treatment of rectal pathology where technical limitations of transanal techniques have limited endoluminal surgical innovations. PMID:24666451
Du, Lihui; Wang, Liqiang; Ye, Bin; Duan, Huilong
The paper presents a low-power, inexpensive and portable endoscopic imaging system. A 1.3 million pixels CMOS sensor is considered as an image capture. The sensor and the lens system are designed to minify the cannula diameter of the endoscope and therefore minimize the incision size for insertion. LVDS is used for image data transmission between the sensor and CPU to realize a long distance, high speed and low noise system. An ARM 920T based microcontroller is employed as the control core for the image transmission module, display module and other modules. The camera interface and LCD controller are integrated in the microcontroller and both have a dedicated DMA supports to transmit image data though AHB to or from frame buffer located in system memory without CPU intervention. The image is displayed on an 8 inch LCD screen with 800 × 600 resolution and 16 bits of color depth. With the maximum capture and display rate of 15 fps, this system can provide a clear image enough for laparoscopy or industrial application. And with integrated camera, light source and video display function, it can also be used as a portable, miniature and inexpensive endoscope.
Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D
Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved with medical therapy with calcium channel blockers or endoscopic botulin toxin injection. Even though few patients can be cured with only one treatment and repeat procedure might be needed, long term relief from dysphagia can be obtained in about 90% of cases with either surgical interventions such as laparoscopic Heller myotomy or with endoscopic techniques such pneumatic dilatation or, more recently, with per-oral endoscopic myotomy. Age, sex, and manometric type by HRM are also predictors of responsiveness to treatment. Older patients, females and type II achalasia are better after treatment compared to younger patients, males and type III achalasia. Self-expandable metallic stents are an alternative in patients non responding to conventional therapies.
Schmidt, Arthur; Meier, Benjamin; Caca, Karel
Conventional endoscopic resection techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection are powerful tools for treatment of gastrointestinal neoplasms. However, those techniques are restricted to superficial layers of the gastrointestinal wall. Endoscopic full-thickness resection (EFTR) is an evolving technique, which is just about to enter clinical routine. It is not only a powerful tool for diagnostic tissue acquisition but also has the potential to spare surgical therapy in selected patients. This review will give an overview about current EFTR techniques and devices. PMID:26309354
Höller, Kurt; Schneider, Armin; Jahn, Jasper; Gutierrez, Javier; Wittenberg, Thomas; Meining, Alexander; von Delius, Stefan; Hornegger, Joachim; Feussner, Hubertus
A known problem in endoscopic surgery (especially with flexible video endoscopes) is the absence of a stable horizon in endoscopic images displayed on a monitor. With our "ENDOrientation" approach, image rectification, even in non-rigid endoscopic surgery (particularly NOTES), can be realized with a tiny MEMS tri-axial inertial sensor placed on the tip of an endoscope. This sensor measures the impact of gravity on each of the three orthogonal accelerometer axes in real time. After an initial calibration and temporal filtering of these three data steams, the rotation angle of an endoscope can be estimated directly. The achievable sampling rate of the inertial sensor is above the usual endoscopic video frame rate of 25 Hz; the rotation accuracy is approximately one degree. The image rectification can be performed in real time by digitally rotating the endoscopic video signal. Improvements and benefits have been evaluated in animal studies: coordination and movement of different instruments was rated to be much more intuitive with a stable horizon on endoscopic images. The recorded time stamps and position tracks clearly support this observation.
Kuhn, F A; Javer, A R
Surgical treatment of the frontal sinus continues to be an area of much interest and controversy. The complex anatomy and confined space of this region require the endoscopic surgeon to be knowledgeable and delicate to obtain a positive result. Proper instrumentation is crucial and continues to evolve over time. Postoperative endoscopic care is integral to the success of endoscopic frontal sinusotomy and the availability of proper office equipment to perform this care is critical. In most instances, the intranasal endoscopic approach can be accomplished successfully without the need for an external procedure.
Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae J.
Gastric cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. However the proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) at diagnosis is increasing. Endoscopic treatment for EGC is actively performed worldwide in cases meeting specific criteria. Endoscopic mucosal resection can treat EGC with comparable results to surgery for selected cases. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) increases the en bloc and complete resection rates and reduces the local recurrence rate. ESD has been performed with expanded indication and is expected to be more widely used in the treatment of EGC through the technological advances in the near future. This review will describe the techniques, indications and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for EGC. PMID:24782609
Statham, Melissa McCarty; Willging, J Paul
Guidelines issued by the Association of Operating Room Nurses and the Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology recommend high-level disinfection (HLD) for semicritical instruments, such as flexible endoscopes. We aim to examine the durability of endoscopes to continued use and automated HLD. We report the number of duty cycles a flexible endoscope can withstand before repairs should be anticipated. Retrospective review. A total of 4,336 endoscopic exams and subsequent disinfection cycles were performed with 60 flexible endoscopes in an outpatient tertiary pediatric otolaryngology practice from 2005 to 2009. All endoscopes were systemically cleaned with mechanical cleansing followed by leak testing, enzymatic cleaning, and exposure to Orthophthaldehyde (0.55%) for 5 minutes at a temperature of at least 25°C, followed by rinsing for 3 minutes. A total of 77 repairs were performed, 48 major (average cost $3,815.97), and 29 minor (average cost $326.85). On average, the 2.2-mm flexible endoscopes were utilized for 61.9 examinations before major repair was needed, whereas the 3.6 mm endoscopes were utilized for 154.5 exams before needing minor repairs. No major repairs have been needed to date on the 3.6-mm endoscopes. Automated endoscope reprocessor use for HLD is an effective means to disinfect and process flexible endoscopes. This minimizes variability in the processing of the endoscopes and maximizes the rate of successful HLD. Even when utilizing standardized, automated HLD and limiting the number of personnel processing the endoscopes, smaller fiberoptic endoscopes demonstrate a shortened time interval between repairs than that seen with the larger endoscopes. Laryngoscope, 2010.
Dendy, E B
This paper raises a question about Freud's understanding of Hamlet and offers a fresh psychoanalytic perspective on the play, emphasizing the psychological use made of Hamlet by the audience. It suggests Hamlet and Claudius both serve as sacrificial objects, scapegoats, for the audience, embodying, through a mechanism of both identification and disidentification, the fulfillment, punishment, and renunciation of the audience's forbidden (i.e. Oedipal) wishes. The play is thus seen to represent unconsciously a rite of sacrifice in which both Claudius and Hamlet, both the father and the son, are led, albeit circuitously, to the slaughter. The need for delay on the part of Hamlet is thus seen to arise not merely from Hamlet's psychology, whatever the audience may project onto it, but ultimately from the function (both sadistic and defensive) that the sacrificial spectacle, the play as a whole, serves for the audience. The paper also speculates somewhat on the role of tragic heroes and heroines in general, and points to the unconscious collusion that permits author and audience to make use of them. Finally, in an addendum, the paper discusses the work of René Girard, a nonpsychoanalytic thinker whose ideas nonetheless are somewhat similar to those presented here.
Transport Delay itI tl2 s2+(tl +t2tI2)s+ 1 Delay Figure 17 A Matlab Simulink model used to compare a simple delayed system , in this case an integrator...23 3 Control of tim e-delay system s...discuss the various sources of delays, leading to an assessment of typical delays to be expected in a few example systems . Sources of delay that will
Omuta, Shigefumi; Maetani, Iruru; Saito, Michihiro; Shigoka, Hiroaki; Gon, Katsushige; Tokuhisa, Junya; Naruki, Mieko
AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation (EPLBD) without endoscopic sphincterotomy in a prospective study. METHODS: From July 2011 to August 2013, we performed EPLBD on 41 patients with naïve papillae prospectively. For sphincteroplasty of EPLBD, endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) was not performed, and balloon diameter selection was based on the distal common bile duct diameter. The balloon was inflated to the desired pressure. If the balloon waist did not disappear, and the desired pressure was satisfied, we judged the dilatation as complete. We used a retrieval balloon catheter or mechanical lithotripter (ML) to remove stones and assessed the rates of complete stone removal, number of sessions, use of ML and adverse events. Furthermore, we compared the presence or absence of balloon waist disappearance with clinical characteristics and endoscopic outcome. RESULTS: The mean diameters of the distal and maximum common bile duct were 13.5 ± 2.4 mm and 16.4 ± 3.1 mm, respectively. The mean maximum transverse-diameter of the stones was 13.4 ± 3.4 mm, and the mean number of stones was 3.0 ± 2.4. Complete stone removal was achieved in 97.5% (40/41) of cases, and ML was used in 12.2% (5/41) of cases. The mean number of sessions required was 1.2 ± 0.62. Pancreatitis developed in two patients and perforation in one. The rate of balloon waist disappearance was 73.1% (30/41). No significant differences were noted in procedure time, rate of complete stone removal (100% vs 100%), number of sessions (1.1 vs 1.3, P = 0.22), application of ML (13% vs 9%, P = 0.71), or occurrence of pancreatitis (3.3% vs 9.1%, P = 0.45) between cases with and without balloon waist disappearance. CONCLUSION: EST before sphincteroplasty may be unnecessary in EPLBD. Further investigations are needed to verify the relationship between the presence or absence of balloon waist disappearance. PMID:26109817
Khan, Mubarak M; Parab, Sapna R
Endoscopic ear surgery provides a minimally invasive approach to the middle ear. The disadvantage of endoscopic ear surgery is that it is a single-handed surgical technique. The nondominant hand of the surgeon is utilized for holding and manipulating the endoscope. This necessitated the need for the development of an endoscope holder that would allow both hands to be free for surgical manipulation. The aim of this article is to report our preliminary experience using our newly designed and developed endoscope holder, which allowed us to perform cartilage tympanoplasty utilizing both hands for surgery. Retrospective nonrandomized clinical study. The endoscope holder was designed and developed to aid in endoscopic ear surgery and to overcome the disadvantage of single-handed endoscopic surgery. The design of the endoscope holder is described in detail, along with instructions on how it can be used. A total of 179 endoscope holder-assisted cartilage tympanoplasties were performed to evaluate the feasibility of a two-handed technique and to evaluate the results of surgery. In an early follow-up period ranging from 6 to 20 months, the graft take was seen in 174 ears, with one residual perforation and four recurrent perforations, giving a success rate of 97%. The endoscope holder eliminates the disadvantages of single-handed surgery and is a good option for those who wish to perform endoscopic ear surgery using both hands. The study reports the successful application and use of the endoscope holder in a two-handed technique of endoscopic tympanoplasty. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:1893-1898, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Choe, Jung Wan; Jung, Sung Woo; Song, Jong Kyu; Shim, Euddeum; Choo, Ji Yung; Kim, Seung Young; Hyun, Jong Jin; Koo, Ja Seol; Yim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Sang Woo
Atelectasis is one of the pulmonary complications associated with anesthesia. Little is known about atelectasis following endoscopic procedures under deep sedation. This study evaluated the frequency, risk factors, and clinical course of atelectasis after endoscopic resection. A total of 349 patients who underwent endoscopic resection of the upper gastrointestinal tract at a single academic tertiary referral center from March 2010 to October 2013 were enrolled. Baseline characteristics and clinical data were retrospectively reviewed from medical records. To identify atelectasis, we compared the chest radiography taken before and after the endoscopic procedure. Among the 349 patients, 68 (19.5 %) had newly developed atelectasis following endoscopic resection. In univariate logistic regression analysis, atelectasis correlated significantly with high body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, procedure duration, size of lesion, and total amount of propofol. In multiple logistic regression analysis, body mass index, procedure duration, and total propofol amount were risk factors for atelectasis following endoscopic procedures. Of the 68 patients with atelectasis, nine patients developed fever, and six patients displayed pneumonic infiltration. The others had no symptoms related to atelectasis. The incidence of radiographic atelectasis following endoscopic resection was nearly 20 %. Obesity, procedural time, and amount of propofol were the significant risk factors for atelectasis following endoscopic procedure. Most cases of the atelectasis resolved spontaneously with no sequelae.
Sosin, Michael; De La Cruz, Carla; Christy, Michael R.
Abstract Endoscopic-assisted techniques in plastic and craniofacial surgeries are limited. We present a patient with infraorbital nerve entrapment following traumatic facial injury that failed conservative management. Compression of the nerve was treated with an endoscopic-assisted nerve release of the surrounding soft tissue with a circumferential foraminal osteotomy. PMID:27252952
Leong, Kai J; Evans, John; Davies, Michael M; Scott, Adam; Lidder, Paul
Transanal endoscopic surgery is a safe, established technique to remove lesions in the rectum via the anus. This article reviews its evolution, approaches, indications and evidence for its role in treating benign rectal polyps. The future of transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease is also explored.
Stellato, T A; Gauderer, M W; Ponsky, J L
During a 36-month period, 89 patients have undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy without mortality. Of these patients, 25 (13 infants and children, 12 adults) had prior abdominal procedures that increased their risk for the endoscopic procedure. With two exceptions, all gastrostomies were performed utilizing local anesthesia. There was one major complication, a gastrocolic fistula, which was successfully managed by repeating the endoscopic gastrostomy procedure at a location more cephalad in the stomach. Twenty-two of the gastrostomies were placed for feeding purposes and all of these patients were able to leave the hospital with alimentation accomplished via the tube. Three of the endoscopically placed gastrostomies were for gastrointestinal tract decompression. A total of 255 patient months have been accumulated in these patients with the endoscopically placed gastrostomy in situ. The technique can be safely performed in patients with prior abdominal surgery and in the majority of cases is the technique of choice for establishing a tube gastrostomy. PMID:6428334
Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miuma, Satoshi; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko
Esophagogastric varices are the most common complication in patients with portal hypertension, and endoscopy plays an important role in their diagnosis and in the prevention of acute bleeding from these structures. Recently, new modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and narrow-band imaging have been introduced for the diagnosis of esophagogastric varices. In Japan, endoscopic therapy has become the first choice for the treatment of acutely bleeding esophageal or gastric varices. The two principal methods used to treat esophageal varices are endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Recently, combinations of EIS plus EVL and EVL plus argon plasma coagulation were reported to be more effective than EVL or EIS alone. Additionally, endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection is superior to EIS and EVL for the treatment of acutely bleeding gastric varices. PMID:25333017
Lee, Chang Kyun
Adequate sedation and analgesia are considered essential requirements to relieve patient discomfort and pain and ultimately to improve the outcomes of modern gastrointestinal endoscopic procedures. The willingness of patients to undergo sedation during endoscopy has increased steadily in recent years and standard sedation practices are needed for both patient safety and successful procedural outcomes. Therefore, regular training and education of healthcare providers is warranted. However, training curricula and guidelines for endoscopic sedation may have conflicts according to varying legal frameworks and/or social security systems of each country, and well-recognized endoscopic sedation training systems are not currently available in all endoscopy units. Although European and American curricula for endoscopic sedation have been extensively developed, general curricula and guidelines for each country and institution are also needed. In this review, an overview of recent curricula and guidelines for training and basic performance of endoscopic sedation is presented based on the current literature. PMID:24765596
Akkiz, Hikmet; Akinoglu, Alper; Çolakoglu, Salih; Demiryürek, Haluk; Yagmur, Özgür
Objective To determine the effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of biliary hydatid disease. Design A case study between January 1992 and December 1994. Setting A university-affiliated hospital in Adana, Turkey. Patients Five patients with biliary hydatid disease, in which the cyst had ruptured into the biliary tree. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. Intervention Endoscopic sphincterotomy. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results All patients underwent successful endoscopic sphincterotomy, including removal of daughter cysts. During the follow-up period, ultrasonography and laboratory investigations showed complete cure in all patients. There were no complications due to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Conclusion Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for the management of hydatid cysts that have ruptured into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. PMID:8697318
Wigand, M E
Endonasal sinus surgery aims at the preservation of a lining mucosa in the reventilated and redrained cavities. It can, therefore, be confined to the removal of narrowing bone at the "isthmus" of the ducts or windows. Transnasal ethmoidectomy for diffuse polyposis consists of the removal of the ethmoidal cell septa, including the middle turbinate, and a broad fenestration of both the sphenoid sinus and the frontal infundibulum. A consequent postoperative care provided, transnasal ethmoidectomy offers excellent clinical results. A new suction-irrigation endoscope and refined instruments contribute to improved surgical exposure and to the avoidance of complications.
In the upcoming Twenty-first Century, we will find many surgical methods and devices that come to fulfill one of the main objectives of the aesthetic plastic surgery: to reduce scars, especially in facial surgery. Endoscopy is one of those methods. In my experience of the last two years, I have used this technique, sometimes combined with CO2 laser to partially remove glabellar muscles and the platysma fibers of the middle part of the neck. This work shows the results from 160 patients undergoing endoscopic forehead lift and neck contouring, using specially designed instruments. The results are highly significant and satisfactory.
Hetzel, M R; Smith, S G
The prognosis for tracheobronchial tumours remains poor. Most patients can be offered only palliation. When the main symptom is breathlessness or refractory haemoptysis from a large airway tumour endoscopic treatment may be very effective. Over the last decade most attention has focused on the neodymium YAG laser. This often produces dramatic effects but has some important limitations. In the last few years better techniques for stenting and intrabronchial radiotherapy (brachytherapy) have also been developed. This article discusses the range of techniques now available and aims to help clinicians decide which patients may benefit from referral to centres providing these techniques. Images PMID:1712516
Muguruma, Naoki; DaCosta, Ralph S.; Wilson, Brian C.; Marcon, Norman E.
Gastrointestinal endoscopy has made great progress during last decade. Diagnostic accuracy can be enhanced by better training, improved dye-contrast techniques method, and the development of new image processing technologies. However, diagnosis using conventional endoscopy with white-light optical imaging is essentially limited by being based on morphological changes and/or visual attribution: hue, saturation and intensity, interpretation of which depends on the endoscopist's eye and brain. In microlesions in the gastrointestinal tract, we still rely ultimately on the histopathological diagnosis from biopsy specimens. Autofluorescence imaging system has been applied for lesions which have been difficult to morphologically recognize or are indistinct with conventional endoscope, and this approach has potential application for the diagnosis of dysplastic lesions and early cancers in the gastrointestinal tract, supplementing the information from white light endoscopy. This system has an advantage that it needs no administration of a photosensitive agent, making it suitable as a screening method for the early detection of neoplastic tissues. Narrow band imaging (NBI) is a novel endoscopic technique which can distinguish neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions without chromoendoscopy. Magnifying endoscopy in combination with NBI has an obvious advantage, namely analysis of the epithelial pit pattern and the vascular network. This new technique allows a detailed visualization in early neoplastic lesions of esophagus, stomach and colon. However, problems remain; how to combine these technologies in an optimum diagnostic strategy, how to apply them into the algorithm for therapeutic decision-making, and how to standardize several classifications surrounding them. 'Molecular imaging' is a concept representing the most novel imaging methods in medicine, although the definition of the word is still controversial. In the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, the future of
Kiringoda, Ruwan; Kozin, Elliott D; Lee, Daniel J
Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) provides several advantages compared with traditional binocular microscopy, including a wide-field view, improved resolution with high magnification, and visual access to hidden corridors of the middle ear. Although binocular microscopic-assisted surgical techniques remain the gold standard for most otologists, EES is slowly emerging as a viable alternative for performing otologic surgery at several centers in the United States and abroad. In this review, we evaluate the current body of literature regarding EES outcomes, summarize our EES outcomes at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, and compare these results with data for microscopic-assisted otologic surgery.
Francis, H H
In many Western nations, including England and Wales, Sweden, and the US, there is a current trend towards delayed childbearing because of women's pursuit of a career, later marriage, a longer interval between marriage and the 1st birth, and the increasing number of divorcees having children in a 2nd marriage. Wives of men in social classes I and II in England and Wales are, on average, having their 1st child at 27.9 years, 1.6 years later than in 1973, and in social classes IV and V, 1.0 years later than in 1973, at a mean age of 23.7 years. Consequently, the total period fertility rate for British women aged 30-34 years, 35-39 years, and 40 and over increased by 4%, 2%, and 4%, respectively, between 1982-83, in contrast to reductions of 2% and 3%, respectively, in the 15-19 year and 20-24 year age groups, with the 25-29-year-olds remaining static. The average maternal mortality for all parties in England and Wales during 1976-78 was 106/million for adolescents, 70.4/million for 20-24 year-olds, and 1162/million for those aged 40 years and older. The specific obstetric and allied conditions which increase with age are the hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, abortion, cardiac disease, caesarean section, ruptured uterus, and amniotic fluid embolism. The Swedish Medical Birth Registry of all live births and perinatal deaths since 1973 has shown that the risk of late fetal death is significantly greater in women aged 30-39 years than in those of the same parity and gravidity aged 20-24 years. The risk of giving birth to low birth weight babies preterm and at term and of premature labor are similarly increased. The early neonatal death rate also was increased for primigravidas and nulliparas in the 30-39 year age group but not in parous women. This is, in part, due to the rise in incidence of fetal abnormalities with advancing maternal age because of chromosomal and nonchromosomal anomalies. These also appear to be the cause of the
Woodward, Timothy A.
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a technology that had been used primarily as a passive imaging modality. Recent advances have enabled us to move beyond the use of EUS solely as a staging tool to an interventional device. Current studies suggest that interventional applications of EUS will allow for minimally invasive assessment and therapies in a cost-effective manner. Endoscopic ultrasound with fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been demonstrated to be a technically feasible, relatively safe method of obtaining cytologic specimens. The clinical utility of EUS- FNA appears to be greatest in the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer and in the nodal staging of gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. In addition, EUS-FNA has demonstrated utility in the sampling pleural and ascitic fluid not generally appreciated or assessable to standard interventions. Interventional applications of EUS include EUS-guided pseudocyst drainage, EUS-guided injection of botulinum toxin in the treatment of achalasia, and EUS- guided celiac plexus neurolysis in the treatment of pancreatic cancer pain. Finally, EUS-guided fine-needle installation is being evaluated, in conjunction with recent bimolecular treatment modalities, as a delivery system in the treatment of certain gastrointestinal tumors.
Prades, Jean-Michel; Asanau, Alexander; Timoshenko, Andrei P; Gavid, Marie; Martin, Christian
During the past decade, endoscopic video-assisted parathyroidectomy (EP) for primary hyper parathyroidism (PHPT) has gained wider acceptance. The endoscopic gasless procedure described by P. Miccoli (1997-1998) offers an attractive technique. A routine preoperative localization study was performed with both ultrasonography and 99m TC-Sestamibi scintigraphy for each patient with sporadic PHPT. The criteria to select patients eligible for EP included absence of significant nodular goiter, a previous neck surgery, a need for concomitant thyroidectomy, a significant obesity, and multiple enlarged parathyroid glands. The surgical outcome and the use of preoperative localization together with the operative strategy were evaluated. From 2005 to 2009, 59 out of 75 patients (78%) were potentially candidates for this approach. An enlarged parathyroid gland was located by both types of imaging for 34 patients (57%) and by 99 m Tc-Sestamibi scintigraphy for 46 patients (77%). Conversion was required in 11 cases (18%). Nine patients had a negative preoperative imaging study and five underwent a successful EP. The operating time ranged from 35 to 120 min (median 45 min). Usually patients were discharged home at 48 h. There were no cases of permanent hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Postoperative review showed that all calcium and parathyroid hormone levels remained normal at 3 months except for 1 patient with a double adenoma. EP is a quick, safe, and effective procedure in a selected group of patients. Our results show that this technique can be easily introduced into a general head and neck practice.
Yoshio, H; Takashi, Y; Mitsuyo, H; Nobuhiko, Y; Tatsurou, T; Kazuhiko, S; Yoko, H; Shigemasa, I; Hisanaga, M; Osamu, H; Katsuyoshi, S; Seishi, U; Matsushita, H; Masahiko, T
Biopsy specimens can reveal that esophageal cancer is an adenocarcinoma but they cannot show that its origin is Barrett's mucosa. Therefore we must show during endoscopy that the tumor exists in Barrett's mucosa. We reported that Barrett's esophagus could be clearly diagnosed at endoscopy as the columnar mucosa lying on the longitudinal vessels in the lower esophagus. We define Barrett's esophagus as "the columnar mucosa in the esophagus which exists continuously more than 2 cm in circumference from the stomach." Short-segment Barrett's esophagus (SSBE) is "the columnar mucosa which exists in the esophagus continuously from the stomach but its length has a part under 2 cm in length." Endoscopically Barrett's adenocarcinoma is visualized as a lesion with a reddish and uneven mucosal surface. Barrett's adenocarcinomas occur in the SSBE as well. Endoscopic observation at periodic intervals is necessary not only for cases with Barrett's esophagus but also with SSBE. A further examination is necessary to determine the application of EMR for superficial Barrett's adenocarcinoma.
Zhao, Jiu-ling; Zhao, Wei-chuan; Wang, Yu-shui
Abstract Rationale: Trichophytobezoars, which are composed of hair and plant fibers, are usually located in the stomach. They are often associated with trichophagia and trichotillomania. The most commonly reported methods of trichophytobezoar treatment are open surgery and laparoscopic retrieval; there are few reports of endoscopic removal of trichophytobezoars. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: Twelve-year-old girl presented with a 3-day history of increasing upper abdominal pain, anorexia, and postprandial emesis. She had a 3-year history of pulling out and eating her own hair. Endoscopic examination showed a large intragastric trichophytobezoar measuring 10.5 cm × 3.5 cm in size, with extension of a few hairs through the pylorus. Interventions and Outcomes: The trichophytobezoar was packed with hair fibers and contained a hard core of mixed hair and vegetable fibers. After the core was cut, the trichophytobezoar was fragmented into pieces with the alternating use of a polypectomy snare and argon plasma coagulation. A small amount of hair and nondigestible food fibers was removed with grasping forceps during the initial procedure. The remaining hairball was loosened with biopsy forceps and was injected with sodium bicarbonate solution. The trichophytobezoar was removed completely at repeat endoscopy 5 days later. After 6 months of psychological intervention, the patient had no recurrence of trichophagia or trichophytobezoar. Lessons: Endoscopy with sodium bicarbonate injection is an effective and minimally invasive method of retrieving a gastric trichophytobezoar. PMID:28099364
Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS.
MacKeith, S A C; Frampton, S; Pothier, D D
To measure the thermal properties of operative endoscopes used in otorhinolaryngological practice. A series of endoscopes of varying diameters and angulations were attached to a light source and temperature measurements taken of their shaft and tip; a measurement was also taken 5 mm in front of the endoscope tip. Temperature changes took place rapidly. The amount of heat produced by the endoscopes was maximal at the tip, with larger diameter endoscopes attaining a higher temperature. Temperatures on the shaft and in front of the tip reached relatively constant temperatures independent of the type of endoscope. The maximum temperature achieved was 104.6 degrees C for the 4 mm, 0 degrees endoscope. Cooling occurred rapidly after the light source was switched off. The heat produced by some endoscopes is sufficiently great to cause thermal injury to tissues. Awareness of the temperatures produced by these endoscopes should prompt clinicians to actively cool their endoscopes during a procedure, before any thermal injury is caused.
Delitala, Alberto; Brunori, Andrea; Russo, Natale
Surgical approaches to colloid cysts of the third ventricle have evolved over time. In recent years, endoscopy has been recognized as an effective alternative to open surgery. The disadvantage of endoscopic treatment is the difficulty in controlling the adhesion of the cyst to the roof of the third ventricle and in obtaining complete removal of the cyst. To design and carry out a supraorbital approach to obtain a better viewing angle of the cyst and better control of the adhesion of the cyst to the roof of the third ventricle. From September 2005 to February 2008, we operated on 7 consecutive patients with colloid cysts in the third ventricle. All procedures were performed with the endoscopic supraorbital approach. The endoscopic procedure was performed with a rigid STORZ endoscope with 3 working channels. In 4 patients, the surgical supraorbital trajectory was planned with the help of a navigator. The procedures lasted between 60 and 110 minutes, including the registration on the navigation system. Near-total removal of the cyst was achieved in 6 patients. All patients were discharged within 6 days. Endoscopic treatment may be an effective and safe alternative to open surgical craniotomy. Our series shows that the endoscopic supraorbital endoscopic resection is a valuable approach to colloid cysts of the third ventricle.
Widmer, Jessica; Alvarez, Paloma; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Gossain, Sonia; Kedia, Prashant; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sethi, Amrita; Turner, Brian G.; Millman, Jennifer; Lieberman, Michael; Nandakumar, Govind; Umrania, Hiren; Gaidhane, Monica
Background/Aims Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for cholecystitis. However, gallbladder stenting (GBS) has shown promise in debilitated or high-risk patients. Endoscopic transpapillary GBS and endoscopic ultrasound-guided GBS (EUS-GBS) have been proposed as safe and effective modalities for gallbladder drainage. Methods Data from patients with cholecystitis were prospectively collected from August 2004 to May 2013 from two United States academic university hospitals and analyzed retrospectively. The following treatment algorithm was adopted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and cystic duct stenting was initially attempted. If deemed feasible by the endoscopist, EUS-GBS was then pursued. Results During the study period, 139 patients underwent endoscopic gallbladder drainage. Among these, drainage was performed in 94 and 45 cases for benign and malignant indications, respectively. Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was defined as decompression of the gallbladder without incidence of cholecystitis, and was achieved with ERCP and cystic duct stenting in 117 of 128 cases (91%). Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was also achieved with EUS-guided gallbladder drainage using transmural stent placement in 11 of 11 cases (100%). Complications occurred in 11 cases (8%). Conclusions Endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques are safe and efficacious methods for gallbladder decompression in non-surgical patients with comorbidities. PMID:26473125
Abel, Eric; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Miah, Mohammed; White, Paul
To describe lens and perspective distortion using new measures that have practical meaning to the surgeon, and to apply these measures to show the extent of optical distortion in rigid endoscopes used in endoscopic sinus surgery. Laboratory measurements on rigid endoscopes. Barrel and perspective distortion were measured in 4-mm diameter 0°, 30°, 45°, and 70° rigid sinus endoscopes. Images of square grids were obtained with the endoscopes aligned in a specially constructed test rig. The terms relative size (RS) and relative distance (RD) were introduced to describe size and distance errors; and the term relative angle (RA) was used for assessing perspective errors. All the endoscopes exhibited similar barrel distortion. RS of the image at the periphery was 52%; RD was 80%. For RA values of 30°, 45°, and 70°, RS values were 77%, 58%, and 32%, respectively. Objects at the edge of the surgical field appear significantly more distant than suggested by their screen position. Perspective distortion occurs, unless RA = 0°. Barrel distortion of the lens helped to offset the effects of perspective distortion. Optical distortion can be quantified and understood using straightforward definitions. High levels of distortion are common, particularly due to perspective distortion, which is dependent on RA but independent of barrel distortion and the viewing angle of the endoscope. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Feussner, Hubertus; Becker, Valentin; Bauer, Margit; Kranzfelder, Michael; Schirren, Rebekka; Lüth, Tim; Meining, Alexander; Wilhelm, Dirk
Flexible endoscopy is increasingly developing into a therapeutic instead of a purely diagnostic discipline. Improved visualization makes early lesions easily detectable and allows us to decide ad hoc on the required treatment. Deep enteroscopy allows the exploration of even the small bowel – for long a “white spot” for gastrointestinal endoscopy – and to perform direct treatment. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is a considerable step forward in oncologically correct endoscopic treatment of (early) malignant lesions. Though still technically challenging, it is increasingly facilitated by new manipulation techniques and tools that are being steadily optimized. Closure of wall defects and hemostasis could be improved significantly. Even the anatomy beyond the gastrointestinal wall is being explored by the therapeutic use of endoluminal ultrasound. Endosonographic-guided surgery is not only a suitable fallback solution if conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography fails, but even makes necrosectomy procedures, abscess drainage, and neurolysis feasible for the endoscopist. Newly developed endoscopic approaches aim at formerly distinctive surgical domains like gastroesophageal reflux disease, appendicitis, and cholecystitis. Combined endoscopic/laparoscopic interventional techniques could become the harbingers of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, whereas pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery is currently still in its beginnings. PMID:25565878
Ouimette, Donald R.; Nudelman, Sol; Spackman, Thomas; Zaccheo, Scott
A new type of endoscope is being developed which utilizes an optical raster scanning system for imaging through an endoscope. The optical raster scanner utilizes a high speed, multifaceted, rotating polygon mirror system for horizontal deflection, and a slower speed galvanometer driven mirror as the vertical deflection system. When used in combination, the optical raster scanner traces out a raster similar to an electron beam raster used in television systems. This flying spot of light can then be detected by various types of photosensitive detectors to generate a video image of the surface or scene being illuminated by the scanning beam. The optical raster scanner has been coupled to an endoscope. The raster is projected down the endoscope, thereby illuminating the object to be imaged at the distal end of the endoscope. Elemental photodetectors are placed at the distal or proximal end of the endoscope to detect the reflected illumination from the flying spot of light. This time sequenced signal is captured by an image processor for display and processing. This technique offers the possibility for very small diameter endoscopes since illumination channel requirements are eliminated. Using various lasers, very specific spectral selectivity can be achieved to optimum contrast of specific lesions of interest. Using several laser lines, or a white light source, with detectors of specific spectral response, multiple spectrally selected images can be acquired simultaneously. The potential for co-linear therapy delivery while imaging is also possible.
Friedel, David; Modayil, Rani; Iqbal, Shahzad; Grendell, James H.
Endoscopic therapy for achalasia is directed at disrupting or weakening the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). The two most commonly utilized endoscopic interventions are large balloon pneumatic dilation (PD) and botulinum toxin injection (BTI). These interventions have been extensively scrutinized and compared with each other as well as with surgical disruption (myotomy) of the LES. PD is generally more effective in improving dysphagia in achalasia than BTI, with the latter reserved for infirm older people, and PD may approach treatment results attained with myotomy. However, PD may need to be repeated. Small balloon dilation and endoscopic stent placement for achalasia have only been used in select centers. Per oral endoscopic myotomy is a newer endoscopic modality that will likely change the treatment paradigm for achalasia. It arose from the field of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and represents a scarless endoscopic approach to Heller myotomy. This is a technique that requires extensive training and preparation and thus there should be rigorous accreditation and monitoring of outcomes to ensure safety and efficacy. PMID:23503707
De Palma, Giovanni D
Endoscopic papillectomy (EP) is currently accepted as a viable alternative therapy to surgery in sporadic ampullary adenoma and has been reported to have high success and low recurrence rates. At present, the indications for EP are not yet fully established. The accepted criteria for EP include size (up to 5 cm), no evidence of intraductal growth, and no evidence of malignancy on endoscopic findings (ulceration, friability, and spontaneous bleeding). Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is the imaging modality of choice for local T staging in ampullary neoplasms. Data reported in the literature have revealed that linear EUS is superior to helical computed tomography in the preoperative assessment of tumor size, detection of regional nodal metastases and detection of major vascular invasion. Endoscopic ampullectomy is performed using a standard duodenoscope in a similar manner to snare polypectomy of a mucosal lesion. There is no standardization of the equipment or technique and broad EP methods are described. Endoscopic ampullectomy is considered a ''high-risk'' procedure due to complications. Complications of endoscopic papillectomy can be classified as early (pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, and cholangitis) and late (papillary stenosis) complications. The appropriate use of stenting after ampullectomy may prevent post-procedural pancreatitis and papillary stenosis. Tumor recurrence of benign lesions occurs in up to 20% of patients and depends on tumor size, final histology, presence of intraductal tumor, coexisting familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and the expertise of the endoscopist. Recurrent lesions are usually benign and most can be retreated endoscopically.
Kalavakonda, Chandrasekar; Sekhar, Laligam N; Ramachandran, Pranatartiharan; Hechl, Peter
We discuss the role of the endoscope in the microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, analyzing its benefits, risks, and disadvantages. This was a prospective study of 55 patients with 79 aneurysms, treated between July 1998 and June 2001, for whom the endoscope was used as an adjunct in the microsurgical treatment of their lesions. Seventy-one aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation, and eight were located in the posterior circulation. Thirty-seven patients presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Eighteen patients had unruptured aneurysms, of whom 5 presented with mass effect, 2 presented with transient ischemic attacks, and 11 were without symptoms. In all cases, the endoscope was used in addition to microsurgical dissection and clipping (sometimes before clipping, sometimes during clipping, and always after clipping), for observation of the neck anatomic features and perforators and verification of the optimal clip position. Intraoperative angiography was performed for all patients after aneurysm clipping. In the majority of cases, the endoscope was very useful for the assessment of regional anatomic features. It allowed better observation of anatomic features, compared with the microscope, for 26 aneurysms; in 15 cases, pertinent anatomic information could be obtained only with the endoscope. The duration of temporary clipping of the parent artery was significantly reduced for two patients. The clip was repositioned because of a residual neck or inclusion of the parent vessel during aneurysm clipping in six cases, and the clip position was readjusted because of compression of the optic nerve in one case. One patient experienced a small aneurysm rupture that was directly related to use of the endoscope, but this was easily controlled, with no sequelae. For many patients, the combination of the neuro-endoscope and the micro-Doppler probe made intraoperative angiography redundant. "Endoscope-assisted microsurgery" is a major advance in the
Jarrar, G; Peel, A; Fahmy, R; Deol, H; Salih, V; Mostafa, A
Surgical excision has been an effective treatment for gynaecomastia. Recently, there has been a shift from the open approach to minimally invasive techniques. In this report we describe our technique which includes endoscopic excision and/or liposuction of gynaecomastia via a single lateral chest wall incision. Between May 2007 and April 2010, a total of 12 gynaecomastia patients were treated with liposuction and/or endoscopic excision. Patients were divided into 3 groups: group I; liposuction only, group II; endoscopic excision plus liposuction and group III; endoscopic excision only. One 15 mm incision was made laterally at the anterior axillary line. A vacuum assisted liposuction removing the fatty tissue was performed. Then endoscopic excision of the remaining fibroglandular tissue was done under vision through the same incision. The parynchyma was then dissected into small pieces and pulled out. Group I had liposuction only (n = 4), group II had liposuction combined with endoscopic excision (n = 7) (58%) while group III had endoscopic excision only (n = 1). The mean operative time for liposuction and endoscopic excision was 58 min for each side. Mean hospital stay was 1.4 days. Postoperative complications included infection with abscess formation and one patient had seroma. Mean follow-up was 56 weeks. Eleven out of twelve patients (92%) were satisfied with their results. Long-term follow-up showed that results were stable over time, and no revisions were necessary. Endoscopic excision of gynaecomastia through a single lateral chest wall incision is a minimally invasive effective and safe technique for the management of gynaecomastia, with excellent aesthetic results and an acceptable complication rate. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ryu, Dong Yup; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Bong Eun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Dong Uk; Woo, Hyun Young; Heo, Jeong; Song, Geun Am
AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic usefulness and safety of endoscopic resection in patients with gastric ectopic pancreas. METHODS: A total of eight patients with ectopic pancreas were included. All of them underwent endoscopic ultrasonography before endoscopic resection. Endoscopic resection was performed by two methods: endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) by the injection-and-cut technique or endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD). RESULTS: We planned to perform EMR in all eight cases but EMR was successful in only four cases. In the other four cases, saline spread into surrounding normal tissues and the lesions became flattened, which made it impossible to remove them by EMR. In those four cases, we performed ESD and removed the lesions without any complications. CONCLUSION: If conventional EMR is difficult to remove gastric ectopic pancreas, ESD is a feasible alternative method for successful removal. PMID:20857531
Kim, Joon Sung; Park, Sung Min; Kim, Byung-Wook
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency around the world and the major cause is peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopic treatment is fundamental for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Despite recent advances in endoscopic treatment, mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding has still remained high. This is because the disease often occurs in elderly patients with frequent comorbidities and are taking ulcerogenic medications. Therefore, the management of peptic ulcer bleeding is still a challenge for clinicians. This article reviews the various endoscopic methods available for management of peptic ulcer bleeding and the techniques in using these methods.
Oliveira, Jillian M; Chen, Yi; Hunter, Ian W
Actuation of a robotic endoscope with increased torque output is presented. This paper will specifically focus on the motor module section of a robotic endoscope, which comprises of a pair of motors and gear reduction assemblies. The results for the endoscope and biopsy tool stiffness, as well as the stall force and force versus speed characteristics of the motor module assembly are shown. The scope stiffness was found to be 0.006 N/degree and additional stiffness of the biopsy tools were found to be in the range of 0.09 to 0.13 N/degree. Calculations for worm gearing and efficiency are discussed.
Ferrer-Márquez, Manuel; Ferrer-Ayza, Manuel; Rubio-Gil, Francisco; Torrente-Sánchez, María José; Martínez Amo-Gámez, Antonio
Attempts are being made in recent years to replace open surgery with endoscopic techniques in some obese patients when medical treatment fails, as they are considered to be less-invasive procedures. To date, there is little scientific evidence regarding their effectiveness. The cases are reported of 2 patients who attended our surgery looking for an effective bariatric surgical treatment after failed endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy after failure of an endoscopic technique does not offer great variation from the standard technique. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Coates, N E; MacFadyen, B V
Enteral (gut) alimentation appears to offer greater benefit for patients than calories delivered via a parenteral (intravenous) route. Enteral alimentation prevents mucosal atrophy, maintains normal gut flora, decreases bacterial translocation, and enhances enteral immunological competence. Reliable delivery into the jejunum without the placement of an operative feeding tube is difficult, however. We have been interested for some time in endoscopically placing a jejunal tube for enteral nutrition early (within 24 hours) after trauma resuscitation or operation. A simplified technique is described for the endoscopic placement of a jejunal feeding tube, with or without a concomitant percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.
Kim, Joon Sung; Park, Sung Min
Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency around the world and the major cause is peptic ulcer bleeding. Endoscopic treatment is fundamental for the management of peptic ulcer bleeding. Despite recent advances in endoscopic treatment, mortality from peptic ulcer bleeding has still remained high. This is because the disease often occurs in elderly patients with frequent comorbidities and are taking ulcerogenic medications. Therefore, the management of peptic ulcer bleeding is still a challenge for clinicians. This article reviews the various endoscopic methods available for management of peptic ulcer bleeding and the techniques in using these methods. PMID:25844337
Tsai, Tsung-Han; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time optical imaging technique that is similar in principle to ultrasonography, but employs light instead of sound waves and allows depth-resolved images with near-microscopic resolution. Endoscopic OCT allows the evaluation of broad-field and subsurface areas and can be used ancillary to standard endoscopy, narrow band imaging, chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, and confocal endomicroscopy. This review article will provide an overview of the clinical utility of endoscopic OCT in the gastrointestinal tract and of recent achievements using state-of-the-art endoscopic 3D-OCT imaging systems. PMID:26852678
Stankiewicz, J A
Blindness is one of the major complications that can occur during and after intranasal ethmoidectomy. Two mechanisms for blindness are apparent: (1) direct injury to the optic nerve and (2) retrobulbar (orbital) hematoma, which increases orbital pressure and compromises vascular supply and drainage to and from the eye. While several publications have discussed the management of blindness from a delayed operative vantage point, no publication has discussed the immediate management of blindness from intraoperative or immediate postoperative occurrence, stressing specific medical and surgical treatment. A review of the literature and the author's personal experience will be used as a basis to discuss the prevention and management of blindness during endoscopic intranasal ethmoidectomy. Case studies will be used to illustrate methods for prevention and management of blindness. If treated aggressively, blindness associated with retrobulbar hematoma can be reversed medically.
Chase, Thomas J.G.; Luck, Joshua; Harris, Lauren S.; Bashir, Gareth
A 68-year-old male nursing home resident presented following dislodgement of a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC) tube originally sited to prevent recurrent sigmoid volvulus. Computed tomography demonstrated tube migration into the lumen of the recto-sigmoid junction, where it remained for 12 days before passing spontaneously. During this period, the patient remained asymptomatic; the residual colocutaneous fistula functioned as a decompressive valve. Originally, the patient was due to be discharged with early flexible sigmoidoscopy follow-up. However, complex social issues delayed discharge. During his admission, a second PEC tube was successfully inserted next to the previous colostomy site without complication. This is an unusual case and no similar episodes of asymptomatic PEC migration have been reported. We demonstrate that such cases may be offered an appropriate trial of conservative management. Here, we describe our experience and critically appraise the literature. PMID:28064245
Griesemer, Adam D.; Parsons, Ronald F.; Graham, Jay A.; Emond, Jean C.; Samstein, Benjamin
Delayed gastric emptying is a significant postoperative complication of living donor hepatectomy for liver transplantation and may require endoscopic or surgical intervention in severe cases. Although the mechanism of posthepatectomy delayed gastric emptying remains unknown, vagal nerve injury during intraoperative dissection and adhesion formation postoperatively between the stomach and cut liver surface are possible explanations. Here, we present the first reported case of delayed gastric emptying following fully laparoscopic hepatectomy for living donor liver transplantation. Additionally, we also present a case in which symptoms developed after open right hepatectomy, but for which dissection for left hepatectomy was first performed. Through our experience and these two specific cases, we favor a neurovascular etiology for delayed gastric emptying after hepatectomy. PMID:25610698
Ito, Tsukasa; Kubota, Toshinori; Takagi, Akira; Watanabe, Tomoo; Futai, Kazunori; Furukawa, Takatoshi; Kakehata, Seiji
To determine whether heat generated by endoscope light sources during ear surgery is safe. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery (TEES) was simulated using 2.7-mm or 4-mm endoscopes coupled to xenon or LED light sources and a 3D model of human temporal bone. The endoscope tip was fixed at the center of tympanic annulus. Light sources were tested at clinical (30% for xenon and 40% for LED) and 100% settings. Temperatures were measured using thermocouples attached to the endoscope tip and three points within the middle ear cavity: promontory, horizontal portion of the facial nerve and lateral semicircular canal. Maximum temperatures measured within the middle ear cavity were below 31°C at clinical settings, while the temperatures rose to 44.1°C using a 4-mm endoscope with a xenon light source set at 100%. Temperatures measured at the tip were all safe at clinical settings, but rose dramatically to 110.1°C for the 4-mm endoscope with xenon at 100%. Endoscopes can be safely used within the middle ear at clinical settings. However, operators should not exceed clinical settings, particularly with 4-mm endoscopes with a xenon light source, to ensure temperatures generated within the middle ear cavity are safe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hanaoka, Noboru; Ishihara, Ryu; Uedo, Noriya; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Matsuura, Noriko; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Hamada, Kenta; Iishi, Hiroyasu
Background: Although steroid injection prevents stricture after esophageal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), some patients require repeated sessions of endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD). We investigated the risk for refractory stricture despite the administration of steroid injections to prevent stricture in patients undergoing esophageal ESD. Refractory stricture was defined as the requirement for more than three sessions of EBD to resolve the stricture. In addition, the safety of steroid injections was assessed based on the rate of complications. Patients and methods: We analyzed data from 127 consecutive patients who underwent esophageal ESD and had mucosal defects with a circumferential extent greater than three-quarters of the esophagus. To prevent stricture, steroid injection was performed. EBD was performed whenever a patient had symptoms of dysphagia. Results: The percentage of patients with a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was significantly higher in those with refractory stricture than in those without stricture (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, history of radiation therapy, tumor location, and tumor diameter showed that a tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % was an independent risk factor for refractory stricture (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 5.49 [95 %CI 1.91 – 15.84], P = 0.002). Major adverse events occurred in 3 patients (2.4 %): perforation during EBD in 2 patients and delayed perforation after EBD in 1 patient. The patient with delayed perforation underwent esophagectomy because of mediastinitis. Conclusions: A tumor circumferential extent greater than 75 % is an independent risk factor for refractory stricture despite steroid injections. The development of more extensive interventions is warranted to prevent refractory stricture. PMID:27004256
Inoue, Shintaro; Toyoda, Kazutaka; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G
Safe use of master-slave robots for endoscopic surgery requires autonomous motions to avert contact with vital organs, blood vessels, and nerves. Here we describe an avoidance control algorithm with delay compensation that takes the dynamic characteristics of the robot into account. To determine the operating parameters, we measured frequency characteristics of each joint of the slave-manipulator. The results suggest this delay compensation program improves avoidance performance.
Bran, Gregor M; Börjesson, Pontus K E; Boahene, Kofi D; Gosepath, Jan; Lohuis, Peter J F M
Delayed recovery after facial palsy results in aberrant nerve regeneration with symptomatic movement disorders, summarized as the postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors present an alternative surgical approach for improvement of periocular movement disorders in patients with postparalytic facial nerve syndrome. The authors proposed that endoscopic brow lift leads to an improvement of periocular movement disorders by reducing pathologically raised levels of afferent input. Eleven patients (seven women and four men) with a mean age of 54 years (range, 33 to 85 years) and with postparalytic facial nerve syndrome underwent endoscopic brow lift under general anesthesia. Patients' preoperative condition was compared with their postoperative condition using a retrospective questionnaire. Subjects were also asked to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of endoscopic brow lift and botulinum toxin type A. Mean follow-up was 52 months (range, 22 to 83 months). No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. During follow-up, patients and physicians observed an improvement of periorbital contractures and oculofacial synkinesis. Scores on quality of life improved significantly after endoscopic brow lift. Best results were obtained when botulinum toxin type A was adjoined after the endoscopic brow lift. Patients described a cumulative therapeutic effect. These findings suggest endoscopic brow lift as a promising additional treatment modality for the treatment of periocular postparalytic facial nerve syndrome-related symptoms, leading to an improved quality of life. Even though further prospective investigation is needed, a combination of endoscopic brow lift and postsurgical botulinum toxin type A administration could become a new therapeutic standard.
Freitag, Lutz; Darwiche, Kaid
For all cases of tracheal obstructions surgery should be considered first. Interventional endoscopic procedures can provide immediate relief. Intraluminally growing tumors can be resected with laser, argon-plasma coagulation, an electrosurgical knife or cryo-probe. Photodynamic therapy of smaller tracheal tumors can be curative. Narrowing from intramural tumor growth or wall destruction requires internal splinting with an airway stent. Scar strictures can be dilated with balloons but the biotrauma may stimulate new scarring. In benign strictures and malacias, tracheal stents should only be placed if all other methods are exhausted. Complications including stent migration, mucostasis, halitosis and granulation tissue development must be considered. Most important for a good outcome is a multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iglesias, Martin; Bravo, Leonardo; Chavez-Muñoz, Claudia; Barajas-Olivas, Alexandra
We describe a technique for endoscopic abdominoplasty in which we used 3 incisions, following the triangulation principles. To maintain the subcutaneous cavity, CO2 was insufflated at 8 mm Hg, and Esmarch bandages were placed at the submammary fold in a circumferential way to prevent subcutaneous emphysema. The aponeurosis plication was done with interrupted "8" figure sutures, with extracorporeal knots tied up in a double fisherman knot. The rest of the technique is similar to those previously described. Seven patients were treated, with an average age of 35.7 years (range, 25-60), and the mean length of surgery was of 197.11 minutes (range, 129-240). After surgery, 2 patients had mild pulmonary hypoventilation treated only with oxygen through a nasal mask for 24 hours. There were other complications such as seromas, inadequate implantation of the navel, and superficial periumbilical necrosis. According to the patients' opinion, the esthetic results have been satisfactory so far.
Lui, Tun Hing
The accessory navicular bone is one of the most common accessory ossicles of the foot. Fewer than 1% of accessory navicular bones are symptomatic, and most of these are type II accessory navicular bones. A separation of the synchondrosis is considered one of the main causes of pain. After an injury to the synchondrosis has resulted in a chondro-osseous disruption, the combined forces of tension and shear from the posterior tibial tendon and the foot aggravate the injury and prevent it from healing. Fusion of the synchondrosis is a logical surgical treatment option if the pain is recalcitrant to conservative measures. The purpose of this technical note is to report an endoscopic approach to achieve fusion. It has the advantages of better cosmesis, less scar pain, less risk of nonunion, and potential to examine the tibialis posterior tendon and the talonavicular joint.
Zemple, R P; Potretzke, A M; Kryger, J V
Endoscopic injection treatment of vesicoureteral reflux is an increasingly common and successful option. Obstruction is an infrequent postoperative complication, occurring in 1% of patients; delayed onset of obstruction is even rarer. There is a paucity of literature describing possible treatments. We present a novel approach by excision of the implanted material.
Background It is important to know the causes of dyspepsia to establish the therapeutic approach. Dyspepsia is a frequent syndrome in our country, where there are restrictions to endoscopy and high prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This study aimed to assess the endoscopic findings of the syndrome, in an outpatient screening clinic of a tertiary hospital in São Paulo. Methods Outpatients with uninvestigated dyspepsia, according to Rome III criteria, answered a dyspepsia questionnaire and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. The Rapid Urease Test was applied to fragments of the antral mucosa and epidemiological data were collected from the studied population. Organic dyspepsia findings were analyzed with different variables to verify statistically significant associations. Results Three hundred and six patients were included and 282 were analyzed in the study. The mean age was 44 years and women comprised 65% of the sample. Forty-five percent of the patients reported alarm symptoms. Functional dyspepsia was found in 66% of the patients (20% with normal endoscopy results and 46% with gastritis), 18% had GERD and 13% had ulcers (duodenal in 9% and gastric in 4%). Four cases of gastric adenocarcinoma were identified (1.4%), one without alarm characteristics, 1 case of adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus and 1 case of gastric lymphoma. The prevalence of H. pylori was 54% and infection, age and smoking status were associated with organic dyspepsia. The age of 48 years was indicative of alarm signs. Conclusions The endoscopic diagnosis of uninvestigated dyspepsia in our setting showed a predominance of functional disease, whereas cancer was an uncommon finding, despite the high prevalence of H. pylori. Organic dyspepsia was associated with infection, age and smoking status. PMID:24499444
Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S; Bhasin, Deepak K
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an important diagnostic and therapeutic modality in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy. EUS provides access to many organs and lesions which are in proximity to the gastrointestinal tract and thus giving an opportunity to target them for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. This modality also provides a real time opportunity to target the required area while avoiding adjacent vascular and other structures. Therapeutic EUS has found role in management of pancreatic fluid collections, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of gallbladder, celiac plexus neurolysis/blockage, drainage of mediastinal and intra-abdominal abscesses and collections and in targeted cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Infact, therapeutic EUS has emerged as the therapy of choice for management of pancreatic pseudocysts and recent innovations like fully covered removable metallic stents have improved results in patients with organised necrosis. Similarly, EUS guided drainage of biliary tract and pancreatic duct helps drainage of these systems in patients with failed cannulation, inaccessible papilla as with duodenal/gastric obstruction or surgically altered anatomy. EUS guided gall bladder drainage is a useful emergent procedure in patients with acute cholecystitis who are not fit for surgery. EUS guided celiac plexus neurolysis and blockage is more effective and less morbid vis-à-vis the percutaneous technique. The field of interventional EUS is rapidly advancing and many more interventions are being continuously added. This review focuses on the current status of evidence vis-à-vis the established indications of therapeutic EUS. PMID:26078831
Gallstones usually form in the gallbladder. Gallstones sometimes pass from the gallbladder into the common bile duct, ... viewed through the endoscope. Next, the surgeon can pass a special instrument on the end of the ...
Wagenvoort, J H; van Blankenstein, M; Kooyman-Op de Hoek, G; Boks, A L; van Oudenaarde, P H
A method for disinfecting fibreoptic endoscopes with povidone-iodine and a simple cleaning device, consisting of a curved glass pipe and a peristaltic pump is described. If properly employed the system produces satisfactory results.
Tabibian, James H; Visrodia, Kavel H; Levy, Michael J; Gostout, Christopher J
Endoscopic evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures (IDBSs) has evolved considerably since the development of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography pancreatography (ERCP) was introduced nearly a decade later and has since become the mainstay of therapy for relieving obstruction of the biliary tract. However, longstanding methods of ERCP-guided tissue acquisition (i.e., biliary brushings for cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy for histology) have demonstrated disappointing performance characteristics in distinguishing malignant from benign etiologies of IDBSs. The limitations of these methods have thus helped drive the search for novel techniques to enhance the evaluation of IDBSs and thereby improve diagnosis and clinical care. These modalities include, but are not limited to, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography. In this review, we discuss established and emerging options in the evaluation of IDBSs. PMID:26675379
García-Flórez, Luis J; Otero-Díez, Jorge L
Transanal endoscopic surgery (TES) consists of a series of anorectal surgical procedures using different devices that are introduced into the anal canal. TES has been developed significantly since it was first used in the 1980s. The key point for the success of these techniques is how accurately patients are selected. The main indication was the resection of endoscopically unresectable adenomas. In recent years, these techniques have become more widespread which has allowed them to be applied in conservative rectal procedures for both benign diseases and selected cases of rectal cancer. For more advanced rectal cancers it should be considered palliative or, in some controlled trials, experimental. The role of newer endoscopic techniques available has not yet been defined. TES may allow for new strategies in the treatment of rectal pathology, like transanal natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery or total mesorectal excision. PMID:26309355
Prepageran, N; Lingham, O R
The advent of endoscopes has revolutionized rhinology and the traditional headlight based surgeries have largely been replaced by endoscopes. Septoplasty for deviated nasal septum or Sluder's neuralgia have been conventionally performed with the aid of headlight. This can be technically challenging as visualization of the nasal cavity, particularly the posterior portion is rather limited as the procedure is performed via the nostrils. In addition, with headlights for illumination, teaching this procedure can be difficult as only the surgeon who is wearing the headlights has direct vision of the surgical field.Endoscopic septoplasty is an accepted alternative to traditional headlight approach to septoplasty. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. Our experience in endoscopic septoplasty is highlighted in this paper, excluding septoplasties performed as part of exposure to the sinuses. We use the open book method that to best of our knowledge has not been described in literature before.
Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Pastorelli, Luca; Ishaq, Sauid; Neumann, Helmut
Modern strategies for the treatment of ulcerative colitis require more accurate tools for gastrointestinal imaging to better assess mucosal disease activity and long-term prognostic clinical outcomes. Recent advances in gastrointestinal luminal endoscopy are radically changing the role of endoscopy in every-day clinical practice and research trials. Advanced endoscopic imaging techniques including high-definition endoscopes, optical magnification endoscopy, and various chromoendoscopy techniques have remarkably improved endoscopic assessment of ulcerative colitis. More recently, optical biopsy techniques with either endocytoscopy or confocal laser endomicroscopy have shown great potential in predicting several histological changes in real time during ongoing endoscopy. Here, we review current applications of advanced endoscopic imaging techniques in ulcerative colitis and present the most promising upcoming headways in this field.
Singhal, Riju; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Kalyana Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat; Niu, Jun Jie; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Vitol, Elina A.; Schrlau, Michael G.; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury
Glass micropipettes, atomic force microscope tips and nanoneedles can be used to interrogate cells, but these devices either have conical geometries that can damage cells during penetration or are incapable of continuous fluid handling. Here, we report a carbon-nanotube-based endoscope for interrogating cells, transporting fluids and performing optical and electrochemical diagnostics at the single organelle level. The endoscope, which is made by placing a multiwalled carbon nanotube (length, 50-60 µm) at the tip of a glass pipette, can probe the intracellular environment with a spatial resolution of ~100 nm and can also access organelles without disrupting the cell. When the nanotube is filled with magnetic nanoparticles, the endoscope can be remotely manoeuvered to transport nanoparticles and attolitre volumes of fluids to and from precise locations. Because they are mounted on conventional glass micropipettes, the endoscopes readily fit standard instruments, creating a broad range of opportunities for minimally invasive intracellular probing, drug delivery and single-cell surgery.
Neumann, Helmut; Nägel, Andreas; Buda, Andrea
Advanced endoscopic imaging is revolutionizing our way on how to diagnose and treat colorectal lesions. Within recent years a variety of modern endoscopic imaging techniques was introduced to improve adenoma detection rates. Those include high-definition imaging, dye-less chromoendoscopy techniques and novel, highly flexible endoscopes, some of them equipped with balloons or multiple lenses in order to improve adenoma detection rates. In this review we will focus on the newest developments in the field of colonoscopic imaging to improve adenoma detection rates. Described techniques include high-definition imaging, optical chromoendoscopy techniques, virtual chromoendoscopy techniques, the Third Eye Retroscope and other retroviewing devices, the G-EYE endoscope and the Full Spectrum Endoscopy-system. PMID:25789092
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Tsuji, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Doyama, Hisashi
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is problematic with regard to en bloc and curable resection rates. Advancements in endoscopic techniques have enabled novel endoscopic approaches such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which has overcome some EMR problems, and has become the standard treatment for gastrointestinal tumors. However, ESD is technically difficult. Procedure time is longer and complications such as intraoperative perforation and bleeding occur more frequently than in EMR. Recently various traction methods have been introduced to facilitate ESD procedures, such as clip with line, external forceps, clip and snare, internal traction, double scope, and magnetic anchor. Each method must be used appropriately according to the anatomical characteristics. In this review we discuss recently proposed traction methods for ESD based on the characteristics of various anatomical sites. PMID:27468186
Wu, X W; Ren, J A; Li, J S
Intestinal fistulas are severe complications after abdominal surgical procedures. The endoscopic therapy makes it possible to close fistulas without surgical interventions. When patients achieved stabilization and had no signs of systemic sepsis or inflammation, these therapies could be conducted, which included endoscopic vacuum therapy, fibrin glue sealing, stents, fistula plug, suture, and Over The Scope Clip (OTSC). Various techniques may be combined. Endoscopy vacuum therapy could be applied to control systemic inflammation and prevent continuing septic contamination by active drainage. Endoscopic stent is placed over fistulas and gastrointestinal continuity is recovered. The glue sealing is applied for enterocutaneous fistulas, and endoscopy suture has the best results seen in fistulas <1 cm in diameter. Insertion of the fistula plug is used to facilitate fistula healing. The OTSC is effective to treat leaks with large defects. Endoscopic treatment could avoid reoperation and could be regarded as the first-line treatment for specific patients.
del Genio, Gianmattia; del Genio, Federica; Schettino, Pietro; Limongelli, Paolo; Tolone, Salvatore; Brusciano, Luigi; Avellino, Manuela; Vitiello, Chiara; Docimo, Giovanni; Pezzullo, Angelo; Docimo, Ludovico
Squamous papilloma of the esophagus is a rare benign lesion of the esophagus. Radiofrequency ablation is an established endoscopic technique for the eradication of Barrett esophagus. No cases of endoscopic ablation of esophageal papilloma by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been reported. We report a case of esophageal papilloma successfully treated with a single session of radiofrequency ablation. Endoscopic ablation of the lesion was achieved by radiofrequency using a new catheter inserted through the working channel of endoscope. The esophageal ablated tissue was removed by a specifically designed cup. Complete ablation was confirmed at 3 mo by endoscopy with biopsies. This case supports feasibility and safety of as a new potential indication for BarrxTM RFA in patients with esophageal papilloma. PMID:25789102
Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Lourdusamy, Dennisdhilak; Mehta, Dhruv; Lourdusamy, Vennisvasanth; Venkatesh, Preethi G K; Sanaka, Madhusudhan R
Endoscopic resection is an alternative to surgery for removal of large duodenal polyps. There are limited data on the safety, efficacy, and long-term recurrence data after endoscopic resection of sporadic, non-ampullary, and large duodenal polyps. Our aim was to evaluate the safety and short-term outcomes of the endoscopic removal of the large sporadic duodenal polyps and to determine long-term risk of recurrence and factors predicting recurrence on follow-up. Patients with large (>10 mm) sporadic non-ampullary duodenal polyps underwent endoscopic resection from 2001 to 2012 at the Cleveland Clinic. Patients underwent endoscopic polypectomy and argon plasma coagulation. The main outcome measurements were complete polypectomy, complications, short- and long-term recurrence. A total of 54 patients were included. The mean patient age was 66.4 years. The mean polyp size was 15.1 ± 5.4 mm. Most polyps (N = 48, 88.9 %) were sessile polyps. The median follow-up time was 10.8 (range 0.5-120) months. Most lesions were located in the second part of the duodenum (N = 41, 75.9 %). Adenomas were found in 46 (85.2 %) of lesions overall. Tubular adenoma was the most common histology type found in 33 cases (71.7 %). Tubulovillous and villous were found in 12 (26.1 %) and 1 (2.2 %) cases, respectively. On follow-up, 50 (92.6 %) achieved complete resection with tumor free margins post resection. The 30-day risk of major complications was 5.6 % (N = 3), 1 with perforation and 2 with delayed bleeding. Recurrence was documented in 29 % (N = 16) of patients. All recurrences were managed endoscopically except for one patient who required surgery. The recurrence rate was higher for patients who had villous component in their adenomas compared to those with tubular alone (p = 0.03). Endoscopic resection is effective for treating large duodenal adenomas. Adenomas with villous features are more likely to recur. Almost all recurrences can be managed endoscopically.
LaFrentz, J R; Mair, E A; Casler, J D
Penetrating facial injuries are not infrequent. There have been isolated case reports of unusual penetrating craniofacial trauma. We describe an unusual case of a 22-month-old child who suffered an external orbital injury from a ballpoint pen that penetrated the orbit, lamina papyracea, posterior ethmoid sinuses, and sphenoid sinus. Endoscopic sinus surgery was performed to extract the ballpoint pen nib after localization with computed tomography. Careful pediatric endoscopic sinus surgery techniques permitted safe foreign body extraction with minimal morbidity.
Gayton, J L
Endoscopic laser cycloablation can be effective in treating glaucoma. The Micro probe endoscopic laser permits excellent visualization of the ciliary processes. However, the surgeon can not simultaneously view through the probe and see the probe's location in the eye through the surgical microscope. An iris adhesion with the probe led to total aniridia in the case reported. Having an assistant watch the operative monitor or devising a system that allows the surgeon to watch both monitors could prevent this complication.
Lui, Tun Hing
Recession of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis is the operation of choice in the case of isolated gastrocnemius contracture, because it addresses the major deforming force without weakening the entire musculotendinous unit. Endoscopic recession of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis has been proved to be effective but can be associated with the wrong level of release, incomplete release, sural nerve injury, or a palpable gap at the aponeurosis. A modification of the endoscopic technique is described to provide solutions to these potential problems.
Hamashima, Chisato; Goto, Rei
In 2016, the Japanese government decided to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer as a national program. To provide endoscopic screening nationwide, we estimated the proportion of increase in the number of endoscopic examinations with the introduction of endoscopic screening, based on a national survey. The total number of endoscopic examinations has increased, particularly in clinics. Based on the national survey, the total number of participants in gastric cancer screening was 3 784 967. If 30% of the participants are switched from radiographic screening to endoscopic screening, approximately 1 million additional endoscopic examinations are needed. In Japan, the participation rates in gastric cancer screening and the number of hospitals and clinics offering upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vary among the 47 prefectures. If the participation rates are high and the numbers of hospitals and clinics are small, the proportion of increase becomes larger. Based on the same assumption, 50% of big cities can provide endoscopic screening with a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. However, 16.7% of the medical districts are available for endoscopic screening within a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. Despite the Japanese government's decision to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, its immediate introduction remains difficult because of insufficient medical resources in rural areas. This implies that endoscopic screening will be initially introduced to big cities. To promote endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, the disparity of medical resources must first be resolved.
Jung, Soyeon; Jung, Sung Won; Koh, Sung Hoon; Lim, Hyoseob
Patients with forehead mass have a cosmetic problem because the forehead is an important first impression. Conventional skin approach results in visible scar even though surgeons designed the incision along the relaxed skin tension line1. Since Onishi introduced the technique for endoscopic approach in 1995, endoscopic surgery has become rapidly popular in the field of plastic surgery. Endoscopic approach to the forehead mass by small incision on the scalp behind hair line is big advantageous for leaving less ugly scar on the forehead. All procedures need to be identified under the endoscopic visualization. When it was completed, the mass was pulled out. The authors also used the osteotome or rasp when it was the osteoma. The forehead and scalp were applied compressive dressing to prevent hematoma and swelling for 2 days. The cosmesis was excellent because they have no visible scar on the forehead. Endoscopic approaching technique is getting popular and commonly used during the cosmetic surgery because it has many advantages. This method also, however, has difficulties to remove large-sized mass and to perform caudal dissection, and for increased operative times. Furthermore, there are complication of incomplete removal, hematoma, and swelling. The proper candidate is the patient with smooth forehead, with a mobile and soft mass, with a propensity for keloid formation, or hypertrophic scarring. Endoscopic technique is not only advantageous but also disadvantageous. That is why surgeon's selection is more important.
Pillers, Russell B.; Publicover, Nelson G.
Confocal imaging in an endoscopic format is currently under-utilized as a clinical investigative tool. This is due mainly to the complex, sensitive and costly scanning systems required to produce images. We hypothesize that design potential exists for an endoscope without any type of scanning system and that consequently can simultaneously acquire an entire confocal image frame. Our design exploits the parallel structure of fiber-optic image guides to eliminate all scanning hardware. The design is based upon developing a novel method to form a miniscule aperture on the end of each fiber in an image bundle. This process creates out-of-focus light rejection space between each fiber without changing the fiber spacing or the original outer diameter of the image guide. Our modified image guide can then be incorporated into an essentially typical endoscopic system. Using parallel apertures, a confocal endoscope or "conscope" can acquire images at a rate limited only by light intensity and the acquisition rate of a camera. The research presented in this paper shows the effects of adjusting pinhole diameter on confocal performance. The marriage of endoscopes, confocal imaging, parallel optical fibers, and the conscope design offers life science an ability to quickly observe deep, in-vivo cellular structures in their natural state. Although originally intended for endoscope applications, our design may benefit other forms of microscopy as well.
Pai, Vishwanath M.; Muthukumar, Pari; Prathap, Apoorva; Leo, Jayanth; A., Rekha
Introduction Endoscopic thyroidectomy, initially an experimental procedure, is now being performed in increasing frequency. It aims to provide patients undergoing thyroidectomy with a ‘scar-free’ surgery. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy is one such novel procedure that is based on the principles of natural orifice translumenal surgery (NOTES) and allows for a truly scar-free surgery with minimal dissection. Presentation of case A 21-year-old female presented with a swelling over the left side of her neck. Ultrasound revealed a solitary nodule and FNAC showed features suggestive of a follicular adenoma. Discussion The patient underwent transoral endoscopic hemi-thyroidectomy. The procedure lasted for 2 h and is one of the few documented cases of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy performed on live patients. Conclusion Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy is proving to be a feasible technique with little or no complications as compared to other endoscopic thyroid surgeries. It provides surgeons with easy access to the thyroid gland and patients with aesthetically pleasing results. PMID:26048629
Sivak, M V
Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the procedure of choice for choledocholithiasis in patients who have had a cholecystectomy. The bile duct is cleared of stones in about 80 to 90 percent of patients. Available data, largely retrospective, suggest that surgery and endoscopic sphincterotomy are about equal with respect to removal of stones, morbidity, and mortality. Certain technical problems are discussed, including inability to insert the papillotome, the large stone, and problems relating to anatomy such as peripapillary diverticulum and prior gastrectomy. The treatment of patients with bile duct stones who have not had a cholecystectomy, with and without cholelithiasis, is controversial. Endoscopic sphincterotomy without subsequent cholecystectomy is adequate treatment for the majority of patients who are unfit for surgery, even if there are stones in the gallbladder, provided they are asymptomatic after endoscopic removal of stones from the bile ducts. Endoscopic sphincterotomy has been performed in the treatment of gallstone-induced pancreatitis, acute obstructive cholangitis, and sump syndrome. The complication rate for endoscopic sphincterotomy ranges from 6.5 to 8.7 percent, with a mortality rate of 0 to 1.3 percent. The most common serious complications are perforation, hemorrhage, acute pancreatitis, and sepsis.
Accorsi, Fabio; Coutu, Geneviève; Simms, Emily-Lauren; Lalonde, Alain; Leswick, David A
Not all endoscopically placed clips are MRI compatible, so screening for endoscopic clips before MRI is recommended. The purpose of this study was to assess endoscopic clip screening practices at Canadian MRI centers, including number of centers that screen, specific screening methods, perceived safety of endoscopic clip models, and practices for dealing with confirmed gastrointestinal endoscopic clips. A bilingual online survey was distributed to Canadian MRI centers to assess site demographics, endoscopic clip screening practices, safety considerations for different endoscopic clip models, protocols for dealing with patients with endoscopic clips, and the perceived value of screening. One year later, a secondary survey was distributed to the original participants to assess for changes made to screening policy after the initial survey and to assess awareness of any complications arising from the presence of endoscopic clips during MRI. Sixty-seven MRI centers completed the survey (55% response rate). Sixteen centers (24%) did not specifically screen for endoscopic clips, five because they were not aware that endoscopic clips may not be safe for MRI. Fifty-one centers (76%) did screen for endoscopic clips. At least 23% of screeners misclassified the safety of one or more MRI-unsafe clips. As many as 36% of screeners may perform MRI on patients with confirmed gastrointestinal endoscopic clips; 16% reschedule for more than 6 weeks after endoscopy; and 18% limit the field strength to 1.5 T, the safety of which is uncertain. Many Canadians are undergoing MRI without screening for endoscopic clips. Although the risks of MRI to patients with endoscopic clips is unclear, the misclassification of some endoscopic clip models and inconsistent protocols for dealing with confirmed endoscopic clips call for further research and unified evidence-based endoscopic clip screening standards.
Chan, Jason Y K; Leung, Iris; Navarro-Alarcon, David; Lin, Weiyang; Li, Peng; Lee, Dennis L Y; Liu, Yun-hui; Tong, Michael C F
To evaluate the feasibility of a unique prototype foot-controlled robotic-enabled endoscope holder (FREE) in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Cadaveric study. Using human cadavers, we investigated the feasibility, advantages, and disadvantages of the robotic endoscope holder in performing endoscopic sinus surgery with two hands in five cadaver heads, mimicking a single nostril three-handed technique. The FREE robot is relatively easy to use. Setup was quick, taking less than 3 minutes from docking the robot at the head of the bed to visualizing the middle meatus. The unit is also relatively small, takes up little space, and currently has four degrees of freedom. The learning curve for using the foot control was short. The use of both hands was not hindered by the presence of the endoscope in the nasal cavity. The tremor filtration also aided in the smooth movement of the endoscope, with minimal collisions. The FREE endoscope holder in an ex-vivo cadaver test corroborated the feasibility of the robotic prototype, which allows for a two-handed approach to surgery equal to a single nostril three-handed technique without the holder that may reduce operating time. Further studies will be needed to evaluate its safety profile and use in other areas of endoscopic surgery. NA. Laryngoscope, 126:566-569, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Yoshida, Naohisa; Fernandopulle, Nilesh; Inada, Yutaka; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito
Colonoscopic examination is considered an effective examination for the detection of colorectal cancers. Additionally, early colorectal cancers can be resected using endoscopic techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, those examinations and treatments need special techniques. Various training methods are practiced to acquire such endoscopic techniques throughout the world. In clinical cases, magnetic positioning devices help endoscopic insertion by less experienced endoscopists. There is a physical model made by polyvinyl chloride and a virtual simulator for training of colonoscopic insertion. Various techniques including a method to apply pressure to the abdomen and consideration for patient's pain can be trained using these models. In view of extensive training of endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection, animal models are useful and actually used. Live animal models of minipig, which entails blood flow, are ideal and used frequently, but are cumbersome to prepare. On the other hand, ex vivo animal models using intestine of porcine and bovine are convenient for preparation and less expensive. Unique ex vivo animal models with blood flow have been developed recently and techniques for hemostasis can be practiced. With respect to a method of training for colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection, a stepwise system has been adopted throughout the world. Thus, first they observe the expert's technique, then practice training of animal models, and finally, they perform clinical rectal cases. The system is useful for a safe and definite procedure. In this review, we reveal various training methods for colonoscopic examinations and treatments.
Liang, Junjie; Hu, Youzhu; Zhao, Qiong; Li, Qiang
Endoscopic thyroidectomy via complete areola approach (ETCAA) is becoming the preferred choice of some patients due to the perfect cosmetic result. Endoscope holder plays an important role in the procedures. Research on the learning curve is helpful in training of endoscope holder and improvement of the whole procedure. This prospective study investigated 100 consecutive patients who underwent ETCAA performed by a single experienced surgeon and a single inexperienced endoscope holder. Patients were equally divided into ten groups chronologically. One-way analysis of variance, Student-Newman-Keuls test, and Pearson Chi square test were used to analyze statistical significance for clinical data. The correlativity between the operative time and the case number, the endoscope holding score and the case number, the operative time and the interval of neighboring procedures, the endoscope holding score and the interval of neighboring procedures were analyzed with linear regression analysis. The mean operative time was 96.30 ± 13.10 min, and the mean endoscope holding score was 74.65 ± 14.08. There were significant differences among the mean operative time (P < 0.0001) and the mean endoscope holding score (P < 0.0001). Multiple comparison revealed that the mean operative time of group 7, 8, 9, 10 were shorter than group 4, 5, 6, meanwhile the mean operative time of group 4, 5, 6 were shorter than group 1, 2, 3. Moreover, the mean endoscope holding score of group 7, 8, 9, 10 were higher than group 4, 5, 6, and the mean endoscope holding score of group 4, 5, 6 were higher than group 1, 2, 3. Linear regression analysis showed negative correlation between the operative time and the case number (r = -0.746, P < 0.0001), positive correlation between the endoscope holding score and the case number (r = 0.765, P < 0.0001), positive correlation between the operative time and the interval of neighboring procedures (r = 0.777, P = 0.008), and negative
Hummel, Johann; Figl, Michael; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Häfner, Michael; Kollmann, Christian; Bergmann, Helmar
Endoscopic Ultrasound (EUS) features flexible endoscopes equipped with a radial or linear array scanhead allowing high resolution examination of organs adjacent to the upper gastrointestinal tract. An optical system based on fibre-glass or a CCD-chip allows additional orientation. However, 3-dimensional orientation and correct identification of the various anatomical structures may be difficult. It therefore seems desirable to merge real-time US images with high resolution CT or MR images acquired prior to EUS to simplify navigation during the intervention. The additional information provided by CT or MR images might facilitate diagnosis of tumors and, ultimately, guided puncture of suspicious lesions. We built a grid with 15 plastic spheres and measured their positions relatively to five fiducial markers placed on the top of the grid. For this measurement we used an optical tracking system (OTS) (Polaris, NDI, Can). Two sensors of an electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) (Aurora, NDI, Can) were mounted on a flexible endoscope (Pentax GG 38 UX, USA) to enable a free hand ultrasound calibration. To determine the position of the plastic spheres in the emitter coordinate system of the EMTS we applied a point-to-point registration (Horn) using the coordinates of the fiducial markers in both coordinate systems (OTS and EMTS). For the transformation between EMTS to the CT space the Horn algorithm was adopted again using the fiducial markers. Visualization was enabled by the use of the AVW-4.0 library (Biomedical Imaging Resource, Mayo Clinic, Rochester/MN, USA). To evaluate the suitability of our new navigation system we measured the Fiducial Registration Error (FRE) of the diverse registrations and the Target Registration Error (TRE) for the complete transformation from the US space to the CT space. The FRE for the ultrasound calibration amounted to 4.3 mm +/- 4.2 mm, resulting from 10 calibration procedures. For the transformation from the OTS reference system to the
Minebois, C; Saviuc, P; Shum, J; Tuvignon, P; Pelloux, I; Brenier-Pinchart, M-P; Landelle, C; Mallaret, M-R
A new process for packaging endoscopes (SureStore(®), Medical Innovations Group) immediately after they exit from washing and disinfection in an automated endoscope reprocessor (AER) allows for endoscopes to be stored for up to 15 days. To describe the microbiological quality of samples from gastrointestinal endoscopes following this process. Three-month prospective study using microbiological sampling from a stock of 38 gastrointestinal endoscopes carried out in a French University Hospital. The compliance rate (proportion of samples ≤25 cfu with no pathogenic micro-organisms) and the rate of sterile samples (proportion of germ-free samples) were calculated. We then used multivariate analysis to determine the factors associated with the maintenance of sterility. One hundred samples were taken from stored endoscopes: 31 stored for ≤3 days, 34 stored between 3 and 7 days, and 35 after storage between 7 and 15 days. The compliance rate was 98% and the sterile sample rate was 60%. Only the time between leaving the AER and packaging was significantly associated with the sterility of samples (P = 0.02). The probability of having a sterile sample decreased 17-fold when the endoscope was packaged >2 h after leaving the AER (P = 0.04) compared to an endoscope packaged within 1 h after leaving the AER. The SureStore process seems capable of satisfactorily maintaining compliance (98%) of samples taken from endoscopes stored for up to 15 days. The delay in packaging should not exceed 1 h, as the rate of sterile samples decreases thereafter. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williet, Nicolas; Kassir, Radwan; Cuilleron, Muriel; Dumas, Olivier; Rinaldi, Leslie; Augeul-Meunier, Karine; Cottier, Michèle; Roblin, Xavier; Phelip, Jean-Marc
A 71-year-old man, with history of plasmacytoma in relapse since one year, was hospitalized for a initial presentation of acute pancreatitis and hepatitis. Although there was a heterogeneous infiltration around the pancreas head, the diagnosis of an extramedullary localization of his plasmacytoma was not made until later. This delayed diagnosis was due to the lack of specific radiologic features and the lack of dilatation of biliary ducts at the admission. A diagnosis was made with a simple ultrasound guided paracentesis of the low abundance ascites after a transjugular hepatic biopsy, an endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of the pancreatic mass, and a failed attempt of biliary drainage through endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In order to document the difficulty of this diagnosis, characteristics of 63 patients suffering from this condition and diagnosis were identified and discussed through a systematic literature search. PMID:28246589
Robaina, Gabriela; Albertini, Ricardo; Carranza, Martín; Herrena Najum, Pablo
Gastric varices occur in one-third of patients with portal hypertension. Bleeding from gastric varices remains a significant cause of death. Currently the first-line of treatment for gastric varices is endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Though relatively safe, this option has several well-known complications. We report the case of a 61-year-old male patient with cryptogenic cirrhosis, who presented with fever, tachycardia and hypoxemia after endoscopic obliteration with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. Radiographic findings were consistent with pulmonary embolism of the sclerosing substance. The aim of this case report is to emphasize the clinical and radiological findings of this complication in order to distinguish it from other similar medical conditions and prevent a delay in diagnosis.
Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur
Upper non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding is a condition that requires immediate medical intervention and has a high associated mortality rate (exceeding 10%). The vast majority of upper gastrointestinal bleeding cases are due to peptic ulcers. Helicobacter pylori infection, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin are the main risk factors for peptic ulcer disease. Endoscopic therapy has generally been recommended as the first-line treatment for upper gastrointestinal bleeding as it has been shown to reduce recurrent bleeding, the need for surgery and mortality. Early endoscopy (within 24 h of hospital admission) has a greater impact than delayed endoscopy on the length of hospital stay and requirement for blood transfusion. This paper aims to review and compare the efficacy of the types of endoscopic hemostasis most commonly used to control non-variceal gastrointestinal bleeding by pooling data from the literature. PMID:26421105
Skobelkin, O. K.; Saphronov, A. M.; Shapovalov, A. M.; Zaharov, P. I.
We have described our experience in the application of high energy argon and Nd:YAG lasers for endoscopic surgical manipulations. Laser was used for the removal of polyps with a wide base, villi tumours in colon, for the elimination of scar strictures in colon anastomosis, for the formation of primary-delayed colon anastomosis and for the removal of timoral stenosis in esophagus and in colon. Laser therapy has certain advantages over other endoscopic manipulations: long-term and immediate results are better. One can use this therapy in combination with others (radial therapy, surgical treatment). We have worked out a classification of polyps and stenosing tumours in the digestive system to determine indications for laser endoscopy and to choose the best parameters of laser irradiation.
Saleem, Abdulaziz M; Hennessey, Hooman; von Renteln, Daniel; Vassiliou, Melina C
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an entirely endoscopic approach for the treatment of achalasia. This new procedure has been shown to be safe, effective, and associated with only minor complications in the postoperative period. This case report describes the development of atrial fibrillation after POEM secondary to direct compression from a hematoma in the submucosal tunnel. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a delayed hematoma after POEM. This procedure is still novel, and it is important to continue to share information about potential complications and long-term results. This report also includes several interesting radiographic images to illustrate what occurred. Finally, we provide a brief review of the literature on complications that have been described after POEM.
Rejchrt, Stanislav; Cermák, Pavel; Pavlatová, Ludmila; McKová, Eva; Bures, Jan
There are no definitive data available concerning microbiologic safety of prolonged endoscope storage after reprocessing and disinfection. This study evaluated the durability of high-level disinfection of endoscopes stored in a dust-proof cabinet for 5 days. Three different types of endoscopes (upper endoscopes, duodenoscopes, colonoscopes) were tested. After completion of the endoscopic procedure, endoscopes were subjected to an initial decontamination, followed by manual cleaning with the endoscope immersed in detergent. The endoscopes then were placed in an automatic reprocessor that provides high-level disinfection. They then were stored by hanging in a dust-proof cabinet. Bacteriologic samples were obtained from the surface of the endoscopes, the openings for the piston valves, and the accessory channel daily for 5 days, and by flush-through (combined with brushing) from the accessory channels after 5 days of storage. Samples were cultured for all types of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including bacterial spores, and for Candida species. For all assays, all endoscopes were bacteria-free immediately after high-level disinfection. Only 4 assays (of 135) were positive during the subsequent 5-day assessment (skin bacteria cultured from endoscope surfaces). All flush-through samples were sterile. When endoscope reprocessing guidelines are strictly observed and endoscopes are stored in appropriate cabinets for up to 5 days, reprocessing before use may not be necessary.
van der Stap, Nanda; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Broeders, Ivo A M J
The design of flexible endoscopes has not changed significantly in the past 50 years. A trend is observed towards a wider application of flexible endoscopes with an increasing role in complex intraluminal therapeutic procedures. The nonintuitive and nonergonomical steering mechanism now forms a barrier in the extension of flexible endoscope applications. Automating the navigation of endoscopes could be a solution for this problem. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in image-based navigation algorithms. The objectives are to find the most promising navigation system(s) to date and to indicate fields for further research. A systematic literature search was performed using three general search terms in two medical-technological literature databases. Papers were included according to the inclusion criteria. A total of 135 papers were analyzed. Ultimately, 26 were included. Navigation often is based on visual information, which means steering the endoscope using the images that the endoscope produces. Two main techniques are described: lumen centralization and visual odometry. Although the research results are promising, no successful, commercially available automated flexible endoscopy system exists to date. Automated systems that employ conventional flexible endoscopes show the most promising prospects in terms of cost and applicability. To produce such a system, the research focus should lie on finding low-cost mechatronics and technologically robust steering algorithms. Additional functionality and increased efficiency can be obtained through software development. The first priority is to find real-time, robust steering algorithms. These algorithms need to handle bubbles, motion blur, and other image artifacts without disrupting the steering process.
Ahrens, M; Schulte, T; Egberts, J; Schafmayer, C; Hampe, J; Fritscher-Ravens, A; Broering, D C; Schniewind, B
Major leakage from an esophageal anastomosis is a life-threatening surgical complication. Endoscopically guided endoluminal vacuum therapy using polyurethane sponges is a new method for treating such leakage. Between June 2007 and June 2009, five patients (mean age 68 years) who developed anastomotic leakage after esophageal surgery were prospectively evaluated. After endoscopic diagnosis of a major leakage, polyurethane sponges were endoscopically positioned in the wound cavity of the anastomosis. Continuous suction was applied via drainage tubes fixed to the sponges. Initially sponges were endoscopically changed three times per week. In all five patients treatment was successful. Median time to reduce levels of inflammation markers by 50 % was 10 days for white blood cell (WBC) count and 7 days for C-reactive protein (CRP). The smallest initial wound cavity size was 42 cm (3) and the largest was 157 cm (3). The median duration of drainage was 28 days, with a median of 9 sponge changes and a median time to total cavity closure of 42 days. Two patients needed anastomotic dilation by Savary-Miller bougienage due to stenosis found on further follow-up. One of these patients died of acute severe hemorrhage from an aortoanastomotic fistula after the dilation procedure. Endoscopically assisted vacuum therapy is a well-tolerated and effective therapeutic option for treatment of major esophageal leaks after surgery. Additional surgery was avoided in all cases. However, the occurrence of a delayed aortoesophageal fistula calls for careful further investigation of this new technique. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.
Yang, Yanshuang; Hou, Qiang; Zhao, Huijuan; Qin, Zhuanping; Gao, Feng
To acquire the optical diffuse tomographic image of the cervix, a novel endoscopic rotary probe is designed and the frequency domain measurement system is developed. The finite element method and Gauss-Newton method are proposed to reconstruct the image of the phantom. In the optical diffuse tomographic imaging of the cervix, an endoscopic probe is needed and the detection of light at different separation to the irradiation spot is necessary. To simplify the system, only two optical fibers are adopted for light irradiation and collection, respectively. Two small stepper motors are employed to control the rotation of the incident fiber and the detection fiber, respectively. For one position of source fiber, the position of the detection fiber is changed from -61.875° to -50.625° and 50.625° to 61.875° to the source fiber, respectively. Then, the position of the source fiber is changed to another preconcerted position, which deviates the precious source position in an angle of 11.25°, and the detection fiber rotates within the above angles. To acquire the efficient irradiation and collection of the light, a gradient-index (GRIN) lens is connected at the head of the optical fiber. The other end of the GRIN lens is cut to 45°. With this design, light from optical fiber is reflected to the cervix wall, which is perpendicular to the optical fiber or vice versa. Considering the cervical size, the external diameter of the endoscopic probe is made to 20mm. A frequency domain (FD) near-infrared diffuse system is developed aiming at the detection of early cervical cancer, which modulates the light intensity in radio frequency and measures the amplitude attenuation and the phase delay of the diffused light using heterodyne detection. Phantom experiment results demonstrate that the endoscopic rotary scan probe and the system perform well in the endoscopic measurement.
Huang, Yu-Chih; Yeh, Wen-Lin
Operative treatment of prepatellar bursitis is indicated in intractable bursitis. The most common complication of surgical treatment for prepatellar bursitis is skin problems. For traumatic prepatellar bursitis, we propose a protocol of outpatient endoscopic surgery under local anaesthesia. From September 1996 to February 2001, 60 cases of failed nonoperative treatment for prepatellar bursitis were included. The average age was 33.5 ± 11.1 years (range 21-55). The average operation duration was 18 minutes. Two to three mini-arthroscopic portals were used in our series. No sutures or a simple suture was needed for the portals after operation. After follow-up for an average of 36.3 months, all patients are were symptom-free and had regained knee function. None of the population had local tenderness or hypo-aesthesia around their wound. Their radiographic and sonographic examinations showed no recurrence of bursitis. Outpatient arthroscopic bursectomy under local anaesthesia is an effective procedure for the treatment of post-traumatic prepatellar bursitis after failed conservative treatments. Both the cosmetic results and functional results were satisfactory.
Cho, Chang Min
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has been recently established as an indispensable modality for the diagnosis and management of pancreatobiliary and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. EUS proficiency requires both cognitive and technical abilities, including an understanding of the appropriate indications, the performance of appropriate evaluations before and after the procedure, and the management of procedure-related complications. An increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures and a continual shortage of EUS training programs are two major obstacles for EUS training. Acquiring the skills necessary to comprehend and conduct EUS often requires training beyond the scope of a standard GI fellowship program. In addition to traditional formal EUS training and preceptorships, regular short-term intensive EUS training programs that provide training at various levels may help EUS practitioners improve and maintain EUS-related knowledges and skills. Theoretical knowledge can be acquired from lectures, textbooks, atlases, slides, videotapes, digital video discs, interactive compact discs, and websites. Informal EUS training is generally based on 1- or 2-day intensive seminars, including didactic lectures, skills demonstrated by expert practitioners through live video-streaming of procedures, and hands-on learning using animal or phantom models.
The power sources used in endoscopic surgery are varied and numerous, and will continue to improve as technology progresses. Early attempts at operative laparoscopy were crude, limited by the available instrumentation, and tended to be frustrating: scissors that had to be frequently sharpened and endocoagulators that took a seemingly interminable time to achieve their tissue effect. New developements in ultrasonic energy and different wavelengths of laser energy are used alongside increasingly sophisticated electrosurgical tools, employing both monopolar and bipolar systems, and innovative delivery systems such as the argon beam coagulator and the Helica Thermal Coagulator. All of these systems have their advocates and their detractors, but in the end the choice of power source is determined by the type of equipment that the operator feels most comfortable with. The surgeon must have a detailed knowledge of the physical concepts required to generate the power source, and be able to understand the complications that can be created by the energy, how to avoid them, how and to deal with them if they occur. Although there are subtle differences in the reaction of the different energy sources with human tissue, the clinical outcome appears to be much the same, and depends more on the skill of the individual surgeon than the power source employed.
... hormones. These changes normally begin to appear in girls between ages 8 to 14 years old. With delayed puberty, these changes either don't occur, or if they do, they don't progress normally. Delayed puberty is more common in boys than in girls. Causes In most cases of delayed puberty, growth ...
Terrier, F.; Weber, W.; Ruefenacht, D.; Porcellini, B.
The authors illustrate the normal CT anatomy of the ethmoid region and correlate it with the endoscopic and macroscopic anatomy to define landmarks that can be recognized on CT and during endoscopically controlled transnasal ethmoidectomy.
Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening. PMID:28250897
Watson, David I; Immanuel, Arul
Gastroesophageal reflux is extremely common in Western countries. For selected patients, there is an established role for the surgical treatment of reflux, and possibly an emerging role for endoscopic antireflux procedures. Randomized trials have compared medical versus surgical management, laparoscopic versus open surgery and partial versus total fundoplications. However, the evidence base for endoscopic procedures is limited to some small sham-controlled studies, and cohort studies with short-term follow-up. Laparoscopic fundoplication has been shown to be an effective antireflux operation. It facilitates quicker convalescence and is associated with fewer complications, but has a similar longer term outcome compared with open antireflux surgery. In most randomized trials, antireflux surgery achieves at least as good control of reflux as medical therapy, and these studies support a wider application of surgery for the treatment of moderate-to-severe reflux. Laparoscopic partial fundoplication is an effective surgical procedure with fewer side effects, and it may achieve high rates of patient satisfaction at late follow-up. Many of the early endoscopic antireflux procedures have failed to achieve effective reflux control, and they have been withdrawn from the market. Newer procedures have the potential to fashion a surgical fundoplication. However, at present there is insufficient evidence to establish the safety and efficacy of endoscopic procedures for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux, and no endoscopic procedure has achieved equivalent reflux control to that achieved by surgical fundoplication.
Schmerber, S.; Righini, Ch.; Lavielle, J.-P.; Passagia, J.-G.; Reyt, E.
The authors review their experience with endoscopic repair of skull base defects associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea involving the paranasal sinuses. A total of 22 patients was treated endoscopically between 1992 and 1998. The repair method consisted of closure of the CSF fistula with a free autologous abdominal fat graft and fibrin glue, supported with a sheet of silastic. The primary closure rate was 82% (18/22), and the overall closure rate was 95.5% (21/22) without recurrence or complications within an average follow-up of 5 years (14-83 months). A single patient still complains of cerebrospinal rhinorrhea, although this was never proved by any clinical, endoscopic, or biological (β2-transferrin) examination. The repair of ethmoidal-sphenoidal cerebrospinal fluid fistulae by endonasal endoscopic surgery is an excellent technique, both safe and effective. Fat is a material of choice, as it is tight and resists infection well. The technique and indications for endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks are discussed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17167603
Schmerber, S; Righini, C; Lavielle, J P; Passagia, J G; Reyt, E
The authors review their experience with endoscopic repair of skull base defects associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea involving the paranasal sinuses. A total of 22 patients was treated endoscopically between 1992 and 1998. The repair method consisted of closure of the CSF fistula with a free autologous abdominal fat graft and fibrin glue, supported with a sheet of silastic. The primary closure rate was 82% (18/22), and the overall closure rate was 95.5% (21/22) without recurrence or complications within an average follow-up of 5 years (14-83 months). A single patient still complains of cerebrospinal rhinorrhea, although this was never proved by any clinical, endoscopic, or biological (beta(2)-transferrin) examination. The repair of ethmoidal-sphenoidal cerebrospinal fluid fistulae by endonasal endoscopic surgery is an excellent technique, both safe and effective. Fat is a material of choice, as it is tight and resists infection well. The technique and indications for endoscopic management of cerebrospinal fluid leaks are discussed.
Reisch, Robert; Fischer, Gerrit; Stadie, Axel; Kockro, Ralf; Cesnulis, Evaldas; Hopf, Nikolai
To review our surgical experience in minimally invasive transcranial endoscope-assisted microsurgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, using the supraorbital keyhole craniotomy. The supraorbital keyhole approach was performed through an eyebrow skin incision in 793 cases for treatment of 989 intracranial aneurysms. Of patients, 474 were operated on after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 319 were operated on under elective conditions. After lateral frontobasal burr hole trephination, a limited subfrontal craniotomy was created. To achieve adequate intraoperative exposure through the limited approach, endoscopes were used routinely. Surgical outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin scale. The transcranial endoscope-assisted microneurosurgery technique was used routinely via a supraorbital approach. In 152 operations (19.1%), the endoscope provided important visual information in the vicinity of the aneurysm, revealing subsequent clip repositioning. The results of incidental aneurysms were excellent with a modified Rankin scale score ≤2 in 96.52%. The overall outcome of ruptured aneurysms was good with a modified Rankin scale score ≤2 in 72.2% of patients. There were no approach-related intraoperative or postoperative complications. The minimally invasive supraorbital keyhole approach allowed safe surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms, including after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The markedly improved endoscopic visualization increased the assessment of clip placement with ideal control of surrounding vessels including perforators for identification of incorrect clip position. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Presutti, Livio; Marchioni, Daniele; Mattioli, Francesco; Villari, Domenico; Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo
The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of using an endoscope in cholesteatoma surgery and to demonstrate how it allows a reduction in the incidence of residual disease. Thirty-two ears with acquired cholesteatoma (primary) were resected. Twenty cases were resected using a canal wall up (CWU) technique and six cases using a canal wall down (CWD) technique, and in six cases, a transcanal tympanotomy-atticotomy was performed. All of the patients in our study group underwent explorative and operative endoscopic ear surgery complementary to use of the operating microscope to uncover and remove residual cholesteatoma. In the primary surgery after completion of microscopic cleaning, the overall incidence of intraoperative residual disease detected with the endoscope was 37.5%. The sinus tympani was the most common site of intraoperative residual disease, followed by the anterior epitympanic recess and protympanum. Of the 20 CWU cases, 12 second-look endoscopies were performed. Two residuals were identified, both in the sinus tympani. No significant complications were associated with the 32 endoscopic procedures. The endoscope allowed a better understanding of cholesteatoma and improved eradication of residual disease from hidden areas such as the anterior epitympanic recess, retrotympanum, and hypotympanum not yet controllable by the operating microscope.
Arévalo, Laura; Roche, Eva; Palero, Virginia; Andrés, Nieves; Lobera, Julia; Martínez, Miguel Ángel; Arroyo, M. Pilar
The complete measurement of the blood velocity and the vein wall deformation is important in order to obtain the wall shear stress distribution in blood vessels. This information would facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of some cardiovascular diseases. In this work, endoscopy has been combined with high speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to obtain the flow velocity inside a transparent vessel model and with digital holography to measure the vessel wall deformation. The use of endoscopes presents different advantages: they allow the simultaneous illumination and imaging of the object under inspection; the endoscopes can be moved as close as required and can be located anywhere to observe different regions. They can be used for observing inside opaque vessels in an oblique way, where the image perspective distortion can be corrected numerically. High speed PIV and endoscopic PIV have been applied to evaluate the influence of an antithrombotic filter in the velocity field inside an inferior vena cava (IVC) model. Endoscopic digital holography has been developed to measure the wall deformation in vessel models with steady and pulsatile flows. The models present different flexibility and opacity grades. Both the vessel model and the endoscope end are immersed in a refractive index matching liquid in order to avoid distortions.
Nabi, Zaheer; Reddy, D. Nageshwar
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined by the presence of troublesome symptoms resulting from the reflux of gastric contents. The prevalence of GERD is increasing globally. An incompetent lower esophageal sphincter underlies the pathogenesis of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) form the core of GERD management. However, a substantial number of patients do not respond well to PPIs. The next option is anti-reflux surgery, which is efficacious, but it has its own limitations, such as gas bloating, inability to belch or vomit, and dysphagia. Laparoscopic placement of magnetic augmentation device is emerging as a useful alternative to conventional anti-reflux surgery. However, invasiveness of a surgical procedure remains a concern for the patients. The proportion of PPI non-responders or partial responders who do not wish for anti-reflux surgery defines the ‘treatment gap’ and needs to be addressed. The last decade has witnessed the fall and rise of many endoscopic devices for GERD. Major endoscopic strategies include radiofrequency ablation and endoscopic fundoplication devices. Current endoscopic devices score high on subjective improvement, but have been unimpressive in objective improvement like esophageal acid exposure. In this review, we discuss the current endoscopic anti-reflux therapies and available evidence for their role in the management of GERD. PMID:27744659
Ramos-Zúñiga, R; de La Cruz-Ramírez, J; Casillas-Espinosa, P M; Sánchez-Prieto, J A; López-Hernández, M D S
Despite improvements in sanitation, diagnosis and treatment, neurocysticercosis is still a public health problem in many countries. In symptomatic patients, there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. When cysticerci are lodged in the ventricles or the subarachnoid space, the flow of cerebrospinal fluid can be obstructed and lead to hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension. The endoscopic view may be useful as a diagnostic tool. This report clearly shows a common endoscopic pattern in 4 selected patients with ventricular cysticercosis (2 third ventricle/2 lateral ventricle). The endoscopic view of the cysts in the ventricles resembles a "full moon". This analogy helped to identify the features of cysticerci with intact walls and the vesicular stage, malleable due to its cystic content and having an irregular surface, as evidence of the microscopic structure of the cyst wall in a cysticercus. This finding is not seen in other intraventricular cysts or tumors that can actually be considered as an additional diagnostic criterion among the definitive findings to establish the diagnosis of cysticercosis, since it involves direct endoscopic visualization of a cysticercus under histopathological demonstration. Additionally, the endoscopic approach can be used as primary treatment for these cases, following the minimally invasive approach principle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Mekaroonkamol, Parit; Willingham, Field F; Chawla, Saurabh
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States and one of the leading causes of cancer mortality in the United States. Due to its aggressive behavior and lack of effective therapies, palliation plays a critical role in the management of the disease. Most patients with pancreatic cancer suffer from severe pain, which adversely predicts prognosis and significantly impacts the quality of life. Therefore pain management plays a central role in palliation. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opioid agents are often first line medications in pain management, but they do not target the underlying pathophysiology of pain and their use is limited by adverse effects and dependence. The proposed mechanisms of pain development in pancreatic cancer include neurogenic inflammation and ductal hypertension which may be targeted by endoscopic therapies. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN) and pancreatic duct stent placement are the two primary endoscopic modalities for palliative management in pancreatic cancer patients with refractory pain. Other endoscopic treatments such as biliary stent placement and enteral stent placement for biliary and duodenal obstruction may also help palliate pain in addition to their role in decompression. This article reviews the existing evidence for these endoscopic interventions for pain management in pancreatic cancer.
Chen, Yu; Herz, Paul R.; Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Desai, Saleem; Pedrosa, Macos; Koski, Amanda; Schmitt, Joseph M.; Fujimoto, James G.
Early detection of gastrointestinal cancer is essential for the patient treatment and medical care. Endoscopically guided biopsy is currently the gold standard for the diagnosis of early esophageal cancer, but can suffer from high false negative rates due to sampling errors. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging medical imaging technology which can generate high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissue in situ and in real time, without the removal of tissue specimen. Although endoscopic OCT has been used successfully to identify certain pathologies in the gastrointestinal tract, the resolution of current endoscopic OCT systems has been limited to 10 - 15 m for clinical procedures. In this study, in vivo imaging of the gastrointestinal tract is demonstrated at a three-fold higher resolution (< 5 m), using a portable, broadband, Cr4+:Forsterite laser as the optical light source. Images acquired from the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction and colon on animal model display tissue microstructures and architectural details at high resolution, and the features observed in the OCT images are well-matched with histology. The clinical feasibility study is conducted through delivering OCT imaging catheter using standard endoscope. OCT images of normal esophagus, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal cancers are demonstrated with distinct features. The ability of high resolution endoscopic OCT to image tissue morphology at an unprecedented resolution in vivo would facilitate the development of OCT as a potential imaging modality for early detection of neoplastic changes.
Doradla, Pallavi; Alavi, Karim; Joseph, Cecil; Giles, Robert
We demonstrate the design and development of an innovative single-channel terahertz (THz) prototype endoscopic imaging system based on flexible metal-coated THz waveguides and a polarization specific detection technique. The continuous-wave (CW) THz imaging system utilizes a single channel to transmit and collect the reflected intrinsic THz signal from the sample. Since the prototype system relies on a flexible waveguide assembly that is small enough in diameter, it can be readily integrated with a conventional optical endoscope. This study aims to show the feasibility of waveguide enabled THz imaging. We image various objects in transmission and reflection modes. We also image normal and cancerous colonic tissues in reflectance mode using a polarization specific imaging technique. The resulting cross-polarized THz reflectance images showed contrast between normal and cancerous colonic tissues at 584 GHz. The level of contrast observed using endoscopic imaging correlates well with contrast levels observed in ex vivo THz reflectance studies of colon cancer. This indicates that the single-channel flexible waveguide-based THz endoscope presented here represents a significant step forward in clinical endoscopic application of THz technology to aid in in vivo cancer screening.
Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening.
Kovacs, Thomas O.G.; Jensen, Dennis M.
Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding secondary to ulcer disease occurs commonly and results in significant patient morbidity and medical expense. After initial resuscitation, carefully performed endoscopy provides an accurate diagnosis of the source of the UGI hemorrhage and can reliably identify those high-risk subgroups that may benefit most from endoscopic hemostasis. Large channel therapeutic endoscopes are recommended. Endoscopists should be very experienced in management of patients with UGI hemorrhage including the use of various hemostatic devices. For patients with major stigmata of ulcer hemorrhage – active arterial bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel and adherent clot – combination therapy with epinephrine injection and either thermal coaptive coagulation (with multipolar or heater probe), or endoclips is recommended. High dose intravenous proton pump inhibitors are recommended as concomitant therapy with endoscopic hemostasis of major stigmata. Patients with minor stigmata or clean-based ulcers will not benefit from endoscopic therapy and should be triaged to less intensive care and be considered for early discharge. Effective endoscopic hemostasis of ulcer bleeding can significantly improve outcomes by reducing rebleeding, transfusion requirement, and need for surgery, as well as reduce cost of medical care. PMID:21944418
Dimofte, Mihail-Gabriel; Nicolescu, Simona; Ristescu, Irina; Lunca, Sorinel
Background and Objectives: New therapeutic protocols for patients with end-stage Parkinson disease include a carbidopa/levodopa combination using continuous, modulated enteral administration via a portable pump. The typical approach involves a percutaneous endoscopic transgastrostomy jejunostomy (PEG-J), which requires a combination of procedures designed to ensure that no organ is interposed between the abdominal wall and the gastric surface. Lack of transillumination in maximal endoscopic light settings is a major contraindication for PEG-J, and we decided to use a different approach to establish enteric access for long-term medication delivery via pump, using a minimally invasive procedure. Methods: In all patients, we performed a laparoscopic-assisted percutaneous transgastrostomy jejunostomy (LAPEG-J) after an unsuccessful endoscopic transillumination. Results: Five patients with end-stage Parkinson disease were referred to our department after successful therapeutic testing with administration of levodopa/carbidopa via naso-jejunal tube. All patients failed the endoscopic transillumination during the endoscopic procedure and were considered for LAPEG-J. In all patients, the LAPEG-J procedure was uneventful. The most common reason identified for failed transillumination was a high position of the stomach, followed by interposition of the liver or colon between the stomach and anterior abdominal wall. There were no complications regarding the LAPEG-J procedure, and all patients were discharged during the second postprocedural day. Conclusions: LAPEG-J provides a simple and safe option for placing a jejunostomy after an unsuccessful PEG-J attempt. PMID:25489214
Honeybul, S; Bala, A
Delayed pneumocephalus is a rare but well-reported complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures. In most cases the air enters the intracranial cavity via a skull base defect. We report a case of hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis. The patient developed pneumocephalus 2 months after successful placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. We describe an attempt at endoscopic diagnosis and repair of the fistula. This was unsuccessful, presumably because the defect was too small to localize even with the use of intrathecal fluorescein. We subsequently performed a conventional craniotomy and anterior fossa repair with placement of an antisiphon device. We suggest that in certain cases, when patients present with long-standing hydrocephalus, it may be advisable to insert either a high-pressure valve or antisiphon device as a primary measure.
Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Won Hee; Myung, Dae-Sung; Cho, Young-Seok; Jang, Byung Ik
The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (KSGE) issued guidelines for endoscope reprocessing for the first time in 1995, and the version of the guidelines was updated in August 2009, August 2012, and March 2015. Guidelines for endoscope reprocessing should be revised continuously, because new disinfectants and devices are developed and introduced. The current official version of the KSGE guidelines for endoscope reprocessing is explained herein to assist the reader in understanding the KSGE requirements for cleaning and disinfecting endoscopes. PMID:28301923
Raju, Gottumukkala S
Development of endoscopic devices to close perforations has certainly revolutionized endoscopy. Immediate closure of perforations eliminates the need for surgery, which allows us to push the limits of endoscopic surgery from the mucosal plane to deep submucosal layers and eventually transmurally. The present article focuses on endoscopic closure devices, closure techniques, followed by a review of animal and clinical studies on endoscopic closure of perforations. © 2013 The Author. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.
Uwagawa, T; Okabe, N; Matsumoto, T; Kurihara, H; Miyamoto, S; Tujihara, Y; Takahashi, T; Sakurai, I; Matsumoto, F; Yamazaki, Y
We took culture of throat swab from 77 subjects who were negative for infection of HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infection before and after endoscopy. Moreover, the existence of bacterium including Helicobacter pylori at overcoat of endoscopic instrument was investigated right after examination and after disinfection of endoscope. Povidoneiodine, 70% alcohol and 1% benzalkonium chloride was used as a disinfectant for endoscope, and it took less than 10 minutes to wash by hand to disinfection. alpha-haemolytic streptococci, Staphylococcus epidermids, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and MRSA were cultured in throat swab. The rate of adhesion of bacterium especially such as Candida, K. pneumoniae and S. epidermids to endoscope was considerably high. 23 of 77 subjects had H. pylori infection, and the adhesion of H. pylori to endoscope was found to be 65.2% of the subjects. On the contrast, no bacterium was detected from the endoscopic instrument after careful disinfection. These findings stress the importance of postoperative disinfection of the endoscope to prevent the chance to acquire bacterial infection.
Ubhayawardana, D. L. N. L.; Kottahachchi, J.; Weerasekera, M. M.; Wanigasooriya, I. W. M. P.; Fernando, S. S. N.; De Silva, M.
Background and study aim: Worldwide some endoscopy units routinely continue to use manual reprocessing techniques for disinfection of side-view endoscopes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome quality of manual reprocessing techniques for removal and inactivation of the bioburden from side-view endoscopes used for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in a tertiary referral endotherapy unit in Sri Lanka. Methods: 102 samples obtained from two different flexible side-view endoscopes (Olympus TJF Q 180V and Olympus TJF 160 R) were tested for microbial growth. Three samples were collected each time; one swab from the tip before and another after manual reprocessing. The third sample was collected by flushing the working channel with sterile normal saline after manual reprocessing. Microorganisms were identified by culturing the samples. Result:: After reprocessing, culture-positive rates were 20 % and 9 % for the samples obtained from the tip and the working channel of the side-view endoscopes, respectively. Klebsiella spp. and Candida spp. were found to be the commonest microorganisms in the samples from the tips and from the working channels, respectively, of the reprocessed side-view endoscopes. Conclusion: There is a high culture-positive rate after reprocessing of the side-view endoscopes using the manual reprocessing procedure, despite strict adherence to the protocol for reprocessing. PMID:26135507
Mohindra, Satyawati; Dhingra, Shruti; Mohindra, Sandeep; Kumar, Narendra; Gupta, Bhumika
To present a short report on nine patients of esthesioneuroblastoma, managed endoscopically or endoscope assisted. To describe the technique and discuss the results at an average of 36.7 months of follow up. A retrospective study in a tertiary care centre. The present communication describes a series of 9 cases harbouring esthesioneuroblastoma, 6 managed endoscopically and 3 endoscope assisted between January 2005 and December 2009. All the nine patients remained free of disease at the primary site by endoscopic and radiological evaluation on an average of 36.7 months of follow up. One of the patients developed cutaneous and systemic metastasis for which she received chemotherapy and another one died during post-operative period due to unrelated causes. None of the patients showed recurrence or residual disease locally. Endoscopic and endoscope assisted approach provides a cosmetically better and surgically comparable outcome for local control of disease in early stages of esthesioneuroblastoma in expert hands without significant complications.
Mori, Hirohito; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Kobara, Hideki; Nishiyama, Noriko; Fujihara, Shintaro; Chiyo, Taiga; Ayaki, Maki; Nagase, Takashi; Masaki, Tsutomu
AIM: To apply the laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery concept, we investigated whether endoscopic cholecystectomy could be performed more safely and rapidly via only 1 port or not. METHODS: Two dogs (11 and 13-mo-old female Beagle) were used in this study. Only 1 blunt port was created, and a flexible endoscope with a tip attachment was inserted between the fundus of gallbladder and liver. After local injection of saline to the gallbladder bed, resection of the gallbladder bed from the liver was performed. After complete resection of the gallbladder bed, the gallbladder was pulled up to resect its neck using the Ring-shaped thread technique. The neck of the gallbladder was cut using scissor forceps. Resected gallbladder was retrieved using endoscopic net forceps via a port. RESULTS: The operation times from general anesthetizing with sevoflurane to finishing the closure of the blunt port site were about 50 min and 60 min respectively. The resection times of gallbladder bed were about 15 min and 13 min respectively without liver injury and bleeding at all. Feed were given just after next day of operation, and they had a good appetite. Two dogs are in good health now and no complications for 1 mo after endoscopic cholecystectomy using only a flexible endoscope via one port. CONCLUSION: We are sure of great feasibility of endoscopic cholecystectomy via single port for human. PMID:27053847
Bhasin, Deepak K; Rana, Surinder S; Chandail, Vijant S; Nanda, Mohit; Nadkarni, Nikhil; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Sinha, Saroj K; Nagi, Birinder
Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy is an important diagnostic modality in evaluation of patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. However, lesions located in the cricopharyngeal area and upper esophagus can be missed, as this area may not be well visualized during endoscopy. This study was conducted to study the utility of a new technique of endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire in diagnosing esophageal disorders. Patients with suspected upper esophageal disorders on history and radiological investigations were assessed using guide wire assisted endoscopic examination during withdrawal of the endoscope. In this technique, endoscope is inserted into the esophagus under vision and thereafter the whole of esophagus, stomach and proximal duodenum is examined. The endoscope is then withdrawn into the mid-esophagus, a guide wire is fed into the biopsy channel, and thereafter inserted into the esophagus. Once guide wire has been advanced into the esophagus, the endoscope is withdrawn gently over the guide wire into esophagus carefully examining for lesions in upper esophagus and cricopharyngeal area. Twenty cases of various abnormalities localized to the upper esophagus were studied. The final diagnosis in these patients was cervical esophageal web (10), post transhiatal esophagectomy leak (4), heterotopic gastric mucosa (3), posttraumatic esophageal perforation (2), and Zenker's diverticulum (1). Intact web was detected in 2 patients and in 8 patients fractured web was seen. Guide wire assisted examination of upper esophagus improved the ability to visualize and characterize these lesions and no complications were encountered as a result of this procedure. Endoscopic examination of the upper esophagus by withdrawal of endoscope over guide wire is safe and effective in diagnosing anatomical abnormalities of the upper esophagus that may be missed or poorly characterized during standard endoscopy.
Makishi, Wataru; Matsunaga, Tadao; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi
Bending motions of the tip of a conventional endoscope are controlled from outside the body by wire traction. A shaft of an endoscope should be relatively hard to avoid buckling by wire traction. Therefore, precise operation of the endoscope is difficult in complex shape areas such as the intestine. Furthermore, patients suffer pain during a procedure with an endoscope. An active bending electric endoscope using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators has been developed. A CCD camera (410,000 pixels) is mounted at the end of the endoscope and the tip has an omni-directional bending mechanism using three SMA coil actuators. The SMA coil actuators contract by supplying electrical current and bend the endoscope. The external diameter of the fabricated endoscope is 5.5 mm. The maximum bending angle of the fabricated endoscope is 90° (Curvature radius: 29 mm). The observation of the inside of a blood vessel model by the CCD imager of a fabricated endoscope was confirmed. The active bending shaft of the fabricated endoscope, which is realized using SMA coil actuators instead of wire traction, is soft. Therefore, using this endoscope, it may be possible to perform precise observations and treatment of deep areas of the human body.
Waran, V; Sek, K; Bahuri, N F; Narayanan, P; Chandran, H
In endoscopic neurosurgery problems with haemostasis due to poor access exist. We have developed a system which allows the delivery of a variety of haemostatic agents in a more efficacious manner. The system has been used successfully in endoscopic skull base surgery and endoscopic surgery within the parenchyma of the brain using tube systems. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
YOSHIOKA, Hideyuki; KINOUCHI, Hiroyuki
The neuroendoscope, with its higher magnification, better observation, and additional illumination, can provide us information that may not be available with the microscope in aneurysm surgery. Furthermore, recent advancement of the holding systems for the endoscope allows surgeons to perform microsurgical manipulation using both hands under the simultaneous endoscopic and microscopic monitoring. With this procedure, surgeons can inspect hidden structures, dissect perforators at the back of the aneurysm, identify important vessel segments without retraction of the aneurysm or arteries, and check for completion of clipping. In addition, we have recently applied endoscopic indocyanine green video angiography to aneurysm surgery. This newly developed technique can offer real-time assessment of the blood flow of vasculatures in the dead angles of the microscope, and will reduce operative morbidity related to vascular occlusion, improve the durability of aneurysm surgery by reducing incomplete clipping, and thus promote the outcome of aneurysm surgery. PMID:26041623
Özcan, Meriç; Önal Tayyar, Duygu
Here we present the development of a 3D holographic endoscope with an interferometer built around a commercial rigid endoscope. We consider recording the holograms with coherent and incoherent light separately without compromising the white light imaging capacity of the endoscope. In coherent light based recording, reference wave required for the hologram is obtained in two different ways. First, as in the classical holography, splitting the laser beam before the object illumination, and secondly creating the reference beam from the object beam itself. This second method does not require path-length matching between the object wave and the reference wave, and it allows the usage of short coherence length light sources. For incoherent light based holographic recordings various interferometric configurations are considered. Experimental results on both illumination conditions are presented.
Traditionally, otologists have aimed to produce a clean, dry, safe ear with the best possible hearing result. More recently, "less invasively" has been added to this list of goals. The development of small-diameter, high-quality rigid endoscopes and high-definition video systems has made totally endoscopic, transcanal surgery a reality in adult otology and a possibility in pediatric otology. This article reviews the anatomy of the pediatric middle ear and its surrounding airspaces and structures based on the work of dozens of researchers over the past 50 years. It will focus on the developmental changes in ear anatomy from birth through the first decade, when structure and function change most rapidly. Understanding the limits and possibilities afforded by new endoscopic technologies, the pediatric otologist can strive for results matching or exceeding those achieved by more invasive surgical approaches.
Lui, Tun Hing
The tarsal tunnel ganglion is a cause of posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. Open resection of the ganglion calls for release of the flexor retinaculum and dissection around the tibial neurovascular bundle. This can induce fibrosis around the tibial nerve. We report the technique of endoscopic resection of the tarsal tunnel ganglion. It is indicated for tarsal tunnel ganglia arising from the adjacent joints or tendon sheaths and compressing the tibial nerve from its deep side. It is contraindicated if there is other pathology of the tarsal tunnel that demands open surgery; if the ganglion compresses the tibial nerve from its superficial side, which calls for a different endoscopic approach using the ganglion portal; or if an intraneural ganglion of the tibial nerve is present. The purpose of this technical note is to describe a minimally invasive approach for endoscopic resection of the tarsal tunnel ganglion.
Ponds, Fraukje A M; Smout, André J P M; Bredenoord, Albert J; Fockens, Paul
The treatment of patients with achalasia is complex due to a considerably high recurrence rate and risk of treatment-related complications. The per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a new endoscopic technique that combines the benefits of a minimally invasive endoscopic procedure with the efficacy of a surgical myotomy. Implementation of the POEM technique may lead to fewer complications, a lower recurrence rate and reduced costs. During the procedure, a myotomy of the circular muscle layer of the oesophagus is performed after creating a submucosal tunnel in the oesophagus. The first studies of this new technique show promising results. Experienced therapeutic endoscopists can learn to perform the POEM technique relatively easily. Further studies are needed to compare this technique with the current standard treatments and to evaluate long-term effects.
Uribarrena, R; Simón, M A; Sebastián, J J; Gomollón, F; Bajador, E; Botella, M T; Cabrera, T
We report a series of 15 patients with a postoperative biliary fistula treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy. The exact location of the bile leak was revealed by ERCP in 13 cases (87%): cystic duct remnant in 6 (39%), intrahepatic biliary tree in 4 (26%), and main bile duct in 3 (20%). In all cases a distal obstacle (ie: retained stones, hydatid material) to bile flow was also found in ERCP. Treatment consisted of endoscopic sphincterotomy and subsequent removal of the distal obstacle, and could be completed in 13 (87%) cases. In our experience the treatment of postoperative biliary fistula with a distal obstruction bile flow by endoscopic sphincterotomy is a safe and effective procedure, and should be recommended as the first option in those patients.
Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. K.; Wang, Lihong V.
We have successfully developed a fully-sheathed, flexible shaft-based, mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The endoscopic system uses a single element ultrasonic transducer and flexible shaft-based proximal actuation mechanism, and it has a 2.5 m long and 3.2 mm diameter catheter section, which can be accommodated in the 3.7 mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo imaging capability of the PAE system.
Halasi, Tamás; Tállay, András; Berkes, István
One hundred and fifty six patients were treated using the modified double suture technique for percutaneous Achilles tendon repair between 1994 and 1998. Endoscopy was used in 67 cases. The first ten cases were dropped (learning curve), 57 were followed (E-group). Percutaneous suture without endoscopy was performed in 89 patients. Two could not be followed (went abroad), so this group consists of 87 patients (P-group). Mean age: E-group 37.8 (22-60) years, P-group 38.9 (20-68) years. Male-female ratio: E 49/8, P 74/13. There were 54 and 83 athletes in groups E and P respectively. Follow-up period was 12-60 months. Overall re-rupture rate was 6/144 (4.2%). Two total and 3 partial re-ruptures were in the P-group, and 1 partial was in the E-group. Fusiform thickening of the tendon (delayed healing) occurred in 4 cases in each group. The mean plantar flexion strength compared with the non-affected side was 89% in the P-group and 86% in the E-group. The length of time before returning to sports activity ranged from 4 to 6 months after surgery in both groups. Subjective results were excellent to good in 88% (P-group) and in 89% (E-group) of the cases. On the basis of the results, the percutaneous double suture technique proved to be a simple and safe method for Achilles tendon repair with or without the use of an endoscope. The re-rupture rate was lower in the endoscopic controlled group. The basic goal of the endoscopy was to control the adaptation of the tendon ends. This method yielded further operative possibilities and benefits as well.
Armellini, Elia; Crinò, Stefano Francesco; Orsello, Marco; Ballarè, Marco; Tari, Roberto; Saettone, Silvia; Montino, Franco; Occhipinti, Pietro
This paper reports our experience with a new over-the-scope clip in the setting of recurrent bleeding and oesophageal fistula. We treated five patients with the over-the-scope Padlock Clip™. It is a nitinol ring, with six inner needles preassembled on an applicator cap, thumb press displaced by the Lock-It™ delivery system. The trigger wire is located alongside the shaft of the endoscope, and does not require the working channel. Three patients had recurrent bleeding lesions (bleeding rectal ulcer, post polypectomy delayed bleeding and duodenal Dieulafoy’s lesion) and two patients had a persistent respiratory-esophageal fistula. In all patients a previous endoscopic attempt with standard techniques had been useless. All procedures were conducted under conscious sedation but for one patient that required general anaesthesia due to multiple comorbidities. We used one Padlock Clip™ for each patient in a single session. Simple suction was enough in all of our patients to obtain tissue adhesion to the instrument tip. A remarkably short application time was recorded for all cases (mean duration of the procedure: 8 min). We obtained technical and immediate clinical success for every patient. No major immediate, early or late (within 24 h, 7 d or 4 wk) adverse events were observed, over follow-up durations lasting a mean of 109.4 d. One patient, treated for duodenal bulb bleeding from a Dieulafoy's lesion, developed signs of mild pancreatitis 24 h after the procedure. The new over-the-scope Padlock Clip™ seems to be simple to use and effective in different clinical settings, particularly in “difficult” scenarios, like recurrent bleeding and respiratory-oesophageal fistulas. PMID:26730172
Kim, Mi-Ra; Kim, Do Hun; Lee, Dong Kun
We recently experienced a case of transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via the trivestibular approach. We identified and preserved all neighboring critical structures during surgery. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 3. There were no complications in thyroid function, vocal cord function, or lower lip sense. Transoral endoscopic thyroidectomy via a trivestibular approach provides a short and direct route to the thyroid and an adequate workspace without a skin incision. Therefore, it is worthwhile to develop and refine the surgical techniques of this promising new surgical approach. PMID:27847801
Lu, Yidan; Chen, Yen-I; Barkun, Alan
This review discusses the indications, technical aspects, and comparative effectiveness of the endoscopic treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic ulcer. Pre-endoscopic considerations, such as the use of prokinetics and timing of endoscopy, are reviewed. In addition, this article examines aspects of postendoscopic care such as the effectiveness, dosing, and duration of postendoscopic proton-pump inhibitors, Helicobacter pylori testing, and benefits of treatment in terms of preventing rebleeding; and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet agents, and oral anticoagulants, including direct thrombin and Xa inhibitors, following acute peptic ulcer bleeding.
Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel
Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459
Stankiewicz, J A
A previous publication by this author discussing complications of endoscopic intranasal ethmoidectomy indicated an overall complication rate of 29% in 90 patients (17% in 150 ethmoidectomies). Compared to published complications rates for traditional intranasal ethmoidectomy (2.7% to 3.7%), 17% is alarming and of concern. The complication results in 300 ethmoidectomies performed on 180 patients are presented. The overall complication rate was 9.3%. Only two further complications have occurred since the first reported series: a cerebrospinal fluid leak and one case of subcutaneous emphysema. Methods and techniques that have led to the reduction of complications are briefly discussed. Endoscopic ethmoidectomy is a valid, safe procedure in experienced hands.
Kanazawa, T; Inoue, R; Ohta, Y; Watanabe, Y; Iino, Y
We report an extremely rare case of maxillary haemangioma. Case report and review of the literature concerning haemangioma arising from the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Maxillary haemangioma is rare and sometimes requires wider resection than nasal haemangioma if a large tumour is found. We present a case of maxillary haemangioma in a 37-year-old Japanese woman, which was completely resected by pre-operative embolisation and endoscopic sinus surgery. Our findings suggest that if a large maxillary haemangioma is diagnosed pre-operatively, the treatment of choice is pre-operative embolisation followed by endoscopic sinus surgery, in order to avoid the surgical complications associated with wide resection.
Ahn, Samuel S; Wieslander, Cecilia K
Endoscopic surgery is not a recent development. In fact, the application of the Edison light bulb to the cystoscope in 1883 was followed by widespread use of endoscopy. In 1910, Jacobeaus proposed the diagnostic use of the cystoscope for investigation of serous cavities, and in 1922, he reported lysis of pleural adhesions to promote artificial pneumothorax in 40 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. For the next 30 years, the thoracoscope was widely used for pneumolysis in tuberculosis patients, but its use waned considerably after the development of effective antibiotic treatment for tuberculosis. With the advent of laparoscopy, endoscopy has become popular again and here we review the application of endoscopic techniques in cardiovascular surgery.
Ahn, S S; Wieslander, C K
Endoscopic surgery is not a recent development. In fact, the application of the Edison light bulb to the cystoscope in 1883 was followed by widespread use of endoscopy. In 1910, Jacobeaus proposed the diagnostic use of the cystoscope for investigation of serous cavities, and in 1922, he reported lysis of pleural adhesions to promote artificial pneumothorax in 40 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. For the next 30 years, the thoracoscope was widely used for pneumolysis in tuberculosis patients, but its use waned considerably after the development of effective antibiotic treatment for tuberculosis. With the advent of laparoscopy, endoscopy has become popular again and here we review the application of endoscopic techniques in cardiovascular surgery.
Hong, Kyong Hee
As infection-related issues have become one of the most important concerns in endoscopy centers, proper reprocessing of endoscopes has attracted great interest. Compliance with established guidelines for reprocessing is critical to prevent pathogen transmission. However, hospital compliance with guidelines has not been satisfactory. To increase compliance, efforts have focused on developing new and more innovative disinfectants and an automated endoscope reprocessor. Reprocessing must be performed by appropriately trained personnel and regular monitoring of reprocessing is essential for quality assurance to improve compliance. PMID:23767038
Ryozawa, Shomei; Fujita, Naotaka; Irisawa, Atsushi; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Mine, Tetsuya
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is being used increasingly in the management of pancreatic fluid collection, biliary and pancreatic duct drainage in cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, drainage of the gallbladder, and other conditions. The role of interventional EUS is rapidly expanding and new interventions are continuously emerging. The development of devices could be a major breakthrough in the field of interventional EUS. New devices would enable the expansion of its role even further and prompt its widespread use in clinical practice. This review focuses on the current status of interventional EUS, especially highlighting the topics that are drawing endoscopists' interest at present. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Moses, Frank M; Lee, Jennifer S
High-level disinfection (HLD) of GI endoscopes is readily achieved when published guidelines are observed. Contamination is linked to breakdowns in accepted procedure. However, there is no recognized method of verifying adequacy of endoscope reprocessing in routine practice and no data regarding current quality assurance (QA) practice. Prior reports have demonstrated a wide variation in routine clinical practice of GI endoscopy HLD. The goal of this study was to determine current practice at regional endoscopy centers with regard to endoscope cleaning and HLD, maintenance, and QA practice. An anonymous multiple-choice questionnaire was mailed to 367 SGNA members in Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, Maryland, and District of Columbia and completed by 230 (63%). The majority of responders were hospital-based and 59% of the units performed over 3000 procedures per year. After use the endoscope was hand-carried or transported in a dry container (97%) to a separate cleaning room (85%) for HLD by technicians (40%). Wide variations existed in manual step procedures including use of disposable (50%) brushes and number of times channel brushed: once (21%), twice (35%), or three to five times (37%). Soaking duration in disinfectant (70% gluteraldehyde) was for <10 min (8%), 10-20 min (35%), 20-30 min (38%), 30-40 min (7%), and >40 min (3%). Sixty-seven percent had an active unit infection control (IC) service and 98% had a QA program. Monitoring of cleaning effectiveness was by visual inspection (50%) and culturing endoscopes (17%). Culture was done weekly (1%) and
Farca, A; Moreno, M; Mundo, F; Rodríguez, G
Biliary fistulas have been managed by surgical correction with no good results. From 1986 to 1990, endoscopic therapy was attempted in 24 patients with postoperative persistent biliary-cutaneous fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated residual biliary stones in 19 patients (79%). The mean fistula drainage was 540 ml/day, and in 75% the site of the fistula was near the cistic duct stump. Sphincterotomy with or without biliary stent placement resulted in rapid resolution of the fistula in 23 patients (95.8%). In those patients treated with biliary stents the fistula healed spectacularly in 24-72 hrs.
Cunningham, Michael J
Developmental anomalies of the nasolacrimal drainage system typically manifest early in childhood with epiphora and occasionally infection. Although the majority of cases of congenital nasolacrimal obstruction resolve spontaneously with conservative medical management, certain anomalies require operative intervention. Included in this latter group are dacryocystoceles or nasolacrimal duct cysts. The application of endoscopic sinus surgical techniques to children with persistent symptomatic nasolacrimal obstruction provides an alternative to external dacryocystorhinostomy that appears to be equally efficacious and concurrently allows for the potential correction of any predisposing intranasal pathology. Endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy is best performed as a joint otolaryngologic-ophthalmologic procedure.
Jiménez-Vázquez, Oscar H; Nagore, Norma
Two patients who suffered recurrent hydrocephalus after cysticercal removal by means of endoscopic transventricular (ETV) approach are presented. Severe inflammatory lesions within the ventricular system and basal cisterns, with a patent third-ventriculostomy were demonstrated during a second endoscopic observation. Mandatory shunting with prolonged steroid therapy may be indicated after intraoperative cysticercal rupture after ETV removal, as showed by sequential endoscopic observations.
Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Vilmann, Peter
The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role. PMID:26640331
Park, Jae Myung
The incidence of obesity is increasing, and more definitive treatment modalities are needed. Endoluminal procedures, including restrictive endoscopic procedures, endoscopic gastroplasty, and malabsorptive endoscopic procedures, can reduce weight in obese patients and control obesity-related comorbidities. Malabsorptive endoscopic interventions also offer the potential for an ambulatory procedure that may be safer and more cost-effective compared with laparoscopic surgery. Malabsorptive endoscopic intervention can induce weight reduction and improve obesity-related metabolic parameters, despite complications such as device migration, obstruction, and abdominal pain. Improvement in technique will follow the development of new devices. PMID:28147470
Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Menachery, John; Vilmann, Peter
The diagnosis and staging of various gastrointestinal malignancies have been made possible with the use of endoscopic ultrasound, which is a relatively safe procedure. The field of endoscopic ultrasound is fast expanding due to advancements in therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound. Though various studies have established its role in gastrointestinal malignancies and pancreatic conditions, its potential in the field of hepatic lesions still remains vastly untapped. In this paper the authors attempt to review important and landmark trials, case series and case studies involving hepatic applications of endoscopic ultrasound, thus not only providing an overview of utilization of endoscopic ultrasound in various liver conditions but also speculating its future role.
Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Lau, James Yun Wong
Management of bleeding peptic ulcers is increasingly challenging in an aging population. Endoscopic therapy reduces the need for emergency surgery in bleeding peptic ulcers. Initial endoscopic control offers an opportunity for selecting high-risk ulcers for potential early preemptive surgery. However, such an approach has not been supported by evidence in the literature. Endoscopic retreatment can be an option to control ulcer rebleeding and reduce complications. The success of endoscopic retreatment largely depends on the severity of rebleeding and ulcer characteristics. Large chronic ulcers with urgent bleeding are less likely to respond to endoscopic retreatment. Expeditious surgery is advised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lui, Tun Hing
Ulnar nerve compression at the elbow is the most common neuropathy of the upper extremity. Surgical options include in situ decompression, decompression with anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve, and medial epicondylectomy with or without decompression. With the advancement of endoscopic surgery, techniques of endoscopic in situ decompression of the ulnar nerve and endoscopic anterior transposition of ulnar nerve have been reported. This article describes a technique of endoscopically assisted anterior subcutaneous transposition of ulnar nerve that is composed of an open release and mobilization of the ulnar nerve at and distal to the cubital tunnel and endoscopic release and mobilization of the ulnar nerve proximal to the cubital tunnel.
Larsen, Anders Schermacher; Buchwald, Christian; Vesterhauge, Søren
Sinus barotrauma is usually easy to diagnose, and treatment achieves good results. We present two severe cases where delayed diagnosis caused significant morbidity. The signs and symptoms were atypical and neither the patients themselves, nor the initial examiners recognized that the onset of symptoms coincided with descent in a commercial airliner. CT and MRI scans of the brain were normal, but in both cases showed opafication of the sphenoid sinuses, which lead to the correct diagnosis. Subsequent surgical intervention consisting of endoscopic computer-aided surgery showed blood and petechia in the affected sinuses. This procedure provided immediate relief.
Frick, M.P.; O'Leary, J.F.; Salomonowitz, E.; Stoltenberg, E.; Hutton, S.; Gedgaudas, E.
A method using CT after endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (CT-ERP) is described for pancreatic imaging. When using an ERP technique in the canine model comparable to that used in humans, small amounts of contrast material in peripheral pancreatic radicles resulted in enhancement of the pancreas on CT scans. Nine patients were also studied by CT-ERP images. The main pancreatic duct was seen on delayed images. In cases of chronic pancreatitis (n = 2), pancreatic opacification was patchy and heterogeneous. There was no contrast-material enhancement in areas of pancreatic carcimomas (n = 2). CT-ERP showed the true extent of carcinoma better than ERP alone.
KURODA, Rintarou; NAKAJIMA, Takeshi; YAMAGUCHI, Takashi; WATANABE, Eiju
Obstruction of the visual field by blood is a major hindrance during endonasal endoscopic surgery, and a rapid and effective method for cleaning the lens is needed. We developed a new lens-cleaning system that does not employ a sheath or an irrigation-suction system. It is a 20-mm long cylinder with side holes that is attached to the barrel of the endoscope and is connected to a syringe containing saline. When the syringe is pressed, saline flows down to the tip along the barrel and washes the lens without requiring a sheath. We report the use of the system in six cases of endonasal endoscopic surgery. The lens was wiped significantly less often than during similar surgery performed without the use of this system. The Endosplash is simple and enables the surgeon to clean the lens with a single press of a syringe, thereby greatly enhancing the efficacy of endoscopic surgery. PMID:27063147
Mohammed, Noor; Subramanian, Venkataraman
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel condition characterised by a relapsing and remitting course. Symptom control has been the traditional mainstay of medical treatment. It is well known that histological inflammatory activity persists despite adequate symptom control and absence of endoscopic inflammation. Current evidence suggests that presence of histological inflammation poses a greater risk of disease relapse and subsequent colorectal cancer risk. New endoscopic technologies hold promise for developing endoscopic markers of mucosal inflammation. Achieving endoscopic and histological remission appears be the future aim of medical treatments for UC. This review article aims to evaluate the use of endoscopy as a tool in assessment of mucosal inflammation UC and its correlation with disease outcomes. PMID:27895420
Mcfarland, Richard E.
Computer-generated graphics in real-time helicopter simulation produces objectionable scene-presentation time delays. In the flight simulation laboratory at Ames Research Center, it has been determined that these delays have an adverse influence on pilot performance during aggressive tasks such as nap-of-the-earth (NOE) maneuvers. Using contemporary equipment, computer-generated image (CGI) time delays are an unavoidable consequence of the operations required for scene generation. However, providing that magnitide distortions at higher frequencies are tolerable, delay compensation is possible over a restricted frequency range. This range, assumed to have an upper limit of perhaps 10 or 15 rad/sec, conforms approximately to the bandwidth associated with helicopter handling qualities research. A compensation algorithm is introduced here and evaluated in terms of tradeoffs in frequency responses. The algorithm has a discrete basis and accommodates both a large, constant transport delay interval and a periodic delay interval, as associated with asynchronous operations.
Kozin, Elliott D.; Gulati, Shawn; Lehmann, Ashton; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Kaplan, Alyson; Landegger, Lukas D.; Cohen, Michael S.; Lee, Daniel J.
Objective Middle ear surgery increasingly employs endoscopes as an adjunct to or replacement for the operative microscope. Superior visualization and transcanal access to disease normally managed with a transmastoid approach are touted as advantages with the endoscope. No study, however, has systemically reviewed the literature to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic ear surgery (EES). We provide a systematic review of endoscope applications in middle ear surgery with an emphasis on outcomes. Data Sources PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Methods A literature review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis recommendations. Articles were categorized based on study design, indication, and use of an endoscope either as an adjunct to or as a replacement for a microscope. Quantitative and descriptive analyses were performed. Results Ninety-one articles published between 1967 and 2014 met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main indication for the use of an endoscope was cholesteatoma or myringoplasty. Of the identified articles, 40 provided a discrete discussion of outcomes. In cholesteatoma surgery, the endoscope has been mainly employed as an adjunct to the microscope, and although outcomes assessments vary across studies, the endoscope identified residual cholesteatoma in up to 50% of cases. Conclusion Endoscopes have been predominately used as an observational adjunct to the microscope to improve visualization of the tympanic cavity. Recent reports utilize the endoscope exclusively during surgical dissection; however, data comparing patient outcomes following the use of an operative endoscope versus a microscope are lacking. Areas in need of additional research are highlighted. PMID:25418475
Fyock, Christopher J; Kowalczyk, Lukasz M; Gupte, Anand R; Forsmark, Christopher E; Wagh, Mihir S
Accidental splenic laceration and hemorrhage during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) can lead to life-threatening consequences. The NOTES approach may need to be aborted in these circumstances for a standard laparoscopy or laparotomy. To determine the feasibility of endoscopically managing intraoperative splenic laceration and hemorrhage during NOTES using standard endoscopic tools. Nine pigs underwent transcolonic endoscopic surgery, and 18 intentional splenic lacerations were made. Animals were treated as follows: (1) control group with no therapy (n = 3), (2) endoscopic tamponade/packing (n = 3), and (3) endoscopic hemostasis with bipolar cautery (n = 12). A blinded second endoscopist performed NOTES exploration and attempted to identify the site and treat the laceration in 3 cases. The colonic incision was closed using endoclips in the survival studies. Necropsy was performed immediately after surgery in acute cases and at the end of 1 week in the survival cases. Bleeding persisted beyond 10 minutes in all control cases without therapy. In the tamponade group, bleeding persisted beyond 17 minutes in 2 and a large clot formed at 12 minutes in 1 case that precluded further assessment. Bleeding was controlled endoscopically using standard bipolar cautery in all animals (mean time: 12 minutes). All lacerations were identified and managed by the blinded endoscopist. Survival animals had an uncomplicated postoperative course. No bleeding was seen at necropsy. We demonstrate the management of intraoperative splenic hemorrhage during NOTES using standard endoscopic tools. The site of splenic bleeding could be correctly identified and treated in a blinded fashion.
firstname.lastname@example.org † School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA ABSTRACT Pyrotechnic delays are used in...benign formulations are described. The delay time of the new system is easily tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum ...tunable. These compositions will consistently function in aluminum housings which is generally difficult for delay compositions due to extreme thermal
Gamble, H P; Duckworth, G J; Ridgway, G L
An Endoscope Task Force was established following the report of an endoscope decontamination failure in May 2004. The Task Force reviewed endoscope decontamination incidents in England from 2003 to 2004 and made recommendations to prevent further recurrences. Twenty-one incidents were reported from 19 National Health Service (NHS) Trusts, 18 of which matched the Task Force definition of an incident. Eight incidents involved failures to decontaminate auxiliary endoscope channels, seven incidents highlighted problems with automated endoscope reprocessors, and the remaining three involved disinfection practices not recommended by the British Society of Gastroenterology Guidelines. Following an assessment of the risk of transmission from blood-borne viruses, the Task Force recommended that look-back exercises were not indicated. The nature of the incidents suggested that there were problems associated with defining roles and responsibilities for endoscope decontamination, staff training and incompatibility between endoscopes and reprocessors. The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency subsequently issued recommendations to all NHS Trusts carrying out endoscopies.
Hanna; Drew; Cuschieri
Psychomotor research is essential for aptitude-based selection of surgical trainees and sound surgical practice. Two microprocessor-controlled psychomotor testers were developed to evaluate psychomotor skills related to endoscopic surgery. Dundee Endoscopic Psychomotor Tester (DEPT) measures single-handed performance in an endoscopic environment and therefore it can be used to evaluate differing abilities between the right and left hand. Advanced Dundee endoscopic Psychomotor Tester (ADEPT) measures two-handed performance, and consequently it can be used to assess coordinated bimanual endoscopic manipulations. Psychomotor testers provide real-time objective scoring systems that have several aspects of face validity to real endoscopic environment. Studies on medical students have confirmed that objective evaluation of task performance in an endoscopic field is feasible and have documented differences in psychomotor abilities between subjects.
Kenters, Nikki; Huijskens, Elisabeth G. W.; Meier, Corianne; Voss, Andreas
Flexible endoscopes are widely used to examine, diagnose, and treat medical disorders. While the risk of endoscopy-related transmission of infection is estimated to be very low, more health care-associated infections are related to contaminated endoscopes than to any other medical device. Flexible endoscopes can get highly contaminated with microorganisms, secretions and blood during use. The narrow lumens and multiple internal channels make the cleaning of flexible endoscopes a complex and difficult task. Despite the availability of international, national and local endoscope reprocessing guidelines, contamination and transmission of microorganisms continue to occur. These transmissions are mostly related to the use of defective equipment, endoscope reprocessing failures, and noncompliance with recommended guidelines. This article presents an overview of publications about case reports and outbreaks related to contamination of flexible endoscopes. PMID:26355428
Hoffman, Barbara; Bradshaw, Karen D
The ability to diagnose and manage disorders that cause delayed puberty requires a thorough understanding of the physical and hormonal events of puberty. Wide variation exists within normal pubertal maturation, but most adolescent girls in the United States have begun to mature by the age of 13. Delayed puberty, a rare condition in girls, occurs in only approximately 2.5% of the population. Constitutional delay, genetic defects, or hypothalamic-pituitary disorders are common causes. Amenorrhea, often found as a symptom of delayed puberty, may be due to congenital genital tract anomalies, ovarian failure, or chronic anovulation with estrogen presence or with estrogen absence.
Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.
Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. PMID:26439762
Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P
Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tzabazis, Alexander; Miller, Christopher; Dobrow, Marc F; Zheng, Karl; Brock-Utne, John G
In most instances, delayed emergence from anesthesia is attributed to residual anesthetic or analgesic medications. However, delayed emergence can be secondary to unusual causes and present diagnostic dilemmas. Data from clinical studies is scarce and most available published material is comprised of case reports. In this review, we summarize and discuss less common and difficult to diagnose reasons for delayed emergence and present cases from our own experience or reference published case reports/case series. The goal is to draw attention to less common reasons for delayed emergence, identify patient populations that are potentially at risk and to help anesthesiologists identifying a possible cause why their patient is slow to wake up.
An electrically variable time delay line is described which may be readily controlled simuitaneously with variable impedance matching means coupied thereto such that reflections are prevented. Broadly, the delay line includes a signal winding about a magnetic core whose permeability is electrically variable. Inasmuch as the inductance of the line varies directly with the permeability, the time delay and characteristic impedance of the line both vary as the square root of the permeability. Consequently, impedance matching means may be varied similariy and simultaneously w:th the electrically variable permeability to match the line impedance over the entire range of time delay whereby reflections are prevented.
Yoshimoto, Kayo; Watabe, Kenji; Fujinaga, Tetsuji; Iijima, Hideki; Tsujii, Masahiko; Takahashi, Hideya; Takehara, Tetsuo; Yamada, Kenji
Because the view angle of the endoscope is narrow, it is difficult to get the whole image of the digestive tract at once. If there are more than two lesions in the digestive tract, it is hard to understand the 3D positional relationship among the lesions. Virtual endoscopy using CT is a present standard method to get the whole view of the digestive tract. Because the virtual endoscopy is designed to detect the irregularity of the surface, it cannot detect lesions that lack irregularity including early cancer. In this study, we propose a method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition of the digestive tract using a stereo endoscope. The method is as follows: 1) capture sequential images of the digestive tract by moving the endoscope, 2) reconstruct 3D surface pattern for each frame by stereo images, 3) estimate the position of the endoscope by image analysis, 4) reconstitute the entire image of the digestive tract by combining the 3D surface pattern. To confirm the validity of this method, we experimented with a straight tube inside of which circles were allocated at equal distance of 20 mm. We captured sequential images and the reconstituted image of the tube revealed that the distance between each circle was 20.2 +/- 0.3 mm (n=7). The results suggest that this method of endoscopic entire 3D image acquisition may help us understand 3D positional relationship among the lesions such as early esophageal cancer that cannot be detected by virtual endoscopy using CT.
Park, Seon Mee
The management strategy for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-related duodenal perforation can be determined based on the site and extent of injury, the patient’s condition, and time to diagnosis. Most cases of perivaterian or bile duct perforation can be managed with a biliary stent or nasobiliary drainage. Duodenal wall perforations had been treated with immediate surgical repair. However, with the development of endoscopic devices and techniques, endoscopic closure has been reported to be a safe and effective treatment that uses through-the-scope clips, ligation band, fibrin glue, endoclips and endoloops, an over-the-scope clipping device, suturing devices, covering luminal stents, and open-pore film drainage. Endoscopic therapy could be instituted in selected patients in whom perforation was identified early or during the procedure. Early diagnosis, proper conservative management, and effective endoscopic closure are required for favorable outcomes of non-surgical management. If endoscopic treatment fails, or in the cases of clinical deterioration, prompt surgical management should be considered. PMID:27484814
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Neurological endoscope. 882.1480 Section 882.1480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... ventricles of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Neurological endoscope. 882.1480 Section 882.1480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... ventricles of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neurological endoscope. 882.1480 Section 882.1480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... ventricles of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Neurological endoscope. 882.1480 Section 882.1480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... ventricles of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Neurological endoscope. 882.1480 Section 882.1480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... ventricles of the brain. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ...
Bingener, Juliane; Gostout, Christopher J.
Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has moved from the realm of laboratory experiments to the realm of human clinical trials. This paper reviews the spectrum of NOTES procedures currently available in the United States and worldwide. It also discusses the limitations and avenues for further development of these procedures, particularly those involving the transgastric approach. PMID:22933874
Rustagi, Tarun; Mashimo, Hiroshi
Chronic radiation proctopathy occurs in 5%-20% of patients following pelvic radiotherapy. Although many cases resolve spontaneously, some lead to chronic symptoms including diarrhea, tenesmus, urgency and persistent rectal bleeding with iron deficiency anemia requiring blood transfusions. Treatments for chronic radiation proctitis remain unsatisfactory and the basis of evidence for various therapies is generally insufficient. There are very few controlled or prospective trials, and comparisons between therapies are limited because of different evaluation methods. Medical treatments, including formalin, topical sucralfate, 5-amino salicylic acid enemas, and short chain fatty acids have been used with limited success. Surgical management is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic therapy using modalities such as the heater probe, neodymium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser, potassium titanyl phosphate laser and bipolar electrocoagulation has been reported to be of some benefit, but with frequent complications. Argon plasma coagulation is touted to be the preferred endoscopic therapy due to its efficacy and safety profile. Newer methods of endoscopic ablation such as radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy have been recently described which may afford broader areas of treatment per application, with lower rate of complications. This review will focus on endoscopic ablation therapies, including such newer modalities, for chronic radiation proctitis. PMID:22147960
Bjelkhagen, Hans I.
Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help to their control. 1.
Bjelkhagen, Hans I.
Endoscopic holography or endoholography combines the features of endoscopy and holography. The purpose of endoholographic imaging is to provide the physician with a unique means of extending diagnosis by providing a life-like record of tissue. Endoholographic recording will provide means for microscopic examination of tissue and in some cases may obviate the need to excise specimens for biopsy. In this method holograms which have the unique properties of three-dimensionality large focal depth and high resolution are made with a newly designed endoscope. The endoscope uses a single-mode optical fiber for illumination and single-beam reflection holograms are recorded in close contact with the tissue at the distal end of the endoscope. The holograms are viewed under a microscope. By using the proper combinations of dyes for staining specific tissue types with various wavelengths of laser illumination increased contrast on the cellular level can be obtained. Using dyes such as rose bengal in combination with the 514. 5 nm line of an argon ion laser and trypan blue or methylene blue with the 647. 1 nm line of a krypton ion laser holograms of the stained colon of a dog showed the architecture of the colon''s columnar epithelial cells. It is hoped through chronological study using this method in-vivo an increased understanding of the etiology and pathology of diseases such as Crohn''s diseases colitis proctitis and several different forms of cancer will help
Yagi, Makoto; Abe, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Yu; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Iwano, Daisuke; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Nana; Nishise, Syouichi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki
The present report describes a rare case of esophageal carcinoid tumor that was treated by endoscopic resection. A 43-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at her family clinic for screening of the upper digestive tract and a small lesion resembling a submucosal tumor was detected in the lower esophagus. A biopsy sample from the lesion was diagnosed as esophageal carcinoid tumor and the patient visited our hospital for detailed examination. The tumor was approximately 3 mm in diameter and its surface appeared to be covered with normal squamous epithelium. The tumor had a shiny reddish surface without ulceration or erosion. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging showed structures resembling reticular vessels under the epithelium. Endoscopic ultrasonography depicted the tumor as a low-echoic mass within the lamina propria. Computed tomography did not detect the tumor and no metastatic lesions were evident in other organs. With the patient's informed consent, the tumor was resected using endoscopic submucosal dissection, with a sufficient free margin in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Magnifying endoscopic examination showed the resected tumor to have abundant reticular vessels. Finally, the tumor was diagnosed immunopathologically as an esophageal carcinoid tumor (neuroendocrine cell tumor, grade 1), without lymphatic or vascular invasion.
Vetro, Calogero; Bonanno, Giacomo; Giulietti, Giorgio; Romano, Alessandra; Conticello, Concetta; Chiarenza, Annalisa; Spina, Paolo; Coppolino, Francesco; Cunsolo, Rosario; Raimondo, Francesco Di
Gastrointestinal lymphomas represent up to 10% of gastrointestinal malignancies and about one third of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. The most prominent histologies are mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. However, the gastrointestinal tract can be the site of rarer lymphoma subtypes as a primary or secondary localization. Due to their rarity and the multifaceted histology, an endoscopic classification has not been validated yet. This review aims to analyze the endoscopic presentation of rare gastrointestinal lymphomas from disease diagnosis to follow-up, according to the involved site and lymphoma subtype. Existing, new and emerging endoscopic technologies have been examined. In particular, we investigated the diagnostic, prognostic and follow-up endoscopic features of T-cell and natural killer lymphomas, lymphomatous polyposis and mantle cell lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, plasma cell related disease, gastrointestinal lymphomas in immunodeficiency and Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the gastrointestinal tract. Contrarily to more frequent gastrointestinal lymphomas, data about rare lymphomas are mostly extracted from case series and case reports. Due to the data paucity, a synergism between gastroenterologists and hematologists is required in order to better manage the disease. Indeed, clinical and prognostic features are different from nodal and extranodal or the bone marrow (in case of plasma cell disease) counterpart. Therefore, the approach should be based on the knowledge of the peculiar behavior and natural history of disease. PMID:26265987
Papazian, A; Braillon, A; Dupas, J L; Sevenet, F; Capron, J P
The endoscopic features of the gastric mucosa in patients with cirrhosis have not been systematically investigated. In these patients, we observed an endoscopic aspect, consisting of multiple small erythematous areas, outlined by a subtle yellowish network (resembling a mosaic), mainly located in the proximal part of the stomach. We tested the value of this sign by comparing two groups: 100 patients with portal hypertension due to cirrhosis, and 300 control patients without signs of liver disease or portal hypertension. This endoscopic pattern was observed in 94 of the patients with cirrhosis, whereas oesophageal varices were seen in 78 only. In contrast, only one patient of the control group had this aspect. Moreover, this sign was also found in seven of eight patients with non cirrhotic portal hypertension, but was seen neither in 100 patients with chronic alcoholism but without liver disease, nor in 10 cirrhotic patients with end-to-side portacaval shunts. These endoscopic changes might be because of mucosal and/or submucosal oedema and congestion highlighting the normal areae gastricae pattern and related to raised portal pressure. We conclude that the mosaic pattern of the gastric mucosa is a sensible and specific sign for diagnosis of portal hypertension, whatever the cause. Images Figure PMID:3781334
Rajesh, M. C.
Neuroendoscopy has established itself as a routine neurosurgical procedure in pediatric population. To have an uneventful smooth perioperative course, it is important for anesthesiologist to know about the key steps, possible complications, and specific anesthetic requirements. Among neuroendoscopies, endoscopic third ventriculostomy is the commonly performed one. PMID:28298748
Engel, Guy; Genish, Hadar; Rosenbluh, Michael; Yelin, Dvir
High quality imaging through sub-millimeter endoscopic probes provides clinicians with valuable diagnostics capabilities in hard to reach locations within the body. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) has been shown promising for such task; however, challenging probe fabrication and high speckle noise had prevented its testing in in vivo studies. Here we demonstrate a novel miniature SEE probe which incorporates some of the recent progress in spectrally encoded technology into a compact and robust endoscopic system. A high-quality miniature diffraction grating was fabricated using automated femtosecond laser cutting from a large bulk grating. Using one spectrally encoded channel for imaging and a separate channel for incoherent illumination, the new system has large depth of field, negligible back reflections and well controlled speckle noise which depends on the core diameter of the illumination fiber. Moreover, by using a larger imaging channel, higher groove density grating, shorter wavelength and broader spectrum, the new endoscopic system now allow significant improvements in almost all imaging parameter compared to previous systems, through an ultra-miniature endoscopic probe.
Uppal, Dushant S; Wang, Andrew Y
Achalasia is the most common primary motility disorder of the esophagus and presents as dysphagia to solids and liquids. It is characterized by impaired deglutitive relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. High-resolution manometry allows for definitive diagnosis and classification of achalasia, with type II being the most responsive to therapy. Since no cure for achalasia exists, early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is critical to prevent end-stage disease. The central tenant of diagnosis is to first rule out mechanical obstruction due to stricture or malignancy, which is often accomplished by endoscopic and fluoroscopic examination. Therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD), surgical myotomy, and endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin injection. Heller myotomy and PD are more efficacious than pharmacologic therapies and should be considered first-line treatment options. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a minimally-invasive endoscopic therapy that might be as effective as surgical myotomy when performed by a trained and experienced endoscopist, although long-term data are lacking. Overall, therapy should be individualized to each patient’s clinical situation and based upon his or her risk tolerance, operative candidacy, and life expectancy. In instances of therapeutic failure or symptom recurrence re-treatment is possible and can include PD or POEM of the wall opposite the site of prior myotomy. Patients undergoing therapy for achalasia require counseling, as the goal of therapy is to improve swallowing and prevent late manifestations of the disease rather than to restore normal swallowing, which is unfortunately impossible. PMID:27818585
Bartholomew, M M; Mohammed, S L; Williams, D H
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is rapidly becoming the preferred method of gastrostomy tube placement. We describe our experience with this procedure in nine patients. The main complications were minor and due to local infection. This report demonstrates the simplicity and safety of this technique.
Engel, Guy; Genish, Hadar; Rosenbluh, Michael; Yelin, Dvir
High quality imaging through sub-millimeter endoscopic probes provides clinicians with valuable diagnostics capabilities in hard to reach locations within the body. Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) has been shown promising for such task; however, challenging probe fabrication and high speckle noise had prevented its testing in in vivo studies. Here we demonstrate a novel miniature SEE probe which incorporates some of the recent progress in spectrally encoded technology into a compact and robust endoscopic system. A high-quality miniature diffraction grating was fabricated using automated femtosecond laser cutting from a large bulk grating. Using one spectrally encoded channel for imaging and a separate channel for incoherent illumination, the new system has large depth of field, negligible back reflections and well controlled speckle noise which depends on the core diameter of the illumination fiber. Moreover, by using a larger imaging channel, higher groove density grating, shorter wavelength and broader spectrum, the new endoscopic system now allow significant improvements in almost all imaging parameter compared to previous systems, through an ultra-miniature endoscopic probe. PMID:22876349
Schultheiß, Saskia; Petridis, Athanasios K; El Habony, Rashad; Maurer, Peter; Scholz, Martin
In this surgical-anatomical cadaveric study we investigate the feasibility of the transmaxillary endoscopic approach to the intraorbital space. Anatomical landmarks are defined, the endoscopic view in the orbital space is studied and complications that can occur are discussed. Nine formalin-fixed heads were used to study the transmaxillary endoscopic approach to the orbit. The approach was used twice on each head (once for each maxilla). Therefore, we report our results on 18 transmaxillary intraorbital approaches. For better differentiation of anatomical structures, the veins and arteries were injected with blue and red plastic respectively in six cadaveric heads. The transmaxillary approach enables viewing the inferior intraconal structures without endangering the infraorbital nerve and its artery and without diversion of the inferior rectus muscle. The optic nerve was visualised more easily through the approach medial to the inferior rectus muscle instead of lateral to the muscle since the ciliary nerves are in the way in the lateral approach. The combination of the approaches medial and lateral to the inferior rectus muscle allows very good identification of all important anatomical structures in the inferior intraconal space. The transmaxillary endoscopic approach to the orbit is a useful new approach in the surgical armamentarium for orbital lesions. The overview of the inferior part of the orbit is excellent, and the lateral part of the optic nerve can be visualised. Careful anatomical dissection allows visualisation of important anatomical structures in the orbit without damaging nerves or arteries.
Uppal, Dushant S; Wang, Andrew Y
Achalasia is the most common primary motility disorder of the esophagus and presents as dysphagia to solids and liquids. It is characterized by impaired deglutitive relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. High-resolution manometry allows for definitive diagnosis and classification of achalasia, with type II being the most responsive to therapy. Since no cure for achalasia exists, early diagnosis and treatment of the disease is critical to prevent end-stage disease. The central tenant of diagnosis is to first rule out mechanical obstruction due to stricture or malignancy, which is often accomplished by endoscopic and fluoroscopic examination. Therapeutic options include pneumatic dilation (PD), surgical myotomy, and endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin injection. Heller myotomy and PD are more efficacious than pharmacologic therapies and should be considered first-line treatment options. Per oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a minimally-invasive endoscopic therapy that might be as effective as surgical myotomy when performed by a trained and experienced endoscopist, although long-term data are lacking. Overall, therapy should be individualized to each patient's clinical situation and based upon his or her risk tolerance, operative candidacy, and life expectancy. In instances of therapeutic failure or symptom recurrence re-treatment is possible and can include PD or POEM of the wall opposite the site of prior myotomy. Patients undergoing therapy for achalasia require counseling, as the goal of therapy is to improve swallowing and prevent late manifestations of the disease rather than to restore normal swallowing, which is unfortunately impossible.
Duysinx, B; Heinen, V; Louis, R; Corhay, J-L
Emphysema is characterized by an irreversible alveolar destruction, a progressive lung hyperinflation and a dysfunction of respiratory muscles. It induces a respiratory functional limitation and a decrease of quality of life. Endoscopic lung volume reduction represents a potential alternative to surgical treatments for advanced heterogeneous emphysema without concomitant surgical morbidity. The different bronchoscopic systems for lung volume reduction currently under evaluation are presented.
Carozzo, Claude; Maitre, Pierre; Genevois, Jean-Pierre; Gabanou, Pierre-Alexandre; Fau, Didier; Viguier, Eric
To report an endoscope-assisted lateral approach to expose the intervertebral foramen and disk and perform lateral corpectomy of thoracolumbar disks in dogs. Cadaver study. Fresh canine cadavers (n=6). A thoracic (T10-T11) and a lumbar (L3-L4) lateral approach were made on 6 fresh canine mixed breed cadavers. Through a limited skin incision, musculature was dissected and retracted using a neurosurgical self-retaining retractor and lateral corpectomy performed. The approach and bone removal, both performed under endoscopic control, were assessed. The foramen and intervertebral disk were clearly observed in all specimens without any iatrogenic injury of the ventral and dorsal nerve branches. Access to the foramen was possible in all specimens; in the thoracic area the head of the rib was always partially excised to observe the intervertebral disk medially. Lateral corpectomy was easily performed in all cadavers and spinal cord observation was good. Extension to foraminotomy or mini hemilaminectomy could easily be performed through the same limited approach. Endoscopic exploration provided a good viewing of the intervertebral disk and/or foramen. An endoscope-assisted thoracolumbar lateral corpectomy could effectively be performed through a limited approach to the thoracolumbar disks and allowed good ventral spinal cord assessment. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
Balachandar, Gowra; Trowers, Eugene A.
Enhanced endoscopic detection of small flat adenomas is becoming increasingly important as they have a reported 14 percent incidence of dysplasia when compared with 5% incidence in polypod adenomas of the same size. These lesions even when invasive do not show up against the translucent surrounding mucosa making endoscopic detection difficult. Dye spraying with indigo carmine makes their morphology clear, with well-circumscribed borders. Dye spraying and magnifying endoscopes can be used to observe pit patterns on the surface of the bowel. Combining dye spraying and high-resolution video endoscopy demonstrates well the colorectal epithelial surface. Scanning immersion video endoscopy visualizes the epithelial surface of the colorectal mucosa by high-resolution endoscopy after filling the lumen with water. Endoscopic ultrasound can be used to see if the lesion is intramucosal or not and assess the depth of invasion if malignancy is presented. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has the potential to detect colonic dysplasia in vivo. Combining such technologies with conventional colonoscopy can help in the surveillance of large areas of colonic mucosa for the presence of dysplasia. Guided biopsy can replace random biopsy based on information provided at the time of colonoscopic examination.
Kumta, Nikhil A.; Mehta, Shivani; Kedia, Prashant; Weaver, Kristen; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Fukami, Norio; Minami, Hitomi; Casas, Fernando; Gaidhane, Monica; Lambroza, Arnon
Achalasia is an esophageal motility disorder characterized by incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and aperistalsis of the esophageal body. Treatment of achalasia is aimed at decreasing the resting pressure in the LES. Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM), derived from natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) and advances in endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), presents a novel, minimally invasive, and curative endoscopic treatment for achalasia. POEM involves an esophageal mucosal incision followed by creation of a submucosal tunnel crossing the esophagogastric junction and myotomy before closure of the mucosal incision. Although the procedure is technically demanding and requires a certain degree of skill and competency, treatment success is high (90%) with low complication rates. Since the first described POEM in humans in 2010, it has been used increasingly at centers worldwide. This article reviews available published clinical studies demonstrating POEM efficacy and safety in order to present a proposal on how to establish a dedicated POEM program and reach base proficiency for the procedure. PMID:25324996
Loske, Gunnar; Schorsch, Tobias; Müller, Christian
Anastomotic insufficiency in esophageal anastomosis and esophageal defects of other etiology are very severe complications. For anastomotic insufficiency in the rectum, endoscopic vacuum therapy has already been used successfully. The authors used vacuum therapy for anastomotic defects and other lesions of the esophagus. Between November 2006 and September 2009, 10 patients (5 men and 5 women, ages 46-82 years) were treated with endoscopic vacuum sponge therapy for anastomotic insufficiency secondary to esophagectomy or gastrectomy (n = 5), iatrogenic esophageal perforation (n = 2), esophageal wall necrosis (n = 1), Boerhaave's syndrome (n = 1), and perforation of esophageal cancer (n = 1). After one to seven changes of the sponge at intervals of 2-7 days and a mean therapy duration of 12 days, the defects were healed in all the surviving patients. During treatment, the patients were fed via an intestinal tube or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG), or enterally past the sponge. One patient died of intercurrent severe colitis. In three cases, a revision laparotomy was necessary at the beginning of treatment. No postinterventional stricture or functional relevant scar formation was observed during a follow-up period of 10-380 days after termination of the vacuum therapy. Esophageal anastomotic insufficiency and esophageal wall defects of other causes can be treated successfully with endoscopic vacuum sponge therapy.
Murphy, Edward M.; Hegarty, Francis J.; McMahon, Barry P.; Boyle, Gerard
Endoscopes are imaging devices routinely used for the diagnosis of disease within the human digestive tract. Light is transmitted into the body cavity via incoherent fibreoptic bundles and is controlled by a light feedback system. Fibreoptic endoscopes use coherent fibreoptic bundles to provide the clinician with an image. It is also possible to couple fibreoptic endoscopes to a clip-on video camera. Video endoscopes consist of a small CCD camera, which is inserted into gastrointestinal tract, and associated image processor to convert the signal to analogue RGB video signals. Images from both types of endoscope are displayed on standard video monitors. Diagnosis is dependent upon being able to determine changes in the structure and colour of tissues and biological fluids, and therefore is dependent upon the ability of the endoscope to reproduce the colour of these tissues and fluids with fidelity. This study investigates the colour reproduction of flexible optical and video endoscopes. Fibreoptic and video endoscopes alter image colour characteristics in different ways. The colour rendition of fibreoptic endoscopes was assessed by coupling them to a video camera and applying video colorimetric techniques. These techniques were then used on video endoscopes to assess how the colour rendition of video endoscopes compared with that of optical endoscopes. In both cases results were obtained at fixed illumination settings. Video endoscopes were then assessed with varying levels of illumination. Initial results show that at constant luminance endoscopy systems introduce non-linear shifts in colour. Techniques for examining how this colour shift varies with illumination intensity were developed and both methodology and results will be presented. We conclude that more rigorous quality assurance is required to reduce colour error and are developing calibration procedures applicable to medical endoscopes.
Iacoangeli, Maurizio; Colasanti, Roberto; Esposito, Domenic; Di Rienzo, Alessandro; di Somma, Lucia; Dobran, Mauro; Gladi, Maurizio; Scerrati, Massimo
Different surgical approaches have been developed for dealing with third ventricle lesions, all aimed at obtaining a safe removal minimizing brain manipulation. The supraorbital subfrontal trans-lamina terminalis route, commonly employed only for the anterior third ventricle, could represent, in selected cases with endoscopic assistance, an alternative approach to posterior third ventricular lesions. Seven patients underwent a supraorbital subfrontal trans-laminar endoscope-assisted approach to posterior third ventricle tumors (two craniopharyngiomas, one papillary tumor of the pineal region, one pineocytoma, two neurocytomas, one glioblastoma). Moreover, a conventional third ventriculostomy was performed via the same trans-laminar approach in four cases. Complete tumor removal was accomplished in four cases, subtotal removal in two cases, and a simple biopsy in one case. Adjuvant radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy was administered, if required, on the basis of the histologic diagnosis. No major complications occurred after surgery except for an intratumoral hemorrhage in a patient undergoing a biopsy for a glioblastoma, which simply delayed the beginning of adjuvant radiochemotherapy. No ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement was needed in these patients at the most recent clinical and radiologic session (average 39.57 months, range 13-85 months). Two illustrative cases are presented. The supraorbital subfrontal trans-laminar endoscope-assisted approach may provide, in selected cases, an efficient and safe route for dealing with posterior third ventricular tumors.
Kumar, Nitin; Conwell, Darwin L.; Thompson, Christopher C.
Objectives Infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) is a complication of acute pancreatitis requiring intervention. Surgery is associated with considerable morbidity. Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD), initial therapy in the step-up approach, minimizes complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) has demonstrated safety and efficacy. We compared outcome and health care utilization of DEN versus step-up approach. Methods This was a matched cohort study using a prospective registry. Twelve consecutive DEN patients were matched with 12 step-up approach patients. Outcomes were clinical resolution after primary therapeutic modality, new organ failure, mortality, endocrine or exocrine insufficiency, length of stay, and health care utilization. Results Clinical resolution in 11 of 12 patients after DEN versus 3 of 12 step-up approach patients after PCD (P < 0.01). Nine step-up approach patients required surgery; 7 of these experienced complications. Direct endoscopic necrosectomy resulted in less new antibiotic use, pulmonary failure, endocrine insufficiency, and shorter length of stay (P < 0.05). Health care utilization was lower after DEN by 5.2:1 (P < 0.01). Conclusions Direct endoscopic necrosectomy may be superior to step-up approach for WOPN with suspected or established infection. Primary PCD generally delayed definitive therapy. Given the higher efficacy, shorter length of stay, and lower health care utilization, DEN could be the first-line therapy for WOPN, with primary PCD for inaccessible or immature collections. PMID:25083997
Shen, Jun; Sun, Fa; Chen, Fang-Min; Wu, Zhi-Ping; Li, Sheng-Wen
Objective To analyze the risk factors causing postoperative urosepsis in ureter endoscopic lithotripsy without infection preoperatively, in order to make a more effective and safer preventive and therapeutic strategy.Methods From January 2010 to January 2015, 5 ureteral calculus patients undergoing ureter endoscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser were retrospectively enrolled in this clinical study. These patients suffered urosepsis postoperatively confirmed by the clinical presentations and laboratory Results, while they had no infection in their blood and urine preoperatively. Without delay, 5 patients were treated by anti-inflammation and anti-shock.Results The vasopressor drug was stopped gradually after 12-36 hours. The body temperature was recovered to normal in 2 or 3 days, and the blood and urine test Results were not abnormal in 7 days. At last, 5 patients were all cured.Conclusions Stone and operation themselves are potential factors to cause urosepsis after ureter endoscopic lithotripsy. Especially for patients who had not presented infection preoperatively, careful preparation preoperatively, corrective manipulation, low pressure irrigation, drainage and controlling time during operation, and early diagnosis, appropriate treatment postoperatively are the key to cure and prevent urosepsis.
Dias, Luis A; Gebhard, Harry; Mtui, Estomih; Anand, Vijay K; Schwartz, Theodore H
Video endoscopy systems are typically very expensive and not particularly portable. We evaluated an inexpensive and ultraportable system for laboratory training in skull base endoscopic dissections. In June 2010, we assembled commercially available components consisting of a universal serial bus-powered video camera, a battery-charged light-emitting diode (LED) light source, and a 13-inch laptop to perform skull base endoscopic dissection at our anatomy laboratory. We evaluated its cost, portability, and image quality as a valid tool for neurosurgical and rhinology training. The system performed smoothly with no clinical perception of image delay during video recording. The LED light source and the overall image quality were considered adequate, providing appropriate detail for endoscopic surgical simulation in the laboratory. The cost is around 1/10 to 1/100 of a standard or high-definition endoscopy system, and the entire system weighs only 5 pounds. The combination of a portable computer's video processing allied to a highly energy-efficient video camera and LED light source is useful for training in neuroendoscopy. Its clinical role in settings with limited resources requires further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hu, Changchen; Ji, Hongming; Zhang, Shiyuan; Hao, Xudong; Shen, Bo; Su, Luhai
To explore the efficacies of neuronavigation-guided pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for removing pituitary adenomas. Retrospective analyses were conducted for the clinical data of 139 patients undergoing pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery for pituitary adenomas between July 2011 and July 2014. There were 55 males and 84 females with a mean age of 48. 9 (21 - 73) years. The classifications of Hardy-Wilson were I (n =16), II (n = 39), III (n = 48) and IV (n = 36). Neuronavigation was used in all patients. And neuro-ophthalmological, neuroimaging and endocrinological follow-ups were conducted postoperatively. Total (n = 95, 68. 3%), subtotal (n = 33, 23. 7%) and partial (n = 11, 7. 9%) removals were achieved. For Hardy-Wilson I, gross total removal was achieved (n = 16, 100%); Hardy-Wilson II (n = 35, 89. 7%), Hardy-Wilson III (n = 34, 70. 8%) and Hardy-Wilson IV (n = 10, 27. 8%). Postoperative visual acuity improved (92. 1%, 70/76) and endocrine remission was observed (59. 6%, 53/89). The postoperative complications included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage (n = 8, 5. 8%), meningitis (n = 3), sellar hematoma (n = 5) and delayed carotid artery rupture (n = 1). And the patient of hemorrhagic shock underwent emergency interventional procedures and was discharged successfully. Pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for removing pituitary adenoma is both safe and effective. And its efficacies may further increased through combined neuronavigation.
Galzio, Renato J.; Di Cola, Francesco; Raysi Dehcordi, Soheila; Ricci, Alessandro; De Paulis, Danilo
Background: The endovascular techniques has widely changed the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. However surgery still represent the best therapeutic option in case of broad-based and complex lesions. The combined use of endoscopic and microsurgical techniques (EAM) may improve surgical results. Objective: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the advantages and limits of EAM for intracranial aneurysms. Methods: Between January 2002 and December 2012, 173 patients, harboring 206 aneurysms were surgically treated in our department with the EAM technique. One hundred and fifty-seven aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation and 49 were in the posterior circulation. Standard tailored approaches, based on skull base surgery principles, were chosen. The use of the endoscope included three steps: initial inspection, true operative time, and final inspection. For each procedure, an intraoperative video and an evaluation schedule were prepared, to report surgeons’ opinions about the technique itself. In the first cases, we always used the endoscope during surgical procedures in order to get an adequate surgical training. Afterwards we became aware in selecting cases in which to apply the endoscopy, as we started to become familiar with its advantages and limits. Results: After clipping, all patients were undergone postoperative cerebral angiography. No surgical mortality related to EAM were observed. Complications directly related to endoscopic procedures were rare. Conclusion: Our retrospective study suggests that endoscopic efficacy for aneurysms is only scarcely influenced by the preoperative clinical condition (Hunt–Hess grade), surgical timing, presence of blood in the cisterns (Fisher grade) and/or hydrocephalus. However the most important factors contributing to the efficacy of EAM are determined by the anatomical locations and sizes of the lesions. Furthermore, the advantages are especially evident using dedicated scopes and holders, after an
Chapoy, P; Guidon, M J; Louchet, E
The aim of this work was to describe the endoscopic features and clinical outcome of the duodenal complications in anaphylactoid purpura. Over a 3-year period, 20 patients were hospitalized in our unit because of purpura rheumatica. Duodenal complications occurred in 5 cases warranting endoscopic assessment. All patients had bilious vomiting and epigastric pain, constantly associated with low-grade purpuric rash. Plasma factor XIII concentrations were always decreased. The duodenal complication was suspected radiologically in 2 cases when "thumbprint" impressions were seen. Petechiae, oedema and intramural hematoma with superficial erosions were present endoscopically in 3 cases. The lesions were severe and extensive, involving the entire duodenum in 3 cases and the jejunum in one case. In one patient, there was a stricture of the upper part of the second duodenum. Treatment consisted of parenteral nutrition (using a central catheter: 3 cases, or a peripheral vein: 2 cases) and cimetidine (30 mg/kg.bw). The clinical outcome was favorable in 4 patients; the symptoms vanished and the endoscopic lesions were reversible (including the stricture) with restitutio ad integrum after 10 days. The last patient died the 8th day of treatment, 3 days after digestive improvement; the cause of death was probably iatrogenic and related to accidental migration of the central catheter. These results suggest that endoscopic examination should be performed in all patients with anaphylactoid purpura presenting with bilious vomiting. Endoscopy seems to be of great value in deciding if parenteral nutrition is indicated--or not--and perhaps in order to contraindicate the use of steroid therapy in the case of ulcerated hematomas.
Strauss, G; Hofer, M; Kehrt, S; Grunert, R; Korb, W; Trantakis, C; Winkler, D; Meixensberger, J; Bootz, F; Dietz, A; Wahrburg, J
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is characterized by single-handed preparation and guidance of the endoscope by the nondominant hand. This results in an additional extension of operation time by up to 15% and ergonomic deficits. The aim of this study is the conception of an automated assistance system for FESS in view of the following questions: (1) Which degree of surgical automation is suitable for FESS? (2) Which design is suitable? (3) What are the properties of the technical system (planning, time, accuracy, precision) of the selected system? (4) Does the system offer potential for a clinical application? In all 49 FESS were analyzed for surgical workflows. Measurement of the maximum forces within FESS was performed with 40 trials on an anatomical model. Three different mechanical systems were used in ten FESS and evaluated using the ICCAS Human-Machine Evaluation Scale. For realization of automated endoscope guidance an engine-driven and -braked manipulator (PA10-6c, Mitsubishi, Japan) was used. The technical parameters determined were expenditure of time for the preoperative planning of workspace, surgical accuracy and precision of the intraoperative endoscope positioning, maximal forces, and time. Concept-conditioned instrument changes amount to an average of 41.1 and 18.9% (5.21 min) time requirement for each FESS side. Maximum forces on the mucous membrane during a conventional FESS were measured at 9.8 N (5.9-9.8). Usability of the mechanical endoscope holder was estimated in 18 of 20 cases to be inferior to the standard procedure. The time needed for segmenting the intranasal workspace was 15.2 min (10.0-23.0). The maximum deviation of the automatically driven endoscope from a planned position amounted to 0.85 mm (manually 4.64 mm). The maximum force was measured with 1.1 N in the z direction (manually 9.8 N). Automated guidance of the endoscope to an intranasal position needed 7.25 s (6.4-7.9); manually 12.64 s (5.9-43.0). Guidance of the
Azih, Lilian C; Broussard, Brett L; Phadnis, Milind A; Heslin, Martin J; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A; Varadarajulu, Shayam; Arnoletti, Juan Pablo
villous adenoma (n = 5), adenoma (n = 8), tubulovillous adenoma (n = 10), tubular adenoma (n = 20) and hyperplastic polyp (n = 2). Among the 47 patients who underwent resection, 8 (17%, 5 of which corresponded to surgical resection) developed post-procedural complications which included retroperitoneal hematoma, intra-abdominal abscess, wound infection, delayed gastric emptying and prolonged ileus. After median follow-up of 20 mo there were 6 local recurrences (13%, median follow-up = 20 mo) 4 of which were in patients with FAP. CONCLUSION: EUS accurately predicts the depth of mucosal invasion in suspected benign ampullary and duodenal adenomas. These patients can safely undergo endoscopic or local resection. PMID:23382629
Method and apparatus are provided for generating an output pulse following a trigger pulse at a time delay interval preset with a resolution which is high relative to a low resolution available from supplied clock pulses. A first lumped constant delay provides a first output signal at predetermined interpolation intervals corresponding to the desired high resolution time interval. Latching circuits latch the high resolution data to form a first synchronizing data set. A selected time interval has been preset to internal counters and corrected for circuit propagation delay times having the same order of magnitude as the desired high resolution. Internal system clock pulses count down the counters to generate an internal pulse delayed by an internal which is functionally related to the preset time interval. A second LCD corrects the internal signal with the high resolution time delay. A second internal pulse is then applied to a third LCD to generate a second set of synchronizing data which is complementary with the first set of synchronizing data for presentation to logic circuits. The logic circuits further delay the internal output signal with the internal pulses. The final delayed output signal thereafter enables the output pulse generator to produce the desired output pulse at the preset time delay interval following input of the trigger pulse.
investigate the possibility of exploiting the properties of a detected Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) signal waveform to estimate time delay, and by...ratios, namely 10 dB and less. We also examine the minimum time –delay estimate error – the Cramer–Rao bound. The results indicate that the method
Lira, Renan Bezerra; Chulam, Thiago Celestino; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo
In the last three decades, otolaryngology and head and neck oncological surgery have shown remarkable progress with the development of several modalities of endoscopic-assisted minimally invasive surgeries. More recently, the Da Vinci robotic surgery system has promoted the development of several surgical approaches with less morbidity and better cosmetic results, including the transaxillary and retroauricular approaches for thyroid surgery and neck dissections. In South America, there are several shortcomings regarding financial resources as well as the lack of support for innovation leading to a significant delay in adoption of numerous technological advances in medical practice. Despite these obstacles, we obtained training in transoral robotic surgery and neck procedures, and then decided to implement neck endoscopic and robotic surgery at our institution. We developed a collaborative training program with Yonsei University that, together with several local measures, allowed for a safe implementation. From June 2014 to December 2016, we have performed a total of 121 retroauricular neck surgeries, of which 65 were robotic-assisted and 56 were endoscopic assisted procedures, with a complication rate that seems to be comparable to conventional procedures in our experience and a smooth learning curve. Safety compliance has been continuously assessed. Aiming to develop and disseminate these techniques, we have ongoing collaborative work with Yonsei University faculty, to continue increasing our clinical experience, and we are now preparing the group and infrastructure to establish a local training program for South American surgeons. We have been presenting our results at national and international medical meetings and started to publish the preliminary results in peer reviewed medical journals. The emphasis is that a retroauricular approach is a therapeutic option to be considered, especially for young patients. Media exposure has been avoided so far. As expected
Chulam, Thiago Celestino; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo
In the last three decades, otolaryngology and head and neck oncological surgery have shown remarkable progress with the development of several modalities of endoscopic-assisted minimally invasive surgeries. More recently, the Da Vinci robotic surgery system has promoted the development of several surgical approaches with less morbidity and better cosmetic results, including the transaxillary and retroauricular approaches for thyroid surgery and neck dissections. In South America, there are several shortcomings regarding financial resources as well as the lack of support for innovation leading to a significant delay in adoption of numerous technological advances in medical practice. Despite these obstacles, we obtained training in transoral robotic surgery and neck procedures, and then decided to implement neck endoscopic and robotic surgery at our institution. We developed a collaborative training program with Yonsei University that, together with several local measures, allowed for a safe implementation. From June 2014 to December 2016, we have performed a total of 121 retroauricular neck surgeries, of which 65 were robotic-assisted and 56 were endoscopic assisted procedures, with a complication rate that seems to be comparable to conventional procedures in our experience and a smooth learning curve. Safety compliance has been continuously assessed. Aiming to develop and disseminate these techniques, we have ongoing collaborative work with Yonsei University faculty, to continue increasing our clinical experience, and we are now preparing the group and infrastructure to establish a local training program for South American surgeons. We have been presenting our results at national and international medical meetings and started to publish the preliminary results in peer reviewed medical journals. The emphasis is that a retroauricular approach is a therapeutic option to be considered, especially for young patients. Media exposure has been avoided so far. As expected
Pioche, Mathieu; Lépilliez, Vincent; Déprez, Pierre; Giovannini, Marc; Caillol, Fabrice; Piessevaux, Hubert; Rivory, Jérôme; Guillaud, Olivier; Ciocîrlan, Mihai; Salmon, Damien; Lienhart, Isabelle; Lafon, Cyril; Saurin, Jean-Christophe; Ponchon, Thierry
Background: Long lasting elevation is a key factor during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and can be obtained by water jet injection of saline solution or by viscous macromolecular solutions. In a previous animal study, we assessed the Nestis Enki II system to combine jet injection and viscous solutions. In the present work, we used this combination in humans in different sites of the digestive tract. Methods: We retrospectively report all of the consecutive ESD procedures performed with jet injection of viscous solutions in four centers. Information was collected about the lesion, the procedure, the histological result, and the outcomes for the patient. Results: In total, 45 resections were completed by six operators: five experts and one beginner with only one previous experience in human ESD. Lesions were located in the esophagus (10), the stomach (11), the duodenum (1), the colon (1) and the rectum (22). Average maximal lesion diameter was 4.8 cm (SD 2.4, range 2 – 11 cm), average lesion surface area was 19.8 cm2 (SD 17.7, range 2.2 – 72 cm2), and average duration of procedure was 79.9 min (SD 50.3 min, range 19 – 225 min). ESD could be conducted while the endoscope was retroflexed at its maximum in 26 cases. Four adverse events were observed: two diminutive perforations and two delayed bleeding occurrences treated conservatively. The R0 resection rate was 91.1 %. The catheter was obstructed in six occurrences of bleeding. Conclusion: Endoscopic submucosal dissection using high pressure injection of viscous macromolecular solutions is safe and effective in different parts of the digestive tract. It does not impede working with the endoscope in the maximal retroflexed position. PMID:26356488
Schroeder, Stephen M
This study examined the effectiveness and safety of a uniportal endoscopic gastrocnemius recession with a specifically designed uniportal endoscopic system. Fifty-three patients underwent 60 endoscopic gastrocnemius recessions. Their mean range of ankle dorsiflexion changed from a preoperative value of -2.9° ± 1.9° to a postoperative value of 12.8° ± 1.7°, for a total increase of 15.7° ± 1.8° of ankle dorsiflexion (p < .001). The average time from skin incision to closure was 4 minutes and 19 ± 33.6 seconds. Overall, 4 (6.67%) cases (procedures) were associated with a complication, including 1 (1.67%) case of triceps surae weakness that resolved after physical therapy. Three (5%) cases developed nerve complications, with 2 (3.33%) cases of transient neuritis that spontaneously resolved at 5 and 8 weeks postoperatively, respectively, and 1 (1.67%) that experienced persistent cutaneous anesthesia in the distribution of the sural nerve along the lateral aspect of the foot up to 4 months postoperatively. There were no cases of wound dehiscence or delayed healing, painful scar formation, infection at the surgical site, hematoma, or deep venous thrombosis. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession with a uniportal system appears to be safe and effective.
Chen, Jianfeng; Lin, Jianbo; Tu, Yuanrong; Lin, Min; Li, Xu; Lai, Fancai
Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently become a hot spot in the field of minimally invasive surgery. But, most of the procedures are still in the early stages of development and limited to animal experiments. Transareolar endoscopic surgery could work as a viable intermediate step before thoracic NOTES. Under intravenous anesthesia without endotracheal intubation, transareolar endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) with a flexible endoscope has rarely been attempted. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this novel minimally invasive technique in managing primary palmar hyperhidrosis (PPH). From June 2012 to July 2014, a total of 58 male patients with severe PPH underwent transareolar ETS by use of a flexible endoscope. Under intravenous anesthesia without endotracheal intubation, a flexible endoscope was introduced through the incision on the edge of the areola into the thoracic cavity. The thoracic sympathetic chain was ablated at the level of the fourth rib. All procedures were successfully performed with a mean operating time of 33.6 ± 8.3 min. All patients regained consciousness rapidly and none of them complained about sore throat after surgery. There were no operative mortality and conversion to open procedure. The symptoms of all patients disappeared as soon as the sympathetic chain was cut off. Fifty six patients (96.6%) were discharged from the hospital on the first postoperative day. The postoperative complications were minor, and no patients developed Horner's syndrome. At 3 months postoperatively, there was no obvious surgical scar on the chest wall, and none of the patients complained about postoperative pain. Compensatory hyperhidrosis (CH) appeared in 19 patients. No recurrent symptoms were observed in our study. One year follow-up revealed an excellent cosmetic result and degree of satisfaction. Nonintubated transareolar ETS with a flexible endoscope is a safe, effective and
Poon, Carmen C Y; Leung, Billy; Chan, Cecilia K W; Lau, James Y W; Chiu, Philip W Y
The current design of capsule endoscope is limited by the inability to control the motion within gastrointestinal tract. The rising incidence of gastrointestinal cancers urged improvement in the method of screening endoscopy. This preclinical study aimed to design and develop a novel locomotive module for capsule endoscope. We investigated the feasibility and physical properties of this newly designed caterpillar-like capsule endoscope with a view to enhancing screening endoscopy. This study consisted of preclinical design and experimental testing on the feasibility of automated locomotion for a prototype caterpillar endoscope. The movement was examined first in the PVC tube and then in porcine intestine. The image captured was transmitted to handheld device to confirm the control of movement. The balloon pressure and volume as well as the contact force between the balloon and surroundings were measured when the balloon was inflated inside (1) a hard PVC tube, (2) a soft PVC tube, (3) muscular sites of porcine colons and (4) less muscular sites of porcine colons. The prototype caterpillar endoscope was able to move inward and backward within the PVC tubing and porcine intestine. Images were able to be captured from the capsule endoscope attached and being observed with a handheld device. Using the onset of a contact force as indication of the buildup of the gripping force between the balloon and the lumen walls, it is concluded from the results of this study that the rate of change in balloon pressure and volume is two good estimators to optimize the inflation of the balloon. The results of this study will facilitate further refinement in the design of caterpillar robotic endoscope to move inside the GI tract.
Batra, Pete S; Citardi, Martin J; Lanza, Donald C
The advances in endoscopic sinus surgery have revolutionized the management of frontal sinus disease. Despite the successes, the purely endoscopic approach has its limitations, especially in patients with alterations in anatomy caused by previous surgical intervention or complex frontal sinus pneumatization patterns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined endoscopic trephination and endoscopic frontal sinusotomy (the above and below approach) in the management of these difficult cases. Chart review was performed on patients undergoing the combined approach from October 1999 to June 2004. Demographic data, symptomatology, comorbidity, previous surgery, and primary pathology were determined. Outcome was assessed based on subjective symptom relief and objective endoscopic patency. Twenty-two patients with a mean age of 49.2 years underwent the combined approach. The primary pathology included mucoceles (15 patients), frontal sinusitis (2 patients), inverted papilloma (2 patients), osteoma (1 patient), fibrous dysplasia (1 patient), and pneumocephalus (1 patient). A total of 25 above and below procedures (22 primary and 3 revision procedures) were performed to manage the pathology. Postoperatively, headaches resolved in 47%, improved in 35%, and remained unchanged in 18% of the patients. Orbital symptoms resolved in 63%, improved in 25%, and remained unchanged in 12% of the patients. Endoscopic patency of the frontal sinusotomy was confirmed in 19 of 22 cases (86%) at a mean follow-up of 16.2 months. Management of complex frontal sinus pathology may require adjunct approaches in conjunction to the standard endoscopic techniques. In this series, the above and below approach was used successfully in 22 patients. The combined approach may serve as an important adjunct for management of complex frontal sinus disease.
, hemoglobin and bioburden residuals. In the simulated-use study 100% of the Olympus colonoscopes, duodenoscopes and bronchoscopes evaluated met or surpassed the cleaning endpoints set for protein, and bioburden residuals (hemoglobin was not evaluated). Conclusions The ECR cleaning cycle provides an effective automated approach that ensures surfaces and channels of flexible endoscopes are adequately cleaned after having only a bedside flush but no manual cleaning. It is crucial to note that endoscopes used for emergency procedures or where reprocessing is delayed for more than one hour MUST still be manually cleaned prior to placing them in the ECR. PMID:20618935
Alfa, Michelle J; DeGagne, Pat; Olson, Nancy; Fatima, Iram
residuals. In the simulated-use study 100% of the Olympus colonoscopes, duodenoscopes and bronchoscopes evaluated met or surpassed the cleaning endpoints set for protein, and bioburden residuals (hemoglobin was not evaluated). The ECR cleaning cycle provides an effective automated approach that ensures surfaces and channels of flexible endoscopes are adequately cleaned after having only a bedside flush but no manual cleaning. It is crucial to note that endoscopes used for emergency procedures or where reprocessing is delayed for more than one hour MUST still be manually cleaned prior to placing them in the ECR.
Yeung, Anthony T
Endoscopic spine surgery has evolved gradually through improvements in endoscope design, instrumentation, and surgical techniques. The ability to visualize and treat painful pathology endoscopically through the foramen has opened the door for the diagnosis and treatment of degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine (from T10 to S1). Other endoscopic techniques for treating a painful disc have been focused on a posterior approach and has been compared with micro-lumbar discectomy. These procedures have not been more effective than open microdiscectomy but are less invasive, have less surgical morbidity, and allow for more rapid surgical recovery. Spinal decompression and fusion was the fallback procedure when nonsurgical treatment or discectomy failed to relieve sciatica and back pain. Foraminal endoscopic surgery, however, provides a truly minimally invasive alternative approach to the pathoanatomy of the lumbar spine because it preserves the multifidus muscle, maintains motion, and eliminates or, at worst, delays the need for fusion. The following developments helped facilitate the evolution of a transforaminal endoscopic surgery procedure for disc herniations from a foraminal disc decompression, also known as percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy, to a more complete foraminal surgical technique that can address spinal stenosis and spinal instability. This expanded capability gives foraminal endoscopic surgery distinct advantages and flexibility for certain painful degenerative conditions compared with open surgery. Advancement of the technique occurred when needle trajectory and placement was refined to better target each type of herniation with precise needle and cannula positioning directed at the herniation. New instrumentation and inclusion of a biportal technique also facilitated removal of extruded, migrated, and sequestered disc herniations. The further development of foraminoscopes with larger working channels and high speed burrs to remove bone more
Noordmans, Herke Jan; Nelisse, Martin W.; de Braak, Menno; Dommerholt, Bert; van den Brink, Henk
In minimal invasive surgery, rigid endoscopes are used to view inside the body through natural or artificial made orifices. As the price of a rigid endoscope is high, they are being constantly re-used after a cleaning and steam sterilization procedure at the Department of Central Sterilization. However, due to mechanical, chemical and thermal stresses, endoscopes degrade over time. To determine whether an endoscope still provides sufficient quality, personnel of the Department of Central Sterilization visually inspect the outside and inside of an endoscope. In practice this check is hard as it appears difficult to tell whether an image is good enough as it should be compared to the image of an new endoscope of the same type. Because of the large diversity in endoscopes, the variation of image quality of new endoscope is already so large, that it is difficult to perform this manual check objectively. In this paper we describe the results of using an experimental test bench to measure the optical quality of endoscopes over the years 2007-2011. The system is based on measuring the illumination pathway using a white LED and photo cell and the viewing pathway using a LCD generated test pattern and high resolution camera. The measurements show that endoscopes roughly degrade 20% per year, but also that the variation in degradation is so high and uncorrelated to the type of endoscope that structural measurement of the quality of endoscopes may be a prerequisite. Looking at the system itself, it appeared that although the system had sufficient stability over these years to allow conclusions, it has too much drawbacks to be used at the Department of Central Sterilization, like the stability of the LCD screen, loosing track of endoscopes when they are placed in another basket and the large number of manual steps needed to perform a measurement. For this reasons we present a new design of an endoscope measurement system, called the MDE, a Measurement Device for Endoscopes. It
Li, Ming; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Shijie; Chen, Xiodong; Yu, Daoyin
Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is an important component in the endoscopic ultrasonography system (EUS). Through the ultrasonic probe, the characteristics of the fault histology features of digestive organs is detected by EUS, and then received by the reception circuit which making up of amplifying, gain compensation, filtering and A/D converter circuit, in the form of ultrasonic echo. Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is the back-end processing system of the EUS, with the function of receiving digital ultrasonic echo modulated by the digestive tract wall from the reception circuit, acquiring and showing the fault histology features in the form of image and characteristic data after digital signal processing, such as demodulation, etc. Traditional endoscopic ultrasonic imaging systems are mainly based on image acquisition and processing chips, which connecting to personal computer with USB2.0 circuit, with the faults of expensive, complicated structure, poor portability, and difficult to popularize. To against the shortcomings above, this paper presents the methods of digital signal acquisition and processing specially based on embedded technology with the core hardware structure of ARM and FPGA for substituting the traditional design with USB2.0 and personal computer. With built-in FIFO and dual-buffer, FPGA implement the ping-pong operation of data storage, simultaneously transferring the image data into ARM through the EBI bus by DMA function, which is controlled by ARM to carry out the purpose of high-speed transmission. The ARM system is being chosen to implement the responsibility of image display every time DMA transmission over and actualizing system control with the drivers and applications running on the embedded operating system Windows CE, which could provide a stable, safe and reliable running platform for the embedded device software. Profiting from the excellent graphical user interface (GUI) and good performance of Windows CE, we can not
Choi, Cheol W; Kang, Dae H; Kim, Hyung W; Park, Su B; Jo, Woo S; Song, Geun A; Cho, Mong
Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been the endoscopic treatment of choice for rectal carcinoid tumors <10 mm in size. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) may cause more severe complications, longer operation time, and higher cost than EMR. : To compare EMR using band ligation (EMR-B) method with ESD for the endoscopic treatment of rectal carcinoid tumors. From November 2008 to September 2011, we enrolled consecutive patients with rectal carcinoid tumors <10 mm in diameter and without lymph node enlargement. Rate of complete resection rate, incidence of complications, and length of procedures were evaluated. Sixty patients were enrolled (31 ESD cases and 29 EMR-B cases). The mean age was 48.03±13.09 years. Both groups had similar mean tumor diameter (EMR-B 4.34±1.75 vs. ESD 5.22±2.09 mm; P=0.084). Resection time was longer in the ESD group than in the EMR-B group (15.09±5.73 vs. 6.37±5.52 min; P<0.001). The complete resection rate was 80.6% (25 of 31) in the ESD group and 82.8% (24 of 29) in the EMR-B group (P=0.833). In incomplete resection cases, neither local recurrence nor distant metastasis was detected during the follow-up period. Compared with ESD, EMR-B resulted in a comparable histologically complete resection rate and took less time to perform. Given the advantages of easier and shorter procedure time, EMR-B may be considered the treatment of choice for small rectal carcinoid tumors.
Song, Michelle; Ahn, Sun M.; Reh, Douglas R.
Introduction: A pneumocele is an abnormal dilation of an air-containing sinus beyond the normal margins of bone, with associated bony thinning. A delayed ethmoid pneumocele after sinus surgery has not previously been reported. Methods: A case report of a patient with a delayed ethmoid pneumocele after sinus surgery. The diagnostic workup, operative approach, and postoperative results were evaluated. Results: A 57-year-old female with a history of endoscopic sinus surgery 15 years prior presented with right eye proptosis and severe orbital and facial pressure. A maxillofacial computed tomography showed a markedly expanded air-filled right anterior ethmoid space with a dehiscent lamina papyracea, consistent with a pneumocele. Marsupialization of the pneumocele as well as a revision ethmoidectomy were performed, with a visible return of the orbital contents to a more natural position. The patient experienced worsened diplopia immediately postoperatively that resolved within two weeks. Conclusions: This case demonstrates that a pneumocele can present even years after endoscopic sinus surgery, and acute but temporary development or worsening of diplopia can result from surgical decompression of the pneumocele as the eye returns to its natural position. PMID:26302735
Campo, Rudi; Wattiez, Arnaud; Tanos, Vasilis; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Grimbizis, Grigoris; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Puga, Marco; Molinas, Roger; O'Donovan, Peter; Deprest, Jan; Van Belle, Yves; Lissens, Ann; Herrmann, Anja; Tahir, Mahmood; Benedetto, Chiara; Siebert, Igno; Rabischong, Benoit; De Wilde, Rudy Leon
In recent years, training and education in endoscopic surgery has been critically reviewed. Clinicians, both surgeons as gynaecologist who perform endoscopic surgery without proper training of the specific psychomotor skills, are at higher risk to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the apprentice-tutor model has long been a successful approach for training of surgeons, recently, clinicians have recognised that endoscopic surgery requires an important training phase outside the operating theatre. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA) recognises the necessity of this structured approach and implements two separated stages in its learning strategy. In the first stage, a skill certificate on theoretical knowledge and specific practical psychomotor skills is acquired through a high-stake exam; in the second stage, a clinical programme is completed to achieve surgical competence and receive the corresponding diploma. Three diplomas can be awarded: (a) the Bachelor in Endoscopy, (b) the Minimally Invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS) and (c) the Master level. The Master level is sub-divided into two separate diplomas: the Master in Laparoscopic Pelvic Surgery and the Master in Hysteroscopy. The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and the quality control. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence, and it counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice-tutor model. It is seen as a major step toward standardisation of endoscopic surgical training in general.
Campo, Rudi; Wattiez, Arnaud; Tanos, Vasilis; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Grimbizis, Grigoris; Wallwiener, Diethelm; Brucker, Sara; Puga, Marco; Molinas, Roger; O'Donovan, Peter; Deprest, Jan; Van Belle, Yves; Lissens, Ann; Herrmann, Anja; Tahir, Mahmood; Benedetto, Chiara; Siebert, Igno; Rabischong, Benoit; De Wilde, Rudy Leon
In recent years, training and education in endoscopic surgery has been critically reviewed. Clinicians, both surgeons as gynaecologist who perform endoscopic surgery without proper training of the specific psychomotor skills are at higher risk to increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the apprentice-tutor model has long been a successful approach for training of surgeons, recently, clinicians have recognised that endoscopic surgery requires an important training phase outside the operating theatre. The Gynaecological Endoscopic Surgical Education and Assessment programme (GESEA), recognises the necessity of this structured approach and implements two separated stages in its learning strategy. In the first stage, a skill certificate on theoretical knowledge and specific practical psychomotor skills is acquired through a high stake exam; in the second stage, a clinical programme is completed to achieve surgical competence and receive the corresponding diploma. Three diplomas can be awarded: (a) the Bachelor in Endoscopy; (b) the Minimally Invasive Gynaecological Surgeon (MIGS); and (c) the Master level. The Master level is sub-divided into two separate diplomas: the Master in Laparoscopic Pelvic Surgery and the Master in Hysteroscopy. The complexity of modern surgery has increased the demands and challenges to surgical education and the quality control. This programme is based on the best available scientific evidence and it counteracts the problem of the traditional surgical apprentice tutor model. It is seen as a major step toward standardization of endoscopic surgical training in general.
Kasahara, Yukio; Mikoda, Masanari
A simple method for measuring delay time in an operational frequency range is required in manufacturing delay lines used for video tape recorders and television receiver sets. This paper describes a simple method of measuring and adjusting the delay time of such delay lines. The delay time is obtained by measuring a phase difference ϑ between the signals at the input and output transducers of the delay line with frequencies under test. The delay time is more precisely obtained by measuring the ϑ at a constant frequency within the bandwidth of the delay line. A delay-time tolerance of a polished glass medium at 3.58 MHz was found to be within 100 ns. The delay time was found to be shortened by 30 ns by attaching the medium on polishing powder and oil. Also shown is a simple method for adjusting the delay time by polishing a delay medium while measuring the phase difference.
Choi, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Kyung Tai; Lee, Young Koo; Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jeong Ryoul; Chung, Woo Chull; Cha, Seung Do
Compare the result of endoscopic versus open bursectomy in lateral malleolar bursitis. Prospective evaluation of 21 patients (22 ankles) undergoing either open or endoscopic excision of lateral malleolar bursitis. The median age was 64 (38-79) years old. The median postoperative follow-up was 15 (12-18) months. Those patients undergoing endoscopic excision showed a higher satisfaction rate (excellent 9, good 2) than open excision (excellent 4, good 3, fair 1). The wounds also healed earlier in the endoscopic group although the operation time was slightly longer. One patient in the endoscopic group had recurrence of symptoms but complications in the open group included one patient with skin necrosis, one patient with wound dehiscence, and two patients of with superficial peroneal nerve injury. Endoscopic resection of the lateral malleolar bursitis is a promising technique and shows favorable results compared to the open resection. Therapeutic studies-Investigating the result of treatment, Level II.
Kim, Jong Wook
Endoscopic treatment is a minimally invasive treatment for managing patients with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Although several bulking agents have been used for endoscopic treatment, dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is the only bulking agent currently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR has gained great popularity owing to several obvious benefits, including short operative time, short hospital stay, minimal invasiveness, high efficacy, low complication rate, and reduced cost. Initially, the success rates of endoscopic treatment have been lower than that of open antireflux surgery. However, because injection techniques have been developed, a recent study showed higher success rates of endoscopic treatment than open surgery in the treatment of patients with intermediate- and high-grade VUR. Despite the controversy surrounding its effectiveness, endoscopic treatment is considered a valuable treatment option and viable alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis. PMID:23646052
Fülöp, Béla; Bella, Zsolt; Palágyi, Péter; Barzó, Pál
Experiences acquired in our department with endoscope assisted microsurgical transsphenoidal pituitary surgery encouraged us to expanded the endoscopic approach to skull base lesions. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach proved to be less traumatic to the traditional microsurgical approaches, yet very effective. The endoscopic transsphenoidal technique was applied in a patient havin anterior skull base tumor. The patient was a 49-year-old woman with several months history of left visual defect. The magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the skull revealed a midline anterior fossa space-occupying lesion measuring 21 x 16 x 22 mm located on planum sphenoidale, tuberculum sellae and intrasellar. The tumor compressed both optic nerves and optic chiasm. Total resection of the tumor was achieved by use of endoscopic transnasal, transsphenoidal technique. This is the first reported case of an anterior fossa meningeoma being treated by an endoscopic transsphenoidal technique in Hungary.
Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon
Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions. PMID:27744661
Ohkura, Yu; Iizuka, Toshiro; Kikuchi, Daisuke; Yamashita, Satoshi; Nakamura, Masanori; Matsui, Akira; Mitani, Toshifumi; Hoteya, Shu; Kaise, Mitsuru; Yahagi, Naohisa
Esophageal achalasia is often associated with esophageal cancer. However, in many cases, esophageal cancer tends to be found in an advanced stage, with a poor prognosis. However, early-stage cancer was detected recently due to the advances in endoscopic instruments. In those cases, it is important to facilitate successful treatment by endoscopic submucosal dissection. We analyzed a total of six cases of esophageal cancer with achalasia in four patients treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection. Three features common to all six cases had a bearing on how endoscopic submucosal dissection was performed. First, esophageal dilatation and diminished peristalsis facilitated the performance of successful endoscopic submucosal dissection. Second, the esophageal wall was thickened, primarily with muscular tissue. Third, the submucosal layer contained abundant blood vessels that made it difficult to minimize bleeding during dissection. Those findings suggest that endoscopic submucosal dissection for early esophageal cancer associated with achalasia is a safe and potentially curative procedure. It is important, therefore, to detect esophageal cancer early.
Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra
Lesions of the ampulla of Vater represent an uncommon group of gastrointestinal malignancies. The majority of lesions of the ampulla of Vater are either adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Ampullary lesions are often incidental findings. Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging of ampullary tumors is imperative for predicting prognosis and determining the most appropriate therapeutic approach. Endoscopic ampullectomy is a safe and efficacious therapeutic procedure that can obviate the need for potentially major surgical intervention. This review will provide the framework for the diagnosis and management of ampullary lesions from the perspective of the practicing gastroenterologist. Strategies for safe and successful endoscopic ampullectomy with a focus on accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging, resection technique, and management of complications are presented. PMID:26413485
External cold light sources as well as LEDs are commonly used for abdominal illumination in minimally invasive surgery. Still, both feature certain disadvantages. A new illumination system for endoscopes based on laser diodes is placed in the handle. No external light cables are needed. High conversion and coupling efficiencies and small package size allow for several diodes to be integrated, enabling color mixing and the adjustment of color temperatures. An optical module to collimate and combine the light is described. The heat to be dissipated is stored in a passive latent heat storage based on phase change materials surrounding the optical module. Thereby, operation time is considerably extended, as the handle's temperature is stabilized. To reduce the negative effect of coherent light on optical rough surfaces leading to patterns of spots, several devices for speckle reduction are developed and tested. By combining these components, an assembly of a powerful RGB laser light module for the integration in standard sized endoscopes is formed.
Wilson, David A; Duong, Huy; Teo, Charles; Kelly, Daniel F
The supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy is being increasingly used for the removal of frontal fossa, parasellar, as well as some middle and posterior fossa tumors. The indications, technical nuances, and complication avoidance techniques for the supraorbital keyhole approach with endoscopic assistance are described. The supraorbital approach is considered ideal for removal of many, if not most, planum and tuberculum sellae meningiomas, some olfactory groove meningiomas, as well as suprasellar craniopharyngiomas, particularly those with far lateral extensions. It is also ideal for many intra-axial tumors, including metastases and gliomas arising from the orbitofrontal, frontal pole, and medial temporal lobe regions. The use of endoscopy further extends the range and versatility of this keyhole approach and is considered an essential adjunct for allowing safe and maximal tumor removal. The supraorbital eyebrow craniotomy with endoscopic assistance provides minimally invasive access to a wide range of frontal fossa, parasellar, and some middle and posterior fossa tumors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Suchanek, Stepan; Grega, Tomas; Zavoral, Miroslav
The role of the surrounding equipment in endoscopic complications has not been published widely. However, an adequate understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of such devices might be helpful to avoid unnecessary problems during endoscopy. This is an overview of the basic principles, benefits and possible harms of electrical power units, medical gases and vital sign monitoring equipment. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the approach to the electrosurgical unit settings; periprocedural precautions, minimizing the risk of interference between endoscopic equipment and other electrical devices; the appropriate selection of instruments regarding the electrosurgical outcome and the role of carbon dioxide, argon plasma coagulation, pulse oximetry and capnography. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun
Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures. PMID:27044769
Weber, Rainer K.; Hosemann, Werner
Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3–4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus. In addition there are operations outside and beyond the paranasal sinuses. The development of surgical technique is still constantly evolving. This article gives a comprehensive review on the most recent state of the art in endoscopic sinus surgery according to the literature with the following aspects: principles and fundamentals, surgical techniques, indications, outcome, postoperative care, nasal packing and stents, technical equipment. PMID:26770282
Poor counter traction and poor field of vision make endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) difficult. Good counter traction allows dissections to be performed more quickly and safely. Position change, which utilizes gravity, is the simplest method to create a clear field of vision. It is useful especially for esophageal and colon ESD. The second easiest method is clip with line method. Counter traction made by clip with line accomplishes the creation of a clear field of vision and suitable counter traction thereby making ESD more efficient and safe. The author published this method in 2002. The name ESD was not established in those days; the name cutting endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) or EMR with hook knife was used. The other traction methods such as external grasping forceps, internal traction, double channel scope, and double scopes method are introduced in this paper. A good strategy for creating counter traction makes ESD easier.
Behary, Jason; Kumbhari, Vivek
Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic with significant impact on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality rates. Over the past two decades, bariatric surgery has established itself as the most effective and durable treatment for patients with obesity and its associated comorbidities. However, despite the use of minimally invasive techniques, bariatric surgery is associated with complications in approximately 15% of patients, has a substantial cost, and is used by only 1% of patients who are eligible. Therefore, there is a need for effective minimally invasive therapies, which will be utilized by the large proportion of obese patients who are in desperate need of treatment but are not receiving any. Endoscopic approaches to the management of obesity have been developed, with the aim of delivering more effective, durable, and safer methods of weight reduction. In this paper, we review currently available and future endoscopic therapies that will likely join the armamentarium used in the management of obesity. PMID:26106413
Wall, R. Andrew; Bonnema, Garret T.; Barton, Jennifer K.
Combined optical coherence tomography (OCT) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) endoscopy has shown higher sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing normal tissue from adenoma when compared to either modality alone. Endoscope optical design is complicated by the large wavelength difference between the two systems. A new high-resolution endoscope 2 mm in diameter is presented that can create focused beams from the ultraviolet to near-infrared. A reflective design ball lens operates achromatically over a large wavelength range, and employs TIR at two faces and reflection at a third internal mirrored face. The 1:1 imaging system obtains theoretically diffraction-limited spots for both the OCT (1300 nm) and LIF (325 nm) channels. PMID:21412448
Becq, Aymeric; Camus, Marine; Rahmi, Gabriel; de Parades, Vincent; Marteau, Philippe
Introduction Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a well-validated treatment of dysplastic Barrett's esophagus. Other indications of endoscopic RFA are under evaluation. Results Four prospective studies (total 69 patients) have shown that RFA achieved complete remission of early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia at a rate of 80%, but with a substantial risk of stricture. In the setting of gastric antral vascular ectasia, two prospective monocenter studies, and a retrospective multicenter study, (total 51 patients), suggest that RFA is efficacious in terms of reducing transfusion dependency. In the setting of chronic hemorrhagic radiation proctopathy, a prospective monocenter study and a retrospective multicenter study (total 56 patients) suggest that RFA is an efficient treatment. A retrospective comparative study (64 patients) suggests that RFA improves stents patency in malignant biliary strictures. Conclusions Endoscopic RFA is an upcoming treatment modality in early esophageal squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia, as well as in gastric, rectal, and biliary diseases. PMID:26279839
Delarue, A; Guys, J M; Louis-Borrione, C; Simeoni, J; Esposito, C
82 endoscopic surgical procedures (abdominal: 77; thoracic: 5) were performed by the same surgeon on 75 children aged from 1 month to 17 years (median 8.1 years) during the two-year period from January 1991 to December 1992. Due to the multispecialization of the Children's Hospital, a variety of pathologies were explored or treated with appendectomy accounting for 33% (27/82). There were no perioperative deaths. Three major complications occurred (1 post-appendectomy peritonitis, 1 hemorrhage during splenectomy and 1 post-operative occlusion). 14 patients required conversion to open surgery. Indications for endoscopic exploration of advanced lesions, prospective indications, and policy when confronted with a healthy appendix are discussed.
Delacrétaz, Yves; Boss, Daniel; Lang, Florian; Depeursinge, Christian
We introduce Endoscopic Low Coherence Interferometry to obtain topology of upper airways through commonly used rigid endoscopes. Quantitative dimensioning of upper airways pathologies is crucial to provide maximum health recovery chances, for example in order to choose the correct stent to treat endoluminal obstructing pathologies. Our device is fully compatible with procedures used in day-to-day examinations and can potentially be brought to bedside. Besides this, the approach described here can be almost straightforwardly adapted to other endoscopy-related field of interest, such as gastroscopy and arthroscopy. The principle of the method is first exposed, then filtering procedure used to extract the depth information is described. Finally, demonstration of the method ability to operate on biological samples is assessed through measurements on ex-vivo pork bronchi.
Kim, Won Hee; Park, Pil Won; Hahm, Ki Baik
Though efficient acid suppression with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) remains the mainstay of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), some of the patients showed refractory response to PPIs, necessitating further intervention. After increasing dose of PPIs and other kinds of pharmacological intervention adopting prokinetics or others, variable endoscopic treatments are introduced for the treatment of these refractory cases. The detailed introduction regarding endoscopic treatment for GERD is forwarded in this review article. Implantation of reabsorbable or synthetic materials in the distal esophagus was tried in vain and is expelled from the market due to limited efficacy and serious complication. Radiofrequency energy delivery (Stretta) and transoral incisionless fundoplication (EsophyX) are actively tried currently. PMID:23767031
Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun
Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures.
Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh; Mishra, K C Divyansh
Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes.
Shanmugam, P Mahesh; Ramanjulu, Rajesh; Mishra, KC Divyansh
Wide field fundus imaging is needed to diagnose, treat, and follow-up patients with retinal pathology. This is more applicable for pediatric patients as repeated evaluation is a challenge. The presently available imaging machines though provide high definition images, but carry the obvious disadvantages of either being costly or bulky or sometimes both, which limits its usage only to large centers. We hereby report a technique of fundus imaging using a nasal endoscope coupled with viscoelastic. A regular nasal endoscope with viscoelastic coupling was placed on the cornea to image the fundus of infants under general anesthesia. Wide angle fundus images of various fundus pathologies in infants could be obtained easily with readily available instruments and without the much financial investment for the institutes. PMID:25686069
Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai
Obesity and its associated metabolic diseases including diabetes mellitus are severe medical problems that are increasing in prevalence worldwide and result in significant healthcare expenses. While behavioral and pharmacological treatment approaches are partly effective in the short term, their effects are not long-lasting. Although previous studies have described bariatric surgery as the most effective treatment for obesity, it is associated with morbidity, mortality, and economic burden. Endoluminal interventions performed entirely using gastrointestinal flexible endoscopy offer alternative approaches to the treatment of obesity that are safer and more cost-effective than current surgical approaches. The use of endoluminal techniques in the field of metabolic obesity disease has diverse promising applications including endoscopic gastroplasty, intragastric balloon, endoluminal malabsorptive bariatric procedures, and gastric electrical stimulation (GES) for the modulation of gastric emptying. This review discusses recent trends and roles in endoscopic bariatric therapies using the currently available endoluminal and transgastric technologies. PMID:28147471
Rene, C; Rose, G; Lenthall, R; Moseley, I
BACKGROUND—The paranasal sinuses are intimately related to the orbit and consequently sinus disease or surgery may cause severe orbital complications. Complications are rare but can result in serious morbidity, the most devastating of which is severe visual loss. METHODS—A retrospective review was undertaken of four cases of severe orbital trauma during endoscopic sinus surgery. RESULTS—All the cases suffered medial rectus damage, one had additional injury to the inferior rectus and oblique, and two patients were blinded as a result of direct damage to the optic nerve or its blood supply. CONCLUSION—Some ophthalmic complications of endoscopic sinus surgery are highlighted, the mechanisms responsible are discussed, and recommendations for prevention, early recognition, and management are proposed. PMID:11316724
Sung, H Y; Kim, J I; Cheung, D Y; Cho, S H; Park, S-H; Han, J-Y; Kim, J K; Han, S W; Choi, K Y; Chung, I S
We describe a case of esophageal perforation that resulted from a fishbone. A 71-year-old man had had a fishbone impacted in the lower esophagus for 2 days. At presentation, the bone was dislodged at endoscopy; one round opening in a deep ulceration was detected when the fishbone was removed. The perforation was closed by endoscopic hemoclipping, after the removal of the fishbone. A thoracic computed tomography revealed air around the esophagus, aorta and bronchus and the presence of a pleural effusion. These findings suggested mediastinal emphysema and mediastinitis due to the esophageal perforation after the removal of the fishbone. Esophagography revealed a focal esophageal defect and linear contrast leakage at the distal esophagus. The mediastinal emphysema and pleural effusion successfully resolved after the endoscopic hemoclip application and conservative management of the perforation.
Hastier, P; Rouquier, P; Buckley, M; Simler, J M; Dumas, R; Delmont, J P
A case is reported of a female with chronic alcoholic calcifying pancreatitis who presented with a wirsungo-cysto-pleural fistula. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography demonstrated the fistulous tract and a naso-pancreatic drain was inserted. Subsequently, this drain was replaced by a pancreatic endoprosthesis. This endoscopic therapy led to full resolution of the fistula. We suggest that endoscopic intervention is the first-line treatment for this condition and that surgical intervention should be reserved as a second-line treatment.
Kumada, Takashi; Hisanaga, Yasuhiro
We report a rare but severe complication of routine transnasal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The tip of a transnasal endoscope was locked in a bent position. Since the bent tip was unable to be returned to a neutral position, the snare from another endoscope inserted transorally was used to straighten it, which allowed the transnasal endoscope to be withdrawn with only mild injury to the gastric mucosa. Endoscopists should be aware of this complication and how to manage it. PMID:26157831
Yin, Haiying; Han, Fei; Cui, Zhaoyang
Objective: To show the efficacy and comfort of pneumatic bag packing after the endoscopic nasal surgery. Pneumatic bag packing may be recommendable in terms of comfort and efficacy after endoscopic nasal surgery. Significant findings: There were statistical significant differences between the pneumatic bag packing and the expansive sponge packing regarding subjective symptoms and objective findings after surgery. Conclusions: Pneumatic bag packing may be recommendable in terms of comfort and efficacy after endoscopic nasal surgery. PMID:25785173
Ishii, Naoki; Setoyama, Takeshi; Deshpande, Gautam A; Omata, Fumio; Matsuda, Michitaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Uemura, Masayo; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki
The number of sample cases of colonic diverticular hemorrhage treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been small to date. To elucidate the safety and efficacy of EBL for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Retrospective study. General hospital. A total of 29 patients with 31 colonic diverticula with stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). Urgent colonoscopy was performed after bowel preparation. When diverticula with SRH were identified, marking with hemoclips was done near the diverticula. The endoscope was removed and reinserted after a band-ligator device was attached to the tip of endoscope. At first, EBL was attempted. In patients who could not be treated with EBL, epinephrine injection or endoscopic clipping was performed. Procedure time, rate of hemostasis and rebleeding, complications. The mean procedure time was 47 ± 19 minutes. EBL was successfully completed in 27 colonic diverticula (87%); except in 3 diverticula with a small orifice and large dome and 1 diverticula in which the orifice was too large. Early rebleeding after EBL occurred in 3 of 27 cases (11%). Although 2 cases of sigmoid rebleeding could be managed by repeat EBL or conservatively, right hemicolectomy was performed in 1 ascending diverticulum, in which the bleeding source was not identified on repeat colonoscopy. Scar formation at previously banded diverticula was identified in 7 of 11 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy. There were no complications after EBL in any of the patients. Retrospective study. EBL is a safe and effective treatment for colonic diverticular hemorrhage, and colonic diverticula resolve after EBL. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Dierckman, Brian D.; Guanche, Carlos A.
With the significant increase in use of the arthroscope around the hip have come several less invasive techniques to manage pathologies around this joint. This technical note with a video details one such technique that allows for the endoscopic management of proximal hamstring tears and chronic ischial bursitis, which until now have been managed exclusively with much larger open approaches. This procedure allows for complete exposure of the posterior aspect of the hip in a safe, minimally invasive fashion. PMID:23766996
Štimac, Davor; Klobučar Majanović, Sanja; Ličina, Milan
Obesity remains a tremendous public health, clinical, and scientific challenge globally. Conventional approaches in the management of obesity offer limited potential for sustained weight loss. Bariatric surgery, although it represents the most effective weight loss treatment, has its own risks and is associated with substantial costs and limited patient applicability. Endoscopic weight loss procedures are considered as the major breakthrough in the management of obesity. Endoluminal interventions performed entirely through the gastrointestinal tract have evolved as a result of an attempt to replicate some of the anatomical features and the physiological effects of the traditional weight loss surgery while being reversible, less invasive, and more cost-effective. Restrictive procedures act to decrease gastric volume by space-occupying devices and/or by suturing or stapling techniques that alter gastric anatomy, whereas malabsorptive procedures tend to create malabsorption by preventing food contact with the duodenum and proximal jejunum. Other procedures act by influencing gastric function (gastric botulinum injections, gastric pacing, and vagal nerve blocking) or by gastric aspiration. It is important to underline that the majority of endoscopic weight loss procedures are still being evaluated and are not yet available routinely. Even though some of the techniques and devices that have recently emerged have demonstrated promising short-term results, evidence on their safety and long-term efficacy from well-designed and well-conducted research should be given before they can become an inherent part of everyday clinical practice. Given the rapid development of endoscopic weight loss procedures, this review considers the current state and recent trends in endoscopic management of obesity. © The Author(s) 2016.
The use of the microscope and more recently of the endoscope, improve the conditions of endonasal surgery. These techniques must not give the impression of complete security. The complications of the ethmoidectomy exist. A good knowledge of the anatomy of the sinus cavities and a gradual apprenticeship are the best means to prevent these complications. We present the different types of complications and their preventions.
Zini, Raul; Munegato, Daniele; De Benedetto, Massimo; Carraro, Andrea; Bigoni, Marco
Several open surgical techniques have been used to treat recalcitrant cases of snapping iliotibial band with varying results. Recently, endoscopic techniques have become available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of a modified endoscopic iliotibial band release using a longitudinal retrospective case series. Fifteen patients (three men and 12 women) with symptomatic external snapping hip were treated with an endoscopic release of the iliotibial band. The average age was 25 years (range 16-37 years). The procedure was performed in the lateral decubitus position using two portals; the iliotibial band was transversally released using a radiofrequency hook probe. The mean follow-up period was 33.8 months (range 12-84 months). The snapping phenomenon was overcome in all the patients. The mean pre-op pain VAS score was 5.5 mm (range 5-7 mm) and the mean post-op pain VAS score was 0.53 mm (range 0-2 mm) with a statistically significant reduction with respect to the preoperative value (p<0.0001); sixty percent of the patients were pain-free. The mean postoperative Harris Hip Score was 97.5 (range 94-100). No revision procedures were indicated and all the patients returned to their previous level of activity. The mean patient satisfaction score was, on average, 9.3 mm (range 8-10 mm) on the VAS scale. No complications occurred. Endoscopic iliotibial band release is a safe and reproducible technique with excellent results in terms of snapping phenomenon resolution, patient satisfaction, and return to previous level of activity. After strenuous sporting activities 40% of patients complained of very slight pain.
Aldekhayel, Salah; Govshievich, Alexander; Lee, James; Tahiri, Youssef; Luc, Mario
Background: Several surgical techniques exist for treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. Endoscopic cubital tunnel release (ECTuR) has been recently reported as a promising minimally invasive technique. This study aims to compare outcomes and complications of open cubital tunnel release (OCTuR) and ECTuR in the treatment of idiopathic cubital tunnel syndrome. Methods: A systematic review of the literature (1980-2014) identified 118 citations. Studies including adults with idiopathic cubital tunnel treated exclusively by ECTuR or OCTuR were included. Outcomes of interest were postoperative grading, complications, number of reoperations, and the need for intraoperative conversion to another technique. Postoperative outcomes were combined into a uniform scale with 4 categories: “excellent,” “good,” “fair,” and “poor.” Results: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria (17 observational and 3 comparative), representing 425 open and 556 endoscopic decompressions. In the open group, 79.8% experienced “good” or “excellent” results with 12% complication rate and 2.8% reoperation rate. In the endoscopic group, 81.8% experienced “good” or “excellent” results with 9% complication rate and 1.6% reoperation rate. Meta-analysis of 3 comparative studies demonstrated a significantly lower overall complication rate with ECTuR. Subgroup analysis of complications revealed a significantly higher incidence of scar tenderness and elbow pain with OCTuR. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates similar effectiveness between the endoscopic (ECTuR) and open (OCTuR) techniques for treatment of idiopathic cubital tunnel syndrome with similar outcomes, complication profiles, and reoperation rates. PMID:27418887
Leveque, S; Derrey, S; Martinaud, O; Freger, P; Proust, F
Glial cysts of the pineal gland are usually benign and asymptomatic. They develop from the pineal parenchyma and contain liquid. The diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast large cysts can be symptomatic due to compression of the aqueduct of Sylvius, compression of the midbrain tectum or mass effect in the posterior fossa. We report the case of a symptomatic cyst treated by an endoscopic procedure.
Savran, Bircan; Zeren, Sezgin; Coşgun, Süleyman; Adigüzel, Ünal; Öztürk, Ahmet
Foreign body ingestion occurs commonly in children, elderly, mentally impaired or alcoholic, and psychiatric patients. We present a 15-year-old boy with mental retardation and uncontrolled psychiatric disorder admitted to the hospital with abdominal and chest pain. He was diagnosed with foreign body ingestion and 15 foreign objects, including a sharp knife, were successfully removed endoscopically by using an over-tube. PMID:26623255
Song, Joseph B; Tanagho, Youssef S; Haseebuddin, Mohammed; Benway, Brian M; Desai, Alana C; Bhayani, Sam B; Figenshau, Robert S
Retrieval of foreign bodies from the genitourinary system, most commonly inserted for sexual satisfaction or as a result of a psychiatric illness, can pose a significant surgical challenge. Due to their breadth of size, shape, and location within the genitourinary system, endoscopic management can be difficult. Here, we review the management of four cases of foreign object insertion into the genitourinary system and their outcomes and management. PMID:24082848
Kwitt, R; Vasconcelos, N; Rasiwasia, N; Uhl, A; Davis, B; Häfner, M; Wrba, F
A novel approach to the design of a semantic, low-dimensional, encoding for endoscopic imagery is proposed. This encoding is based on recent advances in scene recognition, where semantic modeling of image content has gained considerable attention over the last decade. While the semantics of scenes are mainly comprised of environmental concepts such as vegetation, mountains or sky, the semantics of endoscopic imagery are medically relevant visual elements, such as polyps, special surface patterns, or vascular structures. The proposed semantic encoding differs from the representations commonly used in endoscopic image analysis (for medical decision support) in that it establishes a semantic space, where each coordinate axis has a clear human interpretation. It is also shown to establish a connection to Riemannian geometry, which enables principled solutions to a number of problems that arise in both physician training and clinical practice. This connection is exploited by leveraging results from information geometry to solve problems such as (1) recognition of important semantic concepts, (2) semantically-focused image browsing, and (3) estimation of the average-case semantic encoding for a collection of images that share a medically relevant visual detail. The approach can provide physicians with an easily interpretable, semantic encoding of visual content, upon which further decisions, or operations, can be naturally carried out. This is contrary to the prevalent practice in endoscopic image analysis for medical decision support, where image content is primarily captured by discriminative, high-dimensional, appearance features, which possess discriminative power but lack human interpretability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sood, Sandeep; Asano, Eishi; Altinok, Deniz; Luat, Aimee
Traditionally corpus callosotomy is done through a craniotomy centered at the coronal suture, with the aid of a microscope. This involves dissecting through the interhemispheric fissure below the falx to reach the corpus callosum. The authors describe a posterior interhemispheric approach to complete corpus callosotomy with an endoscope, which bypasses the need to perform interhemispheric dissection because the falx is generally close to the corpus callosum in this region.
Chaaban, Mohamad R; Conger, Bryant; Riley, Kristen O; Woodworth, Bradford A
Conventional treatment of frontal sinus posterior table fractures has included osteoplastic flap or cranialization procedures despite considerable advances in endoscopic technique and experience. The objective of the current study was to evaluate outcomes of frontal sinus fractures involving the posterior table managed using endoscopic approaches. Prospective cohort. Tertiary care, academic university hospital. Prospective evaluation of patients with posterior table fractures was performed. Data were collected regarding demographics, etiology, technique, operative site, length involving the posterior table, size of the skull base defect, complications, and clinical follow-up. Thirteen patients (average age 37 years) with posterior table fractures were treated using endoscopic techniques from 2008 to 2012. Mean follow-up time was 68 weeks (range, 2-206 weeks). Patients were primarily managed using Draf IIb frontal sinusotomies with 1 individual requiring a concomitant trephine. A Draf III procedure was performed in 1 patient. Average fracture defect (length vs width) was 13 × 4.5 mm, and average length involving the posterior table was 9.7 mm (1-30 mm). Skull base defects were covered with a septal flap and/or free tissue grafts. Although 1 individual required a revision frontal sinusotomy and follow-up was short in several patients, all sinuses remained patent on last clinical examination. Management of frontal sinus posterior table fractures using minimally invasive endoscopic techniques provides excellent outcomes in selected cases. Fractures of up to 30 mm in length were adequately managed in this series and indicate this approach can be a viable alternative in the treatment of these fractures.
Matula, C; Reinprecht, A; Roessler, K; Tschabitscher, M; Koos, W T
Regarding to the upcoming techniques in neuroendoscopy the IVth ventricle was examined. First in a series of 30 fresh and fixed anatomical specimens-the vessels injected with LATEX-the fourth ventricle was investigated endoscopically. There are three possibilities to reach the IVth ventricle: coming from the IIIrd ventricle via the aqueductus cerebri, using the basal cisterns through the apertura lateralis Luschkae and coming via the cerebellomedullar cistern through the foramen of Magendi. Using different kinds of endoscopes (rigid, flexible and steerable flexible)-diameter ranging from 5 to 9 french-with different optical systems (0 degree, 5 degrees, 30 degrees, 75 degrees) and different light sources (Halogen, Xenon) the anatomical details seen under the endoscope and the topographical landmarks of the approaches were investigated, presented and discussed. Based on the experience at the end of the cadaver work a short comment on which kind of equipment seems the best was given. A series of 14 clinical cases was presented as the second part of the study (7 cases with a tumor in the IVth ventricle-2 metastasis, 3 gliotic tumors, 1 ependymoma, 1 medulloblastoma, 3 patients with an occluded aqueduct because of meningo-ventriculitis and 4 patients with cystic malformations). The neuroendoscopic approaches, the neuroanatomical details relevant for surgery and the clinical data will be given and discussed. In general no intraoperative or postoperative complications were seen. In conclusion our experience from the theoretical neuroanatomical and the clinical part as well as the advantages and disadvantages from the different kind of endoscopes and approaches are discussed.
Kim, Jung Hee; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Lee, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Se, Young-Bem; Kim, Hey In; Lee, Seung Hoon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Kim, Seong Yeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Kong, Doo-Sik; Kim, Yong Hwy
Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery has recently been introduced in pituitary surgery. We investigated outcomes and complications of endoscopic surgery in 2 referral centers in Korea. We enrolled 134 patients with acromegaly (microadenomas, n = 15; macroadenomas, n = 119) who underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery at Seoul National University Hospital (n = 74) and Samsung Medical Center (n = 60) between January 2009 and March 2016. Remission was defined as having a normal insulin-like growth factor-1 and a suppressed growth hormone (GH) <1 ng/mL during an oral glucose tolerance test. Remission was achieved in 73.1% of patients, including 13 of 15 microadenoma patients (86.7%) and 86 of 119 macroadenoma patients (72.3%). A multivariate analysis to determine a predictor of biochemical remission demonstrated that absence of cavernous sinus invasion and immediate postoperative GH levels <2.5 ng/dL were significant predictors of remission (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.52-17.3 and OR, 9.60; 95% CI, 3.41-26.9, respectively). After surgery, normal pituitary function was maintained in 34 patients (25.4%). Sixty-four patients (47.7%) presented complete (n = 59, 44.0%) or incomplete (n = 5, 3.7%) recovery of pituitary function. Hypopituitarism persisted in 20 patients (14.9%) and worsened in 16 patients (11.9%). Postoperatively, transient diabetes insipidus was reported in 52 patients (38.8%) but only persisted in 2 patients (1.5%). Other postoperative complications were epistaxis (n = 2), cerebral fluid leakage (n = 4), infection (n = 1), and intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 1). Endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for acromegaly presented high remission rates and a low incidence of endocrine deficits and complications. Regardless of surgical techniques, invasive pituitary tumors were associated with poor outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kuchar, A.; Novak, P.; Pieh, S.; Fink, M.; Steinkogler, F. J.
AIM—To document the results of erbium (Er)-YAG laser treatment in presaccal canalicular obstruction in combination with the use of a flexible endoscope. METHODS—For the first time an Er-YAG laser (Schwind, Sklerostom) was attached to a flexible endoscope (Schwind, Endognost) and used to recanalise a stenosis of the upper, lower, or common canaliculus. In 17 patients (mean age 41.5 (SD 11.9) years), 19 treatments (two bilateral) were performed. In all cases the scar was observed using the endoscope and was excised by laser ablation. A silicone intubation was performed in all cases. In addition to the endoscopy an irrigation was performed to prove the intactness of the lacrimal pathway system after laser treatment. RESULTS—Membranous obstructions with a maximum length of 2.0 mm (14 procedures) in the canaliculus were opened easily using the laser, and the silicone intubation was subsequently performed without difficulty. Scars thicker than 2.0 mm could not be opened safely without canaliculus penetration (five procedures). Irrigation was positive in all cases up to the end of a 6 month period, providing the tubes remained in place. The maximum follow up is now 17 months (minimum 8 months) and in 16 cases (84.2%) the canaliculi are still intact. CONCLUSION—Endoscopic laser treatment combined with silicone intubation enables us to recanalise presaccal stenoses of canaliculi under local anaesthesia up to a scar thickness of 2.0 mm. Best results can be achieved in cases where much tissue can be saved. Under such conditions this procedure can substitute for more invasive surgical techniques, especially a conjunctivo-dacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR). Keywords: laser recanalisation; presaccal canalicular obstruction; endoscopy PMID:10434867
Loske, G; Schorsch, T
Operative and interventional treatment of Boerhaave's syndrome include closure of the esophageal defect and drainage of the septic focus. Initial reports on the use of endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) of Boerhaave's syndrome are now available. This article describes the experiences gained from the clinical application in two patients using this new surgical endoscopic procedure. The current literature regarding treatment of Boerhaave's syndrome is presented. Open-pore drainage is endoscopically placed either through the transmural defect in the extraluminal wound cavity (intracavitary EVT) or overlapping the defect into the esophageal lumen (intraluminal EVT). The application of a negative pressure results in active drainage directed to the lumen and simultaneously in defect closure. Through these therapeutic measures the perforation defect and the septic focus can be healed. Open-pore drains are manufactured from drainage tubes and open-pore foam or an open-pore film. In both patients the distal esophageal perforation defects were completely healed using EVT. In 1 patient the treatment with EVT alone lasted 8 days. For the second patient EVT was combined with an open thoracotomy for decortication of pleural empyema. The treatment with EVT lasted 23 days and 1 cycle of EVT was carried out with an new open-pore film drainage (OFD). Surgical treatment to close the defect or an esophageal resection was not necessary for both patients. In the currently available studies and single case reports of ETV for Boerhaave's syndrome, 11 patients (84 %) of a total of 13 patients have been successfully treated. First clinical experiences have demonstrated that with EVT draining of the septic focus and closure of the Boerhaave defect at the gastroesophageal junction can be achieved. The EVT is an organ-preserving endoscopic surgical treatment, which can be an alternative and complementary to traditional surgery.
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has become one of the most useful and established enteral nutrition techniques available to patients requiring nutritional support worldwide. Good nutrition and the receiving of essential nutrients and electrolytes are vital for growth, healing, repair and delivery of essential energy to carry out daily tasks. The article looks specifically at PEG as a form of enteral nutrition delivery, how it is undertaken, and the care needs of the patient post-insertion of a PEG tube.
... adults)Being a twinAutism (a developmental disorder)Elective mutism (the child just doesn’t want to talk) ... palsy, developmental disability, Early Language Milestone Scale, elective mutism, expressive language disorder, hearing loss, language delay, psychosocial ...
Gentry, G.D.; Marr, M.J.
Previous studies of choice between two delayed reinforcers have indicated that the relative immediacy of the reinforcer is a major determinant of the relative frequency of responding. Parallel studies of choice between two interresponse times have found exceptions to this generality. The present study looked at the choice by pigeons between two delays, one of which was always four times longer than the other, but whose absolute durations were varied across conditions. The results indicated that choice is not uniquely determined by the relative immediacy of reinforcement, but that absolute delays are also involved. Models for concurrent chained schedules appear to be more applicable to the present data than the matching relation; however, these too failed to predict choice for long delays.
... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 139. Curry SA, Biancuzzo RM. ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:348-350. Haddad NG, Eugster EA. Delayed ...
Park, Eun Taek
For diagnosis and treatment of pancreatobiliary diseases, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is useful method nowadays and its technically success rate is usually in about 90%-95% of patients with normal gastric and pancreaticobiliary anatomy. Recently ERCP is significantly challenging after intestinal reconstruction, particularly in patients who have undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD, classic Whipple’s operation) or pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) with reconstruction. PD and PPPD relate to numerous techniques have been presented for reconstruction of the digestive tract and pancreaticobiliary tree during the resection bilioenteric stricture commonly occurs later in the postoperative course and developed in 5-year cumulative probability of biliary stricture rate of 8.2% and pancreaticoenteric stricture of 4.6%. This complication was no difference in incidence between patients with benign or malignant disease. In PD or PPPD with reconstruction, short pancreatobiliary limb with biliojejunal anastomosis site is made usually, modestly success rate of intubation to blind loop and cannulation with conventional endoscope. However, in combined Reux-en-Y anastomosis, longer pancreatobiliary limb and additional Reux limb are obstacle to success intubation and cannulation by using conventional endoscope. In this situation, new designed enetroscope with dedicated accessories is efficient. PMID:27838918
Khan, A; Masood, J; Ghei, M; Kasmani, Z; Ball, A J; Miller, R
Every Urologist, during the course of fulguration treatment of bladder tumours, has at some time or another experienced small intravesical explosions usually manifesting as a "pop". Major intravesical explosions are rare but potentially devastating complications of transurethral endoscopic resections. The damage to the bladder can range from small mucosal tears to bladder rupture, which can either be intraperitoneal (requiring laparotomy and open bladder repair) or extraperitoneal. We review the literature on intravesical explosions to determine the aetiology of these explosions and suggest strategies to prevent these. A comprehensive literature search was performed using Medline and Ovid to obtain information using search terms: intravesical explosions, transurethral procedures, endoscopic procedures, diathermyIntravesical explosions occur due to the production of explosive gases during use of diathermy on human tissues. The most dangerous combination is hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen alone is not explosive and it only becomes explosive when admixed with oxygen. Oxygen is not produced in sufficient quantity during diathermy to cause explosions but can enter into the bladder from the atmosphere during endoscopic procedures. Careful operative technique (correct use of the Ellick evacuator bulb and reducing the frequency of manual irrigations of the bladder) with minimisation of the operative time and using the coagulation current at moderate power as well as judicious coagulation of tissues can reduce the risk of this dangerous complication arising.
Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A; Aguirre-Díaz, Armando
Gallstones and extrahepatic biliary obstruction is a difficult management problem during pregnancy. Choledocholithiasis may cause cholangitis or pancreatitis, potentially life-threatening conditions. As surgery may result in significant fetal mortality when performed on these patients. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) are preferred and could be performed safely in pregnant women provided suitable precautions are taken to minimize exposure to radiation. To show our experience in ERCP and ES for symptomatic choledocholithiasis during pregnancy. We described our experience in seven young women (mean age, 27.4 years) who presented with symptoms caused by choledocholithiasis, one in first trimester of pregnancy, four in second trimester, and two in third month. All had obstructive jaundice corroborated by abnormal liver function test and dilation of biliary tree on abdominal ultrasound. All had ERCP, ES, and stone extraction without complication and went on to deliver healthy babies at term. A lead apron was positioned over the abdomen of the mother to shield the fetus during roentgenographic fluoroscopy. Mean fluoroscopy time was 26 (range, 5-60 sec). Endoscopic management should be considered in women presenting with choledocholithiasis during pregnancy.
Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua
In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW.
Keshri, Amit Kumar; Shah, Saurin R.; Patadia, Simple D.; Sahu, Rabi N.; Behari, Sanjay
Introduction: Encephaloceles in relation to the nose are rare lesions affecting the skull base. In the pediatric population, majority are congenital lesions manifesting as nasal masses requiring surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 6 consecutive patients below 12 years of age with intranasal meningoencephalocele treated by endonasal endoscopic approach at our tertiary centre was done. The follow up period ranged from 6 months to 2 years. A detailed clinical and radiological evaluation of these cases was done. Endonasal endoscopic repair (gasket seal/fat plug) was carried out in all cases. Results: Out of 6 patients, 4 patients had post-traumatic and rest 2 cases had congenital meningo-encephaloceles. All patients were asymptomatic in post-operative follow up period. One patient had minor complication of nasal alar collapse due to intra-operative adherence of encephalocele to cartilaginous framework. Conclusion: Transnasal endoscopic repair of anterior skull base meningoencephalocele is a minimally invasive single stage surgery, and has advantage in terms of lesser hospital stay, cost of treatment, and better cosmesis. The repair technique should be tailored to the size of defect to provide a water-tight seal for better outcome. PMID:27195032
Slawinski, Piotr R; Taddese, Addisu Z; Musto, Kyle B; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro
Retroflexion during colonoscopy is typically only practiced in the wider proximal and distal ends of the large intestine owing to the stiff nature of the colonoscope. This inability to examine the proximal side of the majority of colon folds contributes to today's suboptimal colorectal cancer detection rates. We have developed an algorithm for autonomous retroflexion of a flexible endoscope that is actuated magnetically from the tip. The magnetic wrench applied on the tip of the endoscope is optimized in real-time with data from pose detection to compute motions of the actuating magnet. This is the first example of a completely autonomous maneuver by a magnetic endoscope for exploration of the gastrointestinal tract. The proposed approach was validated in plastic tubes of various diameters with a success rate of 98.8% for separation distances up to 50 mm. Additionally, a set of trials was conducted in an excised porcine colon observing a success rate of 100% with a mean time of 19.7 s. In terms of clinical safety, the maximum stress that is applied on the colon wall with our methodology is an order of magnitude below what would damage tissue.
Jain, Deepanshu; Singhal, Shashideep
Advances in diagnostic modalities and improvement in surveillance programs for Barrett esophagus has resulted in an increase in the incidence of superficial esophageal cancers (SECs). SEC, due to their limited metastatic potential, are amenable to non-invasive treatment modalities. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) are some of the new modalities that gastroenterologists have used over the last decade to diagnose and treat SEC. However, esophageal stricture (ES) is a very common complication and a major cause of morbidity post-ESD. In the past few years, there has been a tremendous effort to reduce the incidence of ES among patients undergoing ESD. Steroids have shown the most consistent results over time with minimal complications although the preferred mode of delivery is debatable, with both systemic and local therapy having pros and cons for specific subgroups of patients. Newer modalities such as esophageal stents, autologous cell sheet transplantation, polyglycolic acid, and tranilast have shown promising results but the depth of experience with these methods is still limited. We have summarized case reports, prospective single center studies, and randomized controlled trials describing the various methods intended to reduce the incidence of ES after ESD. Indications, techniques, outcomes, limitations, and reported complications are discussed. PMID:26949124
Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology.
Iqbal, Atif; Salinas, Vanessa; Filipi, Charles J
The high prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in Western societies has accelerated the need for new modalities of treatment. Currently, medical and surgical therapies are widely accepted among patients and physicians. New potent antisecretory drugs and the development of minimally invasive surgery for the management of GERD are at present the pivotal and largely accepted approaches to treatment. The minimally invasive treatment revolution, however, has stimulated several new endoscopic techniques for GERD. Up to now, the data is limited and further studies are necessary to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the various endoscopic techniques to medical and laparoscopic management of GERD. New journal articles and abstracts are continuously being published. The Food and Drug Administration has approved 3 modalities, thus gastroenterologists and surgeons are beginning to apply these techniques. Further trials and device refinements will assist clinicians. This article will present an overview of the various techniques that are currently on study. This review will report the efficacy and durability of various endoscopic therapies for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The potential for widespread use of these techniques will also be discussed. Articles and abstracts published in English on this topic were retrieved from Pubmed. Due to limited number of studies and remarkable differences between various trials, strict criteria were not used for the pooled data presented, however, an effort was made to avoid bias by including only studies that used off-PPI scoring as baseline and intent to treat. PMID:16718747
Bauer, T; Deranlot, J; Hardy, Ph
The calcaneo-fibular impingement syndrome is frequent after calcaneal fracture and is linked to the decreased space between the tip of the fibula and the lateral wall of the calcaneus. The reasons for the painful symptoms are mixed with both bony and soft tissue involvement. The abnormal bony contact between the lateral calcaneal cortex and the tip of the fibula depends mainly on the size and localization of the lateral exostosis of the calcaneal wall. The soft tissue impingement is due to the fibrosis and scar tissues in the lateral gutter and to the compression of the peroneal tendons in the retromalleolar groove and under the tip of the malleolus. A 2-portal endoscopic technique is described for the treatment of calcaneo-fibular impingement with bone resection, soft tissue debridement and peroneal tendons release. One of the advantages of this endoscopic technique is the possibility of an assessment and treatment of associated lesions in the same procedure. A subtalar joint fusion can be done before if needed under arthroscopic control. As this endoscopic technique is very efficient to relieve symptoms of calcaneo-fibular impingement and is focused on the most relevant symptoms, it can thus be indicated for most of cases of calcaneal malunions, whatever the type of malunion and depending of the painful symptoms.
Llorente, José Luis; López, Fernando; Suárez, Vanessa; Costales, María; Moreno, Carla; Suárez, Carlos
Anterior craniofacial resection (CFR) is a standardised procedure for the treatment of tumours involving the anterior skull base. We present our experience in the endoscopic treatment of these tumours. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated by endoscopic anterior CFR in our Department from 2004 until 2011. Thirty-two patients were analysed. Mean follow-up was 28 months (range: 6-84 months). The most frequent pathological entity was adenocarcinoma (60%), followed by undifferentiated carcinoma (13%). According to TNM classification, malignant epithelial tumour staging was T3 in 9%, T4a in 53% and T4b in 19% of the malignant epithelial tumours. The complication rate was 6% and the resection was complete in 91% of cases. During follow-up, 9% of patients developed recurrence. The 5-year overall survival rate was 70% and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 85% These results seem to indicate that properly planned endoscopic CFR may be a valid alternative to traditional open approaches for the management of malignancies of the anterior skull base. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Zamorano, Lucia J.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Moure, Federico; Diaz, Fernando
Image-guided stereotaxis is an accurate and safe method of directing therapy to target volumes defined in 2D multi-planes or 3D perspectives using computer reconstruction of image data. The major limitations of stereotactic techniques are the lack of intraoperative visualization and the ability to directly monitor the procedures, and changes of intracranial coordinates after decompression of cystic lesions or aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid in the management of intraventricular lesions. Stereotactic neuroendoscopy involves integration of rigid-flexible endoscopy and the Nd-YAG laser in 2D/3D multiplanar image-guided stereotactic procedures. The major advantages of endoscopic laser surgery include being minimally invasive (burrhole or small craniotomy surgery), direct intraoperative visualization, hemostasis, evacuation or resection assessment, and wide exploration of intracranial cavities or ventricles. We used endoscopic laser surgery in the management of 202 patients undergoing biopsy, aspiration, resection, and internal decompression of deep and subcortical intracranial lesions, and for different types of fenestration procedures. Image-guidance combined with endoscopic techniques may offer a safe, accurate alternative to conventional neurosurgical procedures in treating small solid, cystic, intraventricular lesions, and in fenestration procedures.
Jusue-Torres, Ignacio; Sivakanthan, Sananthan; Pinheiro-Neto, Carlos Diogenes; Gardner, Paul A; Snyderman, Carl H; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C
Objectives To present and validate a chicken wing model for endoscopic endonasal microsurgical skill development. Setting A surgical environment was constructed using a Styrofoam box and measurements from radiological studies. Endoscopic visualization and instrumentation were utilized in a manner to mimic operative setting. Design Five participants were instructed to complete four sequential tasks: (1) opening the skin, (2) exposing the main artery in its neurovascular sheath, (3) opening the neurovascular sheath, and (4) separating the nerve from the artery. Time to completion of each task was recorded. Participants Three junior attendings, one senior resident, and one medical student were recruited internally. Main Outcome Measures Time to perform the surgical tasks measured in seconds. Results The average time of the first training session was 48.8 minutes; by the 10th training session, the average time was 22.4 minutes. The range of improvement was 25.7 minutes to 72.4 minutes. All five participants exhibited statistically significant decrease in time after 10 trials. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that an improvement of 50% was achieved by an average of five attempts at the 95% confidence interval. Conclusions The ex vivo chicken wing model is an inexpensive and relatively realistic model to train endoscopic dissection using microsurgical techniques.
Wengert, Christian; Bossard, Lukas; Baur, Charles; Székely, Gábor; Cattin, Philippe C
Manipulating small objects such as needles, screws or plates inside the human body during minimally invasive surgery can be very difficult for less experienced surgeons due to the loss of 3D depth perception. Classical navigation techniques are often incapable of providing support in such situations, as the augmentation of the scene with the necessary artificial markers--if possible at all--is usually cumbersome and leads to increased invasiveness. We present an approach relying solely on a standard endoscope as a tracking device for determining the pose of such objects, using the example of a suturing needle. The resulting pose information is then used to generate artificial 3D cues on the 2D screen to provide optimal support for surgeons during tissue suturing. In addition, if an external tracking device is provided to report the endoscope's position, the suturing needle can be directly tracked in the world coordinate system. Furthermore, a visual navigation aid can be incorporated if a 3D surface is intraoperatively reconstructed from the endoscopic video stream or registered from preoperative imaging.
Massaad, A A; Fiorillo, M A; Hallak, A; Ferzli, G S
The posterior approach for groin hernia repair as popularized by Stoppa and Nyhus is one of the most solid repairs available. It requires a larger incision than the anterior approach, which has limited its use to recurrent and bilateral hernias. The endoscopic extraperitoneal herniorrhaphy (EEPH) accomplishes a similar repair via three minute incisions. This study suggests that EEPH is at least as safe and efficient as the open preperitoneal repair. Three hundred sixteen male patients underwent 405 hernia repairs by an endoscopic extraperitoneal approach. Ages ranged from 18 to 82 years old. There were 204 indirect, 182 direct, 13 pantaloon, and six femoral hernias. Eighty-nine were bilateral and 42 were recurrent. All repairs were done using polypropylene mesh. Follow-up has been achieved in 89% of patients and ranged from 7 to 50 months, with a median of 25 months. Seven patients (2.2%) required conversion to an open approach. Five recurrences have developed to date. Complications (5.7%) have included urinary retention, bladder injury, groin and/or scrotal hematoma, trocar site infection, lateral femoral cutaneous nerve neuralgia, and cardiac arrhythmia. Endoscopic extraperitoneal herniorrhaphy may provide an appropriate alternative to other methods of hernia repair when performed by experienced laparoscopists.
Lee, Doh Young; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Jung, Kwang-Yoon
This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy. For solo-surgery, we used an Endoeye Flex Laparo-Thoraco Videoscope (Olympus America, Inc.). A Vitom Karl Storz holding system (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.) composed of several bars connected by a ball-joint system was used for fixation of endoscope. A snake retractor and a brain-spoon retractor were used on the sternocleidomastoid. Endoscopic thyroidectomy using the solo-surgeon technique was performed in 10 patients having papillary thyroid carcinoma. The mean patient age was 36.0 ± 11.1 years, and all patients were female. There were no postoperative complications such as vocal cord paralysis and hematoma. When compared with the operating times and volume of drainage of a control group of 100 patients who underwent surgery through the conventional retroauricular approach between May 2013 and December 2015, the operating times and volume of drainage were not significantly different (P = .781 and .541, respectively). Solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy is safe and feasible when performed by a surgeon competent in endoscopic thyroidectomy.
Prasad, Kishore Chandra; Kumar, Ashwini; Prasad, Sampath Chandra; Jain, Disha
The purpose of this article is to report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma involving the bilateral paranasal sinuses, which was excised using an endoscopic-assisted transfacial approach. A patient presented with nasal swelling and left-sided nasal obstruction, epistaxis, and diplopia. Examination revealed broadening of the nasal dorsum with a fleshy pink mass in both nasal cavities. Computed tomographic scan showed a mass involving the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses on both sides. The tumor was diagnosed as group C esthesioneuroblastoma. The mass was excised by bilateral medial maxillectomy and bilateral frontoethmoidectomy. Using a 0 degrees endoscope, the attachment of the tumor to the cribriform plate was identified and resected using a motordrill. On Waroff staining, Hispathology slides suggested esthesioneuroblastoma. The patient was asymptomatic for 1 year, following which he developed infection of the nasal cavity for which he had no form of treatment. He subsequently developed maggots in the nasal cavity after which he died. An endoscopic resection of the cribriform plate from the nasal cavity without a formal craniofacial resection can be safely performed with oncologic safety.
Riegel, Thomas; Freudenstein, Dirk; Alberti, Olaf; Duffner, Frank; Hellwig, Dieter; Bartel, Volker; Bertalanffy, Helmut
Hemorrhage control in endoscopic neurosurgery is critical because of the lack of suitable instruments for coagulation. One reason for this problem is that miniaturization of the instruments is still a technical problem. In this article, we present a solution: the use of bipolar microforceps with a small diameter of 1.5 mm. With the use of modern synthetic and metallic materials, the construction of the bipolar microforceps was designed without the use of mechanical joints. All movable elements are integrated within the instrument shaft. This design provides optimal visibility of the operating field because the sheath has a diameter of only 1.5 mm along its entire length. Therefore, this instrument is compatible with most working channels of neuroendoscopes. The new, joint-free design of the forceps and the electric insulation of the branches were the technical innovations that led to the development of this novel, multipurpose instrument. This new instrument may enhance endoscopic resection and shrinkage of cystic lesions and may offer new possibilities in endoscopic tumor resection and the treatment of hemorrhage.
Decq, P; Le Guerinel, C; Palfi, S; Djindjian, M; Kéravel, Y; Nguyen, J P
Since its description by Dandy in 1922, several techniques have been used to perform third ventriculostomy under endoscopic control. Except for the blunt technique, in which the endoscope is used by itself to create the opening in the floor of the third ventricle, the other techniques require more than one instrument to perforate the floor of the ventricle and enlarge the ventriculostomy. The new device described is a sterilizable modified forceps that allows both the opening of the floor and the enlargement of the ventriculostomy in a simple and effective way. The new device has the following characteristics: 1) the tip of the forceps is thin enough to allow the easy perforation of the floor of the ventricle; 2) the inner surface of the jaws is smooth to avoid catching vessels of the basal cistern; and 3) the outer surface of the jaws has indentations that catch the edges of the opening to prevent them from slipping along the instrument's jaws. The ventricle floor is opened by gentle pressure of the forceps, which is slowly opened so that the edges of the aperture are caught by the distal outer indentation of the jaws, leading to an approximately 4-mm opening of the floor. This device has been used successfully in 10 consecutive patients. This new device allows surgeons to perform third ventriculostomy under endoscopic control in a very simple, quick, and effective way, avoiding the need for additional single-use instruments.
Karhuketo, T S; Puhakka, H J
Endoscope-guided round window membrane repair was performed to evaluate whether the approach is feasible in the treatment of a round window fistula. Retrospective case review. Tertiary care academic center. A 27-year-old man had been scuba diving 6 days previously in the Australian Great Barrier Reefs. He had poor hearing with tinnitus in the left ear and a vertiginous sensation. A myringotomy was incised, and a tympanoscope was introduced into the middle ear cavity. With the patient under general anesthesia, the middle ear and the oval and round window areas were examined with a tympanoscope. In endoscopic visualization, a round perforation could be seen in the round window membrane. After detection of the round window perforation, a small piece of temporal fascia was obtained to seal the membrane perforation. One month after the operation, the patient's hearing was significantly better. The myringotomy had healed. A transmyringeal endoscopic procedure for round window fistula repair is feasible and combines the best features of minimally invasive surgery and aural endoscopy.
Aggour, A; Mostafa, H; Maged, W
A total of 191 patients were evaluated at our department for azoospermia, and 11 were found to have azoospermia due to ejaculatory duct obstruction as proved by normal serum hormones, normal testicular biopsy, low ejaculate volume and absence of fructose in semen. Also transrectal ultrasound was performed, revealing distended seminal vesicles and dilated ejaculatory ducts. All these criteria together suggested ejaculatory duct obstruction as a cause of azoospermia. All patients underwent endoscopic management for treatment of their ejaculatory duct obstruction in the form of resection and/or incision of the ejaculatory duct ostium inside the urethra and patency was checked intraoperatively by injection of sterile methylene blue in the vas and visualizing the efflux of the blue dye endoscopically. Intraoperative patency was documented in 10 patients and postoperative patency by follow-up semen analysis in 7 patients (70% patency rate) of which 2 (20% pregnancy rate) were able to conceive within 2 years of endoscopic treatment. Postoperative complications included acute urinary retention in 1 patient, haematuria in 5 and recurrent epididymitis in 2 patients.
Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya
An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725
Ungureanu, Bogdan Silviu; Pătraşcu, Ştefan; Şurlin, Valeriu; Săftoiu, Adrian
Obesity treatment options are of great interest worldwide with major developments in the past 20 years. From general surgery to natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery intervention nowadays, obesity surgical therapies have surely developed and are now offering a variety of possibilities. Although surgery is the only proven approach for weight loss, a joint decision between the physician and patient is required before proceeding to such a procedure. With a lot of options available, the treatment should be individualized because the benefits of surgical intervention must be weighed against the surgical risks. Medline search to locate full-text articles and abstracts with obvious conclusions by using the keywords: obesity, surgical endoscopy, gastric bypass, bariatric surgery, and endoscopic surgery, alone and in various combinations. Additional relevant publications were also searched using the reference lists of the identified articles as a starting point. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass still is the most effective, less invasive, bariatric surgical intervention, although there are various complications encountered, such as postoperative hemorrhage (1.9%-4.4%), internal hernias, anastomotic strictures (2.9%-23%), marginal ulcerations (1%-16%), fistulas (1.5%-6%), weight gain, and nutritional deficiencies. However, the absence of parietal incisions, less pain, decreased risk of infection, and short hospital stay make room for endoscopic surgery as a possible valid option for obesity for both the doctors' and the patients' perspective. The current tendency is to promote surgical treatment of obesity to a status of less invasive scars therefore promoting minimally invasive surgical techniques.
Pastrana, Emil A; Jiménez, Lincoln M; Sosa, Iván J
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is considered an alternative treatment for certain types ofhydrocephalus. Depending on patient's age and etiology of hydrocephalus, it carries a success rate of around 90%. However, as in any surgical procedure, inherent risks are present and a risk-benefit analysis must be done prior to selecting patients for this intervention. To evaluate retrospectively the experience of ETV at the University of Puerto Rico and examine the etiological factors, demographic data and symptoms among the Puerto Rico population. This study represents the data of one neurosurgeon and is the first account of endoscopic third ventriculostomy as a mode of treatment in the Caribbean area. Retrospective analysis was undertaken of 29 patients treated at the University Pediatric Hospital (UPH) and University District Hospital (UDH) in San Juan was undertaken Different etiologies of hydrocephalus were identified and managed. The most common indication for ETV was aqueductal stenosis (59%) with male predominance (55%). Also, the most common population treated were adults (72%) and the most common symptom presented were headaches (52%) and gait disturbances (43%). Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is a safe and effective way to treat hydrocephalus and should be considered as first choice of treatment for certain patients with hydrocephalus unless otherwise contraindicated.
Greiner, Norman R.
A device for delaying specified frequencies of a multiple frequency laser beam. The device separates the multiple frequency beam into a series of spatially separated single frequency beams. The propagation distance of the single frequency beam is subsequently altered to provide the desired delay for each specific frequency. Focusing reflectors can be utilized to provide a simple but nonadjustable system or, flat reflectors with collimating and focusing optics can be utilized to provide an adjustable system.
Holmes, Ian; Friedland, Shai
To discuss the rationale for the widespread application of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) rather than endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in Western centers. In Western centers, EMR is the treatment of choice for most non-pedunculated colorectal adenomas >2 cm in size. EMR is sufficiently effective and safe to be performed without post-procedure hospitalization. Advances in EMR have led to reduced recurrence rates, and recent studies have demonstrated excellent outcomes with endoscopic treatment of recurrent adenomas. While studies from Asia have demonstrated lower recurrence rates with ESD, concern about the higher perforation risk and lengthy procedure time of ESD are two of the barriers preventing widespread adoption of ESD in the West. EMR is likely to continue as the dominant method for the treatment of large colorectal adenomas in Western centers until the limitations of ESD are overcome. PMID:27561263
Triantos, Christos; Kalafateli, Maria
Variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a six-week mortality rate of approximately 20%. Patients with medium- or large-sized varices can be treated for primary prophylaxis of variceal bleeding using two strategies: non-selective beta-blockers (NSBBs) or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Both treatments are equally effective. Patients with acute variceal bleeding are critically ill patients. The available data suggest that vasoactive drugs, combined with endoscopic therapy and antibiotics, are the best treatment strategy with EVL being the endoscopic procedure of choice. In cases of uncontrolled bleeding, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents are recommended. Approximately 60% of the patients experience rebleeding, with a mortality rate of 30%. Secondary prophylaxis should start on day six following the initial bleeding episode. The combination of NSBBs and EVL is the recommended management, whereas TIPS with PTFE-covered stents are the preferred option in patients who fail endoscopic and pharmacologic treatment. Apart from injection sclerotherapy and EVL, other endoscopic procedures, including tissue adhesives, endoloops, endoscopic clipping and argon plasma coagulation, have been used in the management of esophageal varices. However, their efficacy and safety, compared to standard endoscopic treatment, remain to be further elucidated. There are safety issues accompanying endoscopic techniques with aspiration pneumonia occurring at a rate of approximately 2.5%. In conclusion, future research is needed to improve treatment strategies, including novel endoscopic techniques with better efficacy, lower cost, and fewer adverse events. PMID:25278695
Neitsch, Marie; Horn, Iris-Susanne; Hofer, Mathias; Dietz, Andreas; Fischer, Miloš
Objectives. Optical and technical characteristics usually do not allow objective endoscopic distance measurements. So far no standardized method for endoscopic distance measurement is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of transoral airway measurements with a multipoint-laser endoscope. Methods. The semirigid endoscope includes a multipoint laser measurement system that projects 49 laser points (wavelength 639 nm, power < 5 mW) into the optical axis of the endoscopic view. Distances, areas, and depths can be measured in real-time. Transoral endoscopic airway measurements were performed on nine human cadavers, which were correlated with CT measurements. Results. The preliminary experiment showed an optimum distance between the endoscope tip and the object of 5 to 6 cm. There was a mean measurement error of 3.26% ± 2.53%. A Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.95 (p = 0.01) was calculated for the laryngeal measurements and of 0.93 (p < 0.01) for the tracheal measurements compared to the CT. Using the Bland-Altman-Plot, the 95% limits of agreement for the laryngeal measurements were satisfactory: −0.76 and 0.93. Conclusions. Integrated multipoint-laser endoscopic measurement is a promising technical supplement, with potential use in diagnostic endoscopy and transoral endoscopic surgery in daily practice. PMID:27022612
Ebner, Florian H; Roser, Florian; Roder, Constantin; Tatagiba, Marcos; Schuhmann, Martin U
The endoscope became a highly valued visualization tool in neurosurgery. However, technical limitations caused by the rigidity of current standard endoscopes significantly decrease ergonomy in transcranial neurosurgery. Further technological developments will aid enlarging the surgical applicability. To evaluate the intraoperative features of a rigid variable-view endoscope in neurosurgery. We assessed a 4 mm rigid rod lens endoscope (EndoCAMeleon, Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) in the intraoperative setting. The device offers a variable angle of view from 15° to 90° in one plane. The endoscope was used in 3 cases (aneurysm clipping, vestibular schwannoma surgery, endoscopic third ventriculostomy) for inspection. Direct insertion of the device through the craniotomy/burr hole with the lowest angled view (15°) was always possible. Neurovascular structures crossing the access route could be visualized and avoided. This allowed a targeted positioning of the endoscope's tip in the operating field. Once the target point was reached, viewing direction was changed in one plane from 15° to 90° according to anatomic demands. As the endoscope's tip does not move while the lens is rotated, surrounding neurovascular structures are not at risk to be injured. However, turning of the lens-controlling wheel in proximity to delicate structures may be inconvenient. The rigid, variable-view endoscope has the potential to become an appreciated visualization tool in neuroendoscopy. The steerable lens enables a tremendous expansion of the visual field, resulting in higher efficiency for surgeons and increased safety for patients. © The Author(s) 2014.
Saviuc, Philippe; Picot-Guéraud, Romain; Shum Cheong Sing, Jacqueline; Batailler, Pierre; Pelloux, Isabelle; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Dobremez, Valérie; Mallaret, Marie-Reine
To evaluate the quality of gastrointestinal endoscope reprocessing and discuss the advantages of microbiological surveillance testing of these endoscopes. Retrospective analysis of the results of endoscope sampling performed from October 1, 2006, through December 31, 2014, in a gastrointestinal endoscopy unit of a teaching hospital equipped with 89 endoscopes and 3 automated endoscope reprocessors, with an endoscopy quality assurance program in place. The compliance rate was defined as the proportion of the results classified at target or alert levels according to the French guidelines. A multivariate analysis (logistic regression) was used to identify the parameters influencing compliance. A total of 846 samples were taken. The overall compliance rate was 86% and differed significantly depending on the sampling context (scheduled or not scheduled), the type of endoscope, and the season. No other parameter was associated with compliance. A total of 118 samples carried indicator microorganisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Enterobacteriaceae, and Candida sp. The systematic use of an automated endoscope reprocessor does not provide totally satisfactory compliance. Microbiological surveillance is indispensable to monitor reprocessing, reinforce good practices (endoscopes, reprocessing units), and detect endoscopes requiring early technical maintenance.
Lankenau, Eva; Schumacher, Matthias; Koch, Peter; Konig, Frank; Daniltchenko, Dmitri; Schnorr, Dietmar; Huettmann, Gereon
Combining endoscopy with optical coherence tomography (OCT) can improve the diagnosis in minimal invasive procedures. Up to now OCT probes were constructed using rotating or moving single-mode fibers or micro scanners at the tip of the probe. We describe an endoscopic OCT system which uses a specially designed rigid endoscope with an extracorporal scanner to create OCT images with 15 μm resolution. The OCT endoscope was constructed using a 270 mm gradient index lens with a diameter of 3 mm. Dispersion of the endoscope was compensated in the OCT interferometer by an all fiber approach. The system is now being tested for detecting malignancies in the urinary bladder.
Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Maselli, Roberta; Santi, Grace
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an innovative, minimally invasive, endoscopic treatment for esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders, emerged from the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures, and since the first human case performed by Inoue in 2008, showed exciting results in international level, with more than 4000 cases globally up to now. POEM showed superior characteristics than the standard 100-year-old surgical or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), not only for all types of esophageal achalasia [classical (I), vigorous (II), spastic (III), Chicago Classification], but also for advanced sigmoid type achalasia (S1 and S2), failed LHM, or other esophageal motility disorders (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or Jackhammer esophagus). POEM starts with a mucosal incision, followed by submucosal tunnel creation crossing the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and myotomy. Finally the mucosal entry is closed with endoscopic clip placement. POEM permitted relatively free choice of myotomy length and localization. Although it is technically demanding procedure, POEM can be performed safely and achieves very good control of dysphagia and chest pain. Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common troublesome side effect, and is well controllable with proton pump inhibitors. Furthermore, POEM opened the era of submucosal tunnel endoscopy, with many other applications. Based on the same principles with POEM, in combination with new technological developments, such as endoscopic suturing, peroral endoscopic tumor resection (POET), is safely and effectively applied for challenging submucosal esophageal, EGJ and gastric cardia tumors (submucosal tumors), emerged from muscularis propria. POET showed up to know promising results, however, it is restricted to specialized centers. The present article reviews the recent data of POEM and POET and discussed controversial issues that need further study and future perspectives. PMID
Ren-Pei, Wu; Hui-Jun, Xi; Ke, Qi; Dong, Wang; Xing, Nie; Zhao-Shen, Li
The purpose of this article was to investigate bacterial biofilm formed on endoscopes and to explore the possible correlation between endoscope reprocessing procedures and bacterial biofilm growth on endoscope channels. Sixty-six endoscope suction and biopsy channels and 13 water and air channels were collected from 66 hospitals throughout China. Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe biofilm growth on the internal surface of these channels. Questionnaires were mailed to 66 endoscopy centers to investigate reprocessing procedures for endoscopes. Obvious biofilm growth was detected on 36 suction and biopsy channels (36/66, 54.6%) and 10 water and air channels (10/13, 76.9%). The percentage of manual cleaning in group B (n = 36, without detection of biofilms) was 92.3% (33/36), whereas it was 50.0% (15/30) in group A (n = 30, with detection of biofilms). Follow-up of group A (n = 30) showed that no biofilm was detected, whereas biofilm was detected in group B. The difference was statistically significant (P = .001). The proportion of detergent reuse in group B was 92.3% (33/36), and it was 61.5% in group A (18/30) (P = .005). The proportion of alcohol-air drying in group B was 38.9% (14/36), and it was 76.7% (23/30) in group A (P = .002). The formation of endoscopic biofilm during clinical practice may be related to reuse of detergent, manual cleaning, and incomplete drying. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Varas, M J; Gornals, J B; Pons, C; Espinós, J C; Abad, R; Lorente, F J; Bargalló, D
Carcinoid tumors (CTs) represent the most common type of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Digestive CTs in the gastroduodenal and colorectal tracts may be assessed using endoscopy and echoendoscopy or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) with the goal of attempting local resection with curative intent without having recourse to surgery. Endpoints in this study included:--Assessing the usefulness of EUS for selecting CTs as candidates to endoscopic excision. --Assessing the effectiveness of local resection (complete carcinoid resection) and the safety (complications) of the technique involved. OUr series included 18 patients (12 males and 6 females) with 23 tumors. Sixteen patients (10 males and 6 females) were selected, with age ranging from 40 to 81 years (mean: 57 years), biopsied, endoscopically treated digestive carcinoid tumors, and a previous negative extension study. Twenty-one 2-to-20-mm (mean size 8 mm) tumors were resected in 23 procedures. After endoscopy plus biopsy and echoendoscopy (EUS), excision was carried out with conventional polypectomy snare mucosectomy and submucosal injection with saline and/or adrenaline in most cases (15), and mucosectomy technique following lesion ligation with elastic bands for six cases. Two cases underwent transanal endoscopic surgery (TEM), one of them following non-curative polypectomy. A total of 23 local procedures were performed with the key goal of assessing efficacy (complete resection: CR) and safety (complications). There were no severe complications except for the last gastric mucosectomy for a 6-mm carcinoid, where a miniperforation occurred that was solved by using 3 clips (1/23: 4.3%).EUS sensitivity was 94%. Complete resection was 90.5% (19/21). The endoscopic mucosal resection of selected carcinoid tumors is a safe, effective technique. EUS is the technique of choice to select patients eligible for endoscopic resection (carcinoids smaller than 20 mm in superficial layers, with an unscathed muscularis propria and
Eleftheriadis, Nikolas; Inoue, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Haruo; Onimaru, Manabu; Maselli, Roberta; Santi, Grace
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an innovative, minimally invasive, endoscopic treatment for esophageal achalasia and other esophageal motility disorders, emerged from the natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures, and since the first human case performed by Inoue in 2008, showed exciting results in international level, with more than 4000 cases globally up to now. POEM showed superior characteristics than the standard 100-year-old surgical or laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), not only for all types of esophageal achalasia [classical (I), vigorous (II), spastic (III), Chicago Classification], but also for advanced sigmoid type achalasia (S1 and S2), failed LHM, or other esophageal motility disorders (diffuse esophageal spasm, nutcracker esophagus or Jackhammer esophagus). POEM starts with a mucosal incision, followed by submucosal tunnel creation crossing the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and myotomy. Finally the mucosal entry is closed with endoscopic clip placement. POEM permitted relatively free choice of myotomy length and localization. Although it is technically demanding procedure, POEM can be performed safely and achieves very good control of dysphagia and chest pain. Gastroesophageal reflux is the most common troublesome side effect, and is well controllable with proton pump inhibitors. Furthermore, POEM opened the era of submucosal tunnel endoscopy, with many other applications. Based on the same principles with POEM, in combination with new technological developments, such as endoscopic suturing, peroral endoscopic tumor resection (POET), is safely and effectively applied for challenging submucosal esophageal, EGJ and gastric cardia tumors (submucosal tumors), emerged from muscularis propria. POET showed up to know promising results, however, it is restricted to specialized centers. The present article reviews the recent data of POEM and POET and discussed controversial issues that need further study and future perspectives.
Snyder, Rita; Felbaum, Daniel R; Jean, Walter C; Anaizi, Amjad
The pineal gland has a deep central location, making it a surgeon's no man's land. Surgical pathology within this territory presents a unique challenge and an opportunity for employment of various surgical techniques. In modern times, the microsurgical technique has been competing with the endoscope for achieving superior surgical results. We describe two cases utilizing a purely endoscopic and an endoscopic-assisted supracerebellar infratentorial approach in accessing lesions of the pineal gland. We also discuss our early learning experience with these approaches.
Ferrari, Angelo Paulo; Martins, Fernanda Prata
We present two cases of esophageal papillomatosis, a very rare reported disease leading to dysphagia and did not improve after endoscopic treatment. Both patients refused surgery and they were followed-up for 3 years, but no significant clinical or endoscopic changes were seen. RESUMO Apresentamos dois casos de papilomatose esofágica, lesão raramente relatada, que pode levar à disfagia, e que não teve melhora após tratamento endoscópico. Ambos os pacientes recusaram cirurgia e foram acompanhados por até 3 anos, sem alterações clínicas ou endoscópicas importantes.
Al Taii, Haider; Confer, Bradley; Gabbard, Scott; Kroh, Matthew; Jang, Sunguk; Rodriguez, John; Parsi, Mansour A.; Vargo, John J.; Ponsky, Jeffrey
Per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was developed less than a decade ago for the treatment of achalasia. Its minimally invasive approach and the favorable short-term outcome have led to rapid adoption of the technique throughout the world. As with any new technique, there will be adverse events, and it is important that effective treatments for these adverse events be discussed. We present a case of successful endoscopic management of an intramural sinus leak after a POEM procedure using tandem fully covered esophageal stents. PMID:27921057
Varadarajulu, Shyam; Bang, Ji Young
Accurate diagnosis and staging of pancreatic neoplasms is essential for surgical planning and identification of locally advanced and metastatic disease that is incurable by surgery. The ability to position the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) transducer close to the pancreas combined with the use of fine-needle aspiration enables the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cysts and solid masses. EUS is also increasingly being used to procure core tissue for molecular analysis that facilitates personalized treatment of pancreatic cancer. Various therapeutic interventions can be undertaken under EUS guidance. This article focuses on the applications of EUS and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pancreatic neoplasms.
Storm, Andrew C; Thompson, Christopher C
AIM: To determine the feasibility and safety of transgastric direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) in patients with walled-off necrosis (WON) and gastric varices. METHODS: A single center retrospective study of consecutive DEN for WON was performed from 2012 to 2015. All DEN cases with gastric fundal varices noted on endoscopy, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the admission for DEN were collected for analysis. In all cases, external urethral sphincter (EUS) with doppler was used to exclude the presence of intervening gastric varices or other vascular structures prior to 19 gauge fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle access into the cavity. The tract was serially dilated to 20 mm and was entered with an endoscope for DEN. Pigtail stents were placed to facilitate drainage of the cavity. Procedure details were recorded. Comprehensive chart review was performed to evaluate for complications and WON recurrence. RESULTS: Fifteen patients who underwent DEN for WON had gastric varices at the time of their procedure. All patients had an INR < 1.5 and platelets > 50. Of these patients, 11 had splenic vein thrombosis and 2 had portal vein thrombosis. Two patients had isolated gastric varices, type 1 and the remaining 13 had > 5 mm gastric submucosal varices on imaging by CT, MRI or EUS. No procedures were terminated without completing the DEN for any reason. One patient had self-limited intraprocedural bleeding related to balloon dilation of the tract. Two patients experienced delayed bleeding at 2 and 5 d post-op respectively. One required no therapy or intervention and the other received 1 unit transfusion and had an EGD which revealed no active bleeding. Resolution rate of WON was 100% (after up to 2 additional DEN in one patient) and no patients required interventional radiology or surgical interventions. CONCLUSION: In patients with WON and gastric varices, DEN using EUS and doppler guidance may be performed safely. Successful resolution
Saliou, Philippe; Le Bars, Hervé; Payan, Christopher; Narbonne, Valérie; Cholet, Franck; Jézéquel, Julien; Scotet, Virginie; Robaszkiewicz, Michel; Cornec, Divi; Héry-Arnaud, Geneviève; Baron, Raoul
Infectious outbreaks associated with the use of gastrointestinal endoscopes have increased in line with the spread of highly resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the measures required to improve microbial quality surveillance of gastrointestinal endoscopes. We reviewed the results of all microbiological surveillance testing of gastrointestinal endoscopes and automatic endoscope reprocessors (AERs) performed at Brest Teaching Hospital from 1 January 2008 to 1 June 2015. We analyzed the influence of the time of incubation on the rate of positive results using the Kaplan - Meier method. We also studied risk factors for gastrointestinal endoscope contamination using a multivariable logistic regression model. Over the study period, 1100 microbiological tests of gastrointestinal endoscopes (n = 762) and AERs (n = 338) were performed. A total of 264 endoscope tests (34.6 %) showed a level of contamination higher than the target. After 2 days of incubation, contamination was apparent in only 55.5 % of the endoscopes that were later shown to be contaminated (95 % confidence interval [CI] 49.2 - 61.8). Multivariable analysis showed that the use of storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes significantly reduced the risk of endoscope contamination (odds ratio [OR] 0.23, 95 %CI 0.09 - 0.54; P < 0.001) and that the use of endoscopes older than 4 years significantly increased this risk (OR ≥ 6 vs. < 2 years 2.92, 95 %CI 1.63 - 5.24; P < 0.001). Microbiological culture technique, mainly incubation duration, strongly influenced the results of endoscope sampling. Samples should be cultured for more than 2 days to improve the detection of contaminated endoscopes. Particular attention should be paid to endoscopes older than 2 years and to those that are not stored in storage cabinets for heat-sensitive endoscopes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Srinivasan, Ramesh; Irvine, Tracey; Dalzell, A M
There are few published data on non-endoscopic removal of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy devices in children. To describe prospective data acquired for traction removal of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy devices at a single pediatric center over a 5-year period. Data were obtained from endoscopy records, computerized hospital patient information systems and case note analysis. The device that could be removed by traction was the Corflo (Merck) 12-Fr percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube with a collapsible internal retention dome. All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. Between 2002-2006, 220 children underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy removals (166 by traction, 51 endoscopically and 3 Foley catheter to button conversions). The median duration between percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy insertion and low profile button device substitution was 0.83 years (0.12-3.86). Complications from traction removal included internal retention dome separation in two cases (allowed to pass per rectum, uneventfully), failure to a insert a low profile button device needing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy reinsertion, enterocutaneous fistula requiring surgical closure in one patient and laparoscopy for suspected low profile button device misplacement in one instance. The material cost of endoscope disinfection (£10) and disposable usage (£80) avoided by traction removal was calculated at £90 per procedure. No mortality occurred as a result of the traction removal of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. Laparoscopy for suspected low profile button device misplacement was needed in one case (0.60%). Traction removal of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes was generally safe and a cost-saving procedure in our experience.